Carcinoma, Pancreatic Ductal: Carcinoma that arises from the PANCREATIC DUCTS. It accounts for the majority of cancers derived from the PANCREAS.Pancreatic Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the PANCREAS. Depending on the types of ISLET CELLS present in the tumors, various hormones can be secreted: GLUCAGON from PANCREATIC ALPHA CELLS; INSULIN from PANCREATIC BETA CELLS; and SOMATOSTATIN from the SOMATOSTATIN-SECRETING CELLS. Most are malignant except the insulin-producing tumors (INSULINOMA).Pancreatic Ducts: Ducts that collect PANCREATIC JUICE from the PANCREAS and supply it to the DUODENUM.Carcinoma: A malignant neoplasm made up of epithelial cells tending to infiltrate the surrounding tissues and give rise to metastases. It is a histological type of neoplasm but is often wrongly used as a synonym for "cancer." (From Dorland, 27th ed)Carcinoma, Ductal, Breast: An invasive (infiltrating) CARCINOMA of the mammary ductal system (MAMMARY GLANDS) in the human BREAST.Carcinoma in Situ: A lesion with cytological characteristics associated with invasive carcinoma but the tumor cells are confined to the epithelium of origin, without invasion of the basement membrane.Carcinoma, Squamous Cell: A carcinoma derived from stratified SQUAMOUS EPITHELIAL CELLS. It may also occur in sites where glandular or columnar epithelium is normally present. (From Stedman, 25th ed)Carcinoma, Hepatocellular: A primary malignant neoplasm of epithelial liver cells. It ranges from a well-differentiated tumor with EPITHELIAL CELLS indistinguishable from normal HEPATOCYTES to a poorly differentiated neoplasm. The cells may be uniform or markedly pleomorphic, or form GIANT CELLS. Several classification schemes have been suggested.Adenocarcinoma: A malignant epithelial tumor with a glandular organization.Immunohistochemistry: Histochemical localization of immunoreactive substances using labeled antibodies as reagents.Pancreas: A nodular organ in the ABDOMEN that contains a mixture of ENDOCRINE GLANDS and EXOCRINE GLANDS. The small endocrine portion consists of the ISLETS OF LANGERHANS secreting a number of hormones into the blood stream. The large exocrine portion (EXOCRINE PANCREAS) is a compound acinar gland that secretes several digestive enzymes into the pancreatic ductal system that empties into the DUODENUM.Carcinoma, Ductal: Malignant neoplasms involving the ductal systems of any of a number of organs, such as the MAMMARY GLANDS, the PANCREAS, the PROSTATE, or the LACRIMAL GLAND.Carcinoma, Intraductal, Noninfiltrating: A noninvasive (noninfiltrating) carcinoma of the breast characterized by a proliferation of malignant epithelial cells confined to the mammary ducts or lobules, without light-microscopy evidence of invasion through the basement membrane into the surrounding stroma.Cell Line, Tumor: A cell line derived from cultured tumor cells.Pancreatitis, Chronic: INFLAMMATION of the PANCREAS that is characterized by recurring or persistent ABDOMINAL PAIN with or without STEATORRHEA or DIABETES MELLITUS. It is characterized by the irregular destruction of the pancreatic parenchyma which may be focal, segmental, or diffuse.Tumor Markers, Biological: Molecular products metabolized and secreted by neoplastic tissue and characterized biochemically in cells or body fluids. They are indicators of tumor stage and grade as well as useful for monitoring responses to treatment and predicting recurrence. Many chemical groups are represented including hormones, antigens, amino and nucleic acids, enzymes, polyamines, and specific cell membrane proteins and lipids.Carcinoma, Papillary: A malignant neoplasm characterized by the formation of numerous, irregular, finger-like projections of fibrous stroma that is covered with a surface layer of neoplastic epithelial cells. (Stedman, 25th ed)Neoplasm Invasiveness: Ability of neoplasms to infiltrate and actively destroy surrounding tissue.Gene Expression Regulation, Neoplastic: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in neoplastic tissue.Pancreatectomy: Surgical removal of the pancreas. (Dorland, 28th ed)Prognosis: A prediction of the probable outcome of a disease based on a individual's condition and the usual course of the disease as seen in similar situations.Adenocarcinoma, Mucinous: An adenocarcinoma producing mucin in significant amounts. (From Dorland, 27th ed)Pancreatitis: INFLAMMATION of the PANCREAS. Pancreatitis is classified as acute unless there are computed tomographic or endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatographic findings of CHRONIC PANCREATITIS (International Symposium on Acute Pancreatitis, Atlanta, 1992). The two most common forms of acute pancreatitis are ALCOHOLIC PANCREATITIS and gallstone pancreatitis.Carcinoma, Acinar Cell: A malignant tumor arising from secreting cells of a racemose gland, particularly the salivary glands. Racemose (Latin racemosus, full of clusters) refers, as does acinar (Latin acinus, grape), to small saclike dilatations in various glands. Acinar cell carcinomas are usually well differentiated and account for about 13% of the cancers arising in the parotid gland. Lymph node metastasis occurs in about 16% of cases. Local recurrences and distant metastases many years after treatment are common. This tumor appears in all age groups and is most common in women. (Stedman, 25th ed; Holland et al., Cancer Medicine, 3d ed, p1240; from DeVita Jr et al., Cancer: Principles & Practice of Oncology, 3d ed, p575)Breast Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the human BREAST.Liver Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the LIVER.Pancreaticoduodenectomy: The excision of the head of the pancreas and the encircling loop of the duodenum to which it is connected.Genes, ras: Family of retrovirus-associated DNA sequences (ras) originally isolated from Harvey (H-ras, Ha-ras, rasH) and Kirsten (K-ras, Ki-ras, rasK) murine sarcoma viruses. Ras genes are widely conserved among animal species and sequences corresponding to both H-ras and K-ras genes have been detected in human, avian, murine, and non-vertebrate genomes. The closely related N-ras gene has been detected in human neuroblastoma and sarcoma cell lines. All genes of the family have a similar exon-intron structure and each encodes a p21 protein.Neoplasm Staging: Methods which attempt to express in replicable terms the extent of the neoplasm in the patient.Tissue Array Analysis: The simultaneous analysis of multiple samples of TISSUES or CELLS from BIOPSY or in vitro culture that have been arranged in an array format on slides or microchips.Proto-Oncogene Proteins p21(ras): Cellular proteins encoded by the H-ras, K-ras and N-ras genes. The proteins have GTPase activity and are involved in signal transduction as monomeric GTP-binding proteins. Elevated levels of p21 c-ras have been associated with neoplasia. This enzyme was formerly listed as EC Conditions: Pathological processes that tend eventually to become malignant. (From Dorland, 27th ed)Pancreatic Juice: The fluid containing digestive enzymes secreted by the pancreas in response to food in the duodenum.Cell Proliferation: All of the processes involved in increasing CELL NUMBER including CELL DIVISION.Mice, Nude: Mutant mice homozygous for the recessive gene "nude" which fail to develop a thymus. They are useful in tumor studies and studies on immune responses.Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction: A variation of the PCR technique in which cDNA is made from RNA via reverse transcription. The resultant cDNA is then amplified using standard PCR protocols.Carcinoma, Basal Cell: A malignant skin neoplasm that seldom metastasizes but has potentialities for local invasion and destruction. Clinically it is divided into types: nodular, cicatricial, morphaic, and erythematoid (pagetoid). They develop on hair-bearing skin, most commonly on sun-exposed areas. Approximately 85% are found on the head and neck area and the remaining 15% on the trunk and limbs. (From DeVita Jr et al., Cancer: Principles & Practice of Oncology, 3d ed, p1471)Tumor Cells, Cultured: Cells grown in vitro from neoplastic tissue. If they can be established as a TUMOR CELL LINE, they can be propagated in cell culture indefinitely.Smad4 Protein: A signal transducing adaptor protein and tumor suppressor protein. It forms a complex with activated RECEPTOR-REGULATED SMAD PROTEINS. The complex then translocates to the CELL NUCLEUS and regulates GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION of target GENES.Adenocarcinoma, Papillary: An adenocarcinoma containing finger-like processes of vascular connective tissue covered by neoplastic epithelium, projecting into cysts or the cavity of glands or follicles. It occurs most frequently in the ovary and thyroid gland. (Stedman, 25th ed)Disease Progression: The worsening of a disease over time. This concept is most often used for chronic and incurable diseases where the stage of the disease is an important determinant of therapy and prognosis.Neoplasm Metastasis: The transfer of a neoplasm from one organ or part of the body to another remote from the primary site.Lymphatic Metastasis: Transfer of a neoplasm from its primary site to lymph nodes or to distant parts of the body by way of the lymphatic system.Neoplasm Proteins: Proteins whose abnormal expression (gain or loss) are associated with the development, growth, or progression of NEOPLASMS. Some neoplasm proteins are tumor antigens (ANTIGENS, NEOPLASM), i.e. they induce an immune reaction to their tumor. Many neoplasm proteins have been characterized and are used as tumor markers (BIOMARKERS, TUMOR) when they are detectable in cells and body fluids as monitors for the presence or growth of tumors. Abnormal expression of ONCOGENE PROTEINS is involved in neoplastic transformation, whereas the loss of expression of TUMOR SUPPRESSOR PROTEINS is involved with the loss of growth control and progression of the neoplasm.Cyclic S-OxidesAcinar Cells: Cells lining the saclike dilatations known as acini of various glands or the lungs.RNA, Messenger: RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.Cell Transformation, Neoplastic: Cell changes manifested by escape from control mechanisms, increased growth potential, alterations in the cell surface, karyotypic abnormalities, morphological and biochemical deviations from the norm, and other attributes conferring the ability to invade, metastasize, and kill.Kaplan-Meier Estimate: A nonparametric method of compiling LIFE TABLES or survival tables. It combines calculated probabilities of survival and estimates to allow for observations occurring beyond a measurement threshold, which are assumed to occur randomly. Time intervals are defined as ending each time an event occurs and are therefore unequal. (From Last, A Dictionary of Epidemiology, 1995)Carcinoma, Transitional Cell: A malignant neoplasm derived from TRANSITIONAL EPITHELIAL CELLS, occurring chiefly in the URINARY BLADDER; URETERS; or RENAL PELVIS.DeoxycytidineGene Expression Profiling: The determination of the pattern of genes expressed at the level of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION, under specific circumstances or in a specific cell.CA-19-9 Antigen: Sialylated Lewis blood group carbohydrate antigen found in many adenocarcinomas of the digestive tract, especially pancreatic tumors.Carcinoma, Bronchogenic: Malignant neoplasm arising from the epithelium of the BRONCHI. It represents a large group of epithelial lung malignancies which can be divided into two clinical groups: SMALL CELL LUNG CANCER and NON-SMALL-CELL LUNG CARCINOMA.Neoplasms, Multiple Primary: Two or more abnormal growths of tissue occurring simultaneously and presumed to be of separate origin. The neoplasms may be histologically the same or different, and may be found in the same or different sites.Survival Analysis: A class of statistical procedures for estimating the survival function (function of time, starting with a population 100% well at a given time and providing the percentage of the population still well at later times). The survival analysis is then used for making inferences about the effects of treatments, prognostic factors, exposures, and other covariates on the function.Carcinoma, Medullary: A carcinoma composed mainly of epithelial elements with little or no stroma. Medullary carcinomas of the breast constitute 5%-7% of all mammary carcinomas; medullary carcinomas of the thyroid comprise 3%-10% of all thyroid malignancies. (From Dorland, 27th ed; DeVita Jr et al., Cancer: Principles & Practice of Oncology, 3d ed, p1141; Segen, Dictionary of Modern Medicine, 1992)Neoplasm Transplantation: Experimental transplantation of neoplasms in laboratory animals for research purposes.Signal Transduction: The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.Carcinoma, Adenoid Cystic: Carcinoma characterized by bands or cylinders of hyalinized or mucinous stroma separating or surrounded by nests or cords of small epithelial cells. When the cylinders occur within masses of epithelial cells, they give the tissue a perforated, sievelike, or cribriform appearance. Such tumors occur in the mammary glands, the mucous glands of the upper and lower respiratory tract, and the salivary glands. They are malignant but slow-growing, and tend to spread locally via the nerves. (Dorland, 27th ed)Ampulla of Vater: A dilation of the duodenal papilla that is the opening of the juncture of the COMMON BILE DUCT and the MAIN PANCREATIC DUCT, also known as the hepatopancreatic ampulla.Survival Rate: The proportion of survivors in a group, e.g., of patients, studied and followed over a period, or the proportion of persons in a specified group alive at the beginning of a time interval who survive to the end of the interval. It is often studied using life table methods.Carcinoma, Small Cell: An anaplastic, highly malignant, and usually bronchogenic carcinoma composed of small ovoid cells with scanty neoplasm. It is characterized by a dominant, deeply basophilic nucleus, and absent or indistinct nucleoli. (From Stedman, 25th ed; Holland et al., Cancer Medicine, 3d ed, p1286-7)Immunoenzyme Techniques: Immunologic techniques based on the use of: (1) enzyme-antibody conjugates; (2) enzyme-antigen conjugates; (3) antienzyme antibody followed by its homologous enzyme; or (4) enzyme-antienzyme complexes. These are used histologically for visualizing or labeling tissue specimens.Metaplasia: A condition in which there is a change of one adult cell type to another similar adult cell type.ras Proteins: Small, monomeric GTP-binding proteins encoded by ras genes (GENES, RAS). The protooncogene-derived protein, PROTO-ONCOGENE PROTEIN P21(RAS), plays a role in normal cellular growth, differentiation and development. The oncogene-derived protein (ONCOGENE PROTEIN P21(RAS)) can play a role in aberrant cellular regulation during neoplastic cell transformation (CELL TRANSFORMATION, NEOPLASTIC). This enzyme was formerly listed as EC Recurrence, Local: The local recurrence of a neoplasm following treatment. It arises from microscopic cells of the original neoplasm that have escaped therapeutic intervention and later become clinically visible at the original site.Antineoplastic Agents: Substances that inhibit or prevent the proliferation of NEOPLASMS.Carcinoma, Lobular: A infiltrating (invasive) breast cancer, relatively uncommon, accounting for only 5%-10% of breast tumors in most series. It is often an area of ill-defined thickening in the breast, in contrast to the dominant lump characteristic of ductal carcinoma. It is typically composed of small cells in a linear arrangement with a tendency to grow around ducts and lobules. There is likelihood of axillary nodal involvement with metastasis to meningeal and serosal surfaces. (DeVita Jr et al., Cancer: Principles & Practice of Oncology, 3d ed, p1205)Tumor Suppressor Protein p53: Nuclear phosphoprotein encoded by the p53 gene (GENES, P53) whose normal function is to control CELL PROLIFERATION and APOPTOSIS. A mutant or absent p53 protein has been found in LEUKEMIA; OSTEOSARCOMA; LUNG CANCER; and COLORECTAL CANCER.Retrospective Studies: Studies used to test etiologic hypotheses in which inferences about an exposure to putative causal factors are derived from data relating to characteristics of persons under study or to events or experiences in their past. The essential feature is that some of the persons under study have the disease or outcome of interest and their characteristics are compared with those of unaffected persons.Carcinoma, Neuroendocrine: A group of carcinomas which share a characteristic morphology, often being composed of clusters and trabecular sheets of round "blue cells", granular chromatin, and an attenuated rim of poorly demarcated cytoplasm. Neuroendocrine tumors include carcinoids, small ("oat") cell carcinomas, medullary carcinoma of the thyroid, Merkel cell tumor, cutaneous neuroendocrine carcinoma, pancreatic islet cell tumors, and pheochromocytoma. Neurosecretory granules are found within the tumor cells. (Segen, Dictionary of Modern Medicine, 1992)Apoptosis: One of the mechanisms by which CELL DEATH occurs (compare with NECROSIS and AUTOPHAGOCYTOSIS). Apoptosis is the mechanism responsible for the physiological deletion of cells and appears to be intrinsically programmed. It is characterized by distinctive morphologic changes in the nucleus and cytoplasm, chromatin cleavage at regularly spaced sites, and the endonucleolytic cleavage of genomic DNA; (DNA FRAGMENTATION); at internucleosomal sites. This mode of cell death serves as a balance to mitosis in regulating the size of animal tissues and in mediating pathologic processes associated with tumor growth.Mutation: Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.Tumor Burden: The total amount (cell number, weight, size or volume) of tumor cells or tissue in the body.Treatment Outcome: Evaluation undertaken to assess the results or consequences of management and procedures used in combating disease in order to determine the efficacy, effectiveness, safety, and practicability of these interventions in individual cases or series.Epithelial Cells: Cells that line the inner and outer surfaces of the body by forming cellular layers (EPITHELIUM) or masses. Epithelial cells lining the SKIN; the MOUTH; the NOSE; and the ANAL CANAL derive from ectoderm; those lining the RESPIRATORY SYSTEM and the DIGESTIVE SYSTEM derive from endoderm; others (CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM and LYMPHATIC SYSTEM) derive from mesoderm. Epithelial cells can be classified mainly by cell shape and function into squamous, glandular and transitional epithelial cells.Xenograft Model Antitumor Assays: In vivo methods of screening investigative anticancer drugs, biologic response modifiers or radiotherapies. Human tumor tissue or cells are transplanted into mice or rats followed by tumor treatment regimens. A variety of outcomes are monitored to assess antitumor effectiveness.Nasopharyngeal Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the NASOPHARYNX.DNA, Neoplasm: DNA present in neoplastic tissue.Thyroid Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the THYROID GLAND.Neoplasm Grading: Methods which attempt to express in replicable terms the level of CELL DIFFERENTIATION in neoplasms as increasing ANAPLASIA correlates with the aggressiveness of the neoplasm.Breast: In humans, one of the paired regions in the anterior portion of the THORAX. The breasts consist of the MAMMARY GLANDS, the SKIN, the MUSCLES, the ADIPOSE TISSUE, and the CONNECTIVE TISSUES.Genes, Tumor Suppressor: Genes that inhibit expression of the tumorigenic phenotype. They are normally involved in holding cellular growth in check. When tumor suppressor genes are inactivated or lost, a barrier to normal proliferation is removed and unregulated growth is possible.Oligonucleotide Array Sequence Analysis: Hybridization of a nucleic acid sample to a very large set of OLIGONUCLEOTIDE PROBES, which have been attached individually in columns and rows to a solid support, to determine a BASE SEQUENCE, or to detect variations in a gene sequence, GENE EXPRESSION, or for GENE MAPPING.Cell Growth Processes: Processes required for CELL ENLARGEMENT and CELL PROLIFERATION.Carcinoma, Adenosquamous: A mixed adenocarcinoma and squamous cell or epidermoid carcinoma.Mucin-1: Carbohydrate antigen elevated in patients with tumors of the breast, ovary, lung, and prostate as well as other disorders. The mucin is expressed normally by most glandular epithelia but shows particularly increased expression in the breast at lactation and in malignancy. It is thus an established serum marker for breast cancer.Lung Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the LUNG.Tumor Microenvironment: The milieu surrounding neoplasms consisting of cells, vessels, soluble factors, and molecules, that can influence and be influenced by, the neoplasm's growth.RNA, Small Interfering: Small double-stranded, non-protein coding RNAs (21-31 nucleotides) involved in GENE SILENCING functions, especially RNA INTERFERENCE (RNAi). Endogenously, siRNAs are generated from dsRNAs (RNA, DOUBLE-STRANDED) by the same ribonuclease, Dicer, that generates miRNAs (MICRORNAS). The perfect match of the siRNAs' antisense strand to their target RNAs mediates RNAi by siRNA-guided RNA cleavage. siRNAs fall into different classes including trans-acting siRNA (tasiRNA), repeat-associated RNA (rasiRNA), small-scan RNA (scnRNA), and Piwi protein-interacting RNA (piRNA) and have different specific gene silencing functions.Keratins: A class of fibrous proteins or scleroproteins that represents the principal constituent of EPIDERMIS; HAIR; NAILS; horny tissues, and the organic matrix of tooth ENAMEL. Two major conformational groups have been characterized, alpha-keratin, whose peptide backbone forms a coiled-coil alpha helical structure consisting of TYPE I KERATIN and a TYPE II KERATIN, and beta-keratin, whose backbone forms a zigzag or pleated sheet structure. alpha-Keratins have been classified into at least 20 subtypes. In addition multiple isoforms of subtypes have been found which may be due to GENE DUPLICATION.Gene Expression: The phenotypic manifestation of a gene or genes by the processes of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION and GENETIC TRANSLATION.Cadherins: Calcium-dependent cell adhesion proteins. They are important in the formation of ADHERENS JUNCTIONS between cells. Cadherins are classified by their distinct immunological and tissue specificities, either by letters (E- for epithelial, N- for neural, and P- for placental cadherins) or by numbers (cadherin-12 or N-cadherin 2 for brain-cadherin). Cadherins promote cell adhesion via a homophilic mechanism as in the construction of tissues and of the whole animal body.Carcinoma, Mucoepidermoid: A tumor of both low- and high-grade malignancy. The low-grade grow slowly, appear in any age group, and are readily cured by excision. The high-grade behave aggressively, widely infiltrate the salivary gland and produce lymph node and distant metastases. Mucoepidermoid carcinomas account for about 21% of the malignant tumors of the parotid gland and 10% of the sublingual gland. They are the most common malignant tumor of the parotid. (From DeVita Jr et al., Cancer: Principles & Practice of Oncology, 3d ed, p575; Holland et al., Cancer Medicine, 3d ed, p1240)Blotting, Western: Identification of proteins or peptides that have been electrophoretically separated by blot transferring from the electrophoresis gel to strips of nitrocellulose paper, followed by labeling with antibody probes.Cyclin-Dependent Kinase Inhibitor p16: A product of the p16 tumor suppressor gene (GENES, P16). It is also called INK4 or INK4A because it is the prototype member of the INK4 CYCLIN-DEPENDENT KINASE INHIBITORS. This protein is produced from the alpha mRNA transcript of the p16 gene. The other gene product, produced from the alternatively spliced beta transcript, is TUMOR SUPPRESSOR PROTEIN P14ARF. Both p16 gene products have tumor suppressor functions.RNA, Neoplasm: RNA present in neoplastic tissue.Pancreatic Stellate Cells: Star-shaped, myofibroblast-like cells located in the periacinar, perivascular, and periductal regions of the EXOCRINE PANCREAS. They play a key role in the pathobiology of FIBROSIS; PANCREATITIS; and PANCREATIC CANCER.Mice, Transgenic: Laboratory mice that have been produced from a genetically manipulated EGG or EMBRYO, MAMMALIAN.Common Bile Duct Neoplasms: Tumor or cancer of the COMMON BILE DUCT including the AMPULLA OF VATER and the SPHINCTER OF ODDI.Nitrosamines: A class of compounds that contain a -NH2 and a -NO radical. Many members of this group have carcinogenic and mutagenic properties.Antigens, Neoplasm: Proteins, glycoprotein, or lipoprotein moieties on surfaces of tumor cells that are usually identified by monoclonal antibodies. Many of these are of either embryonic or viral origin.Up-Regulation: A positive regulatory effect on physiological processes at the molecular, cellular, or systemic level. At the molecular level, the major regulatory sites include membrane receptors, genes (GENE EXPRESSION REGULATION), mRNAs (RNA, MESSENGER), and proteins.Cystadenoma, Papillary: A benign neoplasm of the ovary.MicroRNAs: Small double-stranded, non-protein coding RNAs, 21-25 nucleotides in length generated from single-stranded microRNA gene transcripts by the same RIBONUCLEASE III, Dicer, that produces small interfering RNAs (RNA, SMALL INTERFERING). They become part of the RNA-INDUCED SILENCING COMPLEX and repress the translation (TRANSLATION, GENETIC) of target RNA by binding to homologous 3'UTR region as an imperfect match. The small temporal RNAs (stRNAs), let-7 and lin-4, from C. elegans, are the first 2 miRNAs discovered, and are from a class of miRNAs involved in developmental timing.Cystadenocarcinoma, Mucinous: A malignant cystic or semisolid tumor most often occurring in the ovary. Rarely, one is solid. This tumor may develop from a mucinous cystadenoma, or it may be malignant at the onset. The cysts are lined with tall columnar epithelial cells; in others, the epithelium consists of many layers of cells that have lost normal structure entirely. In the more undifferentiated tumors, one may see sheets and nests of tumor cells that have very little resemblance to the parent structure. (Hughes, Obstetric-Gynecologic Terminology, 1972, p184)HSP47 Heat-Shock Proteins: Basic glycoprotein members of the SERPIN SUPERFAMILY that function as COLLAGEN-specific MOLECULAR CHAPERONES in the ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM.Transplantation, Heterologous: Transplantation between animals of different species.Epithelium: One or more layers of EPITHELIAL CELLS, supported by the basal lamina, which covers the inner or outer surfaces of the body.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Carcinoma, Endometrioid: An adenocarcinoma characterized by the presence of cells resembling the glandular cells of the ENDOMETRIUM. It is a common histological type of ovarian CARCINOMA and ENDOMETRIAL CARCINOMA. There is a high frequency of co-occurrence of this form of adenocarcinoma in both tissues.Head and Neck Neoplasms: Soft tissue tumors or cancer arising from the mucosal surfaces of the LIP; oral cavity; PHARYNX; LARYNX; and cervical esophagus. Other sites included are the NOSE and PARANASAL SINUSES; SALIVARY GLANDS; THYROID GLAND and PARATHYROID GLANDS; and MELANOMA and non-melanoma skin cancers of the head and neck. (from Holland et al., Cancer Medicine, 4th ed, p1651)Down-Regulation: A negative regulatory effect on physiological processes at the molecular, cellular, or systemic level. At the molecular level, the major regulatory sites include membrane receptors, genes (GENE EXPRESSION REGULATION), mRNAs (RNA, MESSENGER), and proteins.Stromal Cells: Connective tissue cells of an organ found in the loose connective tissue. These are most often associated with the uterine mucosa and the ovary as well as the hematopoietic system and elsewhere.Cell Movement: The movement of cells from one location to another. Distinguish from CYTOKINESIS which is the process of dividing the CYTOPLASM of a cell.Proto-Oncogene Proteins: Products of proto-oncogenes. Normally they do not have oncogenic or transforming properties, but are involved in the regulation or differentiation of cell growth. They often have protein kinase activity.Disease Models, Animal: Naturally occurring or experimentally induced animal diseases with pathological processes sufficiently similar to those of human diseases. They are used as study models for human diseases.Nipples: The conic organs which usually give outlet to milk from the mammary glands.Keratin-19: A type I keratin found associated with KERATIN-7 in ductal epithelia and gastrointestinal epithelia.Pancreatic Diseases: Pathological processes of the PANCREAS.Carcinoma, Embryonal: A highly malignant, primitive form of carcinoma, probably of germinal cell or teratomatous derivation, usually arising in a gonad and rarely in other sites. It is rare in the female ovary, but in the male it accounts for 20% of all testicular tumors. (From Dorland, 27th ed & Holland et al., Cancer Medicine, 3d ed, p1595)Mice, SCID: Mice homozygous for the mutant autosomal recessive gene "scid" which is located on the centromeric end of chromosome 16. These mice lack mature, functional lymphocytes and are thus highly susceptible to lethal opportunistic infections if not chronically treated with antibiotics. The lack of B- and T-cell immunity resembles severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID) syndrome in human infants. SCID mice are useful as animal models since they are receptive to implantation of a human immune system producing SCID-human (SCID-hu) hematochimeric mice.Esophageal Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the ESOPHAGUS.Mouth Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the MOUTH.Carcinoma, Merkel Cell: A carcinoma arising from MERKEL CELLS located in the basal layer of the epidermis and occurring most commonly as a primary neuroendocrine carcinoma of the skin. Merkel cells are tactile cells of neuroectodermal origin and histologically show neurosecretory granules. The skin of the head and neck are a common site of Merkel cell carcinoma, occurring generally in elderly patients. (Holland et al., Cancer Medicine, 3d ed, p1245)Cholangiopancreatography, Endoscopic Retrograde: Fiberoptic endoscopy designed for duodenal observation and cannulation of VATER'S AMPULLA, in order to visualize the pancreatic and biliary duct system by retrograde injection of contrast media. Endoscopic (Vater) papillotomy (SPHINCTEROTOMY, ENDOSCOPIC) may be performed during this procedure.Epithelial-Mesenchymal Transition: Phenotypic changes of EPITHELIAL CELLS to MESENCHYME type, which increase cell mobility critical in many developmental processes such as NEURAL TUBE development. NEOPLASM METASTASIS and DISEASE PROGRESSION may also induce this transition.Gene Silencing: Interruption or suppression of the expression of a gene at transcriptional or translational levels.Cell Division: The fission of a CELL. It includes CYTOKINESIS, when the CYTOPLASM of a cell is divided, and CELL NUCLEUS DIVISION.Ovarian Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the OVARY. These neoplasms can be benign or malignant. They are classified according to the tissue of origin, such as the surface EPITHELIUM, the stromal endocrine cells, and the totipotent GERM CELLS.Hyperplasia: An increase in the number of cells in a tissue or organ without tumor formation. It differs from HYPERTROPHY, which is an increase in bulk without an increase in the number of cells.Mucins: High molecular weight mucoproteins that protect the surface of EPITHELIAL CELLS by providing a barrier to particulate matter and microorganisms. Membrane-anchored mucins may have additional roles concerned with protein interactions at the cell surface.Mucin-2: A gel-forming mucin found predominantly in SMALL INTESTINE and variety of mucous membrane-containing organs. It provides a protective, lubricating barrier against particles and infectious agents.gamma-Synuclein: A homolog of ALPHA-SYNUCLEIN that plays a role in neurofilament network integrity. It is overexpressed in a variety of human NEOPLASMS and may be involved in modulating AXON architecture during EMBRYONIC DEVELOPMENT and in the adult. Gamma-Synuclein may also activate SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION PATHWAYS associated with ETS-DOMAIN PROTEIN ELK-1.Colonic Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the COLON.Adrenocortical Carcinoma: A malignant neoplasm of the ADRENAL CORTEX. Adrenocortical carcinomas are unencapsulated anaplastic (ANAPLASIA) masses sometimes exceeding 20 cm or 200 g. They are more likely to be functional than nonfunctional, and produce ADRENAL CORTEX HORMONES that may result in hypercortisolism (CUSHING SYNDROME); HYPERALDOSTERONISM; and/or VIRILISM.Fatal Outcome: Death resulting from the presence of a disease in an individual, as shown by a single case report or a limited number of patients. This should be differentiated from DEATH, the physiological cessation of life and from MORTALITY, an epidemiological or statistical concept.Drug Resistance, Neoplasm: Resistance or diminished response of a neoplasm to an antineoplastic agent in humans, animals, or cell or tissue cultures.Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction: Methods used for detecting the amplified DNA products from the polymerase chain reaction as they accumulate instead of at the end of the reaction.Carcinoma, Verrucous: A variant of well-differentiated epidermoid carcinoma that is most common in the oral cavity, but also occurs in the larynx, nasal cavity, esophagus, penis, anorectal region, vulva, vagina, uterine cervix, and skin, especially on the sole of the foot. Most intraoral cases occur in elderly male abusers of smokeless tobacco. The treatment is surgical resection. Radiotherapy is not indicated, as up to 30% treated with radiation become highly aggressive within six months. (Segen, Dictionary of Modern Medicine, 1992)Follow-Up Studies: Studies in which individuals or populations are followed to assess the outcome of exposures, procedures, or effects of a characteristic, e.g., occurrence of disease.Receptor, Epidermal Growth Factor: A cell surface receptor involved in regulation of cell growth and differentiation. It is specific for EPIDERMAL GROWTH FACTOR and EGF-related peptides including TRANSFORMING GROWTH FACTOR ALPHA; AMPHIREGULIN; and HEPARIN-BINDING EGF-LIKE GROWTH FACTOR. The binding of ligand to the receptor causes activation of its intrinsic tyrosine kinase activity and rapid internalization of the receptor-ligand complex into the cell.Cell Differentiation: Progressive restriction of the developmental potential and increasing specialization of function that leads to the formation of specialized cells, tissues, and organs.Carcinoma, Signet Ring Cell: A poorly differentiated adenocarcinoma in which the nucleus is pressed to one side by a cytoplasmic droplet of mucus. It usually arises in the gastrointestinal system.Transfection: The uptake of naked or purified DNA by CELLS, usually meaning the process as it occurs in eukaryotic cells. It is analogous to bacterial transformation (TRANSFORMATION, BACTERIAL) and both are routinely employed in GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUES.Trans-Activators: Diffusible gene products that act on homologous or heterologous molecules of viral or cellular DNA to regulate the expression of proteins.Urinary Bladder Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the URINARY BLADDER.Multivariate Analysis: A set of techniques used when variation in several variables has to be studied simultaneously. In statistics, multivariate analysis is interpreted as any analytic method that allows simultaneous study of two or more dependent variables.Stomach Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the STOMACH.Tomography, X-Ray Computed: Tomography using x-ray transmission and a computer algorithm to reconstruct the image.Skin Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the SKIN.Neovascularization, Pathologic: A pathologic process consisting of the proliferation of blood vessels in abnormal tissues or in abnormal positions.Disease-Free Survival: Period after successful treatment in which there is no appearance of the symptoms or effects of the disease.Calculi: An abnormal concretion occurring mostly in the urinary and biliary tracts, usually composed of mineral salts. Also called stones.Antimetabolites, Antineoplastic: Antimetabolites that are useful in cancer chemotherapy.Pancreatic Pseudocyst: Cyst-like space not lined by EPITHELIUM and contained within the PANCREAS. Pancreatic pseudocysts account for most of the cystic collections in the pancreas and are often associated with chronic PANCREATITIS.Gene Knockdown Techniques: The artificial induction of GENE SILENCING by the use of RNA INTERFERENCE to reduce the expression of a specific gene. It includes the use of DOUBLE-STRANDED RNA, such as SMALL INTERFERING RNA and RNA containing HAIRPIN LOOP SEQUENCE, and ANTI-SENSE OLIGONUCLEOTIDES.Mammary Glands, Animal: MAMMARY GLANDS in the non-human MAMMALS.Receptor, erbB-2: A cell surface protein-tyrosine kinase receptor that is overexpressed in a variety of ADENOCARCINOMAS. It has extensive homology to and heterodimerizes with the EGF RECEPTOR, the ERBB-3 RECEPTOR, and the ERBB-4 RECEPTOR. Activation of the erbB-2 receptor occurs through heterodimer formation with a ligand-bound erbB receptor family member.Cell Survival: The span of viability of a cell characterized by the capacity to perform certain functions such as metabolism, growth, reproduction, some form of responsiveness, and adaptability.Base Sequence: The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.Serpins: A family of serine proteinase inhibitors which are similar in amino acid sequence and mechanism of inhibition, but differ in their specificity toward proteolytic enzymes. This family includes alpha 1-antitrypsin, angiotensinogen, ovalbumin, antiplasmin, alpha 1-antichymotrypsin, thyroxine-binding protein, complement 1 inactivators, antithrombin III, heparin cofactor II, plasminogen inactivators, gene Y protein, placental plasminogen activator inhibitor, and barley Z protein. Some members of the serpin family may be substrates rather than inhibitors of SERINE ENDOPEPTIDASES, and some serpins occur in plants where their function is not known.Case-Control Studies: Studies which start with the identification of persons with a disease of interest and a control (comparison, referent) group without the disease. The relationship of an attribute to the disease is examined by comparing diseased and non-diseased persons with regard to the frequency or levels of the attribute in each group.Transcription Factors: Endogenous substances, usually proteins, which are effective in the initiation, stimulation, or termination of the genetic transcription process.Cystadenoma, Serous: A cystic tumor of the ovary, containing thin, clear, yellow serous fluid and varying amounts of solid tissue, with a malignant potential several times greater than that of mucinous cystadenoma (CYSTADENOMA, MUCINOUS). It can be unilocular, parvilocular, or multilocular. It is often bilateral and papillary. The cysts may vary greatly in size. (Dorland, 27th ed; from Hughes, Obstetric-Gynecologic Terminology, 1972)Hedgehog Proteins: A family of intercellular signaling proteins that play and important role in regulating the development of many TISSUES and organs. Their name derives from the observation of a hedgehog-like appearance in DROSOPHILA embryos with genetic mutations that block their action.Ki-67 Antigen: A CELL CYCLE and tumor growth marker which can be readily detected using IMMUNOCYTOCHEMISTRY methods. Ki-67 is a nuclear antigen present only in the nuclei of cycling cells.Carcinoma, Large Cell: A tumor of undifferentiated (anaplastic) cells of large size. It is usually bronchogenic. (From Dorland, 27th ed)Antibodies, Monoclonal: Antibodies produced by a single clone of cells.Homeodomain Proteins: Proteins encoded by homeobox genes (GENES, HOMEOBOX) that exhibit structural similarity to certain prokaryotic and eukaryotic DNA-binding proteins. Homeodomain proteins are involved in the control of gene expression during morphogenesis and development (GENE EXPRESSION REGULATION, DEVELOPMENTAL).Proportional Hazards Models: Statistical models used in survival analysis that assert that the effect of the study factors on the hazard rate in the study population is multiplicative and does not change over time.Receptors, Estrogen: Cytoplasmic proteins that bind estrogens and migrate to the nucleus where they regulate DNA transcription. Evaluation of the state of estrogen receptors in breast cancer patients has become clinically important.Salivary Ducts: Any of the ducts which transport saliva. Salivary ducts include the parotid duct, the major and minor sublingual ducts, and the submandibular duct.Carcinoembryonic Antigen: A glycoprotein that is secreted into the luminal surface of the epithelia in the gastrointestinal tract. It is found in the feces and pancreaticobiliary secretions and is used to monitor the response to colon cancer treatment.Sensitivity and Specificity: Binary classification measures to assess test results. Sensitivity or recall rate is the proportion of true positives. Specificity is the probability of correctly determining the absence of a condition. (From Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)beta Catenin: A multi-functional catenin that participates in CELL ADHESION and nuclear signaling. Beta catenin binds CADHERINS and helps link their cytoplasmic tails to the ACTIN in the CYTOSKELETON via ALPHA CATENIN. It also serves as a transcriptional co-activator and downstream component of WNT PROTEIN-mediated SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION PATHWAYS.Nestin: A type VI intermediate filament protein expressed mostly in nerve cells where it is associated with the survival, renewal and mitogen-stimulated proliferation of neural progenitor cells.Promoter Regions, Genetic: DNA sequences which are recognized (directly or indirectly) and bound by a DNA-dependent RNA polymerase during the initiation of transcription. Highly conserved sequences within the promoter include the Pribnow box in bacteria and the TATA BOX in eukaryotes.Preoperative Period: The period before a surgical operation.Endoscopy: Procedures of applying ENDOSCOPES for disease diagnosis and treatment. Endoscopy involves passing an optical instrument through a small incision in the skin i.e., percutaneous; or through a natural orifice and along natural body pathways such as the digestive tract; and/or through an incision in the wall of a tubular structure or organ, i.e. transluminal, to examine or perform surgery on the interior parts of the body.Lymph Nodes: They are oval or bean shaped bodies (1 - 30 mm in diameter) located along the lymphatic system.Laryngeal Neoplasms: Cancers or tumors of the LARYNX or any of its parts: the GLOTTIS; EPIGLOTTIS; LARYNGEAL CARTILAGES; LARYNGEAL MUSCLES; and VOCAL CORDS.Uterine Cervical Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the UTERINE CERVIX.Phenotype: The outward appearance of the individual. It is the product of interactions between genes, and between the GENOTYPE and the environment.Cell Line: Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.Ductus Arteriosus: A fetal blood vessel connecting the pulmonary artery with the descending aorta.Predictive Value of Tests: In screening and diagnostic tests, the probability that a person with a positive test is a true positive (i.e., has the disease), is referred to as the predictive value of a positive test; whereas, the predictive value of a negative test is the probability that the person with a negative test does not have the disease. Predictive value is related to the sensitivity and specificity of the test.RNA Interference: A gene silencing phenomenon whereby specific dsRNAs (RNA, DOUBLE-STRANDED) trigger the degradation of homologous mRNA (RNA, MESSENGER). The specific dsRNAs are processed into SMALL INTERFERING RNA (siRNA) which serves as a guide for cleavage of the homologous mRNA in the RNA-INDUCED SILENCING COMPLEX. DNA METHYLATION may also be triggered during this process.Secretin: A peptide hormone of about 27 amino acids from the duodenal mucosa that activates pancreatic secretion and lowers the blood sugar level. (USAN and the USP Dictionary of Drug Names, 1994, p597)Neoplasms, Experimental: Experimentally induced new abnormal growth of TISSUES in animals to provide models for studying human neoplasms.In Situ Hybridization: A technique that localizes specific nucleic acid sequences within intact chromosomes, eukaryotic cells, or bacterial cells through the use of specific nucleic acid-labeled probes.Mesocricetus: A genus of the family Muridae having three species. The present domesticated strains were developed from individuals brought from Syria. They are widely used in biomedical research.Matrix Metalloproteinase 7: The smallest member of the MATRIX METALLOPROTEINASES. It plays a role in tumor progression.Tumor Suppressor Proteins: Proteins that are normally involved in holding cellular growth in check. Deficiencies or abnormalities in these proteins may lead to unregulated cell growth and tumor development.Adenocarcinoma, Follicular: An adenocarcinoma of the thyroid gland, in which the cells are arranged in the form of follicles. (From Dorland, 27th ed)DNA Primers: Short sequences (generally about 10 base pairs) of DNA that are complementary to sequences of messenger RNA and allow reverse transcriptases to start copying the adjacent sequences of mRNA. Primers are used extensively in genetic and molecular biology techniques.Mammary Neoplasms, Experimental: Experimentally induced mammary neoplasms in animals to provide a model for studying human BREAST NEOPLASMS.DNA Mutational Analysis: Biochemical identification of mutational changes in a nucleotide sequence.Reproducibility of Results: The statistical reproducibility of measurements (often in a clinical context), including the testing of instrumentation or techniques to obtain reproducible results. The concept includes reproducibility of physiological measurements, which may be used to develop rules to assess probability or prognosis, or response to a stimulus; reproducibility of occurrence of a condition; and reproducibility of experimental results.Gallbladder Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the gallbladder.
... of all pancreatic cancers. Nearly all these start in the ducts of the pancreas, as pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC). ... Other exocrine cancers include adenosquamous carcinomas, signet ring cell carcinomas, hepatoid carcinomas, colloid carcinomas, ... Stage T1 pancreatic cancer Stage T2 pancreatic cancer Stage T3 pancreatic cancer Stage T4 pancreatic cancer Pancreatic cancer ... The exocrine group is dominated by pancreatic adenocarcinoma (variations of this name may add "invasive" and "ductal"), which ...
Hidalgo's focus continues to be the development of new drugs for the treatment of pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC). ... renal cell carcinoma and pancreatic cancer, among other cancers. As an outgrowth of testing new drugs in the avatar models, ... Increased survival in pancreatic cancer with nab-paclitaxel plus gemcitabine. N Engl J Med 2013;369:1691-703. Villarroel MC, ... Core Signaling Pathways in Human Pancreatic Cancers Revealed by Global Genomic Analyses. Science 2008;321:1801-6. Ma WW, Jacene ...
胰管是將胰臟外分泌腺的分泌物(例如酶以及碳酸氫鹽)運輸出胰臟的組織,儘管構成胰管的上皮細胞只佔胰臟細胞總體積的10%[28],多數的胰臟腺癌始於胰管,稱為胰臟管腺癌(pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma,PDAC)[29]。 ... adenosquamous carcinoma)、印戒細胞癌、肝樣細胞癌(英語:hepatoid carcinoma)、膠狀癌、未分化
A considerable fraction (~30%) of pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) cases are characterized by frequent homozygous ... The WRN gene promoter is hypermethylated in about 38% of colorectal cancers and non-small-cell lung carcinomas and in about 20 ... shRNA knockdown of ME3 in a panel of PDAC cell lines only results in selective killing of ME2-deleted but not intact PDAC cells ... In a recent chemical-genetic screen, one compound of 3200 screened molecules was a synthetic lethal inhibitor of pancreatic ...
For primary cholangiocellular carcinoma (CCC)1 and metastases of pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC), however, the ... Cholangiocellular carcinoma (CCC) and pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) are two highly aggressive cancer types that arise ... Immunohistochemical Markers Distinguishing Cholangiocellular Carcinoma (CCC) from Pancreatic Ductal Adenocarcinoma (PDAC) ... Immunohistochemical Markers Distinguishing Cholangiocellular Carcinoma (CCC) from Pancreatic Ductal Adenocarcinoma (PDAC) ...
Pancreatic. adenocarcinoma. cancer. Additional relevant MeSH terms: Adenocarcinoma. Carcinoma. Neoplasms, Glandular and ... Hedgehog Inhibition for Pancreatic Ductal Adenocarcinoma (PDAC) in the Preoperative Setting (HIPPoS) (HIPPoS). The safety and ... Proof of Mechanism Study of an Oral Hedgehog Inhibitor (GDC-0449) in Patients With Resectable Pancreatic Ductal Adenocarcinoma ... Documented tissue diagnosis of pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma with a sufficient amount of tissue for Laser Capture Micro- ...
PDAC, pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma; GAPDH, glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase. ... The human prostate carcinoma cell line PC-3, the human prostatic/bladder carcinoma TSU-Pr1, and the human ovarian carcinoma ... pancreatic, lung, and medullary thyroid carcinoma (5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10) . Specifically, human prostatic carcinoma cells have been ... have been implicated in the development and progression of human prostatic carcinoma and pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma. We ...
... head and neck squamous cell carcinoma; LAC, lung adenocarcinoma; MM, multiple myeloma; and PDAC, pancreatic ductal ... In pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) there is a near 100% frequency of KRAS mutations (Figure 1.) This contrasts with ... Pancreatic Ductal Adenocarcinoma Cancer. Samples. Altera-. tions. KRAS. Altera-. tions. NRAS. Altera-. tions. HRAS. All RAS. ... thyroid carcinoma, stomach adenocarcinoma, bladder urothelial carcinoma, and breast carcinoma. Abbreviations used are: AML, ...
... intrahepatic cholangiocellular carcinoma (41% for both), and invasive ductal carcinoma of the mammary gland (11% vs 12%). In ... Overexpression of Mesothelin in Pancreatic Ductal Adenocarcinoma (PDAC) Kai Le1,2*, Jia Wang1*, Tao Zhang3, Yifan Guo1, Hong ... Le K, Wang J, Zhang T, Guo Y, Chang H, Wang S, Zhu B. Overexpression of Mesothelin in Pancreatic Ductal Adenocarcinoma (PDAC). ... Purpose: Pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) with difficulty in early diagnosis does not respond well to conventional ...
PDAC, Pancreatic Ductal Adenocarcinoma; PSGL-1, P-Selectin Glycoprotein Ligand-1; RCC, Renal Cell Carcinoma; SH3, Src-Homology ... Hepatocellular Carcinoma; IL, Interleukin; MAPK, Mitogen-activated Protein Kinase; MMP, Matrix-Metalloprotease; MP, ... pancreatic, and brain cancer. High expression levels of ADAM8 are associated with invasiveness and predict a poor patient ...
Genomics-driven precision medicine for advanced pancreatic ductal carcinoma (PDAC): Early results from the COMPASS trial ( ... Phase II LAPACT Trial of nab-paclitaxel (nab-P) plus gemcitabine (G) for patients with locally advanced pancreatic cancer (LAPC ... Cabozantinib (C) versus placebo (P) in patients (pts) with advanced hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) who have received prior ... Cabozantinib (C) versus placebo (P) in patients (pts) with advanced hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) who have received prior ...
... most pancreatic ductal carcinoma (PDAC) patients treated with gemcitabine do not respond well to treatment. The 1- and 5-y ... and ABCC5 and CDA has been shown to be up-regulated in pancreatic carcinoma compared with normal pancreatic tissue (SI Appendix ... that switching off the Hippo-YAP pathway overcomes intrinsic drug resistance in these models of pancreatic ductal carcinoma. ... 2005) Expression and localization of human multidrug resistance protein (ABCC) family members in pancreatic carcinoma. Int J ...
Immunohistochemical Markers Distinguishing Cholangiocellular Carcinoma (CCC) from Pancreatic Ductal Adenocarcinoma (PDAC) ... Annexin A10 optimally differentiates between intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma and hepatic metastases of pancreatic ductal ... Circulating and tissue IMP3 levels are correlated with poor survival in renal cell carcinoma. ... Quantitative Tissue Proteomics Analysis Reveals Versican as Potential Biomarker for Early-Stage Hepatocellular Carcinoma. ...
PDAC tissues biopsies. pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma. carcinoma. Migration,. shorter survival. [29]. blood. Pdx1-Cre:K-Ras ... KIAA1199/CEMIP/HYBID overexpression predicts poor prognosis in pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma. Pancreatology. 2017;17:115-22 ... In pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma, over-expressed CEMIP alerted an aggressive tumor progression and early mortality [26, 29, ... Comparative proteomic analysis of oral squamous cell carcinoma and adjacent non-tumour tissue from thailand. Arch Oral Biol. ...
PDAC). Abnormal SMAD4 expression also plays an important role in the malignant... ... Background SMAD4 is frequently inactivated and associated with a poor prognosis in pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma ( ... Pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) is a devastating cancer in that most patients are diagnosed at an advanced clinical ... SMAD4 Y353C promotes EMT in pancreatic cancer. EMT plays a vital role in pancreatic carcinoma invasion and distant metastasis. ...
CCA, cholangiocarcinoma; PDAC, pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma; HCC, hepatocellular carcinoma; NA, not assessed. ... 3. Comparison of mutation frequency in cholangiocarcinoma, pancreatic and liver cancers. ... Hepatobiliary & pancreatic diseases international : HBPD INT 2: 285-289.. 12. ShaibYH, El-SeragHB, DavilaJA, MorganR, McGlynnKA ... In addition, Netrin-1 has a known role in mediating cell migration during pancreatic organogenesis [60]. Furthermore, Netrin-1 ...
... in our pancreatic cancer blog. The term "Pancreatic Ductal Carcinoma" is accurate and abbreviated PDAC in the original paper; ... PDAC (pancreatic cancer)s arise from a ductal cell lineage or from acinar cells that undergo acinar-to-ductal metaplasia9. ... Models of PDAC (pancreatic cancer): The development of new, clinically-relevant treatment approaches for PDAC (pancreatic ... Approximately 10% of PDAC (pancreatic cancer)s occur in families with a history of PDAC (pancreatic cancer)4; some occur in ...
The aim of this study was to investigate PROX1 and β-catenin expression in pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC). Expression ... The role of β-catenin expression in pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma is somewhat controversial. Transcription factor PROX1 is a ... high PROX1 and β-catenin expression were independent factors for better prognosis in pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma. ... The combined high expression of PROX1 and β-catenin also predicted lower risk of death from PDAC (HR = 0.46; 95 % CI 0.28-0.76 ...
... we review seminal articles that have evaluated the molecular architecture of pancreatic cancer. We compare the methods used and ... Gene expression profiling of microdissected pancreatic ductal carcinomas using high-density DNA microarrays. Neoplasia. 2004;6: ... the majority are classified as pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (commonly referred to as PDAC or PDA). Other forms of exocrine ... Identification of Sox9-dependent acinar-to-ductal reprogramming as the principal mechanism for initiation of pancreatic ductal ...
Immunohistochemical Markers Distinguishing Cholangiocellular Carcinoma (CCC) from Pancreatic Ductal Adenocarcinoma (PDAC) ...
Leukocytes in human PDAC. A, relative CD20 and Ig mRNA expression in human pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (AdenoCa; n = 33), ... we investigated tumor growth of two syngeneic murine PDAC cell lines derived from primary pancreatic carcinomas of transgenic ... Preinvasive and invasive ductal pancreatic cancer and its early detection in the mouse. Cancer Cell 2003;4:437-50. ... Ductal adenocarcinoma of the pancreas (PDAC) is a devastating disease with one of the lowest 5-year survival rates of all solid ...
Ficlatuzumab is currently being evaluated in squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck (SCCHN), metastatic pancreatic ductal ... cancer (PDAC), and acute myeloid leukemia (AML). About AVEO AVEO Pharmaceuticals is a biopharmaceutical company seeking to ... AVEOs portion of the costs for both the CyFi-2 study and the recently initiated Phase 1b/2 hepatocellular carcinoma study of ... pancreatic cancer and acute myeloid leukemia. AVEOs earlier-stage pipeline includes AV-203 (anti-ErbB3 MAb), AV-380 (GDF15 MAb ...
... pancreatic ductal cancer [20], lung cancer [21,22], prostate cancer [23], breast carcinoma [24], and glioma [25,26]. Moreover, ... pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC), [20] and prostate cancer [20]. A total of 12 included studies detected the expression ... PDAC, pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma; PKM, pyruvate kinase M ... Abnormal expression of Nek2 in pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma ... 2017) NEK2 serves as a prognostic biomarker for hepatocellular carcinoma. Int. J. Oncol. 50, 405-413 doi:10.3892/ijo.2017.3837 ...
Pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) is a highly aggressive disease with limited and, very often, ineffective medical and ... The Sustained Induction of c-MYC Drives Nab-paclitaxel Resistance in Primary Pancreatic Ductal Carcinoma Cells. Erika Parasido ... The Sustained Induction of c-MYC Drives Nab-paclitaxel Resistance in Primary Pancreatic Ductal Carcinoma Cells ... The Sustained Induction of c-MYC Drives Nab-paclitaxel Resistance in Primary Pancreatic Ductal Carcinoma Cells ...
Tissue fibrosis confounds treatment of pancreatic ductal carcinoma (PDAC), impairing drug response, reducing immune cell ... Genotype tunes pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma tissue tension to induce matricellular fibrosis and tumor progression. Nat Med ... In agreement with these clinical findings, thicker collagen bundles, a stiffer periductal matrix, and a more contractile PDAC ... These data suggest that although fibrosis universally accompanies pancreatic transformation, the nature of the fibrotic ...
hypothesized that intratumor bacteria might contribute to drug resistance of pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) [16]. ... Bladder transitional cell carcinoma cell lines T24 (TCHu 55) were purchased from the Cell Bank of the Chinese Academy of ... Up-regulation of DRAM2 promotes tolerance of bladder transitional cell carcinoma to gemcitabine. Baihetiya Azhati ... "Up-regulation of DRAM2 promotes tolerance of bladder transitional cell carcinoma to gemcitabine". Archives of Medical Science ...
Additionally, driver mutations associated with pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) were identified in this exosomal DNA (7 ... Malignant ascites-derived exosomes of ovarian carcinoma patients contain CD24 and EpCAM. Gynecol Oncol. 2007;107(3):563-571. ... Pancreatic cancer exosomes initiate pre-metastatic niche formation in the liver. Nat Cell Biol. 2015;17(6):816-826.. View this ... Clinical impact of serum exosomal microRNA-21 as a clinical biomarker in human esophageal squamous cell carcinoma. Cancer. 2013 ...
The Phase 3 in pancreatic, the pancreatic ductal adrenal carcinoma PDAC in second line, the study is called TRYbeCA1, and ...
We use pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma as an in vitro and an in vivo cancer model for these studies as it is a representative ... pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC)14, 15, perihilar cholangiocarcinoma2, 3, neuroblastoma6, leiomyosarcoma8, ... Arslan, A., Buanes, T. & Geitung, J. T. Pancreatic carcinoma: MR, MR angiography and dynamic helical CT in the evaluation of ... Expression of cancer stem cell markers in pancreatic intraepithelial neoplasias and pancreatic ductal adenocarcinomas. ...
  • However, the preferential mutation of KRAS versus NRAS in colorectal carcinoma (CRC) cannot be explained simply on this basis. (
  • The majority of all missense KRAS mutations in PDAC occur at position G12, with a G12D single amino acid substitution being the most prevalent. (
  • Genetically engineered mouse models that recapitulate many features of the human disease have defined a critical role for Kras G12D in the initiation and maintenance of PDAC 3 , 8 , 9 . (
  • An inducible Kras(G12D) driven mouse model of PDAC has established a critical role for sustained Kras(G12D) expression in tumor maintenance, providing a model to determine the potential for and the underlying mechanisms of Kras(G12D)-independent PDAC recurrence. (
  • Our studies, along with corroborating evidence from human PDAC models, portend a novel mechanism of escape from oncogenic Kras addiction in PDAC. (
  • Using an animal model of aggressive PDAC (Kras/p48(TGFβRIIKO)), we discovered an effect of TGFβ signaling in regulation of G-CSF secretion in pancreatic epithelium. (
  • To elucidate the mechanism by which TGFβ promotes apoptosis, David and colleagues used a Kras -mutant/ Smad4 -deleted PDAC murine model and found that reintroduction of SMAD4 sensitized cells to TGFβ treatment and promoted changes in cell morphology and loss of E-cadherin consistent with EMT. (
  • Design We examined the contribution of cellular origin to PDAC development by inducing PDAC-associated mutations, Kras G12D expression and Trp53 loss, specifically in ductal cells ( Sox9CreER;Kras LSL-G12D ;Trp53 flox/flox (' Duct:KP cKO ')) or acinar cells ( Ptf1a CreER ;Kras LSL-G12D ;Trp53 flox/flox (' Acinar:KP cKO ')) in mice. (
  • Conclusion These findings indicate that ductal cells are primed to form carcinoma in situ that become invasive PDAC in the presence of oncogenic Kras and Trp53 deletion, while acinar cells with the same mutations appear to require a prolonged period of transition or reprogramming to initiate PDAC. (
  • The KRAS gene, which encodes a small GTPase that mediates downstream signaling from growth factor receptors, is the most commonly mutated oncogene in PDAC [ 1 - 3 ]. (
  • In addition to hotspot mutations in the KRAS oncogene, three tumor suppressor genes are frequently mutated in PDAC. (
  • The current hypothesis of the pathogenesis of PDAC relies on the differentiation of acinar precursors carrying KRAS mutation into ductal cells (acinar-ductal metaplasia). (
  • In trying to understand the resistance to gemcitabine and the variable response of patients, we unexpectedly found culture conditions for pancreatic tumor cells that affected their sensitivity to the drug. (
  • We report that PDAC tumor growth depends on cross-talk between B cells and FcRγ + tumor-associated macrophages, resulting in T H 2-type macrophage programming via BTK activation in a PI3Kγ-dependent manner. (
  • We show that accumulation of the autophagy substrate p62/SQSTM1 in stressed KrasG12D acinar cells is associated with PDAC development and maintenance of malignancy in human cells and mice. (
  • Through this Cell-SELEX approach, they identified an RNA aptamer, SQ-2, that specifically binds to PDAC cells. (
  • 2q37.1), which is expressed in the cell membrane of the PDAC cells via the GPI anchor. (
  • Elevated concentrations of G-CSF in PDAC promoted differentiation of Ly6G(+) cells from progenitors, stimulated IL10 secretion from myeloid cells, and decreased T-cell proliferation via upregulation of Arg, iNOS, VEGF, IL6, and IL1b from CD11b(+) cells. (
  • The overexpression of miR-135a in PDAC cells decreased cell proliferation and clonogenicity and also induced G1 arrest and apoptosis. (
  • however, the mechanisms by which PDAC cells undergo metabolic reprogramming to adapt to metabolic stress are still poorly understood. (
  • Consistently, miR-135 silencing sensitizes PDAC cells to glutamine deprivation and represses tumor growth in vivo. (
  • KLF5 co-occupied the vast majority of SOX4 binding sites and suppressed TGFβ-induced apoptosis in Smad4 -mutant PDAC cells, suggesting that KLF5 may determine SOX4 function in this context. (
  • 6. Pancreatic ductal cells with cytoplasmic mucin are pathologic. (
  • 10. High-grade atypical epithelial cells (high-grade atypia) in pancreatic mucinous cyst fluid is a high risk feature for malignancy. (
  • Modelling of different genetic events in mice suggests both ductal and acinar cells can give rise to PDAC. (
  • The role of AT 2 receptor-signaling in stromal cells on the growth of murine pancreatic carcinoma cells (PAN02) was studied using various in vitro and in vivo assays. (
  • Our results show that the growth of subcutaneously transplanted syngeneic xenografts of PAN02 cells, mouse pancreatic ductal carcinoma cells derived from the C57/BL6 strain, was significantly faster in AT 2 -KO mice compared to control wild type mice. (
  • Moreover, Ang II AT 2 receptor signaling is a negative regulator in the growth of pancreatic carcinoma cells. (
  • When dasatinib was combined with gemcitabine and erlotinib (an epidermal growth factor-receptor (EGF-R) inhibitor), it inhibited the growth of xenografts of both sensitive and resistant PDAC cells in vivo without increasing toxicity [ 14 ]. (
  • its presence or absence in PDAC cells modulates αvβ6-dependent functions, resulting in a pro-migratory (Rac1-dependent) or a pro-TGF-β1 activation (Rho-dependent) functional phenotype respectively. (
  • Suppression of the IRE1α by STF-083010 alone resulted in increased lysosomes and reduced viability of PDAC cells. (
  • Sunitinib alone caused abnormal maturation of the autolysosomes with increased intracellular multivesicular bodies and increased apoptosis evident in PDAC cells. (
  • In pancreatic stellate cells, IL-1R1 expression was found to be down-regulated by TGFβ and blocking of TGFβ signaling re-established the expression. (
  • This effect was blocked after treatment of the pancreatic stellate cells with TGFβ. (
  • knockdown of this lncRNA further reduces proliferation and invasion/migration of pancreatic carcinoma cells. (
  • Small-interfering RNA (siRNA) and CRISPR/Cas9 were used to abrogate ARID1A in human pancreatic ductal epithelial cells. (
  • ARID1A knockdown in human pancreatic ductal epithelial cells induced increased MYC expression and protein synthesis that was abrogated with MYC knockdown. (
  • Briefly, PH Type I includes acini, ducts and endocrine islet cells, Type II contains acini and ducts, but no islet cells, and Type III contains only pancreatic ducts. (
  • We demonstrated that KRasG12V acinar cells isolated from Elas-KRasG12V underwent in vitro acinar ductal metaplasia with an increased expression of Nlg-2. (
  • The overall profiles of signaling protein expression levels, activation states and sub-cellular distribution in PDAC cells were distinguishable from non-neoplastic ductal epithelia. (
  • Pancreatic acinar cells synthesize, package, and secrete digestive enzymes into the duodenum to aid in nutrient absorption and meet metabolic demands. (
  • When exposed to cellular stresses and insults, acinar cells undergo a dedifferentiation process termed acinar-ductal metaplasia (ADM). (
  • a Freshly isolated PMNs (CD66b + cells, orange box) and monocytes (CD14 + cells, blue box) from PDAC patients analysed by flow cytometry and haematoxylin-eosin staining. (
  • c Functional assay performed (at 1:3 ratio of PBMCs:CD14 + cells) on monocytes of PDAC patients ( n = 26) compared to HDs ( n = 8), reported as percentage of CD3 + proliferating cells (right panel) and graphed as proliferation peaks of Cell Trace + CD3 + cells after the co-culture (left panel). (
  • Among all PDAC patients, "Suppressive CD14 + cells" (blue) and "Non-suppressive CD14 + cells" (red) were grouped based on the quantitative analysis of the in vitro immunosuppressive function. (
  • e Pearson correlation between MDSC4 and MDSC1 among CD14 + cells of PDAC patients. (
  • A) ADAM8 expression in normal pancreatic islets (arrows) and acinar cells and ductal cells (lower inset). (
  • Consecutive section stained with CK19 confirming ductal cells (upper inset). (
  • In normal pancreatic tissues (n = 8), ADAM8 exhibited weak cytoplasmic and membranous staining in normal ductal and acinar cells (Fig. 3A, lower inset) and moderate expression in islet cells (Fig. 3A). (
  • In CP tissues (n = 8), ADAM8 exhibited moderate to strong staining in ductal cells, tubular complexes and degenerating acinar cells (Fig. 3B) but not in inflammatory cells. (
  • A classic but unexplained example is enhanced α2-6-sialylation on N-glycans, resulting from over-expression of the Golgi enzyme β-galactoside:α2-6-sialyltransferase (ST6Gal-I). Previous data supporting a role for the resulting Siaα2-3Galβ1-4GlcNAc (Sia6LacNAc) structure in tumor biology were based on in vitro studies in transfected carcinoma cells, in which increased Sia6LacNAc on β1-integrins enhanced their binding to ligands, and stimulated cell motility. (
  • These dismal figures are because of the tumor's propensity to metastasize when little and undetectable, the advanced stage of which many sufferers initial develop symptoms, as well as the intrinsic level of resistance of pancreatic tumor cells to cytotoxic real estate agents and radiotherapy [3- (
  • Molecular biology of pancreatic malignancy Various genetic mutations have already been explained in the malignancy cells of PDAC individuals. (
  • squamous cell carcinoma antigen, carbohydrate antigen 19-9, and laboratory data were within the normal limits. (
  • We have demonstrated the expression of the NTs and aberrant overexpression of the trk receptors immunohistochemically and by in situ hybridization in human PDAC specimens relative to normal pancreata and in human PDAC-derived cell lines. (
  • Owing to their histological and morphological similarity, differential diagnosis between CCC and metastasis of PDAC located in the liver frequently proves an unsolvable issue for pathologists. (
  • There is certainly, therefore, an immediate need for a better knowledge of the systems that donate to pancreatic tumor development and metastasis, as well as for the look of therapies because of this disorder that are far better than current regimens. (
  • Due to lack of characteristic symptoms and effective methods for the early detection of PDAC, over 80% of patients present too late for curative management [ 2 , 3 ]. (
  • The molecular mechanisms through which established risk factors, such as chronic pancreatitis, acinar cell damage, and/or defective autophagy increase the likelihood of PDAC development are poorly understood. (
  • Understanding the molecular mechanisms that drive PDAC formation may lead to novel therapies. (
  • Moreover, the molecular mechanisms underlying PDAC remain unclear [ 5 ]. (
  • This review covers in a short way the molecular biology of pancreatic tumor, and will after that focus on different areas of vascular endothelial development elements in angiogenesis generally and with regards to PDAC specifically. (
  • Treatment of PDAC-bearing mice with the BTK inhibitor PCI32765 (ibrutinib) or by PI3Kγ inhibition reprogrammed macrophages toward a T H 1 phenotype that fostered CD8 + T-cell cytotoxicity, and suppressed PDAC growth, indicating that BTK signaling mediates PDAC immunosuppression. (
  • These facts highlight a unique window of opportunity for the earlier detection of PDAC, which could allow timely disease interception and improvement in the overall survival outcomes in patients suffering from this fatal malignancy. (
  • It really is more developed that human being pancreatic malignancy cell lines overexpress the epidermal development element (EGF) receptor (EGFR) and create multiple ligands that bind right to EGFR, including changing development factor-alpha (TGF-, amphiregulin, heparin-binding EGF-like development element (HB-EGF), betacellulin and epiregulin [8- (
  • Here, we report that targeting Bruton tyrosine kinase (BTK), a key B-cell and macrophage kinase, restores T cell-dependent antitumor immune responses, thereby inhibiting PDAC growth and improving responsiveness to standard-of-care chemotherapy. (
  • Indeed, CCA and PDAC display similar clinic-pathological features as growth pattern, poor response to conventional chemotherapy and radiotherapy and, as a consequence, an unfavorable prognosis. (
  • Herein, we provide a critical overview on the role of multimodal treatment in PDAC and on new opportunities related to current more active poli-chemotherapy regimens, targeted therapies, and the more recent immunotherapy approaches. (
  • Results Both mouse models developed PDAC, but Duct:KP cKO mice developed PDAC earlier than Acinar:KP cKO mice. (
  • Lossof-function experiments showed that Nlg-2 ablation halted acinar-ductal metaplasia, supporting the idea that Nlg-2 is necessary in the early phase of PDAC. (