A CELL LINE derived from a PHEOCHROMOCYTOMA of the rat ADRENAL MEDULLA. PC12 cells stop dividing and undergo terminal differentiation when treated with NERVE GROWTH FACTOR, making the line a useful model system for NERVE CELL differentiation.
A serine endopeptidase that has specificity for cleavage at ARGININE. It cleaves a variety of prohormones including PRO-OPIOMELANOCORTIN, proluteinizing-hormone-releasing hormone, proenkephalins, prodynorphin, and PROINSULIN.
A CALCIUM-dependent endopeptidase that has specificity for cleavage at ARGININE that is near paired basic residues. It cleaves a variety of prohormones including PRO-OPIOMELANOCORTIN; PRORENIN; proenkephalins; prodynorphin; prosomatostatin; and PROINSULIN.
A serine endopeptidase found primarily in the EXTRACELLULAR MATRIX. It has specificity for cleavage of a variety of substrates including PRORENIN, pro-membrane type-1 matrix metalloproteinase, and NEURAL CELL ADHESION MOLECULE L1.
A usually benign, well-encapsulated, lobular, vascular tumor of chromaffin tissue of the ADRENAL MEDULLA or sympathetic paraganglia. The cardinal symptom, reflecting the increased secretion of EPINEPHRINE and NOREPINEPHRINE, is HYPERTENSION, which may be persistent or intermittent. During severe attacks, there may be HEADACHE; SWEATING, palpitation, apprehension, TREMOR; PALLOR or FLUSHING of the face, NAUSEA and VOMITING, pain in the CHEST and ABDOMEN, and paresthesias of the extremities. The incidence of malignancy is as low as 5% but the pathologic distinction between benign and malignant pheochromocytomas is not clear. (Dorland, 27th ed; DeVita Jr et al., Cancer: Principles & Practice of Oncology, 3d ed, p1298)
Proteolytic enzymes that are involved in the conversion of protein precursors such as peptide prohormones into PEPTIDE HORMONES. Some are ENDOPEPTIDASES, some are EXOPEPTIDASES.
Derivatives of phosphatidic acids in which the phosphoric acid is bound in ester linkage to a choline moiety. Complete hydrolysis yields 1 mole of glycerol, phosphoric acid and choline and 2 moles of fatty acids.
NERVE GROWTH FACTOR is the first of a series of neurotrophic factors that were found to influence the growth and differentiation of sympathetic and sensory neurons. It is comprised of alpha, beta, and gamma subunits. The beta subunit is responsible for its growth stimulating activity.
In tissue culture, hairlike projections of neurons stimulated by growth factors and other molecules. These projections may go on to form a branched tree of dendrites or a single axon or they may be reabsorbed at a later stage of development. "Neurite" may refer to any filamentous or pointed outgrowth of an embryonal or tissue-culture neural cell.
Tumors or cancer of the ADRENAL GLANDS.
A proprotein convertase with specificity for the proproteins of PROALBUMIN; COMPLEMENT 3C; and VON WILLEBRAND FACTOR. It has specificity for cleavage near paired ARGININE residues that are separated by two amino acids.
An acidic protein found in the NEUROENDOCRINE SYSTEM that functions as a molecular chaperone for PROPROTEIN CONVERTASE 2.
Tumors or cancer of the PROSTATE.

The disulfide-bonded loop of chromogranin B mediates membrane binding and directs sorting from the trans-Golgi network to secretory granules. (1/4249)

The disulfide-bonded loop of chromogranin B (CgB), a regulated secretory protein with widespread distribution in neuroendocrine cells, is known to be essential for the sorting of CgB from the trans-Golgi network (TGN) to immature secretory granules. Here we show that this loop, when fused to the constitutively secreted protein alpha1-antitrypsin (AT), is sufficient to direct the fusion protein to secretory granules. Importantly, the sorting efficiency of the AT reporter protein bearing two loops (E2/3-AT-E2/3) is much higher compared with that of AT with a single disulfide-bonded loop. In contrast to endogenous CgB, E2/3-AT-E2/3 does not undergo Ca2+/pH-dependent aggregation in the TGN. Furthermore, the disulfide-bonded loop of CgB mediates membrane binding in the TGN and does so with 5-fold higher efficiency if two loops are present on the reporter protein. The latter finding supports the concept that under physiological conditions, aggregates of CgB are the sorted units of cargo which have multiple loops on their surface leading to high membrane binding and sorting efficiency of CgB in the TGN.  (+info)

Ral-specific guanine nucleotide exchange factor activity opposes other Ras effectors in PC12 cells by inhibiting neurite outgrowth. (2/4249)

Ras proteins can activate at least three classes of downstream target proteins: Raf kinases, phosphatidylinositol-3 phosphate (PI3) kinase, and Ral-specific guanine nucleotide exchange factors (Ral-GEFs). In NIH 3T3 cells, activated Ral-GEFs contribute to Ras-induced cell proliferation and oncogenic transformation by complementing the activities of Raf and PI3 kinases. In PC12 cells, activated Raf and PI3 kinases mediate Ras-induced cell cycle arrest and differentiation into a neuronal phenotype. Here, we show that in PC12 cells, Ral-GEF activity acts opposite to other Ras effectors. Elevation of Ral-GEF activity induced by transfection of a mutant Ras protein that preferentially activates Ral-GEFs, or by transfection of the catalytic domain of the Ral-GEF Rgr, suppressed cell cycle arrest and neurite outgrowth induced by nerve growth factor (NGF) treatment. In addition, Rgr reduced neurite outgrowth induced by a mutant Ras protein that preferentially activates Raf kinases. Furthermore, inhibition of Ral-GEF activity by expression of a dominant negative Ral mutant accelerated cell cycle arrest and enhanced neurite outgrowth in response to NGF treatment. Ral-GEF activity may function, at least in part, through inhibition of the Rho family GTPases, CDC42 and Rac. In contrast to Ras, which was activated for hours by NGF treatment, Ral was activated for only approximately 20 min. These findings suggest that one function of Ral-GEF signaling induced by NGF is to delay the onset of cell cycle arrest and neurite outgrowth induced by other Ras effectors. They also demonstrate that Ras has the potential to promote both antidifferentiation and prodifferentiation signaling pathways through activation of distinct effector proteins. Thus, in some cell types the ratio of activities among Ras effectors and their temporal regulation may be important determinants for cell fate decisions between proliferation and differentiation.  (+info)

Identification of a new Pyk2 target protein with Arf-GAP activity. (3/4249)

Protein tyrosine kinase Pyk2 is activated by a variety of G-protein-coupled receptors and by extracellular signals that elevate intracellular Ca2+ concentration. We have identified a new Pyk2 binding protein designated Pap. Pap is a multidomain protein composed of an N-terminal alpha-helical region with a coiled-coil motif, followed by a pleckstrin homology domain, an Arf-GAP domain, an ankyrin homology region, a proline-rich region, and a C-terminal SH3 domain. We demonstrate that Pap forms a stable complex with Pyk2 and that activation of Pyk2 leads to tyrosine phosphorylation of Pap in living cells. Immunofluorescence experiments demonstrate that Pap is localized in the Golgi apparatus and at the plasma membrane, where it is colocalized with Pyk2. In addition, in vitro recombinant Pap exhibits strong GTPase-activating protein (GAP) activity towards the small GTPases Arf1 and Arf5 and weak activity towards Arf6. Addition of recombinant Pap protein to Golgi preparations prevented Arf-dependent generation of post-Golgi vesicles in vitro. Moreover, overexpression of Pap in cultured cells reduced the constitutive secretion of a marker protein. We propose that Pap functions as a GAP for Arf and that Pyk2 may be involved in regulation of vesicular transport through its interaction with Pap.  (+info)

Intracellular sodium modulates the expression of angiotensin II subtype 2 receptor in PC12W cells. (4/4249)

Although the angiotensin II subtype 2 receptor (AT2-R) is expressed abundantly in the adrenal medulla, its physiological significance has not yet been determined. To obtain fundamental knowledge of the regulation of AT2-R expression in the adrenal medulla, we investigated the effects of modulating several ion channels on AT2-R expression in PC12W cells. Experiments were performed after 24 hours of serum depletion under subconfluent conditions. After 48 hours of treatment with various agonists or antagonists, the receptor density and mRNA level of AT2-Rs were quantified by 125I-[Sar1, Ile8]angiotensin II binding and Northern blot analysis. Ouabain (10 to 100 nmol/L) and insulin (10 to 100 nmol/L) dose-dependently increased receptor density and mRNA level. Analysis of the binding characteristics revealed that the ouabain-dependent increase in AT2-R levels was due to an increase in binding capacity without a change in the Kd value. These increases were blocked by lowering the Na+ concentration in the medium. A low concentration of the sodium ionophore monensin (10 nmol/L), the K+-channel blocker quinidine (10 micromol/L), and the ATP-sensitive K+-channel blockers tolbutamide (100 micromol/L) and glybenclamide (10 micromol/L) also significantly increased receptor density, but the ATP-sensitive K+-channel agonist cromakalim (100 micromol/L) decreased receptor density significantly (P<0.01). Nifedipine (10 micromol/L) decreased basal receptor density and completely blocked the increase in receptor density caused by these agents. The increase in receptor density caused by an increase in intracellular Na+ was accompanied by an increase in mRNA level, whereas the ATP-sensitive K+-channel blockers did not change mRNA level. Nifedipine slightly decreased mRNA level. These results suggest that AT2-R expression is sensitively regulated by intracellular cation levels. The change in intracellular Na+ level transcriptionally regulates AT2-R expression, whereas the K+-channel blocker-dependent upregulation appears to be at least in part posttranslational.  (+info)

Hyperoxia induces the neuronal differentiated phenotype of PC12 cells via a sustained activity of mitogen-activated protein kinase induced by Bcl-2. (5/4249)

We previously reported that rat pheochromocytoma PC12 cells express the neuronal differentiated phenotype under hyperoxia through the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS). In the present study, we found that in this phenotype, Bcl-2, an apoptosis inhibitor, affects mitogen-activated protein (MAP)-kinase activity, which is known as a key enzyme of the signal-transduction cascade for differentiation. When PC12 cells were cultured under hyperoxia, a rapid increase in MAP-kinase activity, including that of both p42 and p44, was observed. Although the activity level then decreased quickly, activity higher than the control level was observed for 48 h. PD98059, an inhibitor of MAP kinase, suppressed the hyperoxia-induced neurite extensions, suggesting the involvement of MAP-kinase activity in the mechanism of differentiation induced by ROS. An elevation of Bcl-2 expression was observed after culturing PC12 cells for 24 h under hyperoxia. This Bcl-2 elevation was not affected by treatment with PD98059, suggesting that it did not directly induce neurite extension under hyperoxia. However, the blockade of the Bcl-2 elevation by an antisense oligonucleotide inhibited the sustained MAP-kinase activity and neurite extensions under hyperoxia. Further, in PC12 cells highly expressing Bcl-2, the sustained MAP-kinase activity and neurite extensions under hyperoxia were enhanced. These results suggested that MAP kinase is activated through the production of ROS, and the subsequent elevation of Bcl-2 expression sustains the MAP-kinase activity, resulting in the induction of the neuronal-differentiation phenotype of PC12 cells under hyperoxia.  (+info)

Characterization of elementary Ca2+ release signals in NGF-differentiated PC12 cells and hippocampal neurons. (6/4249)

Elementary Ca2+ release signals in nerve growth factor- (NGF-) differentiated PC12 cells and hippocampal neurons, functionally analogous to the "Ca2+ sparks" and "Ca2+ puffs" identified in other cell types, were characterized by confocal microscopy. They either occurred spontaneously or could be activated by caffeine and metabotropic agonists. The release events were dissimilar to the sparks and puffs described so far, as many arose from clusters of both ryanodine receptors (RyRs) and inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate receptors (InsP3Rs). Increasing either the stimulus strength or loading of the intracellular stores enhanced the frequency of and coupling between elementary release sites and evoked global Ca2+ signals. In the PC12 cells, the elementary Ca2+ release preferentially occurred around the branch points. Spatio-temporal recruitment of such elementary release events may regulate neuronal activities.  (+info)

Microvessels from Alzheimer's disease brains kill neurons in vitro. (7/4249)

Understanding the pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease is of widespread interest because it is an increasingly prevalent disorder that is progressive, fatal, and currently untreatable. The dementia of Alzheimer's disease is caused by neuronal cell death. We demonstrate for the first time that blood vessels isolated from the brains of Alzheimer's disease patients can directly kill neurons in vitro. Either direct co-culture of Alzheimer's disease microvessels with neurons or incubation of cultured neurons with conditioned medium from microvessels results in neuronal cell death. In contrast, vessels from elderly nondemented donors are significantly (P<0.001) less lethal and brain vessels from younger donors are not neurotoxic. Neuronal killing by either direct co-culture with Alzheimer's disease microvessels or conditioned medium is dose- and time-dependent. Neuronal death can occur by either apoptotic or necrotic mechanisms. The microvessel factor is neurospecific, killing primary cortical neurons, cerebellar granule neurons, and differentiated PC-12 cells, but not non-neuronal cell types or undifferentiated PC-12 cells. Appearance of the neurotoxic factor is decreased by blocking microvessel protein synthesis with cycloheximide. The neurotoxic factor is soluble and likely a protein, because its activity is heat labile and trypsin sensitive. These findings implicate a novel mechanism of vascular-mediated neuronal cell death in Alzheimer's disease.  (+info)

Human nerve growth factor beta (hNGF-beta): mammary gland specific expression and production in transgenic rabbits. (8/4249)

Transgenic rabbits carrying gene constructs encoding human nerve growth factor beta (hNGF-beta) cDNA were generated. Expression of hNGF-beta mRNA was restricted to the mammary gland of lactating rabbits. Western Blot analysis revealed a polypeptide of 13.2 kDa in the milk of transgenic animals. hNGF-beta was purified from the milk by a two-step chromatographic procedure. Electrospray mass spectroscopy analysis of purified hNGF-beta depicted a molecular weight of 13,261 Da per subunit. The biological activity of the hNGF-beta was tested using PC12W2 cells and cultures of dorsal root ganglion neurons from chicken embryos. Crude defatted milk from transgenic animals and purified hNGF-beta demonstrated full biological activity when compared to commercial recombinant hNGF-beta.  (+info)

PC12 cells are a type of rat pheochromocytoma cell line, which are commonly used in scientific research. Pheochromocytomas are tumors that develop from the chromaffin cells of the adrenal gland, and PC12 cells are a subtype of these cells.

PC12 cells have several characteristics that make them useful for research purposes. They can be grown in culture and can be differentiated into a neuron-like phenotype when treated with nerve growth factor (NGF). This makes them a popular choice for studies involving neuroscience, neurotoxicity, and neurodegenerative disorders.

PC12 cells are also known to express various neurotransmitter receptors, ion channels, and other proteins that are relevant to neuronal function, making them useful for studying the mechanisms of drug action and toxicity. Additionally, PC12 cells can be used to study the regulation of cell growth and differentiation, as well as the molecular basis of cancer.

Proprotein convertase 2 (PCSK2) is a type of enzyme known as a proprotein convertase. It plays a role in the activation of other proteins by cleaving off specific peptide sequences and allowing them to become biologically active. PCSK2 is primarily involved in the processing of hormones and neurotransmitters, including insulin, prolactin, and members of the bombesin family.

Defects in the gene that encodes PCSK2 have been associated with certain medical conditions, such as congenital hyperinsulinism, a disorder characterized by low blood sugar levels due to excessive insulin secretion. However, more research is needed to fully understand the relationship between PCSK2 and these conditions.

Proprotein convertase 1 (PCSK1) is a protein-coding gene that encodes for the prohormone convertase 1/3 (PC1/3), also known as PCsk1 or PCSK1. This enzyme belongs to the family of subtilisin-like proprotein convertases, which play crucial roles in processing and activating various peptide hormones and neuropeptides by cleaving their precursor proteins.

PC1/3 is primarily expressed in neuroendocrine cells, neurons, and enteroendocrine cells of the gastrointestinal tract. It is involved in the maturation of several bioactive peptides, such as:

1. Proinsulin: PC1/3 processes proinsulin into insulin and C-peptide.
2. Proglucagon: PC1/3 cleaves proglucagon to generate glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1), glucagon-like peptide-2 (GLP-2), glicentin, and oxyntomodulin.
3. Proopiomelanocortin (POMC): PC1/3 processes POMC to generate adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH), β-lipotropin, β-endorphin, and melanocyte-stimulating hormones (MSH).
4. Prohormone convertase 2 (PCSK2) precursor: PC1/3 cleaves the PCSK2 precursor into its mature form.
5. Neuropeptide YY (NPY): PC1/3 processes NPY precursors to generate NPY and peptide YY (PYY).
6. Proghrelin: PC1/3 converts proghrelin into acylated ghrelin, which stimulates appetite, and desacyl ghrelin, which has no known function.

Defects in the PCSK1 gene can lead to various endocrine disorders, such as monogenic forms of diabetes (MODY), obesity, and short stature.

Proprotein convertase 5 (PC5, also known as PCSK5 or PACE4) is a serine protease enzyme that belongs to the family of proprotein convertases. These enzymes play crucial roles in processing and activating various protein precursors by cleaving them at specific recognition sites.

PC5 is primarily involved in the activation of other proteins through proteolytic processing, which means it cuts large protein precursors into their smaller, active forms. It has a wide range of substrates, including hormones, growth factors, receptors, and adhesion molecules. PC5 is synthesized as an inactive zymogen and undergoes autocatalytic activation to become fully functional.

PC5 is expressed in various tissues, such as the brain, pancreas, testis, ovary, and placenta. Its dysregulation has been implicated in several diseases, including cancer, neurodegenerative disorders, and viral infections. However, more research is needed to fully understand its functions and therapeutic potential.

Pheochromocytoma is a rare type of tumor that develops in the adrenal glands, which are triangular-shaped glands located on top of each kidney. These tumors produce excessive amounts of hormones called catecholamines, including adrenaline and noradrenaline. This can lead to a variety of symptoms such as high blood pressure, sweating, headaches, rapid heartbeat, and anxiety.

Pheochromocytomas are typically slow-growing and can be benign or malignant (cancerous). While the exact cause of these tumors is not always known, some genetic factors have been identified that may increase a person's risk. Treatment usually involves surgical removal of the tumor, along with medications to manage symptoms and control blood pressure before and after surgery.

Proprotein convertases (PCs) are a group of calcium-dependent serine proteases that play a crucial role in the post-translational modification of proteins. They are responsible for cleaving proproteins into their active forms by removing the propeptide or inhibitory sequences, thereby regulating various biological processes such as protein maturation, activation, and trafficking.

There are nine known human proprotein convertases, including PC1/3, PC2, PC4, PACE4, PC5/6, PC7, Furin, Subtilisin/Kexin type 1 Protease (SKI-1/S1P), and Neuropsin. These enzymes are characterized by their conserved catalytic domain and a distinct prodomain that regulates their activity.

Proprotein convertases have been implicated in several physiological processes, including blood coagulation, neuroendocrine signaling, immune response, and cell differentiation. Dysregulation of these enzymes has been associated with various diseases, such as cancer, cardiovascular disorders, neurological disorders, and infectious diseases. Therefore, understanding the function and regulation of proprotein convertases is essential for developing novel therapeutic strategies to target these diseases.

Phosphatidylcholines (PtdCho) are a type of phospholipids that are essential components of cell membranes in living organisms. They are composed of a hydrophilic head group, which contains a choline moiety, and two hydrophobic fatty acid chains. Phosphatidylcholines are crucial for maintaining the structural integrity and function of cell membranes, and they also serve as important precursors for the synthesis of signaling molecules such as acetylcholine. They can be found in various tissues and biological fluids, including blood, and are abundant in foods such as soybeans, eggs, and meat. Phosphatidylcholines have been studied for their potential health benefits, including their role in maintaining healthy lipid metabolism and reducing the risk of cardiovascular disease.

Nerve Growth Factor (NGF) is a small secreted protein that is involved in the growth, maintenance, and survival of certain neurons (nerve cells). It was the first neurotrophin to be discovered and is essential for the development and function of the nervous system. NGF binds to specific receptors on the surface of nerve cells and helps to promote their differentiation, axonal growth, and synaptic plasticity. Additionally, NGF has been implicated in various physiological processes such as inflammation, immune response, and wound healing. Deficiencies or excesses of NGF have been linked to several neurological disorders, including Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease, and pain conditions.

Neurites are extensions of a neuron (a type of cell in the nervous system) that can be either an axon or a dendrite. An axon is a thin, cable-like extension that carries signals away from the cell body, while a dendrite is a branching extension that receives signals from other neurons. Neurites play a crucial role in the communication between neurons and the formation of neural networks. They are involved in the transmission of electrical and chemical signals, as well as in the growth and development of the nervous system.

Adrenal gland neoplasms refer to abnormal growths or tumors in the adrenal glands. These glands are located on top of each kidney and are responsible for producing hormones that regulate various bodily functions such as metabolism, blood pressure, and stress response. Adrenal gland neoplasms can be benign (non-cancerous) or malignant (cancerous).

Benign adrenal tumors are called adenomas and are usually small and asymptomatic. However, some adenomas may produce excessive amounts of hormones, leading to symptoms such as high blood pressure, weight gain, and mood changes.

Malignant adrenal tumors are called adrenocortical carcinomas and are rare but aggressive cancers that can spread to other parts of the body. Symptoms of adrenocortical carcinoma may include abdominal pain, weight loss, and hormonal imbalances.

It is important to diagnose and treat adrenal gland neoplasms early to prevent complications and improve outcomes. Diagnostic tests may include imaging studies such as CT scans or MRIs, as well as hormone level testing and biopsy. Treatment options may include surgery, radiation therapy, chemotherapy, or a combination of these approaches.

Furin is not a medical condition or disease, but rather it is a type of enzyme that belongs to the group of proteases. It's also known as paired basic amino acid cleaving enzyme (PACE) or convertase 6.

Furin plays an essential role in processing and activating various proteins in the body, particularly those involved in cell signaling, growth regulation, and viral infectivity. Furin works by cutting or cleaving specific amino acid sequences in proteins, allowing them to become active and perform their functions.

In a medical context, furin is often discussed in relation to its role in activating certain viruses, such as HIV, influenza, and coronaviruses (including SARS-CoV-2). Inhibiting furin activity has been explored as a potential therapeutic strategy for treating these viral infections.

Neuroendocrine Secretory Protein 7B2 (NESP7B2) is defined as a protein that is encoded by the 7B2 gene in humans. This protein is primarily produced in neuroendocrine cells, including those found in the brain and the endocrine system. NESP7B2 has a molecular weight of approximately 29 kDa and is composed of 256 amino acids.

One of the primary functions of NESP7B2 is to regulate the activity of another protein called prohormone convertase 2 (PC2). PC2 is involved in the processing and activation of various hormones and neurotransmitters, and NESP7B2 helps to control its activity by binding to it and inhibiting its action.

NESP7B2 has also been found to have a role in the regulation of calcium homeostasis and may be involved in the development and function of the nervous system. Mutations in the 7B2 gene have been associated with certain medical conditions, including some forms of cancer and neurological disorders.

Prostatic neoplasms refer to abnormal growths in the prostate gland, which can be benign or malignant. The term "neoplasm" simply means new or abnormal tissue growth. When it comes to the prostate, neoplasms are often referred to as tumors.

Benign prostatic neoplasms, such as prostate adenomas, are non-cancerous overgrowths of prostate tissue. They usually grow slowly and do not spread to other parts of the body. While they can cause uncomfortable symptoms like difficulty urinating, they are generally not life-threatening.

Malignant prostatic neoplasms, on the other hand, are cancerous growths. The most common type of prostate cancer is adenocarcinoma, which arises from the glandular cells in the prostate. Prostate cancer often grows slowly and may not cause any symptoms for many years. However, some types of prostate cancer can be aggressive and spread quickly to other parts of the body, such as the bones or lymph nodes.

It's important to note that while prostate neoplasms can be concerning, early detection and treatment can significantly improve outcomes for many men. Regular check-ups with a healthcare provider are key to monitoring prostate health and catching any potential issues early on.

This makes PC12 cells useful as a model system for neuronal differentiation and neurosecretion. Treatment of PC12 cells with ... Wikipedia articles containing the term "PC12 cells" [1] Ras function was partially elucidated using PC12 cell line [2], from ... been studied using this cell line to understand their effects on PC12 cells These types of studies show that use of PC12 cell ... "The PC12 cell as model for neurosecretion: PC12 cells as model for neurosecretion". Acta Physiologica. 192 (2): 273-285. doi: ...
Learn about PC12 Cells at online-medical-dictionary.org ... PC12 Cells. Synonyms. Cell Line, Pheochromocytoma. Cell Lines, ... A CELL LINE derived from a PHEOCHROMOCYTOMA of the rat ADRENAL MEDULLA. PC12 cells stop dividing and undergo terminal ... differentiation when treated with NERVE GROWTH FACTOR, making the line a useful model system for NERVE CELL differentiation. ... PC12 Cell. Pheochromocytoma Cell Line. Pheochromocytoma Cell Lines. ...
... confirming that PC12 cells differentiated into mature neuronal cells by ASK1. Moreover, ASK1DeltaN-expressing PC12 cells ... Apoptosis signal-regulating kinase 1 (ASK1) induces neuronal differentiation and survival of PC12 cells J Biol Chem. 2000 Mar ... We found that p38 and to a lesser extent JNK, but not ERK, were activated by the expression of ASK1DeltaN in PC12 cells. ... ASK1 thus appears to mediate signals leading to both differentiation and survival of PC12 cells. Together with previous reports ...
... selectively stabilizes the GAP-43 mRNA in PC12 cells. To study the cellular mechanisms for this post-tra ... N I Perrone-Bizzozero, V V Cansino, D T Kohn; Posttranscriptional regulation of GAP-43 gene expression in PC12 cells through ... In conclusion, these data suggest that PKC activity regulates the levels of the GAP-43 mRNA in PC12 cells through a novel, ... We have previously shown that nerve growth factor (NGF) selectively stabilizes the GAP-43 mRNA in PC12 cells. To study the ...
The purpose of this research was to investigate ameliorations of Se counter to iHg-mediated toxicity in PC12 cells. Cytotoxic ... Selenium modulates inorganic mercury induced cytotoxicity and intrinsic apoptosis in PC12 cells. This item is licensed under: ... Selenium modulates inorganic mercury induced cytotoxicity and intrinsic apoptosis in PC12 cells. ... and up-regulating cleaved caspase 3 and cytochrome c release in PC12 cells 48 h after incubation. Co-treatment of Se (5 mu M) ...
PC12 cells were plated on 60-mm collagen-coated dishes (6 × 106cells/dish) and incubated for 6-12 h in a low-serum medium (0.25 ... Cell Culture PC12 cells were maintained in RPMI 1640 medium (Roswell Park Memorial Institute, developed by Dr. G. Moore) ... For c-Fos detection, PC12 cells (1 × 107cells/dish) were plated on collagen-coated dishes, stimulated with 50 mM KCl at 37°C ... PC12 cells were stimulated with 50 μM KCl for the indicated periods of time or with KCl for 2 min at 37°C after pretreatment ...
... PISIGNANO, DARIO 2015-01-01. Abstract. In ... Differentiated PC12 cells were characterized by highly aligned and longer neurites on parallel PHB fibres with respect to ... Differentiated PC12 cells were characterized by highly aligned and longer neurites on parallel PHB fibres with respect to ... PC12 pheochromocytoma cells that mimic central dopaminergic neurons and represent a model for neuronal differentiation were ...
PC12) cells after Aβ1-42 exposure. In addition, D3T pretreatment inhibited Aβ1-42 induced cell apoptosis as well as protein ... PC12) cells after Aβ1-42 exposure. In addition, D3T pretreatment inhibited Aβ1-42 induced cell apoptosis as well as protein ... PC12) cells after Aβ1-42 exposure. In addition, D3T pretreatment inhibited Aβ1-42 induced cell apoptosis as well as protein ... PC12) cells after Aβ1-42 exposure. In addition, D3T pretreatment inhibited Aβ1-42 induced cell apoptosis as well as protein ...
Therefore, we examined whether any increase of intracellular iron in serum-starved PC12 cells could block the cell death even ... in PC12 cells, and an iron-NO complex such as dinitro-iron complex (DNIC) is found to keep the cells from apoptosis by ... Previously we observed that serum-starved PC12 cells maintained their viability only for a couple of days even in the presence ... Cytoprotective Role of Intracelluar Iron on Serum-starved PC12 Cells under NGF. So-Young Choi and Jun-Mo Chung* ...
The PC-12 HD-Q23 cell lines 14 and 7 can be used for in-vitro assay development for neurodegenerative diseases. The ... PC-12 HD-Q23: Cell Lines 14 and 7 Invented by David Rubensztein Invented at University of Cambridge ... The PC-12 HD-Q23 cell lines 14 and 7 can be used for in-vitro assay development for neurodegenerative diseases. The huntingtin ... PC-12 HD-Q74: Cell Lines 10 and 1b Invented by David Rubensztein at University of Cambridge ...
PKA-Mediated Regulation of B/K Gene Transcription in PC12 Cells 의 이용 수, 등재여부, 발행기관, 저자, 초록, 목차, 참고문헌 등 논문에 관한 다양한 정보 및 관련논문 목록과 ... PKA-Mediated Regulation of B/K Gene Transcription in PC12 Cells PKA-Mediated Regulation of B/K Gene Transcription in PC12 Cells ... We examined the specific signaling pathway that regulates the transcription of B/K in PC12 cells. When the cells were treated ... Effect of forskolin, dibutyryl cAMP and CGS21680 was significantly reduced in PKA-deficient PC12 cell line (PC12-123.7). One ...
Lokhov P.G. et al., Study of specific binding and uptake of ligand(peptide)-coated liposomes by cells PC12 cells. Voprosy ... Study of specific binding and uptake of ligand(peptide)-coated liposomes by cells PC12 cells // Voprosy Meditsinskoi Khimii. - ... Study of specific binding and uptake of ligand(peptide)-coated liposomes by cells PC12 cells. ... coated liposomes by cells PC12 cells. Voprosy Meditsinskoi Khimii, 45(2), 136-139. ...
Gemfibrozil protect PC12 cells through modulation of Estradiol receptors against oxidative stress ... Ashabi G, Khalaj L. Gemfibrozil protect PC12 cells through modulation of Estradiol receptors against oxidative stress. Physiol ... Materials and Methods: In this study, neuronal-like PC12 cells with were pretreated with different concentrations of ... Types of Manuscript: Experimental research article , Subject: Cell, Stem Cell and Cancer ...
Martinus, R. D., & Cook, C. J. (2011). The effect of complement C5a on mitochondrial functions of PC12 cells. NeuroReport, 22( ... The effect of complement C5a on mitochondrial functions of PC12 cells. / Martinus, R.D.; Cook, C.J. In: NeuroReport, Vol. 22, ... Martinus, R.D. ; Cook, C.J. / The effect of complement C5a on mitochondrial functions of PC12 cells. In: NeuroReport. 2011 ; ... Martinus, RD & Cook, CJ 2011, The effect of complement C5a on mitochondrial functions of PC12 cells, NeuroReport, vol. 22, no ...
buchneri MS partially or completely protected neuronal cells against neurotoxicant-induced cell death. ... by Lactobacillus buchneri isolated from kimchi and its neuroprotective effect on neuronal cells J Microbiol Biotechnol. 2007 ...
We used undifferentiated PC-12 cells to study the effect of epinephrine and carbachol on transmembranous currents. Applying the ... Four pertussis toxin-sensitive G proteins were identified in membranes of PC-12 cells: two members of the Gi family, Gi1 and ... Inhibition of Ca2+ channels via alpha 2-adrenergic and muscarinic receptors in pheochromocytoma (PC-12) cells ... Inhibition of Ca2+ channels via alpha 2-adrenergic and muscarinic receptors in pheochromocytoma (PC-12) cells. ...
Versatile roles of R-Ras GAP in neurite formation of PC12 cells and embryonic vascular development. In: Journal of Biological ... Versatile roles of R-Ras GAP in neurite formation of PC12 cells and embryonic vascular development. Journal of Biological ... We found that R-Ras GAP is down-regulated during neurite formation in rat pheochromocytoma PC12 cells by nerve growth factor ( ... Dive into the research topics of Versatile roles of R-Ras GAP in neurite formation of PC12 cells and embryonic vascular ...
As confirmation that ligand density in these engineered systems impacts neuronal cell behavior, we demonstrate that increasing ... As confirmation that ligand density in these engineered systems impacts neuronal cell behavior, we demonstrate that increasing ... neural cell adhesion molecule). Physical adsorption isotherms were experimentally determined for these engineered proteins, ... and reproducible surfaces for in vitro studies of cell-ligand interactions and for potential application as coatings on neural ...
Evidence suggests that nerve growth factor (NGF) induces neurite outgrowth from PC12 cells by activating the receptor tyrosine ... is critical for NGF-induced neuronal differentiation of PC12 cells. We have found that NGF promoted the interaction of Gβγ with ... it was observed that overexpression of Gβγ in PC12 cells induced neurite outgrowth in the absence of added NGF. Moreover, ... overexpressed Gβγ exhibited a pattern of association with MTs similar to that observed in NGF-differentiated cells. Altogether ...
Physical mobilization of secretory vesicles facilitates neuropeptide release by nerve growth factor-differentiated PC12 cells. ... Here, high resolution green fluorescent protein (GFP)-based measurements in nerve growth factor-differentiated PC12 cells are ... Here, high resolution green fluorescent protein (GFP)-based measurements in nerve growth factor-differentiated PC12 cells are ... Here, high resolution green fluorescent protein (GFP)-based measurements in nerve growth factor-differentiated PC12 cells are ...
These results demonstrated that the sea cucumber ovum peptide-derived NDEELNK might play a protective role in PC12 cells. ... Our results demonstrated that NDEELNK supplementation alleviated scopolamine-induced PC12 cell damage by improving the ... Neuroprotective effects of NDEELNK from sea cucumber ovum against scopolamine-induced PC12 cell damage through enhancing energy ... activity in PC12 cells. By molecular docking, we confirmed that the NDEELNK backbone and AChE interacted through hydrophobic ...
PC12 is a cell line derived from a pheochromocytoma of the rat adrenal medulla. PC12 cells stop dividing and terminally ... GenJet DNA In Vitro Transfection Reagent for PC12 cell is pre-optimized for most efficiently transfecting PC12 cells. ... GenJet In Vitro DNA Transfection Reagent for PC-12 Cell [SL100489-PC12] - Description ... PC12 cells. PC12 is a cell line derived from a pheochromocytoma of the rat adrenal medulla. PC12 cells stop dividing and ...
... induced cytotoxicity in PC12 cells was examined. Cultured PC12 cells were either treated with MPP+ alone or co-treated with one ... Both linoleic acid and arachidonic acid are able to inhibit MPP+-induced toxicity in PC12 cells. The protection is not mediated ... Cells treated with 500 μM MPP+ for a day reduced cell viability to ~70% as compared to control group. Linoleic acid (50 and 100 ... Cell viability was then assessed by using the 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay. ...
Cell cycle-specific action of nerve growth factor in PC12 cells: differentiation without proliferation ... B-Raf-dependent regulation of the MEK-1/mitogen-activated protein kinase pathway in PC12 cells and regulation by cyclic AMP. ( ... B-Raf-dependent regulation of the MEK-1/mitogen-activated protein kinase pathway in PC12 cells and regulation by cyclic AMP.. ... The cytoplasmic raf oncogene induces a neuronal phenotype in PC12 cells: a potential role for cellular raf kinases in neuronal ...
Changes of energy metabolism induced by 1-methyl-4-phenylpyridinium (MPP+)-Related compounds in rat pheochromocytoma PC12 cells ... Changes of energy metabolism induced by 1-methyl-4-phenylpyridinium (MPP+)-Related compounds in rat pheochromocytoma PC12 cells ... Changes of energy metabolism induced by 1-methyl-4-phenylpyridinium (MPP+)-Related compounds in rat pheochromocytoma PC12 cells ... Changes of energy metabolism induced by 1-methyl-4-phenylpyridinium (MPP+)-Related compounds in rat pheochromocytoma PC12 cells ...
Comparison of neurons derived from mouse P19, rat PC12 and human SH-SY5Y cells in the assessment of chemical- and toxin-induced ... Comparison of neurons derived from mouse P19, rat PC12 and human SH-SY5Y cells in the assessment of chemical- and toxin-induced ... RT @ECACC: in vitro evaluation of chemical-induced neurotoxicity in #Cells @ECACC cells in research! - https://t.co/ZsLLlBcHQk ... in vitro evaluation of chemical-induced neurotoxicity in #Cells @ECACC cells in research! - https://t.co/ZsLLlBcHQk https://t. ...
Dive into the research topics of Indirubin-3-Oxime Effectively Prevents 6OHDA-Induced Neurotoxicity in PC12 Cells via ... Indirubin-3-Oxime Effectively Prevents 6OHDA-Induced Neurotoxicity in PC12 Cells via Activating MEF2D Through the Inhibition of ... Indirubin-3-Oxime Effectively Prevents 6OHDA-Induced Neurotoxicity in PC12 Cells via Activating MEF2D Through the Inhibition of ... Indirubin-3-Oxime Effectively Prevents 6OHDA-Induced Neurotoxicity in PC12 Cells via Activating MEF2D Through the Inhibition of ...
Rat pheochromocytoma PC12 cells were incubated with hydroxytyrosol (10 µM, 180 min) alone or with the MAO-A inhibitor ... Rat pheochromocytoma PC12 cells were incubated with hydroxytyrosol (10 µM, 180 min) alone or with the MAO-A inhibitor ... Rat pheochromocytoma PC12 cells were incubated with hydroxytyrosol (10 µM, 180 min) alone or with the MAO-A inhibitor ... Rat pheochromocytoma PC12 cells were incubated with hydroxytyrosol (10 µM, 180 min) alone or with the MAO-A inhibitor ...

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