Exercise Test: Controlled physical activity which is performed in order to allow assessment of physiological functions, particularly cardiovascular and pulmonary, but also aerobic capacity. Maximal (most intense) exercise is usually required but submaximal exercise is also used.Exercise Tolerance: The exercise capacity of an individual as measured by endurance (maximal exercise duration and/or maximal attained work load) during an EXERCISE TEST.Exercise: Physical activity which is usually regular and done with the intention of improving or maintaining PHYSICAL FITNESS or HEALTH. Contrast with PHYSICAL EXERTION which is concerned largely with the physiologic and metabolic response to energy expenditure.Exercise Therapy: A regimen or plan of physical activities designed and prescribed for specific therapeutic goals. Its purpose is to restore normal musculoskeletal function or to reduce pain caused by diseases or injuries.Physical Exertion: Expenditure of energy during PHYSICAL ACTIVITY. Intensity of exertion may be measured by rate of OXYGEN CONSUMPTION; HEAT produced, or HEART RATE. Perceived exertion, a psychological measure of exertion, is included.Oxygen Consumption: The rate at which oxygen is used by a tissue; microliters of oxygen STPD used per milligram of tissue per hour; the rate at which oxygen enters the blood from alveolar gas, equal in the steady state to the consumption of oxygen by tissue metabolism throughout the body. (Stedman, 25th ed, p346)Physical Endurance: The time span between the beginning of physical activity by an individual and the termination because of exhaustion.Anaerobic Threshold: The oxygen consumption level above which aerobic energy production is supplemented by anaerobic mechanisms during exercise, resulting in a sustained increase in lactate concentration and metabolic acidosis. The anaerobic threshold is affected by factors that modify oxygen delivery to the tissues; it is low in patients with heart disease. Methods of measurement include direct measure of lactate concentration, direct measurement of bicarbonate concentration, and gas exchange measurements.Heart Rate: The number of times the HEART VENTRICLES contract per unit of time, usually per minute.Physical Fitness: The ability to carry out daily tasks and perform physical activities in a highly functional state, often as a result of physical conditioning.Asthma, Exercise-Induced: Asthma attacks following a period of exercise. Usually the induced attack is short-lived and regresses spontaneously. The magnitude of postexertional airway obstruction is strongly influenced by the environment in which exercise is performed (i.e. inhalation of cold air during physical exertion markedly augments the severity of the airway obstruction; conversely, warm humid air blunts or abolishes it).Bicycling: The use of a bicycle for transportation or recreation. It does not include the use of a bicycle in studying the body's response to physical exertion (BICYCLE ERGOMETRY TEST see EXERCISE TEST).Pulmonary Gas Exchange: The exchange of OXYGEN and CARBON DIOXIDE between alveolar air and pulmonary capillary blood that occurs across the BLOOD-AIR BARRIER.Electrocardiography: Recording of the moment-to-moment electromotive forces of the HEART as projected onto various sites on the body's surface, delineated as a scalar function of time. The recording is monitored by a tracing on slow moving chart paper or by observing it on a cardioscope, which is a CATHODE RAY TUBE DISPLAY.Muscle, Skeletal: A subtype of striated muscle, attached by TENDONS to the SKELETON. Skeletal muscles are innervated and their movement can be consciously controlled. They are also called voluntary muscles.Angina Pectoris: The symptom of paroxysmal pain consequent to MYOCARDIAL ISCHEMIA usually of distinctive character, location and radiation. It is thought to be provoked by a transient stressful situation during which the oxygen requirements of the MYOCARDIUM exceed that supplied by the CORONARY CIRCULATION.Lactic Acid: A normal intermediate in the fermentation (oxidation, metabolism) of sugar. The concentrated form is used internally to prevent gastrointestinal fermentation. (From Stedman, 26th ed)Ergometry: Any method of measuring the amount of work done by an organism, usually during PHYSICAL EXERTION. Ergometry also includes measures of power. Some instruments used in these determinations include the hand crank and the bicycle ergometer.Rest: Freedom from activity.Sports: Activities or games, usually involving physical effort or skill. Reasons for engagement in sports include pleasure, competition, and/or financial reward.Running: An activity in which the body is propelled by moving the legs rapidly. Running is performed at a moderate to rapid pace and should be differentiated from JOGGING, which is performed at a much slower pace.Respiratory Function Tests: Measurement of the various processes involved in the act of respiration: inspiration, expiration, oxygen and carbon dioxide exchange, lung volume and compliance, etc.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Blood Pressure: PRESSURE of the BLOOD on the ARTERIES and other BLOOD VESSELS.Dyspnea: Difficult or labored breathing.Coronary Disease: An imbalance between myocardial functional requirements and the capacity of the CORONARY VESSELS to supply sufficient blood flow. It is a form of MYOCARDIAL ISCHEMIA (insufficient blood supply to the heart muscle) caused by a decreased capacity of the coronary vessels.Respiration: The act of breathing with the LUNGS, consisting of INHALATION, or the taking into the lungs of the ambient air, and of EXHALATION, or the expelling of the modified air which contains more CARBON DIOXIDE than the air taken in (Blakiston's Gould Medical Dictionary, 4th ed.). This does not include tissue respiration (= OXYGEN CONSUMPTION) or cell respiration (= CELL RESPIRATION).Hemodynamics: The movement and the forces involved in the movement of the blood through the CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM.Cardiovascular Physiological Phenomena: Processes and properties of the CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM as a whole or of any of its parts.Physical Education and Training: Instructional programs in the care and development of the body, often in schools. The concept does not include prescribed exercises, which is EXERCISE THERAPY.Oxygen: An element with atomic symbol O, atomic number 8, and atomic weight [15.99903; 15.99977]. It is the most abundant element on earth and essential for respiration.Walking: An activity in which the body advances at a slow to moderate pace by moving the feet in a coordinated fashion. This includes recreational walking, walking for fitness, and competitive race-walking.Breathing Exercises: Therapeutic exercises aimed to deepen inspiration or expiration or even to alter the rate and rhythm of respiration.Forced Expiratory Volume: Measure of the maximum amount of air that can be expelled in a given number of seconds during a FORCED VITAL CAPACITY determination . It is usually given as FEV followed by a subscript indicating the number of seconds over which the measurement is made, although it is sometimes given as a percentage of forced vital capacity.Heart Failure: A heterogeneous condition in which the heart is unable to pump out sufficient blood to meet the metabolic need of the body. Heart failure can be caused by structural defects, functional abnormalities (VENTRICULAR DYSFUNCTION), or a sudden overload beyond its capacity. Chronic heart failure is more common than acute heart failure which results from sudden insult to cardiac function, such as MYOCARDIAL INFARCTION.Metabolic Equivalent: A measurement of OXYGEN uptake in a sitting, resting person (resting oxygen consumption), varying with age, sex, race, and other factors. In normal adult men, one MET is approximately 3.5 ml O2/kg/min of body weight. Oxygen uptake during activities or work can be measured in METs which can be use to determine health status and exercise prescription.Cardiac Output: The volume of BLOOD passing through the HEART per unit of time. It is usually expressed as liters (volume) per minute so as not to be confused with STROKE VOLUME (volume per beat).Stroke Volume: The amount of BLOOD pumped out of the HEART per beat, not to be confused with cardiac output (volume/time). It is calculated as the difference between the end-diastolic volume and the end-systolic volume.Cross-Over Studies: Studies comparing two or more treatments or interventions in which the subjects or patients, upon completion of the course of one treatment, are switched to another. In the case of two treatments, A and B, half the subjects are randomly allocated to receive these in the order A, B and half to receive them in the order B, A. A criticism of this design is that effects of the first treatment may carry over into the period when the second is given. (Last, A Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)Lactates: Salts or esters of LACTIC ACID containing the general formula CH3CHOHCOOR.Muscle Fatigue: A state arrived at through prolonged and strong contraction of a muscle. Studies in athletes during prolonged submaximal exercise have shown that muscle fatigue increases in almost direct proportion to the rate of muscle glycogen depletion. Muscle fatigue in short-term maximal exercise is associated with oxygen lack and an increased level of blood and muscle lactic acid, and an accompanying increase in hydrogen-ion concentration in the exercised muscle.Double-Blind Method: A method of studying a drug or procedure in which both the subjects and investigators are kept unaware of who is actually getting which specific treatment.Carbon Dioxide: A colorless, odorless gas that can be formed by the body and is necessary for the respiration cycle of plants and animals.Follow-Up Studies: Studies in which individuals or populations are followed to assess the outcome of exposures, procedures, or effects of a characteristic, e.g., occurrence of disease.Analysis of Variance: A statistical technique that isolates and assesses the contributions of categorical independent variables to variation in the mean of a continuous dependent variable.Resistance Training: A type of strength-building exercise program that requires the body muscle to exert a force against some form of resistance, such as weight, stretch bands, water, or immovable objects. Resistance exercise is a combination of static and dynamic contractions involving shortening and lengthening of skeletal muscles.Glycogen Storage Disease Type V: Glycogenosis due to muscle phosphorylase deficiency. Characterized by painful cramps following sustained exercise.Pulmonary Ventilation: The total volume of gas inspired or expired per unit of time, usually measured in liters per minute.Leg: The inferior part of the lower extremity between the KNEE and the ANKLE.Predictive Value of Tests: In screening and diagnostic tests, the probability that a person with a positive test is a true positive (i.e., has the disease), is referred to as the predictive value of a positive test; whereas, the predictive value of a negative test is the probability that the person with a negative test does not have the disease. Predictive value is related to the sensitivity and specificity of the test.Athletes: Individuals who have developed skills, physical stamina and strength or participants in SPORTS or other physical activities.Muscle Stretching Exercises: Exercises that stretch the muscle fibers with the aim to increase muscle-tendon FLEXIBILITY, improve RANGE OF MOTION or musculoskeletal function, and prevent injuries. There are various types of stretching techniques including active, passive (relaxed), static, dynamic (gentle), ballistic (forced), isometric, and others.Muscle Strength: The amount of force generated by MUSCLE CONTRACTION. Muscle strength can be measured during isometric, isotonic, or isokinetic contraction, either manually or using a device such as a MUSCLE STRENGTH DYNAMOMETER.Heart: The hollow, muscular organ that maintains the circulation of the blood.Adrenergic beta-Antagonists: Drugs that bind to but do not activate beta-adrenergic receptors thereby blocking the actions of beta-adrenergic agonists. Adrenergic beta-antagonists are used for treatment of hypertension, cardiac arrhythmias, angina pectoris, glaucoma, migraine headaches, and anxiety.Myocardial Ischemia: A disorder of cardiac function caused by insufficient blood flow to the muscle tissue of the heart. The decreased blood flow may be due to narrowing of the coronary arteries (CORONARY ARTERY DISEASE), to obstruction by a thrombus (CORONARY THROMBOSIS), or less commonly, to diffuse narrowing of arterioles and other small vessels within the heart. Severe interruption of the blood supply to the myocardial tissue may result in necrosis of cardiac muscle (MYOCARDIAL INFARCTION).Regional Blood Flow: The flow of BLOOD through or around an organ or region of the body.Microvascular Angina: ANGINA PECTORIS or angina-like chest pain with a normal coronary arteriogram and positive EXERCISE TEST. The cause of the syndrome is unknown. While its recognition is of clinical importance, its prognosis is excellent. (Braunwald, Heart Disease, 4th ed, p1346; Jablonski Dictionary of Syndromes & Eponymic Diseases, 2d ed). It is different from METABOLIC SYNDROME X, a syndrome characterized by INSULIN RESISTANCE and HYPERINSULINEMIA, that has increased risk for cardiovascular disease.Adaptation, Physiological: The non-genetic biological changes of an organism in response to challenges in its ENVIRONMENT.Prospective Studies: Observation of a population for a sufficient number of persons over a sufficient number of years to generate incidence or mortality rates subsequent to the selection of the study group.Hyperventilation: A pulmonary ventilation rate faster than is metabolically necessary for the exchange of gases. It is the result of an increased frequency of breathing, an increased tidal volume, or a combination of both. It causes an excess intake of oxygen and the blowing off of carbon dioxide.Treatment Outcome: Evaluation undertaken to assess the results or consequences of management and procedures used in combating disease in order to determine the efficacy, effectiveness, safety, and practicability of these interventions in individual cases or series.Spirometry: Measurement of volume of air inhaled or exhaled by the lung.Maximal Voluntary Ventilation: Measure of the maximum amount of air that can be breathed in and blown out over a sustained interval such as 15 or 20 seconds. Common abbreviations are MVV and MBC.GlycogenRespiratory Physiological Phenomena: Physiological processes and properties of the RESPIRATORY SYSTEM as a whole or of any of its parts.Energy Metabolism: The chemical reactions involved in the production and utilization of various forms of energy in cells.Electrocardiography, Ambulatory: Method in which prolonged electrocardiographic recordings are made on a portable tape recorder (Holter-type system) or solid-state device ("real-time" system), while the patient undergoes normal daily activities. It is useful in the diagnosis and management of intermittent cardiac arrhythmias and transient myocardial ischemia.Pulmonary Disease, Chronic Obstructive: A disease of chronic diffuse irreversible airflow obstruction. Subcategories of COPD include CHRONIC BRONCHITIS and PULMONARY EMPHYSEMA.Single-Blind Method: A method in which either the observer(s) or the subject(s) is kept ignorant of the group to which the subjects are assigned.Coronary Angiography: Radiography of the vascular system of the heart muscle after injection of a contrast medium.Reference Values: The range or frequency distribution of a measurement in a population (of organisms, organs or things) that has not been selected for the presence of disease or abnormality.Echocardiography: Ultrasonic recording of the size, motion, and composition of the heart and surrounding tissues. The standard approach is transthoracic.Lung Diseases, Obstructive: Any disorder marked by obstruction of conducting airways of the lung. AIRWAY OBSTRUCTION may be acute, chronic, intermittent, or persistent.Quadriceps Muscle: The quadriceps femoris. A collective name of the four-headed skeletal muscle of the thigh, comprised of the rectus femoris, vastus intermedius, vastus lateralis, and vastus medialis.Prognosis: A prediction of the probable outcome of a disease based on a individual's condition and the usual course of the disease as seen in similar situations.Horses: Large, hoofed mammals of the family EQUIDAE. Horses are active day and night with most of the day spent seeking and consuming food. Feeding peaks occur in the early morning and late afternoon, and there are several daily periods of rest.Hypokalemic Periodic Paralysis: An autosomal dominant familial disorder characterized by recurrent episodes of skeletal muscle weakness associated with falls in serum potassium levels. The condition usually presents in the first or second decade of life with attacks of trunk and leg paresis during sleep or shortly after awakening. Symptoms may persist for hours to days and generally are precipitated by exercise or a meal high in carbohydrates. (Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p1483)Chronic Disease: Diseases which have one or more of the following characteristics: they are permanent, leave residual disability, are caused by nonreversible pathological alteration, require special training of the patient for rehabilitation, or may be expected to require a long period of supervision, observation, or care. (Dictionary of Health Services Management, 2d ed)Respiratory Mechanics: The physical or mechanical action of the LUNGS; DIAPHRAGM; RIBS; and CHEST WALL during respiration. It includes airflow, lung volume, neural and reflex controls, mechanoreceptors, breathing patterns, etc.Echocardiography, Stress: A method of recording heart motion and internal structures by combining ultrasonic imaging with exercise testing (EXERCISE TEST) or pharmacologic stress.Ventricular Function, Left: The hemodynamic and electrophysiological action of the left HEART VENTRICLE. Its measurement is an important aspect of the clinical evaluation of patients with heart disease to determine the effects of the disease on cardiac performance.Blood Gas Analysis: Measurement of oxygen and carbon dioxide in the blood.Physical Conditioning, Animal: Diet modification and physical exercise to improve the ability of animals to perform physical activities.Blood Glucose: Glucose in blood.Ventricular Premature Complexes: A type of cardiac arrhythmia with premature contractions of the HEART VENTRICLES. It is characterized by the premature QRS complex on ECG that is of abnormal shape and great duration (generally >129 msec). It is the most common form of all cardiac arrhythmias. Premature ventricular complexes have no clinical significance except in concurrence with heart diseases.Thallium Radioisotopes: Unstable isotopes of thallium that decay or disintegrate emitting radiation. Tl atoms with atomic weights 198-202, 204, and 206-210 are thallium radioisotopes.Risk Factors: An aspect of personal behavior or lifestyle, environmental exposure, or inborn or inherited characteristic, which, on the basis of epidemiologic evidence, is known to be associated with a health-related condition considered important to prevent.Myocardial Infarction: NECROSIS of the MYOCARDIUM caused by an obstruction of the blood supply to the heart (CORONARY CIRCULATION).Heart Function Tests: Examinations used to diagnose and treat heart conditions.Vital Capacity: The volume of air that is exhaled by a maximal expiration following a maximal inspiration.Fatigue: The state of weariness following a period of exertion, mental or physical, characterized by a decreased capacity for work and reduced efficiency to respond to stimuli.Respiratory Muscles: These include the muscles of the DIAPHRAGM and the INTERCOSTAL MUSCLES.Muscle Contraction: A process leading to shortening and/or development of tension in muscle tissue. Muscle contraction occurs by a sliding filament mechanism whereby actin filaments slide inward among the myosin filaments.Altitude: A vertical distance measured from a known level on the surface of a planet or other celestial body.Angiocardiography: Radiography of the heart and great vessels after injection of a contrast medium.Wheelchairs: Chairs mounted on wheels and designed to be propelled by the occupant.Reproducibility of Results: The statistical reproducibility of measurements (often in a clinical context), including the testing of instrumentation or techniques to obtain reproducible results. The concept includes reproducibility of physiological measurements, which may be used to develop rules to assess probability or prognosis, or response to a stimulus; reproducibility of occurrence of a condition; and reproducibility of experimental results.Exercise Movement Techniques: Methods or programs of physical activities which can be used to promote, maintain, or restore the physical and physiological well-being of an individual.Motor Activity: The physical activity of a human or an animal as a behavioral phenomenon.Intermittent Claudication: A symptom complex characterized by pain and weakness in SKELETAL MUSCLE group associated with exercise, such as leg pain and weakness brought on by walking. Such muscle limpness disappears after a brief rest and is often relates to arterial STENOSIS; muscle ISCHEMIA; and accumulation of LACTATE.Pre-Excitation Syndromes: A group of conditions in which HEART VENTRICLE activation by the atrial impulse is faster than the normal impulse conduction from the SINOATRIAL NODE. In these pre-excitation syndromes, atrial impulses often bypass the ATRIOVENTRICULAR NODE delay and travel via ACCESSORY CONDUCTING PATHWAYS connecting the atrium directly to the BUNDLE OF HIS.Lung Volume Measurements: Measurement of the amount of air that the lungs may contain at various points in the respiratory cycle.Thallium: A heavy, bluish white metal, atomic number 81, atomic weight [204.382; 204.385], symbol Tl.Isosorbide Dinitrate: A vasodilator used in the treatment of ANGINA PECTORIS. Its actions are similar to NITROGLYCERIN but with a slower onset of action.Weight Lifting: A sport in which weights are lifted competitively or as an exercise.Severity of Illness Index: Levels within a diagnostic group which are established by various measurement criteria applied to the seriousness of a patient's disorder.Body Weight: The mass or quantity of heaviness of an individual. It is expressed by units of pounds or kilograms.Quality of Life: A generic concept reflecting concern with the modification and enhancement of life attributes, e.g., physical, political, moral and social environment; the overall condition of a human life.Ventricular Dysfunction, Left: A condition in which the LEFT VENTRICLE of the heart was functionally impaired. This condition usually leads to HEART FAILURE; MYOCARDIAL INFARCTION; and other cardiovascular complications. Diagnosis is made by measuring the diminished ejection fraction and a depressed level of motility of the left ventricular wall.Dipyridamole: A phosphodiesterase inhibitor that blocks uptake and metabolism of adenosine by erythrocytes and vascular endothelial cells. Dipyridamole also potentiates the antiaggregating action of prostacyclin. (From AMA Drug Evaluations Annual, 1994, p752)Metoprolol: A selective adrenergic beta-1 blocking agent that is commonly used to treat ANGINA PECTORIS; HYPERTENSION; and CARDIAC ARRHYTHMIAS.Lung: Either of the pair of organs occupying the cavity of the thorax that effect the aeration of the blood.Coronary Artery Disease: Pathological processes of CORONARY ARTERIES that may derive from a congenital abnormality, atherosclerotic, or non-atherosclerotic cause.Body Composition: The relative amounts of various components in the body, such as percentage of body fat.Systole: Period of contraction of the HEART, especially of the HEART VENTRICLES.Propranolol: A widely used non-cardioselective beta-adrenergic antagonist. Propranolol has been used for MYOCARDIAL INFARCTION; ARRHYTHMIA; ANGINA PECTORIS; HYPERTENSION; HYPERTHYROIDISM; MIGRAINE; PHEOCHROMOCYTOMA; and ANXIETY but adverse effects instigate replacement by newer drugs.Dalteparin: A low-molecular-weight fragment of heparin, prepared by nitrous acid depolymerization of porcine mucosal heparin. The mean molecular weight is 4000-6000 daltons. It is used therapeutically as an antithrombotic agent. (From Merck Index, 11th ed)Catecholamines: A general class of ortho-dihydroxyphenylalkylamines derived from tyrosine.Maximal Expiratory Flow Rate: The airflow rate measured during the first liter expired after the first 200 ml have been exhausted during a FORCED VITAL CAPACITY determination. Common abbreviations are MEFR, FEF 200-1200, and FEF 0.2-1.2.Echocardiography, Doppler: Measurement of intracardiac blood flow using an M-mode and/or two-dimensional (2-D) echocardiogram while simultaneously recording the spectrum of the audible Doppler signal (e.g., velocity, direction, amplitude, intensity, timing) reflected from the moving column of red blood cells.Chest Pain: Pressure, burning, or numbness in the chest.Exhalation: The act of BREATHING out.Anoxia: Relatively complete absence of oxygen in one or more tissues.Propanolamines: AMINO ALCOHOLS containing the propanolamine (NH2CH2CHOHCH2) group and its derivatives.Muscle Weakness: A vague complaint of debility, fatigue, or exhaustion attributable to weakness of various muscles. The weakness can be characterized as subacute or chronic, often progressive, and is a manifestation of many muscle and neuromuscular diseases. (From Wyngaarden et al., Cecil Textbook of Medicine, 19th ed, p2251)Case-Control Studies: Studies which start with the identification of persons with a disease of interest and a control (comparison, referent) group without the disease. The relationship of an attribute to the disease is examined by comparing diseased and non-diseased persons with regard to the frequency or levels of the attribute in each group.Epinephrine: The active sympathomimetic hormone from the ADRENAL MEDULLA. It stimulates both the alpha- and beta- adrenergic systems, causes systemic VASOCONSTRICTION and gastrointestinal relaxation, stimulates the HEART, and dilates BRONCHI and cerebral vessels. It is used in ASTHMA and CARDIAC FAILURE and to delay absorption of local ANESTHETICS.Nitroglycerin: A volatile vasodilator which relieves ANGINA PECTORIS by stimulating GUANYLATE CYCLASE and lowering cytosolic calcium. It is also sometimes used for TOCOLYSIS and explosives.Partial Pressure: The pressure that would be exerted by one component of a mixture of gases if it were present alone in a container. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Coronary Circulation: The circulation of blood through the CORONARY VESSELS of the HEART.Aging: The gradual irreversible changes in structure and function of an organism that occur as a result of the passage of time.Vasodilator Agents: Drugs used to cause dilation of the blood vessels.Body Mass Index: An indicator of body density as determined by the relationship of BODY WEIGHT to BODY HEIGHT. BMI=weight (kg)/height squared (m2). BMI correlates with body fat (ADIPOSE TISSUE). Their relationship varies with age and gender. For adults, BMI falls into these categories: below 18.5 (underweight); 18.5-24.9 (normal); 25.0-29.9 (overweight); 30.0 and above (obese). (National Center for Health Statistics, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention)Recovery of Function: A partial or complete return to the normal or proper physiologic activity of an organ or part following disease or trauma.Tomography, Emission-Computed, Single-Photon: A method of computed tomography that uses radionuclides which emit a single photon of a given energy. The camera is rotated 180 or 360 degrees around the patient to capture images at multiple positions along the arc. The computer is then used to reconstruct the transaxial, sagittal, and coronal images from the 3-dimensional distribution of radionuclides in the organ. The advantages of SPECT are that it can be used to observe biochemical and physiological processes as well as size and volume of the organ. The disadvantage is that, unlike positron-emission tomography where the positron-electron annihilation results in the emission of 2 photons at 180 degrees from each other, SPECT requires physical collimation to line up the photons, which results in the loss of many available photons and hence degrades the image.Spectroscopy, Near-Infrared: A noninvasive technique that uses the differential absorption properties of hemoglobin and myoglobin to evaluate tissue oxygenation and indirectly can measure regional hemodynamics and blood flow. Near-infrared light (NIR) can propagate through tissues and at particular wavelengths is differentially absorbed by oxygenated vs. deoxygenated forms of hemoglobin and myoglobin. Illumination of intact tissue with NIR allows qualitative assessment of changes in the tissue concentration of these molecules. The analysis is also used to determine body composition.Blood Flow Velocity: A value equal to the total volume flow divided by the cross-sectional area of the vascular bed.Statistics, Nonparametric: A class of statistical methods applicable to a large set of probability distributions used to test for correlation, location, independence, etc. In most nonparametric statistical tests, the original scores or observations are replaced by another variable containing less information. An important class of nonparametric tests employs the ordinal properties of the data. Another class of tests uses information about whether an observation is above or below some fixed value such as the median, and a third class is based on the frequency of the occurrence of runs in the data. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed, p1284; Corsini, Concise Encyclopedia of Psychology, 1987, p764-5)Feasibility Studies: Studies to determine the advantages or disadvantages, practicability, or capability of accomplishing a projected plan, study, or project.Diastole: Post-systolic relaxation of the HEART, especially the HEART VENTRICLES.Radionuclide Ventriculography: Imaging of a ventricle of the heart after the injection of a radioactive contrast medium. The technique is less invasive than cardiac catheterization and is used to assess ventricular function.Inhalation: The act of BREATHING in.Hypertension: Persistently high systemic arterial BLOOD PRESSURE. Based on multiple readings (BLOOD PRESSURE DETERMINATION), hypertension is currently defined as when SYSTOLIC PRESSURE is consistently greater than 140 mm Hg or when DIASTOLIC PRESSURE is consistently 90 mm Hg or more.Pulmonary Diffusing Capacity: The amount of a gas taken up, by the pulmonary capillary blood from the alveolar gas, per minute per unit of average pressure of the gradient of the gas across the BLOOD-AIR BARRIER.Creatine Kinase: A transferase that catalyzes formation of PHOSPHOCREATINE from ATP + CREATINE. The reaction stores ATP energy as phosphocreatine. Three cytoplasmic ISOENZYMES have been identified in human tissues: the MM type from SKELETAL MUSCLE, the MB type from myocardial tissue and the BB type from nervous tissue as well as a mitochondrial isoenzyme. Macro-creatine kinase refers to creatine kinase complexed with other serum proteins.Pilot Projects: Small-scale tests of methods and procedures to be used on a larger scale if the pilot study demonstrates that these methods and procedures can work.Sensitivity and Specificity: Binary classification measures to assess test results. Sensitivity or recall rate is the proportion of true positives. Specificity is the probability of correctly determining the absence of a condition. (From Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)Arrhythmias, Cardiac: Any disturbances of the normal rhythmic beating of the heart or MYOCARDIAL CONTRACTION. Cardiac arrhythmias can be classified by the abnormalities in HEART RATE, disorders of electrical impulse generation, or impulse conduction.Vascular Resistance: The force that opposes the flow of BLOOD through a vascular bed. It is equal to the difference in BLOOD PRESSURE across the vascular bed divided by the CARDIAC OUTPUT.Regression Analysis: Procedures for finding the mathematical function which best describes the relationship between a dependent variable and one or more independent variables. In linear regression (see LINEAR MODELS) the relationship is constrained to be a straight line and LEAST-SQUARES ANALYSIS is used to determine the best fit. In logistic regression (see LOGISTIC MODELS) the dependent variable is qualitative rather than continuously variable and LIKELIHOOD FUNCTIONS are used to find the best relationship. In multiple regression, the dependent variable is considered to depend on more than a single independent variable.Risk Assessment: The qualitative or quantitative estimation of the likelihood of adverse effects that may result from exposure to specified health hazards or from the absence of beneficial influences. (Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 1988)Cardiac Catheterization: Procedures in which placement of CARDIAC CATHETERS is performed for therapeutic or diagnostic procedures.Oxprenolol: A beta-adrenergic antagonist used in the treatment of hypertension, angina pectoris, arrhythmias, and anxiety.Obesity: A status with BODY WEIGHT that is grossly above the acceptable or desirable weight, usually due to accumulation of excess FATS in the body. The standards may vary with age, sex, genetic or cultural background. In the BODY MASS INDEX, a BMI greater than 30.0 kg/m2 is considered obese, and a BMI greater than 40.0 kg/m2 is considered morbidly obese (MORBID OBESITY).Humidity: A measure of the amount of WATER VAPOR in the air.Death, Sudden, Cardiac: Unexpected rapid natural death due to cardiovascular collapse within one hour of initial symptoms. It is usually caused by the worsening of existing heart diseases. The sudden onset of symptoms, such as CHEST PAIN and CARDIAC ARRHYTHMIAS, particularly VENTRICULAR TACHYCARDIA, can lead to the loss of consciousness and cardiac arrest followed by biological death. (from Braunwald's Heart Disease: A Textbook of Cardiovascular Medicine, 7th ed., 2005)Questionnaires: Predetermined sets of questions used to collect data - clinical data, social status, occupational group, etc. The term is often applied to a self-completed survey instrument.Norepinephrine: Precursor of epinephrine that is secreted by the adrenal medulla and is a widespread central and autonomic neurotransmitter. Norepinephrine is the principal transmitter of most postganglionic sympathetic fibers and of the diffuse projection system in the brain arising from the locus ceruleus. It is also found in plants and is used pharmacologically as a sympathomimetic.Myotonic Disorders: Diseases characterized by MYOTONIA, which may be inherited or acquired. Myotonia may be restricted to certain muscles (e.g., intrinsic hand muscles) or occur as a generalized condition.Brachial Artery: The continuation of the axillary artery; it branches into the radial and ulnar arteries.Peak Expiratory Flow Rate: Measurement of the maximum rate of airflow attained during a FORCED VITAL CAPACITY determination. Common abbreviations are PEFR and PFR.Chi-Square Distribution: A distribution in which a variable is distributed like the sum of the squares of any given independent random variable, each of which has a normal distribution with mean of zero and variance of one. The chi-square test is a statistical test based on comparison of a test statistic to a chi-square distribution. The oldest of these tests are used to detect whether two or more population distributions differ from one another.Heart Ventricles: The lower right and left chambers of the heart. The right ventricle pumps venous BLOOD into the LUNGS and the left ventricle pumps oxygenated blood into the systemic arterial circulation.Tidal Volume: The volume of air inspired or expired during each normal, quiet respiratory cycle. Common abbreviations are TV or V with subscript T.Posture: The position or attitude of the body.Cardiac Output, Low: A state of subnormal or depressed cardiac output at rest or during stress. It is a characteristic of CARDIOVASCULAR DISEASES, including congenital, valvular, rheumatic, hypertensive, coronary, and cardiomyopathic. The serious form of low cardiac output is characterized by marked reduction in STROKE VOLUME, and systemic vasoconstriction resulting in cold, pale, and sometimes cyanotic extremities.Random Allocation: A process involving chance used in therapeutic trials or other research endeavor for allocating experimental subjects, human or animal, between treatment and control groups, or among treatment groups. It may also apply to experiments on inanimate objects.Swimming: An activity in which the body is propelled through water by specific movement of the arms and/or the legs. Swimming as propulsion through water by the movement of limbs, tail, or fins of animals is often studied as a form of PHYSICAL EXERTION or endurance.Atenolol: A cardioselective beta-1 adrenergic blocker possessing properties and potency similar to PROPRANOLOL, but without a negative inotropic effect.Heart Diseases: Pathological conditions involving the HEART including its structural and functional abnormalities.Heart Transplantation: The transference of a heart from one human or animal to another.Sweating: The process of exocrine secretion of the SWEAT GLANDS, including the aqueous sweat from the ECCRINE GLANDS and the complex viscous fluids of the APOCRINE GLANDS.Linear Models: Statistical models in which the value of a parameter for a given value of a factor is assumed to be equal to a + bx, where a and b are constants. The models predict a linear regression.Cohort Studies: Studies in which subsets of a defined population are identified. These groups may or may not be exposed to factors hypothesized to influence the probability of the occurrence of a particular disease or other outcome. Cohorts are defined populations which, as a whole, are followed in an attempt to determine distinguishing subgroup characteristics.Age Factors: Age as a constituent element or influence contributing to the production of a result. It may be applicable to the cause or the effect of a circumstance. It is used with human or animal concepts but should be differentiated from AGING, a physiological process, and TIME FACTORS which refers only to the passage of time.Vasodilation: The physiological widening of BLOOD VESSELS by relaxing the underlying VASCULAR SMOOTH MUSCLE.Albuterol: A short-acting beta-2 adrenergic agonist that is primarily used as a bronchodilator agent to treat ASTHMA. Albuterol is prepared as a racemic mixture of R(-) and S(+) stereoisomers. The stereospecific preparation of R(-) isomer of albuterol is referred to as levalbuterol.Artificial Limbs: Prosthetic replacements for arms, legs, and parts thereof.Sex Factors: Maleness or femaleness as a constituent element or influence contributing to the production of a result. It may be applicable to the cause or effect of a circumstance. It is used with human or animal concepts but should be differentiated from SEX CHARACTERISTICS, anatomical or physiological manifestations of sex, and from SEX DISTRIBUTION, the number of males and females in given circumstances.Respiration Disorders: Diseases of the respiratory system in general or unspecified or for a specific respiratory disease not available.Forearm: Part of the arm in humans and primates extending from the ELBOW to the WRIST.Phosphocreatine: An endogenous substance found mainly in skeletal muscle of vertebrates. It has been tried in the treatment of cardiac disorders and has been added to cardioplegic solutions. (Reynolds JEF(Ed): Martindale: The Extra Pharmacopoeia (electronic version). Micromedex, Inc, Englewood, CO, 1996)Autonomic Nervous System: The ENTERIC NERVOUS SYSTEM; PARASYMPATHETIC NERVOUS SYSTEM; and SYMPATHETIC NERVOUS SYSTEM taken together. Generally speaking, the autonomic nervous system regulates the internal environment during both peaceful activity and physical or emotional stress. Autonomic activity is controlled and integrated by the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM, especially the HYPOTHALAMUS and the SOLITARY NUCLEUS, which receive information relayed from VISCERAL AFFERENTS.Air: The mixture of gases present in the earth's atmosphere consisting of oxygen, nitrogen, carbon dioxide, and small amounts of other gases.Fatigue Syndrome, Chronic: A syndrome characterized by persistent or recurrent fatigue, diffuse musculoskeletal pain, sleep disturbances, and subjective cognitive impairment of 6 months duration or longer. Symptoms are not caused by ongoing exertion; are not relieved by rest; and result in a substantial reduction of previous levels of occupational, educational, social, or personal activities. Minor alterations of immune, neuroendocrine, and autonomic function may be associated with this syndrome. There is also considerable overlap between this condition and FIBROMYALGIA. (From Semin Neurol 1998;18(2):237-42; Ann Intern Med 1994 Dec 15;121(12): 953-9)Dietary Supplements: Products in capsule, tablet or liquid form that provide dietary ingredients, and that are intended to be taken by mouth to increase the intake of nutrients. Dietary supplements can include macronutrients, such as proteins, carbohydrates, and fats; and/or MICRONUTRIENTS, such as VITAMINS; MINERALS; and PHYTOCHEMICALS.Isometric Contraction: Muscular contractions characterized by increase in tension without change in length.Biological Markers: Measurable and quantifiable biological parameters (e.g., specific enzyme concentration, specific hormone concentration, specific gene phenotype distribution in a population, presence of biological substances) which serve as indices for health- and physiology-related assessments, such as disease risk, psychiatric disorders, environmental exposure and its effects, disease diagnosis, metabolic processes, substance abuse, pregnancy, cell line development, epidemiologic studies, etc.Asthma: A form of bronchial disorder with three distinct components: airway hyper-responsiveness (RESPIRATORY HYPERSENSITIVITY), airway INFLAMMATION, and intermittent AIRWAY OBSTRUCTION. It is characterized by spasmodic contraction of airway smooth muscle, WHEEZING, and dyspnea (DYSPNEA, PAROXYSMAL).Bronchoconstriction: Narrowing of the caliber of the BRONCHI, physiologically or as a result of pharmacological intervention.Multivariate Analysis: A set of techniques used when variation in several variables has to be studied simultaneously. In statistics, multivariate analysis is interpreted as any analytic method that allows simultaneous study of two or more dependent variables.Postoperative Period: The period following a surgical operation.Hand Strength: Force exerted when gripping or grasping.Cardiomyopathy, Dilated: A form of CARDIAC MUSCLE disease that is characterized by ventricular dilation, VENTRICULAR DYSFUNCTION, and HEART FAILURE. Risk factors include SMOKING; ALCOHOL DRINKING; HYPERTENSION; INFECTION; PREGNANCY; and mutations in the LMNA gene encoding LAMIN TYPE A, a NUCLEAR LAMINA protein.Citrate (si)-Synthase: Enzyme that catalyzes the first step of the tricarboxylic acid cycle (CITRIC ACID CYCLE). It catalyzes the reaction of oxaloacetate and acetyl CoA to form citrate and coenzyme A. This enzyme was formerly listed as EC 22.214.171.124.Insulin: A 51-amino acid pancreatic hormone that plays a major role in the regulation of glucose metabolism, directly by suppressing endogenous glucose production (GLYCOGENOLYSIS; GLUCONEOGENESIS) and indirectly by suppressing GLUCAGON secretion and LIPOLYSIS. Native insulin is a globular protein comprised of a zinc-coordinated hexamer. Each insulin monomer containing two chains, A (21 residues) and B (30 residues), linked by two disulfide bonds. Insulin is used as a drug to control insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (DIABETES MELLITUS, TYPE 1).Activities of Daily Living: The performance of the basic activities of self care, such as dressing, ambulation, or eating.Hypertension, Pulmonary: Increased VASCULAR RESISTANCE in the PULMONARY CIRCULATION, usually secondary to HEART DISEASES or LUNG DISEASES.Blood Volume: Volume of circulating BLOOD. It is the sum of the PLASMA VOLUME and ERYTHROCYTE VOLUME.Bronchodilator Agents: Agents that cause an increase in the expansion of a bronchus or bronchial tubes.
... nuclear stress test) in patients unable to undergo adequate stress testing with exercise. When given for the evaluation or ... The recommended dose is also reduced by half in patients presenting congestive heart failure, myocardial infarction, shock, ... 1992). "Safety and diagnostic accuracy of adenosine thallium-201 scintigraphy in patients unable to exercise and those with ... This feature allows physicians to use adenosine to test for blockages in the coronary arteries, by exaggerating the difference ...
High Frequency QRS
On August 2013, the AHA included HFQRS in its scientific statement on exercise standards for testing, pointing out that it has ... In the US alone, there are 17.6 million CAD patients, and the estimated annual incidence of new and recurrent myocardial ... The current first line diagnostic test, standard stress ECG, lacks the desired accuracy and often leads to further testing. ... Exercise Standards for Testing and Training A Scientific Statement From the American Heart Association. Circulation. 2013; 128 ...
Multan Institute of Cardiology
The Institute also has facilities of Cardiac CT-scan, Nuclear Cardiology, Exercise Tolerance Testing and Echocardiography. The ... 1568 patients underwent open heart surgery, 6468 patients had angiographies and 2947 patients underwent PCI. The institute ... The following tests are routinely done: Ultrasound / Color Doppler General Radiography Special Radiography Interventional ... It performs Stress SPECT & Myocardial viability scans. The Department has two Angiography labs where following procedures are ...
Outcomes Research Consortium
The number-needed-to-test to detect postoperative infarctions that would otherwise be missed is roughly 1/(9%-2%) = 14 patients ... The Vascular Events In Noncardiac Surgery Patients Cohort Evaluation (VISION) Study Investigators (2014). "Myocardial injury ... They are also an opportunity for life-style guidance, including recommendations related to smoking cessation, exercise, and ... Mascha EJ, Turan A (2012). "Joint hypothesis testing and gatekeeping procedures for studies with multiple endpoints". Anesth ...
Cardiac stress test
... such as exercise testing, stress testing treadmills, exercise tolerance test, stress test or stress test ECG. A stress test may ... and assess patient prognosis after a myocardial infarction (heart attack). The cardiac stress test is done with heart ... A cardiac stress test (also referred to as a cardiac diagnostic test, cardiopulmonary exercise test, or abbreviated CPX test) ... Preparing for the exercise stress test "A Simple Exercise Tolerance Test for Circulatory Efficiency with Standard Tables for ...
Patients who have a normal ECG and who are able to exercise, for example, do not merit routine imaging. Play media Poor ... Other tests, such as CK-MB or myoglobin, are discouraged. CK-MB is not as specific as troponins for acute myocardial injury, ... and the diagnostic accuracy of troponin testing is improving over time. One high-sensitivity cardiac troponin is able to rule ... Tests such as stress echocardiography and myocardial perfusion imaging can confirm a diagnosis when a person's history, ...
When it comes to patients, 82Rb is beneficial to use when the patient is obese or physically unable to perform a stress test. ... Myocardial tomograms, recorded at rest and after exercise in the volunteers showed homogeneous uptake in reproducible and ... compared several ion-exchange columns to be used in an automated 82Sr/82Rb generator for clinical testing. Around 1980, pre- ... Myocardial Ischemia is an inadequate blood supply to the heart. 82Rb/PET can be used to quantify the myocardial flow reserve in ...
... and functional exercise tests were also performed on a subset of patients. The attractiveness of protein therapy is that large ... In contrast, when the more objective end-point of SPECT (measuring the extent of reversible myocardial ischemia) was used in ... A decade of clinical testing both gene- and protein-based therapies designed to stimulate angiogenesis in underperfused tissues ... in studies employing treadmill exercise test readout. Thus, even though a majority of the treated patients in these trials ...
T wave alternans
Microvolt T-wave Alternans Testing for Risk Stratification of Post-Myocardial Infarction Patients) trial". J Am Coll Cardiol. ... "T-wave alternans predicts mortality in a population undergoing a clinically indicated exercise test". Eur Heart J. 28 (19): ... Patients who test negative for MTWA are less likely to require an ICD than those who test positive. In some cases, the test is ... Negative patients should be retested every 12 months as cardiac function can change over time. Patients who test MTWA positive ...
He has also studied the effects of exercise training and novel pharmaceutics on the test subject's susceptibility to fatal ... The 1,284 patient study "fully confirmed" baroreflex sensitivity as a valid predictor of sudden and non-sudden death after ... The model is described in Springer's handbook of reliable procedures for testing the potential effects of new drug candidates ... In a 1995 review article, he said resulting secondary effects include arrhythmia, coronary vasospasm, myocardial infarction, ...
followed 7,983 patients >55 years of age for a mean period of 4.6 years, and reported 194 incident myocardial infarctions ... Yet these events occur suddenly and are not revealed in advance by either stress testing, stress tests or angiograms. The ... aerobic exercise; inhibitors of cholesterol synthesis (known as statins); low normal blood glucose levels (glycosylated ... The methods most commonly relied upon, patient symptoms and cardiac stress testing, do not detect any symptoms of the problem ...
Typical duration of the test ranges ten to twenty minutes. Adults who are beginning a new exercise regimen are often advised to ... The mortality rate of patients with myocardial infarction increased from 15% to 41% if their admission heart rate was greater ... Gulati M, Shaw LJ, Thisted RA, Black HR, Bairey Merz CN, Arnsdorf MF (2010). "Heart rate response to exercise stress testing in ... Zone 1(easy exercise): 180 − 50 ± 5 → 125 − 135 bpm. Zone 4(tough exercise): 180 − 20 ± 5 → 155 − 165 bpm. Heart rate recovery[ ...
... is inhaled by the patient through a mouthpiece or mask that covers the nose and mouth. The perfusion phase of the test involves ... Exercise or dipyridamole induces widening (vasodilation) of normal coronary arteries. This produces coronary steal from areas ... and post-stress thallium may indicate areas that will benefit from myocardial revascularization. Redistribution indicates the ... Function tests. Certain tests, such as the Schilling test and urea breath test, use radioisotopes but are not used to ...
Outline of cardiology
Cardiac stress test - Testing of the cardiovascular system through controlled exercise or drugs. Auscultation - Listening to ... Myocardial infarction (a.k.a. heart attack) - A myocardial infarction is the death of a part of the heart which is typically ... TEE can require sedation or general anesthesia and the patient must be NPO. Cardiovascular magnetic resonance imaging (CMR): ... Various cardiology diagnostic tests and procedures. Blood tests Cholesterol - Current prevailing hypothesis is that LDL ...
Robert A. Bruce
It tested the feasibility, utility and reproducibility of results of symptom-limited exercise testing in ambulatory cardiac ... this physical activity was tolerated by most patients. Initial experiments involved a single-stage test, in which subjects ... In the late 1950s, he was also one of the first to suggest the possible benefit of thrombolysis in acute myocardial infarction ... Paul Yu began work on developing a treadmill exercise test. The test made extensive use of relatively new technological ...
Cardiac syndrome X
A first test to be taken is an exercise stress test which shows if the heart is not getting blood during exertion. Angiograms ... Myocardial perfusion imaging can be abnormal in 30% of patients. Coronary angiogram: Normal Other causes of chest pain must be ... Typically this will necessitate both a clinical diagnosis, appropriate stress testing, and a coronary Angiogram that meet the ... Abnormal cardiac stress test: ST changes are typically similar to those of coronary artery disease, and the opposite of those ...
... tested at point-of-service sites in rural Zimbabwe". AIDS Patient Care STDS. 23: 571-6. doi:10.1089/apc.2008.0225. PMC 2856437 ... "Dietary nitrate supplementation reduces the O2 cost of low-intensity exercise and enhances tolerance to high-intensity exercise ... "the clinical utility of salivary C-reactive protein levels in assessing coronary events such as myocardial infarction in a ... The clinical use of saliva testing occurred at least as early as 1836 in patients with bronchitis. Testing the acidity of ...
A very important method for assessing prognosis in advanced heart failure patients is cardiopulmonary exercise testing (CPX ... Blood tests. Blood tests routinely performed include electrolytes (sodium, potassium), measures of kidney function, liver ... in patients with left ventricular dysfunction after myocardial infarction". N Engl J Med. 348 (14): 1309-21. doi:10.1056/ ... Cardiopulmonary exercise testing involves measurement of exhaled oxygen and carbon dioxide during exercise. The peak oxygen ...
Premature ventricular contraction
If the premature beats go away during the exercise test then they are considered to be harmless, but if the exercise provokes ... These are often seen in patients with ventricular arrhythmias due to digoxin toxicity and reperfusion therapy after myocardial ... Evaluation for CAD may include stress testing, echocardiography, and ambulatory rhythm monitoring. As an overall medical ... Older patients are more likely to experience PVCs and this may be due to its prevalence in patients with high blood pressure ...
It used to be determined specifically in patients with chest pain but this test has been replaced by troponin. Normal values at ... Clinically, creatine kinase is assayed in blood tests as a marker of damage of CK-rich tissue such as in myocardial infarction ... Exercise increases the outflow of creatine kinase to the blood stream for up to a week, and this is the most common cause of ... Laboratory testing. CK is often determined routinely in a medical laboratory. ...
... and only on patients who are able to understand and follow instructions - thus, this test is not suitable for patients who are ... MedlinePlus Encyclopedia Lung diffusion testing *^ George, Ronald B. (2005). Chest medicine: essentials of pulmonary and ... used to determine bronchial hyperresponsiveness to either rigorous exercise, inhalation of cold/dry air, or with a ... Unstable cardiovascular status (angina, recent myocardial infarction, etc.). *Thoracic, abdominal, or cerebral aneurysms ...
Single-photon emission computed tomography
Following this, the heart rate is raised to induce myocardial stress, either by exercise on a treadmill or pharmacologically ... If a patient is examined in another type of nuclear medicine scan, but the images are non-diagnostic, it may be possible to ... MPI is one of several types of cardiac stress test. A cardiac specific radiopharmaceutical is administered, e.g., 99mTc- ... 81% sensitivity for clinical exam (cognitive testing, etc.). More recent studies have shown the accuracy of SPECT in ...
Is this patient having a myocardial infarction?". JAMA. 280 (14): 1256-63. PMID 9786377.. ... On occasion, further tests on follow up may determine the cause.. Medical testsEdit. On the basis of the above, a number of ... Patients should be admitted to the hospital for trending of troponin and provocative testing. ... Chest pain usually happens during physical activity. Syncope is a late symptom. Signs and symptoms of heart failure may also ...
Coronary artery disease
Exercise radioisotope test (nuclear stress test, myocardial scintigraphy). *Echocardiography (including stress echocardiography ... stress testing or angiography may be used to identify and treat coronary artery disease in patients who have had an NSTEMI or ... to recommend that doctors counsel patients on exercise but "it did not review the evidence for the effectiveness of physical ... Medications and exercise are roughly equally effective. High levels of physical activity reduce the risk of coronary artery ...
These tests are considered biomarkers because they are highly specific for cardiac disease. Testing for the MB form of ... This cardiac stress test involves either direct exercise, or where this is not possible, injection of a drug such as dobutamine ... myocardial infarction), or to prevent a myocardial infarction from occurring. Medications to improve angina symptoms include ... In some patients with heart failure, a specialised pacemaker known as cardiac resynchronisation therapy can be used to improve ...
A number of tests may help with diagnoses including: electrocardiogram, cardiac stress testing, coronary computed tomographic ... "Exercise as a therapeutic intervention in patients with stable ischemic heart disease: an underfilled prescription". The ... Cardiac disorders such as coronary heart disease, including myocardial infarction, heart failure, cardiomyopathy, and ... Diagnostic tests in cardiologyEdit. Main article: Diagnostic tests in cardiology. Diagnostic tests in cardiology are the ...
Other types of DTC tests require customers to mail in DNA samples for testing; it is difficult for the FDA to exercise ... acquire their patient's permission and then order the desired test. DTC genetic tests, however, allow consumers to bypass this ... and premature ischemic stroke and also of women with premature myocardial infarction; family history of early onset stroke, ... Available types of testing include: *Cell-free fetal DNA (cffDNA) testing is a non-invasive (for the fetus) test. It is ...
Exercise stress testing. Some individuals with atrial fibrillation do well with normal activity but develop shortness of ... An exercise stress test will evaluate the individual's heart rate response to exertion and determine if the AV node blocking ... Secondary AF - occurs in the setting of a primary condition that may be the cause of the AF, such as acute myocardial ... Thrall G, Lane D, Carroll D, Lip GY (2006). "Quality of life in patients with atrial fibrillation: a systematic review". Am. J ...
In Germany, about 20% of patients were self-managed while only 1% of U.S. patients did home self-testing (according to one 2012 ... Myocardial infarction. Main article: Myocardial infarction. Myocardial infarction (MI) or heart attack, is caused by ... The condition usually comes to light after vigorous exercise and usually presents in younger, otherwise healthy people. Men are ... Blood clotting tests. *Thrombotic microangiopathy. *Thromboxane. References. *^ Furie B, Furie BC (2008). "Mechanisms of ...
Significance of silent myocardial ischemia during exercise testing in patients with diabetes mellitus: a report from the...
Significance of silent myocardial ischemia during exercise testing in patients with diabetes mellitus: a report from the ... and with 429 patients without diabetes who had silent ischemia during exercise testing. All patients had documented coronary ... To evaluate the significance of ischemic ST depression without anginal chest pain during exercise testing among patients with ... These patients (group 1, silent ischemia) were compared with 37 diabetic patients with both ischemic ST depression and chest ...
Figures and Graphics: Combined Cardiopulmonary Exercise Testing and 99mTC Sestamibi Myocardial Imaging in Trained vs Untrained...
A Study to Assess Regadenoson Administration Following an Inadequate Exercise Stress Test as Compared to Regadenoson Alone for...
Subject has uncontrolled hypertension at any point on Visit 2 prior to exercise testing (i.e., systolic blood pressure (SBP) ≥ ... Assess Regadenoson Administration Following an Inadequate Exercise Stress Test as Compared to Regadenoson Alone for Myocardial ... patients who are , 30 days but less than 10 years post coronary artery bypass graft (CABG) or PCI can be included if they meet ... Subjects referred for an exercise or pharmacologic stress test SPECT MPI procedure for the evaluation of coronary artery ...
Long-term Follow-up of Patients With Positive Exercise Test Without Angina in a Referred Population | SpringerLink
... patients with CAD have ischemic ECG responses to exercise testing... ... Exercise testing has proved to be a valuable tool for identifying patients with coronary artery disease (CAD). Frequently, ... In: Rutishauser W., Roskamm H. (eds) Silent Myocardial Ischemia. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg. * DOI https://doi.org/10.1007/ ... Exercise testing has proved to be a valuable tool for identifying patients with coronary artery disease (CAD). Frequently, ...
Preoperative Evaluation of Cardiac Failure and Ischemia in Elderly Patients by Cardiopulmonary Exercise Testing
One hundred eighty-seven elderly surgical patients were evaluated for cardiac failure by car … ... Preoperative myocardial ischemia is a known risk factor. Cardiac failure is also a risk factor, but is difficult to quantify ... Preoperative myocardial ischemia is a known risk factor. Cardiac failure is also a risk factor, but is difficult to quantify ... Preoperative Evaluation of Cardiac Failure and Ischemia in Elderly Patients by Cardiopulmonary Exercise Testing Chest. 1993 Sep ...
Sex Differences in Autonomic Response to Exercise Testing in Patients with Brugada Syndrome | SpringerLink
Cardiac events in patients with Brugada syndrome (BS) typically occur at rest and mainly during sleep, suggesting that changes ... Abnormal myocardial presynaptic norepinephrine recycling in patients with Brugada syndrome. Circulation. 2004;110(19):3017-22. ... then averaged in non-overlapped windows of 1 min for each patient to compare groups at each minute of the physical stress test. ... 2018) Sex Differences in Autonomic Response to Exercise Testing in Patients with Brugada Syndrome. In: Kerkhof P., Miller V. ( ...
Nismat / Research / NISMAT Publications / 1991 Publications
Evaluation of patients for coronary artery bypass surgery: the role of exercise testing.. Coplan NL. - last modified 2013-05-16 ... Exercise-Related Atrioventricular Block: Influence of Myocardial Ischemia. Neil L. Coplan, M.D.; Monty C. Morales, M.D.; Paul ... test *Other Upper Body *Care after Shoulder Surgery *Cumulative Trauma Disorders and the Musician ... Hypertension: The Acute and Chronic Response to Exercise. Monty C. Morales, MD, Neil L. Coplan, MD, Paul Zabetakis, MD, and ...
Prediction of cardiovascular events in clinically selected high-risk NIDDM patients. Prognostic value of exercise stress test...
Inability to exercise and large perfusion defects on thallium-201 scan are major predictors of future death and myocardial ... This question is for testing whether or not you are a human visitor and to prevent automated spam submissions. ... of patients able to exercise versus 8.8% of patients unable to exercise (odds ratio = 6.8, P = 0.001). Among patients unable to ... Prediction of cardiovascular events in clinically selected high-risk NIDDM patients. Prognostic value of exercise stress test ...
High Exercise Capacity Attenuates the Risk of Early Mortality After a First Myocardial Infarction : The Henry Ford Exercise...
... mean time from the exercise test to MI, 6.1±4.3 years). Exercise capacity was categorized on the basis of peak metabolic ... Patients and Methods:. This retrospective cohort study included 2061 patients without a history of MI (mean age, 62±12 years; ... The Henry Ford Exercise Testing (FIT) Project. ... High Exercise Capacity Attenuates the Risk of Early Mortality ... To examine the effect of objectively measured exercise capacity (EC) on early mortality (EM) after a first myocardial ...
Predictors of exercise induced myocardial ischemia in patients with isolated coronary artery ectasia.
We have prospectively analysed coronary angiograms of 1521 consecutive patients undergoing cardiac catheteri ... The aim of this study was to investigate the angiographic predictors of exercise induced ischemia in patients with isolated ... Exercise induced ischemia was observed in 24 patients (52%). Exercise test was abnormal in 70% of the patients with diffuse ... 3055066 - Exercise testing: uses and limitations considering recent studies.. 10958276 - Sustained reduction of exercise ...
Relationship of diastolic intraventricular pressure gradients and aerobic capacity in patients with diastolic heart failure |...
Metabolic stress testing.. All patients with heart failure underwent a graded treadmill exercise test using the modified ... Myocardial relaxation is an important determinant of exercise aerobic capacity. In heart failure patients, impaired myocardial ... Metabolic variables after exercise.. As expected, patients with heart failure achieved a lower V̇o2 max compared with normal ... McKelvie RS, Teo KK, McCartney N, Humen D, Montague T, and Yusuf S. Effects of exercise training in patients with congestive ...
Cholinergic stimulation with pyridostigmine protects against exercise induced myocardial ischaemia | Heart
Patients: 15 patients with exercise induced myocardial ischaemia.. Interventions: Maximal cardiopulmonary exercise test on a ... Exercise testing is a useful tool to evaluate patients with coronary artery disease both to investigate the occurrence of ... Black circles, patients without exercise induced angina; white circles, patients with exercise induced angina; grey circles, ... of myocardial ischaemia during dynamic exercise in patients with coronary artery disease and exercise induced myocardial ...
Treadmill Stress Testing Technique: Stress Testing by Treadmill
Pharmacologic stress testing, established after exercise testing, is a diagnostic procedure in which cardiovascular stress ... induced by pharmacologic agents is demonstrated in patients with decreas... ... Exercise testing is a cardiovascular stress test that uses treadmill bicycle exercise with electrocardiography (ECG) and blood ... Myocardial strain may predict exercise tolerance in patients with reduced and mid-range ejection fraction. Hellenic J Cardiol. ...
Ventricular tachycardia due to cardiac ischaemia: assessment by exercise electrocardiography | The BMJ
Exercise tolerance was increased in all three patients who underwent exercise tests after operation, and in two of these ... Six patients with old myocardial infarction had ventricular tachycardia at rest which required conversion to sinus rhythm; 17 ... Exercise testing is needed to show this arrhythmia and to enable treatment to be started. ... In five patients coronary artery bypass surgery was performed because of angina and exercise-induced ventricular tachycardia. ...
The diagnostic value of exercise stress testing for cardiovascular disease is more than just st segment changes: A review
... of patients without CAD who have a negative test Positive predictive test= TP/ (TP + FP) = % of patients with a positive test ... value of myocardial perfusion SPECT images in combination with the maximal heart rate at exercise testing in Japanese patients ... of patients without CAD who have a negative test Positive predictive test= TP/ (TP + FP) = % of patients with a positive test ... Acute cardiovascular response to aerobic exercise used in an exercise stress test. EST incorporates acute aerobic exercise, ...
Asymptomatic - definition of asymptomatic by The Free Dictionary
OF POSITIVE EXERCISE TOLERANCE TEST FOR SILENT MYOCARDIAL ISCHEMIA IN ASYMPTOMATIC UNCOMPLICATED TYPE 2 DIABETIC PATIENTS ... all 86 specimens subsequently tested negative by rRT-PCR.. Establishing a timeline to discontinue routine testing of ... Among 277 asymptomatic pregnant women tested, 86 (31%) tested anti-Zika IgM-positive or equivocal; ... Canadas University of Waterloo in Ontario found that nearly three in five asymptomatic patients who came in for a sight test ...
Fire Fighter Fatality Investigation Report F2006-23 | NIOSH | CDC
... exercise stress tests, and myocardial imaging. Results of these tests will direct the need for coronary angiography and/or ... Long-term management of patients with Kawasaki disease includes low-dose aspirin therapy.5,8 Patients with cardiac ... Combi-tube placement was verified by auscultating bilateral breath sounds and end tidal carbon dioxide testing. The Trainee was ... Exercise equipment (strength and aerobic) is available at the Fire Academy, and trainees are urged to exercise while off-duty. ...
Cardio Flashcards by Alyssa Shapiro | Brainscape
Brief period of myocardial ischemia resulting in prolonged myocardial dysfunction with gradual return ... Patient does better with rest. This is all exertional related. Highly unlikely that you will lose your legs (again, unless ... Indication: cant exercise, pacemaker, aortic aneurysm, abnormal EKG, poorly controlled HTN, COPD ... Na/K pump to enter myocytes for viability testing. *Technetium *Stress testing and eval of LV function ...
In the August, 2008 issue of Clinics
They proposed that a heart rate increase in optimized beta-blocked heart failure patients during cardiopulmonary exercise test ... their first acute myocardial infarction. A total of 153 patients were allotted to conventional (n=75) or transdisciplianry (n= ... describe the testing of a practical protocol to measure common carotid intima-media thickness that uses the combined values of ... a treadmill cardiopulmonary exercise test. They found that no patient in the heart failure group reached the maximum heart rate ...
Ribogen Mg | Ribogen and magnesium | AOR Inc. Canada
... during exercise testing) increased significantly in the ribose-treated subjects. The authors concluded: "In patients with CAD, ... Scientists put this hypothesis to the test in 2006 when 41 patients diagnosed with FMS and/or CFS were given 15 grams of D- ... The presumed effects on cardiac energy metabolism offer new possibilities for adjunctive medical treatment of myocardial ... D-Ribose and Exercise. D-Ribose also has benefits for healthy people who are in need of extra energy. A double blind, placebo- ...
Frontiers | A New Detection Method Defining the Aerobic Threshold for Endurance Exercise and Training Prescription Based on...
In conclusion, it appears that reaching a DFA a1 value of .75 on an incremental treadmill test is closely associated with ... In addition, comparison of VT1 GAS and HRVT showed no differences by t testing, also supporting the method validity. ... Strong linear relationships were seen between test modalities, with Pearsons r values of 0.99 (p p 2 and HR comparisons, ... Strong linear relationships were seen between test modalities, with Pearsons r values of .99 (p , .001) and .97 (p , .001) for ...
Prognostic value of myocardial perfusion-gated SPECT in patients with ischemic cardiomyopathy<...
The purpose of our study was to analyze rest and exercise myocardial perfusion-gated SPECT variables for prognosis in patients ... performed in 111 patients, did not significantly modify the prognostic value of non-invasive testing. Conclusion: Myocardial ... keywords = "Gated SPECT, Ischemic cardiomyopathy, Prognosis, Stress test",. author = "Jaume Candell-Riera and Guillermo Romero- ... The purpose of our study was to analyze rest and exercise myocardial perfusion-gated SPECT variables for prognosis in patients ...
FUEL: Udenafil improves certain exercise performance after Fontan palliation in adolescents
... although it did significantly improve exercise performance at the ventilatory anaerobic threshold, according to data from the ... Udenafil in adolescents after Fontan surgery did not significantly improve oxygen consumption at peak exercise, ... Key secondary endpoints included myocardial performance index, exercise measures at ventilatory anaerobic threshold, brain ... There was a decline among patients assigned udenafil or placebo in VO2 indexed to body weight during a 6-month period, although ...
Debt-to-income ratio | definition of Debt-to-income ratio by Medical dictionary
MPI is frequently used to assess patients with coronary artery disease, often in conjunction with exercise tolerance tests. A ... Metal may become damaged during testing; therefore, health care providers must establish whether the patient has magnetizable ... myocardial perfusion imaging. Abbreviation: MPI. The use of radioactive isotopes, such as 201Tl or 99mTc sestamibi, to gauge ... Patient care. During imaging, the patient lies on a flat surface that is moved inside a tube encompassed by a magnet (the bore ...
Index - Български Кардиологичен Институт
ECG stress test - ECG examinations are tests where a patient is tested on a veloergometer or treadmill with gradual resistance ... Chest pain - when present during physical exercise but relieves with rest, usually a symptom of stable angina pectoris - one of ... This leads to an insufficiently oxygen-rich blood supply to the heart and increases the risk of myocardial infarction. The ... Diagnostics and testing. *. Patient Testimonials. * For physicians *. We are your reliable partner ...
Isle of Wight NHS Trust - Cardiology
... ambulatory ECG and exercise stress testing, with access to invasive investigations such as diagnostic coronary angiography at ... A Heart Failure Specialist Nurse provides out-patient support to patients with known heart failure, after referral from either ... please follow self-isolation guidance and arrange a test. If your symptoms are serious, or get worse, contact NHS 111. ... provides for emergency transfer to Queen Alexandras Hospital for primary angioplasty treatment of acute myocardial infarction ...
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The exercise stress test would be performed on the first day as usual, and, if the results are abnormal, the patient would ... with Tc-99m and N-13 ammonia used for exercise stress testing, which is the preferred initial step in evaluating patients with ... "For any reason we have to use Tc-99m myocardial perfusion SPECT imaging, we use weight-based dosing and will typically perform ... As it turned out, 42 patients (56%) had normal rest/test results compared with 32 patients (43%) with abnormal findings. One ...
Diagnosis and treatment
... the diagnosis of variant angina is infrequently considered in patients with angina. Read here how to diagnose and evaluate. ... Exercise ECG stress testing is typically negative but during the hot phase, exercise-induced spasm may occur in half of the ... The angina did not occur with exertion and exercise - stress tests were typically negative. During pain, ST segment elevation ... The angina episodes often recurred at the same time, frequently awaking the patient from sleep. The episodes may be associated ...
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Our Services | Central Florida Heart Center
For the comfort and safety of our patients, both exercise and pharmacologic (Adenosine/Dobutamine) nuclear stress testing is ... Nuclear Stress Testing. The Nuclear Cardiology laboratory at CFHC is fully accredited by the ICANL in both Myocardial Perfusion ... At CFHC, all stress tests are performed under the supervision of the patients cardiologist. In addition, licensed nuclear ... This procedure is often useful for patients that have symptoms of leg pain (at rest or exercise), leg swelling, etc. ...
... particularly in the flexibility exercise and balance exercise. In the functional performance tests, stroke patients who ... Testing a model of post-stroke exercise behavior. Rehabil Nurs 2006;31(1):15-21. 80.Shepard KF. Understanding and Influencing ... Functional walk tests in individuals with stroke: relation to perceived exertion and myocardial exertion. Stroke 2002;33(3):756 ... address the patient, advise the patient, assist the patient, arrange follow-up and assess adherence) Behavior Intervention ...
Annals of Cardiac Anaesthesia
The preferred stress test is the exercise electrocardiogram (ECG). Stress imaging with exercise or pharmacologic stress agents ... how to select a patient for further preoperative testing, (3) currently available noninvasive cardiac testing for the detection ... Perioperative hypotension and myocardial ischemia: Diagnostic and therapeutic approaches. Amrik Singh, Joseph F Antognini. May- ... During laryngoscopy, esmolol was used in 4 patients, while lignocaine was used in remaining 7 patients. Of 11 patients, 7 ...
Shyam G Menon - Page 3 - Outrigger
I felt something wasnt good and decided to go for testing. On Monday, the test result showed that I was COVID-19 positive, ... in symptomatic COVID-19 patients, the recommended tests before a return to active lifestyle may include Cardiac MRI, 2D Echo, ... STUDY SHOWS RISE IN FREQUENCY OF EXERCISE DURING LOCKDOWN * 2020 BOSTON MARATHON / SOME RECONCILE TO A REAL RACE IN DUE COURSE ... Exercising intensely may increase the risk of viral replication along with increased risk of myocardial involvement. Also, deep ...
Angina Pectoris Anti Anginals (Angina Pectoris Medication) Symptomps
Myocardial perfusion scanning- This may be helpful in the evaluation of patients with an equivocal or uninterpretable exercise ... Exercise ECG - An exercise tolerance test (ETT) is usually performed using a standard treadmill or bicycle ergometer while ... Exercise testing is also a useful means of assessing the severity of coronary disease and identifying high-risk individuals. ... It entails obtaining small pictures of the myocardium at rest and during stress (either exercise testing or pharmacological ...
Reduced fitness and abnormal cardiopulmonary responses to maximal exercise testing in children and young adults with sickle...
Prognostic predictors for survival in patients with COPD using cardiopulmonary exercise testing. (opens in new tab) ... The effect of test modality on dynamic exercise biomarkers in children, adolescents, and young adults. ... Left atrial dysfunction in sickle cell anemia is associated with diffuse myocardial fibrosis, increased right ventricular ... Exercise capacity and mortality among men referred for exercise testing. Mar 15, 2002·The New England Journal of Medicine· ...
Exaggerated blood pressure response to dynamic exercise despite chronic refractory hypotension: Results of a human case study<...
keywords = "Adult, Autonomic Nervous System Diseases, Blood Pressure, Exercise, Exercise Test, Exercise Therapy, Female, Fluid ... The haemodynamic response to dynamic exercise in such patients has not been previously investigated. We present a case with ... We present a case with severe chronic hypotension who underwent exercise testing before and after renal transplantation, with ... Transthoracic echocardiography, tonometric measure of central vascular compliance and myocardial perfusion scan were normal. ...
Liraglutide to Improve corONary haemodynamics during Exercise streSS (LIONESS): a double-blind randomised placebo-controlled...
... did not enhance exercise tolerance or haemodynamics compared with saline placebo during serial treadmill testing in patients ... and an abnormal baseline exercise tolerance test (ETT) demonstrating , 0.1 mV of planar or downsloping ST-segment depression ( ... activation may improve myocardial performance in the context of ischaemia, independent of glycaemic control, in individuals ... Co-primary endpoints were rate pressure product (RPP) at 0.1 mV STD and magnitude of STD at peak exercise. Twenty-two patients ...
section 3 (answers) - GP-Training.net
Patient summary. 57-year-old male with. * Acute myocardial infarction. * Type 2 Diabetes mellitus ... 07 MRS - Problem definition 2: "hypothesis testing" (the diagnostic process). *08 MRS - Problem definition 3: Coping with ... Risk factor advice about smoking cessation, exercise, diet, weight and diabetes. * Give low dose aspirin ... Test Yourself. Menu Toggle. *Alcoholic Mum. *CHD*4 year old. *4 year old (answers) ...
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Cardiopulmonary Exercise Testing as a Screening Test for Perioperative Management of Major Surgery in the Elderly ... Cardiopulmonary exercise testing: a review of methods and applications in surgical patients. ... Exercise-induced myocardial ischaemia detected. by cardiopulmonary exercise testing. Am J Respir Crit Care Med 2003;168:425-430 ... Addition of inspiratory muscle training to aerobic training improves cardiorespiratory responses to exercise in patients with ...
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Lippke S, Ziegelmann JP, Schwarzer R. Stage-specific adoption and maintenance of physical activity: testing a three-stage model ... and physical activity after myocardial infarction. Soc Sci Med 2006 Feb;62(4):900-908. [CrossRef] [Medline] ... despite the significant results of the chi-square test . Although the chi-square test is often used to evaluate models, ... Boettcher J, Renneberg B, Berger T. Patient expectations in internet-based self-help for social anxiety. Cogn Behav Ther 2013; ...
Exercise Stress Test, Synchronized Cardioversion, Defibrillation, Defibrillation Equipment, Event Monitor, Holter Monitor, ... Head-Up Tilt-Table Testing, Automated External Defibrillator, Left Ventricular Assist Device, Emergency Pericardiocentesis, ... Patients should address specific medical concerns with their physicians.. Although access to this page is not restricted, the ... Head-Up Tilt-Table Testing. *Electrocardiogram (also see Electrocardiogram Chapter)*Internal Cardiac Defibrillator ...
Hector Hernández | PubFacts
... patients developed elevated IOP compared with 9 of the 198 (4.5%) unoperated fellow eyes (P < 0.0001, Fisher exact test; odds ... Tensile testing of the anterolateral LV wall was performed using a displacement-controlled biaxial load frame, and modulus was ... Adverse remodeling of the left ventricle (LV) after myocardial infarction (MI) results in abnormal tissue biomechanics and ... and increased her level of physical activity for 4-10 days after these treatment sessions. This case illustrates the potential ...
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Diagnostic Cardiology | CentraCare
Myocardial Perfusion Test With Exercise Stress (Outpatient) * Renal Artery Ultrasound * Stress Echo Test ... Patient-Focused Care We will provide information and education for you before testing to make sure you are fully prepared. We ... Featured Patient Story. Bryant Bs Story Diagnostic Cardiology Patient Story "Running a half marathon is challenging. Running ... We know you want your test results as soon as possible. With our flexible scheduling, you will be able to come in for the test ...
Single Photon EmiRevascularizationUnderwentSilent myocardial ischemiaRisk StratificationIschemic heart dAbnormalitiesCONCLUSIONSCardiovascularDetermine whether myocardialElectrocardiographyAbnormalChest painUndergoSPECTIschemia in patientsAngiographyMortalityCardiologyCongenitalCoronary arteryImagingCirculation0.001ContrastValvularPrognosisDefined as the maximalIndicationsAsymptomaticPerfusion defectAtrioventricular BlockToleranceCardiac events
Single Photon Emi3
- The purpose of this study is to demonstrate that the strength of agreement between single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) imaging with regadenoson following inadequate exercise stress testing and SPECT imaging with regadenoson alone is not inferior to the strength of agreement between two sequential regadenoson SPECT images without exercise. (clinicaltrials.gov)
- Prognostic value of exercise stress test and thallium-201 single-photon emission computed tomography. (diabetesjournals.org)
- A 17 segment model has become the standard for interpreting myocardial perfusion single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT). (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
- Would coronary revascularization improve the long-term prognosis from a cardiac standpoint and protect the patient from adverse events during the necessary noncardiac surgery? (slideserve.com)
- The aim of this study was to determine the potential added value of guiding revascularization by quantitative assessment of myocardial perfusion prior to intervention.Methods and ResultsThirty-three patients (10 females) with suspected or established CAD who had been referred for a clinical coronary angiography (CA) with possibility for PCI were included. (medworm.com)
- An open-label randomized trial comparing a strategy based on exercise testing aimed at revascularization with management based on pharmacological/behavioural treatment of traditional risk factors. (biomedcentral.com)
- This study documents that patients who undergo CCTA frequently undergo additional cardiac testing, particularly cardiac catheterization, and subsequent coronary revascularization with PCI or CABG surgery, the authors wrote. (cardiovascularbusiness.com)
- Our results are consistent with the view that findings from CCTA, compared with those from stress tests, can more frequently trigger the cascade of further testing culminating in revascularization. (cardiovascularbusiness.com)
- The guidelines state that most patients should have a trial of guideline-directed medical therapy (GDMT) before considering revascularization to improve symptoms. (acc.org)
- Exercise tolerance was increased in all three patients who underwent exercise tests after operation, and in two of these patients, both of whom were known to have patent grafts, ventricular tachycardia was abolished. (bmj.com)
- At the beginning and after a cycle of trainings, each patient underwent exercise stress test (EST) and was scored on their ATT and AAL based on the Psychological Effects of Rehabilitation Score Scale (PERSS) according to Tylka and Makowska . (thefreedictionary.com)
- All patients were admitted to the hospital and underwent negative evaluations for ACS, defined as the absence of diagnostic changes on serial electrocardiograms or cardiac markers (creatine kinase-MB and troponin T), and a negative diagnostic cardiac study. (mendeley.com)
- All underwent gated SPECT myocardial perfusion scintigraphy with technetium-99m-labeled methoxyisobutyl isonitrile, using a two-day stress-rest protocol, including evaluation of intraventricular synchrony by phase analysis. (scielosp.org)
- Of those who took the test, 12% subsequently underwent bypass grafts surgery compared with 14% of those who did not (p greater than .05). (ahajournals.org)
- Medicare patients who underwent coronary CT angiography (CCTA) for an initial diagnostic evaluation of suspected coronary artery disease (CAD) were more likely to undergo subsequent invasive procedures and accrue more costs than patients given stress tests, researchers reported in the Nov. 16 issue of the Journal of the American Medical Association . (cardiovascularbusiness.com)
- Total spending for CCTA was $4,200 higher than MPS, and CAD-related spending was almost 40 percent higher for patients who underwent CCTA. (cardiovascularbusiness.com)
- In the first study, the two approaches were compared in more than 1700 individuals who underwent coronary tomographic angiography (CTA) to verify the presence of coronary artery disease but for whom a range of non-invasive and imaging tests were available. (medscape.com)
- All patients underwent a cardiopulmonary exercise bicycle test using an individualised ramp protocol. (ovid.com)
Silent myocardial ischemia3
- Significance of silent myocardial ischemia during exercise testing in patients with diabetes mellitus: a report from the Coronary Artery Surgery St. (nih.gov)
- Significance of silent myocardial ischemia during exercise testing in patients with diabetes mellitus: a report from the Coronary Artery Surgery Study (CASS) Registry. (nih.gov)
- In: Rutishauser W., Roskamm H. (eds) Silent Myocardial Ischemia. (springer.com)
- This study may be indicated for the preoperative risk stratification prior to high-risk noncardiac surgery, if the results of the study will impact on the perioperative management of the patient. (renalandurologynews.com)
- Risk stratification of patients with chest pain occurs daily by physicians in the primary care setting. (springer.com)
- Risk stratification in patients with chest pain. (springer.com)
- Know the indications for, risks and limitations of, and contraindications to exercise stress testing for diagnosis and risk stratification in patients with known or suspected ischemic heart disease. (acc.org)
Ischemic heart d3
- No differences were found in ventricular function, although stress-minus-rest left ventricular ejection fraction was slightly lower in patients with ischemic heart disease (−1.29, SD 5.8) than in patients without ischemic heart disease (1.27, SD 4.31). (scielosp.org)
- In approximately 50% of patients, angina is the initial manifestation of stable ischemic heart disease (SIHD). (acc.org)
- Comprehensive guidelines released by the ACCF/AHA Task Force on Practice Guidelines provide a framework to optimally diagnose and manage patients with stable ischemic heart disease (SIHD). (acc.org)
- Although most of the focus for performing an EST traditionally has been on the diagnostic value to identify ST-segment abnormalities, an EST provides other valuable diagnostic and prognostic data including maximal oxygen consumption (predicted or measured), exercise capacity and fatigability, blood pressure and heart rate responses to exercise and recovery. (oatext.com)
- Selected lower risk patients may be candidates for this study as well, particularly if they cannot exercise or if the ECG is not interpretable (left bundle branch block, ventricular pacing, severe baseline ST segment abnormalities), since pharmacologic stress is required in these cases, and necessarily must be performed in conjunction with cardiac imaging. (renalandurologynews.com)
- Conclusions Patients with unoperated congenitally corrected TGA have a high prevalence of myocardial perfusion defects, with consequent abnormalities of regional wall motion and thickening, and impaired ventricular contractility. (bmj.com)
- 8 9 In these patients, however, the effects of systemic arterial hypoxaemia for the first three to 12 months of life and of cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) are not known and may contribute to the observed abnormalities on perfusion imaging. (bmj.com)
- The final population included 7127 patients with a normal first EE, defined as the absence of regional contraction abnormalities at rest and on exercise. (revespcardiol.org)
- 4 The ECG was considered nonassessable in patients with baseline ST abnormalities, left bundle branch block, digoxin treatment, or Wolff-Parkinson-White syndrome. (revespcardiol.org)
- Myocardial perfusion abnormalities are the first sign of the ischemic cascade in the development of coronary artery disease (CAD). (bioportfolio.com)
- Thus, the early detection of myocardial perfusion abnormalities is si. (bioportfolio.com)
- While stress-induced imaging abnormalities in this population demonstrate additional prognostic value in some, but not all, studies, absolute event rates were consistently low (even in subjects with abnormal tests) and the sensitivity was too low to justify cost-effective use of these tests for screening. (renalandurologynews.com)
- Know the influence of baseline ECG abnormalities and medications on the ECG response to exercise. (acc.org)
- A special exercise-ECG system monitors heart rhythm during exercise and assesses other exercise-related ECG abnormalities. (childrenshospital.org)
- Conclusions In the present study, cutoff values of FFR myo and translesional pressure gradients are established from the relation between intracoronary pressure-derived indexes and ECG signs of myocardial ischemia during maximal exercise. (ahajournals.org)
- CONCLUSIONS: Long-term cardiac morbidity of patients after a negative ACS evaluation may be higher than previously thought. (mendeley.com)
- Because the sample size was modest ( n = 186 patients), however, and the follow-up period was short (18 months) and subject to diagnostic suspicion bias, the ability to draw conclusions on death and second MI are limited. (acpjc.org)
- Conclusions - Our study found no evidence to suggest significant differences in either yield of obstructive CAD or downstream major adverse cardiac events in patients undergoing an initial noninvasive testing strategy with stress or anatomical imaging compared with those undergoing an initial exercise stress test. (ices.on.ca)
- Multivariable logistic regression models were used to assess the effect of EC on the risk of mortality at each time point post-MI adjusting for baseline demographic characteristics, cardiovascular risk factors, medication use, indication for stress testing, and year of MI. (ovid.com)
- Prediction of cardiovascular events in clinically selected high-risk NIDDM patients. (diabetesjournals.org)
- Finally we analyze the components of an EST and potential sensitivities, significances and predictability of the changes in the outcome data that will provide diagnosis overt cardiovascular disease, and for purposes of exercise prescription and evaluation of rehabilitation effects in cardiac patients. (oatext.com)
- This review identifies the most recent standards, and guidelines of EST, which include the acute physiological response of the cardiovascular system to aerobic exercise, the use of EST in evaluation of coronary artery disease, an updated diagnostic and prognostic variables of EST, and reporting of EST. (oatext.com)
- The American College of Cardiology (ACC), American Heart Association (AHA), American College of Sports Medicine (ACSM) and the American Society of Nuclear Cardiology all recommend an EST for diagnosing patients who are at risk for obtaining cardiovascular disease (CAD). (oatext.com)
- 193 patients (20.8%) were diagnosed with other cardiovascular-related conditions and 622 patients (67.2%) had non-cardiac-related chest pain. (mja.com.au)
- In addition to being an established tool for diagnosis and prognosis of coronary artery disease (CAD), exercise stress test also provide vital information about cardiovascular physiology including blood pressure and heart rate (HR) responses. (thefreedictionary.com)
- Epidemiology, etiology, pathophysiology and staging -- Anemia in chronic kidney disease -- Renal osteodystrophy -- Cardiovascular disease -- Hyperlipidemia -- Nutrition -- Management of the patient with progressive renal failure -- Drug dosing in patients with CKD -- Part IV. (stanford.edu)
- Know the role of exercise ECG testing in the evaluation of genetic cardiovascular conditions (e.g., long QT syndrome and hypertrophic cardiomyopathy). (acc.org)
- Know the roles of exercise testing in physical activity counseling and exercise prescription in patients with cardiovascular disease. (acc.org)
- Skill to utilize data from exercise testing in developing an exercise prescription for patients with cardiovascular disease. (acc.org)
- Current therapies for ED are safe and effective in the majority of patients with or without cardiovascular disease, although sildenafil is always contraindicated in patients taking nitrate-containing medications. (aafp.org)
- Patients in the intermediate risk group require cardiovascular assessment to determine whether they should be reassigned to the low-risk or high-risk category. (aafp.org)
- Management of sexual dysfunction in patients with cardiovascular disease: recommendations of the Princeton Consensus Panel. (aafp.org)
- This study examined effort tolerance, cardiac structure and function in 60 patients with CKD (stages 2 to 5) without known cardiovascular disease or diabetes. (ovid.com)
- 8 - 22 ) Since its inception in 1993 the Duke Cardiovascular Databank has used a 12-segment model for assessing myocardial perfusion. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
- All patients in this study were part of the Duke nuclear cardiology database and were also followed in the Duke Cardiovascular Databank. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
Determine whether myocardial1
- Management of patients with chest discomfort is not straightforward when the discomfort has resolved and normal results are obtained on physical examination, electrocardiography (ECG) and measurement of baseline cardiac troponin levels. (mja.com.au)
- 3 The guidelines recommended that low-risk patients be assessed using serial cardiac biomarkers and electrocardiography. (mja.com.au)
- The largest group is the intermediate-risk cohort, who require serial testing of biomarkers and electrocardiography. (mja.com.au)
- Stress Electrocardiography vs Radionuclide Myocardial Perfusion Imaging among Patients Admitted for Chest Pain: Comparison of Teaching and Nonteaching Hospital Services. (bioportfolio.com)
- Electrocardiography (also called EKG or ECG) is a test used to record electrical activity in the heart. (childrensdayton.org)
- Abnormal myocardial presynaptic norepinephrine recycling in patients with Brugada syndrome. (springer.com)
- 60 (P = 0.02), an abnormal rest electrocardiogram (P = 0.02), microalbuminuria (P = 0.001), the inability to exercise (P = 0.009), and the presence of more than two defects on scintigraphy (P = 0.001). (diabetesjournals.org)
- Exercise test was abnormal in 70% of the patients with diffuse ectasia and 26% of patients with segmental ectasia (p = 0.003). (biomedsearch.com)
- ST-segment depressions at peak exercise (considered abnormal when ≥0.1 mV) were compared with FFR myo , ΔP max , and ΔP rest . (ahajournals.org)
- Thirty-seven patients had an abnormal and 23 patients a normal exercise ECG. (ahajournals.org)
- Sensitivity and specificity curves were constructed for the prediction of an abnormal exercise ECG for the three pressure-derived indexes. (ahajournals.org)
- The values that most accurately predicted an abnormal exercise ECG were 66% for FFR myo , 31 mm Hg for ΔP max , and 12 mm Hg for ΔP rest . (ahajournals.org)
- 72% showed an abnormal exercise ECG. (ahajournals.org)
- Exercise testing should be performed at facilities with trained personnel with knowledge of the indications, contraindications, risks, and complications of exercise stress testing, including the normal and abnormal hemodynamic and electrocardiographic responses to exercise, and certification to perform cardiopulmonary resuscitation. (renalandurologynews.com)
- Know the normal and abnormal heart rate, rhythm, and blood pressure responses to graded exercise and recovery. (acc.org)
- Patients with congenital cardiac defects are also evaluated with cardiac catheterization to visualize the abnormal direction of blood flow associated with these diseases. (encyclopedia.com)
- To evaluate the significance of ischemic ST depression without anginal chest pain during exercise testing among patients with diabetes mellitus, the data on 45 such patients from the Coronary Artery Surgery Study registry were analyzed. (nih.gov)
- These patients (group 1, silent ischemia) were compared with 37 diabetic patients with both ischemic ST depression and chest pain (group 2, symptomatic ischemia), with 31 diabetic patients without ischemic ST depression or chest pain (group 3, no ischemia), and with 429 patients without diabetes who had silent ischemia during exercise testing. (nih.gov)
- The occurrence of ischemic chest pain consistent with angina is important, particularly if it forces termination of the test. (medscape.com)
- 630 consecutive patients who presented to the emergency department of a metropolitan tertiary care hospital between January 2000 and June 2001 with chest pain and intermediate-risk features. (mja.com.au)
- 409 patients (65%) were reclassified as low risk and discharged at a mean of 14 hours after assessment in the chest pain unit. (mja.com.au)
- Subjects were consecutive patients who presented to the emergency department of the hospital between January 2000 and June 2001 and were managed with the accelerated chest pain assessment protocol (ACPAP). (mja.com.au)
- Patients presenting with chest pain represent a large group of adult emergency department (ED) presentations. (mja.com.au)
- The final diagnoses and 1-year outcomes of patients presenting to the ED with chest pain have also not been described. (mja.com.au)
- Adverse cardiac events in emergency department patients with chest pain six months after a negative inpatient evaluation for acute coronary syndrome. (mendeley.com)
- OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the impact of the diagnostic test setting-inpatient versus outpatient-on adverse cardiac events (ACEs) after six months in emergency department (ED) patients with chest pain who were admitted to the hospital and subsequently had a negative evaluation for acute coronary syndrome (ACS). (mendeley.com)
- METHODS: The authors retrospectively studied a consecutive sample of ED patients with chest pain over a nine-month period. (mendeley.com)
- All patients had angina assessment by the Rose questionnaire (exercise-induced chest pain that resolved on stopping or slowing down). (acpjc.org)
- When patients present in the office with recent or new-onset chest pain, the physician must determine the appropriate evaluation. (springer.com)
- Finally, how does one manage the patient in the emergency department with chest pain? (springer.com)
- Second, these tools are discussed as they are applied to stratifying patients with chest pain. (springer.com)
- The final section presents multiple case studies illustrating the use of these tools in the approach to the patient with chest pain. (springer.com)
- PARIS - An artificial intelligence decision support system (AI DSS) to help decide which diagnostic tests to perform in individuals with stable chest pain (SCP) could lead to substantial reductions in healthcare costs versus standard human-led care, suggests research presented as two posters at the ESC Congress 2019 . (medscape.com)
- "We have this patient with chest pain" 66 year old with a background of DM type 2, hypertension and a 40 pack yr smoking hx. (slideserve.com)
- Complicating the situation is the fact that nearly 6 million patients arrive annually in US emergency departments for evaluation of chest pain, at an estimated cost of more than $3 billion annually. (acc.org)
- This approach has been investigated recently as a means of helping sort out which patients presenting to an emergency department with chest pain are safe to treat and then discharge as opposed to treat urgently and then admit. (acc.org)
- Cardiac catheterization may also be performed on patients presenting to the emergency department with chest pain or chest injuries. (encyclopedia.com)
- Patients undergo exercise stress using standard treadmill protocols (e.g. (renalandurologynews.com)
- AbstractBackgroundMany patients undergo percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) without the use of non-invasive stress testing prior to treatment. (medworm.com)
- Half of the patients will be randomized to undergo an exercise tolerance testing while the other group will continue to be regularly seen at diabetes outpatients services. (biomedcentral.com)
- On Day 1 participants received regadenoson, 0.4 mg in a 5 mL intravenous bolus, 3 minutes after exercise while in walk recovery and then a stress SPECT MPI. (clinicaltrials.gov)
- On Day 1 participants received regadenoson, 0.4 mg in a 5 mL intravenous bolus (1 hour after exercise recovery), and then stress SPECT MPI. (clinicaltrials.gov)
- SPECT scans were reviewed in a blinded fashion by 3 independent expert readers using the 17-segment model for standardized myocardial segmentation. (clinicaltrials.gov)
- Assess the value of stress-rest protocol gated-SPECT for identifying patients with symptomatic heart failure likely to suffer adverse cardiac events. (scielosp.org)
- Information on myocardial perfusion, functional capacity and intraventricular synchrony obtained from stress-rest gated SPECT may help identify patients with symptomatic heart failure who are likely to develop adverse cardiac events, enabling better management of higher-risk cases and improved allocation of resources. (scielosp.org)
- Myocardial SPECT perfusion imaging has been shown to provide important prognostic information in patients with known or suspected coronary artery disease. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
- 1 - 5 ) Throughout the development of myocardial perfusion SPECT stress testing, multiple ventricular segmentation models have been used for assessing myocardial perfusion. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
- Within the last few years a 17-segment model has become the recommended standard for multiple cardiac imaging modalities and has been accepted by the ACC and ASNC for assessment of SPECT myocardial perfusion imaging. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
Ischemia in patients2
- Coronary angiography remains the cornerstone of diagnosis in patients with coronary artery disease. (ahajournals.org)
- 4 5 6 However, in the majority of patients undergoing angiography or coronary angioplasty, diffuse disease is present. (ahajournals.org)
- Because angiography is offered routinely to patients after MI in many institutions, such a conclusion could reduce unnecessary costs. (acpjc.org)
- Studies of the efficacy of radionucleotide imaging combined with anginal history in defining the need for coronary angiography in patients after MI might be more fruitful for future research because of their higher sensitivity and specificity for multiple-vessel disease in other settings ( 3 ). (acpjc.org)
- Those patients with a positive exercise tolerance testing will be studied by coronary angiography and treated according to the severity of coronary lesions by percutaneous stenting or surgery. (biomedcentral.com)
- Jacqueline B. Shreibati, MD, of the Stanford School of Medicine in Stanford, Calif., and colleagues noted that as a diagnostic test, CCTA has been shown to be highly sensitive in detecting coronary stenosis compared with coronary angiography, with the advantage of being noninvasive. (cardiovascularbusiness.com)
- They found that, compared to blanket CTA, the AI DSS would have chosen follow-up with no tests for the majority of individuals with a low or intermediate pretest likelihood of coronary artery disease, and reserved invasive coronary angiography (ICA) for only those few people with a high pretest likelihood. (medscape.com)
- The relationship between the initial testing strategy and obstructive CAD on invasive angiography was examined. (ices.on.ca)
- Furthermore, there was no significant difference in downstream major adverse cardiac events after invasive angiography among the 4 initial testing strategies after adjusting for clinically relevant covariates. (ices.on.ca)
- If the performance of an exercise tolerance test would be too risky, an angiography or other medically acceptable imaging demonstrating coronary artery disease. (disabilitysecrets.com)
- The overall mortality in these patients was 7.5 percent. (nih.gov)
- A low AT associated with preoperative ischemia resulted in the death of 8 of 19 patients, a mortality rate of 42 percent. (nih.gov)
- You elect to perform transmyocardial revascularisation to the circumflex territory, prior to placing the grafts, but you resolve to review the literature to check that you have not unnecessarily increased the risk of mortality for this patient, and that this additional procedure might improve the chances or resolving your patient's angina. (bestbets.org)
- Increased PRD can be used as a predictor of mortality in survivors of acute MI and patients undergoing exercise testing. (jci.org)
- Excluding seven patients who died before the test could be considered, there was a 14% 1 year cardiac mortality in 192 patients who did not take the test (150 for medical and 42 for logistic reasons) compared with 5% in those who did (p less than .0001). (ahajournals.org)
- Achievement of a blood pressure of 110 mm Hg or higher during exercise in patients with no evidence of pulmonary congestion on the chest x-ray identified a group of 454 patients (70% of those taking the test) with a 1 year cardiac mortality of 1% compared with 13% in the remaining patients (p less than .0001). (ahajournals.org)
- Bariatric surgery is the most effective treatment for morbidly obese patients, reducing risk of developing new comorbidities, health care utilization and mortality. (scielo.br)
- Coronary artery disease is the leading cause of morbidity and mortality in patients with type 2 diabetes. (biomedcentral.com)
- A low VO2peak and percent predicted VO2 at the anaerobic threshold (VO2 AT) have also been associated with excess mortality in patients undergoing kidney transplantation. (ovid.com)
- The American College of Cardiology (ACC)/American Heart Association (AHA) guidelines also specify indications for termination of exercise testing. (medscape.com)
- The most detailed criteria available to select patients for this procedure are the "Appropriate Use Criteria for Cardiac Radionuclide Imaging" that is published by the American College of Cardiology and other cardiology or imaging societies. (renalandurologynews.com)
- The American Heart Association/American College of Cardiology guidelines recommend a selective pharmacoinvasive strategy in non-high risk patients [ 3 ]. (omicsonline.org)
- Dayton Children's offers the following cardiology tests. (childrensdayton.org)
- The effect of the conversion algorithm on prognostic data derived from the 12 segment model was evaluated in 25,876 patients from the Duke Nuclear Cardiology Database, including a sample of 3,205 patients with known covariates for adjusted analysis. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
- As of 2000, however, the American Heart Association (AHA) and the American College of Cardiology (ACC) issued a joint statement denying approval of the use of separate cardiac catheterization laboratories that are not part of a hospital, on the grounds that a small number of patients having the procedure on an outpatient basis will have unexpected reactions or complications. (encyclopedia.com)
- Diller GP (2005) Exercise intolerance in adult congenital heart disease: comparative severity, correlates, and prognostic implication. (springermedizin.de)
- A study led by Boston Children's found that most children with serious congenital heart defects can, in fact, benefit from regular exercise. (childrenshospital.org)
- All patients had documented coronary artery disease (CAD) (greater than 70% diameter narrowing). (nih.gov)
- The survival of the 45 patients with diabetes mellitus and silent ischemia (group 1) treated medically was compared with that of 28 patients receiving coronary artery graft bypass surgery. (nih.gov)
- Exercise testing has proved to be a valuable tool for identifying patients with coronary artery disease (CAD). (springer.com)
- 1981) Prognosis of medically treated patients with coronary artery disease with profound ST-segment depression during exercise testing. (springer.com)
- Evaluation of patients for coronary artery bypass surgery: the role of exercise testing. (nismat.org)
- To determine the acute effects of pyridostigmine bromide, a reversible cholinesterase inhibitor, during exercise in patients with coronary artery disease. (bmj.com)
- However, the effects of pyridostigmine in patients with coronary artery disease are largely unknown. (bmj.com)
- BestBets: Is transmyocardial myocardial revascularisation of benefit in addition to coronary artery bypass grafting for patients with diffuse coronary disease? (bestbets.org)
- There is no strong evidence on the link between inflammatory profile and pattern of drug treatment response in depressive patients that could result in Coronary Artery Disease occurrence. (scielo.br)
- In patients with untreated Kawasaki disease or with residual coronary aneurysms, sudden death has resulted from AMI caused by ruptured coronary artery aneurysms or thromboses. (medscape.com)
- For patients undergoing the Jatene arterial switch procedure, the presence of an intramural coronary artery course in patients with D-TGA may prohibit arterial repair. (medscape.com)
- The most common anomaly (4% of patients) is the origin of the left anterior descending (LAD) coronary artery from the right coronary artery (RCA), which then courses across the pulmonary outflow tract. (medscape.com)
- Computer assisted diagnosis in the noninvasive evaluation of patients with suspected coronary artery disease. (springer.com)
- Comparison of treadmill scores with physician estimates of diagnosis and prognosis in patients with coronary artery disease. (springer.com)
- A multivariate approach for interpreting treadmill exercise tests in coronary artery disease. (springer.com)
- Paradoxical increase in microvascular resistance during tachycardia downstream from a severe stenosis in patients with coronary artery disease: reversal by angioplasty. (springer.com)
- Eligibility criteria for selecting studies Diagnostic randomised controlled trials comparing non-invasive diagnostic modalities in patients presenting with symptoms suggestive of low risk acute coronary syndrome or stable coronary artery disease. (bmj.com)
- Data synthesis A random effects network meta-analysis synthesised available evidence from trials evaluating the effect of non-invasive diagnostic modalities on downstream testing and patient oriented outcomes in patients with suspected coronary artery disease. (bmj.com)
- Results 18 trials of patients with low risk acute coronary syndrome (n=11 329) and 12 trials of those with suspected stable coronary artery disease (n=22 062) were included. (bmj.com)
- Myocardial bridging of the left anterior descending coronary artery is associated with reduced myocardial perfusion reserve: a N-ammonia PET study. (bioportfolio.com)
- Myocardial Bridging (MB) refers to the band of myocardium that abnormally overlies a segment of a coronary artery. (bioportfolio.com)
- Screening asymptomatic patients with diabetes for unknown coronary artery disease: Does it reduce risk? (biomedcentral.com)
- In the present study a cohort of diabetic patients without any symptoms and without known coronary artery disease will be screened at two diabetes outpatients services. (biomedcentral.com)
- If it had been followed, the AI DSS could have led to potential reductions in lifetime costs compared with standard human evaluation for all possible diagnostic test permutations, regardless of the patients' pretest likelihood of coronary artery disease. (medscape.com)
- Coronary artery bypass graft (CABG) surgery continues to be performed for patients with coronary artery disease (CAD), especially those with symptomaticmulti-vessel disease and diabetes. (springer.com)
- Angioplasty or surgery for multivessel coronary artery disease: comparison of eligible registry and randomized patients in the EAST trial and influence of treatment selection on outcomes. (springer.com)
- Generally, sexual activity is similar to mild-to-moderate intensity exercise for most people with or without coronary artery disease with heart rates rarely exceeding 130 beats per minute and systolic blood pressure rarely greater than 170 mm Hg. (aafp.org)
- Background - The optimal initial noninvasive diagnostic testing strategy for stable coronary artery disease (CAD) is unknown. (ices.on.ca)
- This is the first study to examine exercise capacity in patients with early stage CKD in whom coronary artery disease has been excluded, and further study is needed to confirm whether the reduction in exercise capacity is a reflection of diastolic impairment and myocardial fibrosis that characterise end-stage kidney disease. (ovid.com)
- For patients with a low-to-intermediate pretest probability of obstructive IHD, the guidelines indicate that noncontrast cardiac CT can be considered to determine the individual's coronary artery calcium score. (acc.org)
- Patients who have coronary artery problems may have this test to see if blood flow to any part of the heart is impaired. (childrenshospital.org)
- The preferred pharmacologic stressors for myocardial perfusion imaging are the coronary vasodilators dipyridamole, adenosine, and regadenoson. (renalandurologynews.com)
- Cardiac magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is a painless imaging test that uses radio waves, magnets and computer software to create detailed pictures of the heart. (childrensdayton.org)
- Habitual exercise was not associated with V O 2max in subjects with a Fontan as compared to biventricular circulation. (springermedizin.de)
- Further research is necessary to understand why their habitual exercise is ineffective and/or what aspects of the Fontan circulation disrupt this association. (springermedizin.de)
- The 6-year survival among patients with silent ischemia was worse in diabetic than nondiabetic patients (59 vs 82%, respectively, p less than 0.001). (nih.gov)
- A cardiac death occurred in 1.3% of patients able to exercise versus 8.8% of patients unable to exercise (odds ratio = 6.8, P = 0.001). (diabetesjournals.org)
- 0.001) and was the strongest predictor of exercise capacity. (physiology.org)
- By contrast, the 6-year survival among patients without ischemia was similar among diabetic and nondiabetic patients (93 vs 85%, respectively, p = 0.476). (nih.gov)
- In Fontan subjects, both univariate and multivariate analysis failed to demonstrate a significant association between habitual exercise and V O 2max ( p = 0.6), in sharp contrast to cardiac normal subjects. (springermedizin.de)
- Of 17 225 patients undergoing treadmill EE, those with positive findings, cardiomyopathy, moderate or severe valvular disease, or age younger than 18 years were excluded. (revespcardiol.org)
- Know the use of, precautions for, and contraindications to exercise testing in patients with valvular and myocardial diseases. (acc.org)
- Catheterization is also recommended for patients with suspected valvular disease, including aortic stenosis (narrowing) or regurgitation, and mitral stenosis or regurgitation. (encyclopedia.com)
- Relatively few studies [1-have dealt with the long-term prognosis of these patients, and it is still not clear whether the absence of anginal symptoms is of prognostic importance or not. (springer.com)
- Know the exercise capacity, ECG and hemodynamic findings indicating a strongly positive test or adverse prognosis. (acc.org)
Defined as the maximal2
- It is defined as the maximal myocardial perfusion during hyperemia in the presence of a stenosis in the epicardial artery expressed as a fraction of its normal maximal expected value. (ahajournals.org)
- Perhaps the best measure of exercise capacity is maximum oxygen consumption (VO 2max ), defined as the maximal amount of oxygen a subject can take in from inspired air during dynamic exercise and an estimator of cardiac output. (renalandurologynews.com)
- This information includes formal indications and contraindications for bariatric operations, description of usual bariatric and metabolic operations as well as endoscopic treatments, preoperative assessments including psychological, metabolic and cardiorespiratory evaluation and postoperative dietary staged meal progression and nutritional supplementation follow-up with micronutrient deficiencies monitoring, surgical complications, suspension of medications in type 2 diabetic patients, dumping syndrome and hypoglycemia. (scielo.br)
- Know the indications and criteria for stopping a test before the target heart rate is reached. (acc.org)
- Know the indications for selection of exercise versus pharmacologic testing. (acc.org)
- 1974) Epidemiologic study of asymptomatic men screened by maximal treadmill testing for latent coronary aretery disease. (springer.com)
- Based on the results, asymptomatic patients presented same-sex tendencies. (springer.com)
- This sub-analysis compared characteristics between symptomatic and asymptomatic patients in Western Europe. (thefreedictionary.com)
- Researchers at Canada's University of Waterloo in Ontario found that nearly three in five asymptomatic patients who came in for a sight test required at least one significant change to their vision correction or eye health management. (thefreedictionary.com)
- 3%) of 2,425 asymptomatic pregnant women who were tested had confirmed Zika virus infection. (thefreedictionary.com)
- Routine exercise testing is not currently recommended for detection of CHD in asymptomatic adults, although guidelines do allow for exercise testing in individuals with risk factors prior to starting a vigorous exercise program other than walking and in individuals in certain high-risk occupations. (renalandurologynews.com)
- We sought to elucidate the relationship between diastolic intraventricular pressure gradients (IVPG) and exercise tolerance in patients with heart failure using color M-mode Doppler. (physiology.org)
- Driscoll DJ, Danielson GK, Puga FJ et al (1986) Exercise tolerance and cardiorespiratory response to exercise after the Fontan operation for tricuspid atresia or functional single ventricle. (springermedizin.de)
- Cardiac events in patients with Brugada syndrome (BS) typically occur at rest and mainly during sleep, suggesting that changes in autonomic modulation play an important role in the arrhythmogenesis of the disease. (springer.com)
- Another 110 patients (17%) were reclassified as high risk, and 21 (19%) of these had cardiac events (mainly revascularisations) by six months. (mja.com.au)
- Patients were then followed from their angiogram onward to determine whether they developed a composite endpoint of major adverse cardiac events. (ices.on.ca)
- Exercise testing is extremely safe and can help identify which patients are at higher risk for having future cardiac events. (childrenshospital.org)