Visual Acuity: Clarity or sharpness of OCULAR VISION or the ability of the eye to see fine details. Visual acuity depends on the functions of RETINA, neuronal transmission, and the interpretative ability of the brain. Normal visual acuity is expressed as 20/20 indicating that one can see at 20 feet what should normally be seen at that distance. Visual acuity can also be influenced by brightness, color, and contrast.Vision Tests: A series of tests used to assess various functions of the eyes.Vision Disorders: Visual impairments limiting one or more of the basic functions of the eye: visual acuity, dark adaptation, color vision, or peripheral vision. These may result from EYE DISEASES; OPTIC NERVE DISEASES; VISUAL PATHWAY diseases; OCCIPITAL LOBE diseases; OCULAR MOTILITY DISORDERS; and other conditions (From Newell, Ophthalmology: Principles and Concepts, 7th ed, p132).Evoked Potentials, Visual: The electric response evoked in the cerebral cortex by visual stimulation or stimulation of the visual pathways.Visual Fields: The total area or space visible in a person's peripheral vision with the eye looking straightforward.Visual Cortex: Area of the OCCIPITAL LOBE concerned with the processing of visual information relayed via VISUAL PATHWAYS.Visual Perception: The selecting and organizing of visual stimuli based on the individual's past experience.Amblyopia: A nonspecific term referring to impaired vision. Major subcategories include stimulus deprivation-induced amblyopia and toxic amblyopia. Stimulus deprivation-induced amblyopia is a developmental disorder of the visual cortex. A discrepancy between visual information received by the visual cortex from each eye results in abnormal cortical development. STRABISMUS and REFRACTIVE ERRORS may cause this condition. Toxic amblyopia is a disorder of the OPTIC NERVE which is associated with ALCOHOLISM, tobacco SMOKING, and other toxins and as an adverse effect of the use of some medications.Visual Pathways: Set of cell bodies and nerve fibers conducting impulses from the eyes to the cerebral cortex. It includes the RETINA; OPTIC NERVE; optic tract; and geniculocalcarine tract.Eyeglasses: A pair of ophthalmic lenses in a frame or mounting which is supported by the nose and ears. The purpose is to aid or improve vision. It does not include goggles or nonprescription sun glasses for which EYE PROTECTIVE DEVICES is available.Cataract Extraction: The removal of a cataractous CRYSTALLINE LENS from the eye.Refractive Errors: Deviations from the average or standard indices of refraction of the eye through its dioptric or refractive apparatus.Vision, Low: Vision considered to be inferior to normal vision as represented by accepted standards of acuity, field of vision, or motility. Low vision generally refers to visual disorders that are caused by diseases that cannot be corrected by refraction (e.g., MACULAR DEGENERATION; RETINITIS PIGMENTOSA; DIABETIC RETINOPATHY, etc.).Fluorescein Angiography: Visualization of a vascular system after intravenous injection of a fluorescein solution. The images may be photographed or televised. It is used especially in studying the retinal and uveal vasculature.Cataract: Partial or complete opacity on or in the lens or capsule of one or both eyes, impairing vision or causing blindness. The many kinds of cataract are classified by their morphology (size, shape, location) or etiology (cause and time of occurrence). (Dorland, 27th ed)Vitrectomy: Removal of the whole or part of the vitreous body in treating endophthalmitis, diabetic retinopathy, retinal detachment, intraocular foreign bodies, and some types of glaucoma.Macular Edema: Fluid accumulation in the outer layer of the MACULA LUTEA that results from intraocular or systemic insults. It may develop in a diffuse pattern where the macula appears thickened or it may acquire the characteristic petaloid appearance referred to as cystoid macular edema. Although macular edema may be associated with various underlying conditions, it is most commonly seen following intraocular surgery, venous occlusive disease, DIABETIC RETINOPATHY, and posterior segment inflammatory disease. (From Survey of Ophthalmology 2004; 49(5) 470-90)Contrast Sensitivity: The ability to detect sharp boundaries (stimuli) and to detect slight changes in luminance at regions without distinct contours. Psychophysical measurements of this visual function are used to evaluate visual acuity and to detect eye disease.Vision, Ocular: The process in which light signals are transformed by the PHOTORECEPTOR CELLS into electrical signals which can then be transmitted to the brain.Vision Screening: Application of tests and examinations to identify visual defects or vision disorders occurring in specific populations, as in school children, the elderly, etc. It is differentiated from VISION TESTS, which are given to evaluate/measure individual visual performance not related to a specific population.Blindness: The inability to see or the loss or absence of perception of visual stimuli. This condition may be the result of EYE DISEASES; OPTIC NERVE DISEASES; OPTIC CHIASM diseases; or BRAIN DISEASES affecting the VISUAL PATHWAYS or OCCIPITAL LOBE.Tomography, Optical Coherence: An imaging method using LASERS that is used for mapping subsurface structure. When a reflective site in the sample is at the same optical path length (coherence) as the reference mirror, the detector observes interference fringes.Refraction, Ocular: Refraction of LIGHT effected by the media of the EYE.Macula Lutea: An oval area in the retina, 3 to 5 mm in diameter, usually located temporal to the posterior pole of the eye and slightly below the level of the optic disk. It is characterized by the presence of a yellow pigment diffusely permeating the inner layers, contains the fovea centralis in its center, and provides the best phototropic visual acuity. It is devoid of retinal blood vessels, except in its periphery, and receives nourishment from the choriocapillaris of the choroid. (From Cline et al., Dictionary of Visual Science, 4th ed)Visually Impaired Persons: Persons with loss of vision such that there is an impact on activities of daily living.Fovea Centralis: An area approximately 1.5 millimeters in diameter within the macula lutea where the retina thins out greatly because of the oblique shifting of all layers except the pigment epithelium layer. It includes the sloping walls of the fovea (clivus) and contains a few rods in its periphery. In its center (foveola) are the cones most adapted to yield high visual acuity, each cone being connected to only one ganglion cell. (Cline et al., Dictionary of Visual Science, 4th ed)Visual Field Tests: Method of measuring and mapping the scope of vision, from central to peripheral of each eye.Fundus Oculi: The concave interior of the eye, consisting of the retina, the choroid, the sclera, the optic disk, and blood vessels, seen by means of the ophthalmoscope. (Cline et al., Dictionary of Visual Science, 4th ed)Macular Degeneration: Degenerative changes in the RETINA usually of older adults which results in a loss of vision in the center of the visual field (the MACULA LUTEA) because of damage to the retina. It occurs in dry and wet forms.Strabismus: Misalignment of the visual axes of the eyes. In comitant strabismus the degree of ocular misalignment does not vary with the direction of gaze. In noncomitant strabismus the degree of misalignment varies depending on direction of gaze or which eye is fixating on the target. (Miller, Walsh & Hoyt's Clinical Neuro-Ophthalmology, 4th ed, p641)Pattern Recognition, Visual: Mental process to visually perceive a critical number of facts (the pattern), such as characters, shapes, displays, or designs.Astigmatism: Unequal curvature of the refractive surfaces of the eye. Thus a point source of light cannot be brought to a point focus on the retina but is spread over a more or less diffuse area. This results from the radius of curvature in one plane being longer or shorter than the radius at right angles to it. (Dorland, 27th ed)Lens Implantation, Intraocular: Insertion of an artificial lens to replace the natural CRYSTALLINE LENS after CATARACT EXTRACTION or to supplement the natural lens which is left in place.Eye Injuries: Damage or trauma inflicted to the eye by external means. The concept includes both surface injuries and intraocular injuries.Retinal Detachment: Separation of the inner layers of the retina (neural retina) from the pigment epithelium. Retinal detachment occurs more commonly in men than in women, in eyes with degenerative myopia, in aging and in aphakia. It may occur after an uncomplicated cataract extraction, but it is seen more often if vitreous humor has been lost during surgery. (Dorland, 27th ed; Newell, Ophthalmology: Principles and Concepts, 7th ed, p310-12).Photic Stimulation: Investigative technique commonly used during ELECTROENCEPHALOGRAPHY in which a series of bright light flashes or visual patterns are used to elicit brain activity.Eye Diseases: Diseases affecting the eye.Intravitreal Injections: The administration of substances into the VITREOUS BODY of the eye with a hypodermic syringe.Laser Coagulation: The use of green light-producing LASERS to stop bleeding. The green light is selectively absorbed by HEMOGLOBIN, thus triggering BLOOD COAGULATION.Vision, Binocular: The blending of separate images seen by each eye into one composite image.Anisometropia: A condition of an inequality of refractive power of the two eyes.Myopia: A refractive error in which rays of light entering the EYE parallel to the optic axis are brought to a focus in front of the RETINA when accommodation (ACCOMMODATION, OCULAR) is relaxed. This results from an overly curved CORNEA or from the eyeball being too long from front to back. It is also called nearsightedness.Phacoemulsification: A procedure for removal of the crystalline lens in cataract surgery in which an anterior capsulectomy is performed by means of a needle inserted through a small incision at the temporal limbus, allowing the lens contents to fall through the dilated pupil into the anterior chamber where they are broken up by the use of ultrasound and aspirated out of the eye through the incision. (Cline, et al., Dictionary of Visual Science, 4th ed & In Focus 1993;1(1):1)Sensory Deprivation: The absence or restriction of the usual external sensory stimuli to which the individual responds.Lenses, Intraocular: Artificial implanted lenses.Retina: The ten-layered nervous tissue membrane of the eye. It is continuous with the OPTIC NERVE and receives images of external objects and transmits visual impulses to the brain. Its outer surface is in contact with the CHOROID and the inner surface with the VITREOUS BODY. The outer-most layer is pigmented, whereas the inner nine layers are transparent.Diabetic Retinopathy: Disease of the RETINA as a complication of DIABETES MELLITUS. It is characterized by the progressive microvascular complications, such as ANEURYSM, interretinal EDEMA, and intraocular PATHOLOGIC NEOVASCULARIZATION.Retinal DiseasesElectroretinography: Recording of electric potentials in the retina after stimulation by light.Glare: Relatively bright light, or the dazzling sensation of relatively bright light, which produces unpleasantness or discomfort, or which interferes with optimal VISION, OCULAR. (Cline et al., Dictionary of Visual Science, 4th ed)Keratoconus: A noninflammatory, usually bilateral protrusion of the cornea, the apex being displaced downward and nasally. It occurs most commonly in females at about puberty. The cause is unknown but hereditary factors may play a role. The -conus refers to the cone shape of the corneal protrusion. (From Dorland, 27th ed)Epiretinal Membrane: A membrane on the vitreal surface of the retina resulting from the proliferation of one or more of three retinal elements: (1) fibrous astrocytes; (2) fibrocytes; and (3) retinal pigment epithelial cells. Localized epiretinal membranes may occur at the posterior pole of the eye without clinical signs or may cause marked loss of vision as a result of covering, distorting, or detaching the fovea centralis. Epiretinal membranes may cause vascular leakage and secondary retinal edema. In younger individuals some membranes appear to be developmental in origin and occur in otherwise normal eyes. The majority occur in association with retinal holes, ocular concussions, retinal inflammation, or after ocular surgery. (Newell, Ophthalmology: Principles and Concepts, 7th ed, p291)Retinal Perforations: Perforations through the whole thickness of the retina including the macula as the result of inflammation, trauma, degeneration, etc. The concept includes retinal breaks, tears, dialyses, and holes.Eye Injuries, Penetrating: Deeply perforating or puncturing type intraocular injuries.Corneal Topography: The measurement of curvature and shape of the anterior surface of the cornea using techniques such as keratometry, keratoscopy, photokeratoscopy, profile photography, computer-assisted image processing and videokeratography. This measurement is often applied in the fitting of contact lenses and in diagnosing corneal diseases or corneal changes including keratoconus, which occur after keratotomy and keratoplasty.Vitreous Body: The transparent, semigelatinous substance that fills the cavity behind the CRYSTALLINE LENS of the EYE and in front of the RETINA. It is contained in a thin hyaloid membrane and forms about four fifths of the optic globe.Vision, Monocular: Images seen by one eye.Retinal Vein Occlusion: Blockage of the RETINAL VEIN. Those at high risk for this condition include patients with HYPERTENSION; DIABETES MELLITUS; ATHEROSCLEROSIS; and other CARDIOVASCULAR DISEASES.Sensory Thresholds: The minimum amount of stimulus energy necessary to elicit a sensory response.Choroidal Neovascularization: A pathological process consisting of the formation of new blood vessels in the CHOROID.Nystagmus, Congenital: Nystagmus present at birth or caused by lesions sustained in utero or at the time of birth. It is usually pendular, and is associated with ALBINISM and conditions characterized by early loss of central vision. Inheritance patterns may be X-linked, autosomal dominant, or recessive. (Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p275)Nystagmus, Pathologic: Involuntary movements of the eye that are divided into two types, jerk and pendular. Jerk nystagmus has a slow phase in one direction followed by a corrective fast phase in the opposite direction, and is usually caused by central or peripheral vestibular dysfunction. Pendular nystagmus features oscillations that are of equal velocity in both directions and this condition is often associated with visual loss early in life. (Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p272)Corneal Diseases: Diseases of the cornea.Scotoma: A localized defect in the visual field bordered by an area of normal vision. This occurs with a variety of EYE DISEASES (e.g., RETINAL DISEASES and GLAUCOMA); OPTIC NERVE DISEASES, and other conditions.Triamcinolone Acetonide: An esterified form of TRIAMCINOLONE. It is an anti-inflammatory glucocorticoid used topically in the treatment of various skin disorders. Intralesional, intramuscular, and intra-articular injections are also administered under certain conditions.Follow-Up Studies: Studies in which individuals or populations are followed to assess the outcome of exposures, procedures, or effects of a characteristic, e.g., occurrence of disease.Treatment Outcome: Evaluation undertaken to assess the results or consequences of management and procedures used in combating disease in order to determine the efficacy, effectiveness, safety, and practicability of these interventions in individual cases or series.Contact Lenses: Lenses designed to be worn on the front surface of the eyeball. (UMDNS, 1999)Color Vision Defects: Defects of color vision are mainly hereditary traits but can be secondary to acquired or developmental abnormalities in the CONES (RETINA). Severity of hereditary defects of color vision depends on the degree of mutation of the ROD OPSINS genes (on X CHROMOSOME and CHROMOSOME 3) that code the photopigments for red, green and blue.Keratoplasty, Penetrating: Partial or total replacement of all layers of a central portion of the cornea.Keratomileusis, Laser In Situ: A surgical procedure to correct MYOPIA by CORNEAL STROMA subtraction. It involves the use of a microkeratome to make a lamellar dissection of the CORNEA creating a flap with intact CORNEAL EPITHELIUM. After the flap is lifted, the underlying midstroma is reshaped with an EXCIMER LASER and the flap is returned to its original position.Retinitis Pigmentosa: Hereditary, progressive degeneration of the neuroepithelium of the retina characterized by night blindness and progressive contraction of the visual field.Ophthalmologic Surgical Procedures: Surgery performed on the eye or any of its parts.Retrospective Studies: Studies used to test etiologic hypotheses in which inferences about an exposure to putative causal factors are derived from data relating to characteristics of persons under study or to events or experiences in their past. The essential feature is that some of the persons under study have the disease or outcome of interest and their characteristics are compared with those of unaffected persons.Pupil: The aperture in the iris through which light passes.Glaucoma: An ocular disease, occurring in many forms, having as its primary characteristics an unstable or a sustained increase in the intraocular pressure which the eye cannot withstand without damage to its structure or impairment of its function. The consequences of the increased pressure may be manifested in a variety of symptoms, depending upon type and severity, such as excavation of the optic disk, hardness of the eyeball, corneal anesthesia, reduced visual acuity, seeing of colored halos around lights, disturbed dark adaptation, visual field defects, and headaches. (Dictionary of Visual Science, 4th ed)Mydriatics: Agents that dilate the pupil. They may be either sympathomimetics or parasympatholytics.Fixation, Ocular: The positioning and accommodation of eyes that allows the image to be brought into place on the FOVEA CENTRALIS of each eye.Ophthalmology: A surgical specialty concerned with the structure and function of the eye and the medical and surgical treatment of its defects and diseases.Lasers, Excimer: Gas lasers with excited dimers (i.e., excimers) as the active medium. The most commonly used are rare gas monohalides (e.g., argon fluoride, xenon chloride). Their principal emission wavelengths are in the ultraviolet range and depend on the monohalide used (e.g., 193 nm for ArF, 308 nm for Xe Cl). These lasers are operated in pulsed and Q-switched modes and used in photoablative decomposition involving actual removal of tissue. (UMDNS, 2005)Ophthalmoscopy: Examination of the interior of the eye with an ophthalmoscope.Vitreous Hemorrhage: Hemorrhage into the VITREOUS BODY.Eye Movements: Voluntary or reflex-controlled movements of the eye.Hyperopia: A refractive error in which rays of light entering the eye parallel to the optic axis are brought to a focus behind the retina, as a result of the eyeball being too short from front to back. It is also called farsightedness because the near point is more distant than it is in emmetropia with an equal amplitude of accommodation. (Dorland, 27th ed)Presbyopia: The normal decreasing elasticity of the crystalline lens that leads to loss of accommodation.Space Perception: The awareness of the spatial properties of objects; includes physical space.Depth Perception: Perception of three-dimensionality.Photorefractive Keratectomy: A type of refractive surgery of the CORNEA to correct MYOPIA and ASTIGMATISM. An EXCIMER LASER is used directly on the surface of the EYE to remove some of the CORNEAL EPITHELIUM thus reshaping the anterior curvature of the cornea.Psychophysics: The science dealing with the correlation of the physical characteristics of a stimulus, e.g., frequency or intensity, with the response to the stimulus, in order to assess the psychologic factors involved in the relationship.Injections, Intraocular: The administration of substances into the eye with a hypodermic syringe.Prospective Studies: Observation of a population for a sufficient number of persons over a sufficient number of years to generate incidence or mortality rates subsequent to the selection of the study group.Nystagmus, Optokinetic: Normal nystagmus produced by looking at objects moving across the field of vision.Scleral Buckling: An operation for retinal detachment which reduces the size of the globe by indenting the sclera so that it approximates the retina.Aberrometry: The use of an aberrometer to measure eye tissue imperfections or abnormalities based on the way light passes through the eye which affects the ability of the eye to focus properly.Corneal Opacity: Disorder occurring in the central or peripheral area of the cornea. The usual degree of transparency becomes relatively opaque.Endophthalmitis: Suppurative inflammation of the tissues of the internal structures of the eye frequently associated with an infection.Retinoscopy: An objective determination of the refractive state of the eye (NEARSIGHTEDNESS; FARSIGHTEDNESS; ASTIGMATISM). By using a RETINOSCOPE, the amount of correction and the power of lens needed can be determined.Pseudophakia: Presence of an intraocular lens after cataract extraction.Optic Atrophy: Atrophy of the optic disk which may be congenital or acquired. This condition indicates a deficiency in the number of nerve fibers which arise in the RETINA and converge to form the OPTIC DISK; OPTIC NERVE; OPTIC CHIASM; and optic tracts. GLAUCOMA; ISCHEMIA; inflammation, a chronic elevation of intracranial pressure, toxins, optic nerve compression, and inherited conditions (see OPTIC ATROPHIES, HEREDITARY) are relatively common causes of this condition.Retinal Hemorrhage: Bleeding from the vessels of the retina.Cornea: The transparent anterior portion of the fibrous coat of the eye consisting of five layers: stratified squamous CORNEAL EPITHELIUM; BOWMAN MEMBRANE; CORNEAL STROMA; DESCEMET MEMBRANE; and mesenchymal CORNEAL ENDOTHELIUM. It serves as the first refracting medium of the eye. It is structurally continuous with the SCLERA, avascular, receiving its nourishment by permeation through spaces between the lamellae, and is innervated by the ophthalmic division of the TRIGEMINAL NERVE via the ciliary nerves and those of the surrounding conjunctiva which together form plexuses. (Cline et al., Dictionary of Visual Science, 4th ed)Injections: Introduction of substances into the body using a needle and syringe.Corneal Wavefront Aberration: Asymmetries in the topography and refractive index of the corneal surface that affect visual acuity.Descemet Stripping Endothelial Keratoplasty: A surgical procedure or KERATOPLASTY involving selective stripping and replacement of diseased host DESCEMET MEMBRANE and CORNEAL ENDOTHELIUM with a suitable and healthy donor posterior lamella. The advantage to this procedure is that the normal corneal surface of the recipient is retained, thereby avoiding corneal surface incisions and sutures.Wet Macular Degeneration: A form of RETINAL DEGENERATION in which abnormal CHOROIDAL NEOVASCULARIZATION occurs under the RETINA and MACULA LUTEA, causing bleeding and leaking of fluid. This leads to bulging and or lifting of the macula and the distortion or destruction of central vision.Form Perception: The sensory discrimination of a pattern shape or outline.Distance Perception: The act of knowing or the recognition of a distance by recollective thought, or by means of a sensory process which is under the influence of set and of prior experience.Uveitis: Inflammation of part or all of the uvea, the middle (vascular) tunic of the eye, and commonly involving the other tunics (sclera and cornea, and the retina). (Dorland, 27th ed)Motion Perception: The real or apparent movement of objects through the visual field.Choroid Diseases: Disorders of the choroid including hereditary choroidal diseases, neoplasms, and other abnormalities of the vascular layer of the uvea.Retinal Photoreceptor Cell Inner Segment: The inner portion of a retinal rod or a cone photoreceptor cell, situated between the PHOTORECEPTOR CONNECTING CILIUM and the synapse with the adjacent neurons (RETINAL BIPOLAR CELLS; RETINAL HORIZONTAL CELLS). The inner segment contains the cell body, the nucleus, the mitochondria, and apparatus for protein synthesis.Optic Neuritis: Inflammation of the optic nerve. Commonly associated conditions include autoimmune disorders such as MULTIPLE SCLEROSIS, infections, and granulomatous diseases. Clinical features include retro-orbital pain that is aggravated by eye movement, loss of color vision, and contrast sensitivity that may progress to severe visual loss, an afferent pupillary defect (Marcus-Gunn pupil), and in some instances optic disc hyperemia and swelling. Inflammation may occur in the portion of the nerve within the globe (neuropapillitis or anterior optic neuritis) or the portion behind the globe (retrobulbar neuritis or posterior optic neuritis).Intraocular Pressure: The pressure of the fluids in the eye.Accommodation, Ocular: The dioptric adjustment of the EYE (to attain maximal sharpness of retinal imagery for an object of regard) referring to the ability, to the mechanism, or to the process. Ocular accommodation is the effecting of refractive changes by changes in the shape of the CRYSTALLINE LENS. Loosely, it refers to ocular adjustments for VISION, OCULAR at various distances. (Cline et al., Dictionary of Visual Science, 4th ed)Retinal Artery Occlusion: Sudden ISCHEMIA in the RETINA due to blocked blood flow through the CENTRAL RETINAL ARTERY or its branches leading to sudden complete or partial loss of vision, respectively, in the eye.Retinal Photoreceptor Cell Outer Segment: The light sensitive outer portion of a retinal rod or a cone photoreceptor cell. The outer segment contains a stack of disk membranes laden with photoreceptive pigments (RETINAL PIGMENTS). The outer segment is connected to the inner segment by a PHOTORECEPTOR CONNECTING CILIUM.Postoperative Period: The period following a surgical operation.Light Coagulation: The coagulation of tissue by an intense beam of light, including laser (LASER COAGULATION). In the eye it is used in the treatment of retinal detachments, retinal holes, aneurysms, hemorrhages, and malignant and benign neoplasms. (Dictionary of Visual Science, 3d ed)Central Serous Chorioretinopathy: A visual impairment characterized by the accumulation of fluid under the retina through a defect in the retinal pigment epithelium.Ocular Physiological Phenomena: Processes and properties of the EYE as a whole or of any of its parts.ReadingEye Infections, Fungal: Infection by a variety of fungi, usually through four possible mechanisms: superficial infection producing conjunctivitis, keratitis, or lacrimal obstruction; extension of infection from neighboring structures - skin, paranasal sinuses, nasopharynx; direct introduction during surgery or accidental penetrating trauma; or via the blood or lymphatic routes in patients with underlying mycoses.Uveitis, Intermediate: Inflammation of the pars plana, ciliary body, and adjacent structures.Reaction Time: The time from the onset of a stimulus until a response is observed.Angiogenesis Inhibitors: Agents and endogenous substances that antagonize or inhibit the development of new blood vessels.Visual Prosthesis: Artificial device such as an externally-worn camera attached to a stimulator on the RETINA, OPTIC NERVE, or VISUAL CORTEX, intended to restore or amplify vision.Attention: Focusing on certain aspects of current experience to the exclusion of others. It is the act of heeding or taking notice or concentrating.Choroid: The thin, highly vascular membrane covering most of the posterior of the eye between the RETINA and SCLERA.Optic Nerve Diseases: Conditions which produce injury or dysfunction of the second cranial or optic nerve, which is generally considered a component of the central nervous system. Damage to optic nerve fibers may occur at or near their origin in the retina, at the optic disk, or in the nerve, optic chiasm, optic tract, or lateral geniculate nuclei. Clinical manifestations may include decreased visual acuity and contrast sensitivity, impaired color vision, and an afferent pupillary defect.Laser Therapy: The use of photothermal effects of LASERS to coagulate, incise, vaporize, resect, dissect, or resurface tissue.Uveitis, Posterior: Inflammation of the choroid as well as the retina and vitreous body. Some form of visual disturbance is usually present. The most important characteristics of posterior uveitis are vitreous opacities, choroiditis, and chorioretinitis.Color Perception Tests: Type of vision test used to determine COLOR VISION DEFECTS.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Corneal Ulcer: Loss of epithelial tissue from the surface of the cornea due to progressive erosion and necrosis of the tissue; usually caused by bacterial, fungal, or viral infection.Diagnostic Techniques, Ophthalmological: Methods and procedures for the diagnosis of diseases of the eye or of vision disorders.Dark Adaptation: Adjustment of the eyes under conditions of low light. The sensitivity of the eye to light is increased during dark adaptation.Discrimination (Psychology): Differential response to different stimuli.Eye Foreign Bodies: Inanimate objects that become enclosed in the eye.Optic Nerve Neoplasms: Benign and malignant neoplasms that arise from the optic nerve or its sheath. OPTIC NERVE GLIOMA is the most common histologic type. Optic nerve neoplasms tend to cause unilateral visual loss and an afferent pupillary defect and may spread via neural pathways to the brain.Corneal Transplantation: Partial or total replacement of the CORNEA from one human or animal to another.Color Vision: Function of the human eye that is used in bright illumination or in daylight (at photopic intensities). Photopic vision is performed by the three types of RETINAL CONE PHOTORECEPTORS with varied peak absorption wavelengths in the color spectrum (from violet to red, 400 - 700 nm).Iris Diseases: Diseases, dysfunctions, or disorders of or located in the iris.Sensory Aids: Devices that help people with impaired sensory responses.Lens Subluxation: Incomplete rupture of the zonule with the displaced lens remaining behind the pupil. In dislocation, or complete rupture, the lens is displaced forward into the anterior chamber or backward into the vitreous body. When congenital, this condition is known as ECTOPIA LENTIS.Retinal Cone Photoreceptor Cells: Photosensitive afferent neurons located primarily within the FOVEA CENTRALIS of the MACULA LUTEA. There are three major types of cone cells (red, blue, and green) whose photopigments have different spectral sensitivity curves. Retinal cone cells operate in daylight vision (at photopic intensities) providing color recognition and central visual acuity.Papilledema: Swelling of the OPTIC DISK, usually in association with increased intracranial pressure, characterized by hyperemia, blurring of the disk margins, microhemorrhages, blind spot enlargement, and engorgement of retinal veins. Chronic papilledema may cause OPTIC ATROPHY and visual loss. (Miller et al., Clinical Neuro-Ophthalmology, 4th ed, p175)Hyphema: Bleeding in the anterior chamber of the eye.Silicone Oils: Organic siloxanes which are polymerized to the oily stage. The oils have low surface tension and density less than 1. They are used in industrial applications and in the treatment of retinal detachment, complicated by proliferative vitreoretinopathy.Albinism, Ocular: Albinism affecting the eye in which pigment of the hair and skin is normal or only slightly diluted. The classic type is X-linked (Nettleship-Falls), but an autosomal recessive form also exists. Ocular abnormalities may include reduced pigmentation of the iris, nystagmus, photophobia, strabismus, and decreased visual acuity.Dominance, Ocular: The functional superiority and preferential use of one eye over the other. The term is usually applied to superiority in sighting (VISUAL PERCEPTION) or motor task but not difference in VISUAL ACUITY or dysfunction of one of the eyes. Ocular dominance can be modified by visual input and NEUROTROPHIC FACTORS.Esotropia: A form of ocular misalignment characterized by an excessive convergence of the visual axes, resulting in a "cross-eye" appearance. An example of this condition occurs when paralysis of the lateral rectus muscle causes an abnormal inward deviation of one eye on attempted gaze.Triamcinolone: A glucocorticoid given, as the free alcohol or in esterified form, orally, intramuscularly, by local injection, by inhalation, or applied topically in the management of various disorders in which corticosteroids are indicated. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p739)Antibodies, Monoclonal, Humanized: Antibodies from non-human species whose protein sequences have been modified to make them nearly identical with human antibodies. If the constant region and part of the variable region are replaced, they are called humanized. If only the constant region is modified they are called chimeric. INN names for humanized antibodies end in -zumab.Electrooculography: Recording of the average amplitude of the resting potential arising between the cornea and the retina in light and dark adaptation as the eyes turn a standard distance to the right and the left. The increase in potential with light adaptation is used to evaluate the condition of the retinal pigment epithelium.Eye Infections, Bacterial: Infections in the inner or external eye caused by microorganisms belonging to several families of bacteria. Some of the more common genera found are Haemophilus, Neisseria, Staphylococcus, Streptococcus, and Chlamydia.Eye: The organ of sight constituting a pair of globular organs made up of a three-layered roughly spherical structure specialized for receiving and responding to light.Postoperative Complications: Pathologic processes that affect patients after a surgical procedure. They may or may not be related to the disease for which the surgery was done, and they may or may not be direct results of the surgery.Fluocinolone Acetonide: A glucocorticoid derivative used topically in the treatment of various skin disorders. It is usually employed as a cream, gel, lotion, or ointment. It has also been used topically in the treatment of inflammatory eye, ear, and nose disorders. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p732)Optometry: The professional practice of primary eye and vision care that includes the measurement of visual refractive power and the correction of visual defects with lenses or glasses.Night Vision: Function of the human eye that is used in dim illumination (scotopic intensities) or at nighttime. Scotopic vision is performed by RETINAL ROD PHOTORECEPTORS with high sensitivity to light and peak absorption wavelength at 507 nm near the blue end of the spectrum.Psychomotor Performance: The coordination of a sensory or ideational (cognitive) process and a motor activity.Keratotomy, Radial: A procedure to surgically correct REFRACTIVE ERRORS by cutting radial slits into the CORNEA to change its refractive properties.Ophthalmic Solutions: Sterile solutions that are intended for instillation into the eye. It does not include solutions for cleaning eyeglasses or CONTACT LENS SOLUTIONS.Aphakia: Absence of crystalline lens totally or partially from field of vision, from any cause except after cataract extraction. Aphakia is mainly congenital or as result of LENS DISLOCATION AND SUBLUXATION.Aphakia, Postcataract: Absence of the crystalline lens resulting from cataract extraction.Magnetic Resonance Imaging: Non-invasive method of demonstrating internal anatomy based on the principle that atomic nuclei in a strong magnetic field absorb pulses of radiofrequency energy and emit them as radiowaves which can be reconstructed into computerized images. The concept includes proton spin tomographic techniques.Hemianopsia: Partial or complete loss of vision in one half of the visual field(s) of one or both eyes. Subtypes include altitudinal hemianopsia, characterized by a visual defect above or below the horizontal meridian of the visual field. Homonymous hemianopsia refers to a visual defect that affects both eyes equally, and occurs either to the left or right of the midline of the visual field. Binasal hemianopsia consists of loss of vision in the nasal hemifields of both eyes. Bitemporal hemianopsia is the bilateral loss of vision in the temporal fields. Quadrantanopsia refers to loss of vision in one quarter of the visual field in one or both eyes.Exudates and Transudates: Exudates are fluids, CELLS, or other cellular substances that are slowly discharged from BLOOD VESSELS usually from inflamed tissues. Transudates are fluids that pass through a membrane or squeeze through tissue or into the EXTRACELLULAR SPACE of TISSUES. Transudates are thin and watery and contain few cells or PROTEINS.Lens Capsule, Crystalline: The thin noncellular outer covering of the CRYSTALLINE LENS composed mainly of COLLAGEN TYPE IV and GLYCOSAMINOGLYCANS. It is secreted by the embryonic anterior and posterior epithelium. The embryonic posterior epithelium later disappears.Indocyanine Green: A tricarbocyanine dye that is used diagnostically in liver function tests and to determine blood volume and cardiac output.Lighting: The illumination of an environment and the arrangement of lights to achieve an effect or optimal visibility. Its application is in domestic or in public settings and in medical and non-medical environments.Lenses: Pieces of glass or other transparent materials used for magnification or increased visual acuity.Eye Enucleation: The surgical removal of the eyeball leaving the eye muscles and remaining orbital contents intact.Optic Nerve: The 2nd cranial nerve which conveys visual information from the RETINA to the brain. The nerve carries the axons of the RETINAL GANGLION CELLS which sort at the OPTIC CHIASM and continue via the OPTIC TRACTS to the brain. The largest projection is to the lateral geniculate nuclei; other targets include the SUPERIOR COLLICULI and the SUPRACHIASMATIC NUCLEI. Though known as the second cranial nerve, it is considered part of the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM.Panuveitis: Inflammation in which both the anterior and posterior segments of the uvea are involved and a specific focus is not apparent. It is often severe and extensive and a serious threat to vision. Causes include systemic diseases such as tuberculosis, sarcoidosis, and syphilis, as well as malignancies. The intermediate segment of the eye is not involved.Optic Chiasm: The X-shaped structure formed by the meeting of the two optic nerves. At the optic chiasm the fibers from the medial part of each retina cross to project to the other side of the brain while the lateral retinal fibers continue on the same side. As a result each half of the brain receives information about the contralateral visual field from both eyes.Reproducibility of Results: The statistical reproducibility of measurements (often in a clinical context), including the testing of instrumentation or techniques to obtain reproducible results. The concept includes reproducibility of physiological measurements, which may be used to develop rules to assess probability or prognosis, or response to a stimulus; reproducibility of occurrence of a condition; and reproducibility of experimental results.Glucocorticoids: A group of CORTICOSTEROIDS that affect carbohydrate metabolism (GLUCONEOGENESIS, liver glycogen deposition, elevation of BLOOD SUGAR), inhibit ADRENOCORTICOTROPIC HORMONE secretion, and possess pronounced anti-inflammatory activity. They also play a role in fat and protein metabolism, maintenance of arterial blood pressure, alteration of the connective tissue response to injury, reduction in the number of circulating lymphocytes, and functioning of the central nervous system.Flicker Fusion: The point or frequency at which all flicker of an intermittent light stimulus disappears.Brain Mapping: Imaging techniques used to colocalize sites of brain functions or physiological activity with brain structures.Adaptation, Ocular: The adjustment of the eye to variations in the intensity of light. Light adaptation is the adjustment of the eye when the light threshold is increased; DARK ADAPTATION when the light is greatly reduced. (From Cline et al., Dictionary of Visual Science, 4th ed)Photography: Method of making images on a sensitized surface by exposure to light or other radiant energy.Optic Nerve Glioma: Glial cell derived tumors arising from the optic nerve, usually presenting in childhood.Optic Neuropathy, Ischemic: Ischemic injury to the OPTIC NERVE which usually affects the OPTIC DISK (optic neuropathy, anterior ischemic) and less frequently the retrobulbar portion of the nerve (optic neuropathy, posterior ischemic). The injury results from occlusion of arterial blood supply which may result from TEMPORAL ARTERITIS; ATHEROSCLEROSIS; COLLAGEN DISEASES; EMBOLISM; DIABETES MELLITUS; and other conditions. The disease primarily occurs in the sixth decade or later and presents with the sudden onset of painless and usually severe monocular visual loss. Anterior ischemic optic neuropathy also features optic disk edema with microhemorrhages. The optic disk appears normal in posterior ischemic optic neuropathy. (Glaser, Neuro-Ophthalmology, 2nd ed, p135)Microscopy, Acoustic: A scientific tool based on ULTRASONOGRAPHY and used not only for the observation of microstructure in metalwork but also in living tissue. In biomedical application, the acoustic propagation speed in normal and abnormal tissues can be quantified to distinguish their tissue elasticity and other properties.Choroid Neoplasms: Tumors of the choroid; most common intraocular tumors are malignant melanomas of the choroid. These usually occur after puberty and increase in incidence with advancing age. Most malignant melanomas of the uveal tract develop from benign melanomas (nevi).Photophobia: Abnormal sensitivity to light. This may occur as a manifestation of EYE DISEASES; MIGRAINE; SUBARACHNOID HEMORRHAGE; MENINGITIS; and other disorders. Photophobia may also occur in association with DEPRESSION and other MENTAL DISORDERS.Interferometry: Measurement of distances or movements by means of the phenomena caused by the interference of two rays of light (optical interferometry) or of sound (acoustic interferometry).Retinal Pigments: Photosensitive protein complexes of varied light absorption properties which are expressed in the PHOTORECEPTOR CELLS. They are OPSINS conjugated with VITAMIN A-based chromophores. Chromophores capture photons of light, leading to the activation of opsins and a biochemical cascade that ultimately excites the photoreceptor cells.Subretinal Fluid: An exudate between the RETINA and CHOROID from various sources including the vitreous cavity, SUBARACHNOID SPACE, or abnormal vessels.Corneal Edema: An excessive amount of fluid in the cornea due to damage of the epithelium or endothelium causing decreased visual acuity.Light: That portion of the electromagnetic spectrum in the visible, ultraviolet, and infrared range.Eye Diseases, Hereditary: Transmission of gene defects or chromosomal aberrations/abnormalities which are expressed in extreme variation in the structure or function of the eye. These may be evident at birth, but may be manifested later with progression of the disorder.Glaucoma, Open-Angle: Glaucoma in which the angle of the anterior chamber is open and the trabecular meshwork does not encroach on the base of the iris.Saccades: An abrupt voluntary shift in ocular fixation from one point to another, as occurs in reading.Pupil Disorders: Conditions which affect the structure or function of the pupil of the eye, including disorders of innervation to the pupillary constrictor or dilator muscles, and disorders of pupillary reflexes.Cues: Signals for an action; that specific portion of a perceptual field or pattern of stimuli to which a subject has learned to respond.Retinal Ganglion Cells: Neurons of the innermost layer of the retina, the internal plexiform layer. They are of variable sizes and shapes, and their axons project via the OPTIC NERVE to the brain. A small subset of these cells act as photoreceptors with projections to the SUPRACHIASMATIC NUCLEUS, the center for regulating CIRCADIAN RHYTHM.Keratitis: Inflammation of the cornea.Photochemotherapy: Therapy using oral or topical photosensitizing agents with subsequent exposure to light.Perceptual Disorders: Cognitive disorders characterized by an impaired ability to perceive the nature of objects or concepts through use of the sense organs. These include spatial neglect syndromes, where an individual does not attend to visual, auditory, or sensory stimuli presented from one side of the body.
Eyes: Pigmentary retinopathy, poor visual acuity, low vision, and/or blindness caused by an impaired photoreceptor transport ... Gastrointestinal system: Fibrosis. Urogenital system: Hypogonadism, renal failure, urogenital sinuses, ectopic urethra, uterus ... Hyperphagia in some patients. Bardet-Biedl syndrome is a pleiotropic disorder with variable expressivity and a wide range of ... Using the round worm C. elegans as a model system, biologists found that BBS proteins are involved in a process called ...
Visual acuity often remains stable and poor (around or below 20/200) with a residual central visual field defect. Patients with ... Neuroanatomy of the human visual system: Part I. Retinal projections to the LGN and pretectum as demonstrated with a new stain ... Examination of these patients shows loss of visual acuity, temporal pallor of the optic discs, centrocecal scotomas with ... Most patients lose the lower half of their visual field (an inferior altitudinal loss), though superior altitudinal loss is ...
Astigmatism (optical systems)
In those with keratoconus, toric contact lenses often enable patients to achieve better visual acuities than eyeglasses. If the ... A Snellen chart or other eye chart may initially reveal reduced visual acuity. A keratometer may be used to measure the ... Such systems are called anastigmats. If an optical system is not axisymmetric, either due to an error in the shape of the ... If an optical system with astigmatism is used to form an image of a cross, the vertical and horizontal lines will be in sharp ...
... and may lead to disturbed visual acuity and even temporary or permanent blindness. Patients with preexisting papilledema or ... with involvement of the central nervous system may be at higher risk. In postmarketing studies isolated cases of severe ... If you should notice a decrease in visual acuity or even blindness call you doctor at once or dial 911, because you are in a ... Most patients will be able to self-administer the drug after appropriate training. Patients with severe renal impairment should ...
Visual acuity and stability of the eye motions generally improve during the first 6-7 years of life (but remain near 20/200). ... In patients with achromatopsia, the cone system and fibres carrying color information remain intact. This indicates that the ... Included among these aberrations are greatly decreased visual acuity (,0.1 or 20/200) in daylight, Hemeralopia, nystagmus, and ... Individuals with incomplete achromatopsia have reduced visual acuity with or without nystagmus or photophobia. Furthermore, ...
... with lower acuity values falling in the area under the curve. In patients with normal visual acuity and concomitant reduced ... The human visual system is more sensitive to contrast than absolute luminance; we can perceive the world similarly regardless ... when an optometrist or ophthalmologist assesses a patient's visual acuity using a Snellen chart or some other acuity chart, the ... However, diminished contrast sensitivity may cause decreased visual function in spite of normal visual acuity. For example ...
Federally Qualified Health Center
A FQHC Prospective Payment System (PPS) was scheduled to be implemented in 2014. The Patient Protection and Affordable Care ... visual acuity and hearing screenings, and prenatal and post-partum care. However, eyeglasses, hearing aids, and preventive ... the health centers served an estimated 20 million patients. The data collected via the Uniform Data System (UDS) reports ... Impact of the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act. The health center program's annual federal funding has grown ...
... properly treated amblyopia patients can regain 20/40 acuity. ... to evaluate visual functioning of a compromised visual system ... Central visual acuity of 20/200 or less in the better eye with corrective glasses or central visual acuity of more than 20/200 ... Visual impairments may take many forms and be of varying degrees. Visual acuity alone is not always a good predictor of the ... Defined as having central visual acuity of less than 3/60 with normal fields of vision, or gross visual field restriction. ...
Automated refraction system
an eye chart to aid in the determination of visual acuity during the test, an autorefractor that measures the patient's ... see paperless office improved office efficiency Automated Refraction System by Eyelogic Digitazed Refraction System by Medizs ... An automated refraction system is a group of ophthalmic devices used during an eye examination to aid in the determination of a ... Automated refraction systems currently on the market vary in features, level of automation, ease of use, training required and ...
Ethanol consumption can disrupt the VOR, reducing dynamic visual acuity. This reflex can be tested by the rapid head impulse ... In comatose patients, once it has been determined that the cervical spine is intact, a test of the vestibulo-ocular reflex can ... When the function of the right balance system is reduced, by a disease or by an accident, quick head movement to the right ... The VOR does not depend on visual input. It can be elicited by caloric (hot or cold) stimulation of the inner ear, and works ...
In the best case scenario, which is very rare, properly treated amblyopia patients can regain 20/40 acuity. Corneal ... Only a doctor is qualified to evaluate visual functioning of a compromised visual system effectively. The American Medical ... Central visual acuity of 20/200 or less in the better eye with corrective glasses or central visual acuity of more than 20/200 ... Visual impairments may take many forms and be of varying degrees. Visual acuity alone is not always a good predictor of the ...
5. Adler, F. H. M., Fliegelman, Maurice (AB) (1934). "Influence of Fixation on the Visual Acuity." Archives of Ophthalmology 12 ... In coma there is a loss of high frequency components of tremor and the extent of this reduction is related to the patient's ... 1993). "Ocular microtremor measurement system: design and performance." Med Biol Eng Comput 31(3): 205-12. 2. Coakley, D. and J ... Visual processes deteriorate rapidly in the absence of retinal image motion, with Stabilized Images. Journal of Vision 1. ...
This is often measured with a Snellen chart or with a logMAR base Velorum Visual Acuity System. In physics, "refraction" is the ... A subjective refraction requires responses from the patient. Typically, the patient will sit behind a phoropter or wear a trial ... followed by specific tests for visual acuity, pupil function, extraocular muscle motility, visual fields, intraocular pressure ... Visual acuity is the eye's ability to detect fine details and is the quantitative measure of the eye's ability to see an in- ...
... virtual sound systems, and smart wheelchairs. Mobility training improves the ability for patients with visual impairment to ... Neurological approaches focus on treatments that will slow the process of degradation or improve visual acuity. Psychological ... This system alerts patients to avoid possible dangers. The talking braille is a device that helps low vision patients to read ... Gene therapy uses DNA as a delivery system to treat visual impairments. In this approach, DNA is modified through a viral ...
However, it is this high visual acuity that is needed to perform actions such as reading words or recognizing facial features, ... Patients were found to have damage present in the mid-brain area and associated cortical areas. Although patients were not able ... "Covert visual spatial orienting and saccades: Overlapping neural systems". NeuroImage. 11 (3): 210-216. doi:10.1006/nimg. ... Patient studies and attention shifts. Some of the first research into the neurology behind attention shifts came from ...
... is judged primarily by a visual acuity test. The appropriateness of surgery depends on a patient's particular functional and ... Cataracts can be classified by using the lens opacities classification system LOCS III. In this system, cataracts are ... Visual function estimates such as VF-14 have been found to give more realistic estimates than visual acuity testing alone. In ... In endophthalmitis, patients often describe pain. Retinal detachment frequently presents with unilateral visual field defects, ...
Initially, patients often have good visual acuity if the GA lesions are not involved in the central macular, or foveal, region ... Variations in several genes, particularly in the complement system, increase the risk of developing GA. This is an active area ... As such, a standard vision test may underrepresent the visual deficit experienced by patients who report challenges reading, ... It is estimated that GA affects >5 million people worldwide and approximately 1 million patients in the US, which is similar to ...
They found no evidence of improved visual acuity with potential harm. "Peginterferon Alfa-2a (Professional Patient Advice) - ... the most effective and safe medicines needed in a health system. The wholesale cost in the developing world is between 500.00 ... This finding, originally reported in Nature, showed genotype 1 hepatitis C patients carrying certain genetic variant alleles ... and for regulating the immune system. For genotype 1 hepatitis C treated with pegylated interferon-alfa-2a or ...
Along with systems designed for health care professionals, patient-centred systems such as Eye-File for use by the general ... Mobile applications are widely available in ophthalmology and optometry as tools for eye tests (visual acuity, colour test, and ... Improved patient care Strengthened referral patterns Extended patient care and expertise to remote areas Education of hospital ... As of 2010, more than 120,000 patients have been screened through the program. EyePACS is an example of a license-free Web- ...
The static visual acuity test investigates a patient's ability to see an object from a distance by placing a subject at a ... Nystagmus in patients indicates dysfunction of the vestibular system, which can lead to dizziness and inability to complete a ... The dynamic visual acuity test involves a patient's ability to control eye movements by following letters that appear on a ... Blind patients can rely on vestibular input where visual input is not available, and the visual cortex can become rewired to ...
Optic neuritis may manifest as visual impairment with decreased visual acuity, although visual field defects, or loss of color ... Approximately 20% of patients with monophasic Devic's disease have permanent visual loss, and 30% have permanent paralysis in ... Unlike standard MS, the attacks are not believed to be mediated by the immune system's T cells, but rather by antibodies called ... Some patients with NMO may be seronegative for NMO-IgG, whilst some patients with NMO-IgG may still not fulfill clinical ...
... and visual acuity loss, typically due to macular involvement. Mild signs of hypertensive retinopathy can be seen quite ... Most patients with hypertensive retinopathy have no symptoms. However, some may report decreased or blurred vision, and ... of those with grade 4 survived.The most widely used modern classification system bears their name. The role of retinopathy ...
Visual acuity test: This test uses an eye chart to measure how well a person sees at various distances (i.e., visual acuity). ... Patients will lose some of their peripheral vision after this surgery although it may be barely noticeable by the patient. The ... own stem cells derived from bone marrow and injected into the degenerated areas in an effort to regenerate the vascular system ... A systematic review found evidence that eyes treated with the intravitreal injection of triamcinolone had better visual acuity ...
Optic nerve hypoplasia
Visual acuity can range from no light perception to near-normal vision. Children diagnosed with ONH generally present with ... Patients with ONH exhibit an optic nerve that appears smaller than normal and different in appearance from small optic nerves ... ONH may be found in isolation or in conjunction with myriad functional and anatomic abnormalities of the central nervous system ... Surgery to align the eyes can be performed once children with strabismus develop equal visual acuity in both eyes, most often ...
... the rats retained their visual acuity improvement. Conversely, rats in a standard environment showed no improvement in visual ... Researchers in that study concluded that stroke patients in enriched environments in assisted-care facilities are much more ... In general, an enriched environment will improve, if not repair, the sensory systems animals possess. During development, ... A recent study found that adult rats with amblyopia improved visual acuity two weeks after being placed into an enriched ...
Acute posterior multifocal placoid pigment epitheliopathy
In rare cases, a patient may suffer permanent visual loss associated with lesions on their optic nerve. Rarely, coexisting ... The lesions leave behind some pigmentation, but visual acuity eventually improves even without any treatment (providing ... showing that it is related generally to an altered immune system. Recurrent episodes can happen, but are extremely rare. The ... Patients can typically present erythema nodosum, livido reticularus, bilateral uveitis, and sudden onset of marked visual loss ...
This effect was also found latter in normals by Krakov and Hartmann, as well as the fact that the visual acuity could ... The nervous system is thus responsible for whether to integrate or segregate certain groups of temporally coincident sensory ... In patients studied by Gonzalo, with lesions in the parieto-occipital cortex, the decrease in the reaction time to a given ... Hartmann, G.W. (1933). "Changes in Visual Acuity through Simultaneous Stimulation of Other Sense Organs". J. Exp. Psychol. 16 ( ...
... each contributing information used by the visual system to form a representation of the visual world, sight. The rods are ... and is the region capable of producing the highest visual acuity or highest resolution. Across the rest of the retina, rods and ... The workers had tracked down patients with rare diseases wiping out classic rod and cone photoreceptor function but preserving ... In the human visual system, in addition to the photosensitive rods & cones, there are about 2.4 million to 3 million ganglion ...
... or the peripheral nervous system (PNS). In the CNS for example, cranial nerve injury typically presents as a visual acuity loss ... The patient receives small skin marks to guide the placement of treatment fields. Patient positioning is crucial at this ... system of moving) and fluence output rate (dose rate) of the medical linear accelerator. VMAT has an advantage in patient ... and for patients with limited life expectancy, a single treatment is best to improve patient comfort. ...
In addition, the eye and the visual system can be routinely and easily monitored for visual function and retinal structural ... such as visual acuities, contrast sensitivity, fundus auto-fluorescence (FAF), dark-adapted visual thresholds, vascular ... and patients in all three studies showed improvement in their visual function as measured by a number of methods. The methods ... Remington, Lee Ann (2012). Clinical anatomy and physiology of the visual system (3rd ed.). St. Louis: Elsevier/Butterworth- ...
Eye movement in reading
Salvucci, D.D. (2001). An integrated model of eye movements and visual encoding. Cognitive Systems Research, 1(4), 201-220. ... The lower line of text simulates the acuity of vision with the relative acuity percentages. The difficulty of recognizing text ... So, it is now unnecessary to make incisions in patient's skin. Common misconception about EOG is that measured potential is the ... Eye movement in reading involves the visual processing of written text. This was described by the French ophthalmologist Louis ...
Idiopathic intracranial hypertension
If the papilledema has been longstanding, visual fields may be constricted and visual acuity may be decreased. Visual field ... In general patients are discharged the next day. Patients require double antiplatelet therapy for a period of up to 3 months ... Physical examination of the nervous system is typically normal apart from the presence of papilledema, which is seen on ... Many patients with IIH have narrowing of the transverse sinuses. It is not clear whether this narrowing is the pathogenesis ...
... reduced visual acuity, and myopia (nearsightedness). Visual acuity usually falls to the 20/50 to 20/400 range. ... Webvision: The Organization of the Retina and Visual System. PMID 21413396. Archived from the original on May 9, 2018.. ... The patient is asked to arrange a set of colored caps or chips to form a gradual transition of color between two anchor caps.[ ... Tovee, Martin J. (2008). An Introduction to the Visual System. Cambridge University Press. ISBN 978-0-521-70964-4.. ...
A computer system tracks the patient's eye position 60 to 4,000 times per second, depending on the specifications of the laser ... In 1 to 3% of cases, loss of best corrected visual acuity (BCVA) can result, due to decentered ablative zones or other surgical ... Most modern lasers will automatically center on the patient's visual axis and will pause if the eye moves out of range and then ... A 2017 systematic review found uncertainty in visual acuity, but found that in one study, those receiving PRK were less likely ...
... although this may be an issue with critically injured patients, unable to provide such details, or via a system of billing ... Passive visual warningsEdit. A South Western Ambulance Service ambulance displays reversed wording and the Star of Life, with ... "Implementation Guidelines for the Canadian ED Triage & Acuity Scale (CTAS). Canadian Association of Emergency Physician. ... Patient transport ambulance - A vehicle, which has the job of transporting patients to, from or between places of medical ...
... the brain retains a memory of specific limb positions and that after amputation there is a conflict between the visual system, ... Proprioception is permanently impaired in patients that suffer from joint hypermobility or Ehlers-Danlos Syndrome (a genetic ... Goble, DJ (2010). "Proprioceptive acuity assessment via joint position matching: From basic science to general practice". ... They include the visual and tactile placing reflexes.. Learning new skillsEdit. Proprioception is what allows someone to ...
... visual acuity, and cardiovascular mortality in the elderly population at large". Experimental Gerontology. 42 (11): 1116-22. ... "Infections of people with complement deficiencies and patients who have undergone splenectomy". Clinical Microbiology Reviews ... The complement system is a part of the immune system that enhances (complements) the ability of antibodies and phagocytic cells ... The complement system can be recruited and brought into action by antibodies generated by the adaptive immune system. ...
Visual-spatial input, auditory input, and touch input will be affected due to these processing errors. Dyscalculics may have a ... Halberda, J.; Mazzocco, M. M. M.; Feigenson, L. (2008). "Individual differences in non-verbal number acuity correlate with ... Approximate number system, innate ability to detect differences in magnitude without counting ... Cognitive disabilities specific to mathematics were originally identified in case studies with patients who experienced ...
Visual acuity is reduced in half, and over 60% have a visual field defect. The visual loss depends on which part of the ... In 80%, the patient has been previously unaware of this (although some will retrospectively report associated symptoms). It ... The first priority in suspected or confirmed pituitary apoplexy is stabilization of the circulatory system. Cortisol deficiency ... If visual acuity is severely reduced, there are large or worsening visual field defects, or the level of consciousness falls ...
Pediatric ophthalmologists focus on the development of the visual system and the various diseases that disrupt visual ... Children School vision screening Strabismus surgery Visual acuity Your Baby's Eyes-Development, Vision Examination and Eye ... Many ophthalmologists and other physicians refer pediatric patients to a pediatric ophthalmologist for examination and ... Pediatric ophthalmology is a sub-speciality of ophthalmology concerned with eye diseases, visual development, and vision care ...
Emergency medical services in Austria
The availability of this service provides a better treatment option to those patients who, in other EMS systems, might generate ... and provides service to non-ambulatory patients with low-acuity or chronic conditions, or to those who are recovering from ... The visual identity requirements of the European standard are deliberately not being followed, as they contradict to the ... The physician will not only respond to patients from their own practice, but will also visit and treat patients all over the ...
On visual field examination, the physician may elicit an enlarged blind spot; the visual acuity may remain relatively intact ... An MRA and MRV may also be ordered to rule out the possibility of stenosis or thrombosis of the arterial or venous systems. ... It can progress to enlargement of the blind spot, blurring of vision, visual obscurations (inability to see in a particular ... Long periods of weightlessness (microgravity) for males (See also visual impairment and intracranial pressure) ...
Smell acuity by age and sexEdit. The ability to identify odor varies among people and decreases with age. Studies show there ... The olfactory system does not interpret a single compound, but instead the whole odorous mix. This does not correspond to the ... Further information: Visual merchandising § Scent. The sense of smell is not overlooked as a way of marketing products. The ... "technicians at New York City's Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center disperse vanilla-scented oil into the air to help patients cope ...
Emergency medical services in Hong Kong
The current dispatch system in Hong Kong does not categorise ambulance calls by medical acuity, although there are plans to ... The actual cost per patient is about HK$1,230. The ambulance service from the Hong Kong Fire Service pledges to have an ... These are known locally as 'village ambulances'. In terms of visual identity, all ambulances in Hong Kong are white in body ... Franco-German emergency medical services system". Prehosp Disaster Med. 18 (1): 29-35, discussion 35-7. doi:10.1017/ ...
A few years later, a German neuroscientist, Carl Wernicke, consulted on a stroke patient. The patient experienced neither ... the ability to read is destroyed by a lesion damaging both the left visual field and the connection between the right visual ... Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS) is the most widely used scoring system used to assess the level of severity of a brain injury. This ... just as someone who loses a sense may gain increased acuity in another sense - a process termed neuroplasticity. ...
Visual acuity improves from about 20/400 at birth to approximately 20/25 at 6 months of age. All this is happening because the ... in glaucoma patients compared to age matched controls, cataract patients pre and post surgery, and even something as ... For electronic visual sensors, see Visual sensor network.. The visual system is the part of the central nervous system which ... Visual system. The visual system includes the eyes, the connecting pathways through to the visual cortex and other parts of the ...
... in retinal vein occlusion this may result in macular oedema and visual acuity impairment, which if severe enough can lead to ... In Germany, about 20% of patients were self-managed while only 1% of U.S. patients did home self-testing (according to one 2012 ... The main mechanism is exposure of tissue factor to the blood coagulation system. Inflammatory and other stimuli (such as ... Clinical guideline 92: Venous thromboembolism: reducing the risk for patients in hospital. London, January 2010. ...
Sphenoid wing meningioma
Meningiomas of the Anterior Visual System. Survey of Ophthalmology. 26(3):109-27, Nov-Dec 1981. Freeman, Jacob L.; Davern, ... most often cause direct damage to the optic nerve leading especially to a decrease in visual acuity, progressive loss of color ... If cranial nerve V-1 is damaged, the patient will have pain and altered sensation over the front and top of the head. Horner's ... Patients with globoid meningiomas often present only with signs of increased intracranial pressure. This leads to various other ...
... reduced visual acuity, and myopia (nearsightedness). Visual acuity usually falls to the 20/50 to 20/400 range. ... "In Kolb H, Fernandez E, Nelson R (eds.). Webvision: The Organization of the Retina and Visual System. University of Utah Health ... The patient is asked to arrange a set of colored caps or chips to form a gradual transition of color between two anchor caps.[ ... Tovee, Martin J. (2008). An Introduction to the Visual System. Cambridge University Press. ISBN 978-0-521-70964-4. .. ...
Norcia and Tyler have used the technique to document the development of visual acuity and contrast sensitivity ... The resulting plot of stimulus luminance versus wavelength is a plot of the spectral sensitivity of the visual system. ... The response is then recorded from the patient's scalp. Because of the low amplitude of the signal once it reaches the ... Norcia A. M.; Tyler C. W. (1985). "Spatial frequency sweep VEP: Visual acuity during the first year of life". Vision Research. ...
Auditory processing disorder
... and visual acuity.. It should also be noted that children under the age of seven cannot be evaluated correctly because ... Subcategories of Patients with King-Kopetzky Syndrome *^ Bellis, Teri James. "Auditory Processing Disorders (APD) in Children" ... Hearing begins in utero, but the central auditory system continues to develop for at least the first decade. There is ... APD has been defined anatomically in terms of the integrity of the auditory areas of the nervous system. However, children ...
Optical: To improve visual acuity by replacing the opaque or distorted host tissue by clear healthy donor tissue. The most ... If the patient elects to proceed with the surgery, the doctor will have the patient sign an informed consent form. The doctor ... Ocular Systems was the first organization to deliver prepared grafts for surgery in 2005. DSEK/DSAEK uses only a small ... Not only does this dramatically improve visual recovery and healing, it also allows the possibility for improvement in visual ...
ASRS Video Interview: Mark S. Humayun, MD, PhD, Discusses 3-Year Results From the Argus II Clinical Trial - The American...
Research has demonstrated visual acuity as high as 1.0 logMAR (20/200) and color perception. A total of 54 clinical trial ... subjects and commercial patients worldwide have received the Argus II implant.. The Argus II Retinal Prosthesis System has been ... This is the largest study of a visual prosthesis to date, with more than 125 cumulative patient-years of follow-up. ... Results show the Argus II prosthesis provides visual function to patients with end-stage retinitis pigmentosa. ...
Diet Rich in Omega-3 Fatty Acids Appears Associated with Slowing Visual Acuity Decline in Retinitis Pigmentosa Patients on...
MORE FROM Digestive System. 04/17/2019 Digestive System Genetic sequencing uncovers causes for mysterious liver disease in ... should make it possible for many patients with typical retinitis pigmentosa to retain both visual acuity and central visual ... Diet Rich in Omega-3 Fatty Acids Appears Associated with Slowing Visual Acuity Decline in Retinitis Pigmentosa Patients on ... and colleagues analyzed visual acuity data from three clinical trials conducted involving patients with typical retinitis ...
Compensation for Blindness With the Intelligent Retinal Implant System (IRIS V2) in Patients With Retinal Dystrophy - Full Text...
Has a visual acuity of logMAR 2.3 or worse in both the eyes as determined by a Square Grating scale. ... Compensation for Blindness With the Intelligent Retinal Implant System (IRIS V2) in Patients With Retinal Dystrophy (IRIS 2). ... Visual acuity [ Time Frame: up to 36 month ]. Measure probable benefit with square wave grating test ... Efficacy is measured using functional vision and visual function tests before and after implantation as well as with the system ...
Tele-EyeCare | Ophthalmology | Stanford Medicine
Visual System Examination During Video Visits. · Adult Exam Videos. · Pediatric Exam Videos ... Patient Care Patient Care. *Specialty Clinics. Specialty Clinics. *Adult Strabismus*Cataracts and Intraocular Lenses* ... The publications below describe how smartphone-based ophthalmic cameras and visual acuity testing apps developed in our ... Visual System Examination During Video Visits: Adult Exam Videos We have included example videos if you wish to get a sense of ...
Uveitis Classification: Classification Systems, Classification Parameters, Patient Demographics
4] Standardized definitions of outcomes, including reporting visual acuity outcomes, were approved.  ... By using the naming-meshing system and by supplementing it with laboratory tests and consultations, 75-85% of patients with ... As with every patient, the initial source for determining the etiology of a patients complaint involves an accurate history ... of referral uveitis patients and about 50% of uveitis patients in a comprehensive ophthalmology practice. ...
2017 Quality Measures for Merit-Based Incentive Payment System - American Academy of Ophthalmology
Ophthalmology measures listing for the Merit-Based Incentive Payment Systems quality-reporting category. The MIPS quality ... Adult Primary Rhegmatogenous Retinal Detachment Surgery: Visual Acuity Improvement Within 90 Days of Surgery ... Patients aged 18 years and older. *A lower calculated performance rate for this measure indicates better clinical care or ... Cataracts: 20/40 or Better Visual Acuity within 90 Days Following Cataract Surgery ...
Comparison of Manual Super Small Incision Cataract Surgery and Phacoemulsification - Full Text View - ClinicalTrials.gov
Capillary Hemangioma Clinical Presentation: History, Physical, Causes
Examination of the visual system may reveal decreased visual acuity on the ipsilateral side. ... Patients usually present with a unilateral, superonasal eyelid or brow lesion. It typically blanches with pressure, unlike the ... The history can be quite variable in this group of patients. Typically, parents may notice a red spot growing in size and ... 4] Alternatively, if the lesion extends posteriorly in the orbit, proptosis and visual loss may be present. ...
Official ESCRS | European Society of Cataract & Refractive Surgeons
None of the patients had white cataract. Cataract extraction led to a significant increase in ETDRS visual acuity (p=0.028). ... For microperimetry the MP3 System (Nidek Inc., Japan) was used. Introduction of full-automatic measurements, improved motion ... ETDRS visual acuity was tested at both study visits. Lens opacity was graded using the LOCS II classification scale. ... Further studies with a larger sample size, however, are needed to elucidate the correlation between visual acuity, different ...
Children's National Health System Opthalmic Photographer in Washington, DC
Patient Examinations *Obtain ophthalmic history and apply dilating eye drops. *Perform visual fields and visual acuity testing ... Our employees share a sense of pride and commitment to the patients and families we serve. We aspire to provide patients and ... Childrens National Health System , Washington, DC Tell Us More About Your Job Preferences. By telling us what you think of ... Good communication skills and ability to cooperate with patients, parents, coworkers and physicians are essential. Required ...
GMS | Artificial Vision 2013 | Investigating assistive functions for visual prosthesis with low-vision patients
Objective: Visual prostheses have returned poor visual acuity. This is akin to patients with macular degeneration (AMD). We ... Here we investigated whether an auditory feedback system could facilitate face identification. ... Investigating assistive functions for visual prosthesis with low-vision patients Meeting Abstract ... Materials and Methods: Sixteen AMD patients were recruited from Western Eye Hospital, London. The patients were tested with a ...
Library System/Howard University
Short-term visual acuity outcome to focal retinal photocciagulation in black patients with clinically significant macular edema ... Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science 43 (1 MAY 2002): 536 Suppl. Okote GS, Phillpotis BA, Duong H. ... Mycoplasma pneumoniae-induced-Stevens Johnson Syndrome: Rare occurrence in an adult patient. Case Report Med., 2012: 430490, ... Effect of intensive blood pressure control on cardiovascular remodeling in hypertensive patients with nephrosclerosis. Int J ...
Relationship Between Neurological Disability and Visual Impairment in Patients With ALS or Friedreich's Ataxia - Full Text...
Best corrected visual acuity more than 0.4 (20/50 Snellen = 0.4 logMAR = 65 ETDRS letters). ... Nervous System Diseases. Neuromuscular Diseases. Spinal Cord Diseases. Central Nervous System Diseases. TDP-43 Proteinopathies ... Relationship Between Neurological Disability and Visual Impairment in Patients With ALS or Friedreichs Ataxia. The safety and ... Relationship Between Neurological Disability and Visual Impairment in Patients With ALS or Friedreichs Ataxia. ...
M&S Technologies Announces Visual Field Testing Breakthrough
Tests include: Full field 30-2, Full grid 24-2, Macular 10-2, Screening as well as Visual Acuity assessment. Patient data is ... M&S specializes in visual acuity testing systems. Known worldwide for our leading technological advancements, M&S is dedicated ... The Online Visual Field screening allows the eyecare professional to monitor patients in the comfort of their home," says Joe ... Visual Field Suite (MRF)" which consists of In-Clinic and Online Visual Field testing. ...
A randomised, double-masked comparison study of diquafosol versus sodium hyaluronate ophthalmic solutions in dry eye patients -...
TRIAL DESIGN AND METHODS: In this multicenter, randomised, double-masked, parallel study of 286 dry eye patients with ... exhibit similar efficacy in improving fluorescein staining scores of dry eye patients, whereas, diquafosol exhibits superior ... sodium hyaluronate ophthalmic solution in dry eye patients, using mean changes in fluorescein and rose bengal staining scores ... The application of a new continuous functional visual acuity measurement system in dry eye syndromes.. *Reiko Ishida, Takashi ...
Molecular Vision: Homozygosity mapping in autosomal recessive retinitis pigmentosa families detects novel mutations
The 29-year-old III:2 patient from RP1013 carried a null mutation in C2ORF71, was myopic, and had severe RP; visual acuity was ... OCT measurement of the macula was performed using an OCT-3 system (Stratus model 3000; Carl Zeiss Meditec, Dublin, CA) with ... In comparison, 46-year-old patient II:1 from PB74, who had a missense mutation in PDE6B, retained relatively good visual acuity ... The younger 10-year-old patient II:2 from RP1625 had decreased visual acuity at 0.6 on both eyes. The fundus showed an abnormal ...
Patient Care Technician at Memorial Health System
Interpersonal skills, clerical, numerical and manual dexterity, color vision and near visual acuity. ... 4. Assists with all aspects of patient care and non-patient care (i.e. cleanliness of unit, ordering of supplies) within their ... 3. Coordinates patient flow and flow of information in collaboration with the charge nurse to maintain communication between ... In an environment of continuous quality improvement, the Patient Care Technician is responsible for processing physician orders ...
Patient Care Technician at Memorial Health System
Interpersonal skills, clerical, numerical and manual dexterity, color vision and near visual acuity. ... 5. Provides patient care as assigned by charge nurse/team leader. 6. Assists with teaching the patient/family/significant other ... 4. Assists with all aspects of patient care and non-patient care (i.e. cleanliness of unit, ordering of supplies) within their ... 1. Assists in all aspects of patient care and non-patient care within their scope of practice.. ...
Vision Therapy | CNS Traumatic Brain Injury Rehabilitation
Technologies Build Skills, Support Patient Goals. At CNS, our objective is to remediate the visual system so patients can scan ... Dynavision: a testing and visual rehabilitation system that determines eye function and improves acuity ... Post injury, patients may not know they have visual challenges until seemingly unrelated issues arise. An awkward gait, ... CNS believes that vision therapy is an essential aspect of comprehensive care and has helped patients recover from visual ...
STD Facts - Syphilis (Detailed)
... decreased visual acuity, and permanent blindness. Clinicians should be aware of ocular syphilis and screen for visual ... For patients who belong to communities and populations with high prevalence of syphilis and for patients at high risk, blood ... Syphilis can invade the nervous system at any stage of infection, and causes a wide range of symptoms, including headache, ... These patients should be retreated.. Because chancres can be hidden in the vagina, rectum, or mouth, it may not be obvious that ...
Sealed capsular irrigation system may help prevent posterior capsular opacification | Ophthalmology Times
A new sealed capsular irrigation system (PerfectCapsule, Milvella Pty. Ltd.) allows selective application of osmotic or ... The visual acuity developed normally over 3 months. There was a higher incidence of fibrosis and anterior capsule whitening in ... In all patients, the system was used without complication, he said.. The investigators also found that the endothelial cell ... The device is particularly useful in pediatric patients and patients undergoing clear lens extraction. ...
Evaluation of a Vision-Related Utility Instrument: The German Vision and Quality of Life Index | IOVS | ARVO Journals
While our study has shown that the VisQoLs descriptive system is valid and reliable in a patient sample, it did not function ... All subjects underwent a full ophthalmologic examination, including best-corrected visual acuity (VA) testing. The psychometric ... Total Sample, Patients n = 340; Controls n = 280 VisQol Patients Only, n = 340 VisQol Misfitting Patients Removed, n = 257 ... Total Sample, Patients n = 340; Controls n = 280 VisQol Patients Only, n = 340 VisQol Misfitting Patients Removed, n = 257 ...
Extent of foveal tritanopia in diabetes mellitus | British Journal of Ophthalmology
... visual field has been assessed40 to examine the peripheral S-cone system and achromatic sensitivity in patients with diabetes ... The mean visual acuity of the patients was 0.04 (SD 0.08) logMAR. ... field averaged S-cone system sensitivity in patients with ... However, localised sensitivity losses in the visual field were found in most patients with diabetes both before and after lens ... The authors concluded that patients with diabetes may have areas of reduced S-cone system sensitivity before and after the ...
DailyMed - EMEND- aprepitant capsule EMEND- aprepitant kit
Nervous system disorders: dysarthria, sensory disturbance. Eye disorders: miosis, visual acuity reduced. ... 2.3 Geriatric Patients 2.4 Patients with Renal Impairment 2.5 Patients with Hepatic Impairment 2.6 Coadministration with Other ... 2.4 Patients with Renal Impairment. No dosage adjustment is necessary for patients with renal impairment or for patients with ... of the patients were 55 years or older with 32 patients being over 74 years. Patients receiving the aprepitant regimen were ...
Molecular Vision: The clinical features of retinal disease due to a dominant mutation in RPE65
... with reported normal visual acuity at age 80 years) and was absent in the unaffected brother of patient 2.2 (Figure 5). ... for patient 1.2 were acquired using the Topcon digital retinal camera system. Full-field electroretinography (ERG) and pattern ... At the age of 67 years, she had visual acuity of 20/60 in the right eye and 20/40 in the left. By age 74, acuity had ... Patient 2.3, a cousin of patient 2.2, developed central visual disturbance at age 40 years with symptoms of difficulty reading ...
ESCRS | European Society of Cataract & Refractive Surgeons
Evaluations included measurement of visual acuity, refraction of aberrometry, wavefront aberrometry and patient satisfaction. ... and VISX S4 CustomVue system. ... Most patients (98.5%) reported that they were satisfied with ... Uncorrected distance visual acuity of 20/16, 20/20, and 20/25 or better was achieved in 91.3 %, 96.6 %, 100 % 3 month after ... A retrospective analysis of consecutive cases of 50 eyes of 25 patients that underwent wavefront-guided LASIK by using a new ...
Costs and Quality of Life in Diabetic Macular Edema: Canadian Burden of Diabetic Macular Edema Observational Study (C-REALITY)
Mean age of patients was 63.7 years: 52% were male and 72% had bilateral DME. At baseline, visual acuity was categorized as ... DME represents a considerable burden to the Canadian healthcare system and patients. DME-related costs averaged $2,092 over 6 ... Figure 1: Mean 6-month DME-related costs per patient by visual acuity severity: with and without drug costs. ... 129 patients versus 33 patients. A European study  of 401 patients with neovascular AMD, including 67 patients in Canada [ ...
Letters to the Editor Wednesday
The military and most civilian systems do not have a field to input visual acuity and/or impairment. Places where she has been ... a patient for years give her forms to fill out that she cannot read. ... and that is that their computer systems are designed to service only those with correctable to 20/20 vision. ...
Brimonidine Drug Delivery System (DDS) Generation 1 in patients with geographic atrophy: Post-hoc analysis of a phase 2 study |...
Best-corrected visual acuity in the treated eye was between 70 and 35 ETDRS letters. Patients were randomized (2:2:1) to Brimo ... Brimonidine Drug Delivery System (DDS) Generation 1 in patients with geographic atrophy: Post-hoc analysis of a phase 2 study ... Brimonidine Drug Delivery System (DDS) Generation 1 in patients with geographic atrophy: Post-hoc analysis of a phase 2 study ... Patients were followed to Month 24. Results : One hundred thirteen patients received Brimo DDS 132 or 264 µg, or sham treatment ...
Analysis of Functional Dissociations between Best Corrected Visual Acuity and Microperimetric Parameters in Neovascular Age...
Analysis of Functional Dissociations between Best Corrected Visual Acuity and Microperimetric Parameters in Neovascular Age- ... Related Macular Degeneration Patients Underwent to Three Monthly Ranibizumab Injections Abstract. ... 4Department of Energy and Systems Engineering, University of Pisa, Pisa, Italy. ... Background: To analyze the sensitivity of best corrected visual acuity and microperimetry to detect significant visual changes ...
Proclear® multifocal | Practitioner
Patient information booklet. *Rebate information. Product specs Features. *Provides excellent stereopisis and visual acuity at ... And the Proclear multifocal lens-fitting system offers you more control and flexibility when fitting presbyopic patients. ... These two lens designs work together to maximize binocular visual acuity at all distances-near, intermediate and far. ... PC Technology leads to a more comfortable lens-wearing experience-especially important to presbyopic patients whose eyes often ...
LogMARRetinitis pigmentosaRetinaClinicalStudyImprovement in Visual AcuityIncluding best-corrected visual acuityEarly Treatment Diabetic Retinopathy StudyETDRSLoss of visual acuitySlit-lampPoor visualNear visual acuityExaminationIntraocularOutcomesOutcome MeasuresAmblyopiaMonths postoperativelyOphthalmologicRefractive errorsPatient's visualBlindnessRefractionAuditoryResultsFocalExamDiagnosticMyopiaRetinal pigment epSensitivitySevereFundusSnellenGlaucomaAssessmentOphthalmologyBinocularPediatricMicroperimetryClinicallyReductionsOptic nerveDistance1.25Macular EdemaSubgroupsQuestionnaireMeasurements
- At the ASRS 31st Annual Meeting, Mark S. Humayun, MD, PhD, presented updated safety and performance results of the Argus® II Retinal Prosthesis System clinical trial and gave an overview of the commercial experience in Europe. (asrs.org)
- A total of 54 clinical trial subjects and commercial patients worldwide have received the Argus II implant. (asrs.org)
Improvement in Visual Acuity2
Including best-corrected visual acuity1
Early Treatment Diabetic Retinopathy Study3
- The authors also comment about the rate of decline in letters per year on Early Treatment Diabetic Retinopathy Study (ETDRS) distance acuity testing. (healthcanal.com)
- Eligibility criteria included an age of 18 years or older, best-corrected visual acuity scores between 24 and 78 Early Treatment Diabetic Retinopathy Study letters (20/32 to 20/320 Snellen equivalent), and the presence of DME because of type 1 or 2 diabetes mellitus with a central subfield thickness of greater than 250 µm measured by time-domain optical coherence tomography. (mayoclinic.org)
- Bevacizumab injections were repeated at months two, three, four, six, seven, eight, 10 and 11 when the central subfield thickness was greater than 250 µm and the Early Treatment Diabetic Retinopathy Study visual acuity score was less than 80 letters (20/25 Snellen equivalent). (mayoclinic.org)
- ETDRS visual acuity was tested at both study visits. (escrs.org)
- Cataract extraction led to a significant increase in ETDRS visual acuity (p=0.028). (escrs.org)
- Best-corrected visual acuity was investigated with the ETDRS chart at 4 m. (omicsonline.org)
- Comparison of changes in mean 4° central retinal sensitivity and best-corrected visual acuity in "BCVA relatively stable patients" (defined as change ≤ ± 4 ETDRS letters after treatment). (omicsonline.org)
- Mean best-corrected visual acuity improved of 5.90 ± 11.29 ETDRS letters (P=0.0006). (omicsonline.org)
- Best-corrected visual acuity in the treated eye was between 70 and 35 ETDRS letters. (arvojournals.org)
- Additionally, 92.5% of the primary eyes achieved an improvement of at least 10 ETDRS letters of near visual acuity, Bucci wrote in the poster. (healio.com)
- The minimum dataset included: age, visual acuity (all time-points), injection episodes, timing of cataract surgery and ETDRS grading of retinopathy and maculopathy. (bmj.com)
Loss of visual acuity2
- A 41-year-old man was admitted to our hospital on July 12, 1999, because of gradual, progressive loss of visual acuity and narrowing of the visual field of the right eye over the previous 3 days. (ajnr.org)
- 2 It is characterized by a loss of visual acuity caused by degeneration of the choriocapillaris, retinal pigment epithelium (RPE), and photoreceptors, usually beginning with drusen and pigmentary changes in Bruch's membrane. (uspharmacist.com)
- Pre- and post-operative assessments included best corrected visual acuity (BCVA), intraocular pressure (IOP), slit-lamp evaluation, and fundoscopic evaluation. (dovepress.com)
- All patients will be underwent eye examination (medical history, best corrected visual acuity, slit-lamp and stereo optic disc evaluation, Goldmann applanation tonometry, central corneal thickness measurement , Humphrey central 24-2 threshold perimetry test and optical coherence tomography of the optic nerve head, retinal nerve fibre layer and macula. (clinicaltrials.gov)
- Poor visual acuity and amblyopia in patients with Down syndrome may be due to degradation in optical quality and neurologic deficits. (medscape.com)
- Visual prostheses have returned poor visual acuity. (egms.de)
- Eyes: Pigmentary retinopathy, poor visual acuity, low vision, and/or blindness caused by an impaired photoreceptor transport mechanism in the retina. (wikipedia.org)
Near visual acuity6
- HONOLULU - A subset of patients treated for presbyopia with scleral implants experienced a clinically significant improvement in near visual acuity, according to a poster presented at the Association for Research in Vision and Ophthalmology meeting here. (healio.com)
- All 20 primary eyes achieved distance corrected near visual acuity of 20/40 or better at 40 cm at the final follow-up. (healio.com)
- For uncorrected near visual acuity, 100% of eyes achieved 20/32 or better and 90% achieved 20/25 or better. (healio.com)
- Scleral implants improved near visual acuity: A subsample of patients treated for presbyopia. (healio.com)
- Near visual acuity, depth perception and color perception are required. (localjobs.com)
- Near visual acuity (VA) and anterior/posterior segment photographs were taken with a smartphone-based VA app and ophthalmic camera system. (stanford.edu)
- This remains important for certain parts of the examination, for in-office treatments, and for developing a connection between the provider and patient. (stanford.edu)
- Therefore, patients must be examined for corneal edema, megalocornea, increased intraocular pressure, and optic nerve cupping, as part of a comprehensive ophthalmic examination. (medscape.com)
- Ophthalmologic examination on admission showed visual acuity of 20/100 in the right eye and 20/20 in the left eye. (ajnr.org)
- The patient was alert and well oriented, and neurologic examination revealed neck stiffness and Kernig's sign. (ajnr.org)
- A tabletop subjective refraction system that integrates chart and refractor into a single unit and significantly minimizes the examination footprint. (marco.com)
- Peek, the Portable Eye Examination Kit, is a set of diagnostic tools that allows eye care workers to use a smartphone to screen eye patients. (cehjournal.org)
- On our examination, best-corrected visual acuity was 20/80 OD and 20/25 OS. (ispub.com)
- To assess the influence of angle kappa (κ) and angle alpha (α) on visual quality after multifocal intraocular lens (IOL) implantation. (unboundmedicine.com)
- To determine the proportion of eyes with preexisting astigmatism achieving 0.50 diopters (D) or less of residual refractive cylinder 3 months after either implantation of toric intraocular lenses (IOLs) or corneal incisions using the VERION system (Alcon Laboratories, Inc., Fort Worth, TX) measurement module and digital markers for microscope (M) and laser (L). (healio.com)
- These new data increasingly suggest to us that treatment with OpRegen can provide clinically meaningful outcomes in dry AMD patients with GA, particularly for those with earlier-stage disease," stated Brian M. Culley, Lineage CEO. (businesswire.com)
- These changes will reportedly shift financial risks to the physician, while also accounting for patient outcomes. (news-medical.net)
- I wanted to quantify the link between regular visits to the eye doctor and visual outcomes for these patients. (news-medical.net)
- Those metrics were then compared to the patients' outcomes on their final vision tests. (news-medical.net)
- For all four metrics, patients who best adhered to their scheduled visits had better visual outcomes. (news-medical.net)
- However, when the Penn Medicine researchers controlled for number of injections, they found that visit adherence was still associated with visual outcomes, independent of how many treatments someone received. (news-medical.net)
- The study authors note that the findings are important, not only for improving patient outcomes, but also due to impending changes in insurance reimbursement. (news-medical.net)
- It has been reported that Medicare's future goal will be to shift financial risks to the physician, while also accounting for patient outcomes. (news-medical.net)
- VanderBeek said that future studies should investigate how physicians, individual practices, and health systems can create policies and practices to overcome these obstacles and improve health outcomes. (news-medical.net)
- P = 0.03) compared with continued bevacizumab monotherapy while achieving similar visual outcomes (+5.4 letters vs. +4.9 letters) at one year. (mayoclinic.org)
- IoT solutions help healthcare professionals spend less time on healthcare administration and more time on patient care, which saves lives, and improves healthcare outcomes in an industry where operating efficiencies truly matter. (automatedbuildings.com)
- The health insurers provided the health claim costs for the ophthalmologic care and the total health care costs of each patient in the observation period. (bireme.br)
- Using multivariate regression models, we assessed the monthly ophthalmologic and the monthly total costs of patients with no history of switching (ranibizumab vs. aflibercept), patients with a history of switching from ranibizumab to aflibercept, patients switching during the observation period and a miscellaneous group. (bireme.br)
- There was a progressive decrease in visual acuity leading to legal blindness in early adulthood. (diva-portal.org)
- However, the patient lacked stigmata of optic neuritis, instead had visual hallucinations and encephalopathy suggestive of cortical blindness, and was noted to have occipital lobe lesions on brain MRI. (ovid.com)
- Diabetic retinopathy (DR) and diabetic macular edema (DME) are common microvascular complications in patients with diabetes and may have a sudden and debilitating impact on visual acuity (VA), eventually leading to blindness. (diabetesjournals.org)
- DME is a frequent manifestation of DR ( 5 ) and is a leading cause of legal blindness in patients with type 2 diabetes. (diabetesjournals.org)
- Patients with color perception deficiencies ("color blindness") will have difficulties trying to arrange the colored discs and will usually make mistakes. (visionmonday.com)
- The patients in both trials had either age-related macular degeneration or Stargardt's macular dystrophy , the leading forms of blindness in the developed world, both of which are incurable. (bionews.org.uk)
- When I performed the refraction myself, I averaged 10 to 15 minutes per patient. (marco.com)
- Using the EPIC system, refraction takes just 2 to 3 minutes with my s. (marco.com)
- That cuts refraction times in half, and translates into me seeing 5 to 10 more patients each day. (marco.com)
- The EPIC refraction system from Marco has been a key addition to our practice that has helped us achieve this improved quality of care while simultaneously improving our efficiency. (marco.com)
- The system comprised of the TRS digital refractor and the integrated OPD-Scan III component, gives us a reliable, fast refraction as well as a detailed corneal analysis that aids us in multiple ways in the pre- and post-operative management of cataract patients. (marco.com)
- The preliminary evaluation of the Opternative digital refraction system shows strong refractive correlation with the traditional manifest exam. (lens.com)
- Here we investigated whether an auditory feedback system could facilitate face identification. (egms.de)
- We found that patients' accuracy was systematically affected by blurring and contrast reduction but not by auditory feedback. (egms.de)
- Lloyd Minor, MD, in 1998 described a series of patients with vestibular and auditory symptoms caused by a defect or dehiscence of the bony covering of the superior semicircular canal. (lww.com)
- A hearing ability with auditory aids to understand the normal speaking voice without viewing the speaker's face, hear timers and call bells from patients, take/hear blood pressure and lung sounds with a stethoscope, and hear alarms and emergency signals. (me.edu)
- Their results indicate that patients with a diet high in long-chain ω-3 fatty acids (≥0.20 g/d) had a 40 percent slower mean (average) annual rate of decline in distance visual acuity than those with a diet low in those fatty acids, the researchers comment. (healthcanal.com)
- The new MRF Visual Field Tablet is meticulously designed and calibrated to deliver consistent results. (prweb.com)
- These results provide important information in understanding the effect of anti-VEGF therapy among patients with nAMD. (dovepress.com)
- For PD patients, however, the results of express saccades are controversial. (frontiersin.org)
- RESULTS Each patient had two or more acute attacks of demyelinating disease affecting the CNS. (bmj.com)
- I also think the integrated software is a really nice way to communicate with patients and show them the results. (marco.com)
- Results Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) patients are at increased risk of several neuropsychiatric manifestations. (bmj.com)
- The results of the TBO were regarded as an indication of insufficient collateral flow and increased risk of visual loss if the OpthA were to occlude during coiling. (ajnr.org)
- Results: The majority of patients showed subnormal visual acuity and light sensitivity from childhood. (diva-portal.org)
- Results of a 12-month study of eyes with persistent diabetic macular edema (DME) after multiple anti-vascular endothelial growth factor (anti-VEGF) injections indicate that a dexamethasone implant combined with bevacizumab improves visual acuity and macular morphology significantly. (mayoclinic.org)
- Based on the results of previous studies, the hypothesis has been posed that patients with NTG have an impaired diurnal heart rate variability (HRV) or high activity of the sympathetic component of autonomic nervous system (ANS) and endothelial dysfunction. (clinicaltrials.gov)
- RESULTS: The analysis involved 488 eyes (361 patients), 182 on ranibizumab treatment, and 63 on aflibercept treatment, 160 eyes with a history of switching from ranibizumab to aflibercept, and 45 switchers during follow-up and 38 eyes of the miscellaneous group. (bireme.br)
- The main advantages of IRIS® Registry are its wide coverage and availability of diagnostic test results such as acuity values. (cdc.gov)
- Short-term visual acuity outcome to focal retinal photocciagulation in black patients with clinically significant macular edema. (howard.edu)
- Bausch + Lomb announced availability of the PureVision2 Multi-Focal Fit Guide mobile application (app) in the U.S., which is designed to help eyecare practitioners successfully fit patients into PureVision2 for Presbyopia contact lenses. (clspectrum.com)
- On average, fitting a multi-focal contact lens on a patient takes 2.6 attempts. (clspectrum.com)
- 1 The new app was developed to help streamline the multi-focal fitting process for doctors by delivering a guide that is not only convenient and accessible, but also helps reduce patient chair time and the need for follow-up visits. (clspectrum.com)
- Most patients present with subacute development of headache, focal cerebral ischemia affecting multiple vascular territories, and aseptic meningitis 3 , 4 . (jrheum.org)
- The Digital Visual Acuity System includes all relevant functionality needed to perform accurate patient acuity testing, with a rich selection of fonts, exam types and administrative controls. (appadvice.com)
- Promote products and services, entertain and educate while the acuity exam is idle. (appadvice.com)
- An adjustable timer designates when the Content Display System initiates leaving the acuity exam running in the background in the state it was last. (appadvice.com)
- Visual satisfaction ratings from the Opternative exam and conventional phoropter based exam. (lens.com)
- Yang Smart is easy to use, and the exam is quicker compare to a traditional visual analyzer, Sifi Medtech said. (visionmonday.com)
- Our doctors want all patients, who are physically able, to have retinal imaging every annual exam. (brighteyestampa.com)
- The first year estimated cost for macular edema was $423 per patient and considered limited therapeutic (photocoagulation) and diagnostic procedure (color fundus photography and fluorescein angiography) options [ 9 ]. (hindawi.com)
- At present there are no facilities in the UK for the diagnostic testing of electro-sensitive patients. (emfnews.org)
- Following routine cervical and cerebral diagnostic angiography, a 6F Envoy guide catheter (Cordis Endovascular Systems, Miami, FL) was placed in the left ICA. (ajnr.org)
- This article is aimed at increasing audiologists' understanding of the audiologic and visual presentation, diagnostic criteria, and intervention strategies involved with Usher syndrome. (asha.org)
- Myopic predict spherical equivalent of IDesign seemed to compensate chromatic aberration Wavefront-guided LASIK performed using New Generation Hartmann-Shack baerrometer was effective, safe, and more accurate in the early postoperative time period for the correction of myopia with high patient satisfaction. (escrs.org)
- The variation of visual acuity for a artificial myopia concerned with the fogging technique. (koreascience.or.kr)
- The present study showed no significant difference in macular thickness between amblyopic and non- amblyopic eyes in patients with myopia or hyperopia (Table 1). (thefreedictionary.com)
Retinal pigment ep1
- The researchers further note that they previously reported an effect of dietary ω-3 intake on retaining central visual field sensitivity. (healthcanal.com)
- Patients receiving vitamin A palmitate, 15,000 IU/d, with ω-3 intake of at least 0.20 g/d had almost a 50 percent slower rate of decline in central visual field sensitivity than those receiving this dose of vitamin A with a lower ω-3 intake. (healthcanal.com)
- Microperimetry is a method to assess retinal sensitivity in the central visual field. (escrs.org)
- Microperimetry readings showed a mean retinal sensitivity difference between the two study measurements of 0.11 (p=0.81), 0.34 (p=0.41) and 0.89 (p=0.007) for nuclear cataract, cortical cataract, and posterior subcapsular cataract patients, respectively. (escrs.org)
- Microperimetry readings showed a significant increase of mean central retinal sensitivity in patients with posterior subcapsular cataract, while having little effect on patients with mild or moderate nuclear and cortical cataract. (escrs.org)
- To analyze the sensitivity of best corrected visual acuity and microperimetry to detect significant visual changes after 3 intravitreal ranibizumab in exudative age-related macular degeneration. (omicsonline.org)
- more Zeiss Humphrey 750i Visual Field Analyzer HFA II-i Perimeter Features: Threshold Visual Fields in as Little as 2 Minutes, SITA sensitivity. (troutunderground.com)
- Purpose: To investigate the effects of the transmittance of diffusive blurson visual acuity and contrast sensitivity. (koreascience.or.kr)
- Visual acuity and contrast sensitivity were measured with varying the transmittance of diffusive blur in order to simulate progression of cataract and concentration in fog. (koreascience.or.kr)
- Conclusions: The transmittance of diffusive blur causes a reduction in visual acuity and contrast sensitivity, a deviation of normal range of contrast sensitivity, and a shift of peak contrast sensitivity. (koreascience.or.kr)
- Effects of Induced dioptric blur on visual acuity and contrast sensitivity. (koreascience.or.kr)
- Most patients with electro-sensitivity complain of disorders of the nervous system. (emfnews.org)
- Yang Smart offers a broad range of visual ability tests: standard visual acuity tests, random tests, color sensitivity, contrast sensitivity, fixation, phorias and many others. (visionmonday.com)
- The patients carrying RP1 , C2ORF71, and IMPG2 mutations presented with severe RP, while those with PDE6A , PDE6B, and CNGB1 mutations were less severely affected. (molvis.org)
- Four affected patients from two families presented with nyctalopia and central visual disturbance in adulthood progressing to severe visual loss by the fifth to eighth decades. (molvis.org)
- At end-stage, the syndrome often causes retinal detachment, optic atrophy, and severe visual loss. (ajnr.org)
- Building on their findings, Acharya and her colleagues intend to continue their work, studying patients with even more severe corneal ulcers. (ucsf.edu)
- Neumega is indicated for the prevention of severe thrombocytopenia and the reduction of the need for platelet transfusions following myelosuppressive chemotherapy in adult patients with nonmyeloid malignancies who are at high risk of severe thrombocytopenia. (wikipedia.org)
- Efficacy was demonstrated in patients who had experienced severe thrombocytopenia following the previous chemotherapy cycle. (wikipedia.org)
- Patients with severe or decompensated heart failure should not be treated, because Oprelvekin may cause excessive fluid retention with edema and cardiac decompensation. (wikipedia.org)
- Neumega is not indicated following myeloablative chemotherapy (increased likelihood of severe side-effects) and in pediatric patients. (wikipedia.org)
- Fundus fluorescein angiographic images for patient 1.2 were acquired using the Topcon digital retinal camera system. (molvis.org)
- A centreVue Digital Retinography System non-mydriatic fundus camera was installed in the company occupational health service. (euretina.org)
- Landau and Yasargil 3 evaluated prospectively fundus changes in six patients with a confirmed diagnosis of NF 2 and found that four of them had epiretinal membranes. (ispub.com)
- Tests include: Full field 30-2, Full grid 24-2, Macular 10-2, Screening as well as Visual Acuity assessment. (prweb.com)
- ECP assessment of lens performance including ease of fit, and patient satisfaction with lenses in real world conditions, were measured using a 6-point agreement survey. (clspectrum.com)
- The findings, published today in JAMA Ophthalmology , suggest that more attention should be paid to ensuring visit adherence for this patient population. (news-medical.net)
- Nowhere in ophthalmology will this conflict arise more than in the treatment of patients with AMD,' they write. (news-medical.net)
- Peek Acuity, the visual acuity test (soon to be released on Android phones in late 2015/early 2016), is shown in a validation study published in JAMA Ophthalmology to be reliable, accurate and fast. (cehjournal.org)
- The Internet Journal of Ophthalmology and Visual Science. (ispub.com)
- These two lens designs work together to maximize binocular visual acuity at all distances-near, intermediate and far. (coopervision.com)
- Beecher Research s telescopic system, the Beecher Mirage , is a lightweight binocular system that is worn like eyewear for distance viewing. (lowvision.org)
- Patients of any age may come to see an orthoptist, but most of their patients are children due to the developmental nature of many binocular disorders. (mynextmove.org)
- A pediatric ophthalmologist should evaluate patients with Down syndrome in the first 6 months of life and annually thereafter if no eye pathology is present. (medscape.com)
- The device is particularly useful in pediatric patients and patients undergoing clear lens extraction. (ophthalmologytimes.com)
- Classification of pediatric T‐cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia (T‐ALL) patients into CIMP (CpG Island Methylator Phenotype) subgroups has the potential to improve current risk stratification. (diva-portal.org)
- Pediatric cancer patients treated with aggressive chemotherapy showed similar pharmakinetic characteristics. (wikipedia.org)
- Dr. Nate Bonilla-Warford and Dr. Beth Knighton are residency-trained pediatric optometrists and see patients of all ages. (brighteyestampa.com)
- Morphological changes in the vestibular system associated with aging are well documented, but the ability to measure these changes clinically has been limited. (ku.edu)
- Designed with clinically relevant anatomy and time-tested ultrasound compatibility that maintains visual acuity and market leading durability. (simulab.com)
- To magnify distance objects, telescopic systems are frequently used. (lowvision.org)
- Thousands of mildly visually impaired patients in the United States use bioptics to drive, watch television or do other distance tasks. (lowvision.org)
- It can be located at any patient distance and is controlled by a remote control. (visionmonday.com)
- Visual acuity at distance and near - Can you see clearly? (brighteyestampa.com)