Tomography, X-Ray Computed: Tomography using x-ray transmission and a computer algorithm to reconstruct the image.Tomography, Spiral Computed: Computed tomography where there is continuous X-ray exposure to the patient while being transported in a spiral or helical pattern through the beam of irradiation. This provides improved three-dimensional contrast and spatial resolution compared to conventional computed tomography, where data is obtained and computed from individual sequential exposures.Spiral Ganglion: The sensory ganglion of the COCHLEAR NERVE. The cells of the spiral ganglion send fibers peripherally to the cochlear hair cells and centrally to the COCHLEAR NUCLEI of the BRAIN STEM.Tomography: Imaging methods that result in sharp images of objects located on a chosen plane and blurred images located above or below the plane.Positron-Emission Tomography: An imaging technique using compounds labelled with short-lived positron-emitting radionuclides (such as carbon-11, nitrogen-13, oxygen-15 and fluorine-18) to measure cell metabolism. It has been useful in study of soft tissues such as CANCER; CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM; and brain. SINGLE-PHOTON EMISSION-COMPUTED TOMOGRAPHY is closely related to positron emission tomography, but uses isotopes with longer half-lives and resolution is lower.Tomography, Optical Coherence: An imaging method using LASERS that is used for mapping subsurface structure. When a reflective site in the sample is at the same optical path length (coherence) as the reference mirror, the detector observes interference fringes.Spiral Ligament of Cochlea: A spiral thickening of the fibrous lining of the cochlear wall. Spiral ligament secures the membranous COCHLEAR DUCT to the bony spiral canal of the COCHLEA. Its spiral ligament fibrocytes function in conjunction with the STRIA VASCULARIS to mediate cochlear ion homeostasis.Tomography, Emission-Computed: Tomography using radioactive emissions from injected RADIONUCLIDES and computer ALGORITHMS to reconstruct an image.Tomography, Optical: Projection of near-IR light (INFRARED RAYS), in the 700-1000 nm region, across an object in parallel beams to an array of sensitive photodetectors. This is repeated at various angles and a mathematical reconstruction provides three dimensional MEDICAL IMAGING of tissues. Based on the relative transparency of tissues to this spectra, it has been used to monitor local oxygenation, brain and joints.Multidetector Computed Tomography: Types of spiral computed tomography technology in which multiple slices of data are acquired simultaneously improving the resolution over single slice acquisition technology.Tomography, Emission-Computed, Single-Photon: A method of computed tomography that uses radionuclides which emit a single photon of a given energy. The camera is rotated 180 or 360 degrees around the patient to capture images at multiple positions along the arc. The computer is then used to reconstruct the transaxial, sagittal, and coronal images from the 3-dimensional distribution of radionuclides in the organ. The advantages of SPECT are that it can be used to observe biochemical and physiological processes as well as size and volume of the organ. The disadvantage is that, unlike positron-emission tomography where the positron-electron annihilation results in the emission of 2 photons at 180 degrees from each other, SPECT requires physical collimation to line up the photons, which results in the loss of many available photons and hence degrades the image.Cone-Beam Computed Tomography: Computed tomography modalities which use a cone or pyramid-shaped beam of radiation.Electron Microscope Tomography: A tomographic technique for obtaining 3-dimensional images with transmission electron microscopy.Tomography, X-Ray: Tomography using x-ray transmission.Tomography Scanners, X-Ray Computed: X-ray image-detecting devices that make a focused image of body structures lying in a predetermined plane from which more complex images are computed.Cochlea: The part of the inner ear (LABYRINTH) that is concerned with hearing. It forms the anterior part of the labyrinth, as a snail-like structure that is situated almost horizontally anterior to the VESTIBULAR LABYRINTH.Fluorodeoxyglucose F18: The compound is given by intravenous injection to do POSITRON-EMISSION TOMOGRAPHY for the assessment of cerebral and myocardial glucose metabolism in various physiological or pathological states including stroke and myocardial ischemia. It is also employed for the detection of malignant tumors including those of the brain, liver, and thyroid gland. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p1162)Imaging, Three-Dimensional: The process of generating three-dimensional images by electronic, photographic, or other methods. For example, three-dimensional images can be generated by assembling multiple tomographic images with the aid of a computer, while photographic 3-D images (HOLOGRAPHY) can be made by exposing film to the interference pattern created when two laser light sources shine on an object.Spiral Lamina: The bony plate which extends outwards from the modiolus into the spiral canal of the cochlea, forming part of the structure that divides the upper SCALA VESTIBULI and the lower SCALA TYMPANI.Sensitivity and Specificity: Binary classification measures to assess test results. Sensitivity or recall rate is the proportion of true positives. Specificity is the probability of correctly determining the absence of a condition. (From Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)Image Processing, Computer-Assisted: A technique of inputting two-dimensional images into a computer and then enhancing or analyzing the imagery into a form that is more useful to the human observer.Reproducibility of Results: The statistical reproducibility of measurements (often in a clinical context), including the testing of instrumentation or techniques to obtain reproducible results. The concept includes reproducibility of physiological measurements, which may be used to develop rules to assess probability or prognosis, or response to a stimulus; reproducibility of occurrence of a condition; and reproducibility of experimental results.Magnetic Resonance Imaging: Non-invasive method of demonstrating internal anatomy based on the principle that atomic nuclei in a strong magnetic field absorb pulses of radiofrequency energy and emit them as radiowaves which can be reconstructed into computerized images. The concept includes proton spin tomographic techniques.Phantoms, Imaging: Devices or objects in various imaging techniques used to visualize or enhance visualization by simulating conditions encountered in the procedure. Phantoms are used very often in procedures employing or measuring x-irradiation or radioactive material to evaluate performance. Phantoms often have properties similar to human tissue. Water demonstrates absorbing properties similar to normal tissue, hence water-filled phantoms are used to map radiation levels. Phantoms are used also as teaching aids to simulate real conditions with x-ray or ultrasonic machines. (From Iturralde, Dictionary and Handbook of Nuclear Medicine and Clinical Imaging, 1990)Spiral Cone-Beam Computed Tomography: Modality of computed tomography in which the patient is irradiated in a spiral path around the body with a cone or pyramid-shaped beam.Radiographic Image Interpretation, Computer-Assisted: Computer systems or networks designed to provide radiographic interpretive information.Stria Vascularis: A layer of stratified EPITHELIUM forming the endolymphatic border of the cochlear duct at the lateral wall of the cochlea. Stria vascularis contains primarily three cell types (marginal, intermediate, and basal), and capillaries. The marginal cells directly facing the ENDOLYMPH are important in producing ion gradients and endochoclear potential.Predictive Value of Tests: In screening and diagnostic tests, the probability that a person with a positive test is a true positive (i.e., has the disease), is referred to as the predictive value of a positive test; whereas, the predictive value of a negative test is the probability that the person with a negative test does not have the disease. Predictive value is related to the sensitivity and specificity of the test.X-Ray Microtomography: X-RAY COMPUTERIZED TOMOGRAPHY with resolution in the micrometer range.Multimodal Imaging: The use of combination of imaging techniques or platforms (e.g., MRI SCAN and PET SCAN) encompassing aspects of anatomical, functional, or molecular imaging methods.Fluorine Radioisotopes: Unstable isotopes of fluorine that decay or disintegrate emitting radiation. F atoms with atomic weights 17, 18, and 20-22 are radioactive fluorine isotopes.Radiographic Image Enhancement: Improvement in the quality of an x-ray image by use of an intensifying screen, tube, or filter and by optimum exposure techniques. Digital processing methods are often employed.Contrast Media: Substances used to allow enhanced visualization of tissues.Organ of Corti: The spiral EPITHELIUM containing sensory AUDITORY HAIR CELLS and supporting cells in the cochlea. Organ of Corti, situated on the BASILAR MEMBRANE and overlaid by a gelatinous TECTORIAL MEMBRANE, converts sound-induced mechanical waves to neural impulses to the brain.Image Enhancement: Improvement of the quality of a picture by various techniques, including computer processing, digital filtering, echocardiographic techniques, light and ultrastructural MICROSCOPY, fluorescence spectrometry and microscopy, scintigraphy, and in vitro image processing at the molecular level.Calcinosis: Pathologic deposition of calcium salts in tissues.Diagnostic Imaging: Any visual display of structural or functional patterns of organs or tissues for diagnostic evaluation. It includes measuring physiologic and metabolic responses to physical and chemical stimuli, as well as ultramicroscopy.Retrospective Studies: Studies used to test etiologic hypotheses in which inferences about an exposure to putative causal factors are derived from data relating to characteristics of persons under study or to events or experiences in their past. The essential feature is that some of the persons under study have the disease or outcome of interest and their characteristics are compared with those of unaffected persons.Artifacts: Any visible result of a procedure which is caused by the procedure itself and not by the entity being analyzed. Common examples include histological structures introduced by tissue processing, radiographic images of structures that are not naturally present in living tissue, and products of chemical reactions that occur during analysis.Radiography, Thoracic: X-ray visualization of the chest and organs of the thoracic cavity. It is not restricted to visualization of the lungs.Algorithms: A procedure consisting of a sequence of algebraic formulas and/or logical steps to calculate or determine a given task.Equipment Design: Methods of creating machines and devices.Brain: The part of CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM that is contained within the skull (CRANIUM). Arising from the NEURAL TUBE, the embryonic brain is comprised of three major parts including PROSENCEPHALON (the forebrain); MESENCEPHALON (the midbrain); and RHOMBENCEPHALON (the hindbrain). The developed brain consists of CEREBRUM; CEREBELLUM; and other structures in the BRAIN STEM.Prospective Studies: Observation of a population for a sufficient number of persons over a sufficient number of years to generate incidence or mortality rates subsequent to the selection of the study group.Cochlear Duct: A spiral tube that is firmly suspended in the bony shell-shaped part of the cochlea. This ENDOLYMPH-filled cochlear duct begins at the vestibule and makes 2.5 turns around a core of spongy bone (the modiolus) thus dividing the PERILYMPH-filled spiral canal into two channels, the SCALA VESTIBULI and the SCALA TYMPANI.Temporal Bone: Either of a pair of compound bones forming the lateral (left and right) surfaces and base of the skull which contains the organs of hearing. It is a large bone formed by the fusion of parts: the squamous (the flattened anterior-superior part), the tympanic (the curved anterior-inferior part), the mastoid (the irregular posterior portion), and the petrous (the part at the base of the skull).Cochlear Nerve: The cochlear part of the 8th cranial nerve (VESTIBULOCOCHLEAR NERVE). The cochlear nerve fibers originate from neurons of the SPIRAL GANGLION and project peripherally to cochlear hair cells and centrally to the cochlear nuclei (COCHLEAR NUCLEUS) of the BRAIN STEM. They mediate the sense of hearing.Four-Dimensional Computed Tomography: Three-dimensional computed tomographic imaging with the added dimension of time, to follow motion during imaging.Coronary Angiography: Radiography of the vascular system of the heart muscle after injection of a contrast medium.Deafness: A general term for the complete loss of the ability to hear from both ears.Evoked Potentials, Auditory, Brain Stem: Electrical waves in the CEREBRAL CORTEX generated by BRAIN STEM structures in response to auditory click stimuli. These are found to be abnormal in many patients with CEREBELLOPONTINE ANGLE lesions, MULTIPLE SCLEROSIS, or other DEMYELINATING DISEASES.Treatment Outcome: Evaluation undertaken to assess the results or consequences of management and procedures used in combating disease in order to determine the efficacy, effectiveness, safety, and practicability of these interventions in individual cases or series.Uterine Artery: A branch arising from the internal iliac artery in females, that supplies blood to the uterus.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Ear, Inner: The essential part of the hearing organ consists of two labyrinthine compartments: the bony labyrinthine and the membranous labyrinth. The bony labyrinth is a complex of three interconnecting cavities or spaces (COCHLEA; VESTIBULAR LABYRINTH; and SEMICIRCULAR CANALS) in the TEMPORAL BONE. Within the bony labyrinth lies the membranous labyrinth which is a complex of sacs and tubules (COCHLEAR DUCT; SACCULE AND UTRICLE; and SEMICIRCULAR DUCTS) forming a continuous space enclosed by EPITHELIUM and connective tissue. These spaces are filled with LABYRINTHINE FLUIDS of various compositions.Observer Variation: The failure by the observer to measure or identify a phenomenon accurately, which results in an error. Sources for this may be due to the observer's missing an abnormality, or to faulty technique resulting in incorrect test measurement, or to misinterpretation of the data. Two varieties are inter-observer variation (the amount observers vary from one another when reporting on the same material) and intra-observer variation (the amount one observer varies between observations when reporting more than once on the same material).Radiography, Abdominal: Radiographic visualization of the body between the thorax and the pelvis, i.e., within the peritoneal cavity.Angiography: Radiography of blood vessels after injection of a contrast medium.Trophoblasts: Cells lining the outside of the BLASTOCYST. After binding to the ENDOMETRIUM, trophoblasts develop into two distinct layers, an inner layer of mononuclear cytotrophoblasts and an outer layer of continuous multinuclear cytoplasm, the syncytiotrophoblasts, which form the early fetal-maternal interface (PLACENTA).Coronary Artery Disease: Pathological processes of CORONARY ARTERIES that may derive from a congenital abnormality, atherosclerotic, or non-atherosclerotic cause.Countercurrent Distribution: A method of separation of two or more substances by repeated distribution between two immiscible liquid phases that move past each other in opposite directions. It is a form of liquid-liquid chromatography. (Stedman, 25th ed)Cardiac-Gated Imaging Techniques: Timing the acquisition of imaging data to specific points in the cardiac cycle to minimize image blurring and other motion artifacts.Hair Cells, Auditory: Sensory cells in the organ of Corti, characterized by their apical stereocilia (hair-like projections). The inner and outer hair cells, as defined by their proximity to the core of spongy bone (the modiolus), change morphologically along the COCHLEA. Towards the cochlear apex, the length of hair cell bodies and their apical STEREOCILIA increase, allowing differential responses to various frequencies of sound.Radiation Dosage: The amount of radiation energy that is deposited in a unit mass of material, such as tissues of plants or animal. In RADIOTHERAPY, radiation dosage is expressed in gray units (Gy). In RADIOLOGIC HEALTH, the dosage is expressed by the product of absorbed dose (Gy) and quality factor (a function of linear energy transfer), and is called radiation dose equivalent in sievert units (Sv).Macula Lutea: An oval area in the retina, 3 to 5 mm in diameter, usually located temporal to the posterior pole of the eye and slightly below the level of the optic disk. It is characterized by the presence of a yellow pigment diffusely permeating the inner layers, contains the fovea centralis in its center, and provides the best phototropic visual acuity. It is devoid of retinal blood vessels, except in its periphery, and receives nourishment from the choriocapillaris of the choroid. (From Cline et al., Dictionary of Visual Science, 4th ed)Models, Cardiovascular: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of the cardiovascular system, processes, or phenomena; includes the use of mathematical equations, computers and other electronic equipment.Follow-Up Studies: Studies in which individuals or populations are followed to assess the outcome of exposures, procedures, or effects of a characteristic, e.g., occurrence of disease.Oxygen Radioisotopes: Unstable isotopes of oxygen that decay or disintegrate emitting radiation. O atoms with atomic weights 13, 14, 15, 19, and 20 are radioactive oxygen isotopes.Diagnostic Techniques, Ophthalmological: Methods and procedures for the diagnosis of diseases of the eye or of vision disorders.Carbon Radioisotopes: Unstable isotopes of carbon that decay or disintegrate emitting radiation. C atoms with atomic weights 10, 11, and 14-16 are radioactive carbon isotopes.Nerve Fibers: Slender processes of NEURONS, including the AXONS and their glial envelopes (MYELIN SHEATH). Nerve fibers conduct nerve impulses to and from the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM.Presbycusis: Gradual bilateral hearing loss associated with aging that is due to progressive degeneration of cochlear structures and central auditory pathways. Hearing loss usually begins with the high frequencies then progresses to sounds of middle and low frequencies.Iohexol: An effective non-ionic, water-soluble contrast agent which is used in myelography, arthrography, nephroangiography, arteriography, and other radiographic procedures. Its low systemic toxicity is the combined result of low chemotoxicity and low osmolality.Labyrinth Supporting Cells: Cells forming a framework supporting the sensory AUDITORY HAIR CELLS in the organ of Corti. Lateral to the medial inner hair cells, there are inner pillar cells, outer pillar cells, Deiters cells, Hensens cells, Claudius cells, Boettchers cells, and others.Computer Simulation: Computer-based representation of physical systems and phenomena such as chemical processes.Feasibility Studies: Studies to determine the advantages or disadvantages, practicability, or capability of accomplishing a projected plan, study, or project.Pulmonary Embolism: Blocking of the PULMONARY ARTERY or one of its branches by an EMBOLUS.Cerebrovascular Circulation: The circulation of blood through the BLOOD VESSELS of the BRAIN.Bronchography: Radiography of the bronchial tree after injection of a contrast medium.Lung Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the LUNG.Hair Cells, Auditory, Inner: Auditory sensory cells of organ of Corti, usually placed in one row medially to the core of spongy bone (the modiolus). Inner hair cells are in fewer numbers than the OUTER AUDITORY HAIR CELLS, and their STEREOCILIA are approximately twice as thick as those of the outer hair cells.Anatomy, Cross-Sectional: Descriptive anatomy based on three-dimensional imaging (IMAGING, THREE-DIMENSIONAL) of the body, organs, and structures using a series of computer multiplane sections, displayed by transverse, coronal, and sagittal analyses. It is essential to accurate interpretation by the radiologist of such techniques as ultrasonic diagnosis, MAGNETIC RESONANCE IMAGING, and computed tomography (TOMOGRAPHY, X-RAY COMPUTED). (From Lane & Sharfaei, Modern Sectional Anatomy, 1992, Preface)Arteries: The vessels carrying blood away from the heart.Equipment Failure Analysis: The evaluation of incidents involving the loss of function of a device. These evaluations are used for a variety of purposes such as to determine the failure rates, the causes of failures, costs of failures, and the reliability and maintainability of devices.Round Window, Ear: Fenestra of the cochlea, an opening in the basal wall between the MIDDLE EAR and the INNER EAR, leading to the cochlea. It is closed by a secondary tympanic membrane.Heart: The hollow, muscular organ that maintains the circulation of the blood.Optic Disk: The portion of the optic nerve seen in the fundus with the ophthalmoscope. It is formed by the meeting of all the retinal ganglion cell axons as they enter the optic nerve.Coronary Stenosis: Narrowing or constriction of a coronary artery.Aortography: Radiographic visualization of the aorta and its branches by injection of contrast media, using percutaneous puncture or catheterization procedures.Preoperative Care: Care given during the period prior to undergoing surgery when psychological and physical preparations are made according to the special needs of the individual patient. This period spans the time between admission to the hospital to the time the surgery begins. (From Dictionary of Health Services Management, 2d ed)Cochlear Diseases: Pathological processes of the snail-like structure (COCHLEA) of the inner ear (LABYRINTH) which can involve its nervous tissue, blood vessels, or fluid (ENDOLYMPH).Coronary Vessels: The veins and arteries of the HEART.Neurotrophin 3: A neurotrophic factor involved in regulating the survival of visceral and proprioceptive sensory neurons. It is closely homologous to nerve growth factor beta and BRAIN-DERIVED NEUROTROPHIC FACTOR.Incidental Findings: Unanticipated information discovered in the course of testing or medical care. Used in discussions of information that may have social or psychological consequences, such as when it is learned that a child's biological father is someone other than the putative father, or that a person tested for one disease or disorder has, or is at risk for, something else.Pneumoradiography: Radiography using air, oxygen, or some other gas as a contrast medium.Optical Phenomena: LIGHT, it's processes and properties, and the characteristics of materials interacting with it.Severity of Illness Index: Levels within a diagnostic group which are established by various measurement criteria applied to the seriousness of a patient's disorder.Magnetic Resonance Angiography: Non-invasive method of vascular imaging and determination of internal anatomy without injection of contrast media or radiation exposure. The technique is used especially in CEREBRAL ANGIOGRAPHY as well as for studies of other vascular structures.Hearing: The ability or act of sensing and transducing ACOUSTIC STIMULATION to the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM. It is also called audition.Hearing Loss: A general term for the complete or partial loss of the ability to hear from one or both ears.Ultrasonography: The visualization of deep structures of the body by recording the reflections or echoes of ultrasonic pulses directed into the tissues. Use of ultrasound for imaging or diagnostic purposes employs frequencies ranging from 1.6 to 10 megahertz.Solitary Pulmonary Nodule: A single lung lesion that is characterized by a small round mass of tissue, usually less than 1 cm in diameter, and can be detected by chest radiography. A solitary pulmonary nodule can be associated with neoplasm, tuberculosis, cyst, or other anomalies in the lung, the CHEST WALL, or the PLEURA.Organotechnetium Compounds: Organic compounds that contain technetium as an integral part of the molecule. These compounds are often used as radionuclide imaging agents.Thallium Radioisotopes: Unstable isotopes of thallium that decay or disintegrate emitting radiation. Tl atoms with atomic weights 198-202, 204, and 206-210 are thallium radioisotopes.Visual Acuity: Clarity or sharpness of OCULAR VISION or the ability of the eye to see fine details. Visual acuity depends on the functions of RETINA, neuronal transmission, and the interpretative ability of the brain. Normal visual acuity is expressed as 20/20 indicating that one can see at 20 feet what should normally be seen at that distance. Visual acuity can also be influenced by brightness, color, and contrast.Placental Circulation: The circulation of BLOOD, of both the mother and the FETUS, through the PLACENTA.Rotation: Motion of an object in which either one or more points on a line are fixed. It is also the motion of a particle about a fixed point. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Hearing Loss, Sensorineural: Hearing loss resulting from damage to the COCHLEA and the sensorineural elements which lie internally beyond the oval and round windows. These elements include the AUDITORY NERVE and its connections in the BRAINSTEM.Lung: Either of the pair of organs occupying the cavity of the thorax that effect the aeration of the blood.Spirillum: A genus of gram-negative, curved and spiral-shaped bacteria found in stagnant, freshwater environments. These organisms are motile by bipolar tufts of flagella having a long wavelength and about one helical turn. Some species of Spirillum cause a form of RAT-BITE FEVER.Subtraction Technique: Combination or superimposition of two images for demonstrating differences between them (e.g., radiograph with contrast vs. one without, radionuclide images using different radionuclides, radiograph vs. radionuclide image) and in the preparation of audiovisual materials (e.g., offsetting identical images, coloring of vessels in angiograms).Neoplasm Staging: Methods which attempt to express in replicable terms the extent of the neoplasm in the patient.Fluorescein Angiography: Visualization of a vascular system after intravenous injection of a fluorescein solution. The images may be photographed or televised. It is used especially in studying the retinal and uveal vasculature.Prognosis: A prediction of the probable outcome of a disease based on a individual's condition and the usual course of the disease as seen in similar situations.Models, Biological: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Models, Anatomic: Three-dimensional representation to show anatomic structures. Models may be used in place of intact animals or organisms for teaching, practice, and study.Cochlear Implants: Electronic hearing devices typically used for patients with normal outer and middle ear function, but defective inner ear function. In the COCHLEA, the hair cells (HAIR CELLS, VESTIBULAR) may be absent or damaged but there are residual nerve fibers. The device electrically stimulates the COCHLEAR NERVE to create sound sensation.Immunohistochemistry: Histochemical localization of immunoreactive substances using labeled antibodies as reagents.Optic Nerve Diseases: Conditions which produce injury or dysfunction of the second cranial or optic nerve, which is generally considered a component of the central nervous system. Damage to optic nerve fibers may occur at or near their origin in the retina, at the optic disk, or in the nerve, optic chiasm, optic tract, or lateral geniculate nuclei. Clinical manifestations may include decreased visual acuity and contrast sensitivity, impaired color vision, and an afferent pupillary defect.Decidua: The hormone-responsive glandular layer of ENDOMETRIUM that sloughs off at each menstrual flow (decidua menstrualis) or at the termination of pregnancy. During pregnancy, the thickest part of the decidua forms the maternal portion of the PLACENTA, thus named decidua placentalis. The thin portion of the decidua covering the rest of the embryo is the decidua capsularis.Cryoelectron Microscopy: Electron microscopy involving rapid freezing of the samples. The imaging of frozen-hydrated molecules and organelles permits the best possible resolution closest to the living state, free of chemical fixatives or stains.Guinea Pigs: A common name used for the genus Cavia. The most common species is Cavia porcellus which is the domesticated guinea pig used for pets and biomedical research.Papio anubis: A species of baboon in the family CERCOPITHECIDAE with a somewhat different social structure than PAPIO HAMADRYAS. They inhabit several areas in Africa south of the Sahara.Myocardial Perfusion Imaging: The creation and display of functional images showing where the blood is flowing into the MYOCARDIUM by following over time the distribution of tracers injected into the blood stream.Cochlear Implantation: Surgical insertion of an electronic hearing device (COCHLEAR IMPLANTS) with electrodes to the COCHLEAR NERVE in the inner ear to create sound sensation in patients with residual nerve fibers.Biopsy: Removal and pathologic examination of specimens in the form of small pieces of tissue from the living body.Uterus: The hollow thick-walled muscular organ in the female PELVIS. It consists of the fundus (the body) which is the site of EMBRYO IMPLANTATION and FETAL DEVELOPMENT. Beyond the isthmus at the perineal end of fundus, is CERVIX UTERI (the neck) opening into VAGINA. Beyond the isthmi at the upper abdominal end of fundus, are the FALLOPIAN TUBES.Aortic Aneurysm, Abdominal: An abnormal balloon- or sac-like dilatation in the wall of the ABDOMINAL AORTA which gives rise to the visceral, the parietal, and the terminal (iliac) branches below the aortic hiatus at the diaphragm.Liver Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the LIVER.Pregnancy: The status during which female mammals carry their developing young (EMBRYOS or FETUSES) in utero before birth, beginning from FERTILIZATION to BIRTH.Macular Edema: Fluid accumulation in the outer layer of the MACULA LUTEA that results from intraocular or systemic insults. It may develop in a diffuse pattern where the macula appears thickened or it may acquire the characteristic petaloid appearance referred to as cystoid macular edema. Although macular edema may be associated with various underlying conditions, it is most commonly seen following intraocular surgery, venous occlusive disease, DIABETIC RETINOPATHY, and posterior segment inflammatory disease. (From Survey of Ophthalmology 2004; 49(5) 470-90)Helicobacter: A genus of gram-negative, spiral-shaped bacteria that has been isolated from the intestinal tract of mammals, including humans. It has been associated with PEPTIC ULCER.Fatal Outcome: Death resulting from the presence of a disease in an individual, as shown by a single case report or a limited number of patients. This should be differentiated from DEATH, the physiological cessation of life and from MORTALITY, an epidemiological or statistical concept.Ultrasonography, Interventional: The use of ultrasound to guide minimally invasive surgical procedures such as needle ASPIRATION BIOPSY; DRAINAGE; etc. Its widest application is intravascular ultrasound imaging but it is useful also in urology and intra-abdominal conditions.Cochlear Microphonic Potentials: The electric response of the cochlear hair cells to acoustic stimulation.Retinal Ganglion Cells: Neurons of the innermost layer of the retina, the internal plexiform layer. They are of variable sizes and shapes, and their axons project via the OPTIC NERVE to the brain. A small subset of these cells act as photoreceptors with projections to the SUPRACHIASMATIC NUCLEUS, the center for regulating CIRCADIAN RHYTHM.Technetium Tc 99m Sestamibi: A technetium imaging agent used to reveal blood-starved cardiac tissue during a heart attack.Disease Models, Animal: Naturally occurring or experimentally induced animal diseases with pathological processes sufficiently similar to those of human diseases. They are used as study models for human diseases.Auditory Threshold: The audibility limit of discriminating sound intensity and pitch.Retina: The ten-layered nervous tissue membrane of the eye. It is continuous with the OPTIC NERVE and receives images of external objects and transmits visual impulses to the brain. Its outer surface is in contact with the CHOROID and the inner surface with the VITREOUS BODY. The outer-most layer is pigmented, whereas the inner nine layers are transparent.Interferometry: Measurement of distances or movements by means of the phenomena caused by the interference of two rays of light (optical interferometry) or of sound (acoustic interferometry).Placenta: A highly vascularized mammalian fetal-maternal organ and major site of transport of oxygen, nutrients, and fetal waste products. It includes a fetal portion (CHORIONIC VILLI) derived from TROPHOBLASTS and a maternal portion (DECIDUA) derived from the uterine ENDOMETRIUM. The placenta produces an array of steroid, protein and peptide hormones (PLACENTAL HORMONES).Pre-Eclampsia: A complication of PREGNANCY, characterized by a complex of symptoms including maternal HYPERTENSION and PROTEINURIA with or without pathological EDEMA. Symptoms may range between mild and severe. Pre-eclampsia usually occurs after the 20th week of gestation, but may develop before this time in the presence of trophoblastic disease.Spiders: Arthropods of the class ARACHNIDA, order Araneae. Except for mites and ticks, spiders constitute the largest order of arachnids, with approximately 37,000 species having been described. The majority of spiders are harmless, although some species can be regarded as moderately harmful since their bites can lead to quite severe local symptoms. (From Barnes, Invertebrate Zoology, 5th ed, p508; Smith, Insects and Other Arthropods of Medical Importance, 1973, pp424-430)Copper Radioisotopes: Unstable isotopes of copper that decay or disintegrate emitting radiation. Cu atoms with atomic weights 58-62, 64, and 66-68 are radioactive copper isotopes.Microscopy, Electron: Microscopy using an electron beam, instead of light, to visualize the sample, thereby allowing much greater magnification. The interactions of ELECTRONS with specimens are used to provide information about the fine structure of that specimen. In TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY the reactions of the electrons that are transmitted through the specimen are imaged. In SCANNING ELECTRON MICROSCOPY an electron beam falls at a non-normal angle on the specimen and the image is derived from the reactions occurring above the plane of the specimen.Retinal DiseasesAcute Disease: Disease having a short and relatively severe course.Nitrogen Radioisotopes: Unstable isotopes of nitrogen that decay or disintegrate emitting radiation. N atoms with atomic weights 12, 13, 16, 17, and 18 are radioactive nitrogen isotopes.Radioactive Tracers: Radioactive substances added in minute amounts to the reacting elements or compounds in a chemical process and traced through the process by appropriate detection methods, e.g., Geiger counter. Compounds containing tracers are often said to be tagged or labeled. (Hawley's Condensed Chemical Dictionary, 12th ed)ROC Curve: A graphic means for assessing the ability of a screening test to discriminate between healthy and diseased persons; may also be used in other studies, e.g., distinguishing stimuli responses as to a faint stimuli or nonstimuli.Ophthalmoscopy: Examination of the interior of the eye with an ophthalmoscope.Aortic Diseases: Pathological processes involving any part of the AORTA.Placentation: The development of the PLACENTA, a highly vascularized mammalian fetal-maternal organ and major site of transport of oxygen, nutrients, and fetal waste products between mother and FETUS. The process begins at FERTILIZATION, through the development of CYTOTROPHOBLASTS and SYNCYTIOTROPHOBLASTS, the formation of CHORIONIC VILLI, to the progressive increase in BLOOD VESSELS to support the growing fetus.Reference Values: The range or frequency distribution of a measurement in a population (of organisms, organs or things) that has not been selected for the presence of disease or abnormality.Blood Vessel Prosthesis Implantation: Surgical insertion of BLOOD VESSEL PROSTHESES to repair injured or diseased blood vessels.Gallium Radioisotopes: Unstable isotopes of gallium that decay or disintegrate emitting radiation. Ga atoms with atomic weights 63-68, 70 and 72-76 are radioactive gallium isotopes.Stents: Devices that provide support for tubular structures that are being anastomosed or for body cavities during skin grafting.Iopamidol: A non-ionic, water-soluble contrast agent which is used in myelography, arthrography, nephroangiography, arteriography, and other radiological procedures.Raclopride: A substituted benzamide that has antipsychotic properties. It is a dopamine D2 receptor (see RECEPTORS, DOPAMINE D2) antagonist.Coronary Circulation: The circulation of blood through the CORONARY VESSELS of the HEART.Microscopy, Electron, Scanning: Microscopy in which the object is examined directly by an electron beam scanning the specimen point-by-point. The image is constructed by detecting the products of specimen interactions that are projected above the plane of the sample, such as backscattered electrons. Although SCANNING TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY also scans the specimen point by point with the electron beam, the image is constructed by detecting the electrons, or their interaction products that are transmitted through the sample plane, so that is a form of TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY.Hematoma: A collection of blood outside the BLOOD VESSELS. Hematoma can be localized in an organ, space, or tissue.Palate, Hard: The anteriorly located rigid section of the PALATE.Models, Theoretical: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of systems, processes, or phenomena. They include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Mediastinum: A membrane in the midline of the THORAX of mammals. It separates the lungs between the STERNUM in front and the VERTEBRAL COLUMN behind. It also surrounds the HEART, TRACHEA, ESOPHAGUS, THYMUS, and LYMPH NODES.Tissue Distribution: Accumulation of a drug or chemical substance in various organs (including those not relevant to its pharmacologic or therapeutic action). This distribution depends on the blood flow or perfusion rate of the organ, the ability of the drug to penetrate organ membranes, tissue specificity, protein binding. The distribution is usually expressed as tissue to plasma ratios.Maxillofacial Abnormalities: Congenital structural deformities, malformations, or other abnormalities of the maxilla and face or facial bones.Pulmonary Atelectasis: Absence of air in the entire or part of a lung, such as an incompletely inflated neonate lung or a collapsed adult lung. Pulmonary atelectasis can be caused by airway obstruction, lung compression, fibrotic contraction, or other factors.Glaucoma: An ocular disease, occurring in many forms, having as its primary characteristics an unstable or a sustained increase in the intraocular pressure which the eye cannot withstand without damage to its structure or impairment of its function. The consequences of the increased pressure may be manifested in a variety of symptoms, depending upon type and severity, such as excavation of the optic disk, hardness of the eyeball, corneal anesthesia, reduced visual acuity, seeing of colored halos around lights, disturbed dark adaptation, visual field defects, and headaches. (Dictionary of Visual Science, 4th ed)Cerebral Angiography: Radiography of the vascular system of the brain after injection of a contrast medium.Silk: A continuous protein fiber consisting primarily of FIBROINS. It is synthesized by a variety of INSECTS and ARACHNIDS.Finite Element Analysis: A computer based method of simulating or analyzing the behavior of structures or components.Prosthesis Design: The plan and delineation of prostheses in general or a specific prosthesis.Skull: The SKELETON of the HEAD including the FACIAL BONES and the bones enclosing the BRAIN.False Negative Reactions: Negative test results in subjects who possess the attribute for which the test is conducted. The labeling of diseased persons as healthy when screening in the detection of disease. (Last, A Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)Regional Blood Flow: The flow of BLOOD through or around an organ or region of the body.Brain-Derived Neurotrophic Factor: A member of the nerve growth factor family of trophic factors. In the brain BDNF has a trophic action on retinal, cholinergic, and dopaminergic neurons, and in the peripheral nervous system it acts on both motor and sensory neurons. (From Kendrew, The Encyclopedia of Molecular Biology, 1994)Raptors: BIRDS that hunt and kill other animals, especially higher vertebrates, for food. They include the FALCONIFORMES order, or diurnal birds of prey, comprised of EAGLES, falcons, HAWKS, and others, as well as the STRIGIFORMES order, or nocturnal birds of prey, which includes OWLS.Angiography, Digital Subtraction: A method of delineating blood vessels by subtracting a tissue background image from an image of tissue plus intravascular contrast material that attenuates the X-ray photons. The background image is determined from a digitized image taken a few moments before injection of the contrast material. The resulting angiogram is a high-contrast image of the vessel. This subtraction technique allows extraction of a high-intensity signal from the superimposed background information. The image is thus the result of the differential absorption of X-rays by different tissues.Neurons: The basic cellular units of nervous tissue. Each neuron consists of a body, an axon, and dendrites. Their purpose is to receive, conduct, and transmit impulses in the NERVOUS SYSTEM.Optical Processes: Behavior of LIGHT and its interactions with itself and materials.Gerbillinae: A subfamily of the Muridae consisting of several genera including Gerbillus, Rhombomys, Tatera, Meriones, and Psammomys.Risk Factors: An aspect of personal behavior or lifestyle, environmental exposure, or inborn or inherited characteristic, which, on the basis of epidemiologic evidence, is known to be associated with a health-related condition considered important to prevent.Ganglion Cysts: Nodular tumor-like lesions or mucoid flesh, arising from tendon sheaths, LIGAMENTS, or JOINT CAPSULE, especially of the hands, wrists, or feet. They are not true cysts as they lack epithelial wall. They are distinguished from SYNOVIAL CYSTS by the lack of communication with a joint cavity or the SYNOVIAL MEMBRANE.Fundus Oculi: The concave interior of the eye, consisting of the retina, the choroid, the sclera, the optic disk, and blood vessels, seen by means of the ophthalmoscope. (Cline et al., Dictionary of Visual Science, 4th ed)Pilot Projects: Small-scale tests of methods and procedures to be used on a larger scale if the pilot study demonstrates that these methods and procedures can work.Iodine Radioisotopes: Unstable isotopes of iodine that decay or disintegrate emitting radiation. I atoms with atomic weights 117-139, except I 127, are radioactive iodine isotopes.Wounds, Nonpenetrating: Injuries caused by impact with a blunt object where there is no penetration of the skin.Analysis of Variance: A statistical technique that isolates and assesses the contributions of categorical independent variables to variation in the mean of a continuous dependent variable.Hair Cells, Auditory, Outer: Sensory cells of organ of Corti. In mammals, they are usually arranged in three or four rows, and away from the core of spongy bone (the modiolus), lateral to the INNER AUDITORY HAIR CELLS and other supporting structures. Their cell bodies and STEREOCILIA increase in length from the cochlear base toward the apex and laterally across the rows, allowing differential responses to various frequencies of sound.Brain Diseases: Pathologic conditions affecting the BRAIN, which is composed of the intracranial components of the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM. This includes (but is not limited to) the CEREBRAL CORTEX; intracranial white matter; BASAL GANGLIA; THALAMUS; HYPOTHALAMUS; BRAIN STEM; and CEREBELLUM.Radioisotopes: Isotopes that exhibit radioactivity and undergo radioactive decay. (From Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed & McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Heart Conduction System: An impulse-conducting system composed of modified cardiac muscle, having the power of spontaneous rhythmicity and conduction more highly developed than the rest of the heart.Blood Flow Velocity: A value equal to the total volume flow divided by the cross-sectional area of the vascular bed.Flank Pain: Pain emanating from below the RIBS and above the ILIUM.Image Interpretation, Computer-Assisted: Methods developed to aid in the interpretation of ultrasound, radiographic images, etc., for diagnosis of disease.Fovea Centralis: An area approximately 1.5 millimeters in diameter within the macula lutea where the retina thins out greatly because of the oblique shifting of all layers except the pigment epithelium layer. It includes the sloping walls of the fovea (clivus) and contains a few rods in its periphery. In its center (foveola) are the cones most adapted to yield high visual acuity, each cone being connected to only one ganglion cell. (Cline et al., Dictionary of Visual Science, 4th ed)Aniline CompoundsElectrocardiography: Recording of the moment-to-moment electromotive forces of the HEART as projected onto various sites on the body's surface, delineated as a scalar function of time. The recording is monitored by a tracing on slow moving chart paper or by observing it on a cardioscope, which is a CATHODE RAY TUBE DISPLAY.Optics and Photonics: A specialized field of physics and engineering involved in studying the behavior and properties of light and the technology of analyzing, generating, transmitting, and manipulating ELECTROMAGNETIC RADIATION in the visible, infrared, and ultraviolet range.
PMC 3259315 . Schoepf UJ, Goldhaber SZ, Costello P (2004). "Spiral computed tomography for acute pulmonary embolism". ... 2007). "Computed tomographic pulmonary angiography vs ventilation-perfusion lung scanning in patients with suspected pulmonary ... CT pulmonary angiogram (CTPA) is a medical diagnostic test that employs computed tomography (CT) angiography to obtain an image ... The best results are obtained using multidetector computed tomography (MDCT) scanners. An intravenous cannula is required for ...
The first problem is reduced by use of a helical motion, as in spiral computed tomography. The second requires close attention ... The second issue is that if the patient or tumor moves during this sequential delivery, then again, a hot or cold spot will ... HT is a form of computed tomography (CT) guided intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT). HT machines are purpose built for ... HT units are therefore better able to target treatment sites throughout the body without a pause for the patient to be moved ...
CT pulmonary angiography (CTPA) is a pulmonary angiogram obtained using computed tomography (CT) with radiocontrast rather than ... "Computed tomographic pulmonary angiography vs ventilation-perfusion lung scanning in patients with suspected pulmonary embolism ... Van Strijen MJ, De Monye W, Kieft GJ, Pattynama PM, Prins MH, Huisman MV (2005). "Accuracy of single-detector spiral CT in the ... and computed tomography". JAMA. 295 (2): 172-9. doi:10.1001/jama.295.2.172. PMID 16403929. Archived from the original on 2007- ...
Typical implementations involve moving the patient couch through the bore of the scanner whilst the gantry rotates. Spiral CT ... Spiral computed tomography, or helical computed tomography, is a computed tomography (CT) technology in which the source and ... Helical (or spiral) cone beam computed tomography is a type of three-dimensional computed tomography (CT) in which the source ( ... In cone-beam computed tomography (commonly abbreviated CBCT), the X-ray beam is conical. ...
Brown CV, Antevil JL, Sise MJ, Sack DI (May 2005). "Spiral computed tomography for the diagnosis of cervical, thoracic, and ... Accordingly, a practice has arisen that "clears" the patient from cervical spinal injury if the following criteria are met: the ... In those with significant trauma X-ray computed tomography is a more accurate test. Current opinion now suggests that X-ray of ... A computed tomographic analysis of the effects of helmet removal". Am J Sports Med. 28 (6): 800-3. PMID 11101101. Davidson RM, ...
Echocardiography Spiral Computed Tomography, Color Doppler and Ultrasonography Renal Transplantation and Renal Hemodialysis ... Ambulance service for transport of patients within There are 42 out-patient departments comprising Medicine and Surgery and ... Total patients seen per year are ~8,35,136: ~2,25,653 in the Emergency and ~6,09,483 in the Outpatient Department. Starting ... Average patients per day in OPD: ~2000 Average surgeries performed per day: ~250 Total Beds: ~2399 Major Departments: 4 ...
January 2001). "Results of three-year mass screening programme for lung cancer using mobile low-dose spiral computed tomography ... 2004). "Thoracic surgical operations in patients enrolled in a computed tomographic screening trial". Journal of Thoracic and ... April 1998). "Mass screening for lung cancer with mobile spiral computed tomography scanner". Lancet. 351 (9111): 1242-5. doi: ... The major research in the trial was to compare the efficacy of low-dose helical computed tomography (CT screening) and standard ...
... computed tomography (CT), nuclear medicine including positron emission tomography (PET), and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) ... Spiral multidetector CT uses 16, 64, 254 or more detectors during continuous motion of the patient through the radiation beam ... computed tomography (CT), nuclear medicine including positron emission tomography (PET), and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). ... single-photon emission computed tomography - SPECT or Positron-emission tomography - PET). In the most modern devices, nuclear ...
The development and introduction of volumetric spiral computed tomography was a particular focus of his work. The combination ... Application- and patient size-dependent optimization of x-ray spectra for CT. Med. Phys. 2009; 36:993-1007 Lück F, Kolditz D, ... X-ray Computed Tomography. Phys Med Biol 2006; 51: R29-R43 Kalender WA, Kyriakou Y. Flat-detector computed tomography (FD-CT). ... Dose in x-ray computed tomography. Phys Med Biol 2014; 59 R129-R150 Kalender WA, Kolditz D, Steiding C, Ruth V, Lück F, Rößler ...
If a severe distal fracture is supected, then a computed tomography (CT) scan can provide greater detail of the fracture. ... A spiral fracture of the distal one-third of the humerus shaft A displaced supracondylar fracture in a pediatric patient ... In most cases, patients are discharged from an emergency department with pain medicine and a cast or sling. These fractures are ... Long spiral fractures of the shaft that are present in children may indicate physical abuse. Distal fractures usually occur as ...
This eliminates the time needed to transfer a patient from the angiography suite to a conventional computed tomography scanner ... Swennen GR, Schutyser F (September 2006). "Three-dimensional cephalometry: spiral multi-slice vs cone-beam computed tomography ... Cone beam computed tomography (or CBCT, also referred to as C-arm CT, cone beam volume CT, or flat panel CT) is a medical ... Computed tomography Cone beam reconstruction Technical Description of CBCT from University of Manchester. Citing: Scarfe WC, ...
Most medical imaging of internal organs is segmented into two groups: (1) x-ray computed tomography (CT), magnetic resonance ... The fiber tip is driven by the tube and has a current resonance frequency of 5 kHz which spirals in an expanding pattern of 250 ... of heavy lead aprons Reduces X-ray radiation risk for patient and operator by decreasing the need for x-rays Reduces patient ... and patient pain [1]. The ability to achieve clear resolution while significantly reducing the device diameter to enhance ...
"Computed Tomography Techniques and Principles. Part a. Electron Beam Computed Tomography". In Anagnostopoulos, Constantinos D ... "Imaging of cardiovascular calcifications with electron beam tomography in hemodialysis patients". American Journal of Kidney ... As of 2005, it increasingly appears that the spiral CT designs, especially those with (b) 64 detector rows, (b) 3×360°/sec ... Electron beam tomography (EBT) is a specific form of computed tomography (CT) in which the X-ray tube is not mechanically spun ...
"Relation of oral anticoagulation to cardiac valvular and coronary calcium assessed by multislice spiral computed tomography". ... Patients on warfarin (Coumadin) treatment, or treatment with other vitamin K antagonist drugs, are therefore advised not to ... Also in humans on OAC treatment, two-fold more arterial calcification was found as compared to patients not receiving vitamin K ... Sato, Y.; Honda, Y.; Kunoh, H.; Oizumi, K. (1997). "Long-term oral anticoagulation reduces bone mass in patients with previous ...
"Indications for Computed Tomography in Patients with Minor Head Injury". New England Journal of Medicine. 343 (2): 100-105. doi ... A spiral CT scan of the head may be performed in 10-30 seconds, making it a good option for children and adults with difficulty ... Computed tomography (CT) scanning of the head scanning uses a series of x-rays of the head taken from many different directions ... Computed tomography (CT) has become the diagnostic modality of choice for head trauma due to its accuracy, reliability, safety ...
Spiral computed tomography findings with pathologic correlation and management". Radiol Med. 115 (4): 539-50. doi:10.1007/ ... The overall prognosis for patients with mucinous BAC is significantly worse than patients with nonmucinous BAC. Although data ... Therefore, it is considered a form of carcinoma in situ (CIS). The treatment of choice in any patient with BAC is complete ... In fact, there is some evidence that suggests that the administration of EGFR-pathway inhibitors to patients with K-ras mutated ...
... and Computed Tomography (CT) Scan services that is free for all legitimate residents of Manila. On December 23, 2008, the ... The various departments, including both in-patient and out-patient services, are grouped under 3 major services: The Board of ... It uses as curriculum the highly effective spiral rotation for the holistic training of its residents that ensures they will ... Ospital ng Maynila Patient Care Program bags Award. Inq7.Net. October 9, 2004. Hospital Management Asia 2004 Winners Multimedia ...
... much like the reconstruction of computed tomography (CT) and single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) data, are ... and careful planning with respect to patient scheduling. The concept of emission and transmission tomography was introduced by ... "SPIRAL out of Convexity: Sparsity-regularized Algorithms for Photon-limited Imaging". SPIE Electronic Imaging. Huang, S. C.; ... 2010). "Clinical value of 18F-fluorodihydroxyphenylalanine positron emission tomography/computed tomography (18F-DOPA PET/CT) ...
Computed tomography of the head. *Quantitative computed tomography. *Spiral computed tomography. *High resolution CT ... Managing Patient Does, ICRP, 30 October 2009.. *^ de Jong PA; Tiddens HA; Lequin MH; Robinson TE; et al. (May 2008). " ... Analytical techniques, much like the reconstruction of computed tomography (CT) and single-photon emission computed tomography ... 2010). "Clinical value of 18F-fluorodihydroxyphenylalanine positron emission tomography/computed tomography (18F-DOPA PET/CT) ...
... one of the principal engineers and developers of computed axial tomography (CAT, or CT scans). Cone beam computed tomography# ... Since the early 1990s, with advances in computer technology and scanners using spiral CT technology, internal three-dimensional ... Impact of CT identification on diagnosis and patient management. Volume 12 of Series in Radiology. Springer Science & Business ... The Hounsfield scale applies to medical-grade CT scans but not to cone beam computed tomography (CBCT) scans. A practical ...
A chest x-ray is useful to confirm or rule out a pneumothorax, pulmonary edema, or pneumonia.[14] Spiral computed tomography ... Headaches are also a symptom of dyspnea in patients suffering from anaemia. Some patients report a numb sensation in their head ... Sarkar S, Amelung PJ (September 2006). "Evaluation of the dyspneic patient in the office". Prim. Care. 33 (3): 643-57. doi: ... Torres M, Moayedi S (May 2007). "Evaluation of the acutely dyspneic elderly patient". Clin. Geriatr. Med. 23 (2): 307-25, vi. ...
Virtual colonoscopy, which uses 2D and 3D imagery reconstructed from computed tomography (CT) scans or from nuclear magnetic ... The appendix can be removed with no apparent damage or consequence to the patient.[citation needed] By the time the chyme has ... "Untitled". Medical dictionary Spiral colon and caecum "Answers - The Most Trusted Place for Answering Life's Questions". Siegel ... In ruminants, the ascending colon is known as the spiral colon. Taking into account all ages and sexes, colon cancer occurs ...
... computed tomographic colonography - computed tomography - computed tomography colography - computerized axial tomography - ... patient-controlled analgesia - Patient derived tumor xenografts - PCA - PDQ - peau d'orange - PEG-interferon alfa-2a - PEG- ... spiral CT scan - splenomegaly - sputum cytology - squalamine lactate - squamous cell - squamous cell carcinoma - squamous ... single-photon emission computed tomography - siplizumab - sirolimus - small cell lung cancer - small intestine - smoldering ...
1) x-ray computed tomography (CT), magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), and ultrasound, which are used to image structures and ... The fiber tip is driven by the tube and has a current resonance frequency of 5 kHz which spirals in an expanding pattern of 250 ... Reduces X-ray radiation risk for patient and operator by decreasing the need for x-rays ... spirals (500-pixel diameter image) at a frame rate of 15 Hertz. The 1.06 mm diameter distal tip houses the lens system, which ...
... such as those using computed tomography (CT; led by the electron beam tomography form, given its greater speed) and magnetic ... The study showed CIMT was higher in patients with significant CAD than in patients with non-critical coronary lesions. ... CT scans using state of the art higher resolution spiral, or the higher speed EBT, machines have been the most effective method ... found that the CIMT of patients with acute coronary syndrome were significantly increased compared to patients with stable ...
... three-dimensional imaging is often accomplished with the aid of a computed tomography X-ray scan performed on the patient ... Harmany, Z.; R. Marcia; R. Willett (2010). "SPIRAL out of Convexity: Sparsity-regularized Algorithms for Photon-limited Imaging ... Analytical techniques, much like the reconstruction of computed tomography (CT) and single-photon emission computed tomography ... 2010). "Clinical value of 18F-fluorodihydroxyphenylalanine positron emission tomography/computed tomography (18F-DOPA PET/CT) ...
High-Resolution Spiral Computed Tomography Coronary Angiography in Patients Referred for Diagnostic Conventional Coronary ... High-Resolution Spiral Computed Tomography Coronary Angiography in Patients Referred for Diagnostic Conventional Coronary ... High-Resolution Spiral Computed Tomography Coronary Angiography in Patients Referred for Diagnostic Conventional Coronary ... High-Resolution Spiral Computed Tomography Coronary Angiography in Patients Referred for Diagnostic Conventional Coronary ...
Enhanced Visualization of Pulmonary Vasculitis and Pulmonary Thrombosis by Multislice Spiral Computed Tomography in Patients ... Enhanced Visualization of Pulmonary Vasculitis and Pulmonary Thrombosis by Multislice Spiral Computed Tomography in Patients ... If patients could recognise themselves, or anyone else could recognise a patient from your description, please obtain the ... patients written consent to publication and send them to the editorial office before submitting your response [Patient consent ...
Patient-based analysis. Multislice spiral computed tomography coronary angiography correctly identified 18 of 21 (86%) patients ... computed tomography. MSCT. multislice spiral computed tomography. QCA. quantitative coronary angiography. *Received December 18 ... Multislice spiral computed tomography coronary angiography permits reliable detection of CAD in a population of patients in ... Multislice spiral computed tomography coronary angiography in patients with stable angina pectoris ...
... of multislice spiral computed tomography (MSCT) coronary angiography among patients having idiopathic hypokinetic dilated ... multislice spiral computed tomography coronary angiography. Procedure: Multislice spiral computed tomography coronary ... Multislice Spiral Computed Tomography and Cardiomyopathy (CMD-scanner). This study has been completed. ... Accuracy of Multislice Spiral Computed Tomography in Diagnosis of Coronary Artery Disease Associated to Idiopathic ...
The aim of this study was to evaluate the usefulness of annual screening for lung cancer by low-dose computed tomography (CT) ... Work-up examinations for patients with suspicious lesions were conducted using diagnostic CTs. The initial screening in 1996 ... Results of three-year mass screening programme for lung cancer using mobile low-dose spiral computed tomography scanner Br J ... The aim of this study was to evaluate the usefulness of annual screening for lung cancer by low-dose computed tomography (CT) ...
Cone-Beam Computed Tomography , Spiral Cone-Beam Computed Tomography , Tomography, X-Ray Computed , Tomography, Spiral Computed ... X-Ray Computed / Tomography, Spiral Computed / Cone-Beam Computed Tomography / Spiral Cone-Beam Computed Tomography Clinical ... Comparison of absorbed skin dose received by patients in cone beam computed tomography, spiral and conventional computed ... This study was performed to compare the entrance skin dose received by patients in cone beam computed tomography [CBCT], ...
The new spiral CT system promises to expedite the exam process, improve the image resolution and add to the range of diagnostic ... This speed provides two direct benefits including a shorter exam time for the patient and better diagnostic information for the ... A $1.2 million state-of-the-art computed tomography (CT) scanner was recently added to the radiology department at Aventura ... The new spiral CT system promises to expedite the exam process, improve the image resolution and add to the range of diagnostic ...
Spiral chest computed tomography, or. *Pulmonary arteriography. *Aged 18 years or above, of either sex ... Symptomatic pulmonary embolism patients confirmed by:. *High probability ventilation/perfusion lung scan according to the ... for 6 months versus initial treatment using subcutaneous LMWH followed by oral anticoagulants given for 6 months in patients ...
Despite the expected decline in the mid-1970s in the use of computed tomography (CT) following the excitement of magnetic ... Spiral/helical CT with the development of 64-multislice variant has revolutionized diagnostic imaging: image acquistion of ... Patient Preparation and Drugs; SomeGeneralComments 2. The Protocols: Head and Neck; Thorax; Abdomen and Pelvis; CT Angiography ... Despite the expected decline in the mid-1970s in the use of computed tomography (CT) following the excitement of magnetic ...
Computed tomography (CT, spiral or electron beam CT). Contrast enhanced spiral or electron beam CT have emerged as valuable ... One recent study showed, however, that patients with pulmonary embolism negative spiral CT do well without anticoagulation ... 2000) The role of spiral volumetric computed tomography in the diagnosis of pulmonary embolism. Arch Intern Med 160:293-298, A ... Haemodynamically stable patients. The principal challenge in stable patients is to develop a logical sequence of investigations ...
Patients with cancer have a particularly higher rate of DVT recurrence than noncancer patients. Long-term therapy for DVT is ... Deep venous thrombosis (DVT). Spiral computed tomography scan showing a pulmonary thrombus. ... The computed tomography scan demonstrates a hypoattenuating thrombus that fills the superior vena cava. The patient was treated ... Sensitivity and specificity of helical computed tomography in the diagnosis of pulmonary embolism: a systematic review. Ann ...
If a patient is thought to have pulmonary embolism (PE) or has documented PE, the absence of tenderness, erythema, edema, or a ... Deep venous thrombosis (DVT). Spiral computed tomography scan showing a pulmonary thrombus. ... The computed tomography scan demonstrates a hypoattenuating thrombus that fills the superior vena cava. The patient was treated ... Sensitivity and specificity of helical computed tomography in the diagnosis of pulmonary embolism: a systematic review. Ann ...
Typical implementations involve moving the patient couch through the bore of the scanner whilst the gantry rotates. Spiral CT ... Spiral computed tomography, or helical computed tomography, is a computed tomography (CT) technology in which the source and ... Helical (or spiral) cone beam computed tomography is a type of three-dimensional computed tomography (CT) in which the source ( ... In cone-beam computed tomography (commonly abbreviated CBCT), the X-ray beam is conical. ...
A full diagnostic work-up for patients with pulmonary hypertension (PH) is vital. Classification and diagnosis of the ... Multi-slice spiral chest computed tomography and pulmonary angiography showed severe chronic thromboembolic pulmonary disease, ... The patient was eligible for pulmonary endarterectomy according to established criteria. Residual PH after surgery was ... A full diagnostic work-up for patients with pulmonary hypertension (PH) is vital. Classification and diagnosis of the ...
After two years of treatment with infliximab, the patient developed a clinical picture compatible with stage II thoracic ... Tomography, Spiral Computed. Chemical. Reg. No./Substance: 0/Antibodies, Monoclonal; 0/Antirheumatic Agents; 0/infliximab ... The patient was not administered new treatment since respiratory function testing did not confirm harmful repercussions. After ... 23105739 - Study of genetic, metabolic and inflammatory risk factors in patients of acute ischemic.... 2316559 - The use of low ...
... such as positron emission tomography and computed tomography, may help learn the extent o... ... Tomography, Spiral Computed. Computed tomography where there is continuous X-ray exposure to the patient while being ... Single Photon Emission Computed Tomography Computed Tomography. An imaging technique using a device which combines TOMOGRAPHY, ... Positron Emission Tomography and Computed Tomography in Planning Treatment for Patients Undergoing 3-Dimensional Conformal ...
Tumors are hypervascular in 90% of patients.. Spiral CT performs poorly in comparison to EUS. A recent study showed an overall ... Computed Tomography. CT is an excellent modality to detect larger tumors. Precontrast CT images demonstrate insulinomas as a ... In patients with MEN 1 and Zollinger-Ellison (ZE) syndrome, [2] surgical cure is usually not possible. However, surgical cure ... Prognosis for patients with MEN 1 is usually poor. Islet cell tumors in this group are often multiple and malignant. ...
10 mm with spiral computed tomography (CT) scan ... Patients receive azacitidine SC on days 1-6 and 8-10 and ... Patients may not be receiving any other investigational agents. *Patients with uncontrolled brain metastases; patients with ... Patient must have failed at least one previous chemotherapy regimen. *Patients must have measurable disease, defined as at ... Azacitidine and Entinostat in Treating Patients With Recurrent Advanced Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer. The safety and scientific ...
PMC 3259315 . Schoepf UJ, Goldhaber SZ, Costello P (2004). "Spiral computed tomography for acute pulmonary embolism". ... 2007). "Computed tomographic pulmonary angiography vs ventilation-perfusion lung scanning in patients with suspected pulmonary ... CT pulmonary angiogram (CTPA) is a medical diagnostic test that employs computed tomography (CT) angiography to obtain an image ... The best results are obtained using multidetector computed tomography (MDCT) scanners. An intravenous cannula is required for ...
Computed Tomography (CT) scan. *Spiral CT scan. *MRI. *Liver function tests. *Arteriography ... Patients return for a follow-up CT scan, MRI or blood tests. A second treatment, if needed, is usually performed 1 to 2 months ... Providing safe, quality patient care is our highest priority. To help ensure quality and safety, we ask that you do not bring ... Patients who have severe cirrhosis may be ineligible for chemoembolization. The following conditions increase the risk of ...
The diagnostic value of multi-slice spiral computed tomography in patients with renal carcinoma. ... Evaluation of the effects of two different modes of orthognathic surgery on upper airway morphology in patients with skeletal ... Clinical and Pathological Analysis of 4910 Patients Who Received Renal Biopsies at a Single Center in Northeast China. ... Pathological spectrum of glomerular disease in patients with renal insufficiency: a single-center study in Northeastern China. ...
A chest radiograph and spiral thoracic computed tomography showed a large right-sided pleural effusion.. Pleural effusion in a ... First Patient Dosed in Lung Therapeutics Phase 1 Clinical Trial of LTI-01 in Australia and New Zealand ... Pulmonary localization of Mansonella perstans in a 16 months-old male patient in a tertiary care hospital in Bukavu, Democratic ...
... a patient with pulmonary embolism detected by spiral computed tomography and treated accordingly may have a better prognosis on ... For example, spiral computed tomography can better visualise the pulmonary circulation than older computed tomography.28 As a ... Role of spiral computed tomography in the diagnosis of pulmonary embolism in the emergency department. Ann Emerg Med1999;33:520 ... Hence, new patients are commonly referred to as different from but similar to the patients used to develop the models.1 2 3 4 ...
Spiral and Multislice Computed Tomography of the Body - Free epub, mobi, pdf ebooks download, ebook torrents download. ... The book goes on to cover design of CT scanners, patient preparation, scanning strategies, and image analysis. Highlights ... 2013-05-07Spiral and Multislice Computed Tomography of the Body. * 2013-05-06Spiral and Multislice Computed Tomography of the ... 2012-06-22Spiral and Multislice Computed Tomography of the Body. * 2012-06-22Spiral and Multislice Computed Tomography of the ...
Make research projects and school reports about Computed Tomography easy with credible articles from our FREE, online ... and pictures about Computed Tomography at Encyclopedia.com. ... Holbert, J. M. "Role of Spiral Computed Tomography in the ... "Pediatric CT (Computerized Tomography)." Radiology Info: The Radiology Information Source for Patients. Available online at , ... Computed tomography. Definition. Computed tomography (CT), formerly referred to as computerized axial tomography (CAT), is a ...
  • In radiotherapy treatment of upper-abdominal cancer patients, can response assessment with functional single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) imaging be used to reduce kidney toxicity and improve the radiotherapy? (anzctr.org.au)
  • The dose delivered to the center of irradiated field was about 0.79 +/- 0.09 mGy in CBCT technique compared with 16.31 +/- 3.71 and 18.84 +/- 4.12 mGy for spiral and conventional CT, respectively. (bvsalud.org)
  • The dose delivered to central area of irradiated field in conventional and spiral CT imaging modalities was about 24 times greater than of that in CBCT. (bvsalud.org)
  • Methods Fifteen patients with Marfan's syndrome and chronic AD of the DTA were identified among the 457 patients of the European Talent Registry. (onlinejacc.org)
  • Cardiac CT developments followed those in electron beam computed tomography (EBCT). (bmj.com)
  • However, some patients with preexisting cardiac disease may be unable to meet the physiologic demands of pregnancy, and may be pushed toward failure and complications. (clinicaladvisor.com)
  • The largest group of pregnant patients with coexisting cardiac disease is now the adult congenital population (70-80% of pregnant patients), as advances in neonatology and cardiology have decreased the incidence of rheumatic heart disease and improved the life expectancy of children born with congenital lesions. (clinicaladvisor.com)
  • After two years of treatment with infliximab, the patient developed a clinical picture compatible with stage II thoracic sarcoidosis. (biomedsearch.com)
  • The presented study reveals the single centre experiences with the minimally invasive endovascular repair for acute traumatic thoracic aortic lesions in the care of multitrauma patients. (egms.de)
  • We reviewed 11 patients with acute traumatic thoracic aortic lesions treated with a thoracic aortic stent graft between April 2001 and December 2006. (egms.de)
  • The endovascular approach to acute traumatic thoracic aortic lesions is feasible, safe, and effective in multitrauma patients. (egms.de)
  • The aim of this work was to assess the safety and the effectiveness of thoracic aortic endovascular stent grafting in Marfan patients. (onlinejacc.org)
  • Endovascular stent grafting of the dissected descending thoracic aorta is feasible in Marfan patients with low mortality and morbidity rates. (onlinejacc.org)
  • It is invasive, with a small associated morbidity and mortality, resource intensive, and inconvenient for patients. (bmj.com)
  • Among all causes of death in patients having CHD, about 19% lead to sudden mortality. (cambridge.org)
  • Each year, some 7000 people in The Netherlands are diagnosed with colon cancer, leading to a high mortality rate of 4500 patients. (hoise.com)
  • Patients with diabetes have increased mortality and risk for lower-extremity amputation in the setting of medial artery calcification ( 50 , 66 ). (physiology.org)
  • The European Society of Cardiology guidelines have focused on stratifying mortality risk in acute PE, with an eye toward possible use of more aggressive therapy (i.e., thrombolytics) in patients without hypotension or shock, but at increased risk of death. (acc.org)
  • Note that there is currently no good evidence to support a population-level mortality benefit from spiral CT lung cancer screening. (medpagetoday.com)
  • CHICAGO, June 5 -- Controversy and lack of evidence for a mortality benefit have made physicians reluctant to embrace spiral computed tomography (CT) screening for lung cancer. (medpagetoday.com)
  • A more recent study showed that spiral CT diagnosed three times as many lung cancers as predicted and resulted in 10 times as many operations, but did not decrease mortality or advanced stage cancers. (medpagetoday.com)
  • However, because EUS is an invasive study, it should be reserved for patients in whom noninvasive modalities fail to localize the expected tumor. (medscape.com)
  • It would be envisaged that this simple, reliable, and noninvasive blood test could aid the early detection of NSCLC in a high-risk population and could be used most effectively to direct imaging modalities with low specificity such as spiral computed tomography (CT). (aacrjournals.org)
  • Captopril-enhanced renography and scintigraphy and the resistive index at Doppler sonography may be very useful in patients with renal artery stenosis for predicting the response to revascularization. (asnjournals.org)
  • 211 consecutive patients, all current or former smokers with COPD, who were admitted to the hospital for severe exacerbation of unknown origin and did not require invasive mechanical ventilation. (annals.org)
  • Patients with COPD requiring invasive mechanical ventilation in the intensive care unit were not included. (annals.org)
  • Multi-slice CT scanning allows non-invasive imaging and diagnosis of wider range of conditions in less time and with greater patient comfort. (avmi.net)
  • Those guidelines suggest using right ventricular dysfunction on echocardiography, and elevated biomarkers in the form of troponin or B-type natriuretic peptide, to identify acute PE patients who may benefit from thrombolytic therapy. (acc.org)
  • Despite the expected decline in the mid-1970s in the use of computed tomography (CT) following the excitement of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), CT has confounded its detractors and remains the imaging modality of choice, particularly for the chest and abdomen. (routledge.com)
  • The preferred imaging method for a patient suspected of having RAS is controversial. (medscape.com)
  • The aim was to investigate the usefulness of MS-CTA as first-line imaging technique in patients (pts) with known or suspected CAD and low to intermediate probability of a severe coronary lesion. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Serlie described how a 3D image of the cleansed colon is acquired using spiral Computed Tomography (CT) imaging. (hoise.com)
  • in 1995, non-contrast CT of the urinary tract has become the imaging investigation of choice in patients with acute renal colic [ 1 , 2 , 3 ] because of its high sensitivity (95-97 %) and specificity (96-100 %) [ 2 , 3 , 4 , 5 ] for urinary tract calculi detection plus its high negative predictive value for urinary tract calculi. (springer.com)
  • It is a medical imaging method employing tomography where digital geometry processing is used to generate a three-dimensional image of the internals of an object from a large series of two-dimensional X-ray images taken around a single axis of rotation. (bionity.com)
  • Super-opløsning Imaging af Bakteriel Division Machinery Jackson Buss 1 , Carla Coltharp 1 , Jie Xiao 1 1 Department of Biophysics and Biophysical Chemistry, The Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine Vi beskriver en super-opløsning billeddannelse metoden til undersøgelse af den strukturelle organisation af det bakterielle FtsZ-ring, en væsentlig apparat til celledeling. (jove.com)
  • US is the first line imaging test for the evaluation of these patients. (radiologyassistant.nl)
  • Computed tomography , in short CT , is an X-ray method with which the human body is represented in cross-sectional images ( sectional imaging technique ). (doccheck.com)
  • Computed tomography (CT) is the most common imaging method used to investigate stroke. (bmj.com)
  • Spiral CT screening picks up 70% more lung cancers than X-ray imaging, said James R. Jett, M.D., Ph.D., a speaker at the session. (medpagetoday.com)
  • Quantitative computed tomography liver perfusion imaging using dynamic spiral scanning with variable pitch: feasibility and initial results in patients with cancer metastases. (uzh.ch)
  • Computed Tomography (CT) imaging is also known as "CAT scanning"(Computed Axial Tomography). (avmi.net)
  • Chemoembolization also may be used to shrink liver tumors while the patient waits for an organ donor. (centracare.com)
  • The phase I portion of the trial will be open to all patients with recurrent or advanced cancer (NSCLC and other solid tumors) for whom standard therapy offers no curative potential and also in patients for whom the carboplatin / paclitaxel regimen is considered standard of care. (knowcancer.com)
  • However, most elevations in KLKs were seen in patients with stage IV tumors. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Twenty-three patients treated for solid tumors and 2 treated for B-cell acute lymphocytic leukemia or lymphoma were studied. (aappublications.org)
  • Persistent asymptomatic vascular occlusion does occur as a late complication of CVL placement for treatment of childhood malignancies, although the frequency appears low among patients treated primarily for solid tumors. (aappublications.org)
  • In this article we will focus on the CT-findings that are used to select patients with probable resectable tumors. (radiologyassistant.nl)
  • To determine the analytic sensitivity, we examined the tumor and the matched serum DNA for aberrant methylation of 15 gene promoters from 10 patients with primary lung tumors by using quantitative methylation-specific PCR. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Vascular calcification was present in 20 of 21 patients who died. (eurekamag.com)
  • Patients with stages 4 and 5 chronic kidney disease and preexisting vascular calcification exhibit significantly increased calcification over 24 mo. (eurekamag.com)
  • Of note, metabolic stimuli contribute to calcific vascular disease initiation and progression in patients with diabetes, hypercholesterolemia, and end-stage renal disease. (physiology.org)
  • In patients with asymptomatic aortic stenosis, the extent of valve calcification is the best predictor of vascular disease progression ( 83 ). (physiology.org)
  • Pediatricians caring for patients with a history of cancer and CVLs should be aware that these patients may have persistent vascular occlusion that could predispose them to recurrent thrombosis or postphlebitic syndrome. (aappublications.org)
  • This phase II trial studies how well giving irinotecan hydrochloride together with oxaliplatin and capecitabine works as first-line therapy in treating patients with metastatic or unresectable locally advanced small bowel cancer. (pfizer.com)
  • The phase 3 MPACT trial in patients with metastatic pancreatic cancer demonstrated superior efficacy of nab -paclitaxel ( nab -P) + gemcitabine (Gem) vs Gem monotherapy for all endpoints examined including overall survival, the primary endpoint. (biomedcentral.com)
  • In patients with a longer life expectancy (e.g. patients with a small, but locally unresectable tumor without distant metastatic disease), a double bypass is generally also considered acceptable palliation. (radiologyassistant.nl)
  • Two slices per detector row are acquired, which results in a higher oversampling rate in the z axis, thereby reducing artifacts related to the spiral acquisition and improving spatial resolution down to 0.4 mm 3 . (ahajournals.org)
  • There are a variety of protocols for image acquisition in the evaluation of patients after CABG surgery. (appliedradiology.com)
  • Spiral volume acquisition was used to obtain 3-mm images from the chest apices through the right hilum, and three-dimensional reconstruction of angiograms was performed. (aappublications.org)
  • Spiral CT, with the ability to optimally time contrast injection to data acquisition, presents new opportunities for the radiologist to better detect and define the presence and extent of pancreatic disease. (ctisus.com)
  • Instead of acquiring a stack of individual slices which may be misaligned due to slight patient motion or breathing (and lung/abdomen motion) in between each slice acquisition, spiral CT acquires a volume of data with the patient anatomy all in one position. (avmi.net)