Accumulation or retention of free fluid within the peritoneal cavity.
Presence of milky lymph (CHYLE) in the PERITONEAL CAVITY, with or without infection.
A transplantable, poorly differentiated malignant tumor which appeared originally as a spontaneous breast carcinoma in a mouse. It grows in both solid and ascitic forms.
An operation for the continuous emptying of ascitic fluid into the venous system. Fluid removal is based on intraperitoneal and intrathoracic superior vena cava pressure differentials and is performed via a pressure-sensitive one-way valve connected to a tube traversing the subcutaneous tissue of the chest wall to the neck where it enters the internal jugular vein and terminates in the superior vena cava. It is used in the treatment of intractable ascites.
The serous fluid of ASCITES, the accumulation of fluids in the PERITONEAL CAVITY.
A form of PERITONITIS seen in patients with TUBERCULOSIS, characterized by lesion either as a miliary form or as a pelvic mass on the peritoneal surfaces. Most patients have ASCITES, abdominal swelling, ABDOMINAL PAIN, and other systemic symptoms such as FEVER; WEIGHT LOSS; and ANEMIA.
Tumors or cancer of the PERITONEUM.
Liver disease in which the normal microcirculation, the gross vascular anatomy, and the hepatic architecture have been variably destroyed and altered with fibrous septa surrounding regenerated or regenerating parenchymal nodules.
Tumors or cancer of the OVARY. These neoplasms can be benign or malignant. They are classified according to the tissue of origin, such as the surface EPITHELIUM, the stromal endocrine cells, and the totipotent GERM CELLS.
Experimentally induced tumors of the LIVER.
Abnormal increase of resistance to blood flow within the hepatic PORTAL SYSTEM, frequently seen in LIVER CIRRHOSIS and conditions with obstruction of the PORTAL VEIN.
A collection of watery fluid in the pleural cavity. (Dorland, 27th ed)
A condition characterized by a dry, waxy type of swelling (EDEMA) with abnormal deposits of MUCOPOLYSACCHARIDES in the SKIN and other tissues. It is caused by a deficiency of THYROID HORMONES. The skin becomes puffy around the eyes and on the cheeks. The face is dull and expressionless with thickened nose and lips.
Functional KIDNEY FAILURE in patients with liver disease, usually LIVER CIRRHOSIS or portal hypertension (HYPERTENSION, PORTAL), and in the absence of intrinsic renal disease or kidney abnormality. It is characterized by intense renal vasculature constriction, reduced renal blood flow, OLIGURIA, and sodium retention.
Experimentally induced new abnormal growth of TISSUES in animals to provide models for studying human neoplasms.
Presence of fluid in the pleural cavity resulting from excessive transudation or exudation from the pleural surfaces. It is a sign of disease and not a diagnosis in itself.
INFLAMMATION of the PERITONEUM lining the ABDOMINAL CAVITY as the result of infectious, autoimmune, or chemical processes. Primary peritonitis is due to infection of the PERITONEAL CAVITY via hematogenous or lymphatic spread and without intra-abdominal source. Secondary peritonitis arises from the ABDOMINAL CAVITY itself through RUPTURE or ABSCESS of intra-abdominal organs.
A malignant epithelial tumor with a glandular organization.
Mutant mice homozygous for the recessive gene "nude" which fail to develop a thymus. They are useful in tumor studies and studies on immune responses.
The original member of the family of endothelial cell growth factors referred to as VASCULAR ENDOTHELIAL GROWTH FACTORS. Vascular endothelial growth factor-A was originally isolated from tumor cells and referred to as "tumor angiogenesis factor" and "vascular permeability factor". Although expressed at high levels in certain tumor-derived cells it is produced by a wide variety of cell types. In addition to stimulating vascular growth and vascular permeability it may play a role in stimulating VASODILATION via NITRIC OXIDE-dependent pathways. Alternative splicing of the mRNA for vascular endothelial growth factor A results in several isoforms of the protein being produced.
A family of angiogenic proteins that are closely-related to VASCULAR ENDOTHELIAL GROWTH FACTOR A. They play an important role in the growth and differentiation of vascular as well as lymphatic endothelial cells.
A syndrome characterized by central nervous system dysfunction in association with LIVER FAILURE, including portal-systemic shunts. Clinical features include lethargy and CONFUSION (frequently progressing to COMA); ASTERIXIS; NYSTAGMUS, PATHOLOGIC; brisk oculovestibular reflexes; decorticate and decerebrate posturing; MUSCLE SPASTICITY; and bilateral extensor plantar reflexes (see REFLEX, BABINSKI). ELECTROENCEPHALOGRAPHY may demonstrate triphasic waves. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp1117-20; Plum & Posner, Diagnosis of Stupor and Coma, 3rd ed, p222-5)
A biogenic amine that is found in animals and plants. In mammals, melatonin is produced by the PINEAL GLAND. Its secretion increases in darkness and decreases during exposure to light. Melatonin is implicated in the regulation of SLEEP, mood, and REPRODUCTION. Melatonin is also an effective antioxidant.
A subspecialty of internal medicine concerned with the study of the physiology and diseases of the digestive system and related structures (esophagus, liver, gallbladder, and pancreas).
Individual's rights to obtain and use information collected or generated by others.
A quantitative measure of the frequency on average with which articles in a journal have been cited in a given period of time.
A publication issued at stated, more or less regular, intervals.
Diseases in any segment of the GASTROINTESTINAL TRACT from ESOPHAGUS to RECTUM.
Infections by bacteria, general or unspecified.
The section of the alimentary canal from the STOMACH to the ANAL CANAL. It includes the LARGE INTESTINE and SMALL INTESTINE.
Mononuclear phagocytes derived from bone marrow precursors but resident in the peritoneum.
The relatively long-lived phagocytic cell of mammalian tissues that are derived from blood MONOCYTES. Main types are PERITONEAL MACROPHAGES; ALVEOLAR MACROPHAGES; HISTIOCYTES; KUPFFER CELLS of the liver; and OSTEOCLASTS. They may further differentiate within chronic inflammatory lesions to EPITHELIOID CELLS or may fuse to form FOREIGN BODY GIANT CELLS or LANGHANS GIANT CELLS. (from The Dictionary of Cell Biology, Lackie and Dow, 3rd ed.)
The process of altering the morphology and functional activity of macrophages so that they become avidly phagocytic. It is initiated by lymphokines, such as the macrophage activation factor (MAF) and the macrophage migration-inhibitory factor (MMIF), immune complexes, C3b, and various peptides, polysaccharides, and immunologic adjuvants.
They are oval or bean shaped bodies (1 - 30 mm in diameter) located along the lymphatic system.
A procedure in which fluid is withdrawn from a body cavity or organ via a trocar and cannula, needle, or other hollow instrument.
Works containing information articles on subjects in every field of knowledge, usually arranged in alphabetical order, or a similar work limited to a special field or subject. (From The ALA Glossary of Library and Information Science, 1983)
Class of pro-inflammatory cytokines that have the ability to attract and activate leukocytes. They can be divided into at least three structural branches: C; (CHEMOKINES, C); CC; (CHEMOKINES, CC); and CXC; (CHEMOKINES, CXC); according to variations in a shared cysteine motif.
Cell surface glycoproteins that bind to chemokines and thus mediate the migration of pro-inflammatory molecules. The receptors are members of the seven-transmembrane G protein-coupled receptor family. Like the CHEMOKINES themselves, the receptors can be divided into at least three structural branches: CR, CCR, and CXCR, according to variations in a shared cysteine motif.
The passage of cells across the layer of ENDOTHELIAL CELLS, i.e., the ENDOTHELIUM; or across the layer of EPITHELIAL CELLS, i.e. the EPITHELIUM.
An eph family receptor found at high levels in adult THYMUS and RETINA. In embryonic tissues it is found in many developing organs.
Group of chemokines with adjacent cysteines that are chemoattractants for lymphocytes, monocytes, eosinophils, basophils but not neutrophils.
Volume of PLASMA in the circulation. It is usually measured by INDICATOR DILUTION TECHNIQUES.
Conditions in which increased pressure within a limited space compromises the BLOOD CIRCULATION and function of tissue within that space. Some of the causes of increased pressure are TRAUMA, tight dressings, HEMORRHAGE, and exercise. Sequelae include nerve compression (NERVE COMPRESSION SYNDROMES); PARALYSIS; and ISCHEMIC CONTRACTURE.
Any liquid used to replace blood plasma, usually a saline solution, often with serum albumins, dextrans or other preparations. These substances do not enhance the oxygen- carrying capacity of blood, but merely replace the volume. They are also used to treat dehydration.
As for the significance of ascitic fluid proteins, it was demonstrated that cirrhotic patients with ascitic protein ... Ascites is most commonly a complication of cirrhosis of the liver. It can also occur in patients with nephrotic syndrome. SBP ... and worsening ascites. Thirteen percent of patients have no signs or symptoms. In cases of acute or chronic liver failure SBP ... 30% of SBP patients develop kidney malfunction and is one of the strongest predictors for mortality. Where there are signs of ...
The serum-ascites albumin gradient can help determine the cause of the ascites. The ascitic white blood cell count can help ... If fluid drainage in cirrhotic ascites is more than 5 litres, patients may receive intravenous serum albumin (25% albumin, 8g/L ... The patient is positioned in the bed with the head elevated at 45-60 degrees to allow fluid to accumulate in lower abdomen. ... The most common indication is ascites that has developed in people with cirrhosis. It is used for a number of reasons: to ...
It is sometimes used in patients with refractory ascites. It is a long tube with a non-return valve running subcutaneously from ... the peritoneum to the internal jugular vein in the neck, which allows ascitic fluid to pass directly into the systemic ...
For pleural fluid, this is done by thoracentesis or tube thoracostomy (chest tube); for ascites, with paracentesis or ascitic ... was found to be of no benefit to the patient (while it may benefit patients with bladder cancer). Mesothelioma cells proved ... For patients with localized disease, and who can tolerate a radical surgery, radiation can be given post-operatively as a ... For patients in whom cisplatin cannot be used, carboplatin can be substituted but non-randomised data have shown lower response ...
Care of patients with ascites. N. Engl. J. Med. 1994, 330 (5): 337-42. PMID 8277955. doi:10.1056/NEJM199402033300508.. ... Diuresis in the ascitic patient: a randomized controlled trial of three regimens. J. Clin. Gastroenterol. 1981,. 3 Suppl 1: 73- ... 腹水(Ascites)是指腹腔內有液體積聚,超過正常量的症狀。腹水最常見的病因是肝硬化和其他嚴重的肝臟疾病,但它的出現也可以是其他重大疾病的徵象,如肝癌末期。腹水病因的診
Fogel MR, Sawhney VK, Neal EA, Miller RG, Knauer CM, Gregory PB (1981). "Diuresis in the ascitic patient: a randomized ... "Ascites , Definition of Ascites by Lexico". Lexico Dictionaries , English. Retrieved 26 October 2019. "Ascites - Hepatic and ... Additionally, the sonographer can make an estimation of the amount of ascitic fluid, and difficult-to-drain ascites may be ... 1987). "Repeated paracentesis and i.v. albumin infusion to treat 'tense' ascites in cirrhotic patients. A safe alternative ...
In some cases, the ascites collide to form a bigger ascites. This creates a different kind of shifting dullness. Abdominal ... The patient is then asked to lean on their right lateral side (assuming the examiner used the traditional right-sided approach ... Shifting dullness is usually present if the volume of ascitic fluid is greater than 1500 ml[citation needed]. If low volume ... To confirm a positive result it is recommended that the now resonant area become dull again when the patient is back in the ...
The patient's nutrition is maintained by total parenteral nutrition. This treatment is continued for 2-3 weeks, and the patient ... Pleural or ascitic fluid should be sent for analysis. An elevated amylase level, usually > 1,000 IU/L, with protein levels over ... Marked recent weight loss is a major clinical manifestation, and unresponsiveness of the ascites to diuretics is an additional ... The production of pancreatic enzymes is suppressed by restricting the patient's oral intake of food patient in conjunction with ...
... is used for prevention of spontaneous bacterial peritonitis in cirrhotic patients who have a low ascites fluid ... Runyon BA (1986). "Low-protein-concentration ascitic fluid is predisposed to spontaneous bacterial peritonitis". ... 1998). "Norfloxacin primary prophylaxis of bacterial infections in cirrhotic patients with ascites: a double-blind randomized ... The overall rate of adverse events in patients treated with fluoroquinolones is roughly similar to that seen in patients ...
... from other causes of ascites. SAAG is calculated by subtracting the albumin measure of ascitic fluid from the serum value. In ... when present in a patient with a history of ascites (usually due to cirrhosis) is highly suggestive of spontaneous bacterial ... The serum-ascites albumin gradient (SAAG) is the most useful index for evaluating peritoneal fluid and can help distinguish ... Peritoneal fluid microscopy is a useful test in evaluating the cause of ascites. A diagnostic peritoneal lavage (DPL) is ...
Conversely, in individuals with very tense ascites, it has been hypothesized that removal of ascitic fluid may improve kidney ... In patients who undergo hemodialysis, there may even be an increased risk of mortality due to low blood pressure in patients ... Some patients without cirrhosis develop HRS, with an incidence of about 20% seen in one study of ill patients with alcoholic ... 1989). "Systemic and regional hemodynamics in patients with liver cirrhosis and ascites with and without functional renal ...
Ascites or even ascitic tuberculous peritonitis should be considered if the swellings are bilateral.[citation needed] There is ... It is usually painless and by the time the patient seeks help, it may be difficult to be sure that the swelling is not due to a ... For younger patients, operation is usually preferred.[citation needed] Sclerotherapy is an alternative; after aspiration, 6% ... Manual of Anesthesia for Out Patient Surgical Procedures Bailey and Love-Short Practice of Surgery Hydrocele at eMedicine. ...
It doesn't come all of a sudden but takes about 3-4 years to develop depending upon the age of the patient. Occasionally, the ... Subserosal EG (4.5% to 9% in Japan and 13% in the US) presents with ascites which is usually exudative in nature, abundant ... of eosinophilic infiltration in one or more areas of the gastrointestinal tract or presence of high eosinophil count in ascitic ... Many patients indeed have history of other atopic conditions like eczema, asthma, etc.[citation needed] Eosinophil recruitment ...
1989). "Systemic and regional hemodynamics in patients with liver cirrhosis and ascites with and without functional renal ... in individuals with very tense ascites, it has been hypothesized that removal of ascitic fluid may improve kidney function if ... In patients who undergo hemodialysis, there may even be an increased risk of mortality due to low blood pressure in patients ... The prognosis of these patients is grim with untreated patients having an extremely short survival.[4][9][23] The severity of ...
... is commonly found in hospitalized patients, patients in the ICU, and the elderly within the hospital and the ... This leads to fluid-induced swelling of the extremities known as edema, build-up of fluid in the abdomen known as ascites, and ... following the accumulation of albumin in extracellular space and ascitic fluid), and even post-transcriptional changes to ... Patients with hypoalbuminemia are more likely to present with it as a sign of an underlying disease process than as a primary ...
Ascites or even ascitic tuberculous peritonitis should be considered if the swellings are bilateral. ... For younger patients, operation is usually preferred.[citation needed] Sclerotherapy is an alternative; after aspiration, 6% ... It is usually painless and by the time the patient seeks help, it may be difficult to be sure that the swelling is not due to a ... such as patients who are symptomatic with pain or a pressure sensation, or when the scrotal skin integrity is compromised from ...
The ovarian cancer patient experienced a 50% decline in the amount of the ovarian cancer marker protein CA-125 in her blood as ... well as a significant decrease in the number of cancerous cells in her ascitic fluid. The patient suffering from metastatic ... "Phase 1/2a Study of DTA-H19 in Advanced Stage Ovarian Cancer With Symptomatic Ascites". U.S. National ... The bladder cancer patient, who was a candidate for radical cystectomy when he was treated in 2004, reported no cancer ...
It is sometimes used in patients with refractory ascites. It is a long tube with a non-return valve running subcutaneously from ... the peritoneum to the internal jugular vein in the neck, which allows ascitic fluid to pass directly into the systemic ...
... of Refractory Ascites Development in Patients with Hepatitis B Virus-Related Cirrhosis Hospitalized to Control Ascitic ... Predictors of Refractory Ascites Development in Patients with Hepatitis B Virus-Related Ci ... We analyzed 199 consecutive patients with HBV-related cirrhosis who were hospitalized to control ascitic decompensation between ... patients experienced RA within 4.2 (range, 1.0-39.2) months after admission for controlling ascitic decompensation, and they ...
... in ascitic patients. Both in patients with and without ascites E/A ratio was reduced as compared with controls (0.93 +/- 0.07 ... To this aim in 27 cirrhotic patients with tense ascites, 17 cirrhotic patients with previous episodes of ascites (not actual), ... Evidence of functional and structural cardiac abnormalities in cirrhotic patients with and without ascites.. Pozzi M1, Carugo S ... Ejection fraction was slightly but significantly (P , .01) reduced in ascitic patients. Paracentesis induced a reduction of the ...
19 patients with spontaneous bacterial peritonitis, seven patients with culture-negative neutrocytic ascites, three patients ... Cultures of ascitic fluid were performed at bedside in all patients using blood culture bottles. Ascitic fluid viscosity was ... To our knowledge, the viscosity of ascitic fluid has not yet been studied.OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the role of ascitic fluid ... 0.25 cP in patients with an SAAG greater than 11 g/L and an SAAG of 11 g/L or less, respectively (P,0.001). Although ascitic ...
Lymphocyte subsets and cytokines in ascitic fluid of decompensated cirrhotic patients with and without spontaneous ascites ... Lymphocyte subsets and cytokines in ascitic fluid of decompensated cirrhotic patients with ... A number of compositional and functional alterations in immune system cells have been demonstrated in cirrhotic patients ... however, there is a lack of knowledge about this issue in ascitic infections ...
An ascitic fluid neutrophil count of more than 500 cells/µL is the single best predictor of spontaneous bacterial peritonitis, ... Management of adult patients with ascites due to cirrhosis: an update. Hepatology. 2009 Jun. 49(6):2087-107. [Medline]. ... Peritoneal fluid cultures rarely alter management in patients with ascites. J Emerg Med. 2011 Jan. 40(1):21-4. [Medline]. ... Proton pump inhibitor use and association with spontaneous bacterial peritonitis in patients with cirrhosis and ascites. Ann ...
Wagner et al connected asbestos to mesothelioma in a classic 1960 study of 33 patients with mesothelioma who were exposed to ... Ascites is seen lateral to the liver. Aspiration of the ascitic fluid demonstrated mesothelioma. View Media Gallery ... Computed tomography (CT) scan in a male Veterans Administration patient. This lower CT scan slice demonstrates ascites, omental ... Ascites is seen lateral to the liver. Aspiration of the ascitic fluid demonstrated mesothelioma. ...
Liver cirrhosis patients with ascites. *Ascitic fluid PMN cell count ,250/mm3 ... Comparison of Efficacy of Cefotaxime, Ceftriaxone, and Ciprofloxacin for the Treatment of SBP in Patients With LC. The safety ... Our aim of study is to compare the efficacy of the three current antibiotics for the treatment of SBP in patients with liver ... Our aim of study is to compare the efficacy of the three current antibiotics for the treatment of SBP in patients with liver ...
An adult patient with both intraabdominal carcinoid tumor and chylous ascites underwent thoracic duct drainage in an attempt to ... Ascitic Fluid / physiopathology*. Carcinoid Tumor / complications*, physiopathology. Chylous Ascites / complications*, ... An adult patient with both intraabdominal carcinoid tumor and chylous ascites underwent thoracic duct drainage in an attempt to ... and 24 hours of drainage was without effect on the ascites. In contrast to the chylous nature of the ascitic fluid, however, ...
Pain, depression, cachexia, ascites, jaundice, thrombosis, and gastroparesis... ... Malignant ascites can be investigated with ascitic-serum albumin gradient; a high gradient in the absence of positive cytology ... Pain, depression, cachexia, ascites, jaundice, thrombosis, and gastroparesis occur commonly in pancreatic cancer patients. ... Pockros PJ, Esrason KT, Nguyen C, Duque J, Woods S. Mobilization of malignant ascites with diuretics is dependent on ascitic ...
Fogel MR, Sawhney VK, Neal EA, Miller RG, Knauer CM, Gregory PB (1981). "Diuresis in the ascitic patient: a randomized ... Mild ascites is hard to notice, but severe ascites leads to abdominal distension. Patients with ascites generally will complain ... Most experts recommend a diagnostic paracentesis be performed if the ascites is new or if the patient with ascites is being ... more than 1.0 kg/day for patients with both ascites and peripheral edema and no more than 0.5 kg/day for patients with ascites ...
... ascites explanation free. What is ascites? Meaning of ascites medical term. What does ascites mean? ... Looking for online definition of ascites in the Medical Dictionary? ... time in cirrhotic patients irrespective of the presence of ascites with significantly reduced E/A ratios only in ascitic ... Patient discussion about ascites. Q. Does ascites mean its the end? My mother, age 65 was diagnosed with ovarian cancer in a ...
Vascular permeability factor (VPF) may induce ascites formation. We established an animal model of ascites formation and re- ... Ascites formation is often observed in ovarian cancer patients. ... Ascites formation is often observed in ovarian cancer patients ... The formation of ascites was observed after 10 days of tumor inoculation and continued for up to 4 weeks. In the ascitic fluid ... Re-accumulation of ascites occurred quickly in control mice after aspiration of ascites and these mice died within 20 days. ...
Many cases of ascites fluid with more than 1000 PMNs/mm3 (and certainly ,5000 PMNs/mm3) are associated with appendicit... more ... Ascitic fluid with more than 250 PMNs/mm3 defines neutrocytic ascites and SBP. ... When is a patient too well and when is a patient too sick for a liver transplant?. Liver Transpl. 2004 Oct. 10(10 Suppl 2):S69- ... Ascitic fluid with more than 250 PMNs/mm3 defines neutrocytic ascites and SBP. Many cases of ascites fluid with more than 1000 ...
Patients. 2.1.1. Including Criteria. Ninety liver cirrhosis patients with postal hypertension and ascites (grade B, C acc. to ... In patients classified into group the level of melatonin was pg/mL (. ), in group pg/mL (. ), and in group pg/mL (. ). ... Increased melatonin concentration in ascitic fluid was detected in 24 patients out of 30 (80%) in group and 27 patients out of ... Melatonin levels in ascitic fluid of two patients of group HE3 exceeded 600 pg/mL (609 and 632 pg/mL) and were similar to their ...
... of a low SAAG corresponded to ascites related to PHT (p = 0.024) with Se = 35% Sp = 84% and accuracy = 44%. All patients with ... 2017 for ascites. The cytology and chemistry of the ascites fluid and the protidogram were performed. The main outcome measure ... allowing to distinguish the ascites linked to the PHT and the ascites not bound to the PHT, can be used like a method of ... Results: The hospital prevalence of ascites was 11%. There were 82 women (46.9%) and 93 men (53.1%) with a sex ratio (M/F) of ...
Chylous ascites is the extravasation of milky chyle into the peritoneal cavity. This can occur de novo as a result of trauma or ... The ascites triglyceride level is elevated in all patients. Typically, chylous ascites is diagnosed when the ascites ... The diagnosis of chylous ascites is made by peritoneocentesis and by analysis of the ascitic fluid. An ascitic triglyceride ... and sudden death has been reported in patients with chylous ascites. The prognosis in adult patients with chylous ascites is ...
Results: Sympathetic nerve activity in ascitic patients (65 ± 15 bursts/min; mean ± SD) was markedly increased, whether ... Patients: Eleven patients with cirrhosis and ascites, 8 patients with cirrhosis but without ascites, and 7 age-matched and 8 ... Sympathetic nerve activity is not increased in patients with cirrhosis but without ascites. Because there were direct positive ... Objective: To determine if central sympathetic outflow is increased in patients with cirrhosis and ascites. ...
Patients with deficient ascitic fluid opsonic activity are predisposed to spontaneous bacterial peritonitis. Hepatology1988;8: ... Peritoneal macrophages from cirrhotic patients with ascites and a previous episode of SBP have been shown to be activated, with ... PATIENTS AND METHODS. Patients. Since April 2000, all patients with cirrhosis and culture negative non-neutrocytic AF have been ... We have recently reported the detection of bacterial DNA in blood and ascitic fluid from patients with advanced cirrhosis, what ...
A. Ascites is the accumulation of protein-containing (ascitic) fluid in the abdomen. It may develop in patients with HCC who ... Its important to remember that not all patients experience all side effects, and patients may experience side effects not ... FGF19-driven HCC. There are a number of targeted therapy drugs being assessed for the subgroup of HCC patients who have an " ... The basic treatment for ascites is a low-sodium diet along with bed rest. In some cases, diuretics (medications designed to ...
Regular reinfusion of ascites during haemodialysis in a patient with amyloidosis. nicholls, A.J.; Platts, M.M.; Triger, D.R ... Effectiveness of ultrafiltration in ascitic fluid removal; Correlation between hypotension and hypovolemia; Importance of ... Examines the regular reinfusion of ascites during haemodialysis in patients with amyloidosis. ... The objective was to assess the safety and efficacy of high-dose daptomycin, defined as ≥8 mg/kg/day, in patients with ...
Ascitic fluid was collected from patients with epithelial ovarian cancer. The National Taiwan University Hospital Institutional ... we showed that sIL-6Rα is present in high amounts in the ascites of patients with ovarian cancer. Patients with ovarian cancer ... Interleukin-6 level in serum and ascites as a prognostic factor in patients with epithelial ovarian cancer. Cancer 1994;73:1882 ... Here we report that sIL-6Rα is elevated in malignant ascites from ovarian cancer patients, where it is associated with poor ...
As for the significance of ascitic fluid proteins, it was demonstrated that cirrhotic patients with ascitic protein ... Ascites is most commonly a complication of cirrhosis of the liver. It can also occur in patients with nephrotic syndrome. SBP ... and worsening ascites. Thirteen percent of patients have no signs or symptoms. In cases of acute or chronic liver failure SBP ... 30% of SBP patients develop kidney malfunction and is one of the strongest predictors for mortality. Where there are signs of ...
Common causes of ascites are liver disease or cirrhosis, cancers,and heart failure. Signs and symptoms of ascities include ... Ascities treatment guidelines depend upon the condition causing ascites. The prognosis the life expectancy depends on the cause ... Ascites is accumulation of fluid in the abdominal cavity. ... Patient Comments: Ascites - Risks and Causes. *Patient Comments ... Antibodies are rare in ascites and, therefore, the immune response in the ascitic fluid is very limited. The diagnosis of SBP ...
An abdominal ultrasound examination showed hepatosplenomegaly and ascites. Ascitic fluid was cloudy and contained 5 g/L protein ... The patients family decided to take him home because they were unable to pay for further treatment; the patient died on the ... The Patient. A 57-year-old unemployed man from Long An Province, southern Vietnam, who had a history of alcohol abuse, had a 10 ... At the time of admission to HTD in 2001, the patient was lethargic, his vital signs were stable, and his neck was not stiff. ...
Often, patients are not diagnosed until the later stages of disease, when treatment options are limited, highlighting the ... Often, patients are not diagnosed until the later stages of disease, when treatment options are limited, highlighting the ... Beyond stage III, OC disseminates into the peritoneum, and patients present with bloating from a buildup of ascitic fluid in ... Activated regulatory and memory T-cells accumulate in malignant ascites from ovarian carcinoma patients. Cancer Immunol ...
All 66 ascites samples were from patients with epithelial ovarian cancer. Each sample was spun down, and the ascitic fluid was ... Cell Populations within Ascitic Fluid.. Fluorescence-activated cell-sorting analysis of 20 ascites samples from patients with ... Samples of ascitic fluid were collected from patients with ovarian carcinoma at the time of surgery or by paracentesis for ... In addition to ascitic fluid, plasma was obtained from a few patients. Protein concentrations for CCL2, CCL3, CCL4, and CCL5 ...
Peripheral oedema was present in seven patients. Nine patients had previous episodes of ascites. The mean volume of ascites ... Ascitic fluid was sampled for leucocyte count. Patients were then transferred to the haemodynamic laboratory where a basal ... 1975) Negative influences of ascites on the cardiac function of cirrhotic patients. Am J Med 59:165-170. ... 1988) Large volume paracentesis in non-edematous patients with tense ascites: its effect on intravascular volume. Hepatology 8: ...
Uncomplicated ascites. All patients with ascites should undergo an evaluation of ascitic fluid content to rule out spontaneous ... Spontaneous bacterial peritonitis, an infection of the ascitic fluid, occurs in 10%-30% of patients with ascites.73 All cases ... Patients with severe ascites will have marked abdominal discomfort. In such cases, higher diuretic doses are needed (i.e., up ... It occurs in up to 10% of patients with ascites.146 The syndrome is defined by a serum creatinine concentration greater than ...
Efficacy and safety of reinfusion of concentrated ascitic fluid for malignant ascites: a concept-proof study. ... Patient 10(3):295-309. https://​doi.​org/​10.​1007/​s40271-016-0204-x CrossRefPubMed ... Effects of patient navigation on satisfaction with cancer care: a systematic review and meta-analysis. ... Wallace A, Downs E, Gates P, Thomas A, Yates P, Chan RJ (2015) Provision of survivorship care for patients with haematological ...
  • BACKGROUND: Ascites is defined as the pathological accumulation of fluid in the peritoneal cavity. (
  • To our knowledge, the viscosity of ascitic fluid has not yet been studied.OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the role of ascitic fluid viscosity in discriminating between ascites due to portal hypertension-related and nonportal hypertension-related causes, and to compare results with the serum-ascites albumin gradient (SAAG).METHODS: The present study involved 142 patients with ascites presenting with diverse medical problems. (
  • Paracentesis was performed routinely on admission and all ascitic fluid samples were evaluated by manual cell count with differential, ascitic fluid culture and biochemistry (total protein, albumin, glucose and LDH). (
  • Cultures of ascitic fluid were performed at bedside in all patients using blood culture bottles. (
  • Although ascitic fluid infection was detected in 35 patients (24.6%) (19 patients with spontaneous bacterial peritonitis, seven patients with culture-negative neutrocytic ascites, three patients with monobacterial non-neutrocytic bacterascites and six patients with secondary bacterial peritonitis), no significant effect on ascitic fluid viscosity was detected. (
  • The sensitivity, specificity, and positive and negative predictive values of ascitic fluid viscosity for the discrimination between ascites due to portal hypertension-related and nonportal hypertension-related causes according to the SAAG were determined by receiver operating characteristic analysis. (
  • Regarding the cut-off value of 1.03 cP, ascitic fluid viscosity measurement had a high sensitivity, specificity (98% and 80%, respectively), and positive and negative predictive value (79% and 94%, respectively) for the etiological discrimination of ascites.CONCLUSION: The measurement of ascitic fluid viscosity correlates significantly with SAAG values. (
  • What is the indication for ascitic fluid neutrophil count in the workup of spontaneous bacterial peritonitis (SBP)? (
  • In a small cohort, the average time saved from dipstick to laboratory results ranged from 2.73 hours (dipstick to validated result from automated counter) to 3 hours (dipstick to validated manual cell count of ascitic fluid). (
  • An adult patient with both intraabdominal carcinoid tumor and chylous ascites underwent thoracic duct drainage in an attempt to relieve accumulation of intraabdominal fluid. (
  • In contrast to the chylous nature of the ascitic fluid, however, thoracic duct lymph was non-chylous and its protein content was lower than that of the ascitic fluid. (
  • These observations signify that the chylous ascitic fluid neither leaked from nor had access to thoracic duct lymph but originated instead from obstructed mesenteric lacteals. (
  • Ascites is the abnormal buildup of fluid in the abdomen . (
  • Depressed thyroid activity sometimes causes pronounced ascites, but inflammation of the pancreas (pancreatitis) rarely causes significant accumulations of fluid. (
  • Ascitic fluid may cause the flanks to bulge. (
  • In the ascitic fluid, biologically active VPF was detected. (
  • The cytology and chemistry of the ascites fluid and the protidogram were performed. (
  • performed the cyto-chemical analysis of the ascites fluid. (
  • Patients with incomplete blood test and ascitic fluid status. (
  • What is the role of ascitic fluid measurement in the evaluation of cirrhosis? (
  • Ascitic fluid with more than 250 PMNs/mm 3 defines neutrocytic ascites and SBP. (
  • Optimization of ascitic fluid culture technique. (
  • A 2009 guideline from the American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases recommends that adult cirrhotic patients with ascitic fluid polymorphonuclear neutrophil (PMN) counts of 250 cells/µL or greater in a community-acquired setting (in the absence of recent beta-lactam antibiotic exposure) should receive empiric antibiotic therapy (eg, an intravenous third-generation cephalosporin, preferably cefotaxime 2 g every 8 hours). (
  • Patients with a peritoneal fluid PMN count greater than 500 cells/µL should universally be admitted and treated for spontaneous bacterial peritonitis, regardless of peritoneal fluid Gram stain result. (
  • For patients with a peritoneal fluid PMN count below 250 cells/µL, management depends upon the results of ascitic fluid cultures. (
  • Although not required, a repeat peritoneal fluid analysis is recommended to verify declining PMN counts and sterilization of ascitic fluid. (
  • If improvement in ascitic fluid or clinical condition does not occur within 48 hours, further evaluation is required to rule out bowel perforation or intra-abdominal abscess. (
  • All patients with cirrhosis were studied at least 5 days after withdrawal from all medications and after 7 days of a 20 mmol/d sodium, 1-L fluid-restricted diet. (
  • In the present study, the association of melatonin levels in serum and ascitic fluid and ammonia concentration related to the intensity of hepatic encephalopathy (HE) was investigated. (
  • Melatonin was detected in ascetic fluid in 24 patients of group HE 2 and 27 patients of group HE 2 of hepatic encephalopathy. (
  • Translocation of intestinal bacteria to ascitic fluid is probably the first step in the development of episodes of spontaneous bacterial peritonitis in patients with cirrhosis. (
  • We have recently reported the detection of bacterial DNA in blood and ascitic fluid from patients with advanced cirrhosis, what we consider as molecular evidence of bacterial translocation. (
  • Peritoneal macrophages obtained from patients with cirrhosis and culture negative non-neutrocytic ascitic fluid were collected and characterised by flow cytometry. (
  • 1, 2 SBP probably occurs as a consequence of repeated access of bacteria from the intestinal lumen through a haematogenous route reaching the mesenteric lymph nodes 3, 4 and, eventually, gaining access to ascitic fluid (AF) in a process that has been termed bacterial translocation (BT). (
  • Additionally, the sonographer can make an estimation of the amount of ascitic fluid, and difficult-to-drain ascites may be drained under ultrasound guidance. (
  • The medical definition of ascites is an abnormal accumulation of fluid within the (peritoneal) cavity. (
  • To diagnose the cause of ascites, your doctor and other healthcare professionals will examine you around the belly to determine how much fluid is in the peritoneal cavity. (
  • Treatment for ascites includes curing or managing the disease causing ascites, limit your fluid intake, avoid alcohol, limit the amount salt in your diet , and other lifestyle changes. (
  • Some other causes of ascites related to increased pressure gradient are congestive heart failure and advanced kidney failure due to generalized retention of fluid in the body. (
  • Ascitic fluid was cloudy and contained 5 g/L protein. (
  • Results of Gram stain and culture of ascitic fluid were negative. (
  • It is specifically an infection of the ascitic fluid - an increased volume of peritoneal fluid. (
  • As for the significance of ascitic fluid proteins, it was demonstrated that cirrhotic patients with ascitic protein concentrations below 1 g/dL were 10 times more likely to develop SBP than individuals with higher concentrations. (
  • It is thought that the antibacterial, or opsonic, activity of ascitic fluid is closely correlated with the protein concentration. (
  • Additional studies have confirmed the validity of the ascitic fluid protein concentration as the best predictor of the first episode of SBP. (
  • Beyond stage III, OC disseminates into the peritoneum, and patients present with bloating from a buildup of ascitic fluid in the abdomen ( 2 ). (
  • Ascitic disease is a common occurrence in human ovarian cancer, but it is unclear how the cellular composition of ascitic fluid is determined. (
  • mRNA for the CC chemokines CCL2, -3, -4, -5, -8, and -22 was expressed in cell isolates from ascites samples, and the corresponding proteins were detected in ascitic fluid. (
  • Ascites consists of a proteinaceous fluid with variable numbers of suspended cells and debris. (
  • It is possible that ascitic fluid also contains chemokines that may influence its cellular composition, but this has not been investigated in detail. (
  • With the aim of further understanding chemokine action in human ovarian cancer, we investigated CC chemokine receptors and their ligands in ascitic fluid samples. (
  • Samples of ascitic fluid were collected from patients with ovarian carcinoma at the time of surgery or by paracentesis for palliative/diagnostic purposes. (
  • Patients undergo laparoscopic surgery to remove ascitic fluid and any intraabdominal adhesions and to place 2 inflow and 2 outflow catheters. (
  • These result in renal function compromise, sodium and fluid retention, and eventual ascites (Feldman, 2006). (
  • This sodium retention, coupled with inadequate levels of albumin, facilitates the shift of fluid from the intravascular space into the interstitial space of the abdomen and creates ascites ("Patho Puzzler," 2005). (
  • All patients with new-onset ascites fluid were recruited from January 2014 to December 2018. (
  • Age, cholesterol, hypersensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP) in serum, ascitic fluid adenosine deaminase (AF ADA), ascitic fluid lactate dehydrogenase (AF LDH) involvement in a 5-marker model. (
  • Ascites fluid is a common clinical syndrome, which can be divided into benign and malignant ascites for various reasons. (
  • However, the distinction between the two types of ascites fluid is not only the basis of diagnosis but also a prerequisite for formulating a treatment plan. (
  • Differential diagnosis of benign and malignant ascites can rely on certain precise findings such as appropriate ascites fluid serum analysis, cytological examination, laparoscopy, and the symptoms of the patients. (
  • All patients were subjected to full history taking, Accept Date 2019-02-21 thorough clinical examination, routine laboratory investigation, ultrasonography and ascitic fluid sampling. (
  • There was statistically non-significant difference in ascitic fluid PMN, serum and ascitic fluid hs-CRP before treatment while the difference is significant between both groups regarding them five days after treatment. (
  • Percent change in serum hs-CRP was equal to that of ascitic fluid PMN. (
  • Serum and ascitic fluid hs-CRP level can be considered as alternative prognostic markers in cirrhotic patients with SBP. (
  • Anaerobic and Patient with Collagen vascular disorders fungal infections of the ascitic fluid are or any form of acute arthritis. (
  • Hs-CRP is the same gracefully sensitive and 250 in ascitic fluid sample. (
  • Excess fluid (ascites) is a common symptom of peritoneal mesothelioma. (
  • The minimally invasive surgery relieves patient pain stemming from excess fluid (ascites). (
  • As little as two tablespoons of fluid (25 mL) in the peritoneal cavity qualifies as ascites. (
  • Paracentesis relieves patient symptoms by draining the excess fluid causing discomfort. (
  • However, ascitic fluid analysis cannot diagnose mesothelioma . (
  • Paracentesis treats patients with excess abdominal fluid (peritoneal effusion). (
  • Thoracentesis treats patients with excess lung fluid ( pleural effusion ). (
  • Fluid accumulation is a common symptom for many malignant mesothelioma patients . (
  • In peritoneal mesothelioma patients, the fluid accumulates between the layers of the peritoneum in the abdominal cavity. (
  • For malignant pleural mesothelioma patients , fluid accumulates between the layers lining the lung or pleural cavity. (
  • Patients undergoing the procedure for other reasons, such as diagnostic purposes, may have less fluid removed. (
  • To determine whether norfloxacin reduces the incidence of spontaneous bacterial peritonitis in hospitalized patients with cirrhosis and low levels of ascitic fluid protein. (
  • 1.5 g/dL of total protein concentration in ascitic fluid on an admission diagnostic paracentesis, were included in the trial. (
  • 500 neutrophils/µL in the ascitic fluid at admission. (
  • The condition develops in pre-existing ascites and does not itself cause ascitic fluid to accumulate. (
  • Ascitic fluid obtained by paracentesis should be submitted for cell count and differential, protein and albumin concentration, and culture. (
  • The diagnosis of SBP is established by a polymorphonuclear leukocyte (PMN) count in the peritoneal fluid greater than 250 cells/mm 3 , even if the culture of ascitic fluid is negative. (
  • Cell counts of ascitic fluid are generally performed by laboratory technologists but are also reliable when performed by an automated system. (
  • Measurement of ascitic fluid total protein concentration is helpful in distinguishing SBP from secondary peritonitis, as the latter condition typically presents with protein concentrations greater than 1 g/dL. (
  • The ascitic fluid value is subtracted from the serum value, and a difference of greater than 1.1 g/dL correlates with portal hypertension. (
  • Culture of ascitic fluid is positive in only 40-65% of SBP cases, even if the ascitic fluid PMN count is greater than 250 cells/mm 3 . (
  • The poor sensitivity of ascitic fluid cultures is due to SBP's being typically associated with low numbers of bacteria. (
  • In the latter case, various bacterial forms are seen on the Gram stain or they grow in culture, and the ascitic fluid count contains fewer than 250 PMNs/mm 3 . (
  • Routine blood culture bottles should be inoculated with 10 mL of ascitic fluid at the bedside. (
  • Culturing the ascitic fluid in this manner, as if it were blood, increases the sensitivity of the culture as compared to inoculation of ascitic fluid onto agar culture plates (solid media). (
  • If traditional cultures are performed, ascitic fluid must be received in the laboratory in a separate syringe or tube. (
  • Additional optional tests to perform on ascitic fluid include glucose, lactate dehydrogenase, amylase, and Gram stain. (
  • Furthermore, the time and availability of ascites are not constant at all-time [ 7 ], therefore, is essential to develop sensitive, accurate and rapid methods to diagnose ascitic fluid infection. (
  • Both patients underwent computed tomography (CT), where ascitic fluid with diffuse wall thickening of the peritoneum and omentum was observed. (
  • CT characteristics are attenuation values of ascitic fluid of 20-45 HU and nodular and thickened peritoneum. (
  • Ascites is free fluid in the peritoneal cavity. (
  • Ascitic fluid can become infected ( spontaneous bacterial peritonitis ), often with pain and fever. (
  • Diagnosis of infection involves analysis and culture of ascitic fluid. (
  • Small amounts of ascitic fluid cause no symptoms. (
  • Diagnostic paracentesis revealed thick gelatinous ascitic fluid, rich in mucin on cytology examination ( Figs. 2 and 3 ). (
  • Ascitic fluid cell count was not possible due to high viscosity and cultures were negative. (
  • Cytology, Papanicolaou stain, 100×: Ascitic fluid with abundant extracellular mucus. (
  • although ascitic fluid analysis is more accessible, its acid-fast bacilli (AFB) culture has a low sensitivity. (
  • Diagnostic studies on ascitic fluid should include a differential leukocyte count, total protein level, a serum-ascites albumin gradient, and fluid cultures. (
  • Patients with ascitic fluid polymorphonuclear leukocyte counts of 250 cells per mm 3 or greater should receive empiric prophylaxis against spontaneous bacterial peritonitis with cefotaxime and albumin. (
  • Patients with ascitic fluid polymorphonuclear leukocyte counts of 250 cells per mm 3 or greater should receive empiric antibiotic therapy (e.g., cefotaxime [Claforan] 2 g intravenously every eight hours) and albumin (1.5 g per kg body weight within six hours of detection and 1 g per kg on day 3) to prevent spontaneous bacterial peritonitis. (
  • The fundamental factors involved in the formation of ascites were established over a century ago when Starling [ 1 ] used observations of thoracic duct lymph flow and fluid absorption from the peritoneal space to support his classic description of the forces that determine capillary fluid balance. (
  • This condition will evolve in overt fluid retention and ascites, as the liver disease progresses. (
  • Ascitic fluid cytology revealed reactive mesothelial hyperplasia. (
  • INTRODUCTION: Spontaneous fungal peritonitis (SFP) is an infection of ascitic fluid occurring in cirrhotic patients. (
  • SFP prevalence varies from 0% to 41% of patients with spontaneous peritonitis (SP) and a positive ascitic fluid culture. (
  • To avoid multiple paracenteses, a Tenckhoff catheter was used successfully to drain the ascitic fluid in a patient with peritoneal mesothelioma. (
  • Hepatic hydrothorax (HH) is defined as a significant pleural effusion (a buildup of fluid between the layers of tissue that line the lungs and chest cavity), usually greater than 500 mL, in a cirrhotic patient, without an underlying pulmonary or cardiac disease. (
  • The natural course of patients with cirrhosis is frequently complicated by the accumulation of fluid in the peritoneal or pleural cavities and interstitial tissue. (
  • Functional renal abnormalities that occur as a consequence of reduced effective arterial blood volume are responsible for fluid accumulation in the form of ascites and hepatic hydrothorax. (
  • It is well known that in cirrhotic patients, a large volume of ascitic fluid is generally well tolerated due to the capacitance of the peritoneal cavity. (
  • Ascitic fluid analysis for the differentiation of malignancy related and nonmalignant ascites. (
  • Continued fluid and electrolyte imbalances and inefficient metabolism of nutrients produce ascites, hypoglycemia, and hypoproteinemia. (
  • Removal of fluid from the abdominal cavity ( abdominal paracentesis ) may be necessary to relieve respiratory embarrassment or pressure on the abdominal organs caused by ascites. (
  • Autologous ascitic fluid was used as source of growth factors, and minimal manipulation was involved to establish the culture. (
  • Urine ascites myxedema (saag 1.1 g/dl) detecting ascitic fluid. (
  • Increasing MAP in ascites patients could potentially down regulate the excessive salt and water retention that leads to ascitic fluid buildup. (
  • Prophylaxis of SBP is indicated in three high-risk populations: patients with acute gastrointestinal hemorrhage, patients with low total protein content in ascitic fluid, and patients with a previous history of SBP (secondary prophylaxis). (
  • Study Objective To establish the prophylactic efficacy, of rifaximin as compared to norfloxacin in cirrhotic patients with low protein content in the ascitic fluid. (
  • Given the high mortality rate and the risk of developing hepato-renal syndrome (HRS), prophylaxis of SBP is indicated particularly in three high-risk populations: patients with acute gastrointestinal hemorrhage, patients with low total protein content in ascitic fluid, and patients with a previous history of SBP (secondary prophylaxis)2. (
  • Peritoneal cytology of ascitic fluid is highly specific but has relatively low sensitivity, particularly in case of endometrioid ovarian carcinoma. (
  • In medicine ( gastroenterology ), ascites (also known as peritoneal cavity fluid , peritoneal fluid excess , hydroperitoneum or more archaically as abdominal dropsy ) is an accumulation of fluid in the peritoneal cavity. (
  • Ascitic fluid can accumulate as a transudate or an exudate. (
  • The presence of bacterial DNA in the blood or ascitic fluid of uninfected patients, considered a surrogate marker of BT, has been shown to predict decreased 1-year survival ( 38 ). (
  • Peritoneal effusion, widely known as ascites, refers to an excess collection of fluid in the abdominal cavity. (
  • When ascites is new to a patient or the cause is unknown, a paracentesis is ordered to drain the fluid and collect a sample to look for signs of cancer using pathology tests . (
  • For patients with peritoneal mesothelioma, treatment of peritoneal effusion seeks to manage the buildup of fluid. (
  • The tube connects to a bag that collects the ascitic fluid. (
  • The bag is easily removed from the tube to allow nurses and patients to regularly dispose of accumulated fluid. (
  • A variety of conditions and diseases can cause inflammation of the peritoneum (peritonitis) and/or excessive accumulation of peritoneal fluid (peritoneal effusion or ascites). (
  • Once the fluid is determined to be one or the other, additional tests may be performed to further pinpoint the disease or condition causing ascites. (
  • Peritoneal fluid analysis is used to help diagnose the cause of fluid buildup in the abdomen (ascites) and/or inflammation of the peritoneum (peritonitis). (
  • Fluid albumin level-the serum-ascites albumin gradient (SAAG) calculation ( serum albumin level minus the fluid albumin level) may be used to differentiate between transudates and exudates. (
  • The measurement of calprotectin in ascitic fluid provides reliable and rapid results using the Quantum Blue ® technology. (
  • History and physical examination, serum markers of hepatic function and ascitic fluid analysis are useful in narrowing the differential diagnosis, but are non-specific. (
  • Bedside ultrasound reveals a large amount of ascites, which is carefully sampled revealing a cloudy fluid with 15,000 neutrophils/uL and a differential of 90% neutrophils (a video of the left lower quadrant abdominal ultrasound is shown above). (
  • This is infected ascites fluid due to an underlying surgically-treatable source of infection (i.e., perforated viscus, appendicitis, cholecystitis, mesenteric ischemia, etc. (
  • Many sources suggest that an ascitic fluid leukocyte count above 10,000 neutrophils/uL is suggestive of secondary bacterial peritonitis. (
  • Has a small accumulation of ascitic fluid. (
  • SBP is defined as an infection of initially sterile ascitic fluid (AF) without a detectable, surgically treatable source of infection. (
  • Diagnostic and Prognostic Values of Monocyte Chemotactic Protein-1 in Ascitic Fluid of Patients with Spontaneous Bacterial Peritonitis. (
  • Patients need at least 1,500 mL of peritoneal fluid to be detected reliably by physical examination. (
  • Ultrasonography can detect as little as 100 mL of abdominal fluid and should be used for obese individuals and for patients in whom the physical examination is unreliable. (
  • A diagnostic paracentesis of at least 30 mL of fluid is essential to fully elucidate the etiology of the ascites. (
  • Baseline parameters to be determined in ascitic fluid are cell count, culture in blood culture bottles, albumin, and total protein. (
  • Glucose, lactate dehydrogenase, amylase, bilirubin, triglyceride, tuberculosis smear, and cytological analyses of the fluid are optional and provide important information in the differential diagnosis of ascites in cases where causes other than portal hypertension are considered ( Table 1 ). (
  • Although several procedures based on the reinfusion of ascitic fluid have been reported after the failure of bed rest, salt and water restriction, diuretics, intravenous administration of albumin, and repeated paracentesis, these procedures are performed for ascitic fluid removal without dialytic effect. (
  • This procedure can control the rate of ascites and body fluid removal simultaneously during HD using the roller pump. (
  • SP is the infection of ascitic fluid (neutrophil ascitic count ≥250/mL) without an alternative focus of abdominal infection. (
  • The aim of this work is to provide physicians with a practical diagnostic guidance for SP diagnosis according to current evidence, in order to improve the management of cirrhotic patients with infected ascitic fluid. (
  • Complement and immunoglobulin levels in serum and ascitic fluid of patients with spontaneous bacterial peritonitis, malignant ascites, and tuberculous peritonitis. (
  • Our abdominal cavity and the organs within it are protected and lubricated by a fluid called the peritoneal or ascitic fluid. (
  • However a variety of disease conditions can result in fluid build up of several litres (known as ascites ). (
  • As well as the serum-albumin-ascites gradient, other parameters can be assessed in peritoneal fluid analysis. (
  • The results of peritoneal fluid analysis are only useful in diagnosis when taken together with a physical examination and understanding of the patients medical history. (
  • Treatment of ascites will depend on the underlying cause but can include drainage of the fluid, bed rest, low salt diet, reduced fluid intake and drug treatment. (
  • In the ascitic fluid, the white blood cell counts decreased significantly and the protein concentrations tended to increase in both groups. (
  • Pleural or ascitic fluid should be sent for analysis. (
  • Bert F, Noussair L, Lambert-Zechovsky N, Valla D. Viridans group streptococci: an underestimated cause of spontaneous bacterial peritonitis in cirrhotic patients with ascites. (
  • Ascites & Spontaneous Bacterial Peritonitis. (
  • Proton pump inhibitor use and association with spontaneous bacterial peritonitis in patients with cirrhosis and ascites. (
  • Deshpande A, Pasupuleti V, Thota P, Pant C, Mapara S, Hassan S. Acid-suppressive therapy is associated with spontaneous bacterial peritonitis in cirrhotic patients: a meta-analysis. (
  • Mandorfer M, Bota S, Schwabl P, Bucsics T, Pfisterer N, Kruzik M. Nonselective ß blockers increase risk for hepatorenal syndrome and death in patients with cirrhosis and spontaneous bacterial peritonitis. (
  • Delayed paracentesis is associated with increased in-hospital mortality in patients with spontaneous bacterial peritonitis. (
  • Patients whose culture results are positive should be treated for spontaneous bacterial peritonitis. (
  • A 2013 meta-analysis by Salerno et al showed that albumin infusion in patients with spontaneous bacterial peritonitis reduced the incidence of renal impairment and mortality. (
  • Bacterial infections are frequently observed complications arising in patients with cirrhosis, and among them, spontaneous bacterial peritonitis (SBP) is probably the most relevant. (
  • A diagnosis of spontaneous bacterial peritonitis associated with alcoholic liver cirrhosis was made, and the patient was treated with 2 g/day of ceftriaxone. (
  • Ascites, another important complication of advanced cirrhosis and severe portal hypertension, is sometimes refractory to treatment and is complicated by spontaneous bacterial peritonitis and hepatorenal syndrome. (
  • It can result in severe complications, including bleeding of esophagogastric varices as well as spontaneous bacterial peritonitis or hepatorenal syndrome as complications of ascites. (
  • of which 51 patients were culture-positive spontaneous bacterial peritonitis (culture-positive SBP) and 58 patients were culture-negative SBP. (
  • Patients who survive an episode of spontaneous bacterial peritonitis should receive long-term prophylaxis with norfloxacin or trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole. (
  • Spontaneous bacterial peritonitis (SBP, 19.8%), culture-negative SBP (38.6%), bacterascites (4.9%), sterile ascites (23.8%) and malign ascites (12.9%) groups were compared in terms of procalcitonin levels in predicting ascites infection. (
  • Spontaneous bacterial peritonitis (SBP) is a commonly observed and severe complication in patients with cirrhosis and ascites, with a reported prevalence ranging from 10% to 25% in hospitalized cirrhotic patients1. (
  • Finally, clinical complications of portal hypertension such as ascites, encephalopathy, spontaneous bacterial peritonitis (SBP) and gastrointestinal bleeding are not considered in the MELD score, probably underestimating any direct association with the severity of liver disease[ 7 ]. (
  • One hundred ten E. coli isolates from 110 cirrhotic patients with spontaneous bacterial peritonitis and/or spontaneous bacteremia were characterized for their phylogenetic group and virulence genotype (34 extraintestinal virulence factor genes). (
  • In conclusion, E. coli isolates causing spontaneous bacterial peritonitis and bacteremia in cirrhotic patients are genetically diverse. (
  • It provides a solution for point of care detection of spontaneous bacterial peritonitis, which is an important cause of morbidity and mortality in cirrhotic patients with ascites. (
  • The diagnosis of spontaneous bacterial peritonitis is made, and the patient is treated. (
  • We're all very familiar with spontaneous bacterial peritonitis: a patient with cirrhosis and ascites gets a tiny inoculum of bacteria into their peritoneum and a low-grade infection of this space. (
  • The possibility of secondary bacterial peritonitis should always be considered carefully prior to concluding that the patient has spontaneous bacterial peritonitis. (
  • However, this is only weakly supported by the evidence: series report rebound tenderness in 17% of patients with secondary bacterial peritonitis versus 10% of patients with spontaneous bacterial peritonitis ( Koulaouzidis 2007 ). (
  • Methods and analysis We will search Medline (Ovid), Embase (Ovid), Cochrane Hepato-Biliary Controlled Trials Register and Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials for published reports on randomised controlled trials and observational studies on the effectiveness of intravenous albumin therapy to prevent spontaneous bacterial peritonitis, renal dysfunction and death in cirrhotic patients. (
  • Chronic liver disease, due to fibrosis-causing inflammation, usually progresses silently and slowly until the functioning of the liver is severely compromised and patients develop life-threatening complications such as ascites, spontaneous bacterial peritonitis (SBP) and renal dysfunction. (
  • Patients with ascites and spontaneous bacterial peritonitis (SBP) can present with fever, chills, abdominal pain, hepatic encephalopathy, and rebound abdominal tenderness. (
  • The mortality rate is very high, ranging from one-fifth of the patients with spontaneous bacterial peritonitis to four-fifths of the patients with spontaneous fungal peritonitis. (
  • Significance of lipopolysaccharide binding protein in serum and ascites of patients with hepatic cirrhosis complicated with spontaneous bacterial peritonitis]. (
  • Long-term clinical outcome of large volume paracentesis with intravenous albumin in patients with spontaneous bacterial peritonitis: A randomized prospective study. (
  • All measurements (supine position) were repeated after total paracentesis (10.7 +/- 0.6 L of ascites) in ascitic patients. (
  • Paracentesis is associated with reduced mortality in patients hospitalized with cirrhosis and ascites. (
  • Most experts recommend a diagnostic paracentesis be performed if the ascites is new or if the patient with ascites is being admitted to the hospital. (
  • A select subset of patients who are completely asymptomatic yet have positive culture results may be managed without treatment but must undergo a follow-up paracentesis within 24-48 hours. (
  • BACKGROUND Some cirrhotic patients with tense ascites who undergo paracentesis develop a circulatory dysfunction syndrome, manifested by an increase in plasma renin activity. (
  • METHODS Eleven cirrhotic patients with tense ascites received a large volume paracentesis. (
  • Previous studies have shown that large volume paracentesis in cirrhotic patients with tense ascites is followed by circulatory changes which in some cases can be associated with activation of the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system. (
  • The mechanisms by which massive paracentesis can induce activation of the vasoactive system in some cirrhotic patients are unknown. (
  • A paracentesis procedure is not a permanent solution but offers patients temporary relief from peritoneal effusion. (
  • Peritoneal mesothelioma patients may undergo repeated paracentesis for symptom management. (
  • The model's predictions accurately mimic clinical observations in ascites, including the magnitude and time course of changes observed following paracentesis or diuretic therapy. (
  • The patient was referred for intraperitoneal chemotherapy and is undergoing monthly therapeutic paracentesis. (
  • Because about 10% of patients with cirrhosis and primary peritonitis have no signs or symptoms to suggest peritonitis, paracentesis is necessary in every cirrhotic patient with ascites hospitalized for unexplained deterioration in the patient's condition. (
  • Diagnostic paracentesis is required in all patients regardless of their INR value in order to exclude other causes different of cirrhosis and portal hypertension. (
  • Abstract Background and Aim: Large volume paracentesis (LVP) with plasma volume expansion has been used for tense or refractory ascites. (
  • Ascites can also manifest as a result of cancers , called malignant ascites. (
  • Some studies have found that size and histology were the major factors determining prognosis for patients with malignant mixed germ cell tumors of the ovary. (
  • PURPOSE: This phase II trial is studying how well mitomycin works when given as a hyperthermic peritoneal perfusion in treating patients with malignant ascites. (
  • Determine the effectiveness of laparoscopic hyperthermic perfusion of mitomycin C in preventing relapse at 4 weeks post-treatment in patients with malignant ascites. (
  • Patients meeting protocol criteria enrolled with malignant ascites. (
  • The differential diagnosis of benign ascites and malignant ascites is incredibly challenging for clinicians. (
  • This research aimed to develop a user-friendly predictive model to discriminate malignant ascites from non-malignant ascites through easy-to-obtain clinical parameters. (
  • The mathematical diagnostic model based on the five markers is a user-friendly method to differentiate malignant ascites from benign ascites with high efficiency. (
  • Malignant ascites is the result of cancer and account for nearly 10% of all ascites cases occurring in related to various tumors, especially breast, ovary, stomach, pancreas, and colon cancer, and presents a challenging clinical problem in some cases [ 2 ]. (
  • The cytology analysis positive rate is only 30-50%, although it has proven to be the gold standard for identifying malignant ascites [ 8 ]. (
  • Options for late-stage ovarian cancer are limited and invasive, especially once malignant ascites develops. (
  • Malignant ascites, a complication observed in terminal ovarian cancer, significantly contributes to poor quality of life and to mortality. (
  • Therapeutic options for advanced stage ovarian cancer are extremely limited and very invasive, especially once malignant ascites develops ( 2 ). (
  • Malignant ascites formation is thought to occur due to increasing intraperitoneal vascular permeability ( 4 ). (
  • 38% of malignant ascites occurring in women are associated with ovarian cancer. (
  • Palliation of malignant ascites with a Tenckhoff catheter. (
  • Treatment of malignant ascites is different from nonmalignant ascites. (
  • For instance, in portal hypertension (perhaps due to cirrhosis or fibrosis of the liver) patients may also complain of leg swelling, bruising, gynecomastia , hematemesis , or mental changes due to encephalopathy . (
  • 1.1 g/dL) indicates the ascites is due to portal hypertension. (
  • Persons who have systemic lupus erythematosus but do not have liver disease or portal hypertension occasionally develop ascites. (
  • The main outcome measure was the prediction of portal hypertension (PHT) or non-portal hypertension related causes of ascites from SAAG. (
  • Although the exact mechanism of ascites development is not completely understood, most theories suggest portal hypertension (increased pressure in the liver blood flow to the liver) as the main contributor. (
  • We describe the pathophysiology of portal hypertension and the current management of its complications, with emphasis on the prophylaxis and treatment of variceal bleeding and ascites. (
  • The most recent theory of cirrhotic ascites formation is the peripheral arterial vasodilation hypothesis, which proposes that portal hypertension develops prior to the development of ascites (see Figure 1). (
  • Ascites develops secondary to portal hypertension and low albumin concentrations. (
  • Rarely, arterialization of the hepatic parenchyma by an intrahepatic arteriovenous malformation leads to arterialization of the intrahepatic circulation and causes portal hypertension and ascites. (
  • Consequences of portal hypertension include development of ascitic effusion, splanchnic vasodilation, risk of bleeding from APSSs, development of a portal-enteric vascuolopathy, and increased risk of septic abdominal effusion. (
  • Transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunt has been effective in reducing portal hypertension and improving symptoms of hepatorenal syndrome, and can reduce gastrointestinal bleeding in patients with refractory variceal hemorrhage. (
  • Quantitative modeling of the physiology of ascites in portal hypertension. (
  • Although the factors involved in cirrhotic ascites have been studied for a century, a number of observations are not understood, including the action of diuretics in the treatment of ascites and the ability of the plasma-ascitic albumin gradient to diagnose portal hypertension. (
  • It seems to be a relatively uncommon complication of portal hypertension with an estimated prevalence of 5-12% in patients with cirrhosis of the liver. (
  • Portal systemic shunting may be due to various causes of portal hypertension (e.g., portal vein thrombosis), but can also be iatrogenic as in patients that have undergone a transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunt (TIPS) procedure. (
  • Liver metastases that result in functional cirrhosis, which leads to a state called portal hypertension that causes ascites. (
  • [3] Of those with cirrhosis, more than half develop ascites in the ten years following diagnosis. (
  • To show the interest of the serum-ascites concentration gradient in albumin (SAAG) in the etiological diagnosis of ascites in African black. (
  • The simple technical SAAG, allowing to distinguish the ascites linked to the PHT and the ascites not bound to the PHT, can be used like a method of diagnosis of the etiologies of the ascites especially in the peritoneal tuberculosis in the African countries low income. (
  • Our study therefore aimed to clarify the interest of the ascites serum albumin gradient (SAAG) in the etiological diagnosis of ascites by assessing its threshold value in the diagnosis of cirrhosis and peritoneal tuberculosis in Black Africans. (
  • The serum-ascites albumin gradient is superior to the exudate-transudate concept in the differential diagnosis of ascites. (
  • A review of the literature in 1979 prior to the widespread use of combination chemotherapy found only 27% of 96 patients with stage I endodermal sinus tumor alive at 2 years after diagnosis. (
  • More than 50% of the patients died within a year of diagnosis. (
  • Most patients have distant metastasis at the time of diagnosis and a 5-year survival rate of only 29% ( 1 ). (
  • The present study was to create and evaluate a new bioscore combined with PCT, sNFI and dCHC in the diagnosis of ascites infection in cirrhotic patients. (
  • A bioscore of ≥3.40 was considered to be statistically significant in making a positive diagnosis of ascites infection. (
  • Despite being proposed for surgery, there was a rapid clinical deterioration and the patient died 11 weeks after the diagnosis. (
  • Despite being a rare cause of ascites, with approximately one hundred cases reported worldwide, PMP must be considered in the differential diagnosis of ascites, particularly if gelatinous. (
  • Imaging is key to the initial diagnosis, revealing typical findings on US, CT and magnetic resonance imaging such as heterogeneous ascites scalloping the visceral surface of the liver and spleen. (
  • Diagnosis of abdominal TB was confirmed using microbiologic and/or histologic methods in 76 patients (confirmed diagnosis), while the remaining 63 patients were diagnosed based on clinical presentation and radiologic imaging (clinical diagnosis). (
  • Challenging and uncommon diagnosis of long-evolution ascites -- Gravito-Soares et al. (
  • However, in many patients, the clinical signs and symptoms alone may not be sufficient to make a diagnosis or differentiate reliably between primary and secondary entities and a high index of suspicion is required, especially in those patients who are obtunded, have a spinal cord injury or are immunosuppressed by underlying disease or its therapy. (
  • They all produce a secondary prevention of oral vaccination of persons essentials of diagnosis after months or the patient previously had coronary h. (
  • HE is predominantly a clinical diagnosis and relies upon history, patient observation, and physical exam. (
  • A presumptive diagnosis of acute gastroenteritis was made, and the patient was started on intravenous fluids and admitted to the medical ward. (
  • The finding of eosinophilic ascites, with appropriate clinical and laboratory findings, may warrant the need to perform laparoscopic intestinal biopsies to confirm the diagnosis. (
  • As many as 20% of patients may have no symptoms at the time of diagnosis, suggesting the presence of large venous collaterals. (
  • This diagnosis can be hard to make, because patients may not have much abdominal pain and usually don't appear toxic. (
  • An immediate and accurate diagnosis can improve the outcome in end-stage liver disease patients. (
  • It is the most common complication of cirrhosis, which is also the most common cause of ascites. (
  • What exams, tests and procedures diagnose the cause of ascites? (
  • The most common cause of ascites is advanced liver disease or cirrhosis. (
  • But, the incidence of tuberculosis as a cause of ascites is reported only in 2% of the patients with this clinical manifestation. (
  • Whether these systemic abnormalities are the effect or cause of ascites has been controversial. (
  • 1.1 g/dL suggest a cause of ascites other than cirrhosis. (
  • Appropriate radiologic studies must be performed in such patients to rule out surgical causes of peritonitis. (
  • In spite of the reduction in peritonitis and catheter-related infection rates in patients undergoing peritoneal dialysis, these infections remain major sources of morbidity and transfer to haemodialysis. (
  • Tuberculous peritonitis frequently complicates patients with underlying end-stage renal or liver disease that further adds to the diagnostic difficulty. (
  • S development of a bacterial infection in the isolated species ascitic fluids are E.coli and peritoneum leading to peritonitis, in spite of the klebsiella. (
  • Are you sure your patient has peritonitis or intraperitoneal abscesses? (
  • Cecal ulceration in these patients may progress to perforation and secondary peritonitis caused by peritoneal deposition of intraluminal colonic contents, including its microflora. (
  • Therefore, it may be prudent to scan a patient with findings suggestive of frank peritonitis even if they have coexisting ascites. (
  • This strategy has the obvious drawback that it requires a 48-hour diagnostic delay for any patient with secondary bacterial peritonitis without perforation. (
  • Spontaneous peritonitis (SP) is the most common infection among decompensated end-stage liver disease patients. (
  • Ascites is caused by a variety of diseases and conditions, for example, cirrhosis of the liver , cancer within the abdomen, congestive heart failure , and tuberculosis . (
  • Ascites is one of the most common liver diseases that is caused by cirrhosis of the liver. (
  • Complications of ascites include bleeding from the lower intestine, kidney failure , and other complications of cirrhosis of the liver. (
  • Ascites is most commonly a complication of cirrhosis of the liver. (
  • Endothelin-3 like immunoreactivity in plasma of patients with cirrhosis of the liver. (
  • Evidence of an underlying disease, such as cirrhosis of the liver, nephrotic syndrome, systemic lupus, congestive heart failure, or malignancy, that causes ascites may be present. (
  • Approximately 85% of ascites cases are caused by cirrhosis of the liver, and roughly 10% of cases are caused by cancer. (
  • The serum-ascites albumin gradient (SAAG) is probably a better discriminant than older measures (transudate versus exudate) for the causes of ascites. (
  • All patients with peritoneal tuberculosis had a SAAG low of less than 1.1 g/dl significantly (p = 0.002). (
  • It is therefore questionable whether SAAG has the same diagnostic value in the etiological research of ascites in Africans as in Caucasians. (
  • For patients who have ascites because of portal vein hypertension, determining serum albumin concentration-ascitic albumin concentration ( SAAG ) is recommended. (
  • Signs and symptoms of ascites include abdominal pain and bloating , shortness of breath , and liver failure. (
  • Exudative ascites with abdominal pain and fever is the classic presentation, representing 70% of the cases. (
  • SBP is suspected if a patient with ascites also has abdominal pain, fever, or unexplained deterioration. (
  • A high index of suspicion and thorough evaluation are warranted to diagnose portomesenteric infarction in patients with abdominal pain. (
  • For all forms of the syndrome, the most common presenting symptoms and signs, occurring in more than two thirds of patients, include the following: abdominal pain (particularly originating in the right upper quadrant), abdominal distension with ascites and hepatomegaly. (
  • This examination takes minutes and is may be incorporated into routine practice when performing ultrasound to evaluate ascites or abdominal pain ( Hoffmann 2012 ). (
  • It also should be performed in all patients requiring hospitalization and in those with any evidence of clinical deterioration such as fever, abdominal pain, hypotension, or encephalopathy. (
  • Rapidly developing (acute) ascites can occur as a complication of trauma, perforated ulcer, appendicitis, or inflammation of the colon or other tube-shaped organ (diverticulitis). (
  • With respect to compromised host defenses, patients with severe acute or chronic liver disease are often deficient in complement and may also have malfunctioning of the neutrophilic and reticuloendothelial systems. (
  • On physical exam, the patient was in acute respiratory distress, with a blood pressure of 190/94, bilateral expiratory wheezes, and serpiginous erythematous rash over the lower abdomen and proximal thighs. (
  • Perforation complicating penetrating cytomegalovirus enterocolitis has been described as a common cause of acute abdomen in patients with AIDS. (
  • The patient with alcoholic cirrhosis ( Laënnec's cirrhosis ) may be admitted to the hospital with acute alcoholic hepatitis, marked by fever and dehydration. (
  • J clin methotrexate with minimal change disease, therapy, remission rates of complete surgical removal of these resenting tumor size was 6 cm may be more than 48 hours or meropenem should acute pancreatitis, or patients recently practice always makes an admission decision require admission for influenza illness among children aged 2 8 years follow-up demonstrated tom experienced. (
  • This risk is about 30 40% of the acute nant symptoms are worst and the endopelvic fascia in a patient complains of severe hypertension, particularly in noninstitutionalized individuals. (
  • Because they have not yet had time to develop venous collaterals and they often have involvement of all the major hepatic veins, patients with acute BCS tend to be more symptomatic, often with intractable ascites and evidence of hepatic necrosis. (
  • Subacute or chronic BCS, which is more common than the acute forms in most reported series, should be considered in all patients presenting with unexplained liver disease. (
  • Elevated serum prostaglandin E2 predicts the risk of infection in hepatitis B virus-related acute-on-chronic liver failure patients. (
  • In this study, a flow control reinfusion of ascites during hemodialysis (HD) was performed to demonstrate the efficacy of this method in a lupus patient with massive refractory ascites and respiratory and acute renal failure (ARF). (
  • Refractory ascites (RA) is closely related to a high morbidity and mortality. (
  • Definition and diagnostic criteria of refractory ascites and hepatorenal syndrome in cirrhosis. (
  • Refractory" Ascites in Cirrhosis: Its Management by a Multiple Diuretic Approach. (
  • TIPS should be considered in patients with refractory ascites who may require a transplant, whereas a peritoneovenous shunt should be considered in patients with refractory ascites who are not candidates for paracenteses, transplant, or TIPS. (
  • Refractory ascites can occur in patients with various conditions. (
  • In conclusion, with a normal coagulation profile, the procedure of flow control reinfusion of ascites during HD is an effective alternative treatment for the alleviation of refractory ascites with renal failure. (
  • LVP with intravenous albumin might be feasible for the treatment of tense or refractory ascites in cirrhotic patients with SBP. (
  • As with previous editions, this edition of Diagnostic Standards has been prepared as a basic guide and statement of principles for all persons involved in the care of patients with tuberculosis. (
  • Receiver operating characteristic curve (ROC) was used to analyze the diagnostic ability of bioscore for ascites infection. (
  • The composite markers of combining PCT, dCHC and sNFI could be a valuable diagnostic score to early diagnose ascites infection in patients with cirrhosis. (
  • According to our findings determination of serum procalcitonin levels seems to provide satisfactory diagnostic accuracy in differentiating bacterial infections in hospitalized patients with liver cirrhosis related ascites. (
  • Diagnostic Confirmation: Are you sure your patient has Budd-Chiari syndrome? (
  • This imporant diagnostic test is calculated as the serum albumin minus the ascitic albumin. (
  • Marked recent weight loss is a major clinical manifestation, and unresponsiveness of the ascites to diuretics is an additional diagnostic clue. (
  • Cirrhotic patients exhibit disturbed melatonin homeostasis, which may lead to sleep disturbances, but an influence on the hepatic encephalopathy has not been elucidated. (
  • Our results suggest that high blood levels of melatonin in cirrhotic liver patients may account for some of the clinical manifestations of hepatic encephalopathy, for example, daytime sleepiness, fatigue. (
  • However, high levels of ammonia were not observed in all hepatic encephalopathy patients, indicating that other chemical substances should be also considered as pathogenetic factors. (
  • A careful history of the patient with ascites should include information that places a patient at risk for liver disease, including quantity and duration of alcohol use, transfusion of blood products, and personal or family history of autoimmune or hepatic diseases. (
  • Hepatic hydrothorax is defined as a significant pleural effusion, usually greater than 500 mL, in a cirrhotic patient,without an underlying pulmonary or cardiac disease. (
  • Paralleling findings on simple cysts in the kidney, most liver cysts are solitary, but two or three cysts are found in one fourth of the patients with simple nonparasitic hepatic cysts. (
  • Hepatic encephalopathy (HE), also known as portal systemic encephalopathy (PSE), is a complex neuropsychiatric disorder in patients with portal systemic shunting, either with or without intrinsic liver dysfunction. (
  • Primary BCS with pure hepatic vein occlusion is more common in Western countries, while in Asian countries (especially patients from lower socioeconomic backgrounds), the disease is more common overall and typically involves the IVC, often due to the presence of membranous webs. (
  • 1-3 Few of these patients show serious clinical complications in the short term, but patients in whom plasma renin activity (PRA) increases to greater than 50% over basal levels have a tendency to suffer clinical consequences, such as faster ascites reaccumulation due to an increase in renal sodium retention, hyponatraemia, and functional renal failure. (
  • Since early intervention can be life saving, evidence of Strongyloides infection should always be watched for in such high-risk patients undergoing immunosuppressive therapy, particularly those with respiratory complications. (
  • With this in mind, patients exposed to endemic areas with a history of immunosuppression and respiratory complications should be considered for Strongyloidiasis, and here we present two such cases. (
  • Diabetic patients with microvascular complications like retinopathy, nephropathy and neuropathy had increased levels of Lp(a). (
  • Infections caused by intestinal bacteria are common complications in patients with cirrhosis ( 8 , 30 ). (
  • The clinical latency period between asbestos exposure and mesothelioma development is 35-40 years, and as a result, the number of mesothelioma patients has continued to rise despite decreased asbestos production. (
  • Erlotinib plus gemcitabine compared with gemcitabine alone in patients with advanced pancreatic cancer: a phase III trial of the National Cancer Institute of Canada Clinical Trials Group. (
  • Clinical benefit and quality of life in patients with advanced pancreatic cancer receiving gemcitabine plus capecitabine versus gemcitabine alone: a randomized multicenter phase III clinical trial - SAKK 44/00-CECOG/PAN.1.3.001. (
  • Assessment of patient-reported clinical outcome in pancreatic and other hepatobiliary cancers: the FACT hepatobiliary symptom index. (
  • Systemic steroids, while useful for many clinical conditions, can serve as the immunosuppressive spark for overwhelming Strongyloides dissemination in the undiagnosed patient. (
  • In the past twelve months, Lung Therapeutics successfully completed a multi-site clinical trial of its lead drug candidate, LTI-01, in patients with Loculated Pleural Effusion. (
  • Ascites commonly is regarded as a clinical condition that can be understood in terms of classic physiological principals. (
  • Mesothelioma surgeons can offer patients the opportunity to participate in clinical trials to investigate optimal therapies to combine with surgery. (
  • The common clinical feature of primary peritonitisis the presence of ascites, although in some patients ascites may not be very clinically apparent. (
  • AIM: To investigate the capability of a biochemical and clinical model, BioCliM, in predicting the survival of cirrhotic patients. (
  • The model was constructed using clinical (ascites, encephalopathy and variceal bleeding) and biochemical (serum creatinine and serum total bilirubin) variables that were selected from a Cox proportional hazards model. (
  • AIM To evaluate the prevalence, incidence, pathogens and clinical outcome of patients with liver cirrhosis and SBP. (
  • Blood that cannot flow through the liver because of the increased pressure leaks into the abdomen and causes ascites. (
  • A specially designed pneumatic girdle was used to compress the abdomen to avoid a decrease in IAP during ascites removal. (
  • A rigid abdomen commonly does not occur in patients with infected ascites. (
  • Development of ascites is predictive of mortality, especially in liver disease. (
  • Two years after the development of ascites associated with alcoholic cirrhosis, an affected individual has a 50% chance of survival. (
  • Development of ascites associated with chronic hepatitis C suggests a 5-year survival time (Saadeh & Davis, 2004). (
  • BT is also associated with activation of the immune system and hyperdynamic circulatory status in cirrhosis, thereby contributing to the development of ascites and hepatorenal syndrome ( 37 ). (
  • The increase in portal blood pressure and decrease in albumin (a protein that is carried in the blood) may be responsible in forming the pressure gradient and resulting in abdominal ascites. (
  • Because chemokines can determine host cell infiltration in solid ovarian cancer, we assessed CC chemokine protein and CC chemokine receptor expression in ovarian cancer ascites. (
  • CD14 + macrophages within ascites consistently expressed protein for CCR1, -2, and -5. (
  • Zagazig, Egypt leucocytes (PMN), high sensitive C reactive protein (hs-CRP) in patients [email protected] with SBP before and after treatment. (
  • The efficacy of procalcitonin(PCT), c-reactive protein (CRP), white blood cell (WBC), mean fluorescence intensity of mature neutrophils(sNFI) and difference in hemoglobin concentration between newly formed and mature red blood cells(dCHC) for diagnosing ascites infection was examined. (
  • The HGUE-C-1 cell line was sensitive to erlotinib, gefitinib, NVP-BEZ235, rapamycin and trichostatin, among other drugs, but partially resistant to heat shock protein inhibitors and highly resistant to AZD-6244 and oxaliplatin, even though the patient from which this cell line was derived had not been exposed to these drugs. (
  • moreover, primary prophylaxis in low-protein ascitic patients requires long-term antibiotic regimens (whose exact duration is still matter of debate), hence less expensive and better tolerated agents such as rifaximin have been tested with conflicting results6. (
  • It is characterized by copious amounts of mucinous ascites and mucinous peritoneal implants, leading to progressive obliteration of the peritoneal cavity and intestinal obstruction. (
  • This communication presents an explanation of ascites based solely on pathophysiological alterations within the peritoneal cavity. (
  • This focus on renal and systemic effects has led investigators to lose sight of the local factors within the peritoneal cavity that actually are responsible for the accumulations of ascites. (
  • Anterior disruption of a pseudocyst or a pancreatic duct leads to leakage of pancreatic secretions into the free peritoneal cavity, leading to pancreatic ascites. (
  • Patterns of self-reported symptoms in pancreatic cancer patients receiving chemoradiation. (
  • Gastrointestinal symptoms in advanced cancer patients. (
  • What causes signs and symptoms of ascites? (
  • Thirteen percent of patients have no signs or symptoms. (
  • Delgado-Guay M, Ferrer J, Rieber AG, Rhondali W, Tayjasanant S, Ochoa J et al (2015) Financial distress and its associations with physical and emotional symptoms and quality of life among advanced cancer patients. (
  • Fletcher BS, Paul SM, Dodd MJ, Schumacher K, West C, Cooper B et al (2008) Prevalence, severity, and impact of symptoms on female family caregivers of patients at the initiation of radiation therapy for prostate cancer. (
  • Doctors may repeat the procedure as needed to manage patient symptoms. (
  • Surgery can extend survival and relieve symptoms for mesothelioma patients. (
  • Fever (often low grade) is reported to occur in up to 80% of patients and may be present without abdominal signs or symptoms. (
  • While it is difficult to gauge a precise timeline for ESLD, certain symptoms have been associated with worsening disease and shorter life expectancy, such as ascites that does not respond to treatment, kidney failure, and bleeding from the gastrointestinal tract. (
  • Although most patients with ADPKD report no liver symptoms, some experience chronic manifestations related to progressive increase of the polycystic liver. (
  • Although HE is typically thought of as having overt signs and symptoms, a large portion of patients with cirrhosis show only subtle cognitive deficits, termed minimal HE. (
  • Proper treatment can control pain and other symptoms in addition to resolving recurring ascites. (
  • This procedure may be performed multiple times to control recurring ascites and associated symptoms such as distention, pain, nausea, vomiting and difficulty breathing. (
  • However, only a minority of patients with SBP present with these symptoms. (
  • Therapeutic strategies for control of ascites include dietary sodium restriction, administration of diuretics to increase urinary sodium elimination, and therapeutic abdominocentesis (when necessary). (
  • First-line treatment of patients with cirrhotic ascites consists of sodium restriction (i.e., no more than 2,000 mg per day) and diuretics (e.g., oral spironolactone [Aldactone] and furosemide [Lasix]), as well as complete abstention from alcohol. (
  • Once ascites is present, most therapeutic modalities are directed on maintaining negative sodium balance, including salt restriction, bed rest and diuretics. (
  • and Group 2 included 21 patients who were treated with diuretics and intravenous albumin. (
  • Those with ascites due to cancer (peritoneal carcinomatosis) may complain of chronic fatigue or weight loss. (
  • However, ascites is more often associated with liver disease and other long-lasting (chronic) conditions. (
  • Pancreatic ascites can be seen in people with chronic (long standing) pancreatitis or inflammation of the pancreas. (
  • Assessment of vancomycin use in chronic haemodialysis patients: room for improvement. (
  • This report describes a patient with cirrhosis and HCC who presented with chronic diarrhea. (
  • SBP should always be considered in the setting of decompensation of a patient with previously stable chronic liver disease. (
  • On examination, a voluminous ascites was noted, with no signs of chronic liver disease. (
  • Other patients have an insidious, chronic wasting course, in some of whom the process having been partially suppressed by antibiotic therapy. (
  • The Ruijin equation is more applicable in Chinese diabetic and chronic kidney diseases patients than the Cockcroft-Gault and Modification of Diet in Renal Disease formulae. (
  • Management of chronic triamterene, and all patients use of this algorithm (5% in one prospective randomized study of 177 patients. (
  • Aside of examining the patient for stigmata of chronic liver disease, a detailed physical exam needs to be performed. (
  • The formation of ascites was observed after 10 days of tumor inoculation and continued for up to 4 weeks. (
  • The repeated i.p. administration of an immunoneutralizing monoclonal antibody (MAb) to VPF, MV833, significantly inhibited the formation of ascites throughout the experiments. (
  • The circulating blood volume may be perceived as low by the sensors in the kidneys as the formation of ascites may deplete some volume from the blood. (
  • To this aim in 27 cirrhotic patients with tense ascites, 17 cirrhotic patients with previous episodes of ascites (not actual), and 11 controls we investigated by echocardiography and echocolor Doppler left ventricle diastolic function (E wave, A wave, E/A ratio, deceleration time of E wave), systolic function (ejection fraction), and wall thickness (left ventricle posterior wall thickness + interventricular septum thickness) along with neurohumoral variables. (
  • In patients with a large and tense ascites, the respiratory function and physical activity may be impaired. (
  • LVP was effective in removing abdominal discomfort in patients with tense ascites without serious complication. (
  • A study has reported that pleural effusion was present in 10% of chest X-rays in cirrhotic patients. (
  • Using cell culture techniques, we isolated clonal populations from primary cultures of ascitic effusion derived from a colon cancer patient and after several passages an established cell line, HGUE-C-1, was obtained. (
  • While the condition is relatively common among peritoneal mesothelioma patients, this cancer is a rare cause of peritoneal effusion overall. (
  • Peritoneal effusion isn't strongly associated with survival time , but worsening ascites is a sign that the cancer is progressing. (
  • Endocrine and renal ascites are rare disorders. (
  • Renal ascites develops when blood levels of albumin dip below normal. (
  • Over the past 30 years, ascites research largely has focused on associated systemic abnormalities such as increases in cardiac output, blood volume, renal sodium retention and reduction in total systemic vascular resistance. (
  • Rocco and Ware [ 2 ] review the two older competing hypotheses: 1) the "underfill" theory in which ascites formation is the primary event causing the systemic changes, versus 2) the "overflow" theory in which renal sodium retention is the primary event. (
  • Ascites is the most common complication of cirrhosis and poses an increased risk for infections, renal failure and mortality. (
  • Because no large systematic screening for liver and renal cysts has been performed in relatives of the patients with PLD, the respective prevalence of the hereditary and sporadic forms is not known. (
  • Mild ascites is hard to notice, but severe ascites leads to abdominal distension . (
  • He complained of ascites during the last 3 years with worsening in the last year with severe ascites development. (
  • Albumin concentration aids in the calculation of the serum-ascites albumin gradient, which is an indirect measurement of portal pressure. (
  • The difference between serum albumin concentration and ascites albumin concentration (serum-ascites albumin gradient) in patients with cirrhosis and ascites is usually ≥1.1 g/dL. (
  • [3] Of those in this group who develop ascites, half will die within three years. (
  • During the course of the disease, more than one-third of women with ovarian cancer will develop ascites ( 3 ). (
  • Thoracic duct lymph in a patient with chylous ascites and a carcinoid tumor. (
  • Patients with mature teratomas usually experience long-term survival, but survival for patients with immature teratomas following surgery only is related to the grade of the tumor, especially its neural elements. (
  • Prognosis was poor for patients with large tumors when more than one-third of the tumor was composed of endodermal sinus elements, choriocarcinoma, or grade 3 immature teratoma. (
  • The HLA class I and HLA-A2 expression levels on noncultured tumor cells of 12 patients diagnosed with ovarian carcinoma were investigated by flow cytometry. (
  • The metastatic tumor cells from all patients expressed low levels of HLA class I surface antigens. (
  • In six of nine HLA-A2 + patients, HLA-A2 expression was heterogeneous with a subpopulation of tumor cells exhibiting decreased or absent HLA-A2 expression. (
  • One patient-derived tumor cell line completely lacked HLA-A2 but exhibited constitutive expression of APM components and high HLA class I expression that was further inducible by IFN-γ treatment. (
  • Most T-cell-based immunotherapeutic strategies for cancer patients done with tumor vaccines or adoptively transferred T cells are based on CTLs with HLA-A2 as the restriction element ( 17 - 20 ). (
  • Hence, HLA-A2 expression on the tumor cells is of critical importance for the effectiveness of immunotherapy and naturally occurring antitumor immunity in cancer patients in general and for patients suffering from ovarian carcinoma in particular. (
  • The primary goal of this study was therefore to investigate the expression of HLA-A2 and total HLA class I surface antigens on metastatic tumor cells from patients with advanced ovarian cancer. (
  • Here we applied non-invasive magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and spectroscopic imaging (MRSI) of syngeneic mouse tumors in vivo , and high-resolution 1 H MRS of mouse tumor extracts, to characterize the relationship between ascites volumes and the vasculature and metabolism of an experimental model of ovarian cancer. (
  • Differences were observed in the tumor vasculature and metabolism in tumors based on ascites volumes that provide new insights into the development of this condition. (
  • Local secretion of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) is a key factor in both tumor growth and ascites formation ( 5 ). (
  • T lymphocytes from patients with primary biliary cirrhosis produce reduced amounts of lymphotoxin, tumor necrosis factor and interferon-gamma upon mitogen stimulation. (
  • A high level of KLK4 is expressed by ascitic EOC cells compared to matched primary tumor cells, further supporting its role in the ascitic microenvironment. (
  • We set out to determine whether advanced epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC) is associated with elevated serum and ascitic concentrations of the angiogenic factors angiogenin (ANG), basic fibroblastic growth factor (bFGF), and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), and whether the expression of angiogenic factors was associated with tumor vascularity. (
  • There was no correlation between the serum or ascitic concentrations of angiogenic factors and tumor vascularity. (
  • There was no correlation between the angiogenic profile in serum and ascites and tumor vascularity. (
  • Among patients with cirrhosis, infections caused by Escherichia coli organisms that translocate from the gut are a frequent and severe complication. (
  • To determine if central sympathetic outflow is increased in patients with cirrhosis and ascites. (
  • Sympathetic nerve activity is not increased in patients with cirrhosis but without ascites. (
  • Painless jaundice, often associated with cancer of the pancreatic head, can be surgically treated in resectable cases or managed with a biliary stent in patients with locally advanced or metastatic disease. (
  • Development of a disease specific quality of life (QoL) questionnaire module to supplement the EORTC core cancer QoL questionnaire, the QLQ-C30 in patients with pancreatic cancer. (
  • Effect of neurolytic celiac plexus block on pain relief, quality of life, and survival in patients with unresectable pancreatic cancer: a randomized controlled trial. (
  • Pancreatic ascites develops when a cyst that has thick, fibrous walls (pseudocyst) bursts and permits pancreatic juices to enter the abdominal cavity. (
  • This type of ascites is typically a manifestation of advanced cancers of the organs in the abdominal cavity, such as, colon cancer , pancreatic cancer , stomach cancer , breast cancer , lymphoma , lung cancer , or ovarian cancer . (
  • 1976), internal pancreatic fistulas can result in pancreatic ascites, mediastinital pseudocysts, enzymatic mediastinitis, or pancreatic pleural effusions, depending on the flow of pancreatic secretions from a disrupted pancreatic duct or leakage from a pseudocyst. (
  • The production of pancreatic enzymes is suppressed by restricting the patient's oral intake of food patient in conjunction with the use of long-acting somatostatin analogues. (
  • Previous to admission, the patient had been seen at a primary-care center where complete blood count and differential examination were normal, and routine examination of stool for ova and parasites was negative. (
  • A total of 101 patients (mean age: 63.4±1.3, 66.3% were males) hospitalized due to cirrhosis (n=88) or malignancy related (n=13) ascites were included in this study. (
  • Suspect primary BCS in a patient with underlying thrombophilia presenting with the above findings, and secondary BCS if such a presentation occurs in a patient with a history of blunt abdominal trauma or intra-abdominal malignancy or infection. (
  • Firm lymphadenopathy is found in patients with an underlying malignancy. (
  • 0. 05) than the mean ascitic concentration. (
  • With serum samples, 38.9% of patients had a normal VEGF concentration, as did 15.3% for ANG and 7.7% for bFGF. (
  • In ascites, the VEGF concentration was in the range for normal serum in 24.5% of samples, compared to 39.4% for ANG and 2.8% for bFGF. (
  • There was no correlation between the serum and/or ascitic concentration of one factor and that of another, suggesting that these factors are independently regulated. (
  • Fluorescence-activated cell-sorting analysis showed variable numbers of macrophages and CD3 + T lymphocytes (predominantly CD4 + ) within ovarian cancer ascites. (
  • We conclude that there is a complex chemokine/chemokine receptor network in ovarian cancer ascites. (
  • This, to our knowledge, is the first detailed study of CC chemokines and their receptors in human ovarian cancer ascites. (
  • Although chylous ascites is sometimes caused by trauma, abdominal surgery, tuberculosis , or another peritoneal infection, it is usually a symptom of lymphoma or some other cancer . (
  • The causes of ascites are multiple, nevertheless two etiologies predominate, liver cirrhosis for transudative ascites and peritoneal tuberculosis for exudative ascites in our contexts. (
  • Although patients with tuberculosis also generate larger particles containing numerous bacilli, these particles do not serve as effective vehicles for transmission of infection because they do not remain airborne, and if inhaled, do not reach alveoli. (
  • This article focuses on ADPKD patients with symptomatic liver involvement and provides guidelines for therapy in polycystic liver disease (PLD). (
  • Suspect BCS in any patient with liver disease and one or more components of this triad. (
  • Other signs of ascites may be present due to its underlying etiology. (
  • In addition, a thorough work-up needs to be done in order to elucidate the etiology, especially underlying systemic illness, in those patients diagnosed with portal vein thrombosis. (
  • Nasopharyngeal costeroids (eg, prednisone, 7-day course using 17 [7-mg] carcinoma (nonkeratinizing squamous cell carcinoma, the etiology of bowenoid papulosis, although histologically similar to m pneumoniae, ceftriaxone, 1 g intravenously joint infection ascites before dental procedures, guidelines from the medial margin of stimulants. (
  • [ 18 ] In this study, Pande et al found over a 28-month period that 110 patients who were randomized to either norfloxacin 400 mg with probiotics or placebo did not have improved efficacy in primary or secondary prophylaxis or in reducing mortality in cirrhotic patients with ascites. (
  • 30% of SBP patients develop kidney malfunction and is one of the strongest predictors for mortality. (
  • It can also occur in patients with nephrotic syndrome. (
  • Heart failure is the most common cause, followed by cirrhosis with ascites and by hypoalbuminemia, usually due to the nephrotic syndrome . (
  • Although relatively rare, SBP may occur in pediatric patients with nephrotic syndrome or cirrhosis. (
  • Even patients with incompletely resected dysgerminoma can be rendered disease-free following chemotherapy with bleomycin, etoposide, and cisplatin (BEP) or a combination of cisplatin, vinblastine, and bleomycin, also known as PVB. (
  • Ascites are essentially treated indirectly, using platinum-based intravenous chemotherapy against the underlying disease. (
  • Peritoneal signs suggestive of appendicitis in immunocompromised patients, e.g., patients with AIDS, organ transplant recipients, and those receiving chemotherapy or corticosteroids for neoplasms (especially myelosuppressive drugs), may be due to typhlitis, an inflammation of the cecum. (
  • After completing chemotherapy directed against mast cell ige likely to compression from, for example, that in cytic ascites have negative ascitic bacterial cultures (requiring 28 52 hours. (
  • Several studies have shown the immunogenic role of bacterial DNA in vitro, and we hypothesised that the presence of bacterial DNA could activate the type I immune response in peritoneal macrophages from these patients, leading to greater cytokine synthesis (interleukin (IL)-2 and IL-12, tumour necrosis factor α, and interferon γ) and effector molecules such as nitric oxide. (
  • The ability of peritoneal macrophages to synthesise nitric oxide and levels of all cytokines were significantly increased in patients with bacterial DNA. (
  • The presence of bacterial DNA in patients with decompensated cirrhosis is associated with marked activation of peritoneal macrophages, as evidenced by nitric oxide synthesising ability, together with enhanced cytokine production. (
  • 5 Supporting this hypothesis, in a previous work we detected the presence of bacterial DNA (bactDNA) fragments simultaneously in blood and AF in as many as 32% of patients with advanced cirrhosis and sterile non-neutrocytic AF, 6 a fact that we interpret as molecular evidence of BT. (
  • Internal Medicine frequent bacterial infection in cirrhotic patients with ascites. (
  • PharmaIN and LAT Pharma announced that the FDA has granted their request for orphan drug designation for terlipressin for the treatment of ascites due to all etiologies except for cancer. (