Succinylcholine: A quaternary skeletal muscle relaxant usually used in the form of its bromide, chloride, or iodide. It is a depolarizing relaxant, acting in about 30 seconds and with a duration of effect averaging three to five minutes. Succinylcholine is used in surgical, anesthetic, and other procedures in which a brief period of muscle relaxation is called for.Neuromuscular Depolarizing Agents: Drugs that interrupt transmission at the skeletal neuromuscular junction by causing sustained depolarization of the motor end plate. These agents are primarily used as adjuvants in surgical anesthesia to cause skeletal muscle relaxation.Neuromuscular Blocking Agents: Drugs that interrupt transmission of nerve impulses at the skeletal neuromuscular junction. They can be of two types, competitive, stabilizing blockers (NEUROMUSCULAR NONDEPOLARIZING AGENTS) or noncompetitive, depolarizing agents (NEUROMUSCULAR DEPOLARIZING AGENTS). Both prevent acetylcholine from triggering the muscle contraction and they are used as anesthesia adjuvants, as relaxants during electroshock, in convulsive states, etc.Neuromuscular Nondepolarizing Agents: Drugs that interrupt transmission at the skeletal neuromuscular junction without causing depolarization of the motor end plate. They prevent acetylcholine from triggering muscle contraction and are used as muscle relaxants during electroshock treatments, in convulsive states, and as anesthesia adjuvants.Vecuronium Bromide: Monoquaternary homolog of PANCURONIUM. A non-depolarizing neuromuscular blocking agent with shorter duration of action than pancuronium. Its lack of significant cardiovascular effects and lack of dependence on good kidney function for elimination as well as its short duration of action and easy reversibility provide advantages over, or alternatives to, other established neuromuscular blocking agents.Androstanols: Androstanes and androstane derivatives which are substituted in any position with one or more hydroxyl groups.Fasciculation: Involuntary contraction of the muscle fibers innervated by a motor unit. Fasciculations can often by visualized and take the form of a muscle twitch or dimpling under the skin, but usually do not generate sufficient force to move a limb. They may represent a benign condition or occur as a manifestation of MOTOR NEURON DISEASE or PERIPHERAL NERVOUS SYSTEM DISEASES. (Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p1294)Intubation, Intratracheal: A procedure involving placement of a tube into the trachea through the mouth or nose in order to provide a patient with oxygen and anesthesia.Pancuronium: A bis-quaternary steroid that is a competitive nicotinic antagonist. As a neuromuscular blocking agent it is more potent than CURARE but has less effect on the circulatory system and on histamine release.Neuromuscular Blockade: The intentional interruption of transmission at the NEUROMUSCULAR JUNCTION by external agents, usually neuromuscular blocking agents. It is distinguished from NERVE BLOCK in which nerve conduction (NEURAL CONDUCTION) is interrupted rather than neuromuscular transmission. Neuromuscular blockade is commonly used to produce MUSCLE RELAXATION as an adjunct to anesthesia during surgery and other medical procedures. It is also often used as an experimental manipulation in basic research. It is not strictly speaking anesthesia but is grouped here with anesthetic techniques. The failure of neuromuscular transmission as a result of pathological processes is not included here.CholinesterasesMalignant Hyperthermia: Rapid and excessive rise of temperature accompanied by muscular rigidity following general anesthesia.Thiopental: A barbiturate that is administered intravenously for the induction of general anesthesia or for the production of complete anesthesia of short duration.Anesthesia, IntratrachealAnesthesia, Inhalation: Anesthesia caused by the breathing of anesthetic gases or vapors or by insufflating anesthetic gases or vapors into the respiratory tract.Tubocurarine: A neuromuscular blocker and active ingredient in CURARE; plant based alkaloid of Menispermaceae.Anesthesia, General: Procedure in which patients are induced into an unconscious state through use of various medications so that they do not feel pain during surgery.Ulnar Nerve: A major nerve of the upper extremity. In humans, the fibers of the ulnar nerve originate in the lower cervical and upper thoracic spinal cord (usually C7 to T1), travel via the medial cord of the brachial plexus, and supply sensory and motor innervation to parts of the hand and forearm.Masseter Muscle: A masticatory muscle whose action is closing the jaws.Pseudocholinesterase: An aspect of cholinesterases.Muscle Rigidity: Continuous involuntary sustained muscle contraction which is often a manifestation of BASAL GANGLIA DISEASES. When an affected muscle is passively stretched, the degree of resistance remains constant regardless of the rate at which the muscle is stretched. This feature helps to distinguish rigidity from MUSCLE SPASTICITY. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p73)Apnea: A transient absence of spontaneous respiration.Decamethonium Compounds: Compounds that contain the decamethylenebis(trimethyl)ammonium radical. These compounds frequently act as neuromuscular depolarizing agents.Atracurium: A non-depolarizing neuromuscular blocking agent with short duration of action. Its lack of significant cardiovascular effects and its lack of dependence on good kidney function for elimination provide clinical advantage over alternate non-depolarizing neuromuscular blocking agents.gamma-Cyclodextrins: Cyclic GLUCANS consisting of eight (8) glucopyranose units linked by 1,4-glycosidic bonds.Halothane: A nonflammable, halogenated, hydrocarbon anesthetic that provides relatively rapid induction with little or no excitement. Analgesia may not be adequate. NITROUS OXIDE is often given concomitantly. Because halothane may not produce sufficient muscle relaxation, supplemental neuromuscular blocking agents may be required. (From AMA Drug Evaluations Annual, 1994, p178)Nitrous Oxide: Nitrogen oxide (N2O). A colorless, odorless gas that is used as an anesthetic and analgesic. High concentrations cause a narcotic effect and may replace oxygen, causing death by asphyxia. It is also used as a food aerosol in the preparation of whipping cream.Butyrylcholinesterase: An aspect of cholinesterase (EC 3.1.1.8).Preanesthetic Medication: Drugs administered before an anesthetic to decrease a patient's anxiety and control the effects of that anesthetic.Butyrylthiocholine: A sulfur-containing analog of butyrylcholine which is hydrolyzed by butyrylcholinesterase to butyrate and thiocholine. It is used as a reagent in the determination of butyrylcholinesterase activity.Neuromuscular Junction: The synapse between a neuron and a muscle.Anesthetics, Intravenous: Ultrashort-acting anesthetics that are used for induction. Loss of consciousness is rapid and induction is pleasant, but there is no muscle relaxation and reflexes frequently are not reduced adequately. Repeated administration results in accumulation and prolongs the recovery time. Since these agents have little if any analgesic activity, they are seldom used alone except in brief minor procedures. (From AMA Drug Evaluations Annual, 1994, p174)Tachyphylaxis: Rapidly decreasing response to a drug or physiologically active agent after administration of a few doses. In immunology, it is the rapid immunization against the effect of toxic doses of an extract or serum by previous injection of small doses. (Dorland, 28th ed)Propofol: An intravenous anesthetic agent which has the advantage of a very rapid onset after infusion or bolus injection plus a very short recovery period of a couple of minutes. (From Smith and Reynard, Textbook of Pharmacology, 1992, 1st ed, p206). Propofol has been used as ANTICONVULSANTS and ANTIEMETICS.Laryngismus: A disorder in which the adductor muscles of the VOCAL CORDS exhibit increased activity leading to laryngeal spasm. Laryngismus causes closure of the VOCAL FOLDS and airflow obstruction during inspiration.Anesthesia: A state characterized by loss of feeling or sensation. This depression of nerve function is usually the result of pharmacologic action and is induced to allow performance of surgery or other painful procedures.Masticatory Muscles: Muscles arising in the zygomatic arch that close the jaw. Their nerve supply is masseteric from the mandibular division of the trigeminal nerve. (From Stedman, 25th ed)Anesthesia Recovery Period: The period of emergence from general anesthesia, where different elements of consciousness return at different rates.Parabens: Methyl, propyl, butyl, and ethyl esters of p-hydroxybenzoic acid. They have been approved by the FDA as antimicrobial agents for foods and pharmaceuticals. (From Hawley's Condensed Chemical Dictionary, 11th ed, p872)Laryngeal Muscles: The striated muscle groups which move the LARYNX as a whole or its parts, such as altering tension of the VOCAL CORDS, or size of the slit (RIMA GLOTTIDIS).Fentanyl: A potent narcotic analgesic, abuse of which leads to habituation or addiction. It is primarily a mu-opioid agonist. Fentanyl is also used as an adjunct to general anesthetics, and as an anesthetic for induction and maintenance. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p1078)Preservatives, Pharmaceutical: Substances added to pharmaceutical preparations to protect them from chemical change or microbial action. They include ANTI-BACTERIAL AGENTS and antioxidants.Dibucaine: A local anesthetic of the amide type now generally used for surface anesthesia. It is one of the most potent and toxic of the long-acting local anesthetics and its parenteral use is restricted to spinal anesthesia. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p1006)Diaphragm: The musculofibrous partition that separates the THORACIC CAVITY from the ABDOMINAL CAVITY. Contraction of the diaphragm increases the volume of the thoracic cavity aiding INHALATION.Thiocholine: A mercaptocholine used as a reagent for the determination of CHOLINESTERASES. It also serves as a highly selective nerve stain.Laryngoscopy: Examination, therapy or surgery of the interior of the larynx performed with a specially designed endoscope.Anesthesia, Intravenous: Process of administering an anesthetic through injection directly into the bloodstream.Spinal Cord Injuries: Penetrating and non-penetrating injuries to the spinal cord resulting from traumatic external forces (e.g., WOUNDS, GUNSHOT; WHIPLASH INJURIES; etc.).Spinal Cord: A cylindrical column of tissue that lies within the vertebral canal. It is composed of WHITE MATTER and GRAY MATTER.Mobile Applications: Computer programs or software installed on mobile electronic devices which support a wide range of functions and uses which include television, telephone, video, music, word processing, and Internet service.Disease Models, Animal: Naturally occurring or experimentally induced animal diseases with pathological processes sufficiently similar to those of human diseases. They are used as study models for human diseases.
  • Technical Operations Working as a paramedic I have encountered patients that required the use of my critical thinking ability, help successfully set up proper equipment for team members to successfully establish an airway, assessing, intervening and stabilizing patients, and understanding ventilator management. (bartleby.com)
  • Alternative Devices o OPA o NPA o LMA o King Airway o BVM o Non-rebreather o Nasal cannula o CO2 detector for Philips monitor o End-tidal Co2 Ventilator Management Managing complex ventilator patients require critical thinking to solve problems pertaining to ventilator issues. (bartleby.com)
  • Most experienced airway experts will tell you that they reach for sux when they want very rapid intubating conditions in sicker patients as compared to other neuromuscular blockers. (emergencymedjc.com)
  • Selected patients with an expected normal airway are evaluated. (bmj.com)
  • ENT evaluation of the upper airway in suspicious patients would be useful. (post-polio.org)
  • Patients can have a respiratory failure from the airway and respiratory muscle spasm. (nih.gov)
  • It is very common for a patient to experience some degree of airway obstruction when a fiberoptic scope is inserted into the mouth and the patient must breathe around it. (thehealthcareblog.com)
  • Since then, all trauma patients who cannot adequately oxygenate pulmonary capillary blood or with a compromised airway or ventilation and Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS) less than 8 at the scene, undergo prehospital ETI using the RSI method. (signavitae.com)
  • Patients may sometimes be unable to maintain their airway and breathe on their own. (wikidoc.org)
  • In this state, patients can breathe on their own and need no help maintaining an airway. (wikidoc.org)
  • Though concentration, memory, and coordination may be impaired, patients need no help breathing or maintaining an airway. (wikidoc.org)
  • Once RSI is undertaken and a paralytic is administered, the patient is at considerable risk if the airway cannot be secured. (epmonthly.com)
  • Several published case reports of sugammadex in a "can't intubate, can't oxygenate" scenario in the OR describe that even when neuromuscular blockade was successfully reversed as measured by train-of-four peripheral nerve monitor, the patient remained difficult to ventilate and ultimately required a surgical airway, presumably due to laryngeal edema from airway manipulation. (epmonthly.com)
  • Review of hospital records showed no difference between the groups for frequency of either aspiration pneumonia or mechanical ventilation in patients surviving to hospital admission. (nih.gov)
  • 6. Patients who use ventilators often have worsening of ventilatory function postop, and some patients who did not need ventilation have had to go onto a ventilator (including long-term use) postop. (post-polio.org)
  • Don't wait for ventilation to give succinylcholine. (studentdoctor.net)
  • Patients with known predictors of difficult mask ventilation (Edentulous, bearded, Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA), mallampati 3 or 4) were in experimental group. (scirp.org)
  • The novel submandibular technique, an important skill, increases tidal volumes during mask ventilation for certain high risk patients. (scirp.org)
  • Advances in mask ventilation technique that allow it to be performed with greater success for a wider range of patients may therefore have a profound impact on morbidity and mortality. (scirp.org)
  • 2 Practitioners thought they were administering a different drug, so patients may not have been supported with mechanical ventilation. (ismp.org)
  • The aim of this retrospective analysis was to determine the impact of RSI on prehospital hemodynamic parameters and prehospital ventilation status on mortality rate and functional outcome in trauma patients. (signavitae.com)
  • The purpose of this single center retrospective analysis was to determine a) the impact of RSI on prehospital hemodynamic parameters and b) the impact of prehospital ventilation status on mortality rate and functional outcome at discharge from hospital in trauma patients in an emergency physician-led prehospital EMS. (signavitae.com)
  • Deep sedation /analgesia: "Drug-induced depression of consciousness during which patients cannot be easily aroused but respond purposefully following repeated or painful stimulation. (wikidoc.org)
  • Moderate sedation/analgesia or conscious sedation: "Drug-induced depression of consciousness during which patients respond purposefully to verbal commands, either alone or accompanied by light tactile stimulation. (wikidoc.org)
  • 2) Is the child with masseter spasm more likely to have myoglobinuria postoperatively, and should we look for myoglobinuria in all children who receive succinylcholine? (apsf.org)
  • 3-5) Patients with masseter spasm or myoglobinuria are difficult to counsel postoperatively because our information is incomplete. (apsf.org)
  • Typically, a cuff is inflated in the right ankle, usually to prevent the Succinylcholine from reaching that foot so the seizure can be observed in that foot. (upmc.com)
  • For example, take the case of patient who had a large MCA stroke a week prior, who comes in with status epilepticus, presumably due to the infarct acting as a seizure focus. (epmonthly.com)
  • The most dramatic complications of succinylcholine are hyperkalemic cardiac arrest and MH. (apsf.org)
  • Une révision rétrospective des dossiers anesthésiques de patients porteurs d'un BrS à la Clinique Mayo a été entreprise en recherchant particulièrement les médicaments administrés, les modifications au niveau du segment ST et la survenue de complications, y compris la mort, l'instabilité hémodynamique et les dysrythmies. (springer.com)
  • Les seules complications mentionnées sont la découverte d'un tracé typique du syndrome de Brugada à l'ECG, un épisode de tachycardie ventriculaire polymorphe, qui s'est spontanément transformée en rythme sinusal, et un épisode de fibrillation ventriculaire postopératoire dans le cadre d'une anesthésie péridurale. (springer.com)
  • Pseudocholinesterase testing can be performed prior to surgery on those with a family history of prolonged apnea after use of succinylcholine to determine if they are at risk of complications related to this drug. (labcorp.com)
  • Given the high risk of respiratory compromise and other postoperative complications, patients need to be closely monitored postoperatively. (ovid.com)
  • These patients pose a greater risk for both motor and non-motor complications, mainly due to the improper management of Parkinson s medications. (medigraphic.com)
  • The lack of guidelines and the complications derived from performing surgery on Parkinson s patients makes it necessary to establish a systematic approach. (medigraphic.com)
  • Patients eat little, so they are at risk for bed sores and other complications). (upmc.com)
  • The response of this patient to succinylcholine was normal and the response to atracurium was slightly prolonged. (who.int)
  • Indeed, because laudanosine is cleared primarily via renal excretion, a cat study modelling anephric patients went so far as to corroborate that EEG changes, when observed, were evident only at plasma concentrations 8 to 10 times greater than those observed in humans during infusions of atracurium. (wikipedia.org)
  • To avoid distress to the patient, TRACRIUM (atracurium besylate) should not be administered before unconsciousness has been induced. (rxlist.com)
  • Cardiovascular disease risk is increased in patients with type 1 diabetes. (health.am)
  • 1 Similarly, oral use of verapamil and amlodipine for at least 3 months in patients with no prior known neuromuscular junction defects has resulted in abnormal jitter on single-fiber EMG study. (ispub.com)
  • Oxygen o Making sure that the oxygen tank at the head of the bed is full in the event the patient need to be transported to CT, MRI, or to assigned room on the floor. (bartleby.com)
  • Preoxygenate the patient for 5 minutes with 100% oxygen by facemask or 4 tidal volume breaths of 100% oxygen if patient is conscious. (lsuhsc.edu)
  • The most straightforward protocol is to deliver high-flow oxygen via a nonrebreather face mask to a spontaneously breathing patient for 3 minutes. (medscape.com)
  • A nurse anesthetist provides oxygen throughout the treatment as the patient won't be breathing on their own. (upmc.com)
  • To review the anesthetic management and perioperative outcomes of patients diagnosed with Brugada syndrome (BrS) who were treated at a single centre and to compare those results with a comprehensive review of the existing literature. (springer.com)
  • Identify unique anatomic or physiologic differences in children, when compared to adult patients. (netce.com)
  • There is limited information regarding Off-Label Guideline-Supported Use of SandboxAlonso in adult patients. (wikidoc.org)
  • There is limited information regarding Off-Label Non-Guideline-Supported Use of SandboxAlonso in adult patients. (wikidoc.org)
  • Following the treatment, patients are typically monitored in the recovery room for about 30 to 45 minutes and then will either return to their hospital room or are sent home with another adult. (upmc.com)
  • Lidocaine (1.0-1.5 mg/kg IV) to possibly reduce rise in intracranial pressure in head trauma patients may be considered. (lsuhsc.edu)
  • As injury remains a leading cause of mortality and morbidity among children, the purpose of this course is to allow healthcare professionals to provide timely care to pediatric trauma patients and to assist parents and caregivers in recognizing measures that prevent this type of injury. (netce.com)
  • Charts of 73 trauma patients, who underwent prehospital RSI over a 12-year period, were retrospectively reviewed. (signavitae.com)
  • 1,2) Drugs used for RSI have known detrimental side effects, such as hypotension (3), which could worsen the outcome in trauma patients. (signavitae.com)
  • Charts of trauma patients, who underwent ETI using the RSI method between January 2000 and December 2012, were retrospectively reviewed. (signavitae.com)