CCN Intercellular Signaling Proteins
A family of secreted proteins found associated with the EXTRACELLULAR MATRIX and cell surface receptors. They are believed to play a role in modulating the effects of a variety of GROWTH FACTORS and PROTEASES at the cell membrane extracellular matrix. The CCN protein family is named after three protypical members; CYSTEINE-RICH PROTEIN 61; CONNECTIVE TISSUE GROWTH FACTOR; and NEPHROBLASTOMA OVEREXPRESSED PROTEIN.
Protein Kinase C
An serine-threonine protein kinase that requires the presence of physiological concentrations of CALCIUM and membrane PHOSPHOLIPIDS. The additional presence of DIACYLGLYCEROLS markedly increases its sensitivity to both calcium and phospholipids. The sensitivity of the enzyme can also be increased by PHORBOL ESTERS and it is believed that protein kinase C is the receptor protein of tumor-promoting phorbol esters.
A 53-kDa protein that is a positive regulator of the alternate pathway of complement activation (COMPLEMENT ACTIVATION PATHWAY, ALTERNATIVE). It stabilizes the ALTERNATIVE PATHWAY C3 CONVERTASE (C3bBb) and protects it from rapid inactivation, thus facilitating the cascade of COMPLEMENT ACTIVATION and the formation of MEMBRANE ATTACK COMPLEX. Individuals with mutation in the PFC gene exhibit properdin deficiency and have a high susceptibility to infections.
The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.
Cyclic AMP-Dependent Protein Kinases
Complement Factor B
Complement Pathway, Alternative
Complement activation initiated by the interaction of microbial ANTIGENS with COMPLEMENT C3B. When COMPLEMENT FACTOR B binds to the membrane-bound C3b, COMPLEMENT FACTOR D cleaves it to form alternative C3 CONVERTASE (C3BBB) which, stabilized by COMPLEMENT FACTOR P, is able to cleave multiple COMPLEMENT C3 to form alternative C5 CONVERTASE (C3BBB3B) leading to cleavage of COMPLEMENT C5 and the assembly of COMPLEMENT MEMBRANE ATTACK COMPLEX.
Calcium-Calmodulin-Dependent Protein Kinases
A CALMODULIN-dependent enzyme that catalyzes the phosphorylation of proteins. This enzyme is also sometimes dependent on CALCIUM. A wide range of proteins can act as acceptor, including VIMENTIN; SYNAPSINS; GLYCOGEN SYNTHASE; MYOSIN LIGHT CHAINS; and the MICROTUBULE-ASSOCIATED PROTEINS. (From Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992, p277)
Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinases
A superfamily of PROTEIN-SERINE-THREONINE KINASES that are activated by diverse stimuli via protein kinase cascades. They are the final components of the cascades, activated by phosphorylation by MITOGEN-ACTIVATED PROTEIN KINASE KINASES, which in turn are activated by mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase kinases (MAP KINASE KINASE KINASES).
MAP Kinase Signaling System
An intracellular signaling system involving the MAP kinase cascades (three-membered protein kinase cascades). Various upstream activators, which act in response to extracellular stimuli, trigger the cascades by activating the first member of a cascade, MAP KINASE KINASE KINASES; (MAPKKKs). Activated MAPKKKs phosphorylate MITOGEN-ACTIVATED PROTEIN KINASE KINASES which in turn phosphorylate the MITOGEN-ACTIVATED PROTEIN KINASES; (MAPKs). The MAPKs then act on various downstream targets to affect gene expression. In mammals, there are several distinct MAP kinase pathways including the ERK (extracellular signal-regulated kinase) pathway, the SAPK/JNK (stress-activated protein kinase/c-jun kinase) pathway, and the p38 kinase pathway. There is some sharing of components among the pathways depending on which stimulus originates activation of the cascade.
p38 Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinases
A mitogen-activated protein kinase subfamily that regulates a variety of cellular processes including CELL GROWTH PROCESSES; CELL DIFFERENTIATION; APOPTOSIS; and cellular responses to INFLAMMATION. The P38 MAP kinases are regulated by CYTOKINE RECEPTORS and can be activated in response to bacterial pathogens.
Phosphotransferases that catalyzes the conversion of 1-phosphatidylinositol to 1-phosphatidylinositol 3-phosphate. Many members of this enzyme class are involved in RECEPTOR MEDIATED SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION and regulation of vesicular transport with the cell. Phosphatidylinositol 3-Kinases have been classified both according to their substrate specificity and their mode of action within the cell.
Molecular Sequence Data
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
Amino Acid Sequence
Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase 1
A glycoprotein that is central in both the classical and the alternative pathway of COMPLEMENT ACTIVATION. C3 can be cleaved into COMPLEMENT C3A and COMPLEMENT C3B, spontaneously at low level or by C3 CONVERTASE at high level. The smaller fragment C3a is an ANAPHYLATOXIN and mediator of local inflammatory process. The larger fragment C3b binds with C3 convertase to form C5 convertase.
Protein Kinase C-alpha
Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase Kinases
A serine-threonine protein kinase family whose members are components in protein kinase cascades activated by diverse stimuli. These MAPK kinases phosphorylate MITOGEN-ACTIVATED PROTEIN KINASES and are themselves phosphorylated by MAP KINASE KINASE KINASES. JNK kinases (also known as SAPK kinases) are a subfamily.
Protein Kinase C-delta
Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase 3
JNK Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinases
AMP-Activated Protein Kinases
Intracellular signaling protein kinases that play a signaling role in the regulation of cellular energy metabolism. Their activity largely depends upon the concentration of cellular AMP which is increased under conditions of low energy or metabolic stress. AMP-activated protein kinases modify enzymes involved in LIPID METABOLISM, which in turn provide substrates needed to convert AMP into ATP.
One of the mechanisms by which CELL DEATH occurs (compare with NECROSIS and AUTOPHAGOCYTOSIS). Apoptosis is the mechanism responsible for the physiological deletion of cells and appears to be intrinsically programmed. It is characterized by distinctive morphologic changes in the nucleus and cytoplasm, chromatin cleavage at regularly spaced sites, and the endonucleolytic cleavage of genomic DNA; (DNA FRAGMENTATION); at internucleosomal sites. This mode of cell death serves as a balance to mitosis in regulating the size of animal tissues and in mediating pathologic processes associated with tumor growth.
RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.
Protein Kinase C-epsilon
A protein kinase C subtype that was originally characterized as a CALCIUM-independent, serine-threonine kinase that is activated by PHORBOL ESTERS and DIACYLGLYCEROLS. It is targeted to specific cellular compartments in response to extracellular signals that activate G-PROTEIN-COUPLED RECEPTORS; TYROSINE KINASE RECEPTORS; and intracellular protein tyrosine kinase.
Protein Kinase C beta
PKC beta encodes two proteins (PKCB1 and PKCBII) generated by alternative splicing of C-terminal exons. It is widely distributed with wide-ranging roles in processes such as B-cell receptor regulation, oxidative stress-induced apoptosis, androgen receptor-dependent transcriptional regulation, insulin signaling, and endothelial cell proliferation.
A PROTEIN-TYROSINE KINASE family that was originally identified by homology to the Rous sarcoma virus ONCOGENE PROTEIN PP60(V-SRC). They interact with a variety of cell-surface receptors and participate in intracellular signal transduction pathways. Oncogenic forms of src-family kinases can occur through altered regulation or expression of the endogenous protein and by virally encoded src (v-src) genes.
Cyclic GMP-Dependent Protein Kinases
CDC2 Protein Kinase
Phosphoprotein with protein kinase activity that functions in the G2/M phase transition of the CELL CYCLE. It is the catalytic subunit of the MATURATION-PROMOTING FACTOR and complexes with both CYCLIN A and CYCLIN B in mammalian cells. The maximal activity of cyclin-dependent kinase 1 is achieved when it is fully dephosphorylated.
Casein Kinase II
Calcium-Calmodulin-Dependent Protein Kinase Type 2
A multifunctional calcium-calmodulin-dependent protein kinase subtype that occurs as an oligomeric protein comprised of twelve subunits. It differs from other enzyme subtypes in that it lacks a phosphorylatable activation domain that can respond to CALCIUM-CALMODULIN-DEPENDENT PROTEIN KINASE KINASE.
MAP Kinase Kinase Kinases
A dsRNA-activated cAMP-independent protein serine/threonine kinase that is induced by interferon. In the presence of dsRNA and ATP, the kinase autophosphorylates on several serine and threonine residues. The phosphorylated enzyme catalyzes the phosphorylation of the alpha subunit of EUKARYOTIC INITIATION FACTOR-2, leading to the inhibition of protein synthesis.
MAP Kinase Kinase 1
Extracellular Signal-Regulated MAP Kinases
A mitogen-activated protein kinase subfamily that is widely expressed and plays a role in regulation of MEIOSIS; MITOSIS; and post mitotic functions in differentiated cells. The extracellular signal regulated MAP kinases are regulated by a broad variety of CELL SURFACE RECEPTORS and can be activated by certain CARCINOGENS.
Ribosomal Protein S6 Kinases
A family of protein serine/threonine kinases which act as intracellular signalling intermediates. Ribosomal protein S6 kinases are activated through phosphorylation in response to a variety of HORMONES and INTERCELLULAR SIGNALING PEPTIDES AND PROTEINS. Phosphorylation of RIBOSOMAL PROTEIN S6 by enzymes in this class results in increased expression of 5' top MRNAs. Although specific for RIBOSOMAL PROTEIN S6 members of this class of kinases can act on a number of substrates within the cell. The immunosuppressant SIROLIMUS inhibits the activation of ribosomal protein S6 kinases.
A basic element found in nearly all organized tissues. It is a member of the alkaline earth family of metals with the atomic symbol Ca, atomic number 20, and atomic weight 40. Calcium is the most abundant mineral in the body and combines with phosphorus to form calcium phosphate in the bones and teeth. It is essential for the normal functioning of nerves and muscles and plays a role in blood coagulation (as factor IV) and in many enzymatic processes.
Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-akt
A group of protein-serine-threonine kinases that was originally identified as being responsible for the PHOSPHORYLATION of CASEINS. They are ubiquitous enzymes that have a preference for acidic proteins. Casein kinases play a role in SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION by phosphorylating a variety of regulatory cytoplasmic and regulatory nuclear proteins.
MAP Kinase Kinase 4
A phorbol ester found in CROTON OIL which, in addition to being a potent skin tumor promoter, is also an effective activator of calcium-activated, phospholipid-dependent protein kinase (protein kinase C). Due to its activation of this enzyme, phorbol 12,13-dibutyrate profoundly affects many different biological systems.
Intracellular Signaling Peptides and Proteins
Proteins and peptides that are involved in SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION within the cell. Included here are peptides and proteins that regulate the activity of TRANSCRIPTION FACTORS and cellular processes in response to signals from CELL SURFACE RECEPTORS. Intracellular signaling peptide and proteins may be part of an enzymatic signaling cascade or act through binding to and modifying the action of other signaling factors.
A transferase that catalyzes formation of PHOSPHOCREATINE from ATP + CREATINE. The reaction stores ATP energy as phosphocreatine. Three cytoplasmic ISOENZYMES have been identified in human tissues: the MM type from SKELETAL MUSCLE, the MB type from myocardial tissue and the BB type from nervous tissue as well as a mitochondrial isoenzyme. Macro-creatine kinase refers to creatine kinase complexed with other serum proteins.
DNA-Activated Protein Kinase
Glycogen Synthase Kinase 3
Phosphotransferases (Alcohol Group Acceptor)
Cyclic AMP-Dependent Protein Kinase Type II
3-Phosphoinositide-Dependent Protein Kinases
Receptor Protein-Tyrosine Kinases
Tumor Cells, Cultured
A group of intracellular-signaling serine threonine kinases that bind to RHO GTP-BINDING PROTEINS. They were originally found to mediate the effects of rhoA GTP-BINDING PROTEIN on the formation of STRESS FIBERS and FOCAL ADHESIONS. Rho-associated kinases have specificity for a variety of substrates including MYOSIN-LIGHT-CHAIN PHOSPHATASE and LIM KINASES.
Recombinant Fusion Proteins
Gene Expression Regulation, Enzymologic
Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase 8
Protein Structure, Tertiary
The level of protein structure in which combinations of secondary protein structures (alpha helices, beta sheets, loop regions, and motifs) pack together to form folded shapes called domains. Disulfide bridges between cysteines in two different parts of the polypeptide chain along with other interactions between the chains play a role in the formation and stabilization of tertiary structure. Small proteins usually consist of only one domain but larger proteins may contain a number of domains connected by segments of polypeptide chain which lack regular secondary structure.
Dose-Response Relationship, Drug
I-kappa B Kinase
Sequence Homology, Amino Acid
Ribosomal Protein S6 Kinases, 90-kDa
A family of ribosomal protein S6 kinases that are structurally distinguished from RIBOSOMAL PROTEIN S6 KINASES, 70-KDA by their apparent molecular size and the fact they contain two functional kinase domains. Although considered RIBOSOMAL PROTEIN S6 KINASES, members of this family are activated via the MAP KINASE SIGNALING SYSTEM and have been shown to act on a diverse array of substrates that are involved in cellular regulation such as RIBOSOMAL PROTEIN S6 and CAMP RESPONSE ELEMENT-BINDING PROTEIN.
MAP Kinase Kinase Kinase 1
Cell lines whose original growing procedure consisted being transferred (T) every 3 days and plated at 300,000 cells per plate (J Cell Biol 17:299-313, 1963). Lines have been developed using several different strains of mice. Tissues are usually fibroblasts derived from mouse embryos but other types and sources have been developed as well. The 3T3 lines are valuable in vitro host systems for oncogenic virus transformation studies, since 3T3 cells possess a high sensitivity to CONTACT INHIBITION.
Gene Expression Regulation
A family of highly conserved serine-threonine kinases that are involved in the regulation of MITOSIS. They are involved in many aspects of cell division, including centrosome duplication, SPINDLE APPARATUS formation, chromosome alignment, attachment to the spindle, checkpoint activation, and CYTOKINESIS.
MAP Kinase Kinase 2
Cell Cycle Proteins
Proteins that control the CELL DIVISION CYCLE. This family of proteins includes a wide variety of classes, including CYCLIN-DEPENDENT KINASES, mitogen-activated kinases, CYCLINS, and PHOSPHOPROTEIN PHOSPHATASES as well as their putative substrates such as chromatin-associated proteins, CYTOSKELETAL PROTEINS, and TRANSCRIPTION FACTORS.
An enzyme that phosphorylates myosin light chains in the presence of ATP to yield myosin-light chain phosphate and ADP, and requires calcium and CALMODULIN. The 20-kDa light chain is phosphorylated more rapidly than any other acceptor, but light chains from other myosins and myosin itself can act as acceptors. The enzyme plays a central role in the regulation of smooth muscle contraction.
Death-Associated Protein Kinases
Cyclic GMP-Dependent Protein Kinase Type I
Calcium-Calmodulin-Dependent Protein Kinase Kinase
A regulatory calcium-calmodulin-dependent protein kinase that specifically phosphorylates CALCIUM-CALMODULIN-DEPENDENT PROTEIN KINASE TYPE 1; CALCIUM-CALMODULIN-DEPENDENT PROTEIN KINASE TYPE 2; CALCIUM-CALMODULIN-DEPENDENT PROTEIN KINASE TYPE 4; and PROTEIN KINASE B. It is a monomeric enzyme that is encoded by at least two different genes.
MAP Kinase Kinase 6
A Kinase Anchor Proteins
A structurally-diverse family of intracellular-signaling adaptor proteins that selectively tether specific protein kinase A subtypes to distinct subcellular sites. They play a role in focusing the PROTEIN KINASE A activity toward relevant substrates. Over fifty members of this family exist, most of which bind specifically to regulatory subunits of CYCLIC AMP-DEPENDENT PROTEIN KINASE TYPE II such as CAMP PROTEIN KINASE RIIALPHA or CAMP PROTEIN KINASE RIIBETA.
Focal Adhesion Kinase 1
A non-receptor protein tyrosine kinase that is localized to FOCAL ADHESIONS and is a central component of integrin-mediated SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION PATHWAYS. Focal adhesion kinase 1 interacts with PAXILLIN and undergoes PHOSPHORYLATION in response to adhesion of cell surface integrins to the EXTRACELLULAR MATRIX. Phosphorylated p125FAK protein binds to a variety of SH2 DOMAIN and SH3 DOMAIN containing proteins and helps regulate CELL ADHESION and CELL MIGRATION.
Within a eukaryotic cell, a membrane-limited body which contains chromosomes and one or more nucleoli (CELL NUCLEOLUS). The nuclear membrane consists of a double unit-type membrane which is perforated by a number of pores; the outermost membrane is continuous with the ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM. A cell may contain more than one nucleus. (From Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed)
MAP Kinase Kinase 3
Analysis of PEPTIDES that are generated from the digestion or fragmentation of a protein or mixture of PROTEINS, by ELECTROPHORESIS; CHROMATOGRAPHY; or MASS SPECTROMETRY. The resulting peptide fingerprints are analyzed for a variety of purposes including the identification of the proteins in a sample, GENETIC POLYMORPHISMS, patterns of gene expression, and patterns diagnostic for diseases.
TOR Serine-Threonine Kinases
A serine threonine kinase that controls a wide range of growth-related cellular processes. The protein is referred to as the target of RAPAMYCIN due to the discovery that SIROLIMUS (commonly known as rapamycin) forms an inhibitory complex with TACROLIMUS BINDING PROTEIN 1A that blocks the action of its enzymatic activity.
Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase 14
A 38-kDa mitogen-activated protein kinase that is abundantly expressed in a broad variety of cell types. It is involved in the regulation of cellular stress responses as well as the control of proliferation and survival of many cell types. The kinase activity of the enzyme is inhibited by the pyridinyl-imidazole compound SB 203580.
Focal Adhesion Protein-Tyrosine Kinases
Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase 9
A heat-stable, low-molecular-weight activator protein found mainly in the brain and heart. The binding of calcium ions to this protein allows this protein to bind to cyclic nucleotide phosphodiesterases and to adenyl cyclase with subsequent activation. Thereby this protein modulates cyclic AMP and cyclic GMP levels.
The complex series of phenomena, occurring between the end of one CELL DIVISION and the end of the next, by which cellular material is duplicated and then divided between two daughter cells. The cell cycle includes INTERPHASE, which includes G0 PHASE; G1 PHASE; S PHASE; and G2 PHASE, and CELL DIVISION PHASE.
Linear POLYPEPTIDES that are synthesized on RIBOSOMES and may be further modified, crosslinked, cleaved, or assembled into complex proteins with several subunits. The specific sequence of AMINO ACIDS determines the shape the polypeptide will take, during PROTEIN FOLDING, and the function of the protein.
Adaptor Proteins, Signal Transducing
A broad category of carrier proteins that play a role in SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION. They generally contain several modular domains, each of which having its own binding activity, and act by forming complexes with other intracellular-signaling molecules. Signal-transducing adaptor proteins lack enzyme activity, however their activity can be modulated by other signal-transducing enzymes
Calcium-Calmodulin-Dependent Protein Kinase Type 1
Electrophoresis, Polyacrylamide Gel
Calcium-Calmodulin-Dependent Protein Kinase Type 4
Cyclic AMP-Dependent Protein Kinase RIalpha Subunit
Type C Phospholipases
A subclass of phospholipases that hydrolyze the phosphoester bond found in the third position of GLYCEROPHOSPHOLIPIDS. Although the singular term phospholipase C specifically refers to an enzyme that catalyzes the hydrolysis of PHOSPHATIDYLCHOLINE (EC 22.214.171.124), it is commonly used in the literature to refer to broad variety of enzymes that specifically catalyze the hydrolysis of PHOSPHATIDYLINOSITOLS.
RNA, Small Interfering
Small double-stranded, non-protein coding RNAs (21-31 nucleotides) involved in GENE SILENCING functions, especially RNA INTERFERENCE (RNAi). Endogenously, siRNAs are generated from dsRNAs (RNA, DOUBLE-STRANDED) by the same ribonuclease, Dicer, that generates miRNAs (MICRORNAS). The perfect match of the siRNAs' antisense strand to their target RNAs mediates RNAi by siRNA-guided RNA cleavage. siRNAs fall into different classes including trans-acting siRNA (tasiRNA), repeat-associated RNA (rasiRNA), small-scan RNA (scnRNA), and Piwi protein-interacting RNA (piRNA) and have different specific gene silencing functions.
Janus Kinase 2
A Janus kinase subtype that is involved in signaling from GROWTH HORMONE RECEPTORS; PROLACTIN RECEPTORS; and a variety of CYTOKINE RECEPTORS such as ERYTHROPOIETIN RECEPTORS and INTERLEUKIN RECEPTORS. Dysregulation of Janus kinase 2 due to GENETIC TRANSLOCATIONS have been associated with a variety of MYELOPROLIFERATIVE DISORDERS.
Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase 7
Guanosine cyclic 3',5'-(hydrogen phosphate). A guanine nucleotide containing one phosphate group which is esterified to the sugar moiety in both the 3'- and 5'-positions. It is a cellular regulatory agent and has been described as a second messenger. Its levels increase in response to a variety of hormones, including acetylcholine, insulin, and oxytocin and it has been found to activate specific protein kinases. (From Merck Index, 11th ed)
Protein Phosphatase 1
A eukayrotic protein serine-threonine phosphatase subtype that dephosphorylates a wide variety of cellular proteins. The enzyme is comprised of a catalytic subunit and regulatory subunit. Several isoforms of the protein phosphatase catalytic subunit exist due to the presence of multiple genes and the alternative splicing of their mRNAs. A large number of proteins have been shown to act as regulatory subunits for this enzyme. Many of the regulatory subunits have additional cellular functions.
Epidermal Growth Factor
A 6-kDa polypeptide growth factor initially discovered in mouse submaxillary glands. Human epidermal growth factor was originally isolated from urine based on its ability to inhibit gastric secretion and called urogastrone. Epidermal growth factor exerts a wide variety of biological effects including the promotion of proliferation and differentiation of mesenchymal and EPITHELIAL CELLS. It is synthesized as a transmembrane protein which can be cleaved to release a soluble active form.
8-Bromo Cyclic Adenosine Monophosphate
Casein Kinase I
A casein kinase that was originally described as a monomeric enzyme with a molecular weight of 30-40 kDa. Several ISOENZYMES of casein kinase I have been found which are encoded by separate genes. Many of the casein kinase I isoenzymes have been shown to play distinctive roles in intracellular SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION.
Strains of mice in which certain GENES of their GENOMES have been disrupted, or "knocked-out". To produce knockouts, using RECOMBINANT DNA technology, the normal DNA sequence of the gene being studied is altered to prevent synthesis of a normal gene product. Cloned cells in which this DNA alteration is successful are then injected into mouse EMBRYOS to produce chimeric mice. The chimeric mice are then bred to yield a strain in which all the cells of the mouse contain the disrupted gene. Knockout mice are used as EXPERIMENTAL ANIMAL MODELS for diseases (DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL) and to clarify the functions of the genes.
A 51-amino acid pancreatic hormone that plays a major role in the regulation of glucose metabolism, directly by suppressing endogenous glucose production (GLYCOGENOLYSIS; GLUCONEOGENESIS) and indirectly by suppressing GLUCAGON secretion and LIPOLYSIS. Native insulin is a globular protein comprised of a zinc-coordinated hexamer. Each insulin monomer containing two chains, A (21 residues) and B (30 residues), linked by two disulfide bonds. Insulin is used as a drug to control insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (DIABETES MELLITUS, TYPE 1).
Cyclin-Dependent Kinase 5
Cyclin-Dependent Kinase 2
MAP Kinase Kinase 7
Members of the class of compounds composed of AMINO ACIDS joined together by peptide bonds between adjacent amino acids into linear, branched or cyclical structures. OLIGOPEPTIDES are composed of approximately 2-12 amino acids. Polypeptides are composed of approximately 13 or more amino acids. PROTEINS are linear polypeptides that are normally synthesized on RIBOSOMES.
Cyclic AMP-Dependent Protein Kinase Catalytic Subunits
Robinson MJ, Cobb MH (April 1997). "Mitogen-activated protein kinase pathways". Current Opinion in Cell Biology. 9 (2): 180-6. ... Mitogen-activated protein kinase 4 is a member of the mitogen-activated protein kinase family. Tyrosine kinase growth factor ... Mitogen-activated protein kinase 4 is an enzyme that in humans is encoded by the MAPK4 gene. ... Li L, Wysk M, Gonzalez FA, Davis RJ (February 1994). "Genomic loci of human mitogen-activated protein kinases". Oncogene. 9 (2 ...
Jensen LE, Whitehead AS (2003). "Pellino2 activates the mitogen activated protein kinase pathway". FEBS Lett. 545 (2-3): 199- ... Protein pellino homolog 1 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the PELI1 gene. GRCh38: Ensembl release 89: ENSG00000197329 ... Butler MP, Hanly JA, Moynagh PN (2007). "Kinase-active interleukin-1 receptor-associated kinases promote polyubiquitination and ... direct evidence for PELLINO proteins being ubiquitin-protein isopeptide ligases". J. Biol. Chem. 282 (41): 29729-29737. doi: ...
Muscarinic acetylcholine receptor M1
Evidence for a protein kinase C-independent pathway". The Journal of Biological Chemistry. 269 (33): 21103-9. PMID 8063729. ... It is predominantly found bound to G proteins of class Gq that use upregulation of phospholipase C and, therefore, inositol ... Crespo P, Xu N, Daniotti JL, Troppmair J, Rapp UR, Gutkind JS (August 1994). "Signaling through transforming G protein-coupled ... "Agonist-induced transfer of the alpha subunits of the guanine-nucleotide-binding regulatory proteins Gq and G11 and of ...
Jensen LE, Whitehead AS (2003). "Pellino2 activates the mitogen activated protein kinase pathway". FEBS Lett. 545 (2-3): 199- ... Protein pellino homolog 2 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the PELI2 gene. GRCh38: Ensembl release 89: ENSG00000139946 ... 2006). "A protein-protein interaction network for human inherited ataxias and disorders of Purkinje cell degeneration". Cell. ... for the Pelle adaptor protein Pellino to mouse chromosomes 11 and 14 and human chromosomes 2p13.3 and 14q21, respectively, by ...
Muscarinic acetylcholine receptor M3
Evidence for a protein kinase C-independent pathway". J. Biol. Chem. 269 (33): 21103-9. doi:10.1016/S0021-9258(17)31935-X. PMID ... "Phosphorylation of human m1 muscarinic acetylcholine receptors by G protein-coupled receptor kinase 2 and protein kinase C." J ... The calcium function in vertebrates also involves activation of protein kinase C and its effects. Because the M3 receptor is Gq ... Like the M1 muscarinic receptor, M3 receptors are coupled to G proteins of class Gq, which upregulate phospholipase C and, ...
Muscarinic acetylcholine receptor M5
Evidence for a protein kinase C-independent pathway". The Journal of Biological Chemistry. 269 (33): 21103-9. PMID 8063729. ... "Phosphorylation of human m1 muscarinic acetylcholine receptors by G protein-coupled receptor kinase 2 and protein kinase C". ... is a member of the G protein-coupled receptor superfamily of integral membrane proteins. It is coupled to Gq protein. Binding ... stimulation of this receptor is known to effectively decrease cyclic AMP levels and downregulate the activity of protein kinase ...
Mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) networks are the pathways and signaling of MAPK, which is a protein kinase that ... Mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) networks can be found in eukaryotic cells. MAPK pathways in plants are known to ... "Mitogen-Activated Protein (MAP) Kinase Pathways: Regulation and Physiological Functions1". Endocrine Reviews. 22 (2): 153-183. ... Unfortunately, only eight out of the twenty mitogen-activated protein kinases have been studied. The most commonly studied ...
Bradykinin receptor B2
Furthermore, the receptor stimulates the mitogen-activated protein kinase pathways. It is ubiquitously and constitutively ... Dalemar LR, Ivy Jong YJ, Wilhelm B, Baenziger NL (1996). "Protein kinases A and C rapidly modulate expression of human lung ... Bradykinin receptor B2 is a G-protein coupled receptor for bradykinin, encoded by the BDKRB2 gene in humans. The B2 receptor is ... Alternate start codons result in two isoforms of the protein. Bradykinin receptor GRCh38: Ensembl release 89: ENSG00000168398 ...
Zhou G, Bao ZQ, Dixon JE (Jun 1995). "Components of a new human protein kinase signal transduction pathway". J. Biol. Chem. 270 ... This kinase is specifically activated by mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase 5 (MAP2K5/MEK5). It is involved in the ... "Identification of substrates and regulators of the mitogen-activated protein kinase ERK5 using chimeric protein kinases". J. ... which is differentially regulated by protein-tyrosine kinases and protein kinase C. Regulation of cell proliferation and ...
Furthermore, the receptor stimulates the mitogen-activated protein kinase pathways. It is ubiquitously and constitutively ... The bradykinin receptor family is a group of G-protein coupled receptors whose principal ligand is the protein bradykinin. ... B1 protein is synthesized by de novo following tissue injury and receptor binding leads to an increase in the cytosolic calcium ... The B1 receptor is one of two G protein-coupled receptors that have been found which bind bradykinin and mediate responses to ...
... can activate stress-activated protein kinases, MAP kinase and other signal transduction pathways. Anisomycin ... Despite anisomycin's wide usage as a protein synthesis inhibitor, there have been a lot of studies centered on the biosynthesis ... Anisomycin, also known as flagecidin, is an antibiotic produced by Streptomyces griseolus which inhibits eukaryotic protein ... Partial inhibition of DNA synthesis occurs at anisomycin concentrations that effect 95% inhibition of protein synthesis. ...
As such, paraptosis can be prevented by inhibiting specific protein kinases of these pathways. AIP1 interaction (via its ... PEBP, or Raf kinase inhibitor protein (RKIP) is diminished in paraptotic cells, thus resultant down regulation of PEBP and/or ... signaling via MAP kinase and required protein translation. Rh2 also induces increase ROS levels, which activate the NF-κB ... other kinase inhibitors seem to indicate participation in the MAPK and JNK pathways, as diminished PEBP would allow for the ...
Finally, the Akt protein kinase promotes cell survival through two pathways. Akt phosphorylates and inhibits Bad (a Bcl-2 ... Pathway knock-outs. Many knock-outs have been made in the apoptosis pathways to test the function of each of the proteins ... Intrinsic pathway. The intrinsic pathway is also known as the mitochondrial pathway. Mitochondria are essential to ... Examples of viral Bcl-2 proteins include the Epstein-Barr virus BHRF1 protein and the adenovirus E1B 19K protein. Some ...
"Rong Li Lab reports protein interactions of MAP kinase signaling pathway". EurekaAlert!. American Association for the ... Li was also one of the first to demonstrate the critical in vivo role for the Arp2/3 complex and WASP family proteins in the ... To understand the pathways that control cell motility, tissue morphogenesis, and neuronal development, Li monitors both ... Activation of the CDC42 effector N-WASP by the Shigella flexneri IcsA protein promotes actin nucleation by Arp2/3 complex and ...
Kamakura S, Moriguchi T, Nishida E (1999). "Activation of the protein kinase ERK5/BMK1 by receptor tyrosine kinases. ... Janknecht R, Hunter T (1997). "Convergence of MAP kinase pathways on the ternary complex factor Sap-1a". EMBO J. 16 (7): 1620-7 ... The protein encoded by this gene is phosphorylated by the kinases, MAPK1 and MAPK8. Several transcript variants have been ... ETS domain-containing protein Elk-4 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the ELK4 gene. This gene is a member of the Ets ...
... and other phorbol esters interact with protein kinase C (PKC). Protein kinase C controls the cell cycle, so chemicals ... In the promotion stage, interaction with cellular signaling pathways takes place. This leads to growth advantage for initiated ... CS1 maint: discouraged parameter (link) Black A, Black J (2013). "Protein kinase C signaling and cell cycle regulation. Review ... 2004). "Reactive oxygen species amplify protein kinase C signaling in high glucose-induced fibronectin expression by human ...
... and gp130-mediated stimulation of mitogen-activated protein kinase. Evidence for participation of multiple signaling pathways ... The phosphorylation leads to association with JAK/Tyk tyrosine kinases and STAT protein transcription factors. In particular, ... The complex of these two proteins then associates with gp130. This complex of 3 proteins then homodimerizes to form a hexameric ... Other pathways activated include RAS and MAPK signaling. Glycoprotein 130 has been shown to interact with: Grb2, HER2/neu, ...
It promotes the synthesis of over 20 defence-related proteins, mainly antinutritional proteins, signaling pathway proteins and ... In tomato, the signal is transduced from the receptor by mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs). Cosilencing of two MAPKs, ... In 1994, tomato systemin was found to bind to a 50KDa protein in the cell membrane of tomato. The protein has a structure ... It is likely that VOC production is upregulated through different pathways, including oxylipin pathway that synthesises ...
The main biological activity of staurosporine is the inhibition of protein kinases through the prevention of ATP binding to the ... a natural product formed from a branch point in this pathway that also diverges to form rebeccamycin. An aryl aryl coupling ... 1989) Staurosporine, K-252 and UCN-01: potent but nonspecific inhibitors of protein kinases. Trends in Pharmacological Science ... Staurosporine is the precursor of the novel protein kinase inhibitor midostaurin (PKC412). Besides midostaurin, staurosporine ...
Activating transcription factor 2
Chen Z, Cobb MH (May 2001). "Regulation of stress-responsive mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinase pathways by TAO2". J. Biol ... a new MAP kinase-activated protein kinase, isolated by a novel expression screening method for identifying protein kinase ... "Mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase 7 is an activator of the c-Jun NH2-terminal kinase". Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 94 ( ... ATF-2 is normally activated in response to signals that converge on stress-activated protein kinases p38 and JNK. ATF-2 ...
Ibáñez A, Sarrias MR, Farnós M, Gimferrer I, Serra-Pagès C, Vives J, Lozano F (2006). "Mitogen-activated protein kinase pathway ... CD6 (Cluster of Differentiation 6) is a human protein encoded by the CD6 gene. This gene encodes a protein found on the outer ... CD6+protein,+human at the US National Library of Medicine Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) Human CD6 genome location and CD6 ... The encoded protein contains three scavenger receptor cysteine-rich (SRCR) domains and a binding site for an activated ...
In S. pombe, Pom1, a protein kinase, localizes to the cell poles. This activates a pathway in which Cdr2 inhibits Wee1 through ... The corresponding proteins are Wee1-like protein kinase and Wee1-like protein kinase 2 which act on the human Cdk1 homologue ... Wee1-like protein kinase Cell cycle β-transducin repeat-containing protein 1/2 (β-TrCP1/2) F-box protein-containing SKP1/Cul1/F ... Wee1 is a nuclear kinase belonging to the Ser/Thr family of protein kinases in the fission yeast Schizosaccharomyces pombe (S. ...
IRAK kinases then phosphorylate and activate the protein TRAF6, which in turn polyubiquinates the protein TAK1, as well as ... one of which is the Toll pathway and the other is the immune deficiency (IMD) pathway. The Toll pathway is similar to mammalian ... Upon activation, TLRs recruit adaptor proteins (proteins that mediate other protein-protein interactions) within the cytosol of ... These recruited proteins are then responsible for the subsequent activation of other downstream proteins, including protein ...
The Src-family kinases are examples of proteins that utilize autophosphorylation to sustain their activated states. Src kinases ... play a critical role in transducing signals through a range of signaling pathways. All RTKs consists of an extracellular ligand ... Protein kinases, many of which are regulated by autophosphorylation, are vital in controlling the cellular proliferation, ... Jacobs MD, Caron PR, Hare BJ (Mar 2008). "Classifying protein kinase structures guides use of ligand-selectivity profiles to ...
These pathway use a phosphorylation cascade of three successive acting protein kinases to transmit a signal. The three MAPK ... DAG binds and recruits Protein kinase C θ (PKCθ) to the membrane where it can activated the membrane bound scaffold protein ... Transcription factors involved in T cell signalling pathway are the NFAT, NF-κB and AP1, a heterodimer of proteins Fos and Jun ... Additionally, there is evidence that PI-3K via signal molecules recruits the protein kinase AKT to the cell membrane. AKT is ...
Cannabinoid receptor type 2
cannabinoid signaling pathway. • response to amphetamine. • G-protein coupled receptor signaling pathway, coupled to cyclic ... Involvement of both mitogen-activated protein kinase and induction of Krox-24 expression". European Journal of Biochemistry / ... "Regulation of cell motility by mitogen-activated protein kinase". The Journal of Cell Biology. 137 (2): 481-92. doi:10.1083/jcb ... G-protein coupled receptor activity. • signal transducer activity. • cannabinoid receptor activity. Cellular component. • ...
2006). "Protein kinase WNK3 increases cell survival in a caspase-3-dependent pathway". Oncogene. 25 (30): 4172-82. doi:10.1038/ ... Serine/threonine-protein kinase WNK3, also known as protein kinase lysine-deficient 3, is a protein that in humans is encoded ... WNK3 is a protein belonging to the 'with no lysine' family of serine-threonine protein kinases. These family members lack the ... Veríssimo F, Jordan P (2001). "WNK kinases, a novel protein kinase subfamily in multi-cellular organisms". Oncogene. 20 (39): ...
Cannabinoid receptor type 2
Involvement of both mitogen-activated protein kinase and induction of Krox-24 expression". European Journal of Biochemistry. ... Through their Gβγ subunits, CB2 receptors are also known to be coupled to the MAPK-ERK pathway, a complex and highly conserved ... "Regulation of cell motility by mitogen-activated protein kinase". The Journal of Cell Biology. 137 (2): 481-92. doi:10.1083/jcb ... A new mouse model was described in 2014 that expresses a fluorescent protein whenever CB2 is expressed within a cell. This has ...
Chen Z, Cobb MH (May 2001). "Regulation of stress-responsive mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinase pathways by TAO2". The ... protein kinase activity. • kinase activity. • protein binding. • protein tyrosine kinase activity. • ATP binding. • protein ... Dual specificity mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase 6 also known as MAP kinase kinase 6 (MAPKK 6) or MAPK/ERK kinase 6 is ... "Human mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase kinase mediates the stress-induced activation of mitogen-activated protein kinase ...
ER Translocon complex. Many protein complexes are involved in protein synthesis. The actual production takes place in the ... They are labelled "Type II" if the defective step occurs after the action of OST in the N-linked glycosylation pathway or ... Sec61 is the protein-conducting channel and the OST adds sugar moieties to the nascent protein. ... Oligosaccharyltransferase or OST (EC 126.96.36.199) is a membrane protein complex that transfers a 14-sugar oligosaccharide from ...
Kumar S, Sieghart W, Morrow AL (2002). "Association of protein kinase C with GABA(A) receptors containing alpha1 and alpha4 ... gamma-aminobutyric acid signaling pathway. • chloride transmembrane transport. • ion transport. • regulation of response to ... This membrane protein-related article is a stub. You can help Wikipedia by expanding it.. *v ... Gamma-aminobutyric acid receptor subunit alpha-4 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the GABRA4 gene. ...
A protein kinase drifting around on the outer chloroplast membrane can use ATP to add a phosphate group to the Toc34 protein, ... In those cases, chloroplast-targeted proteins do initially travel along the secretory pathway). ... It can be regulated through phosphorylation, but by a different protein kinase than the one that phosphorylates Toc34. Its ... Protein targeting and importEdit. See also: Protein targeting. The movement of so many chloroplast genes to the nucleus means ...
Asporin - ويكيبيديا
negative regulation of protein kinase activity. • cytokine-mediated signaling pathway. • negative regulation of JAK-STAT ... protein kinase inhibitor activity. • collagen binding. • extracellular matrix structural constituent conferring compression ... a newly discovered member of the leucine-rich repeat protein family". The Journal of Biological Chemistry. 276 (15): 12212-21. ... a novel member of the leucine-rich repeat protein family closely related to decorin and biglycan". The Journal of Biological ...
"The neuropeptide substance P activates p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase resulting in IL-6 expression independently from NF- ... Different emetic pathways exist, and substance P/NK1R appears to be within the final common pathway to regulate vomiting. ... "Metalloproteinases and transforming growth factor-alpha mediate substance P-induced mitogen-activated protein kinase activation ... Because these regions are related to complexed signal transduction pathways mediated by cytokines, it has been proposed that ...
PDLIM1 - ويكيبيديا، الموسوعة الحرة
Vallenius T، Mäkelä TP (2003). "Clik1: a novel kinase targeted to actin stress fibers by the CLP-36 PDZ-LIM protein.". J. Cell ... Pitx2 pathway mediating cell-type-specific proliferation during development.". Cell. 111 (5): 673-85. PMID 12464179. doi: ... "Towards a proteome-scale map of the human protein-protein interaction network.". Nature. 437 (7062): 1173-8. PMID 16189514. doi ... Wang H، Harrison-Shostak DC، Lemasters JJ، Herman B (1996). "Cloning of a rat cDNA encoding a novel LIM domain protein with ...
... quercetin is a non-specific protein kinase enzyme inhibitor. Quercetin has also been reported to have estrogenic ( ... Rutin degradation pathwayEdit. The enzyme quercitrinase can be found in Aspergillus flavus. This enzyme hydrolyzes the ... In plants, phenylalanine is converted to 4-coumaroyl-CoA in a series of steps known as the general phenylpropanoid pathway ... Quercetin also activates or inhibits the activities of a number of proteins. For example, ...
... mitogen-activated protein kinase) cascade that is itself a kinase. RSK2 phosphorylates cellular proteins (including histone H3 ... The protein is involved in cell signaling pathways that are required for learning, the formation of long-term memories, and the ... Mutations in the RPS6KA3 gene can result in expression of an RSK2 protein (ribosomal S6 kinase 2) with reduced or absent kinase ... The protein RSK2 which is encoded by the RPS6KA3 gene is a kinase which phosphorylates some substrates like CREB and histone H3 ...
protein binding. • enzyme binding. • receptor binding. • lipid binding. • RNA polymerase II transcription factor activity, ... In vitro phosphorylation by casein kinase II". The Journal of Biological Chemistry. 269 (49): 31034-40. PMID 7983041.. ... progesterone receptor signaling pathway. • tertiary branching involved in mammary gland duct morphogenesis. ... The progesterone receptor (PR), also known as NR3C3 or nuclear receptor subfamily 3, group C, member 3, is a protein found ...
... binding to cAMP-dependent protein kinase (PKA). Moclobemide is chemically unrelated to irreversible MAOI antidepressants ... The unchanged drug (less than 1%) as well as the metabolites are excreted renally (in urine). The main degradation pathway of ... The elimination half-life is around 2 hours. It is moderately bound to plasma proteins, especially albumin. However ... less pronounced than the inhibition of the metabolite of noradrenaline which suggest there are other major metabolic pathways ...
positive regulation of protein kinase activity. • T cell activation involved in immune response. • cellular protein metabolic ... regulation of protein binding. • T cell receptor signaling pathway. • segmentation. • positive regulation of receptor recycling ... protein processing. • protein maturation. • myeloid dendritic cell differentiation. • autophagy. • protein glycosylation. • ... negative regulation of protein kinase activity. • cell fate specification. • skeletal system morphogenesis. • regulation of ...
The breast cancer susceptibility protein BRCA2 and PALB2 controls the function of Rad51 in the pathway for DNA repair by ... Lin HR, Ting NS, Qin J, Lee WH (Sep 2003). "M phase-specific phosphorylation of BRCA2 by Polo-like kinase 1 correlates with the ... protein C-terminus binding. • protein binding. • four-way junction DNA binding. • identical protein binding. • ... This protein can interact with the ssDNA-binding protein RPA, BRCA2, PALB2 and RAD52. ...
Hyperimmunoglobulin E syndrome
Borges W, Augustine N, Hill H (2000). "Defective interleukin-12/interferon-gamma pathway in patients with ... "Human tyrosine kinase 2 deficiency reveals its requisite roles in multiple cytokine signals involved in innate and acquired ... Genetic disorder, protein biosynthesis: Transcription factor/coregulator deficiencies. (1) Basic domains. 1.2. *Feingold ... The disease was linked to mutations in the STAT3 gene after cytokine profiles indicated alterations in the STAT3 pathway. ...
CD2, a enciclopedia libre
... to the transmembrane protein GP41 of HIV-1 inhibits distinct lymphocyte activation pathways dependent on protein kinase C and ... 1992). "The lymphocyte-specific tyrosine protein kinase p56lck is endocytosed in Jurkat cells stimulated via CD2.". J. Immunol. ... Wilkins A, Yang W, Yang J (2003). "Structural biology of the cell adhesion protein CD2: from molecular recognition to protein ... 1990). "Immunoregulatory effect of a synthetic peptide corresponding to a region of protein p24 of HIV.". Folia Biol. (Praha) ...
Interactive pathway map. Click on genes, proteins and metabolites below to link to respective Wikipedia articles. [§ 1] ... Perets T, Blumenstein Y, Shistik E, Lotan I, Dascal N (Apr 1996). "A potential site of functional modulation by protein kinase ... Calcium channel, voltage-dependent, L type, alpha 1C subunit (also known as Cav1.2) is a protein that in humans is encoded by ... protein binding. • alpha-actinin binding. • voltage-gated calcium channel activity. • voltage-gated calcium channel activity ...
... who believed that transcription was activated by protein-DNA and protein-protein interactions on largely naked DNA templates, ... The mitotic kinase aurora B phosphorylates histone H3 at serine 10, triggering a cascade of changes that mediate mitotic ... H3K36me3 has the ability to recruit the MSH2-MSH6 (hMutSα) complex of the DNA mismatch repair pathway. Consistently, ... Nuclear protein Ataxia-Telangiectasia (NPAT), also known as nuclear protein coactivator of histone transcription, is a ...
... and two kinases of the JNK MAP kinase pathway (MLK2 and MKK7). He then determined that CNK1 acts together with these four ... It was already known that other Ga proteins could induce Rho activation (i.e. Ga13 activates p115 Rho GEF, which in turn ... This led to the conclusion that CNK1 couples specific Rho exchange factors to the JNK MAP kinase pathway, providing specificity ... targets to activate the JNK MAP kinase pathway, but not other Rho-activated pathways. ...
"Characterization of the mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase 4 (MKK4)/c-Jun NH2-terminal kinase 1 and MKK3/p38 pathways ... "Human mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase kinase mediates the stress-induced activation of mitogen-activated protein kinase ... This gene encodes a dual specificity protein kinase that belongs to the Ser/Thr protein kinase family. This kinase is a direct ... a novel jun N-terminal protein kinase (JNK)-binding protein that functions as a Scaffold factor in the JNK signaling pathway". ...
Type 3: Kinase-linked and related receptors (see "Receptor tyrosine kinase" and "Enzyme-linked receptor") - They are composed ... Ligands connect to specific receptor proteins based on the shape of the active site of the protein. ... Each receptor is linked to a specific cellular biochemical pathway. While numerous receptors are found in most cells, each ... and can be a protein or peptide (short protein), or another small molecule such as a neurotransmitter, hormone, pharmaceutical ...
Wnt-protein binding. • protein binding. • protein kinase binding. • ubiquitin protein ligase binding. • transmembrane signaling ... Wnt signaling pathway, calcium modulating pathway. • Wnt signaling pathway, planar cell polarity pathway. • beta-catenin ... G-protein coupled receptor signaling pathway. • T cell differentiation in thymus. • chorionic trophoblast cell differentiation ... positive regulation of protein targeting to mitochondrion. • positive regulation of JUN kinase activity. • apoptotic process ...
... focuses more on the study of eukaryotic cells, and their signalling pathways, rather than on prokaryotes which is ... The cell membrane consists of lipids and proteins which accounts for its hydrophobicity as a result of being non-polar ... The cell cycle is regulated by a series of signalling factors and complexes such as cyclin-dependent kinases and p53, to name a ... The main constituents of the general molecular composition of the cell includes: proteins and lipids which are either free ...
Pyruvate dehydrogenase (lipoamide) alpha 2
Interactive pathway mapEdit. Click on genes, proteins and metabolites below to link to respective articles. [§ 1] ... 2001). "Activation and mitochondrial translocation of protein kinase Cdelta are necessary for insulin stimulation of pyruvate ... Two mature PDHA proteins come together with two PDHB proteins to form a heterotetrameric E1 subunit. Crystal Structures allowed ... This step is only one of the central metabolic pathway carried out by eukaryotes, in which glucose is oxidized to form carbon ...
Wilson J (December 2005). "Milk Intolerance: Lactose Intolerance and Cow's Milk Protein Allergy". Newborn and Infant Nursing ... Pentose phosphate pathway. *Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase deficiency. *Transaldolase deficiency. *6-phosphogluconate ... GSD type IX (phosphorylase kinase deficiency). Lysosomal (LSD):. *GSD type II (Pompe's disease, glucosidase deficiency) ... Lactose intolerance is distinct from milk allergy, an immune response to cow's milk proteins. They may be distinguished in ...
cAMP binds to and releases an active form of protein kinase A (PKA). Next, PKA phosphorylates phosphorylase kinase, which, in ... metabolic pathway. PRIAM. profile. PDB structures. RCSB PDB PDBe PDBsum. Gene Ontology. AmiGO / QuickGO. ... I. Isolation and characterization of the protein-glycogen complex". Journal of Biological Chemistry. 245 (24): 6642-6648. PMID ... First, the catalytic sites are relatively buried, 15Å from the surface of the protein and from the subunit interface. This ...
Proteins do not have to unfold to be imported into the peroxisome. The protein receptors, the peroxins PEX5 and PEX7, accompany ... of the total activity of two enzymes in the pentose phosphate pathway, which is important for energy metabolism. It is ... Mevalonate kinase. *Catalase. *Acetyl-CoA C-acyltransferase. *Glyceronephosphate O-acyltransferase. *Alkylglycerone phosphate ... The protein content of peroxisomes varies across species or organism, but the presence of proteins common to many species has ...
NPM1 - Wikipédia, a enciclopédia livre
protein oligomerization. • negative regulation of protein kinase activity by regulation of protein phosphorylation. • ... 2008). «Nucleolar protein B23/nucleophosmin regulates the vertebrate SUMO pathway through SENP3 and SENP5 proteases.». J Cell ... protein kinase inhibitor activity. • histone binding. • Tat protein binding. • NF-kappaB binding. • ligação a proteínas ... protein heterodimerization activity. • nucleic acid binding. • protein kinase binding. • core promoter binding. • RNA ...
Voet DJ, Voet JG, Pratt CW (2008). "Additional Pathways in Carbohydrate Metabolism". Principles of Biochemistry, Third edition ... Murphy CI, Lennick M, Lehar SM, Beltz GA, Young E (October 1990). "Temporal expression of HIV-1 envelope proteins in ... Three transcript variants encoding the same protein have been found for this gene. ... Phosphorylase kinase. *Protein phosphatase. This article on a gene on human chromosome 17 is a stub. You can help Wikipedia by ...
Brain-derived neurotrophic factor
transmembrane receptor protein tyrosine kinase signaling pathway. • peripheral nervous system development. • memory. • nerve ... neurotrophin TRK receptor signaling pathway. • positive regulation of non-membrane spanning protein tyrosine kinase activity. • ... Tropomyosin receptor kinase B § Agonists. References. *^ a b c GRCh38: Ensembl release 89: ENSG00000176697 - Ensembl, May ... BDNF can promote protective pathways and inhibit damaging pathways in the NSCs and NPCs that contribute to the brain's ...
... the Wnt signaling pathway leads to stabilization of β-catenin through inactivation of a protein complex containing the tumor ... HER2 kinase inhibitors, such as lapatinib, have also demonstrated clinical efficacy in HER2 overexpressing breast cancers by ... De-regulation of the autocrine Wnt signaling pathway via mutations in APC and Axin have been linked to activation of various ... This resistance is proposed to be because autocrine growth signaling pathways distinct from EGFR are active in NSCLC cells. ...
TCIM - ويكيبيديا
negative regulation of Notch signaling pathway. • استماتة. • positive regulation of protein kinase A signaling. • negative ... positive regulation of protein kinase C activity. • positive regulation of NIK/NF-kappaB signaling. ... interaction with FGFR2 and beta-catenin signaling pathways". International Journal of Cancer. 121 (6): 1265-73. PMID 17520678. ... enhances the Wnt/beta-catenin pathway by relieving antagonistic activity of Chibby". Cancer Research. 66 (2): 723-8. PMID ...
Mitogen-activated protein kinase pathways. - PubMed - NCBI
Mitogen-activated protein kinase pathways.. Robinson MJ1, Cobb MH.. Author information. 1. University of Texas Southwestern ... Nearly all cell surface receptors utilize one or more of the mitogen-activated protein kinase cascades in their repertoire of ... MAP Kinase Kinase Kinase 1*. *Mammals. *Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase Kinases*. *Protein-Serine-Threonine Kinases/metabolism ...
Mitogen-activated protein kinase pathways
Nearly all cell surface receptors utilize one or more of the mitogen-activated protein kinase cascades in their repertoire of ... Mitogen-activated protein kinase pathways Curr Opin Cell Biol. 1997 Apr;9(2):180-6. doi: 10.1016/s0955-0674(97)80061-0. ... Nearly all cell surface receptors utilize one or more of the mitogen-activated protein kinase cascades in their repertoire of ... Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase Kinases* * Protein-Serine-Threonine Kinases / metabolism * Protein-Tyrosine Kinases / ...
Mitogen-activated protein kinase pathways defend against bacterial pore-forming toxins | PNAS
We show that two mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathways [p38 and c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK)-like] are ... Mitogen-activated protein kinase pathways defend against bacterial pore-forming toxins. Danielle L. Huffman, Laurence Abrami, ... Mitogen-activated protein kinase pathways defend against bacterial pore-forming toxins. Danielle L. Huffman, Laurence Abrami, ... Mitogen-activated protein kinase pathways defend against bacterial pore-forming toxins Message Subject (Your Name) has sent you ...
A double-stranded RNA-activated protein kinase-dependent pathway mediating stress-induced apoptosis | PNAS
A double-stranded RNA-activated protein kinase-dependent pathway mediating stress-induced apoptosis. Sandy D. Der, Yi-Li Yang, ... A double-stranded RNA-activated protein kinase-dependent pathway mediating stress-induced apoptosis ... A double-stranded RNA-activated protein kinase-dependent pathway mediating stress-induced apoptosis ... A double-stranded RNA-activated protein kinase-dependent pathway mediating stress-induced apoptosis ...
The protein kinase B/Akt signalling pathway in human malignancy
... is a serine/threonine kinase, which in mammals comprises three highly homologous members known as PKBalpha (Akt1), PKBbeta ( ... The protein kinase B/Akt signalling pathway in human malignancy Cell Signal. 2002 May;14(5):381-95. doi: 10.1016/s0898-6568(01) ... Protein kinase B or Akt (PKB/Akt) is a serine/threonine kinase, which in mammals comprises three highly homologous members ... and possibly other kinases. PKB/Akt phosphorylates and regulates the function of many cellular proteins involved in processes ...
Mammalian mitogen-activated protein kinase signal transduction pathways activated by stress and inflammation. - PubMed - NCBI
Mammalian mitogen-activated protein kinase signal transduction pathways activated by stress and inflammation.. Kyriakis JM1, ... This review focuses on the biochemical components and regulation of mammalian stress-regulated mitogen-activated protein kinase ... MAPK) pathways. The nuclear factor-kappa B pathway, a second stress signaling paradigm, has been the subject of several ... This, despite the fact that the impact of these pathways on the pathology of chronic inflammation, heart disease, stroke, the ...
Zinc Regulates Meiotic Resumption in Porcine Oocytes via a Protein Kinase C-Related Pathway
The level of phosphorylated mitogen activated protein kinase (MAPK) and p34cdc2 kinase activity were reduced when zinc was ... Moreover, zinc depletion reduced the levels of phosphorylated protein kinase C (PKC) substrates in a dose dependent manner. ... increased phosphorylation of PKC substrates and MAPK and increased p34cdc2 kinase activity. This rescued the meiotic arrest, ... and this appears to be regulated via a PKC related pathway. ... Protein kinases Is the Subject Area "Protein kinases" ...
Regulation of stress-responsive mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinase pathways by TAO2.
... kinase pathways by TAO2.. Chen Z., Cobb M.H.. Previous studies demonstrated that in vitro the protein kinase TAO2 activates MAP ... kinases (MEKs) 3, 4, and 6 toward their substrates p38 MAP kinase and c-Jun N-terminal kinase/stress-activated protein kinase ( ... stress-sensitive MAP kinase pathways in cells and the relationship between activation of TAO2 and potential downstream pathways ... i ,p>When browsing through different UniProt proteins, you can use the basket to save them, so that you can back to find or ...
Mechanical stretch activates mammalian target of rapamycin and AMP-activated protein kinase pathways in skeletal muscle cells |...
... and AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) signaling pathways. In the present study, we... ... Cellular protein synthesis is believed to be antagonistically regulated by mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) ... Kimball SR (2006) Interaction between the AMP-activated protein kinase and mTOR signaling pathways. Med Sci Sports Exerc 38: ... Mechanical stretch activates mammalian target of rapamycin and AMP-activated protein kinase pathways in skeletal muscle cells. ...
Coenzyme Q10 Attenuates High Glucose-Induced Endothelial Progenitor Cell Dysfunction through AMP-Activated Protein Kinase...
Q10 Attenuates High Glucose-Induced Endothelial Progenitor Cell Dysfunction through AMP-Activated Protein Kinase Pathways. ... K. J. Way, N. Katai, and G. L. King, "Protein kinase C and the development of diabetic vascular complications," Diabetic ... F. Y. L. Li, K. S. L. Lam, H.-F. Tse et al., "Endothelium-selective activation of AMP-activated protein kinase prevents ... D. Kukidome, T. Nishikawa, K. Sonoda et al., "Activation of AMP-activated protein kinase reduces hyperglycemia-induced ...
JCI - Calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II links ER stress with Fas and mitochondrial apoptosis pathways
Calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II links ER stress with Fas and mitochondrial apoptosis pathways. Jenelle M. ... we probed the upstream JNK kinase mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase-4 (MKK4) for CaMKII-dependent phosphorylation. ... Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II is required for microcystin-induced apoptosis. J. Biol. Chem. 277:2804-2811. View ... Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II phosphorylation regulates the cardiac ryanodine receptor. Circ. Res. 94:e61-e70. ...
Coenzyme Q10 Attenuates High Glucose-Induced Endothelial Progenitor Cell Dysfunction through AMP-Activated Protein Kinase...
The specific signal pathways of AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK), eNOS/Akt, and heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) were also assessed. ... d), (e), and (f)) Expressions of Akt protein phosphorylation, eNOS protein phosphorylation, and HO-1 protein were assessed by ... K. J. Way, N. Katai, and G. L. King, "Protein kinase C and the development of diabetic vascular complications," Diabetic ... F. Y. L. Li, K. S. L. Lam, H.-F. Tse et al., "Endothelium-selective activation of AMP-activated protein kinase prevents ...
Staurosporine Induces Platelet Apoptosis Through p38 Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase Signaling Pathway. | Sigma-Aldrich
Staurosporine Induces Platelet Apoptosis Through p38 Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase Signaling Pathway.. [Lili Zhao, Guoyuan ... Furthermore, STS stimulation induced phosphorylation of p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK). Inhibition of p38 MAPK ... These data indicate that STS induces platelet apoptosis via the p38 MAPK signaling pathway. These findings suggest that ...
Targeting mutated protein tyrosine kinases and their signaling pathways in hematologic malignancies | Haematologica
Targeting mutated protein tyrosine kinases and their signaling pathways in hematologic malignancies ... Targeting mutated protein tyrosine kinases and their signaling pathways in hematologic malignancies ... Targeting mutated protein tyrosine kinases and their signaling pathways in hematologic malignancies ... and this is particularly true with regard to deregulated protein tyrosine kinase (PTK) activation. This progress had led to the ...
Asparagine attenuates intestinal injury, improves energy status and inhibits AMP-activated protein kinase signalling pathways...
... improves energy status and inhibits AMP-activated protein kinase signalling pathways in weaned piglets challenged with ... Asparagine attenuates intestinal injury, improves energy status and inhibits AMP-activated protein kinase signalling pathways ... Asparagine attenuates intestinal injury, improves energy status and inhibits AMP-activated protein kinase signalling pathways ... Asparagine attenuates intestinal injury, improves energy status and inhibits AMP-activated protein kinase signalling pathways ...
Phosphorylation of cytosolic phospholipase A2 in platelets is mediated by multiple stress-activated protein kinase pathways -...
Phosphorylation of cytosolic phospholipase A2 in platelets is mediated by multiple stress-activated protein kinase pathways. ... kDa mitogen-activated protein kinase incorporated similar levels of phosphate into cPLA2 relative to the ability of each kinase ... F Aimond, J Fauconnier, D Donadille, G Vassort, The p42/44mitogen-activated protein kinase inhibitor PD 98059, but not U 0126, ... Stress-activated protein kinases (SAPKs) are stimulated by cell damaging agents as well as by physiological receptor agonists. ...
Caffeic acid phenethyl ester inhibits nuclear factor-κB and protein kinase B signalling pathways and induces caspase-3...
... κB activation and protein kinase B (Akt) phosphorylation, but not p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) phosphorylation ... Caffeic acid phenethyl ester inhibits nuclear factor-κB and protein kinase B signalling pathways and induces caspase-3 ... which might be related to the NF-κB and Akt signalling pathways, and that CCR4+CD4+ T cells are more sensitive to CAPE ... Caffeic acid phenethyl ester suppresses melanoma tumor growth by inhibiting PI3K/AKT/XIAP pathway, Carcinogenesis, 2013, 34, 9 ...
A Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase Pathway Essential for Mating and Contributing to Vegetative Growth in Neurospora crassa |...
A family of serine/threonine protein kinases, known as the mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinases, is involved in ... the G proteins also regulate asexual development through another pathway, which might also involve the mak-2 MAP kinase pathway ... Pandey, A., M. G. Roca, N. D. Read and N. L. Glass, 2004 Role of a mitogen-activated protein kinases pathway during conidial ... cerevisiae FUS3 MAP kinase pathway (Gustinet al. 1998). Thus, there are several ways in which the MAP kinase pathway may ...
Protein Kinase CK2 Triggers Cytosolic Zinc Signaling Pathways by Phosphorylation of Zinc Channel ZIP7 | Science Signaling
Protein Kinase CK2 Triggers Cytosolic Zinc Signaling Pathways by Phosphorylation of Zinc Channel ZIP7 ... Protein Kinase CK2 Triggers Cytosolic Zinc Signaling Pathways by Phosphorylation of Zinc Channel ZIP7 ... Protein Kinase CK2 Triggers Cytosolic Zinc Signaling Pathways by Phosphorylation of Zinc Channel ZIP7 ... Protein Kinase CK2 Triggers Cytosolic Zinc Signaling Pathways by Phosphorylation of Zinc Channel ZIP7 ...
Kinase pathway inhibition restores PSD95 induction in neurons lacking fragile X mental retardation protein [Neuroscience] -...
FXS is caused by loss of expression of fragile X mental retardation protein (FMRP), an RNA-binding protein that regulates ... Kinase pathway inhibition restores PSD95 induction in neurons lacking fragile X mental retardation protein [Neuroscience]. ... To ensure accurate crossover formation, meiosis-specific protein complexes regulate the degree to which each pathway is used. ... FXS is caused by loss of expression of fragile X mental retardation protein (FMRP), an RNA-binding protein that regulates ...
British Library EThOS: Protein kinase pathways involved in nutrient- and hormone-induced insulin gene transcriptions
Protein kinase pathways involved in nutrient- and hormone-induced insulin gene transcriptions ... We also show that nutrient-induced PDX1 phosphorylation occurs through the activation of PI-3 kinase and p38 MAP kinase. The ... This was completely inhibited by wortmannin and LY294002, the specific inhibitors of PI-3 kinases. Also, we have demonstrated ... Interestingly, platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF), which also activates PI-3 kinase by binding to PDGF-receptor, did not ...
IJMS | Free Full-Text | Up-Regulation of Rhoa/Rho Kinase Pathway by Translationally Controlled Tumor Protein in Vascular Smooth...
Because dys-regulation of RhoA/Rho kinase pathway is implicated in increased vascular contractility, we examined whether TCTP ... We conclude that up-regulation of TCTP induces RhoA-mediated pathway, and that TCTP-induced RhoA plays a role in the regulation ... We found that TCTP over-expression by adenovirus infection up-regulated RhoA pathway including the expression of RhoA, and its ... lentiviral silencing of TCTP reduced the RhoA expression and Rho kinase signalings. Using immunohistochemical and Western ...
Activation of the β-Adrenoceptor-Protein Kinase A Signaling Pathway within the Ventral Bed Nucleus of the Stria Terminalis...
In the present study, we investigated the involvement of the β-adrenoceptor-protein kinase A (PKA) signaling pathway within the ... Activation of the β-Adrenoceptor-Protein Kinase A Signaling Pathway within the Ventral Bed Nucleus of the Stria Terminalis ... Activation of the β-Adrenoceptor-Protein Kinase A Signaling Pathway within the Ventral Bed Nucleus of the Stria Terminalis ... Activation of the β-Adrenoceptor-Protein Kinase A Signaling Pathway within the Ventral Bed Nucleus of the Stria Terminalis ...
Octopamine Mediates Thermal Preconditioning of the Locust Ventilatory Central Pattern Generator via a cAMP/Protein Kinase A...
2002) Protein kinase modulation of dendritic K+ channels in hippocampus involves a mitogen-activated protein kinase pathway. J ... we show that OA mediates HS-induced thermoprotective changes via a cAMP/protein kinase A (PKA) signaling pathway and protein ... 1999) The protein kinase inhibitor, H-7, suppresses heat induced activation of heat shock transcription factor 1. Mol Cell ... 1998) Effects of protein kinase inhibitors on heat-induced hsp72 gene expression in a human glioblastoma cell line. Cell Signal ...
The Hsp40 Molecular Chaperone Ydj1p, Along With the Protein Kinase C Pathway, Affects Cell-Wall Integrity in the Yeast...
The Hsp40 Molecular Chaperone Ydj1p, Along With the Protein Kinase C Pathway, Affects Cell-Wall Integrity in the Yeast ... The Hsp40 Molecular Chaperone Ydj1p, Along With the Protein Kinase C Pathway, Affects Cell-Wall Integrity in the Yeast ... The Hsp40 Molecular Chaperone Ydj1p, Along With the Protein Kinase C Pathway, Affects Cell-Wall Integrity in the Yeast ... The Hsp40 Molecular Chaperone Ydj1p, Along With the Protein Kinase C Pathway, Affects Cell-Wall Integrity in the Yeast ...
Mitogen activated protein (MAP) kinase signal transduction pathways and novel anti-inflammatory targets
Protein kinase C (PKC) isoforms are serine/threonine kinases involved in signal transduction pathways that govern a wide range ... kinase-activated signal transduction pathway that comprises the plasma membrane-bound protein Ras and the protein kinases Raf, ... Histidine protein kinases and response regulators form the basis of phosphotransfer signal transduction pathways. Commonly ... One of the best studied signalling routes is the mitogen activated protein (MAP) kinase signal transduction pathway which plays ...
The p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathway in rheumatoid arthritis | Annals of the Rheumatic Diseases
Drosophila p53-related protein kinase is required for PI3K/TOR pathway-dependent growth | Development
Drosophila p53-related protein kinase is required for PI3K/TOR pathway-dependent growth ... p53-related protein kinase (Bud32/PRPK) has been identified as a protein involved in proliferation through its effects on ... 2007). Phosphorylation and activation of the atypical kinase p53-related protein kinase (PRPK) by Akt/PKB. Cell. Mol. Life Sci. ... Drosophila p53-related protein kinase is required for PI3K/TOR pathway-dependent growth ...
Characterization of the Mechanism for the Chronic Activation of Diacylglycerol-Protein Kinase C Pathway in Diabetes and...
Characterization of the Mechanism for the Chronic Activation of Diacylglycerol-Protein Kinase C Pathway in Diabetes and ... Characterization of the Mechanism for the Chronic Activation of Diacylglycerol-Protein Kinase C Pathway in Diabetes and ... Characterization of the Mechanism for the Chronic Activation of Diacylglycerol-Protein Kinase C Pathway in Diabetes and ... Characterization of the Mechanism for the Chronic Activation of Diacylglycerol-Protein Kinase C Pathway in Diabetes and ...
Targeting Protein Kinase CK2 Suppresses Prosurvival Signaling Pathways and Growth of Glioblastoma | Clinical Cancer Research
Regulation of DNA-dependent protein kinase by protein kinase CK2 in human glioblastoma cells. Oncogene 2010;29:6016-26. ... Targeting Protein Kinase CK2 Suppresses Prosurvival Signaling Pathways and Growth of Glioblastoma. Ying Zheng, Braden C. ... Protein kinase CK2 in health and disease: CK2: the kinase controlling the Hsp90 chaperone machinery. Cell Mol Life Sci 2009;66: ... Targeting Protein Kinase CK2 Suppresses Prosurvival Signaling Pathways and Growth of Glioblastoma ...
MAPKDownstreamInhibitorsInhibitionInhibitorApoptosisActivatesActivationRegulatesPI3KRegulationGeneStress-activatedMolecularPhosphorylatesPhosphorylateSignal transduRegulateCellularReceptorsReceptor tyrosiActivateInsulinMutationsSubstrateEffectorInducesEnzymesSynthesisStimulationDifferent pathwaysSubstratesHighly conservedMitogenUpstreamHistidineCascadesERK1GenesAMPKApoptoticMitochondrialTumorIntracellularEukaryoticSerine or threonine residuesTranscriptionFamily of kinases1998NuclearDual specificity kinasesActivatorAtypicalCell proliferationMammalianSignaling PathwaysSaccharomycesInflammatoryPhosphataseInductionMAPKs
- A p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) kinase and a c-Jun N-terminal-like MAPK are both transcriptionally up-regulated by Cry5B. (pnas.org)
- Moreover, both MAPK pathways are functionally important because elimination of either leads to animals that are ( i ) hypersensitive to a low, chronic dose of toxin and ( ii ) hypersensitive to a high, brief dose of toxin such that the animal might naturally encounter in the wild. (pnas.org)
- Furthermore, we identify two downstream transcriptional targets of the p38 MAPK pathway, ttm-1 and ttm-2 , that are required for defense against Cry5B. (pnas.org)
- Our data demonstrate that cells defend against pore-forming toxins by means of conserved MAPK pathways. (pnas.org)
- We show that two mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathways [p38 and c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK)-like] are transcriptionally up-regulated by the toxin, that both of these MAPK pathways provide a significant cellular defense against the toxin, and that this defense is conserved in mammalian cells attacked by a PFT. (pnas.org)
- We use this system to further identify two downstream transcriptional targets of the p38 MAPK pathway that help mediate the defense against PFTs. (pnas.org)
- This review focuses on the biochemical components and regulation of mammalian stress-regulated mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathways. (nih.gov)
- Furthermore, STS stimulation induced phosphorylation of p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK). (sigmaaldrich.com)
- These data indicate that STS induces platelet apoptosis via the p38 MAPK signaling pathway. (sigmaaldrich.com)
- CAPE inhibited nuclear factor (NF)-κB activation and protein kinase B (Akt) phosphorylation, but not p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) phosphorylation in T cells. (wiley.com)
- Activation of RAS leads to activation of several effector pathways, the best characterized of which are the RAF/MEK/ERK pathway ["the classical mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathway"], the PI3 kinase (PI3K) pathway, and the Ral-GEFs ( 1 - 6 ). (aacrjournals.org)
- Constitutive MAPK pathway activation can result from activating mutations in RAS, BRAF, and MEK1, loss of the tumor suppressor NF1 ( 7 ), or upstream activation mediated by mutations, amplification, or ligand-mediated activation of cell surface receptors ( Fig. 1 ). (aacrjournals.org)
- The classical MAPK pathway is activated in human tumors by several mechanisms including the binding of ligand to receptor tyrosine kinases (RTK), mutational activation of an RTK, by loss of the tumor suppressor NF1, or by mutations in RAS, BRAF, and MEK1. (aacrjournals.org)
- The expression of MAPK target proteins was assessed by Western blotting. (karger.com)
- Notably, CM inhibited the MAPK pathway signal transduction via lowering the phosphorylation of p38 MAPK, ERK1/2 and JNK1/2 in rat hind paws. (karger.com)
- Additionally, proinflammatory cytokines can activate several inflammatory transduction pathways, including mitogen activated protein kinase (MAPK). (karger.com)
- The MAPK family includes p38MAPK, extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) and c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK), which have been reported to be activated in the synovium of RA patients [ 8 , 9 ]. (karger.com)
- We show here that TPO-induced differentiation in UT7 cells is tightly dependent on a strong, long-lasting activation of the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathway. (asm.org)
- Thus, depending on the cellular context, several distinct regions of the cytoplasmic domain of Mpl and signaling pathways may contribute to generate quantitative variations in MAPK activation. (asm.org)
- AZD6244 (ARRY 142886) is a potent and selective mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK)/extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) kinase (MEK) inhibitor currently in early clinical trials. (aacrjournals.org)
- The Ras/Raf/mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK)/extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) kinase (MEK)/ERK MAPK pathway plays an important role in regulating diverse cellular functions, including cell proliferation, cell cycle regulation, cell survival, and cell migration. (aacrjournals.org)
- Initiation of MAPK signaling occurs through activation of cell surface receptor tyrosine kinases that in turn induce the G protein Ras to exchange GDP for GTP. (aacrjournals.org)
- Hyperactivation of the MAPK signaling cascade resulting from receptor tyrosine kinase overexpression/mutation or MAPK family member mutation has a well-established role in oncogenesis and tumor growth ( 4 , 5 ). (aacrjournals.org)
- Given its well-defined role in cancer growth, therapeutic targeting of the MAPK pathway has been an area of intense investigation, and MEK inhibitors are seen as a promising new approach for cancer treatment ( 13 ). (aacrjournals.org)
- PI3K activation was found to support phosphorylation of p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (p38 MAPK). (aspetjournals.org)
- Moreover, p38 MAPK activation and insulin activation of NETs were found to be sensitive to external Ca 2+ depletion, blockade of voltage-sensitive Ca 2+ channels, and inhibition of protein phosphatase 2A. (aspetjournals.org)
- Effects of tyrosine kinase and PI3K inhibitors on basal NET uptake appear to arise from a loss of cell surface NET protein, whereas the p38 MAPK-dependent enhancement of NE transport occurs without a detectable enhancement of surface NET. (aspetjournals.org)
- Our findings establish two distinct pathways for regulation of NE uptake involving PI3K, one linked to transporter trafficking and a second linked to Ca 2+ -dependent, p38 MAPK phosphorylation that promotes activation of cell surface NETs. (aspetjournals.org)
- This analysis showed that MCP compounds inhibited Ras-induced activation of the Raf and ERK mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signaling cascade, Ras-induced cell migration, morphologic changes and anchorage-independent growth, and Ras-regulated expression of matrix metalloproteases and cyclin D1 ( 7 ). (aacrjournals.org)
- Black tea has been shown to improve endothelial function in patients with coronary artery disease and recent data indicate the polyphenol fraction of black tea enhances endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) activity through p38 MAP kinase (p38 MAPK) activation. (ahajournals.org)
- Phosphorylation of ERα on Ser-118 was due to p38 MAP kinase (p38 MAPK) as, it was inhibited by SB203580 and overexpression of dominant-negative p38α MAPK. (ahajournals.org)
- 7 This effect is because of activation of phosphoinositol 3-kinase (PI 3-K) and Akt via a p38 MAPK-dependent mechanism. (ahajournals.org)
- Recently, a chemical genetic approach has revealed evidence that artery-vein specification is governed by cross talk between phosphoinositide 3-kinase and extracellular signal-regulated kinase/mitogen-activated protein kinase (ERK/MAPK) signaling in artery-vein specification. (ahajournals.org)
- In addition, we discuss relatively novel chemical genetic studies of zebrafish vascular development that have provided evidence that a crosstalk between 2 ubiquitous signaling pathways, the phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K) and the extracellular signal-regulated kinase/mitogen-activated protein kinase (ERK/MAPK) signaling pathways, plays a central antagonistic role in artery-vein specification during vasculogenesis. (ahajournals.org)
- and phosphorylation of signaling molecules, including mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) and PI3K/Akt, were investigated by flow cytometry and immunoblotting, respectively. (koreascience.or.kr)
- Ginsenoside-Rp1 inhibits platelet activation and thrombus formation via impaired glycoprotein VI signalling pathway, tyrosine phosphorylation and MAPK activation. (koreascience.or.kr)
- Treatment of melanoma cells with mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK)/extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) kinase (MEK) inhibitors blocks ERK activation and increases steady-state levels of mRNAs and corresponding protein expression for the melanocytic antigens Melan-A/MART-1, gp100, and tyrosinase. (aacrjournals.org)
- Notably, the antigen-enhancing effects of the MEK inhibitors could not be attributed to the master melanocytic regulator MITF-M. Because MAPK pathway activation via constitutively active mutant forms of BRAF is common in melanomas, correlation between BRAF function and antigen expression was investigated. (aacrjournals.org)
- Activation of BRAF kinase activity transmits a mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathway signal through BRAF-mediated phosphorylation of its substrates, the MAPK/extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) kinase (MEK) proteins. (aacrjournals.org)
- Such "cytotoxic" effects of ROS appear to be mediated via the stress-activated protein kinases/mitogen-activated protein kinases (SAPK/MAPK) signaling pathways. (eurekaselect.com)
- Conclusion: The MAPK pathways are activated in the presence of various stress stimuli including intracellular ROS, via distinct signaling cascades. (eurekaselect.com)
- Additionally, we enlisted recent patents developed to improve β-cell function in diabetes and novel pharmacological agents that target oxidative stress and MAPK pathways. (eurekaselect.com)
- We applied the animal model of H. pylori -induced gastritis to study the effect of a specific inhibitor of p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (p38 MAPK), SB 203580, on the mucosal apoptotic processes, and the expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase (NOS-2) activity and soluble tumor necrosis factor- α (TNF- α ). (brillonline.com)
- Our findings thus suggest that the p38 MAPK signaling pathway plays a key role in H. pylori lipopolysaccharide-induced gastric mucosal inflammatory responses leading to up-regulation of apoptotic events and induction of NOS-2 expression. (brillonline.com)
- A mitogen-activated protein kinase ( MAPK or MAP kinase ) is a type of protein kinase that is specific to the amino acids serine and threonine (i.e., a serine/threonine-specific protein kinase ). (wikipedia.org)
- MAPKs belong to the CMGC (CDK/MAPK/GSK3/CLK) kinase group. (wikipedia.org)
- Because MAP2 kinases display very little activity on substrates other than their cognate MAPK, classical MAPK pathways form multi-tiered, but relatively linear pathways. (wikipedia.org)
- In comparison to the three-tiered classical MAPK pathways, some atypical MAP kinases appear to have a more ancient, two-tiered system. (wikipedia.org)
- The activation mechanism remains to be fully characterised but occurs downstream of phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI-3K). (nih.gov)
- In this study, we examined the ability of TAO2 to activate stress-sensitive MAP kinase pathways in cells and the relationship between activation of TAO2 and potential downstream pathways. (uniprot.org)
- To better understand the role of MAP kinase signaling in Neurospora crassa , and to identify downstream target genes of the pathway, we isolated, cloned, and disrupted the FUS3 homolog mak-2 . (genetics.org)
- We found that TCTP over-expression by adenovirus infection up-regulated RhoA pathway including the expression of RhoA, and its downstream signalings, phosphorylation of myosin phosphatase target protein (MYPT-1), and myosin light chain (MLC). (mdpi.com)
- We found that ydj1 Δ yeast exhibit phenotypes consistent with cell-wall defects and that these phenotypes were improved by Mid2p or Pkc1p overexpression or by overexpression of activated downstream components in the PKC pathway. (genetics.org)
- Inhibition of CK2 activity by CX-4945, a selective CK2 inhibitor, or CK2 knockdown by siRNA suppresses activation of the JAK/STAT, NF-κB, and AKT pathways and downstream gene expression in human glioblastoma xenografts. (aacrjournals.org)
- Activated Raf phosphorylates and activates the dual specificity kinases MEK1 and MEK2, which successively phosphorylate and activate the proline-directed serine/threonine kinases ERK1 and ERK2, which have multiple downstream targets, including Elk-1, c-Ets1, c-Ets2, p90RSK1, MNK1, MNK2, and TOB ( 1 - 3 ). (aacrjournals.org)
- In a search for possible signalling intermediates we found forskolin and cell-permeable cAMP analogues recapitulated the glucose effects, suggesting a role for cAMP and PKA (cAMP-dependent protein kinase/protein kinase A) downstream of glucose. (portlandpress.com)
- Active Ras promotes tumor growth through its ability to activate multiple downstream effector signaling pathways that promote cell proliferation, survival, migration, and angiogenesis (reviewed in refs. (aacrjournals.org)
- Once activated, MAPKs participate in specific intracellular signaling processes via interaction with several downstream kinases including the MAPKactivated protein kinases (MAPKAPKs) and transcription factors including c-jun and p53. (eurekaselect.com)
- Although the kinase Akt has been shown to act downstream of CD28 in T helper (Th)1 cytokine induction, it does not induce Th2 cytokines such as interleukin 4 (IL-4). (rupress.org)
- Two Jak-kinases, Tyk-2 and Jak-1, associate with the different receptor subunits and are activated in response to IFNα or IFNβ to regulate engagement of multiple downstream signaling cascades. (northwestern.edu)
- These include the Stat-pathway, whose function is essential for transcriptional activation of IFN-sensitive genes, and the insulin receptor substrate pathway, which regulates downstream activation of the phosphatidyl-inositol-3′ kinase. (northwestern.edu)
- The activated form of p38 regulates downstream activation of other serine kinases, notably MapKapK-2 and MapKapK-3, indicating the existence of Type I IFN-dependent signaling cascades activated downstream of p38. (northwestern.edu)
- A-kinase anchoring proteins (AKAPs) directly bind PKA and recruit it to specific subcellular loci targeting the kinase activity toward particular substrates, and thereby provide discrete spatiotemporal control of downstream phosphorylation events. (frontiersin.org)
- Akt, a significant signal protein downstream of PI-3 kinase, is a serine/threonine kinase that recently has been implicated in mediating a variety of cellular functions including cell survival, cell proliferation, and glucose metabolism. (wmich.edu)
- Since Akt lies downstream of PI-3 kinase, it may be involved in mediating insulin-induced glucose metabolism by regulating the expression of vital enzymes necessary for metabolic pathways. (wmich.edu)
- The rational design of α-helix-mimicking peptidomimetics provides a streamlined approach to discover potent inhibitors for protein−protein interactions (PPIs). (wn.com)
- This was completely inhibited by wortmannin and LY294002, the specific inhibitors of PI-3 kinases. (bl.uk)
- Thus, p38 appears to play a critical role in the pathogenesis of aplastic anemia, suggesting that selective pharmacological inhibitors of this kinase may prove useful in the treatment of aplastic anemia and other cytokine-mediated bone marrow failure syndromes. (jimmunol.org)
- This has led to current initiation of clinical trials in inflammatory disease states evaluating small molecule inhibitors of MAP kinase proteins and encouraging results have been obtained. (bmj.com)
- Tyrosine kinase (genistein) and protein kinase C (chelerythrine) inhibitors individually had minimal effect on chronic δ-opioid agonist-mediated AC superactivation. (aspetjournals.org)
- Basal and insulin-modulated NET activities were reduced by the tyrosine kinase inhibitor genistein and the PI3K inhibitors wortmannin and LY-294002, but not by the PKC inhibitor staurosporine. (aspetjournals.org)
- The RPG1 protein disappearance is rapid and appears to be due to specific protein degradation via the proteasome-mediated pathway as indicated by inhibition with the proteasomal inhibitor MG132, but not by other protease inhibitors. (umn.edu)
- Pretreatment with protein kinase A (PKA) inhibitors totally abolished upregulation of MRP2 and GSTα induced by db-cAMP. (deepdyve.com)
- Wortmannin did not further inhibit I(Cl,vol) in cells pretreated with the protein tyrosine kinase inhibitor, genistein, but blocked enhancement of I(Cl,vol) by PKC inhibitors. (duke.edu)
- The catalytic subunits of protein kinases are highly conserved, and several structures have been solved [ PMID: 15078142 ], leading to large screens to develop kinase-specific inhibitors for the treatments of a number of diseases [ PMID: 15320712 ]. (ebi.ac.uk)
- Receptor tyrosine kinase inhibitors as potent weapons in war against cancers. (ebi.ac.uk)
- PKR can mediate inhibition of protein synthesis through phosphorylation of eukaryotic initiation factor-2α (eIF-2α), which, in the course of a viral infection, represents a defensive mechanism for restricting viral protein translation and, ultimately, viral replication. (pnas.org)
- Together, these results indicate that CAPE inhibits cytokine production and proliferation of T cells, which might be related to the NF-κB and Akt signalling pathways, and that CCR4 + CD4 + T cells are more sensitive to CAPE inhibition. (wiley.com)
- Altering the p38 pathway in vivo with growth factors or cytokine inhibition may improve fibroblast proliferation and venous ulcer healing. (ovid.com)
- Since hyperglycemia is involved in the "aspirin resistance" occurring in diabetes, we aimed at evaluating whether high glucose interferes with the aspirin-induced inhibition of thromboxane synthesis and/or activation of the nitric oxide (NO)/cGMP/cGMP-dependent protein kinase (PKG) pathway in platelets. (diabetesjournals.org)
- Thus, high glucose acutely reduces the antiaggregating effect of aspirin, does not modify the aspirin-induced inhibition of thromboxane synthesis, and inhibits the aspirin-induced activation of the NO/cGMP/PKG pathway. (diabetesjournals.org)
- It is unclear whether a common signaling cascade is used by the IFN-γ and TNF-α receptors to mediate inhibition of hemopoietic progenitor cell growth or whether these cytokines suppress stem cells via activation of distinct cellular pathways. (jimmunol.org)
- We previously showed that 2-(2-mercaptoethanol)-3-methyl-1,4-napthoquinone or Compound 5 (Cpd 5), a Cdc25A dual specificity protein phosphatase inhibitor, can induce prolonged, strong ERK phosphorylation, which was related to cell growth inhibition. (aacrjournals.org)
- Furthermore, Cpd 5 inhibited c-Myc transcriptional activity and Myc/Max DNA binding ability, and this inhibition was antagonized by ERK kinase (MEK) inhibitor U-0126, implying that the ERK pathway was involved in regulating c-Myc expression. (aacrjournals.org)
- Inhibition of ERK1/2 with U0126 induces apoptosis but fails to activate JNK phosphorylation or down-regulate β-catenin protein expression. (aacrjournals.org)
- Inhibition of ERK1/2 ( 7 ), activation of JNK ( 8 ), and inhibition of β-catenin protein expression ( 9 ) are required for apoptosis of colorectal cancer cells by sulindac and related compounds in vitro . (aacrjournals.org)
- Inhibition of cyclic GMP-dependent phosphodiesterases 2 and 5 leads to cellular cyclic GMP accumulation and subsequent activation of cyclic GMP-dependent protein kinase (PKG). (aacrjournals.org)
- Inhibition of a signaling pathway in cardiac muscle cells by active mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase. (harvard.edu)
- Thorburn J, Carlson M, Mansour SJ, Chien KR, Ahn NG, Thorburn A. Inhibition of a signaling pathway in cardiac muscle cells by active mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase. (harvard.edu)
- Inhibition of the p38 MAP kinase pathway rescues by 80% the initiation of pX-mediated apoptosis, whereas subsequent apoptotic events involve both pathways. (asm.org)
- In contrast, F/I repressed estradiol induction of cyclin D1 mRNA and protein that was correlated with inhibition of estradiol-dependent breast cancer growth. (openthesis.org)
- 3)Protein Kinase A inhibitor recoverd the inhibition of ketamine on MC proliferation. (nii.ac.jp)
- v.13 Inhibition of the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase/p70(S6)-kinase pathway induces B16 melanoma cells differentiation Busca, R.;Bertolotto, C.;Ortonne, J. P.;Ballotti, R. (koreascience.or.kr)
- As Type I IFNs regulate gene expression for proteins with antiviral properties, it is not surprising that pharmacological inhibition of the p38 pathway blocks induction of IFNα-antiviral responses. (northwestern.edu)
- Sorafenib (Nexavar) was the first RAF kinase inhibitor to enter human clinical testing. (aacrjournals.org)
- Pretreatment of cells with the highly specific p38 MAP kinase inhibitor SB 203580 prevented S. typhimurium-induced IL-8 production. (jimmunol.org)
- Because we showed previously that the Raf-1 inhibitor 3-(3,5-dibromo-4-hydroxybenzylidene-5-iodo-1,3-dihydro-indol-2-one (GW5074) attenuates AC superactivation, we hypothesize that parallel calmidazolium-, chelerythrine-, and genistein-sensitive pathways converge at Raf-1 to mediate AC superactivation by phosphorylating AC VI in hDOR/CHO cells. (aspetjournals.org)
- The ROCE was inhibited by forskolin and papaverine to activate the cAMP/PKA pathway, whereas it was potentiated by Rp-8-bromoadenosine-cAMP sodium salt, a PKA inhibitor. (aspetjournals.org)
- In one approach, a single signaling pathway is "vertically" targeted, with drugs inhibiting multiple steps in a signaling cascade: For example, pretreatment of A549 lung carcinoma cells with the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase inhibitor PX-866, which strongly potentiates the action of the epidermal growth factor receptor inhibitor Iressa ( 9 ). (aacrjournals.org)
- The specific phosphoinositide‑3 kinase (PI3K) inhibitor LY294002 promoted this effect, while insulin‑like growth factor‑1, a specific PI3K activator, inhibited this action. (spandidos-publications.com)
- Transferrin receptor-2 activation by its ligand holotransferrin led to extracellular signal regulated kinase (ERK)/mitogen activated protein kinase pathway stimulation and the ERK specific inhibitor U0-126 blunted holotransferrin-mediated induction of hepcidin. (haematologica.org)
- Protein Kinase C Inhibitor and Irradiation-induced Apoptosis: Relevance of the Cytochrome c-mediated Caspase-9 Death Pathway -- Rocha et al. (aacrjournals.org)
- Melanin production and tyrosinase activity by MSH are significantly inhibited by cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinase inhibitor (KT5720) and protein kinase C down-regulation treated with PMA. (koreascience.or.kr)
- Bisindolmaleimide (1 $\mu$ M), protein kinase C inhibitor, significantly inhibited melanin production and tyrosinase activity stimulated by MSH, forskolin and 8-Br-cAMP with the following order of potency: MSH＞forskolin＞8-Br-cAMP. (koreascience.or.kr)
- Tyrosine kinase inhibitor, genistein and DHC, significantly inhibited both, but the inhibitory effect was more potent in 8-Br-cAMP-stimulated B16 cells than MSH-stimulated cells. (koreascience.or.kr)
- Neither melanin production nor tyrosinase activity induced by MSH, forskolin and 8-Br-cAMP were affected by KN-62 (calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II inhibitor), PD098059 (mitogen-activated protein kinase inhibitor, MAPKK) and worthmannin (phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase inhibitor). (koreascience.or.kr)
- Activation of c-Src tyrosine kinases, with an Src activator peptide (EPQ(pY)EEIPI), increased I(Cl,vol) after hyposmotic stimulation, whereas the protein tyrosine kinase inhibitor, genistein, but not its inactive analogue daidzein, inhibited the current. (duke.edu)
- The serine-threonine protein phosphatase (PP) inhibitor, okadaic acid, blocked activation of I(Cl,vol), whereas insulin, which activates PI3K and PP-1, enhanced the current. (duke.edu)
- Kinases are turned on or off by phosphorylation (sometimes by the kinase itself - cis-phosphorylation/autophosphorylation), by binding of activator proteins or inhibitor proteins, or small molecules, or by controlling their location in the cell relative to their substrates. (wikipedia.org)
- The interferon-induced, double-stranded RNA-activated protein kinase (PKR) has been implicated in processes that rely on apoptosis as control mechanisms in vivo , including antiviral activities, cell growth regulation, and tumorigenesis. (pnas.org)
- A highly conserved apoptotic protease cascade, comprised of members of the interleukin-1 converting enzyme-related family of proteases, represents the effector pathway for most, if not all, forms of apoptosis in metazoan cells ( 1 ). (pnas.org)
- PKB/Akt phosphorylates and regulates the function of many cellular proteins involved in processes that include metabolism, apoptosis, and proliferation. (nih.gov)
- CoQ10 reduced high glucose-induced EPC apoptosis and dysfunction through upregulation of eNOS, HO-1 through the AMPK pathway. (hindawi.com)
- Staurosporine Induces Platelet Apoptosis Through p38 Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase Signaling Pathway. (sigmaaldrich.com)
- Proteolytic activation of MST/Krs, STE20-related protein kinase, by caspase during apoptosis. (ebscohost.com)
- and ( d ) decrease β-catenin protein expression at times and doses consistent with apoptosis. (aacrjournals.org)
- Pharmacologic activation of PKG with YC-1 increases JNK phosphorylation and induces apoptosis in colon cancer cells without modulating ERK1/2 phosphorylation or β-catenin protein expression. (aacrjournals.org)
- The LKB1→AMPK→TSC2 pathway negatively regulates the target of rapamycin (TOR), and this appears to be responsible for limiting protein synthesis and cell growth, and protecting against apoptosis, during cellular stresses such as glucose starvation. (biologists.org)
- Taken together, the results suggested that ginsenoside Rg5 may have a tumor‑suppressive effect on esophageal cancer by promoting apoptosis and may be associated with the downregulation of the PI3K/Akt signaling pathway. (spandidos-publications.com)
- Activation of the cellular stress pathways (c-Jun N-terminal kinase [JNK] and p38 mitogen-activated protein [MAP] kinase) is linked to apoptosis. (asm.org)
- However, whether both pathways are required for apoptosis remains unresolved. (asm.org)
- Hepatitis B virus X protein (pX) activates p38 MAP kinase and JNK pathways and, in response to weak apoptotic signals, sensitizes hepatocytes to apoptosis. (asm.org)
- Employing hepatocyte cell lines expressing pX, which was regulated by tetracycline, we investigated the mechanism of apoptosis by p38 MAP kinase and JNK pathway activation. (asm.org)
- These results support the importance of the pX-dependent activation of both the p38 MAP kinase and JNK pathways in pX-mediated apoptosis and suggest that this mechanism of apoptosis occurs in vivo in response to weak apoptotic signals. (asm.org)
- Thus, the molecular mechanisms and signaling pathways regulating apoptosis are of great significance. (asm.org)
- Apoptosis occurs via two pathways: the extrinsic (death receptor) pathway, initiated by activation of members of the death receptor superfamily (Fas and tumor necrosis factor receptor 1 [TNFR1]), leading to caspase 8 activation ( 61 ), and the intrinsic (mitochondrial) pathway, resulting in the mitochondrial release of cytochrome c and caspase 9 activation ( 80 ). (asm.org)
- Apoptosis is regulated by the p38 mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinase/c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) cellular stress pathways ( 47 , 76 ). (asm.org)
- Evidence in support of JNK and p38 MAP kinase pathways in regulating apoptosis is derived from studies employing treatments simulating cellular stress. (asm.org)
- However, despite reports of a role for the JNK and p38 MAP kinase in apoptosis and the demonstration that ASK-1 is upstream of both JNK and p38 MAP kinase pathways ( 37 , 78 ), whether both pathways are necessary for apoptosis remains unresolved. (asm.org)
- Mouse NIH3T3 fibroblast cells overexpressing phosphatidylinositol transfer protein ß (PI-TPß, SPIß cells) demonstrate a low rate of proliferation and a high sensitivity towards UV-induced apoptosis when compared with wtNIH3T3 cells. (uu.nl)
- Protein kinases play a role in a multitude of cellular processes, including division, proliferation, apoptosis, and differentiation [ PMID: 12368087 ]. (ebi.ac.uk)
- Serine/Threonine Kinase receptors play a role in the regulation of cell proliferation, programmed cell death ( apoptosis ), cell differentiation, and embryonic development. (wikipedia.org)
- Constitutive PKB/Akt activation can occur due to amplification of PKB/Akt genes or as a result of mutations in components of the signalling pathway that activates PKB/Akt. (nih.gov)
- Previous studies demonstrated that in vitro the protein kinase TAO2 activates MAP/ERK kinases (MEKs) 3, 4, and 6 toward their substrates p38 MAP kinase and c-Jun N-terminal kinase/stress-activated protein kinase (JNK/SAPK). (uniprot.org)
- Ste12p is a transcription factor target of Fus3p that activates genes of the mating pathway in yeast, and we also characterized the N. crassa STE12 homolog pp-1 . (genetics.org)
- Interestingly, platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF), which also activates PI-3 kinase by binding to PDGF-receptor, did not significantly affect the PDX1 DNA-binding activity in isolated human islets. (bl.uk)
- The stimulation of PI3K increases the levels of phosphatidylinositol (3,4,5) trisphosphate at the plasma membrane, which in turn relocates and, in combination with PDK1, activates the Ser/Thr kinase Akt1/PKB. (biologists.org)
- Complex formation activates BSK kinase, which in turn phosphorylates and activates DJUN and DFOS. (harvard.edu)
- Heat stress activates the yeast high-osmolarity glycerol mitogen-activated protein kinase pathway, and protein tyrosine phosphatases are essential under heat stress. (semanticscholar.org)
- For instance, NF-κB activates many genes involved in inflammation, cell transformation, and antiapoptotic responses ( 24 , 25 ), suggesting that both prosurvival and antisurvival pathways can be induced by NF-κB activation. (aacrjournals.org)
- Proposed mediators of the apoptotic responses to stress-related stimuli, such as tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), lipopolysaccharide (LPS), and UV light, include ceramide production resulting from phospholipid hydrolysis and the activation of stress-activated protein kinase cascades, leading subsequently to the phosphorylation of transcription factors such as c-Jun or ATF2 ( 2 - 5 ). (pnas.org)
- Activation of AMP-activated protein kinase reduces hyperglycemia-induced mitochondrial reactive oxygen species production and promotes mitochondrial biogenesis in human umbilical vein endothelial cells," Diabetes , vol. 55, no. 1, pp. 120-127, 2006. (hindawi.com)
- Endothelium-selective activation of AMP-activated protein kinase prevents diabetes mellitus-induced impairment in vascular function and reendothelialization via induction of heme oxygenase-1 in mice," Circulation , vol. 126, no. 10, pp. 1267-1277, 2012. (hindawi.com)
- Over the last decade, major advances have been made in the elucidation of mechanisms involved in leukemogenesis, and this is particularly true with regard to deregulated protein tyrosine kinase (PTK) activation. (haematologica.org)
- We also show that nutrient-induced PDX1 phosphorylation occurs through the activation of PI-3 kinase and p38 MAP kinase. (bl.uk)
- Molecular chaperones, such as Hsp40, regulate cellular processes by aiding in the folding, localization, and activation of multi-protein machines. (genetics.org)
- Differential activation of distinct mitogen-activated protein kinase signaling. (ebscohost.com)
- Functional interactions have established that Prpk operates as a transducer of the PI3K/TOR pathway, being essential for TOR kinase activation and for the regulation of its targets (S6K and 4E-BP, autophagy and bulk endocytosis). (biologists.org)
- Briefly, upon activation, the Insulin receptor recruits the Chico/IRS adaptor protein, which enables the phosphorylation of the class A PI3-kinase ( Stocker and Hafen, 2000 ). (biologists.org)
- Aberrant activation of the NF-κB, PI3K/AKT, and JAK/STAT-3 pathways is implicated in glioblastoma progression. (aacrjournals.org)
- Activating BRAF mutations are found clustered within the P-loop (exon 11) and activation segment (exon 15) of the kinase domain, and a single point mutation, V600E, accounts for approximately 90% of cases ( 12 , 14 ). (aacrjournals.org)
- Structural analysis of the V600E mutation suggests that it disrupts the interaction between the P-loop and the activation segment, which normally locks the kinase in the inactive conformation ( 15 ). (aacrjournals.org)
- and 3 ) prevented the L-ASA-induced activation of the NO/cGMP/PKG pathway. (diabetesjournals.org)
- We explored the hypothesis that thrombin induces EC expression of the complement-regulatory proteins decay-accelerating factor (DAF), membrane cofactor protein (MCP), and CD59 and that this maintains vascular integrity during coagulation associated with complement activation. (bloodjournal.org)
- The response depended on activation of protease-activated receptor 1 (PAR1) and was inhibited by pharmacologic antagonists of protein kinase C (PKC), p38 and p42/44 mitogen-activated protein kinase, and nuclear factor-κB. (bloodjournal.org)
- Thus, thrombin-generated at inflammatory sites in response to complement activation-is a physiologic agonist for the PKC-dependent pathway of DAF regulation, thereby providing a negative feedback loop protecting against thrombosis in inflammation. (bloodjournal.org)
- The membrane-bound proteins decay-accelerating factor (DAF, CD55), protectin (CD59), and membrane cofactor protein (MCP, CD46) are expressed on many cell types and provide protection against the constant low-level activation of the alternative pathway. (bloodjournal.org)
- The prostaglandin EP1 receptor potentiates kainate receptor activation via a protein kinase C pathway and exacerbates status epilepticus. (sigmaaldrich.com)
- Further studies with native prostanoid and kainate receptors in cultured cortical neurons, as well as with recombinant prostanoid and kainate receptors expressed in Xenopus oocytes, demonstrated that EP1 receptor activation potentiates heteromeric but not homomeric kainate receptors via a second messenger cascade involving phospholipase C, calcium and protein kinase C. Three critical GluK5 C-terminal serines underlie the potentiation of the GluK2/GluK5 receptor by EP1 activation. (sigmaaldrich.com)
- Taken together, these results indicate that EP1 receptor activation during seizures, through a protein kinase C pathway, increases the probability of kainic acid induced status epilepticus, and independently promotes hippocampal neurodegeneration and a broad inflammatory response. (sigmaaldrich.com)
- In this report, we show that S. typhimurium induces host cell signal transduction pathways that lead to the activation of the transcription factors NF-kappaB and AP-1, resulting in the production of proinflammatory cytokines such as IL-8. (jimmunol.org)
- We also show that S. typhimurium infection of cultured intestinal epithelial cells results in the activation of the mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinases ERK, JNK, and p38. (jimmunol.org)
- Tyrosinase induction caused formation of reactive oxygen species in the cytosol and mitochondria, and neurotoxicity via activation of apoptotic stress-activated protein kinases and caspase 3. (ovid.com)
- Expression of wild-type parkin did not affect reactive oxygen species production, but attenuated the tyrosinase-induced activation of both c-Jun N-terminal kinase and p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase as well as their cognate mitogen-activated protein kinase kinases. (ovid.com)
- Taken together the results of the present study define a pathway by which changes in glucose levels can regulate β-catenin using a mechanism which involves cAMP production and the activation of PKA. (portlandpress.com)
- Receptor-operated Ca 2+ entry (ROCE) via transient receptor potential canonical channel 6 (TRPC6) is important machinery for an increase in intracellular Ca 2+ concentration triggered by the activation of G q protein-coupled receptors. (aspetjournals.org)
- These findings suggest the existence of PKC-independent regulatory pathways supporting NET surface expression and/or transporter activation. (aspetjournals.org)
- Constitutive activation of Ras-dependent signaling is important in many tumors, and agents that inhibit this pathway might be useful in numerous therapeutic combinations. (aacrjournals.org)
- Among these different pathways, Ras interaction with and activation of Raf serine/threonine kinases (Raf-1, A-Raf, and B-Raf), phosphatidylinositol 3-kinases, and Ral guanine nucleotide exchange factors has been shown to be critical for tumor promotion. (aacrjournals.org)
- Although different tumor types rely to differing degrees on activation of the Raf, phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase, and Ral guanine nucleotide exchange factor effector pathways ( 5 ), the particular importance of Raf activation has long been appreciated ( 6 ). (aacrjournals.org)
- Examined was extracellular-signal regulated kinase (ERK) activation in normal human kidney ( n = 2) and a cohort of glomerulopathies by immunohistochemistry staining for the dual-phosphorylated form of ERK (p-ERK). (asnjournals.org)
- In conclusion, activation of the ERK pathway in human glomerulopathies correlates with cell proliferation, histologic lesions, and renal dysfunction. (asnjournals.org)
- Activation of the extracellular-signal regulated kinase (ERK) pathway plays an important role in the response of many cell types to extracellular stimuli, such as growth factors, cytokines, osmotic stress, stretch, reactive oxygen species, and high glucose levels ( 7 ). (asnjournals.org)
- In addition, direct stimulation of G protein activation of phospholipase C (by AlF 4 − ) was inhibited in GRK3- but not GRK6-overexpressing cells. (aspetjournals.org)
- pX-mediated activation of p38 MAP kinase and JNK pathways is sustained, inducing the transcription of the death receptor family genes encoding Fas/FasL and tumor necrosis factor receptor 1 (TNFR1)/TNF-α and the p53-regulated Bax and Noxa genes. (asm.org)
- These two pathways converge upon the activation of caspase 3 ( 33 ). (asm.org)
- ERK activation by holotransferrin provoked increased levels of phospho-Smad1/5/8 highlighting cross-talk between the bone morphogenetic protein/hemojuvelin and ERK1/2 pathways. (haematologica.org)
- Akt (protein kinase B) containing PH domain gets activated, binds to PIP3 and localizes to the site of receptor activation. (scribd.com)
- These findings suggest p38 MAP kinase-mediated eNOS activation requires ERα and these data uncover a new mechanism of ERα activation that has broad implications for NO bioactivity and endothelial cell phenotype. (ahajournals.org)
- Activation of ataxia-telangiectasia mutated (ATM) protein, a sensor to radiation-induced DNA damage, was elevated with increased interaction with NF-κB subunits p65 and p50. (aacrjournals.org)
- Mitogen-activated protein kinases [i.e., extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK), c-jun NH 2 -terminal kinase (JNK), and p38], which all are closely related with NF-κB activation, are also involved in the radiation response ( 26 - 28 ). (aacrjournals.org)
- Inhibitory effects of Bulnesia sarmienti aqueous extract on agonist-induced platelet activation and thrombus formation involves mitogen-activated protein kinases. (koreascience.or.kr)
- Mutations within the BRAF kinase domain associated with human tumors frequently result in constitutive BRAF kinase activation, and the V600E mutation is a potent activator ( 20 , 21 ). (aacrjournals.org)
- Protein Kinase C Activation as a Potential Therapeutic Strategy in Alzheimer's Disease: Is there a Role for Embryonic Lethal Abnormal Vision-like Proteins? (semanticscholar.org)
- Protein kinase C activation causes neurite retraction via cyclinD1 and p60-katanin increase in rat hippocampal neurons. (semanticscholar.org)
- Moreover, in line with the apparent lack of anti-apoptotic activity, CM from SPIß cells does not induce the expression of COX-2 or the activation of p42/p44 MAP kinase in SPIß cells. (uu.nl)
- Concomitantly, upon incubation with PGE2 and PGF2a, an increased expression of COX-2 and activation of p42/p44 MAP kinase were observed in wtNIH3T3 and SPIßS262A cells but not in SPIß cells. (uu.nl)
- PDK1-mediated activation of this pathway is dependent on protein kinase A (PKA) and the nuclear factor of activated T cells (NFAT) P1 transcriptional element in the IL-4 promoter. (rupress.org)
- METHODS: Activation of I(Cl,vol) in response to hyposmotic stimulation was recorded with whole-cell patch-clamp techniques in the presence of pharmacologic agents that activate or block kinases and phosphatases. (duke.edu)
- Activation of PP and PKC may involve the upstream intermediaries Src tyrosine kinase and PI3K. (duke.edu)
- p38 is rapidly activated during engagement of the Type I IFN receptor, and such an activation is regulated by the small G-protein Rac1, which functions as its upstream effector in a tyrosine kinase-dependent manner. (northwestern.edu)
- Extensive studies have shown that p38 plays a critical role in Type I IFN-dependent transcriptional regulation, without modifying activation of the Stat-pathway. (northwestern.edu)
- Such activation is required for IFNα-dependent suppression of leukemic cell progenitor growth, indicating that this pathway plays a critical role in the induction of the antileukemic effects of IFNα. (northwestern.edu)
- Signal transduction through the cAMP pathway starts by stimulation of G-protein-coupled-receptors (GPCRs), via specific extracellular ligands leading to activation of adenylyl cyclase (AC), which converts ATP into cAMP. (frontiersin.org)
- Stimulation of G-protein-coupled receptors leads to activation of adenylyl cyclase (AC), which converts ATP into cAMP. (frontiersin.org)
- This occurs mainly through the activation of the phosphatidylinositol (PI) 3-kinase pathway. (wmich.edu)
- Most MAPKs have a number of shared characteristics, such as the activation dependent on two phosphorylation events, a three-tiered pathway architecture and similar substrate recognition sites. (wikipedia.org)
- In the case of classical MAP kinases, the activation loop contains a characteristic TxY (threonine-x-tyrosine) motif (TEY in mammalian ERK1 and ERK2 , TDY in ERK5 , TPY in JNKs , TGY in p38 kinases ) that needs to be phosphorylated on both the threonine and the tyrosine residues in order to lock the kinase domain in a catalytically competent conformation. (wikipedia.org)
- This tandem activation loop phosphorylation (that was proposed to be either distributive or processive, dependent on cellular environment) is performed by members of the Ste7 protein kinase family, also known as MAP2 kinases . (wikipedia.org)
-  In contrast to the classical MAP kinases, these atypical MAPKs require only a single residue in their activation loops to be phosphorylated. (wikipedia.org)
- PKR pathway leads to stress response through activation of other stress pathway such as JNK, p38, NFkB, PP2A and phosphorylation of eIF2α. (wikipedia.org)
- FXS is caused by loss of expression of fragile X mental retardation protein (FMRP), an RNA-binding protein that regulates translation of numerous mRNA targets, some of which are present at synapses. (wn.com)
- PSD-95 is a scaffolding protein that regulates the synaptic localization of many receptors, channels, and signaling proteins. (wn.com)
- Among the genes identified were MID2 , which regulates cell-wall integrity, and PKC1 , which encodes protein kinase C and is linked to cell-wall biogenesis. (genetics.org)
- We recently reported that phosphoinositide-dependent kinase 1 (PDK1) partially corrects the defect in IL-4 production present in CD28-deficient T cells, suggesting that PDK1 regulates IL-4 independently of Akt. (rupress.org)
- The Prpk knockdown animals show phenotypes similar to those found in mutants for positive regulators of the PI3K/TOR pathway. (biologists.org)
- We identified distinct phosphatidylinositol 3-OH kinase (PI3K)-linked pathways supporting basal and insulin-triggered NE transport in the human noradrenergic neuroblastoma, SK-N-SH. (aspetjournals.org)
- Phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K) signaling, a major insulin receptor signaling pathway, phosphorylates the 3-position hydroxyl group of the inositol ring of phosphatidylinositol-4,5-biphosphate, resulting in phosphatidylinositol-3,4,5-triphosphate (PIP3) that acts by recruiting specific pleckstrin homology (PH) domain containing proteins to cell membranes. (scribd.com)
- CONCLUSIONS: These data show that PKC-sensitive Cl(-) currents activated in response to cell swelling in nonpigmented ciliary epithelial cells are modulated by protein tyrosine kinase, PI3K, and PP signaling pathways. (duke.edu)
- Regulation of stress-responsive mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinase pathways by TAO2. (uniprot.org)
- The role of the MAP kinase pathway in both sexual and asexual development as well as secondary metabolism is consistent with the dual regulation of the mating process and pathogencity observed in fungal pathogens. (genetics.org)
- The results revealed that PI-3 kinase is required for the regulation of PDX1 DNA-binding activity in human β cells. (bl.uk)
- Aorta of TCTP-TG exhibited hypercontractile response compared to that of non-transgenic mice (NTG) suggesting dys-regulation of signaling pathways involved in the vascular contractility by TCTP. (mdpi.com)
- Because dys-regulation of RhoA/Rho kinase pathway is implicated in increased vascular contractility, we examined whether TCTP induces alterations in RhoA pathway in vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs). (mdpi.com)
- We conclude that up-regulation of TCTP induces RhoA-mediated pathway, and that TCTP-induced RhoA plays a role in the regulation in vasculature. (mdpi.com)
- Maeng J, Sheverdin V, Shin H, Ha I, Bae SS, Yang-Yen H-F, Lee K. Up-Regulation of Rhoa/Rho Kinase Pathway by Translationally Controlled Tumor Protein in Vascular Smooth Muscle Cells. (mdpi.com)
- Demonstrates the effect of either the down-regulation of beta6 expression or loss of the binding site on beta6 for extracellular signal-related kinase 2 on matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9) secretion. (ebscohost.com)
- Role of mitogen-activated protein kinase in the regulation of. (ebscohost.com)
- In the case of tumors with V600E BRAF expression, pathway output is enhanced by impaired upstream feedback regulation. (aacrjournals.org)
- Proper regulation of genes in all forms of cellular life is dependent on intracellular regulatory circuits or signal transduction pathways. (bmj.com)
- This identifies a pathway that may be important in glucose-dependent regulation of gene expression and insulin secretion in β-cells. (portlandpress.com)
- The purpose of this study was to elucidate the role of adenylate cyclase/cAMP/PKA signaling pathway in the regulation of G q protein-coupled endothelin type A receptor (ET A R)-mediated ROCE via TRPC6. (aspetjournals.org)
- These findings underscore the need to understand the pathways supporting NET regulation. (aspetjournals.org)
- We have investigated the effects of G protein-coupled receptor kinase (GRK) 3 and GRK6 on the phosphorylation and regulation of the M 3 muscarinic acetylcholine receptor (mACh) endogenously expressed in SH-SY5Y cells. (aspetjournals.org)
- However, in cells lacking Reg1 (the regulatory subunit of the Reg1/Glc7 protein phosphatase complex), the regulation of subcellular distribution is absent, Msn2 being constitutively present in the cytosol. (csic.es)
- Therefore, active Snf1 and the TOR kinase pathway may affect similar cytosolic steps in the regulation of the subcellular localization of Msn2. (csic.es)
- Activated BMP type I receptors phosphorylate the BMP-responsive Smad proteins 1/5/8, leading to the interaction of these proteins with the common mediator Smad4, subsequent nuclear translocation of the complexes, and finally, transcriptional regulation of BMP-responsive genes. (haematologica.org)
- Tamoxifen regulation or proteins occurred at the mRNA level. (openthesis.org)
- Nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB), a stress-sensitive heterodimeric transcription factor in the regulation of the stress-responsive genes, has been shown to initiate the prosurvival signaling pathways ( 18 - 20 ). (aacrjournals.org)
- Transcription factor REST negatively influences the protein kinase C-dependent up-regulation of human mu-opioid receptor gene transcription. (semanticscholar.org)
- Cyclic AMP is a ubiquitous intracellular second messenger involved in the regulation of a wide variety of cellular processes, a majority of which act through the cAMP - protein kinase A (PKA) signaling pathway and involve PKA phosphorylation of specific substrates. (frontiersin.org)
- Src kinase regulation by phosphorylation and dephosphorylation. (ebi.ac.uk)
- Protein kinase C (PKC) isoforms are serine/threonine kinases involved in signal transduction pathways that govern a wide range of physiological processes including differentiation, proliferation, gene expression, brain function, membrane transport and the organization of cytoskeletal and. (ebscohost.com)
- The MKK6/p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase pathway is capable of inducing SOCS3 gene expression and inhibits IL-6-induced transcription. (uniprot.org)
- Among eukaryotic cells, phosphorylation of intracellular factors followed by specific gene transcription is a universal outcome of such signal transduction pathways, and the major elements of such pathways are similar in species as different as humans, fungi, and plants. (bmj.com)
- This scientific progress has set the stage for an exciting new field of research: pharmacological modulation of signal transduction pathways to control gene expression. (bmj.com)
- The dual-phosphorylated form of ERK (p-ERK) is then an active kinase and is able to phosphorylate a number of transcription factor targets and thus alter the pattern of gene transcription. (asnjournals.org)
- The high fermentation rate of Saccharomyces cerevisiae sake yeast strains is attributable to a loss-of-function mutation in the RIM15 gene, which encodes a Greatwall-family protein kinase that is conserved among eukaryotes. (asm.org)
- In the present study, we performed intracellular metabolic profiling analysis and revealed that deletion of the RIM15 gene in a laboratory strain impaired glucose-anabolic pathways through the synthesis of UDP-glucose (UDPG). (asm.org)
- We also identified a sake yeast-specific mutation in the glycogen synthesis-associated glycogenin gene GLG2 , supporting the conclusion that the glucose-anabolic pathway is impaired in sake yeast. (asm.org)
- Flocculation of hyphae is associated with a deletion in the putative CaHK1 two-component histidine kinase gene from Candida albicans. (semanticscholar.org)
- To understand the mechanism of action of the barley stem rust resistance gene Rpg1, we investigated the fate of the RPG1 protein in response to infection with the stem rust fungus, Puccinia graminis f. sp. (umn.edu)
- Understanding the molecular signaling network associated with the IR-induced adaptive response will provide essential information on specific gene/protein targets to resensitize radioresistant tumor cells. (aacrjournals.org)
- In a panel of 22 melanoma cell lines, including 11 that are nominally Melan-A/MART-1 antigen negative, all show measurable melanocytic antigen mRNAs and proteins if sensitive assays are applied ( 16 , 17 ), indicating that the expression defects are most likely due to gene regulatory changes rather than from irreversible gene deletion or mutation. (aacrjournals.org)
- It is now well established that the function of p38 is essential for gene transcription via ISRE or GAS elements, but has no effects on the phosphorylation of Stat-proteins, the formation of Stat-complexes, and their binding to the promoters of IFN-sensitive genes. (northwestern.edu)
- Protein kinase RNA-activated also known as protein kinase R (PKR), interferon-induced, double-stranded RNA-activated protein kinase, or eukaryotic translation initiation factor 2-alpha kinase 2 (EIF2AK2) is an enzyme that in humans is encoded by the EIF2AK2 gene. (wikipedia.org)
- In situations of viral infection, the dsRNA created by viral replication and gene expression binds to the N-terminal domain, activating the protein. (wikipedia.org)
- The molecular details of mammalian stress-activated signal transduction pathways have only begun to be dissected. (nih.gov)
- Stress-activated protein kinases (SAPKs) are stimulated by cell damaging agents as well as by physiological receptor agonists. (wiley.com)
- Thus, parkin contributes to DAergic neuroprotection by suppression of apoptotic stress-activated protein kinase pathways. (ovid.com)
- Stress-activated protein kinase (SAPK) pathways are important stress-signalling modules found in all eukaryotes, including eukaryotic microorganisms such as fungi. (semanticscholar.org)
- Peroxide sensors for the fission yeast stress-activated mitogen-activated protein kinase pathway. (semanticscholar.org)
- Important subgroups are the kinases of the ERK subfamily, typically activated by mitogenic signals, and the stress-activated protein kinases JNK and p38. (wikipedia.org)
- These data suggest that CKA represents a novel molecule regulating AP-1 activity by organizing a molecular complex of kinases and transcription factors, thus coordinating the spatial-temporal expression of AP-1-regulated genes. (harvard.edu)
- Molecular genetic studies in zebrafish and other vertebrates in the past decade have begun to reveal in detail the complex network of molecular pathways that specify artery and vein cell fates during embryonic development. (ahajournals.org)
- Entre estas señales se encuentran los PAMPs/MAMPs (Pathogen/Microbe-Associated Molecular Patterns), que son moléculas de patógenos o microorganismos, o los DAMPs (Damaged-Associated Molecular Patterns), que son moléculas derivadas de las plantas producidas en respuesta a daño celular. (upm.es)
- Targeting AKAP coordinated protein complexes with high-affinity peptidomimetics or small molecules to tease apart distinct protein-protein interactions (PPIs) therefore offers important means to disrupt binding of specific components of the complex to better understand the molecular mechanisms involved in the function of individual signalosomes and their pathophysiological role. (frontiersin.org)
- A serine/threonine protein kinase ( EC 188.8.131.52 ) is a kinase enzyme that phosphorylates the OH group of serine or threonine (which have similar sidechains). (wikipedia.org)
- These were formerly included in EC number "184.108.40.206", which was a general EC number for any enzyme that phosphorylates proteins while converting ATP to ADP (i.e. (wikipedia.org)
- These enzymes are regulated by a characteristic phosphorelay system in which a series of three protein kinases phosphorylate and activate one another. (asm.org)
- Shows no sugar kinase activity, since it is unable to phosphorylate ribose, fructose-1-phosphate, or fructose-6-phosphate. (uniprot.org)
- While serine/threonine kinases all phosphorylate serine or threonine residues in their substrates, they select specific residues to phosphorylate on the basis of residues that flank the phosphoacceptor site, which together comprise the consensus sequence . (wikipedia.org)
- Since the consensus sequence residues of a target substrate only make contact with several key amino acids within the catalytic cleft of the kinase (usually through hydrophobic forces and ionic bonds ), a kinase is usually not specific to a single substrate, but instead can phosphorylate a whole "substrate family" which share common recognition sequences. (wikipedia.org)
- There are two main types of protein kinase, the great majority are serine/threonine kinases, which phosphorylate the hydroxyl groups of serines and threonines in their targets and the other are tyrosine kinases, although additional types exist. (wikipedia.org)
- There are also protein kinases that phosphorylate other amino acids, including histidine kinases that phosphorylate histidine residues. (wikipedia.org)
- Serine/threonine protein kinases (EC 220.127.116.11) phosphorylate the OH group of serine or threonine (which have similar side-chains). (wikipedia.org)
- Tyrosine-specific protein kinases (EC 18.104.22.168 and EC 22.214.171.124) phosphorylate tyrosine amino acid residues, and like serine/threonine-specific kinases are used in signal transduction. (wikipedia.org)
- One of the best studied signalling routes is the mitogen activated protein (MAP) kinase signal transduction pathway which plays a crucial role in many aspects of immune mediated inflammatory responses. (ebscohost.com)
- Presents a conserved tyrosine kinase-activated signal transduction pathway that comprises the plasma membrane-bound protein Ras and the protein kinases Raf, MAP-kinase and MAP kinase. (ebscohost.com)
- The signal transduction pathway linking HJV to hepcidin has recently been elucidated. (haematologica.org)
- The Drosophila melanogaster JUN N-terminal kinase (DJNK) and DPP (decapentaplegic) signal transduction pathways coordinately regulate epithelial cell sheet movement during the process of dorsal closure in the embryo. (harvard.edu)
- Recent studies suggest that G protein-coupled receptors linked to protein kinase C (PKC) down-regulate cell surface NET protein levels and diminish NE uptake capacity. (aspetjournals.org)
- Conclusions We demonstrate that hepatocytes are liver iron-sensor cells and that transferrin receptor-2, by signaling through the ERK1/2 pathway, and bone morphogenetic protein/hemojuvelin, by signaling through the Smad pathways, coordinately regulate the iron-sensing machinery linking holotransferrin to hepcidin. (haematologica.org)
- Development of tamoxifen resistance in breast cancer and the paucity of biomarkers that predict tamoxifen sensitivity illustrate an urgent need to identify novel proteins that regulate tamoxifen sensitivity and/or serve as surrogate markers of tamoxifen response. (openthesis.org)
- Protein tyrosine kinase and protein phosphatase signaling pathways regulate volume-sensitive chloride currents in a nonpigmented ciliary epithelial cell line. (duke.edu)
- PURPOSE: To investigate whether signaling pathways that incorporate protein tyrosine kinases and phosphatases regulate PKC-sensitive, volume-sensitive Cl(-) currents (I(Cl,vol)) in cultured rabbit nonpigmented ciliary epithelial cells. (duke.edu)
- Up to 30% of all human proteins may be modified by kinase activity, and kinases are known to regulate the majority of cellular pathways, especially those involved in signal transduction. (wikipedia.org)
- Apoptotic cell death can be induced by a great variety of signals, including cellular stress or DNA damage, but the signaling pathways linking these stimuli to the apoptotic protease cascade remain to be elucidated. (pnas.org)
- dsRNA-activated protein kinase (PKR) is an IFN-inducible, dsRNA-activated serine/threonine kinase and one of the best studied mediators of cellular responses to virus infections. (pnas.org)
- Cellular protein synthesis is believed to be antagonistically regulated by mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) and AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) signaling pathways. (springer.com)
- Secretion of these proteins stimulates host cell signal transduction pathways that lead to a variety of cellular responses. (jimmunol.org)
- Hence members of this family of kinases have come to be appreciated as key cellular signal transducers and attractive targets for drug development. (bmj.com)
- Background and AimPreviously study showed that the loss of the control of cAMP-dependent protein kinase A RI (PKA RI)/ A-kinase anchoring proteins 10 (AKAP10) signaling pathway initiate dysregulation of cellular healthy physiology leading to tumorigenesis. (diva-portal.org)
- The AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) cascade is a sensor of cellular energy status. (biologists.org)
- Whenever the cellular ATP:ADP ratio falls, owing to a stress that inhibits ATP production or increases ATP consumption, this is amplified by adenylate kinase into a much larger increase in the AMP:ATP ratio. (biologists.org)
- The study of cell surface receptors and their associated signaling pathways on the plasma membrane are vital in understanding cellular responses. (scribd.com)
- Villanueva, Silvina Stella Maris 2015-09-01 00:00:00 The cAMP pathway is a universal signaling pathway regulating many cellular processes including metabolic routes, growth and differentiation. (deepdyve.com)
- The cAMP pathway is a universal signaling pathway regulating many cellular processes including metabolic routes, growth and differentiation. (deepdyve.com)
- Tumor progression locus-2 (Tpl-2) kinase is a member of the mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase kinase family that has been implicated in cellular transformation. (oup.com)
- Protein phosphorylation, which plays a key role in most cellular activities, is a reversible process mediated by protein kinases and phosphoprotein phosphatases. (ebi.ac.uk)
- Phosphorylation usually results in a functional change of the target protein by changing enzyme activity, cellular location, or association with other proteins. (ebi.ac.uk)
- Protein phosphorylation in particular plays a significant role in a wide range of cellular processes and is a very important posttranslational modification . (wikipedia.org)
- This inhibits further cellular mRNA translation, thereby preventing viral protein synthesis. (wikipedia.org)
- Nearly all cell surface receptors utilize one or more of the mitogen-activated protein kinase cascades in their repertoire of signal transduction mechanisms. (nih.gov)
- 12 13 16-18 Thrombin exerts its effects via a family of G-protein-coupled protease-activated receptors (PAR). (bloodjournal.org)
- Desensitization of G protein-coupled receptors is a fundamental process that prevents excessive or inappropriate signaling. (aspetjournals.org)
- Mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinases are ubiquitous and evolutionarily conserved enzymes in eukaryotic organisms connecting cell surface receptors to critical regulatory targets within cells that result in various morphogenetic processes ( 11 , 36 , 64 ). (asm.org)
- Tras el reconocimiento de los PAMPs/DAMPs por receptores de membrana denominados PRRs (Pattern Recognition Receptors), como los receptores con dominio quinasa (RLKs) o los receptores sin dominio quinasa (RLPs), se activan respuestas moleculares, incluidas cascadas de MAP quinasas, que regulan la puesta en marcha de la inmunidad activada por PAMPs (PTI). (upm.es)
- Types include those acting directly as receptors ( Receptor protein serine/threonine kinase ) and Intracellular signaling peptides and proteins . (wikipedia.org)
- Two major factors influence activity of MAP kinases: a) signals that activate transmembrane receptors (either natural ligands or crosslinking agents) and proteins associated with them (mutations that simulate active state) b) signals that inactivate the phosphatases that restrict a given MAP kinase. (wikipedia.org)
- Role of receptor tyrosine kinase transmembrane domains in cell signaling and human pathologies. (ebi.ac.uk)
- β-Adrenoceptors couple to adenylate cyclases to activate a protein kinase A (PKA), but no direct evidence exists for the involvement of the β-adrenoceptor-PKA signaling pathway in the affective component of pain. (jneurosci.org)
- These findings have clearly demonstrated a possible common biochemical mechanism by which hyperglycemia and hypergalactosemia can chronically activate the DAG-PKC pathway in the vasculature and could be a possible explanation for the development of diabetic vascular complications. (diabetesjournals.org)
- In contrast to the V600E mutant, these mutations activate the pathway in a RAF1-dependent manner ( 16 ). (aacrjournals.org)
- In recent studies, we have shown that type I IFNs (IFN-α and IFN-β) activate the p38 mitogen-activated protein (Map) kinase signaling cascade ( 13 , 14 , 15 , 16 ). (jimmunol.org)
- ADP is converted into AMP by adenylate kinase and this, combined with the fall in ATP, will activate AMPK. (biologists.org)
- The enhanced expression of this protein has been shown to activate both the mitogen-activated protein kinase and c-Jun N-terminal kinase pathways. (oup.com)
- Stimulation of the mTOR pathway by adding leucine and insulin increased the phosphorylation of p70S6K without inactivation of AMPK. (springer.com)
- This suggests that Prpk is crucial for stimulating the basal protein biosynthetic machinery in response to insulin signaling and to changes in nutrient availability. (biologists.org)
- The insulin receptor is a tyrosine kinase that is activated in response to insulin microbeads presented to three mammalian cell lines: CHO, NIH-3T3 and COS-7. (scribd.com)
- Previous studies indicate about the expression of molecules involved in the insulin pathway in endometria of women with PCOS-IR. (escholarship.org)
- Therefore, the aim of the present study was to evaluate the effect of insulin and testosterone in the expression of these proteins in the endometria and immortal endometrial stromal cell line (T-HESCs). (escholarship.org)
- Protein levels were assessed by Western Blot and/or immunohistochemistry in proliferative endometria (NPE = 6) and in PCOS endometria with insulin resistance (PCOSE-IR = 6). (escholarship.org)
- We also evaluated whether high concentrations of insulin (100 nM) and/or testosterone (100 nM), during a 24 h stimulatory period, affected the expression of these proteins in an immortal endometrial stromal cell line (T-HESCs). (escholarship.org)
- Conclusion The conditions of hyperinsulinism and hyperandrogenism present in PCOS-IR patients modulate the expression and/or phosphorylation of the proteins involved in the insulin pathway at the endometrial level. (escholarship.org)
- These data extend to the T-HESCs cells results, where insulin and testosterone exert an effect on both the expression and phosphorylation of proteins present in the pathway. (escholarship.org)
- Insulin induces its effects by binding to a receptor on the plasma membrane, resulting in autophosphorylation of the receptor and phosphorylation of key proteins involved in the signal cascade. (wmich.edu)
- One of the key functions of insulin lies in the stimulation of glucose uptake into the cells for use in metabolic pathways such as glycolysis and the pentose phosphate pathway. (wmich.edu)
- PKR contributes to this response by interacting with several inflammatory kinases such as IKK, JNK, ElF2α, insulin receptor and others. (wikipedia.org)
- By a genetic screen of mutations affecting dorsal closure in Drosophila, we have now identified a multidomain protein, connector of kinase to AP-1 (cka), that functions in the DJNK pathway and controls the localized expression of dpp in the leading-edge cells. (harvard.edu)
- Indeed, mutations of the genes coding for these three liver-enriched membrane proteins are associated with human hereditary hemochromatosis, an iron overload disease characterized by increased iron absorption, increased reticuloendothelial cell iron release, elevated serum iron levels and increased tissue iron deposition. (haematologica.org)
- Mutations within the same signature transduction pathway are redundant and, therefore, most are mutually exclusive. (elsevier.com)
- To validate coexisting mutations within epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR), mitogen-activated protein kinase, and phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase pathways. (elsevier.com)
- EGFR mutations did not coexist with BRAF mutations, neither kinase-activated nor kinase-impaired mutations. (elsevier.com)
- Nucleoside kinase with broad substrate specificity. (uniprot.org)
- Protein kinases catalyse the transfer of the gamma phosphate from nucleotide triphosphates (often ATP) to one or more amino acid residues in a protein substrate side chain, resulting in a conformational change affecting protein function. (ebi.ac.uk)
- It also matches a number of proteins belonging to the atypical serine/threonine protein kinase BUD32 family, which lack the conventional structural elements necessary for the substrate recognition and also lack the lysine residue that in all other serine/threonine kinases participates in the catalytic event. (ebi.ac.uk)
- But there are also some ancient outliers from the group as sketched above, that do not have dual phosphorylation sites, only form two-tiered pathways, and lack the features required by other MAPKs for substrate binding. (wikipedia.org)
- Most kinases are inhibited by a pseudosubstrate that binds to the kinase like a real substrate but lacks the amino acid to be phosphorylated. (wikipedia.org)
- Additionally, cAMP signalosomes targeted to specific subcellular locales by A-kinase anchoring proteins (AKAPs) bring together signal initiators, effector and terminators in supramolecular signaling complexes. (frontiersin.org)
- We conclude that cAMP induces GSTα and MRP2 expression and activity in Caco-2 cells via the PKA pathway, thus regulating detoxification of specific xenobiotics. (deepdyve.com)
- Candida albicans , Aspergillus nidulans , and Magnaporthe grisea mutants with lesions in the cell wall integrity-associated pathway ( SLT2 pathway) show pleiotropic effects, including increased sensitivity to cell wall degrading enzymes ( 9 , 39 , 66 ). (asm.org)
- This is conducted by specialized enzymes of the STE protein kinase group. (wikipedia.org)
- In enzymology , the term non-specific serine/threonine protein kinase describes a class of enzymes that belong to the family of transferases , specifically protein-serine/threonine kinases . (wikipedia.org)
- These enzymes transfer phosphates to the oxygen atom of a serine or threonine sidechain in proteins . (wikipedia.org)
- Eukaryotic protein kinases are enzymes that belong to a very extensive family of proteins that share a conserved catalytic core. (wikipedia.org)
- Lawrence JC Jr (2001) mTOR-dependent control of skeletal muscle protein synthesis. (springer.com)
- While protein synthesis deficits have. (wn.com)
- We conclude that OA has a crucial role in triggering protein synthesis-dependent physiological adaptations to protect CNS function during heat stress by activating a cAMP/PKA pathway. (jneurosci.org)
- Thrombin-induced expression required increased DAF messenger RNA and de novo protein synthesis. (bloodjournal.org)
- Induction of these signaling pathways and the synthesis of IL-8 was strictly dependent on the function of the invasion-associated type III protein secretion system encoded by S. typhimurium. (jimmunol.org)
- These protein kinases are necessary for normal accumulation/degradation of trehalose and glycogen, and the lack of these genes reduces glucose uptake and glycogen synthesis. (asm.org)
- These findings demonstrate that downregulation of the UDPG synthesis pathway is a key mechanism accelerating alcoholic fermentation in industrially utilized S. cerevisiae sake strains. (asm.org)
- The effects of serum and serum+holotransferrin were direct, transcriptional, independent of de novo protein synthesis and required the presence of bone morphogenetic protein. (haematologica.org)
- These results indicate that the inflammatory response induced by S. typhimurium may be due to the specific stimulation of MAP kinase signaling pathways leading to nuclear responses. (jimmunol.org)
- v.25 Alpha-melanocyte stimulation hormone-induced pigmentation is blocked by depletion of protein kinase Park, H. Y.;Russakovsky, V.;Ao, Y.;Fernandez, E.;Gilchrest, B. A. (koreascience.or.kr)
- Overall, these data suggest that GRK3 and GRK6 use different pathways to desensitize the M 3 mACh receptor. (aspetjournals.org)
- Within this context, a strategic role is played by protein kinases which catalyze the phosphorylation of specific substrates. (semanticscholar.org)
- Thus, the two substrates of this enzyme are ATP and a protein , whereas its two products are ADP and phosphoprotein . (wikipedia.org)
- While the catalytic domain of these kinases is highly conserved , the sequence variation that is observed in the kinome (the subset of genes in the genome that encode kinases) provides for recognition of distinct substrates. (wikipedia.org)
- Mitogen-activated protein kinase pathways. (nih.gov)
- Mammalian mitogen-activated protein kinase signal transduction pathways activated by stress and inflammation. (nih.gov)
- SAPK2a and 42-kDa mitogen-activated protein kinase incorporated similar levels of phosphate into cPLA 2 relative to the ability of each kinase to stimulate phosphorylation of myelin basic protein. (wiley.com)
- A family of serine/threonine protein kinases, known as the mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinases, is involved in extracellular signal perception during growth and differentiation processes in eukaryotic organisms. (genetics.org)
- Cell signal transduction through the mitogen-activated protein kinase pathway. (ebscohost.com)
- Presents a series of articles about cell signal transduction through mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinase pathway. (ebscohost.com)
- Involvement of mitogen-activated protein kinase pathways in the nuclear responses and cytokine production induced by Salmonella typhimurium in cultured intestinal epithelial cells. (jimmunol.org)
- Control of thrombopoietin-induced megakaryocytic differentiation by the mitogen-activated protein kinase pathway. (asm.org)
- In both a defined K-Ras-transformed fibroblast model and in human tumor cell lines with mutationally activated Ras, MCP110 selectively synergizes with other agents targeting the mitogen-activated protein kinase pathway, and with multiple agents (paclitaxel, docetaxel, and vincristine) targeting the microtubule network. (aacrjournals.org)
- Aspergillus fumigatus mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) are involved in maintaining the normal morphology of the cell wall and providing resistance against cell wall-damaging agents. (asm.org)
- Cpp1 phosphatase mediated signaling crosstalk between Hog1 and Cek1 mitogen-activated protein kinases is involved in the phenotypic transition in Candida albicans. (semanticscholar.org)
- Phosphorylated Ssk1 prevents unphosphorylated Ssk1 from activating the Ssk2 mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase kinase in the yeast high-osmolarity glycerol osmoregulatory pathway. (semanticscholar.org)
- Mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinase signaling pathways are ubiquitous and evolutionarily conserved in eukaryotic organisms. (asm.org)
- Epiregulin promotes the migration and chemotaxis ability of adipose-derived mesenchymal stem cells via mitogen-activated protein kinase signaling pathways. (stembook.org)
- Using cell lines isolated from MCF+FIR populations, we found that the elevated NF-κB activity was correlated with enhanced clonogenic survival, and increased NF-κB subunit p65 levels were associated with a decrease in phosphorylation of mitogen-activated protein kinase/extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) kinase (MEK)/ERK in all radioresistant MCF+FIR cell lines. (aacrjournals.org)
- v.13 Mitogen-activated protein kinase pathway and AP-1 are activated during cAMP-induced melanogenesis in B-16 melanoma cells Englaro, W.;Rezzonico, R.;Durand-Clement, M.;Lallemand, D.;Ortinne, J. P.;Ballotti, R. (koreascience.or.kr)
- The first mitogen-activated protein kinase to be discovered was ERK1 ( MAPK3 ) in mammals. (wikipedia.org)
- Mitogen-activated protein kinases are catalytically inactive in their base form. (wikipedia.org)
- MAP2 kinases in turn, are also activated by phosphorylation, by a number of different upstream serine-threonine kinases ( MAP3 kinases ). (wikipedia.org)
- Here, our current understanding of the MAP kinase pathway is reviewed, as well as recent advances in the design of novel agents that are able to modulate the activity of these signalling cascades. (ebscohost.com)
- We demonstrate that protein kinase CK2, indispensable for cell survival and a regulator of signaling cascades involved in glioblastoma tumorigenesis, may be a novel therapeutic target for treatment of glioblastoma. (aacrjournals.org)
- These results indicate that sulindac metabolites modulate ERK1/2 and PKG pathways independently in colon cancer cells and suggest that the full apoptotic effect of sulindac is mediated by more than one pathway. (aacrjournals.org)
- Thus the role of mammalian ERK1/2 kinases as regulators of cell proliferation is not a generic, but a highly specialized function. (wikipedia.org)
- Although the mammalian kinase is the only example that is well characterized at the biochemical level, genes encoding orthologues of the α, β and γ subunits are found in all eukaryotic species whose genome sequences have been determined. (biologists.org)
- Mutants constructed in a number of pathogenic filamentous fungi that contain lesions in MAP kinase genes that are orthologous to FUS3 / KSS1 are nonpathogenic. (asm.org)
- Además, hemos demostrado que respuestas asociadas a PTI, como el aumento en la concentración de calcio citoplásmico, la producción de especies reactivas de oxígeno, la fosforilación de MAP quinasas y la expresión de genes de defensa, no están afectadas en el mutante yda11. (upm.es)
- The human genome contains about 500 protein kinase genes and they constitute about 2% of all human genes. (wikipedia.org)
- In the present study, we examined the relationship between mTOR/p70 S6 kinase (p70S6K) and AMPK in response to mechanical stretch. (springer.com)
- However, pharmacological modulation of AMPK influenced the mTOR/p70S6K signaling pathway. (springer.com)
- The specific signal pathways of AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK), eNOS/Akt, and heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) were also assessed. (hindawi.com)
- Finally, Asn administration decreased the mRNA abundance of intestinal AMP-activated protein kinase-α1 ( AMPKα1 ), AMPKα2 , silent information regulator 1 ( SIRT1 ) and PPARγ coactivator-1α ( PGC1α ), and reduced intestinal AMPKα phosphorylation. (cambridge.org)
- Collectively, these results indicate that Asn supplementation alleviates bacterial LPS-induced intestinal injury by modulating the AMPK signalling pathway and improving energy status. (cambridge.org)
- Once activated, AMPK switches on catabolic pathways that generate ATP while switching off ATP-consuming processes. (biologists.org)
- In mammalian cells, it has recently become clear that the AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) system plays a crucial role. (biologists.org)
- There are two major apoptotic pathways, including extrinsic or death receptor pathways, and intrinsic or mitochondrial pathways ( 17 ). (spandidos-publications.com)
- PKR contains an N-terminal dsRNA binding domain (dsRBD) and a C-terminal kinase domain, that gives it pro-apoptotic (cell-killing) functions. (wikipedia.org)
- It was concluded that the PKR-eIF2α pro-apoptotic pathway could be involved in neuronal degeneration that leads to various neuropathological lesions as a function of neuronal susceptibility. (wikipedia.org)
- PKR also participates in the mitochondrial unfolded protein response (UPRmt). (wikipedia.org)
- Translationally controlled tumor protein (TCTP), a repressor for Na,K-ATPase has been implicated in the development of systemic hypertension, as proved by TCTP-over-expressing transgenic (TCTP-TG) mice. (mdpi.com)
- The mechanism by which the nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug sulindac prevents tumor growth is poorly understood and seems complex as sulindac can modulate several growth-related signaling pathways. (aacrjournals.org)
- Intracellular targets are subsequently regulated by phosphorylation and include transcription factors and cytoskeletal proteins ( 52 ). (asm.org)
- Hypoglycemia-induced VEGF expression is mediated by intracellular Ca2+ and protein kinase C signaling pathway in HepG2 human hepatoblastoma cells. (elsevier.com)
- However, if the reaction catalysed by adenylate kinase (2ADP ↔ ATP + AMP) is maintained close to equilibrium (which appears to be the case in most eukaryotic cells), one can easily show that the AMP:ATP ratio varies as the square of the ADP:ATP ratio ( Hardie and Hawley, 2001 ). (biologists.org)
Serine or threonine residues1
- Activity of MAP kinases is restricted by a number of protein phosphatases, which remove the phosphate groups that are added to specific serine or threonine residues of the kinase and are required to maintain the kinase in an active conformation. (wikipedia.org)
- p53-related protein kinase (Bud32/PRPK) has been identified as a protein involved in proliferation through its effects on transcription in yeast and p53 stabilization in human cell culture. (biologists.org)
- Since the participation of c-Myc in transcription requires its dimerization with Max protein, we examined the Myc-Max association in Cpd 5-treated cells and found that Cpd 5 suppressed Myc/Max dimerization. (aacrjournals.org)
- HJV acts as a co-receptor for bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) signaling, ultimately activating receptor Smad/Smad4 complexes to increase hepcidin transcription. (haematologica.org)
Family of kinases1
- Members of the Map family of kinases are also activated by the Type I IFN receptor and participate in the generation of IFN signals. (northwestern.edu)
- Burnett PE, Barrow RK, Cohen NA, Snyder SH, Sabatini DM (1998) RAFT1 phosphorylation of the translational regulators p70 S6 kinase and 4E-BP1. (springer.com)
- The nuclear factor-kappa B pathway, a second stress signaling paradigm, has been the subject of several excellent recent reviews (258, 260). (nih.gov)
- The localization defect in these mutants is specific for carbon starvation stress and it is due to the presence of an abnormally active Snf1 protein kinase that inhibits the nuclear localization of Msn2 upon carbon starvation. (csic.es)
- Active Snf1 kinase is also able to avoid the effects of rapamycin, a drug that by inhibiting the TOR kinase pathway leads to a nuclear localization of Msn2 in wild type cells. (csic.es)
Dual specificity kinases1
- Most kinases act on both serine and threonine, others act on tyrosine, and a number (dual-specificity kinases) act on all three. (wikipedia.org)
- Neuropil injections of the cAMP agonist and protein kinase A (PKA) activator, Sp-cAMPs, both conferred thermoprotection in control locusts and rescued thermoprotection in epinastine-treated HS locusts. (jneurosci.org)
- In addition, the Tpl-2 WT, but not Tpl-2 mutant (S413A), showed increased EGF-induced c-fos promoter activity, followed by activator protein 1 (AP-1) transactivation activity, which was associated with the cell transformation prompted by the H-Ras-Tpl-2-AP-1 signaling axis. (oup.com)
- Structure, expression, and properties of an atypical protein kinase C (PKC3) from Caenorhabditis elegans. (uniprot.org)
- One of the central regulators of growth factor-induced cell proliferation and survival in both normal and cancer cells is the RAS protein. (aacrjournals.org)
- We discuss recent findings on the signaling pathways involved in artery-vein specification during zebrafish development and compare and contrast these results to those from mammalian systems. (ahajournals.org)
- ERá is activated by estrogen binding and/or by crosstalk with different signaling pathways. (openthesis.org)
- AKAPs also scaffold other signaling molecules into multi-protein complexes that function as crossroads between different signaling pathways. (frontiersin.org)
- We will discuss cAMP/PKA/AKAP signaling in general terms but will particularly focus on the heart, where cAMP signaling pathways are involved in different stages of the cardiac cycle and in several pathologies. (frontiersin.org)
- Schematic illustration of cAMP signaling pathways. (frontiersin.org)
- MAP kinases homologous to Saccharomyces cerevisiae Fus3p/Kss1p have been identified in plant pathogenic fungi and are required for pathogenicity and sexual reproduction. (genetics.org)
- One of the predicted MAP kinases in N. crassa , MAK-2, shows similarity to Fus3p and Kss1p of Saccharomyces cerevisiae , which are involved in sexual reproduction and filamentation, respectively. (asm.org)
- In Saccharomyces cerevisiae , 5 MAP kinase pathways have been identified ( 22 , 24 ). (asm.org)
- There is increasing evidence for functional crosstalk between inflammatory and thrombotic pathways in inflammatory vascular diseases such as atherosclerosis and vasculitis. (bloodjournal.org)
- The complement system consists of a large group of plasma proteins that plays a central role in the defense against infections and in the modulation of inflammatory responses. (bloodjournal.org)
- Because it is anticipated that several small MAP kinase inhibiting molecules will be evaluated for efficacy in inflammatory diseases, here we review current knowledge of the MAP kinase signalling pathways as well as potential inhibitory drugs. (bmj.com)
- ER stress caused by excess of unfolded proteins leads to inflammatory responses. (wikipedia.org)
- The overexpression of Tpl-2 inhibited the epidermal growth factor (EGF)-induced p53 phosphorylation (Ser15) through upregulating the activity of protein phosphatase 2A, which interacted with p53 stimulated by EGF. (oup.com)
- Here we show that this process is dependent on cAMP-dependent protein kinase A (PKA) activity and regulated by the high-osmolarity glycerol response (HOG) MAPKs SakA and MpkC. (asm.org)
- The closest relatives of MAPKs are the cyclin-dependent kinases (CDKs). (wikipedia.org)
- These pathways can effectively convey stimuli from the cell membrane (where many MAP3Ks are activated) to the nucleus (where only MAPKs may enter) or to many other subcellular targets. (wikipedia.org)