Efferent Pathways: Nerve structures through which impulses are conducted from a nerve center toward a peripheral site. Such impulses are conducted via efferent neurons (NEURONS, EFFERENT), such as MOTOR NEURONS, autonomic neurons, and hypophyseal neurons.Neurons, Efferent: Neurons which send impulses peripherally to activate muscles or secretory cells.Vagotomy: The interruption or removal of any part of the vagus (10th cranial) nerve. Vagotomy may be performed for research or for therapeutic purposes.Reflex: An involuntary movement or exercise of function in a part, excited in response to a stimulus applied to the periphery and transmitted to the brain or spinal cord.Afferent Pathways: Nerve structures through which impulses are conducted from a peripheral part toward a nerve center.Vagus Nerve: The 10th cranial nerve. The vagus is a mixed nerve which contains somatic afferents (from skin in back of the ear and the external auditory meatus), visceral afferents (from the pharynx, larynx, thorax, and abdomen), parasympathetic efferents (to the thorax and abdomen), and efferents to striated muscle (of the larynx and pharynx).Neural Pathways: Neural tracts connecting one part of the nervous system with another.Sympathetic Nervous System: The thoracolumbar division of the autonomic nervous system. Sympathetic preganglionic fibers originate in neurons of the intermediolateral column of the spinal cord and project to the paravertebral and prevertebral ganglia, which in turn project to target organs. The sympathetic nervous system mediates the body's response to stressful situations, i.e., the fight or flight reactions. It often acts reciprocally to the parasympathetic system.Neurons: The basic cellular units of nervous tissue. Each neuron consists of a body, an axon, and dendrites. Their purpose is to receive, conduct, and transmit impulses in the NERVOUS SYSTEM.Heart Rate: The number of times the HEART VENTRICLES contract per unit of time, usually per minute.Rats, Sprague-Dawley: A strain of albino rat used widely for experimental purposes because of its calmness and ease of handling. It was developed by the Sprague-Dawley Animal Company.Blood Pressure: PRESSURE of the BLOOD on the ARTERIES and other BLOOD VESSELS.Syncope, Vasovagal: Loss of consciousness due to a reduction in blood pressure that is associated with an increase in vagal tone and peripheral vasodilation.Syncope: A transient loss of consciousness and postural tone caused by diminished blood flow to the brain (i.e., BRAIN ISCHEMIA). Presyncope refers to the sensation of lightheadedness and loss of strength that precedes a syncopal event or accompanies an incomplete syncope. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp367-9)Tilt-Table Test: A standard and widely accepted diagnostic test used to identify patients who have a vasodepressive and/or cardioinhibitory response as a cause of syncope. (From Braunwald, Heart Disease, 7th ed)Primary Dysautonomias: Disorders of the AUTONOMIC NERVOUS SYSTEM occurring as a primary condition. Manifestations can involve any or all body systems but commonly affect the BLOOD PRESSURE and HEART RATE.Students, Public Health: Individuals enrolled in a school of PUBLIC HEALTH or a formal educational program in public health.Carotid Sinus: The dilated portion of the common carotid artery at its bifurcation into external and internal carotids. It contains baroreceptors which, when stimulated, cause slowing of the heart, vasodilatation, and a fall in blood pressure.Shock, Hemorrhagic: Acute hemorrhage or excessive fluid loss resulting in HYPOVOLEMIA.Shock: A pathological condition manifested by failure to perfuse or oxygenate vital organs.Hypotension: Abnormally low BLOOD PRESSURE that can result in inadequate blood flow to the brain and other vital organs. Common symptom is DIZZINESS but greater negative impacts on the body occur when there is prolonged depravation of oxygen and nutrients.Hypovolemia: An abnormally low volume of blood circulating through the body. It may result in hypovolemic shock (see SHOCK).Resuscitation: The restoration to life or consciousness of one apparently dead. (Dorland, 27th ed)NF-kappa B: Ubiquitous, inducible, nuclear transcriptional activator that binds to enhancer elements in many different cell types and is activated by pathogenic stimuli. The NF-kappa B complex is a heterodimer composed of two DNA-binding subunits: NF-kappa B1 and relA.Hemorrhage: Bleeding or escape of blood from a vessel.Fructose: A monosaccharide in sweet fruits and honey that is soluble in water, alcohol, or ether. It is used as a preservative and an intravenous infusion in parenteral feeding.Sweetening Agents: Substances that sweeten food, beverages, medications, etc., such as sugar, saccharine or other low-calorie synthetic products. (From Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed)Dietary Sucrose: Sucrose present in the diet. It is added to food and drinks as a sweetener.Beverages: Liquids that are suitable for drinking. (From Merriam Webster Collegiate Dictionary, 10th ed)United States Department of Agriculture: A cabinet department in the Executive Branch of the United States Government concerned with improving and maintaining farm income and developing and expanding markets for agricultural products. Through inspection and grading services it safeguards and insures standards of quality in food supply and production.Candy: Sweet food products combining cane or beet sugars with other carbohydrates and chocolate, milk, eggs, and various flavorings. In the United States, candy refers to both sugar- and cocoa-based confections and is differentiated from sweetened baked goods; elsewhere the terms sugar confectionary, chocolate confectionary, and flour confectionary (meaning goods such as cakes and pastries) are used.Carbonated Beverages: Drinkable liquids combined with or impregnated with carbon dioxide.Autonomic Fibers, Postganglionic: Nerve fibers which project from cell bodies of AUTONOMIC GANGLIA to SYNAPSES on target organs.Cats: The domestic cat, Felis catus, of the carnivore family FELIDAE, comprising over 30 different breeds. The domestic cat is descended primarily from the wild cat of Africa and extreme southwestern Asia. Though probably present in towns in Palestine as long ago as 7000 years, actual domestication occurred in Egypt about 4000 years ago. (From Walker's Mammals of the World, 6th ed, p801)Action Potentials: Abrupt changes in the membrane potential that sweep along the CELL MEMBRANE of excitable cells in response to excitation stimuli.Neural Conduction: The propagation of the NERVE IMPULSE along the nerve away from the site of an excitation stimulus.Neurosciences: The scientific disciplines concerned with the embryology, anatomy, physiology, biochemistry, pharmacology, etc., of the nervous system.Vibrissae: Stiff hairs projecting from the face around the nose of most mammals, acting as touch receptors.Somatosensory Cortex: Area of the parietal lobe concerned with receiving sensations such as movement, pain, pressure, position, temperature, touch, and vibration. It lies posterior to the central sulcus.Cerebellar Cortex: The superficial GRAY MATTER of the CEREBELLUM. It consists of two main layers, the stratum moleculare and the stratum granulosum.Pons: The front part of the hindbrain (RHOMBENCEPHALON) that lies between the MEDULLA and the midbrain (MESENCEPHALON) ventral to the cerebellum. It is composed of two parts, the dorsal and the ventral. The pons serves as a relay station for neural pathways between the CEREBELLUM to the CEREBRUM.Anterior Chamber: The space in the eye, filled with aqueous humor, bounded anteriorly by the cornea and a small portion of the sclera and posteriorly by a small portion of the ciliary body, the iris, and that part of the crystalline lens which presents through the pupil. (Cline et al., Dictionary of Visual Science, 4th ed, p109)Iris: The most anterior portion of the uveal layer, separating the anterior chamber from the posterior. It consists of two layers - the stroma and the pigmented epithelium. Color of the iris depends on the amount of melanin in the stroma on reflection from the pigmented epithelium.Iris Diseases: Diseases, dysfunctions, or disorders of or located in the iris.Plasma Gases: Ionized gases, consisting of free electrons and ionized atoms or molecules which collectively behave differently than gas, solid, or liquid. Plasma gases are used in biomedical fields in surface modification; biological decontamination; dentistry (e.g., PLASMA ARC DENTAL CURING LIGHTS); and in other treatments (e.g., ARGON PLASMA COAGULATION).Ocular Hypotension: Abnormally low intraocular pressure often related to chronic inflammation (uveitis).Eye: The organ of sight constituting a pair of globular organs made up of a three-layered roughly spherical structure specialized for receiving and responding to light.Lacrimal Apparatus Diseases: Diseases of the lacrimal apparatus.Alligators and Crocodiles: Large, long-tailed reptiles, including caimans, of the order Loricata.Birds: Warm-blooded VERTEBRATES possessing FEATHERS and belonging to the class Aves.Lions: Large, chiefly nocturnal mammals of the cat family FELIDAE, species Panthera leo. They are found in Africa and southern Asia.Sea Lions: A group comprised of several species of aquatic carnivores in different genera, in the family Otariidae. In comparison to FUR SEALS, they have shorter, less dense hair.Software: Sequential operating programs and data which instruct the functioning of a digital computer.Veterinary Medicine: The medical science concerned with the prevention, diagnosis, and treatment of diseases in animals.
... most of their fibers are efferent. A relatively small afferent contribution is present. The efferent pathways include the ... Afferent pathways include the anterior spinocerebellar and tectocerebellar tracts. The fibers of the anterior spinocerebellar ...
Petrides, M; Pandya, DN (2007). "Efferent association pathways from the rostral prefrontal cortex in the macaque monkey". J ...
Petrides, M; Pandya, DN (Oct 24, 2007). "Efferent association pathways from the rostral prefrontal cortex in the macaque monkey ... Pandya, D. N.; Hoesen, G. W.; Mesulam, M. -M. (1981). "Efferent connections of the cingulate gyrus in the rhesus monkey". ...
Nakamura, K.; Morrison, S. F. (2006). "Central efferent pathways mediating skin cooling-evoked sympathetic thermogenesis in ... The conditioned response happens in the brain with the ventromedial nucleus of the hypothalamus providing the output pathway to ... Love, J. A.; Yi, E.; Smith, T. G. (2007). "Autonomic pathways regulating pancreatic exocrine secretion". Autonomic Neuroscience ... However, the existence of the parasympathetic antiinflammatory nerve pathway is controversial with one reviewer stating: "there ...
Vocal pathways modulate efferent neurons to the inner ear and lateral line. The Journal of Neuroscience 25(25): 5967-5974. Bass ... The neuronal pathway for midshipman vocalization starts at the ventral medullary nucleus and continues to a hindbrain vocal ... This model organisms' simple system could lead to a deeper understanding of human speech and auditory pathways,. This ...
Therefore, these cells are the origin of the earliest efferent pathway of the developing cortex. It is thought that axons of ... pioneer neurons, pioneer axons, serve as a pathway for additional neurons that develop later in the embryo and project their ...
... is one of the three principal pathways by which fibers leave the amygdala. The other main efferent pathways from the amygdala ... The amygdalofugal pathway (Latin for "fleeing from the amygdala" and commonly distinguished as the ventral amygdalofugal ... The anterior commissure also serves to connect the two amygdala.[citation needed] The ventral amygdalofugal pathway carries ... primarily through output pathways to the lateral hypothalamus and brain stem." The CeA is also responsible for "conscious ...
When the afferent and efferent nerves are both destroyed, as they may be by tumors of the cauda equina or filum terminale, the ... the type due to interruption of facilitatory and inhibitory pathways descending from the brain. In all three types the bladder ... the parasympathetic fibers to the bladder that constitute the excitatory efferent limb also travel in these nerves. Part of the ... the type due to interruption of both afferent and efferent nerves; and (3) ...
The autonomic nervous system is unique in that it requires a sequential two-neuron efferent pathway; the preganglionic neuron ... this is the one exception to the two-neuron pathway rule: the synapse is directly efferent onto the target cell bodies) These ... general visceral efferent) neurons and are the preganglionic neurons. There are several locations upon which preganglionic ...
In a noisy environment the MOC efferent pathways are required to be active in two distinct ways. The first is an automatic ... In a quiet environment when speech from a single talker is being listened to, then the MOC efferent pathways are essentially ... This is the interaural time difference (ITD) cue and is measured by signal processing in the two central auditory pathways that ... In this case the single speech stream enters both ears and its representation ascends the two auditory pathways. The stream ...
By contrast, in polysynaptic reflex pathways, one or more interneurons connect afferent (sensory) and efferent (motor) signals ... A reflex arc is a neural pathway that controls a reflex. In vertebrates, most sensory neurons do not pass directly into the ... A reflex arc, then, is the pathway followed by nerves which (a.) carry sensory information from the receptor to the spinal cord ... During a somatic reflex, nerve signals travel along the following pathway: Somatic receptors in the skin, muscles and tendons ...
The pupillary light reflex neural pathway on each side has an afferent limb and two efferent limbs. The afferent limb has nerve ... Each afferent limb has two efferent limbs, one ipsilateral and one contralateral. The ipsilateral efferent limb transmits nerve ... The efferent limb is the pupillary motor output from the pretectal nucleus to the ciliary sphincter muscle of the iris. The ... The contralateral efferent limb causes consensual light reflex of the contralateral pupil. The optic nerve, or more precisely, ...
These pathways provide an alternate pathway of taste from the anterior two thirds of the tongue. These fibers do not pass ... Diagram of efferent sympathetic nervous system. This article incorporates text in the public domain from the 20th edition of ... Gray's Anatomy (1918) Shimizu T (1994). "Distribution and pathway of the cerebrovascular nerve fibers from the otic ganglion in ...
Disconnection via lesions of the inhibitory efferent pathways from cortical and subcortical areas of the brain is a potential ... This theory deals with inhibitory pathways being ablated or malfunctioning post-injury. This leads to sympathetic pathways from ... In this case, rather than inhibitory pathways malfunctioning and allowing sympathetic pathways to propagate unhindered, ... The exact pathways or causes for the development of the syndrome are not known. Traumatic brain injury, hypoxia, stroke, anti- ...
Patients with chronic complete high cervical spinal cord lesions have intact efferent vagal neural pathways directed to the ... However, efferent vagal (parasympathetic) activity is a major contributor to the HF component, as seen in clinical and ... The Polyvagal Theory describes pathways in the autonomic nervous system that mediate HRV. This theory emphasizes the role of ... on frequency domain characteristics with an emphasis on respiratory sinus arrhythmia and its transmission by a neural pathway ...
The trigeminal nucleus also sends efferent projections to the inferior olive (IO), and this represents the US pathway for EBC. ... Stimulating this pathway during paired CS - US presentations causes extinction. Recordings from Purkinje cells show that the ...
... motor neuron syndrome appears when motor control of skeletal muscles is affected due to damage to the efferent motor pathways. ... Such repeated usage of neural pathways include continuous reading which may result in temporary vision failure. Diagnosis of ... the demyelination process affects the communication between neurons and this consequently affects the neural pathways they ... not clearly understood how MS results in physical fatigue but it is known that the repetitive usage of the same neural pathways ...
1.) Vagovagal Reflex Distention activates an afferent pathway which in turn stimulates efferent response from the dorsal ... 2.) Local ENS Pathway Activated ENS releases ACh stimulating parietal cells to secrete acid. As dietary protein is digested, it ... ACh is secreted by parasympathetic nerve fibers of both the short and long reflex ,.ml; pathways. Histamine is a paracrine ...
This afferent and efferent connectivity is required to achieve coordinated muscle activity. Upper motor neurons (UMNs) send ... It is via this pathway that upper motor neurons from the cortex descend from the cortex and synapse on α-MNs of the brainstem. ... Like other neurons, lower motor neurons have both afferent (incoming) and efferent (outgoing) connections. Alpha motor neurons ... input to α-MNs via several pathways, including (but not limited to) the corticonuclear, corticospinal, and rubrospinal tracts. ...
As shown in research published in the International Journal of Psychophysiology, efferent pathways throughout the brain help to ... For example, in those with autism, pathways running through to the middle ear muscles make it difficult for the person to focus ...
This pathway triggers scratching in mice. Olszewski, J (1954). Cytoarchitecture of the Human Brainstem. Lippincott. pp. 1-199. ... Fulwiler, C. E.; Saper, C. B. (1984-08-01). "Subnuclear organization of the efferent connections of the parabrachial nucleus in ... Fulwiler, C. E.; Saper, C. B. (1984-08-01). "Subnuclear organization of the efferent connections of the parabrachial nucleus in ... Nakamura, K (2018). "Thermoregulatory behavior and its central circuit mechanism-What thermosensory pathway drives it?]". ...
This occurs because pathways controlling saccadic movements are disrupted by the lesion and only a slow movements controlled by ... a different motor pathways are ineffected. Lesions in the midbrain can interfere with efferent motor signals before they arrive ... The prognosis of a lesion in the visual neural pathways that causes a conjugate gaze palsy varies greatly. Depending on the ... As seen in horizontal saccadic palsy, the impairment of the contralateral side gaze is caused by the disrupted pathways coming ...
Afferent nerve fibers are often paired with efferent nerve fibers from the motor neurons (that travel from the CNS to the PNS ... Afferent nerve fibers link the sensory neurons throughout the body, in pathways to the relevant processing circuits in the ... and motor commands carried by the efferent fibers leave the cord at the ventral roots. The dorsal and some of the ventral ...
From here the signal travels through the dorsal column-medial lemniscal pathway. The dorsal column-medial lemniscal pathway is ... The motor information is sent through efferent neurons. In a doctor's office or in a research experiment, a person's perception ... The pathway consists of three types of neurons: first, second, and third order neurons. The first order neuron is the afferent ... The sensory conduction pathway that allows for cognitive recognition of vibration occurs through afferent neurons, also known ...
Using acoustic stimuli to activate the MOC reflex pathway, recordings have been made from single efferent fibres in guinea pigs ... providing further evidence for tonotopic organisation of the efferent pathways. These findings led to the current understanding ... Sep 1979). "Efferent innervation of the organ of corti: two separate systems". Brain Res. 173 (1): 152-5. doi:10.1016/0006-8993 ... Organization of the efferent fibers: The lateral and medial olivocochlear systems. Neurobiology of hearing : the cochlea. New ...
The major unit of functionality of the lateral line is the neuromast. The neuromast is a mechanoreceptive organ which allows the sensing of mechanical changes in water. There are two main varieties of neuromasts located in animals, canal neuromasts and superficial or freestanding neuromasts. Superficial neuromasts are located externally on the surface of the body, while canal neuromasts are located along the lateral lines in subdermal, fluid filled canals. Each neuromast consists of receptive hair cells whose tips are covered by a flexible and jellylike cupula. Hair cells typically possess both glutamatergic afferent connections and cholinergic efferent connections.[12] The receptive hair cells are modified epithelial cells and typically possess bundles of 40-50 microvilli "hairs" which function as the mechanoreceptors.[13] These bundles are organized in rough "staircases" of hairs of increasing length order.[14] This use of mechanosensitive hairs is homologous to the functioning of hair ...
This is a list of medical mnemonics categorized and alphabetized. ABC - Airway, Breathing and Circulation AEIOU-TIPS - causes of altered mental status APGAR - a backronym for Appearance, Pulse, Grimace, Activity, Respiration (used to assess newborn babies) ASHICE - Age, Sex, History, Injuries/illness, Condition, ETA/extra information FAST - Face, Arms, Speech, Time - stroke symptoms Hs and Ts - causes of cardiac arrest Is Path Warm? - suicide risk factors OPQRST - Onset, Provocation, Quality, Region, Severity, Time - symptom checklist RICE - Rest, Ice, Compression, Elevation - for sprains and bruises RNCHAMPS - mnemonic for the types of shock RPM-30-2-Can Do - mnemonic for START triage criteria SOCRATES - mnemonic used to evaluate characteristics of pain SOAP, a technique for writing medical records SLUDGE - Salivation, Lacrimation, Urination, Defecation, Gastric upset, and Emesis (effects of nerve agent or organophosphate poisoning) Afferent connection arrives and an efferent connection ...
The brachial plexus is a network of nerves formed by the anterior rami of the lower four cervical nerves and first thoracic nerve (C5, C6, C7, C8, and T1). This plexus extends from the spinal cord, through the cervicoaxillary canal in the neck, over the first rib, and into the armpit. It supplies afferent and efferent nerve fibers to the chest, shoulder, arm and hand. The brachial plexus is divided into five roots, three trunks, six divisions, three anterior and three posterior, three cords, and five branches. There are five "terminal" branches and numerous other "pre-terminal" or "collateral" branches, such as the subscapular nerve, the thoracodorsal nerve, and the long thoracic nerve, that leave the plexus at various points along its length. A common structure used to identify part of the brachial plexus in cadaver dissections is the M or W shape made by the musculocutaneous nerve, lateral cord, median nerve, medial cord, and ulnar nerve. The five roots are the five anterior rami of the ...
A neuroeffector junction is a site where a motor neuron releases a neurotransmitter to affect a target-non-neuronal-cell. This junction functions like a synapse. However, unlike most neurons, somatic efferent motor neurons innervate skeletal muscle, and are always excitatory. Visceral efferent neurons innervate smooth muscle, cardiac muscle, and glands, and have the ability to be either excitatory or inhibitory in function. Neuroeffector junctions are known as neuromuscular junctions when the target cell is a muscle fiber. Non-synaptic transmission is characteristic of autonomic neuroeffector junctions. The structure of the autonomic neuromuscular junction consists of several essential features including that: the terminal portions of autonomic nerve fibers are varicose and mobile, transmitters being released 'en passage' from varying distances from the effector cells; while there is no structural post-junctional specialization on effector cells, receptors for ...
The splanchnic nerves are paired visceral nerves (nerves that contribute to the innervation of the internal organs), carrying fibers of the autonomic nervous system (visceral efferent fibers) as well as sensory fibers from the organs (visceral afferent fibers). All carry sympathetic fibers except for the pelvic splanchnic nerves, which carry parasympathetic fibers.. ...
Most brains exhibit a substantial distinction between gray matter and white matter. Gray matter consists of the cell bodies of the neurons, while white matter consists of the fibers (axons) which connect neurons. The axons are surrounded by a fatty insulating sheath called myelin, giving the white matter its distinctive color. The outer layer of the brain is gray matter called cerebral cortex. Deep in the brain, compartments of white matter (fasciculi, fiber tracts), gray matter (nuclei) and spaces filled with cerebrospinal fluid (ventricles) are found. The brain innervates the head through cranial nerves, and it communicates with the spinal cord, which innervates the body through spinal nerves. Nervous fibers transmitting signal from the brain are called efferent fibers. The fibers transmitting signals to the brain are called afferent (or sensory) fibers. Nerves can be afferent, efferent or mixed (i.e., containing both types of fibers). The brain controls a wide variety of ...
A vagotomy is a surgical procedure that involves removing part of the vagus nerve. A plain vagotomy eliminates the parasympathetic supply from the stomach to the left side of the transverse colon. Other techniques focus on branches leading from the retroperitoneum to the stomach. Highly selective vagotomy refers to denervation of only those branches supplying the lower esophagus and stomach (leaving the nerve of Latarjet in place to ensure the emptying function of the stomach remains intact). It is one of the treatments of peptic ulcer. Vagotomy is an essential component of surgical management of peptic (duodenal and gastric) ulcer disease (PUD). Vagotomy was once commonly performed to treat and prevent PUD. However, with the availability of excellent acid secretion control with H2 receptor antagonists, such as cimetidine, ranitidine, and famotidine, and proton pump inhibitors (PPIs), such as pantoprazole, rabeprazole, omeprazole, and lansoprazole, the need for surgical management of peptic ...
Cresciuta a Louisville in Kentucky[2], Hollander afferma di essere vissuta in una famiglia molto severa e di aver avuto la prima esperienza sessuale nel periodo in cui divenne cheerleader[3]. Conobbe il proprio futuro marito, Otto Bauer, il primo gennaio 2000[4] durante una vacanza in Florida con alcuni amici[3] per seguire un concerto dei Phish[4]. I loro cammini si incrociarono in un bar di South Beach, e fu proprio in occasione del loro primo incontro che Bauer si propose alla Hollander. Lei accettò immediatamente[5]. Si fermarono, quindi, in Florida per una settimana per trasferirsi insieme a New York. Intorno alla metà del 2006 aveva già preso parte ad oltre 125 produzioni ed era stata accreditata come co-regista della serie di film Otto and Audrey Destroy the World. Audrey ha vinto il prestigioso AVN Award come Female Performer of the Year nel 2006. Nel corso dell'intervista concessa nel luglio 2007, ha affermato di non avere mai interpretato scena che non includesse anche sesso anale, ...
மூளையின் முகுளத்தில் ஒரு மூச்சுக் கட்டுப்பாட்டு (Control of respiration) மையம் உள்ளது. இதில் தனித்தனியே உள்மூச்சு, வெளிமூச்சு மையங்கள் உள்ளன. இம்மையங்களின் நரம்பு உயிரணு (செல்) நரம்பணு இழைகள் (ஆக்ஃசான்கள், axons) பிரினிக் நரம்புகள் (Phrenic nerves) வழியாக உதரவிதானத்திற்குச் செல்கின்றன. இந்நரம்பிழைகள் உள், வெளி எலும்பிடைத் தசைகளுக்கு அடுத்தடுத்துத் தூண்டுதல்களைக் கடத்துகின்றன. மூச்சுச் ...
A reflex, or reflex action, is an involuntary and nearly instantaneous movement in response to a stimulus. A reflex is made possible by neural pathways called reflex arcs which can act on an impulse before that impulse reaches the brain. The reflex is then an automatic response to a stimulus that does not receive or need conscious thought. Myotatic reflexes The myotatic reflexes (also known as deep tendon reflexes), provide information on the integrity of the central nervous system and peripheral nervous system. Generally, decreased reflexes indicate a peripheral problem, and lively or exaggerated reflexes a central one.[citation needed] A stretch reflex is the contraction of a muscle in response to its lengthwise stretch. Biceps reflex (C5, C6) Brachioradialis reflex (C5, C6, C7) Extensor digitorum reflex (C6, C7) Triceps reflex (C6, C7, C8) Patellar reflex or knee-jerk reflex (L2, L3, L4) Ankle jerk reflex (Achilles reflex) (S1, S2) While the reflexes above are stimulated ...
The menace response is one of three forms of blink reflex. It is the reflex blinking that occurs in response to the rapid approach of an object. The reflex comprises blinking of the eyelids, in order to protect the eyes from potential damage, but may also including turning of the head, neck, or even the trunk away from the optical stimulus that triggers the reflex. Stimulating the menace reflex is used as a diagnostic procedure in veterinary medicine, in order to determine whether an animal's visual system, in particular the cortical nerve, has suffered from nerve damage. Cortical damage, particularly cerebral lesions, can cause loss of the menace reflex while leaving the other blink reflexes, such as the dazzle reflex, unaffected. The presence or absence of the menace reflex, in combination with other reflexes, indicates a locus of damage. For example, an animal with polioencephalomalacia will lack the menace reflex, but will still have the pupillary light reflex. Polioencephalomacia damages ...
... are reflex actions originating in the central nervous system that are exhibited by normal infants, but not neurologically intact adults, in response to particular stimuli. These reflexes are absent due to the development of the frontal lobes as a child transitions normally into child development. These primitive reflexes are also called infantile, infant or newborn reflexes. Older children and adults with atypical neurology (e.g., people with cerebral palsy) may retain these reflexes and primitive reflexes may reappear in adults. Reappearance may be attributed to certain neurological conditions including dementia (especially in a rare set of diseases called frontotemporal degenerations), traumatic lesions, and strokes. An individual with cerebral palsy and typical intelligence can learn to suppress these reflexes, but the reflex might resurface under certain conditions (i.e., during extreme startle reaction). Reflexes may also be limited to those areas affected by the atypical ...
The corneal reflex, also known as the blink reflex, is an involuntary blinking of the eyelids elicited by stimulation of the cornea (such as by touching or by a foreign body), though could result from any peripheral stimulus. Stimulation should elicit both a direct and consensual response (response of the opposite eye). The reflex occurs at a rapid rate of 0.1 seconds. The purpose of this reflex is to protect the eyes from foreign bodies and bright lights (the latter known as the optical reflex). The blink reflex also occurs when sounds greater than 40-60 dB are made. The reflex is mediated by: the nasociliary branch of the ophthalmic branch (V1) of the 5th cranial nerve (trigeminal nerve) sensing the stimulus on the cornea only (afferent fiber). the temporal and zygomatic branches of the 7th cranial nerve (Facial nerve) initiating the motor response (efferent fiber). the centre (nucleus) in the pons of brain stem. Use of contact lenses may diminish or abolish the testing of this reflex. The ...
The efferent association fibers from the caudal part of the prefrontal cortex to posterior cortical areas course via several ... pathways: the three components of the superior longitudinal fasciculus (SLF I, SLF II, and SLF III), the arcuate fasciculus (AF ... Efferent association pathways originating in the caudal prefrontal cortex in the macaque monkey J Comp Neurol. 2006 Sep 10;498( ... The efferent association fibers from the caudal part of the prefrontal cortex to posterior cortical areas course via several ...
The origin of efferent pathways from the primary visual cortex, area 17, of the macaque monkey as shown by retrograde transport ... AE, Bunt AH, Fuchs AF (1975) The origin of efferent pathways from the primary visual cortex, area 17, of the macaque monkey as ... in which efferent neurons exhibit disorganized firing patterns. Synchronization of cortical activity is regulated by complex ...
"Efferent Pathways" by people in this website by year, and whether "Efferent Pathways" was a major or minor topic of these ... "Efferent Pathways" is a descriptor in the National Library of Medicines controlled vocabulary thesaurus, MeSH (Medical Subject ... Below are the most recent publications written about "Efferent Pathways" by people in Profiles. ... Below are MeSH descriptors whose meaning is more general than "Efferent Pathways". ...
Both afferent and efferent nerve pathways in the atonic bladder can be reconstructed by suprasacral motor-to-motor and sensory- ... Bypassing Spinal Cord Injury: Surgical Reconstruction of Afferent and Efferent Pathways to the Urinary Bladder after Conus ... Afferent and efferent nerve function in the atonic bladder caused by conus medullaris injury in a rat model was established by ...
Efferent Pathways. As noted above, syncope, except in rare circumstances such as hypoxia, results from transient failure of CBF ... Afferent Pathways. The afferent pathways triggering the various forms of reflex syncope are less well understood. While space ... we will begin by briefly reviewing the efferent pathways. ... The efferent limb consists of inputs from the vagus nerve to ... Also, while the afferent limb may differ among the various forms of reflex syncope, the efferent limb is seemingly relatively ...
... in decreasing activity of the sympathetic efferent pathway and/or increasing activity of the parasympathetic efferent pathway ... In the efferent pathways, preganglionic sympathetic innervation of the pupil is from the C8-T2 spinal segments via the superior ... The efferent pathways occur through the local integrative system, called the enteric nervous system, which consists of networks ... Efferent pathways. The autonomic nervous system (ANS) consists of the sympathetic and parasympathetic nervous system. The ...
... we documented age-related attenuation of efferent drive to contracting skeletal muscle. It remains elusive if this indication ... Lifelong strength training mitigates the age-related decline in efferent drive J Appl Physiol (1985). 2016 Aug 1;121(2):415-23. ... Efferent Pathways / physiology* * Evoked Potentials, Motor / physiology * H-Reflex / physiology* * Humans * Male ... Recently, we documented age-related attenuation of efferent drive to contracting skeletal muscle. It remains elusive if this ...
... and efferent pathways. An increasing number of studies have demonstrated that acupuncture not only activates distinct brain ... central and efferent pathways. An increasing number of studies have demonstrated that acupuncture not only activates distinct ... The activity of these pathways can be assessed by injecting agonists or inhibitors or by performing neurotomy. This review ... The activity of these pathways can be assessed by injecting agonists or inhibitors or by performing neurotomy. This review ...
Efferent Pathways / drug effects*, physiology. Electric Stimulation / methods*. Enzyme Inhibitors / pharmacology. Female. ...
... afferent visual pathway symptoms) and/or how their eyes move together (efferent visual pathway disorders). ... afferent visual pathway symptoms) and/or how their eyes move together (efferent visual pathway disorders). ... Efferent visual pathway lesions may be challenging to identify in patients with MS and even more difficult to treat. To ... Efferent visual pathway lesions in the central nervous system (CNS) may create a perception of oscillopsia, a visual ...
Liver activation of a NF-κB-mediated pathway causes an increased hepatic TNF-α production. In analogy to endotoxin shock,13 the ... Efferent Vagal Fibre Stimulation Blunts Nuclear Factor-κB Activation and Protects Against Hypovolemic Hemorrhagic Shock. ... Efferent vagus nerve signaling reduces the inflammatory response in septic shock. Indeed, peripheral vagus nerve electrical ... Efferent Vagal Fibre Stimulation Blunts Nuclear Factor-κB Activation and Protects Against Hypovolemic Hemorrhagic Shock ...
In a nutshell, the new model stipulates that the outflow (efferent pathways) are divided into a cranial division and spinal ... Thoracic and sacral pathways have a ventral exit point from the spinal cord; cranial pathways have a dorsal exit point. ... A recent report in the journal Science proposed a big change in how we understand the sympathetic and parasympathetic pathways ... Thoracic and sacral pathways share common embryologic development by location and when looking at transcriptional markers ...
... the afferent and efferent reflex arc, pharmacology, psychology, sleepiness-related research and animal studies. ... The efferent pupillary pathways comprise the cholinergic pathway to the sphincter muscle and the adrenergic pathway to the ... the afferent pupillary pathway, the efferent pupillary pathway, pharmacology, psychology and psychiatry, sleepiness-related ... It is important to be aware that any defects in the efferent pupillary pathway may change pupil movements and thus confound the ...
Vagal Efferent Pathway The parasympathetic system affects energy balance through signals projecting from the hypothalamus to ... Sympathetic Efferent Pathway Cold, stress, and dietary changes modify the activity of projections from the paraventricular ... The Efferent Pathway. The hypothalamus regulates energy storage and expenditure in part through its connections to the ... The major efferent pathways involve the sympathetic nervous system (SNS), which promotes energy expenditure, and the ...
Typical tests use broadband noise to activate the efferents, but only test the contralateral efferent... ... There currently are no standardized protocols to evaluate auditory efferent function in humans. ... Typical tests use broadband noise to activate the efferents, but only test the contralateral efferent pathway, risk activating ... Liberman MC, Liberman LD, Maison SF (2014) Efferent feedback slows cochlear aging. J Neurosci 34(13):4599-4607CrossRefGoogle ...
Efferent. *Dentate nucleus in Lateral hemisphere/pontocerebellum → SCP → Dentatothalamic tract → Thalamus (VL) → Motor cortex ... These are archetypal examples of neural pathways.[citation needed] Basal ganglia pathways and dopamine[edit]. Neural pathways ... Therefore, most neural pathways are made up of axons.[citation needed] If the axons have myelin sheaths, then the pathway ... It has been proposed that the dopamine system of pathways is the overall organiser of the neural pathways that are seen to be ...
Brain angiotensinergic pathways mediate renal nerve inhibition by central hypertonic NaCl in conscious sheep. Am J Physiol. ... Efferent and afferent nerve distribution as shown by tyrosine hydroxylase (TH; green) and calcitonin gene-related peptide ... There is extensive evidence that renal afferent and efferent nerves play a critical role in the control of renal function and ... In fact, estimates of efferent RDN based on renal norepinephrine spillover in patients5 suggest that we produced a comparable, ...
Efferent Association Pathways Originating in the Caudal Prefrontal Cortex in the Macaque Monkey M. PETRIDES1,2* AND D.N. ... A major ques-tion of interest is whether the efferent bers from thecaudal prefrontal region course via the same general path-ways ... Efferent association pathways originating in the caudal prefrontal cortex in the macaque monkey. ... Efferent association pathways originating in the caudal prefrontal cortex in the macaque monkey ...
The Afferent and Efferent Pathways of the Recto-colonic Reflex in the Dog. In: The Japanese journal of physiology. 1985 ; Vol. ... Fukuda H, Fukai K. The Afferent and Efferent Pathways of the Recto-colonic Reflex in the Dog. The Japanese journal of ... Fukuda, H & Fukai, K 1985, The Afferent and Efferent Pathways of the Recto-colonic Reflex in the Dog, The Japanese journal of ... The Afferent and Efferent Pathways of the Recto-colonic Reflex in the Dog. / Fukuda, Hiroyuki; Fukai, Kiyoko. ...
The cells of origin of the ponto-cerebellar pathway are segregated in layer Vb of the barrel field. Efferent axons of Vb cells ... Information from the barrel fields reaches motor areas via cortico-cortical, basal ganglia, or cerebellar pathways. ... which interrupted connections from the barrel field to the pons while leaving cortico-cortical and basal ganglia pathways ... The cells of origin of the ponto-cerebellar pathway are segregated in layer Vb of the barrel field. Efferent axons of Vb cells ...
Dorsal root potential evoked by stimulation of periaqueductal gray and its efferent pathway analysis in rats].. *. Arina Li ... article{Zhang1990DorsalRP, title={[Dorsal root potential evoked by stimulation of periaqueductal gray and its efferent pathway ...
Figure 8: Vestibular efferent pathway. A. Efferent fibers originate from a group of cells near the abducens nucleus in the ... THE EFFERENT VESTIBULAR SYSTEM: ANATOMY AND FUNCTION. Vestibular efferent neurons are located near the abducens nucleus in the ... Compensation in vestibular pathways is critical in response to loss of haircells as a result of aging or diseases that affect ... Several pathways connect VN to other brain areas: signals can be transmitted: 1) to contralateral VN, 2) to the abducens ...
... and subsequently modify the immune response via efferent pathways [34].. (a) Afferent pathways: how the central nervous system ... Two possible pathways have been proposed: a systemic or humoral pathway and a neural pathway. For the systemic or humoral ... The efferent and afferent communication pathways employed by the CNS and the peripheral immune system as well as the central ... c) Efferent pathways: how the central nervous system affects the immune system. In the case of behaviourally conditioned ...
... most of their fibers are efferent. A relatively small afferent contribution is present. The efferent pathways include the ... Afferent pathways include the anterior spinocerebellar and tectocerebellar tracts. The fibers of the anterior spinocerebellar ...
While the anatomical pathways are generally topographic from cortex through BG circuits, a large body of growing evidence ... result in complex interweaving of functional pathways. For each striatal region, the afferent and efferent striato-nigro- ... This pathway is further reinforced via the nigro-striatal pathway, placing the striato-nigro-striatal pathway in a pivotal ... 11.2.2.2.4. Efferent Connections. Efferent projections from the VS, like those from the dorsal striatum, project primarily to ...
  • cortical areas course via several pathways: the three components of the superior longitudinalfasciculus (SLF I, SLF II, and SLF III), the arcuate fasciculus (AF), the fronto-occipitalfasciculus (FOF), the cingulate fasciculus (CING F), and the extreme capsule (Extm C).Fibers from area 8Av course via FOF and SLF II, merging in the white matter of the inferiorparietal lobule (IPL) and terminating in the caudal intraparietal sulcus (IPS). (vdocuments.mx)
  • Whiskers, barrels, and cortical efferent pathways in gap crossing by rats. (ox.ac.uk)
  • Information from the barrel fields reaches motor areas via cortico-cortical, basal ganglia, or cerebellar pathways. (ox.ac.uk)
  • When the performance was stable, we made unilateral lesions in the central region of the basis pedunculi, which interrupted connections from the barrel field to the pons while leaving cortico-cortical and basal ganglia pathways intact. (ox.ac.uk)
  • The rostral part, which starts from the cortical centers to thalamic nuclei and continues into collicular pathways in rostral brainstem, which sends its neural fibers to the main collicular nuclei especially inferior colliculus. (bioportfolio.com)
  • The interruption of afferent and efferent brain-body pathways promotes extensive cortical reorganization. (mdpi.com)
  • Within this context, cortical and subcortical control, pathways and functions of the different types of eye movement systems will also be investigated. (edu.au)
  • A neural pathway connects one part of the nervous system to another using bundles of axons called tracts. (wikipedia.org)
  • A neural pathway is the connection formed by axons that project from neurons to make synapses onto neurons in another location, to enable a signal to be sent from one region of the nervous system to another. (wikipedia.org)
  • Shorter neural pathways are found within grey matter in the brain , whereas longer projections, made up of myelinated axons, constitute white matter . (wikipedia.org)
  • Therefore, most neural pathways are made up of axons . (wikipedia.org)
  • [ citation needed ] If the axons have myelin sheaths, then the pathway appears bright white because myelin is primarily lipid . (wikipedia.org)
  • [ citation needed ] If most or all of the axons lack myelin sheaths (i.e., are unmyelinated ), then the pathway will appear a darker beige color, which is generally called grey . (wikipedia.org)
  • Efferent axons of Vb cells occupy a central position within the basis pedunculi and terminate on cells in the pontine nuclei. (ox.ac.uk)
  • The guidance molecule Netrin and its receptor DCC (deleted in colorectal cancer) attract commissural axons toward the midline en route to their final destination. (jneurosci.org)
  • Via their dendrites in the outer molecular layer, the SS-immunoreactive neurons receive synaptic inputs from perforant pathway axons which were identified by their anterograde degeneration following entorhinal lesions. (nih.gov)
  • The descending (efferent) OC system is known to have cell bodies and axons originating from nuclei within the superior olivary region in the upper pons (superior olivary complex-SOC). (oae.it)
  • Together with the crossed vestibular efferents, descending auditory efferent axons form a compact bundle within the vestibular nerve root, the fibers pass the cochlear nuclei and send collateral projections into this structure before exiting the brainstem as a ventral component of the inferior division of the vestibular nerve (Warr 1992). (oae.it)
  • Along with the dorsal longitudinal fasciculus, the medial forebrain bundle is the main pathway by which monoaminergic axons from cells in the hindbrain and midbrain reach the striatum, the limbic system, and the cerebral cortices of the forebrain. (tabers.com)
  • [ citation needed ] This naming can extend to include any number of structures in a pathway, such that the cerebellorubrothalamocortical pathway originates in the cerebellum , synapses in the red nucleus ("ruber" in Latin), on to the thalamus , and finally terminating in the cerebral cortex . (wikipedia.org)
  • Through its connections with the amygdala, the insula provides a pathway for somatosen‐sory, auditory, gustatory, olfactory, and visceral sensations to reach the limbic system. (northwestern.edu)
  • Afferent and efferent nerve function in the atonic bladder caused by conus medullaris injury in a rat model was established by intradural microanastomosis of the left L5 ventral root (VR) to right S2 VR to restore pure motor-to-motor reinnervation coupled with extradural postganglionic spinal nerve transfer of L5 dorsal root (DR) to S2 DR for pure sensory-to-sensory reinnervation. (ovid.com)
  • (See Color Insert) Schematic illustrating key structures and pathways of the reward circuit, with a focus on the connections of the ventral striatum. (nih.gov)
  • Optic neuritis is an inflammatory injury of the optic nerve that causes vision loss, which is common in MS. Some individuals with MS also experience homonymous visual field defects caused by lesions in retrochiasmal or retrogeniculate regions of the afferent visual pathway. (medscape.com)
  • however, a role of efferent vagus nerve signaling also exists in modulating inflammation. (ahajournals.org)
  • Efferent vagus nerve signaling reduces the inflammatory response in septic shock. (ahajournals.org)
  • Then it carried out through afferent nerve/pathway to integrating centre for interpret Integrating centre receives impulses from various receptors. (scribd.com)
  • The invention is aimed at modulating the autonomic nerve signals along or at critical nervous pathways by conducting or broadcasting low-voltage shaped signals so as to regulate, modulate or alter peristalsis activities and other digestive events for the benefit of the owner of the intestines. (google.ca)
  • Rafols JA, Aronin N, Difiglia M. A Golgi study of the monkey paraventricular nucleus: neuronal types, afferent and efferent fibers. (umassmed.edu)
  • The relative simplicity of the pathways that mediate the VOR, have made it an excellent model system for bridging the gap between the cells, neuronal circuits, and behavior. (scholarpedia.org)
  • Pharmacological experiments resulted in some first indications for cholinergic pathways within the neuronal inhibitory interaction system. (springer.com)
  • A chronic increase in circulating angiotensin II (Ang II) activates an aldosterone-mineralocorticoid receptor-ouabain neuromodulatory pathway in the brain that increases neuronal activation in hypothalamic nuclei, such as the paraventricular nucleus (PVN) and causes progressive hypertension. (ahajournals.org)
  • Typical tests use broadband noise to activate the efferents, but only test the contralateral efferent pathway, risk activating the middle ear muscle reflex (MEMR), and are laborious for clinical use. (springer.com)
  • Speech-ABR in contralateral noise: A potential tool to evaluate rostral part of the auditory efferent system. (bioportfolio.com)
  • Findings of the current study suggest that S-ABR with specific contralateral noise can be an appropriate option for evaluating the performance of rostral part of the auditory efferent system and may be suitable for top-down auditory training follow-ups, although the generalization of these results needs further studies in different groups with different auditory processing abnormalities or skills. (bioportfolio.com)
  • To test whether these molecules can also guide dendrites, we studied the contralateral dendrites of zebrafish octavolateralis efferent (OLe) neurons, which are unusual in that they navigate toward and cross the midline. (jneurosci.org)
  • The paradigm used most extensively to measure MOC efferent activity involves presentation of a contralateral sound, evoking uncrossed MOC activity, during DPOAE measurements. (scirp.org)
  • The changes seen in DPOAE amplitudes with contralateral noise in humans are similar to MOC efferent-induced effects on the BM in laboratory mammals. (scirp.org)
  • Given the putative role of the MOC efferents in signal-in-noise detection , the contralateral noise paradigm potentially provides an index of the efficiency of the MOC efferent system that can be compared with the performance of listeners during psychophysical masking tests. (scirp.org)
  • Abdala C, Mishra S, Garinis A (2013) Maturation of the human medial efferent reflex revisited. (springer.com)
  • The descending fiber bundles provide direct, bilateral input to the cochlea via anatomically segregated medial and lateral efferent divisions (Warr 1992). (oae.it)
  • All available evidence indicates that the dynamic properties of the Outer Hair Cells (OHCs) fall under the modulatory control of the medial efferent auditory system (Kujawa et al. (oae.it)
  • Clinical interest in the medial efferent system has been awakened by the advances made in the field of Otoacoustic Emissions (OAEs). (oae.it)
  • Since the micromechanical properties of the OHCs are directly under the control of the medial efferent bundle, it sounds logical that stimulating this neural pathway, OHCs motility and, hence, OAEs should be affected. (oae.it)
  • 1991). This phenomenon is considered to be mediated through the medial efferent system (Williams et al. (oae.it)
  • Warr (1992) and Warr & Guinan (1979) outlined two separate anatomic segments of the efferent auditory system, the lateral and medial. (oae.it)
  • [ citation needed ] Note that the "old" name was primarily descriptive, evoking the pyramids of antiquity, from the appearance of this neural pathway in the medulla oblongata . (wikipedia.org)
  • In the hippocampus there are neural pathways involved in its circuitry including the perforant pathway , that provides a connectional route from the entorhinal cortex to all fields of the hippocampal formation , including the dentate gyrus , all CA fields (including CA1), and the subiculum . (wikipedia.org)
  • An essential element in motivating drive is the interaction between sensory information and the reward pathways. (nih.gov)
  • It also discusses areas of intersection between stress and reward pathways, as these are likely important in mediating the deleterious effects of stress on substance abuse and addiction. (thefreelibrary.com)
  • Behavioral experiments on bladder function following incomplete spinal injury showed that the recovery of micturition reflexes was correlated with sparing of bulbospinal pathways in the central portions of the lateral funiculus at T8, corroborating the electrophysiological data. (ufl.edu)
  • Our hypothesis is that S-ABR in noisy condition, a typical condition for stimulating the auditory efferent system, has the potential to be used as an objective noninvasive electrophysiologic test for studying the rostral auditory efferent system in diagnosis and treatment/rehabilitation follow-ups. (bioportfolio.com)
  • The cells of origin of the ponto-cerebellar pathway are segregated in layer Vb of the barrel field. (ox.ac.uk)
  • The other main pathway is from the climbing fibers and these project to Purkinje cells and also send collaterals directly to the deep nuclei. (wikipedia.org)
  • The current study evaluated whether increased angiotensin type 1 (AT 1 ) and glutamate receptor-dependent signaling in the PVN contributes to the maintenance of blood pressure (BP) in Ang II-hypertensive Wistar rats, and the role of aldosterone-mineralocorticoid receptor pathway in this enhanced signaling. (ahajournals.org)
  • 16 , 17 No studies have yet evaluated the role of the central aldosterone neuromodulatory pathway in Ang II and glutamate receptor activation in the PVN of hypertensive rats. (ahajournals.org)