Organic compounds that generally contain an amino (-NH2) and a carboxyl (-COOH) group. Twenty alpha-amino acids are the subunits which are polymerized to form proteins.
The degree of similarity between sequences of amino acids. This information is useful for the analyzing genetic relatedness of proteins and species.
The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.
The naturally occurring or experimentally induced replacement of one or more AMINO ACIDS in a protein with another. If a functionally equivalent amino acid is substituted, the protein may retain wild-type activity. Substitution may also diminish, enhance, or eliminate protein function. Experimentally induced substitution is often used to study enzyme activities and binding site properties.
The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.
Amino acids that are not synthesized by the human body in amounts sufficient to carry out physiological functions. They are obtained from dietary foodstuffs.
Cellular proteins and protein complexes that transport amino acids across biological membranes.
The arrangement of two or more amino acid or base sequences from an organism or organisms in such a way as to align areas of the sequences sharing common properties. The degree of relatedness or homology between the sequences is predicted computationally or statistically based on weights assigned to the elements aligned between the sequences. This in turn can serve as a potential indicator of the genetic relatedness between the organisms.
Commonly observed structural components of proteins formed by simple combinations of adjacent secondary structures. A commonly observed structure may be composed of a CONSERVED SEQUENCE which can be represented by a CONSENSUS SEQUENCE.
The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.
A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria (GRAM-NEGATIVE FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC RODS) commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. It is usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce DIARRHEA and pyogenic infections. Pathogenic strains (virotypes) are classified by their specific pathogenic mechanisms such as toxins (ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI), etc.
Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.
The parts of a macromolecule that directly participate in its specific combination with another molecule.
Genetically engineered MUTAGENESIS at a specific site in the DNA molecule that introduces a base substitution, or an insertion or deletion.
Single-stranded complementary DNA synthesized from an RNA template by the action of RNA-dependent DNA polymerase. cDNA (i.e., complementary DNA, not circular DNA, not C-DNA) is used in a variety of molecular cloning experiments as well as serving as a specific hybridization probe.
Amino acids containing an aromatic side chain.
The sequential correspondence of nucleotides in one nucleic acid molecule with those of another nucleic acid molecule. Sequence homology is an indication of the genetic relatedness of different organisms and gene function.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
Amino acids which have a branched carbon chain.
Partial proteins formed by partial hydrolysis of complete proteins or generated through PROTEIN ENGINEERING techniques.
The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.
Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.
An essential branched-chain amino acid important for hemoglobin formation.
The characteristic 3-dimensional shape of a protein, including the secondary, supersecondary (motifs), tertiary (domains) and quaternary structure of the peptide chain. PROTEIN STRUCTURE, QUATERNARY describes the conformation assumed by multimeric proteins (aggregates of more than one polypeptide chain).
Models used experimentally or theoretically to study molecular shape, electronic properties, or interactions; includes analogous molecules, computer-generated graphics, and mechanical structures.
The relationship between the chemical structure of a compound and its biological or pharmacological activity. Compounds are often classed together because they have structural characteristics in common including shape, size, stereochemical arrangement, and distribution of functional groups.
The level of protein structure in which combinations of secondary protein structures (alpha helices, beta sheets, loop regions, and motifs) pack together to form folded shapes called domains. Disulfide bridges between cysteines in two different parts of the polypeptide chain along with other interactions between the chains play a role in the formation and stabilization of tertiary structure. Small proteins usually consist of only one domain but larger proteins may contain a number of domains connected by segments of polypeptide chain which lack regular secondary structure.
A characteristic feature of enzyme activity in relation to the kind of substrate on which the enzyme or catalytic molecule reacts.
A deoxyribonucleotide polymer that is the primary genetic material of all cells. Eukaryotic and prokaryotic organisms normally contain DNA in a double-stranded state, yet several important biological processes transiently involve single-stranded regions. DNA, which consists of a polysugar-phosphate backbone possessing projections of purines (adenine and guanine) and pyrimidines (thymine and cytosine), forms a double helix that is held together by hydrogen bonds between these purines and pyrimidines (adenine to thymine and guanine to cytosine).
The sum of the weight of all the atoms in a molecule.
Members of the class of compounds composed of AMINO ACIDS joined together by peptide bonds between adjacent amino acids into linear, branched or cyclical structures. OLIGOPEPTIDES are composed of approximately 2-12 amino acids. Polypeptides are composed of approximately 13 or more amino acids. PROTEINS are linear polypeptides that are normally synthesized on RIBOSOMES.
The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.
Proteins found in any species of bacterium.
Use of restriction endonucleases to analyze and generate a physical map of genomes, genes, or other segments of DNA.
Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.
The relationships of groups of organisms as reflected by their genetic makeup.
A non-essential amino acid that occurs in high levels in its free state in plasma. It is produced from pyruvate by transamination. It is involved in sugar and acid metabolism, increases IMMUNITY, and provides energy for muscle tissue, BRAIN, and the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM.
Recombinant proteins produced by the GENETIC TRANSLATION of fused genes formed by the combination of NUCLEIC ACID REGULATORY SEQUENCES of one or more genes with the protein coding sequences of one or more genes.
A multistage process that includes cloning, physical mapping, subcloning, determination of the DNA SEQUENCE, and information analysis.
The functional hereditary units of BACTERIA.
Linear POLYPEPTIDES that are synthesized on RIBOSOMES and may be further modified, crosslinked, cleaved, or assembled into complex proteins with several subunits. The specific sequence of AMINO ACIDS determines the shape the polypeptide will take, during PROTEIN FOLDING, and the function of the protein.
Electrophoresis in which a polyacrylamide gel is used as the diffusion medium.
RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.
Amino acid transporter systems capable of transporting basic amino acids (AMINO ACIDS, BASIC).
The level of protein structure in which regular hydrogen-bond interactions within contiguous stretches of polypeptide chain give rise to alpha helices, beta strands (which align to form beta sheets) or other types of coils. This is the first folding level of protein conformation.
Extrachromosomal, usually CIRCULAR DNA molecules that are self-replicating and transferable from one organism to another. They are found in a variety of bacterial, archaeal, fungal, algal, and plant species. They are used in GENETIC ENGINEERING as CLONING VECTORS.
A sequence of amino acids in a polypeptide or of nucleotides in DNA or RNA that is similar across multiple species. A known set of conserved sequences is represented by a CONSENSUS SEQUENCE. AMINO ACID MOTIFS are often composed of conserved sequences.
An essential branched-chain aliphatic amino acid found in many proteins. It is an isomer of LEUCINE. It is important in hemoglobin synthesis and regulation of blood sugar and energy levels.
Amino acids with side chains that are positively charged at physiological pH.
An essential amino acid. It is often added to animal feed.
The restriction of a characteristic behavior, anatomical structure or physical system, such as immune response; metabolic response, or gene or gene variant to the members of one species. It refers to that property which differentiates one species from another but it is also used for phylogenetic levels higher or lower than the species.
Liquid chromatographic techniques which feature high inlet pressures, high sensitivity, and high speed.
Short sequences (generally about 10 base pairs) of DNA that are complementary to sequences of messenger RNA and allow reverse transcriptases to start copying the adjacent sequences of mRNA. Primers are used extensively in genetic and molecular biology techniques.
Transport proteins that carry specific substances in the blood or across cell membranes.
A set of three nucleotides in a protein coding sequence that specifies individual amino acids or a termination signal (CODON, TERMINATOR). Most codons are universal, but some organisms do not produce the transfer RNAs (RNA, TRANSFER) complementary to all codons. These codons are referred to as unassigned codons (CODONS, NONSENSE).
Cyanogen bromide (CNBr). A compound used in molecular biology to digest some proteins and as a coupling reagent for phosphoroamidate or pyrophosphate internucleotide bonds in DNA duplexes.
A serine endopeptidase that is formed from TRYPSINOGEN in the pancreas. It is converted into its active form by ENTEROPEPTIDASE in the small intestine. It catalyzes hydrolysis of the carboxyl group of either arginine or lysine. EC 3.4.21.4.
A non-essential amino acid. It is found primarily in gelatin and silk fibroin and used therapeutically as a nutrient. It is also a fast inhibitory neurotransmitter.
Domesticated bovine animals of the genus Bos, usually kept on a farm or ranch and used for the production of meat or dairy products or for heavy labor.
The movement of materials (including biochemical substances and drugs) through a biological system at the cellular level. The transport can be across cell membranes and epithelial layers. It also can occur within intracellular compartments and extracellular compartments.
A non-essential amino acid present abundantly throughout the body and is involved in many metabolic processes. It is synthesized from GLUTAMIC ACID and AMMONIA. It is the principal carrier of NITROGEN in the body and is an important energy source for many cells.
A sequence of successive nucleotide triplets that are read as CODONS specifying AMINO ACIDS and begin with an INITIATOR CODON and end with a stop codon (CODON, TERMINATOR).
A category of nucleic acid sequences that function as units of heredity and which code for the basic instructions for the development, reproduction, and maintenance of organisms.
A branched-chain essential amino acid that has stimulant activity. It promotes muscle growth and tissue repair. It is a precursor in the penicillin biosynthetic pathway.
The biosynthesis of PEPTIDES and PROTEINS on RIBOSOMES, directed by MESSENGER RNA, via TRANSFER RNA that is charged with standard proteinogenic AMINO ACIDS.
Endogenous amino acids released by neurons as excitatory neurotransmitters. Glutamic acid is the most common excitatory neurotransmitter in the brain. Aspartic acid has been regarded as an excitatory transmitter for many years, but the extent of its role as a transmitter is unclear.
A sulfur-containing essential L-amino acid that is important in many body functions.
An essential amino acid that is physiologically active in the L-form.
One of the non-essential amino acids commonly occurring in the L-form. It is found in animals and plants, especially in sugar cane and sugar beets. It may be a neurotransmitter.
A large collection of DNA fragments cloned (CLONING, MOLECULAR) from a given organism, tissue, organ, or cell type. It may contain complete genomic sequences (GENOMIC LIBRARY) or complementary DNA sequences, the latter being formed from messenger RNA and lacking intron sequences.
A species of the genus SACCHAROMYCES, family Saccharomycetaceae, order Saccharomycetales, known as "baker's" or "brewer's" yeast. The dried form is used as a dietary supplement.
Deletion of sequences of nucleic acids from the genetic material of an individual.
A multistage process that includes the determination of a sequence (protein, carbohydrate, etc.), its fragmentation and analysis, and the interpretation of the resulting sequence information.
In vitro method for producing large amounts of specific DNA or RNA fragments of defined length and sequence from small amounts of short oligonucleotide flanking sequences (primers). The essential steps include thermal denaturation of the double-stranded target molecules, annealing of the primers to their complementary sequences, and extension of the annealed primers by enzymatic synthesis with DNA polymerase. The reaction is efficient, specific, and extremely sensitive. Uses for the reaction include disease diagnosis, detection of difficult-to-isolate pathogens, mutation analysis, genetic testing, DNA sequencing, and analyzing evolutionary relationships.
An element with the atomic symbol N, atomic number 7, and atomic weight [14.00643; 14.00728]. Nitrogen exists as a diatomic gas and makes up about 78% of the earth's atmosphere by volume. It is a constituent of proteins and nucleic acids and found in all living cells.
A non-essential amino acid that is synthesized from GLUTAMIC ACID. It is an essential component of COLLAGEN and is important for proper functioning of joints and tendons.
An essential aromatic amino acid that is a precursor of MELANIN; DOPAMINE; noradrenalin (NOREPINEPHRINE), and THYROXINE.
A mutation caused by the substitution of one nucleotide for another. This results in the DNA molecule having a change in a single base pair.
Process of generating a genetic MUTATION. It may occur spontaneously or be induced by MUTAGENS.
A sodium-dependent neutral amino acid transporter that accounts for most of the sodium-dependent neutral amino acid uptake by mammalian cells. The preferred substrates for this transporter system include ALANINE; SERINE; and GLUTAMINE.
Amino acids with uncharged R groups or side chains.
A thiol-containing non-essential amino acid that is oxidized to form CYSTINE.
An essential amino acid that is necessary for normal growth in infants and for NITROGEN balance in adults. It is a precursor of INDOLE ALKALOIDS in plants. It is a precursor of SEROTONIN (hence its use as an antidepressant and sleep aid). It can be a precursor to NIACIN, albeit inefficiently, in mammals.
The uptake of naked or purified DNA by CELLS, usually meaning the process as it occurs in eukaryotic cells. It is analogous to bacterial transformation (TRANSFORMATION, BACTERIAL) and both are routinely employed in GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUES.
The biosynthesis of RNA carried out on a template of DNA. The biosynthesis of DNA from an RNA template is called REVERSE TRANSCRIPTION.
Proteins which are found in membranes including cellular and intracellular membranes. They consist of two types, peripheral and integral proteins. They include most membrane-associated enzymes, antigenic proteins, transport proteins, and drug, hormone, and lectin receptors.
Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of bacteria.
Detection of RNA that has been electrophoretically separated and immobilized by blotting on nitrocellulose or other type of paper or nylon membrane followed by hybridization with labeled NUCLEIC ACID PROBES.
Compounds and molecular complexes that consist of very large numbers of atoms and are generally over 500 kDa in size. In biological systems macromolecular substances usually can be visualized using ELECTRON MICROSCOPY and are distinguished from ORGANELLES by the lack of a membrane structure.
The process of cumulative change at the level of DNA; RNA; and PROTEINS, over successive generations.
A process that includes the determination of AMINO ACID SEQUENCE of a protein (or peptide, oligopeptide or peptide fragment) and the information analysis of the sequence.
Proteins found in any species of virus.
The phenotypic manifestation of a gene or genes by the processes of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION and GENETIC TRANSLATION.
Proteins found in plants (flowers, herbs, shrubs, trees, etc.). The concept does not include proteins found in vegetables for which VEGETABLE PROTEINS is available.
An essential amino acid occurring naturally in the L-form, which is the active form. It is found in eggs, milk, gelatin, and other proteins.
Cell surface proteins that bind amino acids and trigger changes which influence the behavior of cells. Glutamate receptors are the most common receptors for fast excitatory synaptic transmission in the vertebrate central nervous system, and GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID and glycine receptors are the most common receptors for fast inhibition.
The species Oryctolagus cuniculus, in the family Leporidae, order LAGOMORPHA. Rabbits are born in burrows, furless, and with eyes and ears closed. In contrast with HARES, rabbits have 22 chromosome pairs.
Sites on an antigen that interact with specific antibodies.
Proteins obtained from foods. They are the main source of the ESSENTIAL AMINO ACIDS.
Chromatography on non-ionic gels without regard to the mechanism of solute discrimination.
A large lobed glandular organ in the abdomen of vertebrates that is responsible for detoxification, metabolism, synthesis and storage of various substances.
The process of cleaving a chemical compound by the addition of a molecule of water.
Any of various animals that constitute the family Suidae and comprise stout-bodied, short-legged omnivorous mammals with thick skin, usually covered with coarse bristles, a rather long mobile snout, and small tail. Included are the genera Babyrousa, Phacochoerus (wart hogs), and Sus, the latter containing the domestic pig (see SUS SCROFA).
CELL LINES derived from the CV-1 cell line by transformation with a replication origin defective mutant of SV40 VIRUS, which codes for wild type large T antigen (ANTIGENS, POLYOMAVIRUS TRANSFORMING). They are used for transfection and cloning. (The CV-1 cell line was derived from the kidney of an adult male African green monkey (CERCOPITHECUS AETHIOPS).)
A serine endopeptidase secreted by the pancreas as its zymogen, CHYMOTRYPSINOGEN and carried in the pancreatic juice to the duodenum where it is activated by TRYPSIN. It selectively cleaves aromatic amino acids on the carboxyl side.
Amino acid sequences found in transported proteins that selectively guide the distribution of the proteins to specific cellular compartments.
A class of amino acids characterized by a closed ring structure.
A subclass of PEPTIDE HYDROLASES that catalyze the internal cleavage of PEPTIDES or PROTEINS.
Separation technique in which the stationary phase consists of ion exchange resins. The resins contain loosely held small ions that easily exchange places with other small ions of like charge present in solutions washed over the resins.
A non-essential amino acid occurring in natural form as the L-isomer. It is synthesized from GLYCINE or THREONINE. It is involved in the biosynthesis of PURINES; PYRIMIDINES; and other amino acids.
A sequential pattern of amino acids occurring more than once in the same protein sequence.
Proteins which bind to DNA. The family includes proteins which bind to both double- and single-stranded DNA and also includes specific DNA binding proteins in serum which can be used as markers for malignant diseases.
The lipid- and protein-containing, selectively permeable membrane that surrounds the cytoplasm in prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells.
Any of various enzymatically catalyzed post-translational modifications of PEPTIDES or PROTEINS in the cell of origin. These modifications include carboxylation; HYDROXYLATION; ACETYLATION; PHOSPHORYLATION; METHYLATION; GLYCOSYLATION; ubiquitination; oxidation; proteolysis; and crosslinking and result in changes in molecular weight and electrophoretic motility.
A group of compounds that are derivatives of the amino acid 2-amino-2-methylpropanoic acid.
Common name for the species Gallus gallus, the domestic fowl, in the family Phasianidae, order GALLIFORMES. It is descended from the red jungle fowl of SOUTHEAST ASIA.
A test used to determine whether or not complementation (compensation in the form of dominance) will occur in a cell with a given mutant phenotype when another mutant genome, encoding the same mutant phenotype, is introduced into that cell.
A subfamily in the family MURIDAE, comprising the hamsters. Four of the more common genera are Cricetus, CRICETULUS; MESOCRICETUS; and PHODOPUS.
A set of genes descended by duplication and variation from some ancestral gene. Such genes may be clustered together on the same chromosome or dispersed on different chromosomes. Examples of multigene families include those that encode the hemoglobins, immunoglobulins, histocompatibility antigens, actins, tubulins, keratins, collagens, heat shock proteins, salivary glue proteins, chorion proteins, cuticle proteins, yolk proteins, and phaseolins, as well as histones, ribosomal RNA, and transfer RNA genes. The latter three are examples of reiterated genes, where hundreds of identical genes are present in a tandem array. (King & Stanfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)
The facilitation of a chemical reaction by material (catalyst) that is not consumed by the reaction.
Analysis of PEPTIDES that are generated from the digestion or fragmentation of a protein or mixture of PROTEINS, by ELECTROPHORESIS; CHROMATOGRAPHY; or MASS SPECTROMETRY. The resulting peptide fingerprints are analyzed for a variety of purposes including the identification of the proteins in a sample, GENETIC POLYMORPHISMS, patterns of gene expression, and patterns diagnostic for diseases.
A subclass of enzymes that aminoacylate AMINO ACID-SPECIFIC TRANSFER RNA with their corresponding AMINO ACIDS.
Proteins found in any species of fungus.
Biochemical identification of mutational changes in a nucleotide sequence.
A non-essential amino acid naturally occurring in the L-form. Glutamic acid is the most common excitatory neurotransmitter in the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM.
A method (first developed by E.M. Southern) for detection of DNA that has been electrophoretically separated and immobilized by blotting on nitrocellulose or other type of paper or nylon membrane followed by hybridization with labeled NUCLEIC ACID PROBES.
The property of objects that determines the direction of heat flow when they are placed in direct thermal contact. The temperature is the energy of microscopic motions (vibrational and translational) of the particles of atoms.
Proteins obtained from ESCHERICHIA COLI.
An analytical method used in determining the identity of a chemical based on its mass using mass analyzers/mass spectrometers.
Stable carbon atoms that have the same atomic number as the element carbon, but differ in atomic weight. C-13 is a stable carbon isotope.
Any method used for determining the location of and relative distances between genes on a chromosome.
A change from planar to elliptic polarization when an initially plane-polarized light wave traverses an optically active medium. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
A CD98 antigen light chain that when heterodimerized with CD98 antigen heavy chain (ANTIGENS, CD98 HEAVY CHAIN) forms a protein that mediates sodium-independent L-type amino acid transport.
The extent to which an enzyme retains its structural conformation or its activity when subjected to storage, isolation, and purification or various other physical or chemical manipulations, including proteolytic enzymes and heat.
Genotypic differences observed among individuals in a population.
Peptides composed of between two and twelve amino acids.
The functional hereditary units of FUNGI.
The normality of a solution with respect to HYDROGEN ions; H+. It is related to acidity measurements in most cases by pH = log 1/2[1/(H+)], where (H+) is the hydrogen ion concentration in gram equivalents per liter of solution. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
A non-essential amino acid. In animals it is synthesized from PHENYLALANINE. It is also the precursor of EPINEPHRINE; THYROID HORMONES; and melanin.
Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.
Endogenous substances, usually proteins, which are effective in the initiation, stimulation, or termination of the genetic transcription process.
Synthetic or natural oligonucleotides used in hybridization studies in order to identify and study specific nucleic acid fragments, e.g., DNA segments near or within a specific gene locus or gene. The probe hybridizes with a specific mRNA, if present. Conventional techniques used for testing for the hybridization product include dot blot assays, Southern blot assays, and DNA:RNA hybrid-specific antibody tests. Conventional labels for the probe include the radioisotope labels 32P and 125I and the chemical label biotin.
A covalently linked dimeric nonessential amino acid formed by the oxidation of CYSTEINE. Two molecules of cysteine are joined together by a disulfide bridge to form cystine.
Amino acids with side chains that are negatively charged at physiological pH.
Any member of the group of ENDOPEPTIDASES containing at the active site a serine residue involved in catalysis.
The parts of a transcript of a split GENE remaining after the INTRONS are removed. They are spliced together to become a MESSENGER RNA or other functional RNA.
A group of deoxyribonucleotides (up to 12) in which the phosphate residues of each deoxyribonucleotide act as bridges in forming diester linkages between the deoxyribose moieties.
The degree of similarity between sequences. Studies of AMINO ACID SEQUENCE HOMOLOGY and NUCLEIC ACID SEQUENCE HOMOLOGY provide useful information about the genetic relatedness of genes, gene products, and species.
The meaning ascribed to the BASE SEQUENCE with respect to how it is translated into AMINO ACID SEQUENCE. The start, stop, and order of amino acids of a protein is specified by consecutive triplets of nucleotides called codons (CODON).
A non-essential amino acid that is involved in the metabolic control of cell functions in nerve and brain tissue. It is biosynthesized from ASPARTIC ACID and AMMONIA by asparagine synthetase. (From Concise Encyclopedia Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 3rd ed)
The largest class of organic compounds, including STARCH; GLYCOGEN; CELLULOSE; POLYSACCHARIDES; and simple MONOSACCHARIDES. Carbohydrates are composed of carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen in a ratio of Cn(H2O)n.
Spectroscopic method of measuring the magnetic moment of elementary particles such as atomic nuclei, protons or electrons. It is employed in clinical applications such as NMR Tomography (MAGNETIC RESONANCE IMAGING).
The outward appearance of the individual. It is the product of interactions between genes, and between the GENOTYPE and the environment.
Any liquid or solid preparation made specifically for the growth, storage, or transport of microorganisms or other types of cells. The variety of media that exist allow for the culturing of specific microorganisms and cell types, such as differential media, selective media, test media, and defined media. Solid media consist of liquid media that have been solidified with an agent such as AGAR or GELATIN.
A mixture of related phosphoproteins occurring in milk and cheese. The group is characterized as one of the most nutritive milk proteins, containing all of the common amino acids and rich in the essential ones.
The phenomenon whereby compounds whose molecules have the same number and kind of atoms and the same atomic arrangement, but differ in their spatial relationships. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 5th ed)
A mutation in which a codon is mutated to one directing the incorporation of a different amino acid. This substitution may result in an inactive or unstable product. (From A Dictionary of Genetics, King & Stansfield, 5th ed)
Accumulation of a drug or chemical substance in various organs (including those not relevant to its pharmacologic or therapeutic action). This distribution depends on the blood flow or perfusion rate of the organ, the ability of the drug to penetrate organ membranes, tissue specificity, protein binding. The distribution is usually expressed as tissue to plasma ratios.
Conjugated protein-carbohydrate compounds including mucins, mucoid, and amyloid glycoproteins.
A species of CERCOPITHECUS containing three subspecies: C. tantalus, C. pygerythrus, and C. sabeus. They are found in the forests and savannah of Africa. The African green monkey (C. pygerythrus) is the natural host of SIMIAN IMMUNODEFICIENCY VIRUS and is used in AIDS research.
A basic science concerned with the composition, structure, and properties of matter; and the reactions that occur between substances and the associated energy exchange.
The location of the atoms, groups or ions relative to one another in a molecule, as well as the number, type and location of covalent bonds.
Processes involved in the formation of TERTIARY PROTEIN STRUCTURE.
Structurally related forms of an enzyme. Each isoenzyme has the same mechanism and classification, but differs in its chemical, physical, or immunological characteristics.
The functional hereditary units of VIRUSES.
The composition, conformation, and properties of atoms and molecules, and their reaction and interaction processes.
Proteins obtained from the species SACCHAROMYCES CEREVISIAE. The function of specific proteins from this organism are the subject of intense scientific interest and have been used to derive basic understanding of the functioning similar proteins in higher eukaryotes.
A theoretical representative nucleotide or amino acid sequence in which each nucleotide or amino acid is the one which occurs most frequently at that site in the different sequences which occur in nature. The phrase also refers to an actual sequence which approximates the theoretical consensus. A known CONSERVED SEQUENCE set is represented by a consensus sequence. Commonly observed supersecondary protein structures (AMINO ACID MOTIFS) are often formed by conserved sequences.
Multicellular, eukaryotic life forms of kingdom Plantae (sensu lato), comprising the VIRIDIPLANTAE; RHODOPHYTA; and GLAUCOPHYTA; all of which acquired chloroplasts by direct endosymbiosis of CYANOBACTERIA. They are characterized by a mainly photosynthetic mode of nutrition; essentially unlimited growth at localized regions of cell divisions (MERISTEMS); cellulose within cells providing rigidity; the absence of organs of locomotion; absence of nervous and sensory systems; and an alternation of haploid and diploid generations.
The study of crystal structure using X-RAY DIFFRACTION techniques. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
The chemical or biochemical addition of carbohydrate or glycosyl groups to other chemicals, especially peptides or proteins. Glycosyl transferases are used in this biochemical reaction.
The first continuously cultured human malignant CELL LINE, derived from the cervical carcinoma of Henrietta Lacks. These cells are used for VIRUS CULTIVATION and antitumor drug screening assays.
The introduction of a phosphoryl group into a compound through the formation of an ester bond between the compound and a phosphorus moiety.
A polynucleotide consisting essentially of chains with a repeating backbone of phosphate and ribose units to which nitrogenous bases are attached. RNA is unique among biological macromolecules in that it can encode genetic information, serve as an abundant structural component of cells, and also possesses catalytic activity. (Rieger et al., Glossary of Genetics: Classical and Molecular, 5th ed)
An essential amino acid that is required for the production of HISTAMINE.
The region of an enzyme that interacts with its substrate to cause the enzymatic reaction.
Enzymes that are part of the restriction-modification systems. They catalyze the endonucleolytic cleavage of DNA sequences which lack the species-specific methylation pattern in the host cell's DNA. Cleavage yields random or specific double-stranded fragments with terminal 5'-phosphates. The function of restriction enzymes is to destroy any foreign DNA that invades the host cell. Most have been studied in bacterial systems, but a few have been found in eukaryotic organisms. They are also used as tools for the systematic dissection and mapping of chromosomes, in the determination of base sequences of DNAs, and have made it possible to splice and recombine genes from one organism into the genome of another. EC 3.21.1.
A chromatographic technique that utilizes the ability of biological molecules to bind to certain ligands specifically and reversibly. It is used in protein biochemistry. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
CELL LINE derived from the ovary of the Chinese hamster, Cricetulus griseus (CRICETULUS). The species is a favorite for cytogenetic studies because of its small chromosome number. The cell line has provided model systems for the study of genetic alterations in cultured mammalian cells.
The commonest and widest ranging species of the clawed "frog" (Xenopus) in Africa. This species is used extensively in research. There is now a significant population in California derived from escaped laboratory animals.
Any of the processes by which cytoplasmic or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in bacteria.
A subclass of enzymes of the transferase class that catalyze the transfer of an amino group from a donor (generally an amino acid) to an acceptor (generally a 2-keto acid). Most of these enzymes are pyridoxyl phosphate proteins. (Dorland, 28th ed) EC 2.6.1.
A high-affinity, low capacity system y+ amino acid transporter found ubiquitously. It has specificity for the transport of ARGININE; LYSINE; and ORNITHINE. It may also act as an ecotropic leukemia retroviral receptor.
Enzymes that catalyze either the racemization or epimerization of chiral centers within amino acids or derivatives. EC 5.1.1.
The interaction of two or more substrates or ligands with the same binding site. The displacement of one by the other is used in quantitative and selective affinity measurements.
Antibodies produced by a single clone of cells.
The process by which two molecules of the same chemical composition form a condensation product or polymer.
Procedures by which protein structure and function are changed or created in vitro by altering existing or synthesizing new structural genes that direct the synthesis of proteins with sought-after properties. Such procedures may include the design of MOLECULAR MODELS of proteins using COMPUTER GRAPHICS or other molecular modeling techniques; site-specific mutagenesis (MUTAGENESIS, SITE-SPECIFIC) of existing genes; and DIRECTED MOLECULAR EVOLUTION techniques to create new genes.
Widely used technique which exploits the ability of complementary sequences in single-stranded DNAs or RNAs to pair with each other to form a double helix. Hybridization can take place between two complimentary DNA sequences, between a single-stranded DNA and a complementary RNA, or between two RNA sequences. The technique is used to detect and isolate specific sequences, measure homology, or define other characteristics of one or both strands. (Kendrew, Encyclopedia of Molecular Biology, 1994, p503)
Membrane proteins whose primary function is to facilitate the transport of molecules across a biological membrane. Included in this broad category are proteins involved in active transport (BIOLOGICAL TRANSPORT, ACTIVE), facilitated transport and ION CHANNELS.
Peptides composed of two amino acid units.
A chemical reaction in which an electron is transferred from one molecule to another. The electron-donating molecule is the reducing agent or reductant; the electron-accepting molecule is the oxidizing agent or oxidant. Reducing and oxidizing agents function as conjugate reductant-oxidant pairs or redox pairs (Lehninger, Principles of Biochemistry, 1982, p471).
Enzymes that act at a free C-terminus of a polypeptide to liberate a single amino acid residue.
A primary source of energy for living organisms. It is naturally occurring and is found in fruits and other parts of plants in its free state. It is used therapeutically in fluid and nutrient replacement.
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
The movement of materials across cell membranes and epithelial layers against an electrochemical gradient, requiring the expenditure of metabolic energy.
The ability of a substance to be dissolved, i.e. to form a solution with another substance. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
The process of cumulative change over successive generations through which organisms acquire their distinguishing morphological and physiological characteristics.
Hydrolases that specifically cleave the peptide bonds found in PROTEINS and PEPTIDES. Examples of sub-subclasses for this group include EXOPEPTIDASES and ENDOPEPTIDASES.
... modulates carcinogenic pathways". Amino Acids. 35 (4): 681-90. doi:10.1007/s00726-008-0063-4. PMID 18401543. Graham SC, Lilley ... Proline and hydroyxyproline make up a quarter of the amino acid residues in collegen, which is the most abundant protein in the ... As shown in Intermediate I of the figure, three potential acidic amino acid residues interact with the N-terminus of the ... Surazynski A, Miltyk W, Palka J, Phang JM (Nov 2008). "Prolidase-dependent regulation of collagen biosynthesis". Amino Acids. ...
Herrmann K, Entus R (2001). "Shikimate Pathway: Aromatic Amino Acids and Beyond". Encyclopedia of Life Sciences. doi:10.1038/ ... each of which sensitive to one of the amino acids produced in the shikimate pathway.[3] In a study of DAHP synthase sensitive ... Since it is the first enzyme in the shikimate pathway, it controls the amount of carbon entering the pathway. Enzyme inhibition ... which is responsible for the biosynthesis of the amino acids phenylalanine, tyrosine, and tryptophan. ...
HMB is a metabolite of the amino acid leucine (Van Koverin and Nissen 1992), an essential amino acid. The first step in HMB ... Human metabolic pathway for HMB and isovaleryl-CoA relative to L-leucine.[1][2][3] Of the two major pathways, L-leucine is ... Isovaleryl-coenzyme A, also known as isovaleryl-CoA, is an intermediate in the metabolism of branched-chain amino acids.[1][2][ ... Following this pathway, HMB in the cytosol is first converted to cytosolic β-hydroxy-β-methylglutaryl-CoA (HMG-CoA), which can ...
HMB is a metabolite of the amino acid leucine (Van Koverin and Nissen 1992), an essential amino acid. The first step in HMB ... Human metabolic pathway for HMB and isovaleryl-CoA relative to L-leucine.[1][2][3] Of the two major pathways, L-leucine is ... Following this pathway, HMB in the cytosol is first converted to cytosolic β-hydroxy-β-methylglutaryl-CoA (HMG-CoA), which can ... may follow one of two pathways. In the first, HMB is produced from [α-KIC] by the cytosolic enzyme KIC dioxygenase (Sabourin ...
Sprenger GA (2007). "Aromatic Amino Acids". Amino Acid Biosynthesis: Pathways, Regulation and Metabolic Engineering (1st ed.). ... Fatty Acids, Cholesterol, Protein, and Amino Acids. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. pp. 589-768. Broadley KJ ( ... Phenylalanine (symbol Phe or F) is an essential α-amino acid with the formula C 9H 11NO 2. It can be viewed as a benzyl group ... This essential amino acid is classified as neutral, and nonpolar because of the inert and hydrophobic nature of the benzyl side ...
Serotonin is synthesized from an amino acid called L-tryptophan. Active transport system regulates the uptake of tryptophan ... Serotonergic pathways are classified into two main ways in the brain; the ascending projections from the medial and dorsal ...
This is one of the major degradation pathways which convert essential amino acids to nonessential amino acids (amino acids that ... Transamination, a chemical reaction that transfers an amino group to a ketoacid to form new amino acids. This pathway is ... Being a major degradative aminoacid pathway, lysine, proline and threonine are the only three amino acids that do not always ... During the second stage, the amino group is transferred to the keto acid acceptor, forming the amino acid product while ...
The N-terminus (one end) of a polypeptide chain (i.e., a protein) contains a few amino acids that work as an address tag, which ... This special complex forms when a free ribosome begins translating the mRNA of a protein destined for the secretory pathway.[10 ... This motif is composed of four amino acids at the end of the protein sequence. The most common retention sequences are KDEL for ... The first 5-30 amino acids polymerized encode a signal peptide, a molecular message that is recognized and bound by a signal ...
VIP is a peptide of 28 amino acid residues that belongs to a glucagon/secretin superfamily, the ligand of class II G protein- ... Pathway at biocarta.com Nosek, Thomas M. "Section 6/6ch2/s6ch2_34". Essentials of Human Physiology. Archived from the original ... Delgado M, Ganea D (July 2013). "Vasoactive intestinal peptide: a neuropeptide with pleiotropic immune functions". Amino Acids ... Then it will activate gene expression pathways such as Per1 and Per2 in circadian rhythm. In addition, GABA levels are ...
Nutrients that are commonly used by animal and plant cells in respiration include sugar, amino acids and fatty acids, and the ... Major metabolic pathways in metro-style map. Click any text (name of pathway or metabolites) to link to the corresponding ... Citric acid cycle. Main article: Citric acid cycle. This is also called the Krebs cycle or the tricarboxylic acid cycle. When ... Blue nodes: amino acid metabolism. Grey nodes: vitamin and cofactor metabolism. Brown nodes: nucleotide and protein metabolism. ...
Nutrients used in cellular respiration include carbohydrates, amino acids and fatty acids. These nutrients are oxidized to ... Major metabolic pathways in metro-style map. Click any text (name of pathway or metabolites) to link to the corresponding ... Blue nodes: amino acid metabolism. Grey nodes: vitamin and cofactor metabolism. Brown nodes: nucleotide and protein metabolism. ... creating the four-carbon organic acid oxaloacetic acid. Oxaloacetic acid or malate synthesized by this process is then ...
Blue nodes: amino acid metabolism. Grey nodes: vitamin and cofactor metabolism. Brown nodes: nucleotide and protein metabolism. ... Major metabolic pathways in metro-style map. Click any text (name of pathway or metabolites) to link to the corresponding ... If propionic acid, butyric acid, and longer monocarboxylic acids are produced (see mixed acid fermentation), the amount of ... Lactic acid[edit]. Main article: Lactic acid fermentation. Homolactic fermentation (producing only lactic acid) is the simplest ...
... conversion of chorismate to prephenate is the first committed step in the pathway to the production of the aromatic amino acids ... Its role in maintaining the balance of these aromatic amino acids in the cell is vital.[2] This is the single known example of ... Chorismate mutase is found at a branch point in the pathway. The enzyme channels the substrate, chorismate to the biosynthesis ... is an enzyme that catalyzes the chemical reaction for the conversion of chorismate to prephenate in the pathway to the ...
Azevedo RA (2002). "Analysis of the aspartic acid metabolic pathway using mutant genes". Amino Acids. 22 (3): 217-230. doi: ... Likewise, (S) 2-amino-4-oxo-5-hydroxypentanoic acid (RI-331), another amino acid analog, has also been shown to inhibit HSD. ... The aspartate metabolic pathway is involved in both storage of asparagine and in synthesis of aspartate-family amino acids. ... As lysine, threonine, methionine, and isoleucine are made in this pathway, they are considered essential amino acids for ...
One stream involves the shikimate pathway to produce the amino acid phenylalanine, (see phenylpropanoids) ... UGT84A2 encodes sinapic acid: UDP-glucosyltransferase.[58] Genetic analysis[edit]. The phenolic metabolic pathways and enzymes ... In Arabidopsis thaliana, two glycosyltransferases, UGT79B1 and UGT84A2, are involved in the anthocyanin biosynthetic pathway. ... Anthocyanins belong to a parent class of molecules called flavonoids synthesized via the phenylpropanoid pathway. They occur in ...
Johnson, J. Casey; Korley, LaShanda T. J. (2012). "Enhanced mechanical pathways through nature's building blocks: amino acids ...
... is a chemical substance which is naturally created from the amino acid arginine. Agmatine has been shown to exert ... An alternative pathway, mainly in peripheral tissues, is by diamine oxidase-catalyzed oxidation into agmatine-aldehyde, which ... Amino Acids. 26 (4): 321-9. doi:10.1007/s00726-004-0078-4. PMID 15290337. S2CID 23116711. Marc RE (April 1999). "Mapping ... The term stems from A- (for amino-) + g- (from guanidine) + -ma- (from ptomaine) + -in (German)/-ine (English) suffix with ...
... fatty acids and polyketides Shikimate pathway → aromatic amino acids and phenylpropanoids Mevalonate pathway and ... Vitamin B5 (pantothenic acid) is a constituent of coenzyme A, a basic component of carbohydrate and amino acid metabolism as ... Primary metabolites include carbohydrates, lipids, amino acids, and nucleic acids which are the basic building blocks of life. ... are condensed by fatty acid synthase to produce fatty acids. Fatty acid are essential components of lipid bilayers that form ...
It may be secreted via a non-classical pathway. NCBI identifies a protein domain of unknown function between amino acids Asp435 ... The potential SH3-binding domain exists within a low complexity region with an unusually high number of amino acids with oxygen ... A helical region between amino acids 610-655 was predicted to be a coiled coil motif. A PHYRE2 protein structure prediction ... represents any other amino acid (highlighted in blue below). These domains have been shown to participate in protein-protein ...
DKK proteins are glycoproteins consisting of 255-350 amino acids. DKK1, DKK2, and DKK4 have similar molecular weights, at 24-29 ... The most well-studied is Dickkopf-related protein 1 (DKK1). DKK proteins inhibit the Wnt signaling pathway coreceptors LRP5 and ...
The genes for several vital metabolic pathways appear to be missing. Nanoarchaeum cannot synthesize most nucleotides, amino ... It lacks almost all of the genes required for the synthesis of amino acids, nucleotides, cofactors, and lipids, but encodes ... It does have five subunits of an ATP synthase as well as pathways for oxidative deamination. Whether it obtains energy from ... acids, lipids, and cofactors. The cell most likely obtains these biomolecules from Ignicoccus. In particular, N. equitans lacks ...
... is a product of the KISS1 gene which is cleaved from an initial 145 amino acid peptide to a 54 amino acid long ... It has been concluded that the activation of the GPR54/kisspeptin pathway is a catalyst that leads to puberty onset.[15] ... one of these pieces is made up of 54 amino acids, while in mice it is made up of 52 amino acids.[14] This fragment is then ... Among these conserved amino acids are arginine and phenylalanine residues, which are paired in this family of peptides. Also ...
"Semisynthetic production of unnatural L-alpha-amino acids by metabolic engineering of the cysteine-biosynthetic pathway". ... most amino acids were not catalysed, whereas the next most catalysed native amino acid was the structurally similar tyrosine, ... When the specificity of enzyme was probed, it was found that it was highly selective against natural amino acids that were not ... Due to the very low number of amino acid changes, these provide an excellent model to investigate enzyme evolution in nature. ...
"Excitatory amino acids in synaptic transmission in the Schaffer collateral-commissural pathway of the rat hippocampus". The ... simultaneous strong stimulation of another pathway will induce LTP at both pathways.[citation needed]. Cooperativity. LTP can ... which prevented LTP in this pathway.[24] Conversely, LTP in the mossy fiber pathway is NMDA receptor-independent, even though ... The variety of signaling pathways that contribute to LTP and the wide distribution of these various pathways in the brain are ...
Amino acid metabolism[edit]. *PLP is a cofactor in the biosynthesis of five important neurotransmitters: serotonin, dopamine, ... Part of this pathway (the reaction catalyzed by cystathionase) also produces cysteine. ... Its active form, pyridoxal 5′-phosphate, serves as a coenzyme in some 100 enzyme reactions in amino acid, glucose, and lipid ... Transaminases break down amino acids with PLP as a cofactor. The proper activity of these enzymes is crucial for the process of ...
Lipton, S.A.; Rosenberg, P.A.; Rosenberg, Paul A. (1994). "Excitatory amino acids as a final common pathway for neurological ... Meldrum BS (1986). "Drugs acting on amino acid neurotransmitters". Adv Neurol. 43: 687-706. PMID 2868623. Jenner P; Pratt JA; ... The pathway by which clonazepam is metabolized is usually impaired in newborns. If clonazepam is used during pregnancy or ... Clonazepam has no effect on GABA levels and has no effect on gamma-aminobutyric acid transaminase. Clonazepam does, however, ...
Phosphorylation is the addition of a phosphate group to amino acids. It is mainly associated with cellular signaling pathways ... Glycation is the addition of a sugar molecule to an amino acid and is associated with pathologies including renal failure and ... WDCP protein isoform 1 is 721 amino acids in length. Its molecular weight is 79 kDa and the theoretical isoelectric point is ... Compositional analysis of WDCP Isoform 1 shows no extremely high or low levels of particular amino acids. The protein contains ...
In addition, amino acid consumption will stimulate mTORC1 through the branched chain amino acid/Rag pathway. Thus dietary ... Thus the amino acid pathway as well as the growth factor/energy pathway converge on endosomes and lysosomes. Thus the Ragulator ... When amino acids are introduced to a deprived cell, the presence of amino acids causes Rag GTPase heterodimers to switch to ... NV-5138 is a ligand and modulator of sestrin2, a leucine amino acid sensor and upstream regulatory pathway of mTORC1, and is ...
Sprenger, George A. (May 2007). "Aromatic amino acids". Amino acid biosynthesis: pathways, regulation and metabolic engineering ... "Nomenclature and Symbolism for Amino Acids and Peptides". Recommendations on Organic & Biochemical Nomenclature, Symbols & ...
Shome B، Parlow AF، Liu WK، Nahm HS، Wen T، Ward DN (سبتمبر 1989). "A reevaluation of the amino acid sequence of human ... hormone-mediated signaling pathway. • follicle-stimulating hormone signaling pathway. • regulation of receptor activity. • G- ... Saxena BB، Rathnam P (1976). "Amino acid sequence of the beta subunit of follicle-stimulating hormone from human pituitary ... Shome B، Parlow AF (1974). "Human follicle stimulating hormone: first proposal for the amino acid sequence of the hormone- ...
... amino acid therapy may be helpful for regenerating damaged or atrophied muscle tissue. The branched-chain amino acids or BCAAs ... Therefore, one way in which not exercise induces an increase in muscle mass is to down regulate the pathways which have the ... Since the absence of muscle-building amino acids can contribute to muscle wasting (that which is torn down must be rebuilt with ... in addition to lysine and other amino acids. In severe cases of muscular atrophy, the use of an anabolic steroid such as ...
Thr where X is any amino acid except proline. This sequence is called a glycosylation sequon. The reaction catalyzed by OST is ... They are labelled "Type II" if the defective step occurs after the action of OST in the N-linked glycosylation pathway or ... CDG syndromes are genetic disorders of the glycosylation pathway. They are labelled "Type I" if the defective gene is for an ... Dempski RE, Imperiali B (December 2002). "Oligosaccharyl transferase: gatekeeper to the secretory pathway". Curr Opin Chem Biol ...
... amino acids, and chemical signals, such as adenosine, GABA, and glycine. The pre-Bötzinger complex produces two types of ... or inhibit the NALCN channels depending on the neurotransmitter that binds the receptor and the specific signaling pathway that ...
... rich in hydroxylated amino acids such as serine, threonine, and proline, and poor in acidic amino acids like aspartic acid and ... In those cases, chloroplast-targeted proteins do initially travel along the secretory pathway).[39] ... Chloroplast transit peptides exhibit huge variation in length and amino acid sequence.[42] They can be from 20-150 amino acids ... Tic100 is a nuclear encoded protein that's 871 amino acids long. The 871 amino acids collectively weigh slightly less than 100 ...
... the enzyme responsible for converting the amino acid tyrosine to the skin pigment melanin, and is used to treat acne-associated ... Taylor M, Gonzalez M, Porter R (May-June 2011). "Pathways to inflammation: acne pathophysiology". European Journal of ... Salicylic acid[edit]. Salicylic acid is a topically applied beta-hydroxy acid that stops bacteria from reproducing and has ... "Topical azelaic acid, salicylic acid, nicotinamide, sulphur, zinc and fruit acid (alpha-hydroxy acid) for acne". Cochrane ...
... (SP) is an undecapeptide (a peptide composed of a chain of 11 amino acid residues) member of the tachykinin ... Different emetic pathways exist, and substance P/NK1R appears to be within the final common pathway to regulate vomiting.[36] ... Amino acid residues that are responsible for the binding of SP and its antagonists are present in the extracellular loops and ... Ebner K, Singewald N (Oct 2006). "The role of substance P in stress and anxiety responses". Amino Acids. 31 (3): 251-72. doi: ...
S)-2-Amino-3-[4-(4-hydroxy-3,5-diiodophenoxy)-3,5-diiodophenyl]propanoic acid ... The primary pathway of thyroid hormone metabolism is through sequential deiodination.[20] The liver is the main site of T4 ...
... a gain of function after protein expansion from around 400 amino acids in Caulobacter crescentus to more than 800 amino acids ... Multiple additional regulatory pathways integral to cell cycle regulation and involving both phospho signaling pathways and ... The principal role of these signaling pathways is to ensure reliable production and elimination of the CtrA protein from the ... Several additional cell signaling pathways are also essential to the proper functioning of this cell cycle engine. ...
Branched-chain amino acid aminotransferase. *Alanine-glyoxylate transaminase *AGXT. 2.6.3: Oximinotransferases. * ... This enzyme participates in 4 metabolic pathways: alanine and aspartate metabolism, valine, leucine and isoleucine degradation ...
... with its affinity for amino acids, permits charged species of endogenous and exogenous origin to take up residence.[2] ... Three general pathways of the diagenesis of bone have been identified: *chemical deterioration of the organic phase. ...
... a derivative of amino acid beta-alanine), oil of lemon eucalyptus (OLE, a natural compound) and OLE's active ingredient para- ... Bolz DD, Weis JJ (August 2004). "Molecular mimicry to Borrelia burgdorferi: pathway to autoimmunity?". Autoimmunity. 37 (5): ... The spirochetes may also induce host cells to secrete quinolinic acid, which stimulates the NMDA receptor on nerve cells, which ... the IDSA recommends treatment with cefuroxime or amoxicillin/clavulanic acid, as these are effective against both infections.[ ...
L-α-Amino acids (incl. L-arginine, L-lysine, L-ornithine). *Osteocalcin ... Häggström, Mikael; Richfield, David (2014). "Diagram of the pathways of human steroidogenesis". WikiJournal of Medicine. 1 (1 ... Androgens have potential roles in relaxation of the myometrium via non-genomic, androgen receptor-independent pathways, ... results indicate androgens inhibit the ability of some fat cells to store lipids by blocking a signal transduction pathway that ...
Substitution mutations (which alter a single amino acid) have also been shown to give rise to the disease. RSK2 is highly ... RSK2 is involved at the distal end of the Ras/MAPK signaling pathway. Mutations in the RPS6KA3 disturb the function of the ... The protein is involved in cell signaling pathways that are required for learning, the formation of long-term memories, and the ...
"Complete amino acid sequence of the human progesterone receptor deduced from cloned cDNA". Biochemical and Biophysical Research ... progesterone receptor signaling pathway. • tertiary branching involved in mammary gland duct morphogenesis. ... which are identical except for an additional 165 amino acids present only in the N terminus of hPR-B.[12] Although hPR-B shares ... at the amino acid terminal. This segment is not present in the receptor-A. ...
Phenylalanine is an amino acid that can be obtained from food. Phenylketonuria causes this amino acid to increase in amount in ... "Transcriptome Profiling of Peripheral Blood in 22q11.2 Deletion Syndrome Reveals Functional Pathways Related to Psychosis and ... which converts the amino acid phenylalanine to tyrosine. Depending on the mutation involved, this conversion is reduced or ...
... their opsins differ in only 15 out of 363 amino acids, so nobody has yet succeeded in producing specific antibodies to them. ... bipolar and ganglion cells pass those signals from S cones and there is evidence that they have a separate signal pathway ...
Inclusion of the amino acid L-tryptophan, a precursor of 5HT, in the feed of rainbow trout made the trout less aggressive and ... The CNS regulates the immune system through neuroendocrine pathways, such as the HPA axis. The HPA axis is responsible for ... though via different pathways.[16] Several monoamine neurotransmitters are important in regulating the HPA axis, especially ...
In humans, RAD51 is a 339-amino acid protein that plays a major role in homologous recombination of DNA during double strand ... The breast cancer susceptibility protein BRCA2 and PALB2 controls the function of Rad51 in the pathway for DNA repair by ... They each share about 25% amino acid sequence identity with RAD51 and with each other.[28] ... "Nucleic Acids Research. 25 (19): 3868-74. doi:10.1093/nar/25.19.3868. PMC 146972 . PMID 9380510.. ...
... it lacks D-amino acids and N-acetylmuramic acid.[102]. Archaea flagella operate like bacterial flagella-their long stalks are ... the Entner-Doudoroff pathway) and either a complete or partial citric acid cycle.[116] These similarities to other organisms ... Deppenmeier, U. (2002). "The unique biochemistry of methanogenesis". Prog Nucleic Acid Res Mol Biol. Progress in Nucleic Acid ... acetic acid or formic acid are used as alternative electron acceptors by methanogens. These reactions are common in gut- ...
The single-letter amino acid abbreviation (e.g., K for Lysine) and the amino acid position in the protein ... H3K36me3 has the ability to recruit the MSH2-MSH6 (hMutSα) complex of the DNA mismatch repair pathway.[96] Consistently, ... compared amino acid compositions in the same histone from different organisms, and compared amino acid sequences of the same ... 3. Complete amino acid sequence of pea seedling histone IV; comparison with the homologous calf thymus histone". The Journal of ...
Escherichia coli strains have also been successfully engineered to produce butanol by modifying their amino acid metabolism.[36 ... Multiple pathways for the conversion of different biofuel feedstocks are being used. In the next few years, the cost data of ... The fuel is created from general urban waste which is treated by bacteria to produce fatty acids, which can be used to make ... Chemically, it consists mostly of fatty acid methyl (or ethyl) esters (FAMEs). Feedstocks for biodiesel include animal fats, ...
McMullen BA, Fujikawa K, Kisiel W, et al. (1983). „Complete amino acid sequence of the light chain of human blood coagulation ... preferential expression of the FVII/tissue factor pathway". Blood 76 (6), 1158-64. o. PMID 1698100. ... factor X: evidence for identification of residue 63 as beta-hydroxyaspartic acid". Biochemistry 22 (12), 2875-84. o. DOI: ...
The glycogen phosphorylase monomer is a large protein, composed of 842 amino acids with a mass of 97.434 kDa in muscle cells. ... metabolic pathway. PRIAM. profile. PDB structures. RCSB PDB PDBe PDBsum. Gene Ontology. AmiGO / QuickGO. ...
They are involved in catabolism of very long chain fatty acids, branched chain fatty acids, D-amino acids, and polyamines, ... of the total activity of two enzymes in the pentose phosphate pathway, which is important for energy metabolism.[4] It is ... Peroxisomes contain oxidative enzymes, such as D-amino acid oxidase and uric acid oxidase.[9] However the last enzyme is absent ... Specific amino acid sequences (PTS or peroxisomal targeting signal) at the C-terminus (PTS1) or N-terminus (PTS2) of ...
1986). «Amino acid sequence of a specific antigenic peptide of protein B23.». J. Biol. Chem. 261 (30): 14335-41. PMID 2429957. ... 2008). «Nucleolar protein B23/nucleophosmin regulates the vertebrate SUMO pathway through SENP3 and SENP5 proteases.». J Cell ... Chan PK, Aldrich M, Cook RG, Busch H (1986). «Amino acid sequence of protein B23 phosphorylation site.». J. Biol. Chem. 261 (4 ... Nucleic Acids Res. 17 (23). 10112 páginas. PMC 335249. . PMID 2602120. *. Chan WY, Liu QR, Borjigin J; et al. (1989). « ...
Analysis of nucleic acids structures[edit]. Psoralens can reversibly crosslink nucleic acids double helices, and therefore have ... A biosynthetic pathway in which psoralen is formed is shown in the figure below. A second P-450-dependent monooxygenase enzyme ... The synthetic amino-psoralen, amotosalen HCl, has been developed for the inactivation of infectious pathogens (bacteria, ... such as ring opening by alkali to give a coumarinic acid or coumaric acid derivative. Potassium permanganate causes oxidation ...
... and differences with previous cDNA and amino acid sequences". DNA and Cell Biology. 9 (2): 85-94. doi:10.1089/dna.1990.9.85. ... Voet DJ, Voet JG, Pratt CW (2008). "Additional Pathways in Carbohydrate Metabolism". Principles of Biochemistry, Third edition ... Acid alpha-glucosidase, also called α-1,4-glucosidase[5] and acid maltase,[6] is an enzyme (EC 3.2.1.20) that helps to break ... Different forms of acid alpha-glucosidase are obtained by proteolytic processing. Defects in this gene are the cause of ...
... results in an amino acid switch: valine to methionine exchange at codon 66, Val66Met, which is in the prodomain of BDNF.[39][38 ... BDNF can promote protective pathways and inhibit damaging pathways in the NSCs and NPCs that contribute to the brain's ... as the amino acid change occurs on the portion of the prodomain where sortilin binds; and sortilin is essential for normal ... The activation of the BDNF-TrkB pathway is important in the development of short-term memory and the growth of neurons.[ ...
... we show how interference with CYP enzymes acts synergistically with disruption of the biosynthesis of aromatic amino acids by ... Glyphosates Suppression of Cytochrome P450 Enzymes and Amino Acid Biosynthesis by the Gut Microbiome: Pathways to Modern ... "Glyphosates Suppression of Cytochrome P450 Enzymes and Amino Acid Biosynthesis by the Gut Microbiome: Pathways to Modern ... Glyphosates Suppression of Cytochrome P450 Enzymes and Amino Acid Biosynthesis by the Gut Microbiome: Pathways to Modern ...
Topics discussed are the amino acid biosynthetic pathways, their genetic and bioc ... Amino Acids Biosynthesis presents the current knowledge of fundamental as well as applied microbiology of amino acids. ... Topics discussed are the amino acid biosynthetic pathways, their genetic and biochemical regulation, transport of amino acids ... Amino Acids Biosynthesis presents the current knowledge of fundamental as well as applied microbiology of amino acids. ...
Biosynthesis of amino acids [ Pathway menu , Pathway entry , Show description , Image (png) file , Help ] This map presents a ... and basic amino acids (bottom), and the pathways for biosynthesis of histidine and aromatic amino acids (top right). It is ... 2-Oxocarboxylic acid chain modification * RM002 Carboxyl to amino conversion using protective N-acetyl group (basic amino acid ... 2-Oxocarboxylic acid chain extension * RM001 2-Oxocarboxylic acid chain extension by tricarboxylic acid pathway ...
... an amino acid that is a vital component of proteins in all living organisms. ... Purdue University researchers have discovered a microbial-like pathway in plants that produces phenylalanine, ... "This alternative pathway provides a whole new avenue to synthesize phenylalanine.". Phenylalanine is an aromatic amino acid ... Purdue University researchers have discovered a microbial-like pathway in plants that produces phenylalanine, an amino acid ...
Figure 3 : Giraffe genes and pathways exhibiting extraordinary divergence and patterns of amino acid substitutions.. From: ... a) Giraffe FGFRL1 contains seven amino acid substitutions that are unique at fixed sites in other mammals and/or are predicted ... The giraffe and okapi MDC1 gene exhibits a 264 amino acid deletion that removes part of the SDT region that harbours two ... P48S is within β-sheet-1 that forms part of the folic acid-binding pocket. The FOLR1 protein forms a globular structure ...
Excitatory Amino Acid Auditory Nerve Cochlear Nucleus Ventral Cochlear Nucleus Inhibitory Amino Acid These keywords were added ... It is not surprising that evidence supports an excitatory amino acid transmitter and an ionotropic excitatory amino acid ... Inhibitory Amino Acid Synapses and Pathways in the Ventral Cochlear Nucleus. In: Merchán M.A., Juiz J.M., Godfrey D.A., ... Much evidence suggests that an excitatory amino acid is the auditory nerve transmitter (chapter in this volume by Juiz et al.; ...
... Author(s). Noguchi, Yasushi; ... 2010) Ketogenic Essential Amino Acids Modulate Lipid Synthetic Pathways and Prevent Hepatic Steatosis in Mice. PLoS ONE 5(8): ... Methodology/Principal Findings We designed a diet with a high ratio (E/N) of essential amino acids (EAAs) to non-EAAs by ... Background Although dietary ketogenic essential amino acid (KAA) content modifies accumulation of hepatic lipids, the molecular ...
Biosynthesis of amino acids - Reference pathway [ Pathway menu , Pathway entry , Show description , Image (png) file , Help ] ... and basic amino acids (bottom), and the pathways for biosynthesis of histidine and aromatic amino acids (top right). It is ... 2-Oxocarboxylic acid chain modification * RM002 Carboxyl to amino conversion using protective N-acetyl group (basic amino acid ... 2-Oxocarboxylic acid chain extension * RM001 2-Oxocarboxylic acid chain extension by tricarboxylic acid pathway ...
Branched-chain Amino Acids, and Resistance Exercise on Skeletal Muscle Signaling Pathways. The safety and scientific validity ... Effects of Leucine, Branched-chain Amino Acids, and Resistance Exercise on Skeletal Muscle Remodelling Signaling Pathways: a ... This study aims to evaluate the effects of leucine and branched-chain amino acids supplementation on skeletal muscle remodeling ... Expression of protein involved in proteolytic pathway. *Inflammation [ Time Frame: 1 hour ]. Expression of systemic and ...
... such as increasing free amino acid contents and decreasing soluble protein contents. To investigate proteolytic activities upon ... Although these herbicides inhibit different pathways, they have been reported to show several common physiological effects in ... Conclusion These results suggest that several proteolytic pathways are responsible for protein degradation upon herbicide ... inhibit the biosynthesis of aromatic and branched-chain amino acids, respectively. ...
... is transcriptionally activated by many stimuli and by amino acid deprivation. CHOP induction was considered to be due to an ... Amino acid limitation regulates CHOP expression through a specific pathway independent of the unfolded protein response FEBS ... We conclude that amino acid deprivation does not activate the UPR and regulates CHOP expression through a pathway that is ... The gene encoding CHOP (C/EBP-homologous protein) is transcriptionally activated by many stimuli and by amino acid deprivation ...
Incorporation of nitrogen from 15N-labeled amino acids into other amino acids in A. pisum. Aphids were fed the indicated amino ... Analysis of amino acids from aphids fed on these diets showed that, in all amino acids detected, there was incorporation of ... Individual amino acids in the aphid diet of either a combination of aspartic acid and asparagine or glutamic acid and glutamine ... 2). This indicated that 15N or 13C from the labeled amino acids was incorporated into the newly formed amino acids. However, it ...
This study addresses the effects of branched-chain amino acids (BCAA) on global gene expression in liver and skeletal muscle ... DNA microarray analysis identified molecular pathways mediating the effects of supplementation of branched-chain amino acids on ... SCOPE: This study addresses the effects of branched-chain amino acids (BCAA) on global gene expression in liver and skeletal ... Downregulation of fatty acid translocase (FAT)/Cd36, glutamine synthetase, and pyruvate dehydrogenase kinase isoenzyme 4 is ...
... Author(s). Rabideau, Amy; ... "A d-Amino Acid at the N-Terminus of a Protein Abrogates Its Degradation by the N-End Rule Pathway." ACS Central Science 1.8 ( ... Characterization of the N-end rule has been limited to only the natural l-amino acids. Using a cytosolic delivery platform ... In all cases, we observed that one N-terminal d-amino acid stabilized the cargo protein to proteasomal degradation with respect ...
... the amino acid sensor is not an amino acid carrier or (ii) several amino acid transporters could be connected to a common ... In mammals, the nature of the upstream amino acid sensor that could activate the JNK pathway in the context of low amino acid ... An amino acid response element (AARE) was identified in the promoters of these genes and can confer amino acid responsiveness ... Model of amino acid starvation-induced AARE-dependent transcription in human cells. In response to amino acid starvation, two ...
Apical reabsorption of dibasic amino acids and cystine in kidney is mediated by the heteromeric amino acid antiporter rBAT/b0,+ ... Interactions between the thiol-group reagent N-ethylmaleimide and neutral and basic amino acid transporter-related amino acid ... and basic-amino-acid transporter heavy-chain subunit contribute to functional properties of the system b0,+-type amino acid ... Cystinuria-specific rBAT(R365W) mutation reveals two translocation pathways in the amino acid transporter rBAT-b0,+AT Marta ...
15] showed, for the first time, that amino acid could activate this pathway. As expected in Figure 5(A), an amino acid mixture ... Amino acids trigger down-regulation of superoxide via TORC pathway in the midgut of Rhodnius prolixus Ana Caroline P. Gandara ... Amino acids from blood proteins trigger down-regulation of ROS in the midgut via TORC pathway. To determine the signalling ... Amino acids from blood proteins trigger down-regulation of ROS in the midgut via TORC pathway. Figure 5 ...
... and Application of Dimethylated Amino Acids as Isobaric Tags for Quantitative Proteomics of the TGF-β/Smad3 Signaling Pathway. ... and Application of Dimethylated Amino Acids as Isobaric Tags for Quantitative Proteomics of the TGF-β/Smad3 Signaling Pathway. ...
The Cpc1 Regulator of the Cross-Pathway Control of Amino Acid Biosynthesis Is Required for Pathogenicity of the Vascular ... longisporum to induce the cross-pathway control of amino acid biosynthesis. RNA-mediated gene silencing reduced the expression ... Consistently, deletion of single CPC1 of the haploid V. dahliae resulted in strains that are sensitive to amino-acid starvation ... The xylem fluid provides an environment with limited carbon sources and unbalanced amino acid supply, which requires V. ...
l-Type amino acid transporters such as LAT1 and LAT3 mediate the uptake of essential amino acids. Here, we report that prostate ... Amino acid transporters regulate intracellular amino acid levels; thus, changes in transporter expression or activity may alter ... of androgen response and amino acid stress pathways working in concert to maintain adequate intracellular amino acid levels ... cancer cells respond to demands for increased essential amino acids by coordinately activating amino acid transporter pathways ...
A Single-Amino-Acid Substitution in Obg Activates a New Programmed Cell Death Pathway in Escherichia coli. Liselot Dewachter, ... A Single-Amino-Acid Substitution in Obg Activates a New Programmed Cell Death Pathway in Escherichia coli ... A Single-Amino-Acid Substitution in Obg Activates a New Programmed Cell Death Pathway in Escherichia coli ... A Single-Amino-Acid Substitution in Obg Activates a New Programmed Cell Death Pathway in Escherichia coli ...
a The biosynthetic pathways leading to these 11 amino acids involve multiple steps. The number of genes in each pathway in S. ... Retention and Loss of Amino Acid Biosynthetic Pathways Based on Analysis of Whole-Genome Sequences. Samuel H. Payne, William F ... Retention and Loss of Amino Acid Biosynthetic Pathways Based on Analysis of Whole-Genome Sequences ... Retention and Loss of Amino Acid Biosynthetic Pathways Based on Analysis of Whole-Genome Sequences ...
Sorbitol Pathway in the Ciliary Body in Relation to Accumulation of Amino Acids in the Aqueous Humor of Alloxan-Diabetic ... Sorbitol Pathway in the Ciliary Body in Relation to Accumulation of Amino Acids in the Aqueous Humor of Alloxan-Diabetic ... V. N. REDDY, B. CHAKRAPANI, D. STEEN; Sorbitol Pathway in the Ciliary Body in Relation to Accumulation of Amino Acids in the ... Role of a Dual Splicing and Amino Acid Code in Myopia, Cone Dysfunction and Cone Dystrophy Associated with L/M Opsin ...
... Zhen Ma,ठ... Nucleic Acids Res. 2009;37:1174-1181. [PMC free article] [PubMed]. 12. Xiao Z, Donnelly PS, Zimmermann M, Wedd AG. Inorg. Chem ... Elucidation of structural and dynamical pathways of communication or coupling between ligand binding sites, i.e., classical ...
Scientists discover essential amino acid sensor in key growth-regulating metabolic pathway. ... Amino acid shortage curbs proliferation in cells with mitochondrial dysfunction. Scientists identify first nutrient sensor in ... "Weve always wanted to find it because weve known that leucine is one of the most important amino acids for the (mTORC1) ... "This was a big surprise for us, that theres an amino acid interaction with GATOR2 thats specific for leucine," says ...
Identification of possible evolutionary pathways of Plum pox virus and predicting amino acid residues of importance to host ... 1163_16 Identification of possible evolutionary pathways of Plum pox virus and predicting amino acid residues of importance to ... Identification of possible evolutionary pathways of Plum pox virus and predicting amino acid residues of importance to host ... These amino acid sites cluster into two areas, P1 and VPg. These areas of the genome are known to be important for functions ...
... branchial amino acid uptake in the green shore crab (Carcinus maenas) ... Figure S1.Graphic.docx from A novel pathway of nutrient absorption in crustaceans: ... Figure S1.Graphic.docx from A novel pathway of nutrient absorption in crustaceans: branchial amino acid uptake in the green ... Estuaries are environments enriched with dissolved nutrients such as amino acids. To date, marine arthropods are the only ...
... a novel approach to simulate multiple metabolic states by reaction network-based model-Application to amino acid depletion in ...
Biofilm microenvironment induces a widespread adaptive amino-acid fermentation pathway conferring strong fitness advantage in ... adaptive response contributes to maintain cellular redox balance and bacterial fitness in biofilms and other amino acid-rich ... 1-propanol production corresponds to a native threonine fermentation pathway previously undocumented in E. coli and other ... String method solution of the gating pathways for a pentameric ligand-gated ion channel ...
"The Citric Acid Cycle: The Central Pathway of Carbohydrate, Lipid, & Amino Acid Metabolism." Harpers Illustrated Biochemistry ... Chapter 16: The Citric Acid Cycle: The Central Pathway of Carbohydrate, Lipid, & Amino Acid Metabolism ... Explain how the citric acid cycle provides both a route for catabolism of amino acids and also a route for their synthesis. ... The Central Pathway of Carbohydrate, Lipid, & Amino Acid Metabolism. In: Rodwell VW, Bender DA, Botham KM, Kennelly PJ, Weil P ...
  • It appears that plant aromatic amino acid metabolism is even more dynamic than we gave it credit for," he said. (purdue.edu)
  • c ) Genes encoding key enzymes in butyrate metabolism and downstream mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation pathways have diverged in giraffe including the monocarboxylate transporter ( MCT1 ), acyl-coenzyme A synthetase-3 ( ACSM3 ), short-chain specific acyl-CoA dehydrogenase ( ACADS ), NADH dehydrogenase (ubiquinone) 1β subcomplex subunit 2 ( NDUFB2 ) and succinate dehydrogenase [ubiquinone] iron-sulfur subunit ( SDHB ). (nature.com)
  • Background Although dietary ketogenic essential amino acid (KAA) content modifies accumulation of hepatic lipids, the molecular interactions between KAAs and lipid metabolism are yet to be fully elucidated. (mit.edu)
  • CONCLUSION: We established, for the first time, the regulatory gene pathways of processes involved in hepatic fibrosis and energy metabolism (hypoalbuminemia, hyperammonemia, and carbohydrate catabolism, and their relationships) under BCAA supplementation. (biomedsearch.com)
  • Recent studies on the changes of amino acid levels and other metabolites in patients with chronic fatigue syndrome/myalgic encephalopathy (CFS/ME) have pointed to possible central defects in energy metabolism. (uib.no)
  • Recently, new progresses in molecular biology and high-throughput molecular analyses revealed that many of the signaling pathways, which are altered by gene mutations can regulate cell metabolism. (frontiersin.org)
  • We will, therefore, summarize the most essential and relevant studies in the field of cancer-related metabolism, highlighting the regulating properties of hypoxia pathway proteins. (frontiersin.org)
  • Amino Acid Metabolism I Pathways™ Focused Human Genome Microarrays contain 89 long-mer capture agents for 89 genes involved in the human amino acid metabolism I pathway, printed on 25 x 76 mm glass substrate slides, 10 microarrays per kit. (arrayit.com)
  • The metabolism of proline, a stress substrate, modulates carcinogenic pathways. (nih.gov)
  • The resurgence of interest in tumor metabolism has led investigators to emphasize the metabolism of proline as a "stress substrate" and to suggest this pathway as a potential anti-tumor target. (nih.gov)
  • Our results thus show that mitochondrial metabolism is highly active during drought stress responses and provide support for a role of alternative respiratory pathways within this response. (chalmers.se)
  • Does the suppression of metabolism, especially cat- abolic pathways, have anything to do with obesity? (bartleby.com)
  • In 1939 they also had a paper in the Biochemical Journal on the metabolism of α-ketoglutaric acid in animal tissues. (nap.edu)
  • Selected pathways included processes known to influence FAA composition, albeit to an unknown degree, and spanned four categories: amino acid, core, specialized, and protein metabolism. (g3journal.org)
  • Markers related to amino acid metabolism, which are directly involved in FAA regulation, improved predictive ability for branched chain amino acids and histidine. (g3journal.org)
  • Amino acids play central roles both as building blocks of proteins and as intermediates in metabolism. (wikibooks.org)
  • Purdue University researchers have discovered a microbial-like pathway in plants that produces phenylalanine, an amino acid that is a vital component of proteins in all living organisms. (purdue.edu)
  • Using a cytosolic delivery platform derived from anthrax lethal toxin, we probed the stability of mixed chirality proteins, containing one d-amino acid on the N-terminus of otherwise all l-proteins. (mit.edu)
  • Amino acids are required as building blocks for proteins, the essential molecular machines and structures of living cells. (growkudos.com)
  • We have identified the metabolic pathways, enzymes and genes by which Xanthomonas campestris synthesizes all amino acids required to build proteins. (growkudos.com)
  • We also studied the overlap between the cancers based on proteins containing harmful AASs and pathways affected by them. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Based on the proteins containing harmful AASs, we identified significantly affected pathways in 28 cancer types and indicate that proteins containing harmful AASs can affect pathways despite the frequency of AASs in them. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Proteins containing harmful AASs in cancer are often centrally located in protein interaction networks and they affect key pathways. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Dietary amino acids are the major fuel for the small intestinal mucosa as well as they are important substrates for the synthesis of intestinal proteins such as nitric oxide polyamines and other products with enormous biological activity [41]. (survivinpathway.com)
  • Relative category distribution of proteins from peptides identified from LC-MS/MS experiments of human cancer cell lines using the PTMScan ® Multi-Pathway Enrichment kit . (cellsignal.com)
  • Amino Acid is one of several molecules that join together to form proteins. (news-medical.net)
  • There are 20 common amino acids found in proteins. (news-medical.net)
  • Amino acid substitutes at a large number of positions in the dimeric proteins human being Cu Zn superoxide dismutase (SOD1) could cause amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). (healthconnectionsvt.org)
  • The Molecular Nutrition of Amino Acids and Proteins provides an in-depth look at the involvement and role of amino acids and proteins in molecular nutrition. (elsevier.com)
  • Editor Dominique Dardevet has assembled a collection of chapters written by leading researchers and top professors that provide the reader with a comprehensive understanding of amino acids and proteins. (elsevier.com)
  • The book provides an introduction to the fundamentals of amino acids and proteins as well as the composition of food. (elsevier.com)
  • The Molecular Nutrition of Amino Acids and Proteins also features reference guides for terms and bullet-point summaries, making it readily accessible to novices while still providing the most up-to-date and detailed information that experienced researchers need. (elsevier.com)
  • PRIMARY AUDIENCE: Nutrition researchers, graduate students in molecular nutrition programs, molecular biologists and chemists studying proteins and amino acids. (elsevier.com)
  • Proteins are polymers of multiple monomer units called amino acid, which have many different functional groups. (wikibooks.org)
  • More than 500 amino acids exist in nature, but the proteins in all species, from bacteria to humans, consist mainly of only 20 called the essential amino acids. (wikibooks.org)
  • 2-amino acids, also known as alpha-amino acids, are a specific type of amino acid that makes up proteins. (wikibooks.org)
  • Proteins are linear polymers formed by linking the a-carboxyl group of one amino acid to the a-amino group of another amino acid. (wikibooks.org)
  • Thus, the 20 amino acids that are found within proteins convey a vast array of chemical versatility. (wikibooks.org)
  • The chemical properties of the amino acids of proteins determine the biological activity of the protein. (wikibooks.org)
  • In addition, proteins contain within their amino acid sequences the necessary information to determine how that protein will fold into a three dimensional structure, and the stability of the resulting structure. (wikibooks.org)
  • There are twenty major amino acids which make up proteins. (wikibooks.org)
  • Strings of amino acids make up proteins, of which there are countless varieties. (encyclopedia.com)
  • Of the 20 amino acids required for manufacturing the proteins the human body needs, the body itself produces only 12, meaning that we have to meet our requirements for the other eight through nutrition. (encyclopedia.com)
  • Cow´s milk (subsequently termed "milk") appears to promote mTORC1 signaling by providing amino acids that function as endocrine messengers to increase IGF-1 and insulin secretion as well as by milk-derived exosomal regulatory microRNAs (miRs), especially miR-21, which attenuates the inhibitory effects of various tumor suppressor proteins like phosphatase and tensin homolog (PTEN), Sprouty 1 and 2 and programmed cell death 4 (PDCD4) on mTORC1-signaling. (biomedcentral.com)
  • One of these proteins, QTC24 (also called HP20), is a member of the PRAT family comprising preprotein and amino acid transporters found in chloroplasts, mitochondria and free-living bacteria. (uni-bayreuth.de)
  • Methodology/Principal Findings We designed a diet with a high ratio (E/N) of essential amino acids (EAAs) to non-EAAs by partially replacing dietary protein with 5 major free KAAs (Leu, Ile, Val, Lys and Thr) without altering carbohydrate and fat content. (mit.edu)
  • The gene encoding CHOP (C/EBP-homologous protein) is transcriptionally activated by many stimuli and by amino acid deprivation. (nih.gov)
  • The Ub/proteasome system is one way that cells regulate cytosolic protein and amino acids levels through the recognition and ubiquitination of a protein's N-terminus via E1, E2, and E3 enzymes. (mit.edu)
  • In all cases, we observed that one N-terminal d-amino acid stabilized the cargo protein to proteasomal degradation with respect to the N-end rule. (mit.edu)
  • We identified the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) module MEKK1/MKK7/JNK2 as the pathway responsible for ATF2 phosphorylation on the threonine 69 (Thr69) and Thr71 residues. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • Then, we progressed backwards up the signal transduction pathway and showed that the GTPase Rac1/Cdc42 and the protein Gα12 control the MAPK module, ATF2 phosphorylation, and AARE-dependent transcription. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • They involve protein kinases mTORC1, activated by amino acid supplementation, and GCN2, activated by amino acid starvation. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • Markers of tryptophan degradation by the kynurenine pathway (kynurenine/tryptophan ratio) and activation of vitamin B6 catabolism (pyridoxic acid/(pyridoxal + pyridoxal 5'-phosphate), PAr index) differed in survivors with or without CF and correlated with known markers of immune activation and inflammation, such as neopterin, C-reactive protein and Interleukin-6. (uib.no)
  • Now, however, the lab has discovered that Sestrin2-one of a three-member protein family Sabatini previously implicated in amino acid detection-is a highly specific leucine sensor. (mit.edu)
  • Wolfson and co-first author Lynne Chantranupong, both of whom were involved in the earlier Sestrin research, found that in the absence of amino acids, Sestrin2 interacts with a protein complex known as GATOR2 to inhibit the mTORC1 pathway, thereby reducing cell growth. (mit.edu)
  • The citric acid cycle is the final common pathway for the oxidation of carbohydrate, lipid, and protein because glucose, fatty acids, and most amino acids are metabolized to acetyl-CoA or intermediates of the cycle. (mhmedical.com)
  • BCAAs are essential amino acids derived from protein-containing foods. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • Perform mass spectroscopy-based screening and quantification of defined sets of thousands of protein-sites in important signaling pathways with PTMScan ® pathway based enrichment kits. (cellsignal.com)
  • Download a list of protein-sites covered by the Multi-Pathway Enrichment Kit. (cellsignal.com)
  • Highlighted purple nodes designate targeted protein modification sites within signaling pathways that can be monitored with the PTMScan ® Multi-Pathway Enrichment kit. (cellsignal.com)
  • Drought-induced metabolic reprogramming resulted in an increase in tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle intermediates and total amino acid levels, as well as decreases in protein, starch and nitrate contents. (chalmers.se)
  • However, a deletion of amino acids 2430-2450 in mTOR, which includes the potential AKT phosphorylation sites, significantly increased both the basal protein kinase activity and in vivo signaling functions of mTOR. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Cellulose is to carbohydrate as: a. amino acid is to protein. (bartleby.com)
  • The combination of these three essential amino acids make up approximately 1/3 of skeletal muscle in the human body, and play an important role in protein synthesis. (wikidoc.org)
  • While this is a pathway that will increase protein synthesis, it is not as effective as when combined with the BCAA signaling cascade. (wikidoc.org)
  • Amino acids , in addition to their role as protein monomeric units, are energy metabolites and precursors of many biologically important nitrogen -containing compounds, notably heme, physiologically active amines, glutathione, nucleotides, and nucleotide coenzymes. (conservapedia.com)
  • The use of genomic partitioning also revealed patterns across biochemical families, in which serine-derived FAAs were associated with protein related annotations and aromatic FAAs were associated with specialized metabolic pathways. (g3journal.org)
  • The precise amino acid content, and the sequence of those amino acids, of a specific protein, is determined by the sequence of the bases in the gene that encodes that protein. (wikibooks.org)
  • The Gα protein Gpa1 governs the cAMP-PKA signaling pathway and plays a central role in virulence and differentiation in the human fungal pathogen Cryptococcus neoformans, but the signals and receptors that trigger this pathway were unknown. (elsevier.com)
  • This protein is imported into the inner plastid envelope membrane by a TIC/TOC-independent pathway and without any proteolytic cleavage. (uni-bayreuth.de)
  • A further member of the PRAT family is OEP16-1 that was initially identified as amino acid-selective protein channel. (uni-bayreuth.de)
  • Here, we show how interference with CYP enzymes acts synergistically with disruption of the biosynthesis of aromatic amino acids by gut bacteria, as well as impairment in serum sulfate transport. (mdpi.com)
  • Enzymes involved in the arogenate pathway are tightly controlled to balance phenylalanine levels, halting the production of phenylalanine if levels are too high. (purdue.edu)
  • Thus, these predominant dietary amino acids are not passed directly to Buchnera endosymbionts for synthesis of essential amino acids, but are rather are produced de novo , most likely by endogenous aphid enzymes. (biologists.org)
  • a Yeast genes encoding the enzymes that catalyze each step in the different pathways are shown in italic. (nih.gov)
  • A plus sign indicates that the genes for all of the enzymes of the biosynthetic pathway are present in the genome. (asm.org)
  • The activity of the enzymes, aldose reductase and polyol dehydrogenase, associated with sorbitol pathway were determined in the rabbit ciliary body and compared with the activity of these enzymes in the lens and the retina, a tissue which has the same embryologic origin as the ciliary body. (arvojournals.org)
  • The few genetic defects of citric acid cycle enzymes that have been reported are associated with severe neurological damage as a result of very considerably impaired ATP formation in the central nervous system. (mhmedical.com)
  • The seven enzymes involved in the shikimate pathway are DAHP synthase , 3-dehydroquinate synthase , 3-dehydroquinate dehydratase , shikimate dehydrogenase , shikimate kinase , EPSP synthase , and chorismate synthase . (wikipedia.org)
  • The BCAA catabolic pathway, consisting of more than 40 enzymes in mitochondria, plays a pivotal role in maintaining BCAA homeostasis in mammals ( 2 ). (diabetesjournals.org)
  • Therefore, Production of Glutamate and Glutamate-Related Amino Acids 23 Table 2 Comparison of Km values (mM) of enzymes around 2-oxoglutarate Enzyme C. (slimmingbasics.com)
  • Furthermore, histidine catalyzes the action https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Dylan_Thomas of a big number of enzymes and assists in anti-inflammatory and antioxidant processes. (montoriol.com)
  • We will now look into this control in more detail, beforeproceeding to the biosynthesis of the remaining nonessential amino acids. (reedforiowa.com)
  • Nonessential amino acids are produced in the body. (wikipedia.org)
  • The pathways for the synthesis of nonessential amino acids are quite simple. (wikipedia.org)
  • Mammals synthesize the nonessential amino acids from metabolic precursors but must obtain the essential amino acids from their diet. (conservapedia.com)
  • This study aims to evaluate the effects of leucine and branched-chain amino acids supplementation on skeletal muscle remodeling signaling pathways induced by resistance exercise. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • The mTORC1 comprising mTOR, raptor, mLST8, and PRAS40 ( 7 ) requires intracellular amino acids such as leucine for its activity ( 8, 9 ). (aacrjournals.org)
  • CAMBRIDGE, Mass. - Whitehead Institute scientists have at last answered the long-standing question of how the growth-regulating pathway known as mechanistic target of rapamycin complex 1 (mTORC1) detects the presence of the amino acid leucine-itself a key player in modulating muscle growth, appetite, and insulin secretion. (mit.edu)
  • We've always wanted to find it because we've known that leucine is one of the most important amino acids for the (mTORC1) pathway. (mit.edu)
  • They then discovered that leucine binds directly to Sestrin2, disrupting the interaction and activating the mTORC1 pathway. (mit.edu)
  • This was a big surprise for us, that there's an amino acid interaction with GATOR2 that's specific for leucine," says Chantranupong, also a graduate student in Sabatini's lab. (mit.edu)
  • to take up the amino acid l-leucine directly from the water. (figshare.com)
  • Leucine is an essential amino acid. (reedforiowa.com)
  • Replacement of Na α in sea water with choline reduced uptake of leucine, taurine, aspartate, and proline by more than 95%, and reduced lysine uptake by 75%, suggesting that Na α -independent pathways play no significant role in epidermal transport in the gill. (elsevier.com)
  • The three branched-chain amino acids (BCAAs) are leucine, isoleucine, and valine. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • BCAA catabolism is initiated by branched-chain aminotransferase (BCAT), which facilitates a reversible transamination reaction generating BCKAs including α-ketoisocaproic acid (from leucine), α-keto-β-methylvaleric acid (from isoleucine), and α-ketoisovaleric acid (from valine). (diabetesjournals.org)
  • Leucine is the most readily oxidized BCAA and therefore the most effective at causing insulin secretion from the pancreas, and stimulating the metabolic pathway. (wikidoc.org)
  • For all these reasons, the role of amino acids as signaling molecules that regulate gene expression and physiological functions has received considerable attention in recent years. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • Here we report a comprehensive analysis of serum concentrations of amino acids, including metabolites of tryptophan, the kynurenine pathway and vitamin B6 in a well characterized national Norwegian cohort of lymphoma survivors after high-dose therapy and autologous stem cell transplantation. (uib.no)
  • Among the 20 standard amino acids in humans, only tryptophan levels were significantly lower in both males and females with CF compared to non-fatigued survivors, a strikingly different pattern than seen in CFS/ME. (uib.no)
  • The shikimate pathway is a seven step metabolic route used by bacteria , fungi , algae , parasites, and plants for the biosynthesis of aromatic amino acids ( phenylalanine , tyrosine , and tryptophan ). (wikipedia.org)
  • therefore, phenylalanine and tryptophan represent essential amino acids that must be obtained from the animal's diet (animals can synthesise tyrosine from phenylalanine, and therefore is not an essential amino acid except for individuals unable to hydroxylate phenylalanine to tyrosine ). (wikipedia.org)
  • Figure 3: Giraffe genes and pathways exhibiting extraordinary divergence and patterns of amino acid substitutions. (nature.com)
  • Genes involved in biosynthesis of vitamins were enriched among those up-regulated in the mixed-culture fermentation, while genes related with the uptake and biosynthesis of amino acids were enriched among those more expressed in the single-culture. (nih.gov)
  • Taken together, our data reveal a new signaling pathway activated by amino acid starvation leading to ATF2 phosphorylation and subsequently positively affecting the transcription of amino acid-regulated genes. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • An amino acid response element (AARE) was identified in the promoters of these genes and can confer amino acid responsiveness to a heterologous promoter ( 5 , 13 , 68 ). (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • Subsequently, functional sequences that share a high level of similarity with the described AARE were identified in other amino acid-regulated genes, such as the system A amino acid transporter ( SNAT2 ) ( 66 ) and arginine/lysine transporter cat-1 ( cat-1 ) genes ( 55 ). (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • The number of genes in each pathway in S. cerevisiae was taken from KEGG. (asm.org)
  • The number of genes for each pathway that are missing in the other organisms was determined from their complete genomes. (asm.org)
  • b C. elegans is missing all three genes of the arginine (R) biosynthetic pathway, but vertebrates have maintained them for use in the urea cycle (see text). (asm.org)
  • A minus sign indicates that one or more of the genes encoding an enzyme in the pathway are missing in the genome. (asm.org)
  • Our cross-cancer overlap analysis showed that it would be more beneficial to identify affected pathways in cancers rather than individual genes and variations. (biomedcentral.com)
  • However, our understanding of the underlying genetics influencing amino acid content and composition remains limited, with only a few candidate genes and quantitative trait loci identified to date. (g3journal.org)
  • After phagocytosis by neutrophils, both Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Candida albicans respond by inducing genes of the methionine and arginine pathways. (pnas.org)
  • The yeast transcriptional response is dominated by induction of the methionine and arginine amino acid biosynthetic genes. (pnas.org)
  • The human pathogen C. albicans also induces the transcription of a similar set of amino acid biosynthetic genes upon exposure to human neutrophils. (pnas.org)
  • By adjusting their metabolic pathway network, cells are able to adapt to nutrients and deprived oxygen availability, as well as to adequately respond to different cell signals. (frontiersin.org)
  • The BCAAs affect this metabolic pathway in three different manners. (wikidoc.org)
  • The first manner through which the metabolic pathway is affected is the increased production of insulin. (wikidoc.org)
  • Markers were split into categories based on metabolic pathway annotations and fit using a genomic partitioning model to evaluate the influence of each pathway on heritability explained, model fit, and predictive ability. (g3journal.org)
  • Recently, inositol polyphosphate multikinase (IPMK) has been shown to function as a physiologic mTOR cofactor to stabilize the interaction of mTORC1 and raptor, facilitating activation of mTORC1 by Rag GTPases in the presence of amino acids ( 10 ). (aacrjournals.org)
  • Sabatini notes that current drugs that suppress mTORC1, such as rapamycin, act non-selectively on the broader mTOR pathway, which comprises not only mTORC1 but also a second complex known as mTORC2. (mit.edu)
  • The field has been fixated on inhibiting mTOR, but it's possible that drugs could be designed to avoid the danger of over-inhibiting the pathway," Sabatini says. (mit.edu)
  • In addition, it is upregulated by nutrient stress through the mTOR pathway to maintain ATP levels. (nih.gov)
  • These results demonstrate that mTOR is a direct target of the PI3K-AKT signaling pathway in mitogen-stimulated cells, and that the identified AKT phosphorylation sites are nested within a" repressor domain" that negatively regulates the catalytic activity of mTOR. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Overnutrition/excess serum amino acid profile during obesity has been linked with inflammation and reprogramming of translational machinery through hyperactivation of amino acid sensor mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR), which is exploited by SARS-CoV-2 for its replication. (cdc.gov)
  • The current fact is that obesity/excess amino acids/mTOR activation aggravates COVID-19, and it might be possible that activation of amino acid starvation sensor GCN2 has an opposite effect. (cdc.gov)
  • Topics discussed are the amino acid biosynthetic pathways, their genetic and biochemical regulation, transport of amino acids and genomics of producing microorganisms. (springer.com)
  • a The biosynthetic pathways leading to these 11 amino acids involve multiple steps. (asm.org)
  • subject matters mentioned are the amino acid biosynthetic pathways, their genetic and biochemical legislation, delivery of amino acids and genomics of manufacturing microorganisms. (slimmingbasics.com)
  • Ammonia both depletes citric acid cycle intermediates (by withdrawing α-ketoglutarate for the formation of glutamate and glutamine) and also inhibits the oxidative decarboxylation of α-ketoglutarate. (mhmedical.com)
  • Most amino acids are synthesized from α- ketoacids , and later transaminated from another amino acid, usually glutamate . (wikipedia.org)
  • The α-ketoglutarate family of amino acid synthesis (synthesis of glutamate, glutamine, proline and arginine) begins with α-ketoglutarate, an intermediate in the Citric Acid Cycle. (wikipedia.org)
  • The regulation of the synthesis of glutamate from α-ketoglutarate is subject to regulatory control of the Citric Acid Cycle as well as mass action dependent on the concentrations of reactants involved due to the reversible nature of the transamination and glutamate dehydrogenase reactions. (wikipedia.org)
  • To analyze the significance of PYC for the glutamate production by this organism, the wild-type pyc gene, encoding PYC, was used for the construction of defined pyc-inactive and pyc-overexpressing strains, and the synthesis of glutamate and other amino acids was tested. (slimmingbasics.com)
  • Relationship between the kind of phospholipids and their fatty acid composition in the mechanism of extracellular accumulation of l-glutamate. (slimmingbasics.com)
  • The specific N-methyl-D-aspartate antagonist 2 - amino-7-phosphonoheptanoic acid (AP7) and the preferential quisqualate receptor antagonist glutamate diethyl ester (GDEE) did not block LC responses to PGi stimulation, leading us to the tentative conclusion that EAAs may operate primarily at a kainate-type receptor on LC neurons to effect excitation from PGi. (elsevier.com)
  • The characterization of the control mechanisms of amino acid biosynthesis has revealed insights into principles of genetic and biochemical regulation, such as transcriptional regulators and a new class of regulatory elements, the riboswitch. (springer.com)
  • Biochemical pathways involved sulfur amino acid biosynthesis in S. cerevisiae. (nih.gov)
  • Amino acid synthesis is the set of biochemical processes ( metabolic pathways ) by which the amino acids are produced. (wikipedia.org)
  • To identify biochemical pathways associated with native resistance mechanisms, a genome-wide. (usda.gov)
  • BIOCHEMICAL CONNECTIONS If you wanted to make a HEPES buffer at pH 8.3, and you had both HEPES acid and HEPES b. (bartleby.com)
  • The characterization of the regulate mechanisms of amino acid biosynthesis has printed insights into rules of genetic and biochemical legislation, comparable to transcriptional regulators and a brand new type of regulatory parts, the riboswitch. (slimmingbasics.com)
  • In addition to being present in the rumen epithelial cells, MCT1 is highly expressed in the heart, skeletal muscle and the nervous system where it acts to transport volatile fatty acids (VFAs) and lactate. (nature.com)
  • The high-KAA diet lowered muscle and liver ceramides, both by reducing dietary lipid incorporation into muscular ceramides and preventing incorporation of DNL-derived fatty acids into hepatic ceramides. (mit.edu)
  • Downregulation of fatty acid translocase (FAT)/Cd36, glutamine synthetase, and pyruvate dehydrogenase kinase isoenzyme 4 is believed to promote lower uptake of fatty acids, lower ammonia incorporation, and higher uptake of glucose, and thus to provide an energy source without using BCAA. (biomedsearch.com)
  • Describe the role of the citric acid cycle in fatty acid synthesis. (mhmedical.com)
  • Metabolic alterations in response to hypoxia can be triggered in a direct manner, such as the switch from oxidative phosphorylation to glycolysis or inhibition of fatty acid desaturation. (frontiersin.org)
  • Consequently, amino acids are also precursors of glucose , fatty acids, and ketone bodies and are therefore metabolic fuels. (conservapedia.com)
  • The thesis was entitled ''Studies in Ketogenesis,'' and it covered preparation of tissue slices and breis, the synthesis of several hydroxy and alpha-keto acids, the determination of acetoacetic and beta-hydroxy butyric acids, and the oxidation of a variety of fatty acids, amino acids, and keto and hydroxy acids. (nap.edu)
  • Phenylalanine is an aromatic amino acid that serves as a building block for many compounds essential to plant structure, reproduction, defense and communication. (purdue.edu)
  • We evaluated whether systemic levels of cytokines/chemokines, kyn/L-trp ratio and aromatic amino acid levels (HPLC: mM/L, Phe, L-Trp, His, Treo) could be altered in patients with long-term dental titanium and/or amalgams. (mdpi.com)
  • Comprehensive reviews are given of recent achievements to enable or improve production of amino acids and dipeptides by fermentation and enzyme catalysis. (springer.com)
  • DHQ is dehydrated to 3-dehydroshikimic acid by the enzyme 3-dehydroquinate dehydratase , which is reduced to shikimic acid by the enzyme shikimate dehydrogenase , which uses nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH) as a cofactor. (wikipedia.org)
  • In most organisms, it is made from another amino acid, , in a reaction where the extra methylene group of serine is transferred to tetrahydrofolate, in a reaction catalysed by the enzyme serine hydroxymethyltransferase. (reedforiowa.com)
  • In E. coli citrate synthase, the enzyme involved in the condensation reaction initiating the Citric Acid Cycle is strongly inhibited by α-ketoglutarate feedback inhibition and can be inhibited by DPNH as well high concentrations of ATP. (wikipedia.org)
  • complete experiences are given of modern achievements to allow or enhance construction of amino acids and dipeptides by way of fermentation and enzyme catalysis. (slimmingbasics.com)
  • M00002 ], together with the pathways around serine and glycine. (genome.jp)
  • Glycine is a "nonessential" amino acid, as it is synthesised within the human body. (reedforiowa.com)
  • In addition, the amino acids arginine , cysteine , glycine , glutamine , histidine , proline , serine , and tyrosine are considered conditionally essential , meaning they are not normally required in the diet but must be supplied exogenously to specific populations that do not synthesize it in adequate amounts. (wikipedia.org)
  • All of the amino acids in the human body, except glycine, are either right-hand or left-hand versions of the same molecule, meaning that in some amino acids the positions of the carboxyl group and the R -group are switched. (encyclopedia.com)
  • Increasing succinic acid production using the PTS-independent glucose transport system in a Corynebacterium glutamicum PTS-defective mutant. (uni-bielefeld.de)
  • Bacteria may use gluconeogenesis (Fig. 1 ) to synthesize glucose from nonsugar C 2 or C 3 compounds or the intermediates of the tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle when there is not sufficient hexose in their niches ( 17 , 24 , 26 , 27 ). (asm.org)
  • The intracellular reaction rate distributions calculated by a mass flux balance-based stoichiometric model for B. subtilis based on the metabolic reaction network that contains 184 metabolites and 232 reaction fluxes using time profiles of glucose, dry cell, organic and amino acids, revealed that induction by E4P influenced the pathway reactions via chorismate and prephanate towards Phe by increasing the flux values. (metu.edu.tr)
  • The analysis of intracellular cAMP levels showed that gpr4 mutants still respond to glucose but not to certain amino acids, such as methionine. (elsevier.com)
  • Activation of the cAMP-PKA pathway by glucose and amino acids represents a nutrient coincidence detection system shared in other pathogenic fungi. (elsevier.com)
  • This review presents milk as a materno-neonatal relay system functioning by transfer of preferential amino acids, which increase plasma levels of glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide (GIP), glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1), insulin, growth hormone (GH) and insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) for mTORC1 activation. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Only when portions of vital amino acids and glucose are ample and available can the rate of non-essential amino acid synthesis raise. (montoriol.com)
  • On top of that, isoleucine is understood to enhance glucose use, intestinal enhancement, and immune operate, whilst many scientific tests have looked at BCAAs as being a whole instead of a single amino acid. (montoriol.com)
  • is mostly active on D-alanine, and to a lesser extent, on several other D-amino acids such as D-methionine, D-serine and D-proline, but not on L-alanine. (uniprot.org)
  • Oxidation of 3,4-dehydro-D-proline and other D-amino acid analogues by D-alanine dehydrogenase from Escherichia coli. (uniprot.org)
  • In contrast, substitution of Ser320 with alanine reduces the rate ∼5-fold, implying that it either acts as a member of the pathway or influences Glu282 to permit proton transfer. (elsevier.com)
  • He found the transamination reactions of aspartic acid and alanine with α-ketoglutaric acid to give glutamic acid were far more active than other transamination reactions. (nap.edu)
  • Although the mechanisms involved in the regulation of gene expression by the mTORC1 pathway are not yet identified, the role of the GCN2 pathway has been widely studied using the experimental model of limitation with one essential amino acid. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • Rag GTPases, together with the class III phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K) Vps34, both mediate this amino acid-mTORC1 signaling ( 11-13 ). (aacrjournals.org)
  • This new connection linking these pathways provides the necessary essential amino acids to promote mTORC1 signaling and cell growth in prostate cancer. (aacrjournals.org)
  • This schematic shows how amino acid inputs arising from multiple sensors in distinct cellular compartments impinge on the Rag GTPases to control the activity of the growth-regulating mTORC1 pathway. (mit.edu)
  • Over the past several years, researchers in the lab of Whitehead Member David Sabatini have been identifying the many key components of the pathway-whose deregulation is associated with diseases ranging from diabetes to cancer to epilepsy-moving ever closer to finding precisely how mTORC1 actually senses the presence of amino acids. (mit.edu)
  • I am working to understand the specific mechanisms via which nutrients including amino acids and growth factors regulate mTORC1 signalling. (ncl.ac.uk)
  • Now that we have genetic evidence that this pathway exists in plants, this opens up many exciting possibilities for metabolic engineering," said Natalia Dudareva , distinguished professor of biochemistry . (purdue.edu)
  • Joshua Widhalm , a postdoctoral fellow in biochemistry and study co-author, likened the pathways to a system of water pipes. (purdue.edu)
  • Activation of the pathway occurs through three primary pathways: classical, lectin, and alternative pathways. (intechopen.com)
  • Plant roots incorporate inorganic nitrogen into the amino acids glutamine, glutamic acid, asparagine and aspartic acid, which together serve as the primary metabolites of nitrogen transport to other tissues. (biologists.org)
  • However, there was differential incorporation, with the amine nitrogen of asparagine being incorporated into other amino acids more efficiently than the amide nitrogen. (biologists.org)
  • GC-MS assays also showed that, even with an excess of dietary labeled glutamine, glutamic acid, asparagine or aspartic acid, the overall content of these amino acids in aphid bodies was mostly the product of catabolism of dietary amino acids and subsequent re-synthesis within the aphids. (biologists.org)
  • Aspartic acid aminotransferase and asparagine synthase use glutamic acid and glutamine, respectively, as nitrogen donors to produce aspartic acid and asparagine. (biologists.org)
  • Phloem-feeding insects benefit from having evolved rapid and efficient pathways for the uptake and metabolic conversion of glutamine, glutamic acid, asparagine and aspartic acid into essential amino acids. (biologists.org)
  • So, the synthesis of asparagine is intrinsically tied to that of glutamine,and it turns out that glutamine is the amino group donor in the formation ofnumerous biosynthetic products, as well as being a storage form of NH 3 . (reedforiowa.com)
  • Fig. 3: The MAPK pathway is required for ATF4 upregulation on asparagine limitation. (nature.com)
  • As extracellular glutamine levels decline, asparagine becomes an essential amino acid. (nature.com)
  • Asparagine Metabolic Pathways in Arabidopsis. (nih.gov)
  • The asparagine amide group is liberated by the reaction catalyzed by asparaginase (ASPG) and also the amino group of asparagine is released by asparagine aminotransferase (AsnAT) for use in the biosynthesis of amino acids. (nih.gov)
  • It is not surprising that evidence supports an excitatory amino acid transmitter and an ionotropic excitatory amino acid receptor at this synapse (Bledsoe et al. (springer.com)
  • Wenthold,' 91 and Caspary,' 86) and that most CN projection neurons receive this input via an ionotropic excitatory amino acid receptor (see Wenthold et al. (springer.com)
  • cMyc-mediated activation of serine biosynthesis pathway is critical for cancer progression under nutrient deprivation conditions. (nature.com)
  • A few amino acids, such as serine and histidine, are deaminated nonoxidatively. (conservapedia.com)
  • Amino Acids Biosynthesis presents the current knowledge of fundamental as well as applied microbiology of amino acids. (springer.com)
  • Amino Acids Biosynthesis provides the present wisdom of basic in addition to utilized microbiology of amino acids. (slimmingbasics.com)
  • abstract = "The epidermal tissues of marine mussels can accumulate amino acids from surrounding sea water. (elsevier.com)
  • abstract = "The proton pathway of [FeFe]-hydrogenase is essential for enzymatic H2 production and oxidation and is composed of four residues and a water molecule. (elsevier.com)
  • The citric acid cycle (the Krebs or tricarboxylic acid cycle) is a sequence of reactions in mitochondria that oxidizes the acetyl moiety of acetyl-CoA to CO 2 and reduces coenzymes that are reoxidized through the electron transport chain (see Chapter 13 ), linked to the formation of ATP. (mhmedical.com)
  • The cycle starts with reaction between the acetyl moiety of acetyl-CoA and the four-carbon dicarboxylic acid oxaloacetate, forming a six-carbon tricarboxylic acid, citrate. (mhmedical.com)
  • Moreover, amino acid deprivation and UPR inducers regulate the CHOP promoter activity using distinct cis elements. (nih.gov)
  • l -Type amino acid transporters such as LAT1 and LAT3 mediate the uptake of essential amino acids. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Using putative competitive substrates and reduced sodium preparations, we were able to identify the putative amino acid transport system associated with high-affinity uptake. (figshare.com)
  • Previous studies have shown that amino acid depletion induces transcription of the ATF3 (activation transcription factor 3) gene through an amino acid response element (AARE) located in its promoter. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • We here demonstrate the existence of a bacterial PCD pathway that induces characteristics that are strikingly reminiscent of eukaryotic apoptosis, such as fragmentation of DNA, exposure of phosphatidylserine on the cell surface, and membrane blebbing. (asm.org)
  • The other side of the pathway indicated by the blue arrow induces the action of eIF4G. (wikidoc.org)
  • Furthermore, the bottom extension of basic amino acids appears to be most divergent containing multiple pathways for lysine biosynthesis and multiple gene sets for arginine biosynthesis. (genome.jp)
  • In HeLa cells, functional expression of rBAT(R365W)/b 0,+ AT was observed only at the permissive temperature of 33 °C. Under these conditions, the mutated transporter showed 50% reduction of arginine influx and a similar decreased accumulation of dibasic amino acids. (portlandpress.com)
  • This supports a two-translocation-pathway model for antiporter b 0,+ , in which the efflux pathway in the rBAT(R365W)/b 0,+ AT holotransporter is defective for arginine translocation or dissociation. (portlandpress.com)
  • This map presents a modular architecture of the biosynthesis pathways of twenty amino acids, which may be viewed as consisting of the core part and its extensions. (genome.jp)
  • Ozone effects on ascorbate and glutathione biosynthesis pathways in relation with amino acid contents on three euramerican poplar genotypes. (metabohub.fr)
  • The extensions are the pathways containing the reaction modules RM001 , RM033 , RM032 , and RM002 for biosynthesis of branched-chain amino acids (left) and basic amino acids (bottom), and the pathways for biosynthesis of histidine and aromatic amino acids (top right). (genome.jp)
  • For example, humans can only synthesize 11 of the 20 standard amino acids (a.k.a. non-essential amino acid ), and in time of accelerated growth, histidine can be considered an essential amino acid . (wikipedia.org)
  • These amino acids can not be created from the human body, yet are crucial for any staggering number of physiological capabilities.Histidine is usually a precursor to various hormones and metabolites crucial to kidney functionality, gastric secretion, the immune program, and neurotransmission. (montoriol.com)
  • The researchers were surprised to find that in the alternative pathway phenylpyruvate is converted into phenylalanine by taking a nitrogen group from tyrosine, another essential amino acid. (purdue.edu)
  • Regulation is less strict in the alternative pathway, which is only limited by the availability of tyrosine. (purdue.edu)
  • Tyrosine is synthesized by the hydroxylation of phenylalanine , an essential amino acid. (wikipedia.org)
  • The chemical reactions and pathways resulting in the formation of phenylalanine and tyrosine from other compounds, including chorismate, via the intermediate prephenate. (systemsbiology.net)
  • Iodinated and brominated tyrosine are also amino acids found in species, but are not included in the 20 major amino acids because of their rarity: iodinated tyrosin is only found in thyroid hormones, and brominated tyrosine is only found in coral. (wikibooks.org)
  • DNA microarray analysis identified molecular pathways mediating the effects of supplementation of branched-chain amino acids on CCl(4) -induced cirrhosis in rats. (biomedsearch.com)
  • We conclude that amino acid deprivation does not activate the UPR and regulates CHOP expression through a pathway that is independent of the UPR. (nih.gov)
  • In this study, we show that signaling via the androgen receptor and ATF4 pathways regulates expression of the amino acid transporters LAT1 and LAT3, thereby coordinating their increased expression in prostate cancer cells. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Indeed, a complex pathway exists that regulates the adaptive response to hypoxia. (frontiersin.org)
  • SCOPE: This study addresses the effects of branched-chain amino acids (BCAA) on global gene expression in liver and skeletal muscle and the molecular mechanisms underlying the improvement in liver cirrhosis using DNA microarray analysis combined with RNase protection assay. (biomedsearch.com)
  • In genetically obese ( ob/ob ) mice, rate-limiting branched-chain α-keto acid (BCKA) dehydrogenase deficiency (i.e. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • The subsequent irreversible decarboxylation of BCKAs by BCKA dehydrogenase (BCKD) is the rate-limiting step in BCAA catabolism, giving rise to CoA moieties that feed into the citric acid cycle after several reactions. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • During dark-induced senescence isovaleryl-CoA dehydrogenase (IVDH) and D-2-hydroxyglutarate dehydrogenase (D-2HGDH) act as alternate electron donors to the ubiquinol pool via the electron-transfer flavoprotein/electron-transfer flavoprotein:ubiquinone oxidoreductase (ETF/ETFQO) pathway. (chalmers.se)
  • Explain how the citric acid cycle provides both a route for catabolism of amino acids and also a route for their synthesis. (mhmedical.com)
  • It is interesting to note that the so-called essential amino acids that cannot be synthesized in human and other organisms generally appear in these extensions. (genome.jp)
  • Therefore, aphids and other phloem feeders typically rely on microbial symbionts for the synthesis of essential amino acids. (biologists.org)
  • Higher isotopomers (M+2, M+3 and M+4) indicated the incorporation of varying numbers of 13 C atoms into essential amino acids. (biologists.org)
  • Animals that feed on nutritionally unbalanced resources such as phloem sap, which typically has sub-optimal amounts of essential amino acids, have evolved mechanisms for acquiring or synthesizing these amino acids. (biologists.org)
  • In mammals, amino acids exhibit two important characteristics: first, nine amino acids are essential in healthy adult humans, and second, there is no proper storage of amino acids, which means that essential amino acids must be obtained from the diet. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • Very often, in one of these situations, the availability of one or several essential amino acids is dramatically affected. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • Taken together, our results show how prostate cancer cells respond to demands for increased essential amino acids by coordinately activating amino acid transporter pathways vital for tumor outgrowth. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Amino acids that must be obtained from the diet are called essential amino acids . (wikipedia.org)
  • The pathways for the biosynthesis of essential amino acids are much more complex than those for the nonessential ones. (wikipedia.org)
  • The proton pathway of [FeFe]-hydrogenase is essential for enzymatic H 2 production and oxidation and is composed of four residues and a water molecule. (elsevier.com)
  • Amino acids are classified into two groups: Essential and nonessential. (conservapedia.com)
  • On the other hand, recent reports exhibit that we will nonetheless benefit within the ingestion of non-essential amino acids to market optimum health and well-being. (montoriol.com)
  • It really is, as a result, essential to eat both forms of amino acid while in the diet regime in bibliography using apa format an effort to reward from their quite a few good, otherwise definitely important, effects. (montoriol.com)
  • Of the basic set of twenty amino acids (not counting selenocysteine ), humans cannot synthesize eight. (wikipedia.org)
  • We show here that synaptic transmission to the medial nucleus of the trapezoid body (MNTB) is mediated principally by excitatory amino acid receptors and has two components. (royalsocietypublishing.org)
  • Any substance which inhibits the action of receptors for excitatory amino acids. (ebi.ac.uk)
  • It has been well established that amino acid availability can control gene expression. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • Arrayit Pathways™ Focused Human Genome Microarrays enable targeted gene expression analysis of every major cellular pathway in the human body. (arrayit.com)
  • In this study, unbiased integrative pathway analyses identified a unique genetic link between obesity-associated IR and BCAA catabolic gene expression at the pathway level in human and mouse populations. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • Describe the main anaplerotic pathways that permit replenishment of citric acid cycle intermediates, and how the withdrawal of oxaloacetate for gluconeogenesis is controlled. (mhmedical.com)
  • Plants mainly synthesize phenylalanine through a chain of chemical reactions that converts the organic acid arogenate to phenylalanine. (purdue.edu)
  • Describe the reactions of the citric acid cycle and the reactions that lead to the production of reducing equivalents that are oxidized in the mitochondrial electron transport chain to yield ATP. (mhmedical.com)
  • The reaction catalysed by chorismate mutase (R96) has the lowest flux value among the preceding reactions of the pathway that reduces the proceeding reaction rates towards Phe. (metu.edu.tr)
  • Thus, R96 is predicted to be the primary rate-limiting step among the Phe pathway reactions. (metu.edu.tr)
  • Most amino acids are deanimated by transamination, the transfer of their amino group to an α-keto acid to yield the α-keto acid of the original amino acid and a new amino acid, in reactions catalyized by aminotransferases. (conservapedia.com)
  • In such a situation, it has been shown that amino acids by themselves are involved in a variety of regulatory processes ( 26 , 47 , 67 ). (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • Up to now, two ubiquitous amino acid-sensing processes have been described to occur in mammals. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • Understanding important processes like amino acids biosynthesis provides a basis to easier protect plants from Xanthomonas infection and may help to optimize xanthan production. (growkudos.com)
  • Pathways affected by harmful AASs reveal key processes involved in cancer development. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Improved knowledge of the genetics and biological processes that determine amino acid levels will enable researchers to use this information for plant breeding and biological discovery. (g3journal.org)
  • Toward this goal, we used genomic prediction to identify biological processes that are associated with, and therefore potentially influence, free amino acid (FAA) composition in seeds of the model plant Arabidopsis thaliana . (g3journal.org)
  • However, over the past decade, compelling experimental evidence has established the existence of such pathways in bacteria. (asm.org)
  • The widespread capacity of diverse bacteria, including non‐producers, to incorporate NCDAAs suggests that these amino acids may serve as both autocrine‐ and paracrine‐like regulators of chemical and physical properties of the cell wall in microbial communities. (embopress.org)
  • In both gram‐positive and gram‐negative bacteria, the cell wall is composed of a peptidoglycan (PG) polymer (also known as murein) that consists of glycan chains (alternating N ‐acetylglucosamine (GlcNAc) and N ‐acetylmuramic acid (MurNAc)) crosslinked by short peptides. (embopress.org)
  • The acid is highly soluble in water and insoluble in nonpolar solvents, and this reflects on why shikimic acid is active only against gram-positive bacteria, due to outer membrane impermeability of gram-negatives. (wikipedia.org)
  • This is because post exercise the MAPK signaling pathway is activated to induce muscle growth. (wikidoc.org)
  • These results suggest that the accumulation of sorbitol in the ciliary body and presumably in the ciliary epithelial cells, which are responsible for transport, is not a contributory factor in the reduction of amino acid levels observed previously in the aqueous humor of these animals. (arvojournals.org)
  • D. Rittmann, S. Lindner, and V.F. Wendisch, "Engineering of a glycerol utilization pathway for amino acid production by Corynebacterium glutamicum", Applied and Environmental Microbiology , vol. 74, 2008, pp. 6216-6222. (uni-bielefeld.de)
  • Prostate cancer-overexpressed gene 1 (POV1/LAT3/SLC43A1), first described as a gene overexpressed in human prostate cancer ( 15, 16 ), is a member of the l -type amino acid transporter (LAT) family ( 17 ). (aacrjournals.org)
  • An amino acid transporter named xCT may affect the growth and progression of non-small cell lung cancer, a discovery that may predict the five-year survival rate of patients suffering from this cancer, now at 16 percent, researchers at Georgia State University and Vanderbilt University Medical Center have concluded. (news-medical.net)
  • The more relaxed regulation of the alternative pathway makes it a more promising target for metabolic engineering than the arogenate pathway, Dudareva said. (purdue.edu)
  • These cells maintained levels of amino acid influx through androgen receptor-mediated regulation of LAT3 expression and ATF4 regulation of LAT1 expression after amino acid deprivation. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Elucidation of structural and dynamical pathways of communication or coupling between ligand binding sites, i.e. , classical allostery, is of topical interest and fundamental importance in biological regulation, 1 - 3 but remains a challenge to detect and quantify. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • On the other hand, elevated plasma branched-chain α-keto acids (BCKAs), the products of BCAA transamination, are also associated with IR and are potentially better biomarkers for diabetes ( 8 , 9 ). (diabetesjournals.org)
  • The phrase branched-chain amino acids or BCAA is sometimes used to refer to the amino acids having aliphatic side-chains that are non-linear. (wikidoc.org)
  • 2001) characterized the importance of the anaplerotic pathways of C. glutamicum. (slimmingbasics.com)
  • To identify the signaling cascade leading to phosphorylation of ATF2 in response to amino acid starvation, we used an individual gene knockdown approach by small interfering RNA transfection. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • The silenced mutants were highly sensitive to amino-acid starvation, and the infected plants showed significantly fewer symptoms such as stunting or early senescence in oilseed rape plant infection assays. (apsnet.org)
  • Consistently, deletion of single CPC1 of the haploid V. dahliae resulted in strains that are sensitive to amino-acid starvation and cause strongly reduced symptoms in the plant-host tomato ( Solanum lycopersicum) . (apsnet.org)
  • Conversely, we have shown that the activation of general control nonderepressible 2 (GCN2)-dependent amino acid starvation sensing pathway suppresses intestinal inflammation by inhibiting the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and interleukin-1 beta (IL-1β). (cdc.gov)
  • We investigate the role of the UPR in the induction of CHOP by amino acid deprivation and show that this induction is not correlated with BiP expression (an UPR marker). (nih.gov)
  • In conclusion, ghrelin inhibits the apoptosis of osteoblastic MC3T3-E1 cells induced by serum deprivation, which may be mediated by activating the GHSR/ERK and GHSR/PI3K/AKT signaling pathways. (osti.gov)
  • takes excess amino acids, somatostatin also signals the "intestines" to stop absorption of amino acids. (factsonhgh.com)
  • The pathway starts with two substrates , phosphoenol pyruvate and erythrose-4-phosphate and ends with chorismate , a substrate for the three aromatic amino acids. (wikipedia.org)
  • and iv) a second α-neutral pathway, also of broad specificity, capable of accepting the imino acid, proline, as a substrate. (elsevier.com)
  • The volume further deals with the metabolic engineering of microorganisms for the biotechnological production of amino acids for use as pharmaceuticals and, particularly, as food and feed additives. (springer.com)
  • But Purdue researchers demonstrated that plants also use an alternative pathway found in most microorganisms to make phenylalanine from phenylpyruvate. (purdue.edu)
  • The quantity extra offers with the metabolic engineering of microorganisms for the biotechnological construction of amino acids to be used as prescription drugs and, relatively, as nutrition and feed ingredients. (slimmingbasics.com)
  • Conclusion Our results indicate that dietary KAA intake improves hepatic steatosis and insulin resistance by modulating lipid synthetic pathways. (mit.edu)
  • or γ- 15 N). The metabolic fate of the dietary 15 N and 13 C was traced using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Nitrogen was the major contributor to the observed amino acid isotopomers with one additional unit mass (M+1). (biologists.org)
  • Excess dietary amino acids are neither stored for future use nor excreted. (conservapedia.com)
  • PON-P2 does not predict mechanisms of AASs, instead it identifies deviations from normal amino acids in the sequence positions. (biomedcentral.com)
  • But in the alternative pathway, you only need to have a source of nitrogen groups to synthesize as much phenylalanine as you want. (purdue.edu)
  • Consequently, amino acid homeostasis may be altered in response to malnutrition ( 4 , 40 , 59 ) and also by various forms of pathology leading to a negative nitrogen balance (chronic pathology, AIDS, and cancer, etc.) ( 41 , 86 , 89 ). (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • The first reaction in the breakdown of an amino acid is almost always removal of its α-amino group with the object of excreting excess nitrogen and degrading the remaining carbon skeleton. (conservapedia.com)
  • Living organisms excrete the excess nitrogen resulting from the metabolic breakdown of amino acids in one of three ways. (conservapedia.com)
  • Amino acids are organic compounds made of carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen, and (in some cases) sulfur bonded in characteristic formations. (encyclopedia.com)
  • In the amino group, two hydrogen atoms are bonded to each other and then to nitrogen, whereas the carboxyl group has two separate oxygen atoms strung between a carbon atom and a hydrogen atom. (encyclopedia.com)