Thromboxanes: Physiologically active compounds found in many organs of the body. They are formed in vivo from the prostaglandin endoperoxides and cause platelet aggregation, contraction of arteries, and other biological effects. Thromboxanes are important mediators of the actions of polyunsaturated fatty acids transformed by cyclooxygenase.Thromboxane A2: An unstable intermediate between the prostaglandin endoperoxides and thromboxane B2. The compound has a bicyclic oxaneoxetane structure. It is a potent inducer of platelet aggregation and causes vasoconstriction. It is the principal component of rabbit aorta contracting substance (RCS).Prostaglandins: A group of compounds derived from unsaturated 20-carbon fatty acids, primarily arachidonic acid, via the cyclooxygenase pathway. They are extremely potent mediators of a diverse group of physiological processes.Receptors, Thromboxane: Cell surface proteins that bind THROMBOXANES with high affinity and trigger intracellular changes influencing the behavior of cells. Some thromboxane receptors act via the inositol phosphate and diacylglycerol second messenger systems.Receptors, Thromboxane A2, Prostaglandin H2: A subclass of eicosanoid receptors that have specificity for THROMBOXANE A2 and PROSTAGLANDIN H2.Prostaglandins E: (11 alpha,13E,15S)-11,15-Dihydroxy-9-oxoprost-13-en-1-oic acid (PGE(1)); (5Z,11 alpha,13E,15S)-11,15-dihydroxy-9-oxoprosta-5,13-dien-1-oic acid (PGE(2)); and (5Z,11 alpha,13E,15S,17Z)-11,15-dihydroxy-9-oxoprosta-5,13,17-trien-1-oic acid (PGE(3)). Three of the six naturally occurring prostaglandins. They are considered primary in that no one is derived from another in living organisms. Originally isolated from sheep seminal fluid and vesicles, they are found in many organs and tissues and play a major role in mediating various physiological activities.Thromboxane-A Synthase: An enzyme found predominantly in platelet microsomes. It catalyzes the conversion of PGG(2) and PGH(2) (prostaglandin endoperoxides) to thromboxane A2. EC 5.3.99.5.Prostaglandins F: (9 alpha,11 alpha,13E,15S)-9,11,15-Trihydroxyprost-13-en-1-oic acid (PGF(1 alpha)); (5Z,9 alpha,11,alpha,13E,15S)-9,11,15-trihydroxyprosta-5,13-dien-1-oic acid (PGF(2 alpha)); (5Z,9 alpha,11 alpha,13E,15S,17Z)-9,11,15-trihydroxyprosta-5,13,17-trien-1-oic acid (PGF(3 alpha)). A family of prostaglandins that includes three of the six naturally occurring prostaglandins. All naturally occurring PGF have an alpha configuration at the 9-carbon position. They stimulate uterine and bronchial smooth muscle and are often used as oxytocics.Dinoprostone: The most common and most biologically active of the mammalian prostaglandins. It exhibits most biological activities characteristic of prostaglandins and has been used extensively as an oxytocic agent. The compound also displays a protective effect on the intestinal mucosa.Receptors, Prostaglandin: Cell surface receptors that bind prostaglandins with high affinity and trigger intracellular changes which influence the behavior of cells. Prostaglandin receptor subtypes have been tentatively named according to their relative affinities for the endogenous prostaglandins. They include those which prefer prostaglandin D2 (DP receptors), prostaglandin E2 (EP1, EP2, and EP3 receptors), prostaglandin F2-alpha (FP receptors), and prostacyclin (IP receptors).Prostaglandin D2: The principal cyclooxygenase metabolite of arachidonic acid. It is released upon activation of mast cells and is also synthesized by alveolar macrophages. Among its many biological actions, the most important are its bronchoconstrictor, platelet-activating-factor-inhibitory, and cytotoxic effects.Prostaglandin Endoperoxides, Synthetic: Synthetic compounds that are analogs of the naturally occurring prostaglandin endoperoxides and that mimic their pharmacologic and physiologic activities. They are usually more stable than the naturally occurring compounds.15-Hydroxy-11 alpha,9 alpha-(epoxymethano)prosta-5,13-dienoic Acid: A stable prostaglandin endoperoxide analog which serves as a thromboxane mimetic. Its actions include mimicking the hydro-osmotic effect of VASOPRESSIN and activation of TYPE C PHOSPHOLIPASES. (From J Pharmacol Exp Ther 1983;224(1): 108-117; Biochem J 1984;222(1):103-110)Prostaglandins A: (13E,15S)-15-Hydroxy-9-oxoprosta-10,13-dien-1-oic acid (PGA(1)); (5Z,13E,15S)-15-hydroxy-9-oxoprosta-5,10,13-trien-1-oic acid (PGA(2)); (5Z,13E,15S,17Z)-15-hydroxy-9-oxoprosta-5,10,13,17-tetraen-1-oic acid (PGA(3)). A group of naturally occurring secondary prostaglandins derived from PGE; PGA(1) and PGA(2) as well as their 19-hydroxy derivatives are found in many organs and tissues.Prostaglandin Antagonists: Compounds that inhibit the action of prostaglandins.Prostaglandins H: A group of physiologically active prostaglandin endoperoxides. They are precursors in the biosynthesis of prostaglandins and thromboxanes. The most frequently encountered member of this group is the prostaglandin H2.Prostaglandins D: Physiologically active prostaglandins found in many tissues and organs. They show pressor activity, are mediators of inflammation, and have potential antithrombotic effects.Receptors, Prostaglandin E: Cell surface receptors which bind prostaglandins with a high affinity and trigger intracellular changes which influence the behavior of cells. Prostaglandin E receptors prefer prostaglandin E2 to other endogenous prostaglandins. They are subdivided into EP1, EP2, and EP3 types based on their effects and their pharmacology.Prostaglandin H2: A cyclic endoperoxide intermediate produced by the action of CYCLOOXYGENASE on ARACHIDONIC ACID. It is further converted by a series of specific enzymes to the series 2 prostaglandins.Prostaglandin Endoperoxides: Precursors in the biosynthesis of prostaglandins and thromboxanes from arachidonic acid. They are physiologically active compounds, having effect on vascular and airway smooth muscles, platelet aggregation, etc.Indomethacin: A non-steroidal anti-inflammatory agent (NSAID) that inhibits the enzyme cyclooxygenase necessary for the formation of prostaglandins and other autacoids. It also inhibits the motility of polymorphonuclear leukocytes.Dinoprost: A naturally occurring prostaglandin that has oxytocic, luteolytic, and abortifacient activities. Due to its vasocontractile properties, the compound has a variety of other biological actions.Prostaglandin-Endoperoxide Synthases: Enzyme complexes that catalyze the formation of PROSTAGLANDINS from the appropriate unsaturated FATTY ACIDS, molecular OXYGEN, and a reduced acceptor.Prostaglandins, Synthetic: Compounds obtained by chemical synthesis that are analogs or derivatives of naturally occurring prostaglandins and that have similar activity.6-Ketoprostaglandin F1 alpha: The physiologically active and stable hydrolysis product of EPOPROSTENOL. Found in nearly all mammalian tissue.Epoprostenol: A prostaglandin that is a powerful vasodilator and inhibits platelet aggregation. It is biosynthesized enzymatically from PROSTAGLANDIN ENDOPEROXIDES in human vascular tissue. The sodium salt has been also used to treat primary pulmonary hypertension (HYPERTENSION, PULMONARY).HydrazinesAlprostadil: A potent vasodilator agent that increases peripheral blood flow.Receptors, Prostaglandin E, EP2 Subtype: A subtype of prostaglandin E receptors that specifically couples to GS ALPHA GTP-BINDING PROTEIN SUBUNITS and subsequently activates ADENYLYL CYCLASES.Receptors, Prostaglandin E, EP4 Subtype: A subtype of prostaglandin E receptors that specifically couples to GS ALPHA GTP-BINDING PROTEIN SUBUNITS and subsequently activates ADENYLYL CYCLASES. The receptor may also signal through the activation of PHOSPHATIDYLINOSITOL 3-KINASE.Cyclooxygenase Inhibitors: Compounds or agents that combine with cyclooxygenase (PROSTAGLANDIN-ENDOPEROXIDE SYNTHASES) and thereby prevent its substrate-enzyme combination with arachidonic acid and the formation of eicosanoids, prostaglandins, and thromboxanes.Receptors, Prostaglandin E, EP1 Subtype: A subtype of prostaglandin E receptors that specifically couples to GTP-BINDING PROTEIN ALPHA SUBUNIT, GQ and the subsequently activates TYPE C PHOSPHOLIPASES. Additional evidence has shown that the receptor can act through a calcium-dependent signaling pathway.Cyclooxygenase 2: An inducibly-expressed subtype of prostaglandin-endoperoxide synthase. It plays an important role in many cellular processes and INFLAMMATION. It is the target of COX2 INHIBITORS.Prostaglandins E, Synthetic: Analogs or derivatives of prostaglandins E that do not occur naturally in the body. They do not include the product of the chemical synthesis of hormonal PGE.Platelet Aggregation: The attachment of PLATELETS to one another. This clumping together can be induced by a number of agents (e.g., THROMBIN; COLLAGEN) and is part of the mechanism leading to the formation of a THROMBUS.Arachidonic AcidsCyclooxygenase 1: A constitutively-expressed subtype of prostaglandin-endoperoxide synthase. It plays an important role in many cellular processes.Receptors, Prostaglandin E, EP3 Subtype: A subtype of prostaglandin E receptors that specifically couples to GTP-BINDING PROTEIN ALPHA SUBUNIT, GI and subsequently inhibits ADENYLYL CYCLASES.Blood Platelets: Non-nucleated disk-shaped cells formed in the megakaryocyte and found in the blood of all mammals. They are mainly involved in blood coagulation.Intramolecular Oxidoreductases: Enzymes of the isomerase class that catalyze the oxidation of one part of a molecule with a corresponding reduction of another part of the same molecule. They include enzymes converting aldoses to ketoses (ALDOSE-KETOSE ISOMERASES), enzymes shifting a carbon-carbon double bond (CARBON-CARBON DOUBLE BOND ISOMERASES), and enzymes transposing S-S bonds (SULFUR-SULFUR BOND ISOMERASES). (From Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992) EC 5.3.Arachidonic Acid: An unsaturated, essential fatty acid. It is found in animal and human fat as well as in the liver, brain, and glandular organs, and is a constituent of animal phosphatides. It is formed by the synthesis from dietary linoleic acid and is a precursor in the biosynthesis of prostaglandins, thromboxanes, and leukotrienes.Eicosanoids: A class of compounds named after and generally derived from C20 fatty acids (EICOSANOIC ACIDS) that includes PROSTAGLANDINS; LEUKOTRIENES; THROMBOXANES, and HYDROXYEICOSATETRAENOIC ACIDS. They have hormone-like effects mediated by specialized receptors (RECEPTORS, EICOSANOID).Aspirin: The prototypical analgesic used in the treatment of mild to moderate pain. It has anti-inflammatory and antipyretic properties and acts as an inhibitor of cyclooxygenase which results in the inhibition of the biosynthesis of prostaglandins. Aspirin also inhibits platelet aggregation and is used in the prevention of arterial and venous thrombosis. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p5)Prostaglandins G: A group of physiologically active prostaglandin endoperoxides. They are precursors in the biosynthesis of prostaglandins and thromboxanes. Most frequently encountered member of this group is the prostaglandin G2.Prostaglandins F, Synthetic: Analogs or derivatives of prostaglandins F that do not occur naturally in the body. They do not include the product of the chemical synthesis of hormonal PGF.Prostanoic Acids: 2-Octylcyclopentaneheptanoic acids. The family of saturated carbon-20 cyclic fatty acids that represent the parent compounds of the prostaglandins.Dose-Response Relationship, Drug: The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.Prostaglandins B: Physiologically active prostaglandins found in many tissues and organs. They are potent pressor substances and have many other physiological activities.Cyclooxygenase 2 Inhibitors: A subclass of cyclooxygenase inhibitors with specificity for CYCLOOXYGENASE-2.Vasoconstrictor Agents: Drugs used to cause constriction of the blood vessels.Pentanoic AcidsCells, Cultured: Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.Methacrylates: Acrylic acids or acrylates which are substituted in the C-2 position with a methyl group.Rabbits: The species Oryctolagus cuniculus, in the family Leporidae, order LAGOMORPHA. Rabbits are born in burrows, furless, and with eyes and ears closed. In contrast with HARES, rabbits have 22 chromosome pairs.Synthetic Biology: A field of biological research combining engineering in the formulation, design, and building (synthesis) of novel biological structures, functions, and systems.Isoenzymes: Structurally related forms of an enzyme. Each isoenzyme has the same mechanism and classification, but differs in its chemical, physical, or immunological characteristics.Hydroxyprostaglandin Dehydrogenases: Catalyzes reversibly the oxidation of hydroxyl groups of prostaglandins.Vasoconstriction: The physiological narrowing of BLOOD VESSELS by contraction of the VASCULAR SMOOTH MUSCLE.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Meclofenamic Acid: A non-steroidal anti-inflammatory agent with antipyretic and antigranulation activities. It also inhibits prostaglandin biosynthesis.Sulfonamides: A group of compounds that contain the structure SO2NH2.Benzoxepins
  • 2 3 4 Infiltrating leukocytes provide a source of a number of vasoactive mediators with the potential to produce these effects. (ahajournals.org)
  • These molecules, termed as specialized pro-resolving mediators (SPM), are produced by immune cells via the enzymatic conversion of essential fatty acids, including the omega-3 fatty acids n-3 docosapentaenoic acid (n-3 DPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA). (nature.com)
  • comprising the endogenous lipid mediators endocannabinoids present in virtually all tissues, their G-protein-coupled cannabinoid receptors, biosynthetic pathways and metabolizing enzymes) has been implicated in multiple regulatory functions both in health and disease. (mrnice.nl)
  • 6,7 On the intraluminal side of the blood vessel lies the endothelium, an important producer of mediators such as endothelin-1 and contractile prostaglandins, but also prostacyclin, nitric oxide (NO), and endothelium-derived hyperpolarizing factor (EDHF), all of which act on underlying smooth muscle cells causing constriction or dilation to regulate vasomotor tone. (ahajournals.org)
  • The NF-KB proinflammatory signaling pathway drives macrophages and neutrophils to respond to such pathogens as part of the immune response. (todaysdietitian.com)
  • In peripheral tissues, PGD 2 is produced mainly by mast cells and other cells, including platelets, macrophages, and lymphocytes, and there it plays a role in inflammatory and atopic diseases, although it might also exert an array of immunologically mediated anti-inflammatory functions ( Ricciotti and FitzGerald, 2011 ). (aspetjournals.org)
  • Although their functional roles in the PPAR γ transcriptional pathway are not well defined, we recently found that production of cyclic phosphatidic acid (cPA), a simple phospholipid, inhibits transcription of PPAR γ target genes that normally drive adipocytic differentiation, lipid accumulation in macrophages, and arterial wall remodeling [ 14 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • For example, a majority of prostanoids produced by macrophages are PGE2 and TXA2, while the major prostanoid produced by vascular endothelial cells is PGI2. (biomedcentral.com)
  • cAMP goes on to inhibit any undue platelet activation (in order to promote circulation) and also counteracts any increase in cytosolic calcium levels that would result from thromboxane A2 (TXA2) binding (leading to platelet activation and subsequent coagulation). (wikipedia.org)
  • The ability of the same prostaglandin to stimulate a reaction in one tissue and inhibit the same reaction in another tissue is determined by the type of receptor to which the prostaglandin binds. (wikipedia.org)
  • Prostaglandins are powerful locally acting vasodilators and inhibit the aggregation of blood platelets. (wikipedia.org)
  • Another class of semiselective NSAIDs (indomethacin, meloxicam, and diclofenac) have a higher affinity for COX-2 but tend to inhibit the COX-1 pathway also [ 13 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • During the past 10 years, pharmacological agents that specifically inhibit the LO-mediated signaling pathways are now commercially available to treat inflammatory diseases such as asthma, arthritis, and psoriasis. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Of note, prostaglandin synthesis by lysates of endothelial cells stimulated with heme or Ang II appear to involve COX-2, because it was blunted by NS-398, which is presumed to inhibit COX-2 specifically. (ahajournals.org)
  • Increased levels of PAF, due to upregulation of biosynthetic pathways or to downregulation of PAF-AH, have been observed in pathological conditions such as neuroinflammation, brain ischemia, and neurodegenerative diseases. (springer.com)
  • We also studied expression of the enzymes that control their formation to understand how the 5-lipoxygenase (5-LO) pathway is activated in the coronary arteries. (ahajournals.org)
  • This also opens up the possibility that enzymes in this pathway may be targets for future pharmaceuticals. (asm.org)
  • The relative contribution of the two pathways to PAF synthesis depends on several factors including the concentration of substrates, energy availability, Ca 2+ concentration, and phosphorylation state of key enzymes. (springer.com)
  • Apart from systemic hormones and regional innervation, locally produced (endothelium-derived) factors and the myogenic response also importantly contribute to set arterial tone. (ahajournals.org)
  • Descriptions of eicosanoid and oxylipin production by eukaryotic microbes have been scattered through the literature for decades, but they have begun to receive significant attention in the last few years following reports of prostaglandins and prostaglandin-like molecules being produced by pathogenic helminths, protozoa, and fungi. (asm.org)
  • The major metabolic pathway is via conjugation with glucuronic acid, sometimes preceded by oxidation and hydroxylation. (merckvetmanual.com)
  • In order to investigate the metabolism of arachidonic acid in vitro or in vivo , targeted methods are advantageous in order to distinguish between the complex isomeric mixtures that can arise by different metabolic pathways. (mdpi.com)
  • Continuing efforts have been made in revealing the mechanisms and regulation of L-threonine producing strains, as well as in metabolic engineering of suitable organisms whereby genetically-defined, industrially competitive L-threonine producing strains have been successfully constructed. (cleanpowerfinance.com)
  • One of these key pathways is apoptosis which causes cell death when significantly activated. (hindawi.com)
  • We also showed that autophagy is upstream of apoptosis in cannabinoid-induced human and mouse cancer cell death and that activation of this pathway was necessary for the antitumor action of cannabinoids in vivo. (mrnice.nl)
  • Intracerebroventricular treatment with the GPR120- and GPR40-specific agonists TUG1197 and TUG905, respectively, resulted in milder effects than those produced by GW9508. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • However in some studies in several species comparing the natural derived RRR to the synthetic dl-alpha-tocopherol, has been shown to be more effective in elevating plasma and tissue concentrations when administered on an equal IU basis (Jensen et al. (dsm.com)
  • Typically, deodorizer distillates produced during the purification and manufacture of vegetable oils are utilized in the production of d-alpha-tocopherol or tocopheryl acetate. (dsm.com)
  • In the final process, ultra-vacuum molecular distillation is performed and the end material methylated to produce an alpha-tocopherol concentrate. (dsm.com)
  • This form of vitamin E is manufactured by condensing trimethyl hydroquinone and isophytol and conducting ultra-vacuum molecular distillation, producing a highly purified form of alpha-tocopherol. (dsm.com)
  • In the JAMA clinical trial, men supplemented with synthetic alpha tocopherol experienced significant gamma tocopherol depletion. (lifeextension.com)
  • Normeperidine a metabolite of meperidine is prone to produce seizures and tends to accumulate in patients with renal dysfunction and in the elderly. (brainscape.com)
  • However, in order to offer tailor made nutritional support or therapies, a complete estrogen metabolite profile is required in order to identify specific deficiencies in this pathway for each patient individually. (biomed.news)
  • For the clinician, understanding the biology of prostaglandin as it relates to gastrointestinal, renal, and cardiovascular physiology and the pharmacologic properties of specific NSAIDs is key to using these drugs safely. (spotidoc.com)
  • A second class of NSAIDs (celecoxib and rofecoxib) targets only the COX-2 pathway and is termed as COX-2 selective inhibitors (also known as coxibs). (hindawi.com)
  • Most interestingly, we demonstrated that degradation of hTK is impaired in S. cerevisiae carrying a temperature-sensitive mutation in the proteasomal gene pre1-1 or the Skp1-Cullin-1/CDC53-F-box (SCF) complex gene cdc34 or cdc53, suggesting the contribution of the SCF-mediated pathway in hTK degradation. (jove.com)
  • Upregulation of HO-1 gene expression by retrovirus-mediated delivery of the human HO-1 gene also attenuated heme and Ang II-induced prostaglandin synthesis. (ahajournals.org)