The protein constituents of muscle, the major ones being ACTINS and MYOSINS. More than a dozen accessory proteins exist including TROPONIN; TROPOMYOSIN; and DYSTROPHIN.
Contractile tissue that produces movement in animals.
A subtype of striated muscle, attached by TENDONS to the SKELETON. Skeletal muscles are innervated and their movement can be consciously controlled. They are also called voluntary muscles.
Unstriated and unstriped muscle, one of the muscles of the internal organs, blood vessels, hair follicles, etc. Contractile elements are elongated, usually spindle-shaped cells with centrally located nuclei. Smooth muscle fibers are bound together into sheets or bundles by reticular fibers and frequently elastic nets are also abundant. (From Stedman, 25th ed)
Histidine substituted in any position with one or more methyl groups.
An essential aromatic amino acid that is a precursor of MELANIN; DOPAMINE; noradrenalin (NOREPINEPHRINE), and THYROXINE.
Large, multinucleate single cells, either cylindrical or prismatic in shape, that form the basic unit of SKELETAL MUSCLE. They consist of MYOFIBRILS enclosed within and attached to the SARCOLEMMA. They are derived from the fusion of skeletal myoblasts (MYOBLASTS, SKELETAL) into a syncytium, followed by differentiation.
Developmental events leading to the formation of adult muscular system, which includes differentiation of the various types of muscle cell precursors, migration of myoblasts, activation of myogenesis and development of muscle anchorage.
The nonstriated involuntary muscle tissue of blood vessels.
A process leading to shortening and/or development of tension in muscle tissue. Muscle contraction occurs by a sliding filament mechanism whereby actin filaments slide inward among the myosin filaments.
Derangement in size and number of muscle fibers occurring with aging, reduction in blood supply, or following immobilization, prolonged weightlessness, malnutrition, and particularly in denervation.
An essential branched-chain amino acid important for hemoglobin formation.
Amino acids that are not synthesized by the human body in amounts sufficient to carry out physiological functions. They are obtained from dietary foodstuffs.
Organic compounds that generally contain an amino (-NH2) and a carboxyl (-COOH) group. Twenty alpha-amino acids are the subunits which are polymerized to form proteins.
Skeletal muscle fibers characterized by their expression of the Type II MYOSIN HEAVY CHAIN isoforms which have high ATPase activity and effect several other functional properties - shortening velocity, power output, rate of tension redevelopment. Several fast types have been identified.
The quadriceps femoris. A collective name of the four-headed skeletal muscle of the thigh, comprised of the rectus femoris, vastus intermedius, vastus lateralis, and vastus medialis.
The resection or removal of the innervation of a muscle or muscle tissue.
The long cylindrical contractile organelles of STRIATED MUSCLE cells composed of ACTIN FILAMENTS; MYOSIN filaments; and other proteins organized in arrays of repeating units called SARCOMERES .
Skeletal muscle fibers characterized by their expression of the Type I MYOSIN HEAVY CHAIN isoforms which have low ATPase activity and effect several other functional properties - shortening velocity, power output, rate of tension redevelopment.
A state arrived at through prolonged and strong contraction of a muscle. Studies in athletes during prolonged submaximal exercise have shown that muscle fatigue increases in almost direct proportion to the rate of muscle glycogen depletion. Muscle fatigue in short-term maximal exercise is associated with oxygen lack and an increased level of blood and muscle lactic acid, and an accompanying increase in hydrogen-ion concentration in the exercised muscle.
Mitochondria of skeletal and smooth muscle. It does not include myocardial mitochondria for which MITOCHONDRIA, HEART is available.
A 51-amino acid pancreatic hormone that plays a major role in the regulation of glucose metabolism, directly by suppressing endogenous glucose production (GLYCOGENOLYSIS; GLUCONEOGENESIS) and indirectly by suppressing GLUCAGON secretion and LIPOLYSIS. Native insulin is a globular protein comprised of a zinc-coordinated hexamer. Each insulin monomer containing two chains, A (21 residues) and B (30 residues), linked by two disulfide bonds. Insulin is used as a drug to control insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (DIABETES MELLITUS, TYPE 1).
A giant elastic protein of molecular mass ranging from 2,993 kDa (cardiac), 3,300 kDa (psoas), to 3,700 kDa (soleus) having a kinase domain. The amino- terminal is involved in a Z line binding, and the carboxy-terminal region is bound to the myosin filament with an overlap between the counter-connectin filaments at the M line.
Progressive decline in muscle mass due to aging which results in decreased functional capacity of muscles.
Amino acids which have a branched carbon chain.
Non-striated, elongated, spindle-shaped cells found lining the digestive tract, uterus, and blood vessels. They are derived from specialized myoblasts (MYOBLASTS, SMOOTH MUSCLE).
A vague complaint of debility, fatigue, or exhaustion attributable to weakness of various muscles. The weakness can be characterized as subacute or chronic, often progressive, and is a manifestation of many muscle and neuromuscular diseases. (From Wyngaarden et al., Cecil Textbook of Medicine, 19th ed, p2251)
Acquired, familial, and congenital disorders of SKELETAL MUSCLE and SMOOTH MUSCLE.
The neck muscles consist of the platysma, splenius cervicis, sternocleidomastoid(eus), longus colli, the anterior, medius, and posterior scalenes, digastric(us), stylohyoid(eus), mylohyoid(eus), geniohyoid(eus), sternohyoid(eus), omohyoid(eus), sternothyroid(eus), and thyrohyoid(eus).
The muscles that move the eye. Included in this group are the medial rectus, lateral rectus, superior rectus, inferior rectus, inferior oblique, superior oblique, musculus orbitalis, and levator palpebrae superioris.
The inferior part of the lower extremity between the KNEE and the ANKLE.
One of two types of muscle in the body, characterized by the array of bands observed under microscope. Striated muscles can be divided into two subtypes: the CARDIAC MUSCLE and the SKELETAL MUSCLE.
Skeletal muscle structures that function as the MECHANORECEPTORS responsible for the stretch or myotactic reflex (REFLEX, STRETCH). They are composed of a bundle of encapsulated SKELETAL MUSCLE FIBERS, i.e., the intrafusal fibers (nuclear bag 1 fibers, nuclear bag 2 fibers, and nuclear chain fibers) innervated by SENSORY NEURONS.
That phase of a muscle twitch during which a muscle returns to a resting position.
These include the muscles of the DIAPHRAGM and the INTERCOSTAL MUSCLES.
Mature contractile cells, commonly known as myocytes, that form one of three kinds of muscle. The three types of muscle cells are skeletal (MUSCLE FIBERS, SKELETAL), cardiac (MYOCYTES, CARDIAC), and smooth (MYOCYTES, SMOOTH MUSCLE). They are derived from embryonic (precursor) muscle cells called MYOBLASTS.
A type of strength-building exercise program that requires the body muscle to exert a force against some form of resistance, such as weight, stretch bands, water, or immovable objects. Resistance exercise is a combination of static and dynamic contractions involving shortening and lengthening of skeletal muscles.
Conical muscular projections from the walls of the cardiac ventricles, attached to the cusps of the atrioventricular valves by the chordae tendineae.
General ill health, malnutrition, and weight loss, usually associated with chronic disease.
The gradual irreversible changes in structure and function of an organism that occur as a result of the passage of time.
A serine threonine kinase that controls a wide range of growth-related cellular processes. The protein is referred to as the target of RAPAMYCIN due to the discovery that SIROLIMUS (commonly known as rapamycin) forms an inhibitory complex with TACROLIMUS BINDING PROTEIN 1A that blocks the action of its enzymatic activity.
Proteins obtained from foods. They are the main source of the ESSENTIAL AMINO ACIDS.
Physical activity which is usually regular and done with the intention of improving or maintaining PHYSICAL FITNESS or HEALTH. Contrast with PHYSICAL EXERTION which is concerned largely with the physiologic and metabolic response to energy expenditure.
Muscles forming the ABDOMINAL WALL including RECTUS ABDOMINIS, external and internal oblique muscles, transversus abdominis, and quadratus abdominis. (from Stedman, 25th ed)
A subset of ubiquitin protein ligases that are formed by the association of a SKP DOMAIN PROTEIN, a CULLIN DOMAIN PROTEIN and a F-BOX DOMAIN PROTEIN.
A sport in which weights are lifted competitively or as an exercise.
A masticatory muscle whose action is closing the jaws.
The larger subunits of MYOSINS. The heavy chains have a molecular weight of about 230 kDa and each heavy chain is usually associated with a dissimilar pair of MYOSIN LIGHT CHAINS. The heavy chains possess actin-binding and ATPase activity.
These compounds stimulate anabolism and inhibit catabolism. They stimulate the development of muscle mass, strength, and power.
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
Muscles of facial expression or mimetic muscles that include the numerous muscles supplied by the facial nerve that are attached to and move the skin of the face. (From Stedman, 25th ed)
A growth differentiation factor that is a potent inhibitor of SKELETAL MUSCLE growth. It may play a role in the regulation of MYOGENESIS and in muscle maintenance during adulthood.
The biosynthesis of PEPTIDES and PROTEINS on RIBOSOMES, directed by MESSENGER RNA, via TRANSFER RNA that is charged with standard proteinogenic AMINO ACIDS.
Muscles arising in the zygomatic arch that close the jaw. Their nerve supply is masseteric from the mandibular division of the trigeminal nerve. (From Stedman, 25th ed)
The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.
A synthetic hormone with anabolic and androgenic properties.
Respiratory muscles that arise from the lower border of one rib and insert into the upper border of the adjoining rib, and contract during inspiration or respiration. (From Stedman, 25th ed)
Either of two extremities of four-footed non-primate land animals. It usually consists of a FEMUR; TIBIA; and FIBULA; tarsals; METATARSALS; and TOES. (From Storer et al., General Zoology, 6th ed, p73)
Recording of the changes in electric potential of muscle by means of surface or needle electrodes.
The species Oryctolagus cuniculus, in the family Leporidae, order LAGOMORPHA. Rabbits are born in burrows, furless, and with eyes and ears closed. In contrast with HARES, rabbits have 22 chromosome pairs.
A strain of albino rat used widely for experimental purposes because of its calmness and ease of handling. It was developed by the Sprague-Dawley Animal Company.
Glucose in blood.
Muscular contractions characterized by increase in tension without change in length.
Involuntary weight loss of greater than 10 percent associated with intermittent or constant fever and chronic diarrhea or fatigue for more than 30 days in the absence of a defined cause other than HIV infection. A constant feature is major muscle wasting with scattered myofiber degeneration. A variety of etiologies, which vary among patients, contributes to this syndrome. (From Harrison's Principles of Internal Medicine, 13th ed, p1611).
Elongated, spindle-shaped, quiescent myoblasts lying in close contact with adult skeletal muscle. They are thought to play a role in muscle repair and regeneration.
A family of ribosomal protein S6 kinases that are considered the major physiological kinases for RIBOSOMAL PROTEIN S6. Unlike RIBOSOMAL PROTEIN S6 KINASES, 90KDa the proteins in this family are sensitive to the inhibitory effects of RAPAMYCIN and contain a single kinase domain. They are referred to as 70kDa proteins, however ALTERNATIVE SPLICING of mRNAs for proteins in this class also results in 85kDa variants being formed.
A peptide initiation factor that binds specifically to the 5' MRNA CAP STRUCTURE of MRNA in the CYTOPLASM. It is a component of the trimeric complex EIF4F.
The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.
A family of enzymes that catalyze the conversion of ATP and a protein to ADP and a phosphoprotein.
The mass or quantity of heaviness of an individual. It is expressed by units of pounds or kilograms.
The pectoralis major and pectoralis minor muscles that make up the upper and fore part of the chest in front of the AXILLA.
Embryonic (precursor) cells of the myogenic lineage that develop from the MESODERM. They undergo proliferation, migrate to their various sites, and then differentiate into the appropriate form of myocytes (MYOCYTES, SKELETAL; MYOCYTES, CARDIAC; MYOCYTES, SMOOTH MUSCLE).
The time frame after a meal or FOOD INTAKE.
Removal and pathologic examination of specimens in the form of small pieces of tissue from the living body.
Disorders characterized by an abnormal reduction in muscle volume due to a decrease in the size or number of muscle fibers. Atrophy may result from diseases intrinsic to muscle tissue (e.g., MUSCULAR DYSTROPHY) or secondary to PERIPHERAL NERVOUS SYSTEM DISEASES that impair innervation to muscle tissue (e.g., MUSCULAR ATROPHY, SPINAL).
Injuries to tissues caused by contact with heat, steam, chemicals (BURNS, CHEMICAL), electricity (BURNS, ELECTRIC), or the like.
The chemical reactions involved in the production and utilization of various forms of energy in cells.
Filamentous proteins that are the main constituent of the thin filaments of muscle fibers. The filaments (known also as filamentous or F-actin) can be dissociated into their globular subunits; each subunit is composed of a single polypeptide 375 amino acids long. This is known as globular or G-actin. In conjunction with MYOSINS, actin is responsible for the contraction and relaxation of muscle.
RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.
The introduction of a phosphoryl group into a compound through the formation of an ester bond between the compound and a phosphorus moiety.
A well-characterized basic peptide believed to be secreted by the liver and to circulate in the blood. It has growth-regulating, insulin-like, and mitogenic activities. This growth factor has a major, but not absolute, dependence on GROWTH HORMONE. It is believed to be mainly active in adults in contrast to INSULIN-LIKE GROWTH FACTOR II, which is a major fetal growth factor.
A strain of albino rat developed at the Wistar Institute that has spread widely at other institutions. This has markedly diluted the original strain.
The flow of BLOOD through or around an organ or region of the body.
Stable carbon atoms that have the same atomic number as the element carbon, but differ in atomic weight. C-13 is a stable carbon isotope.
A family of protein serine/threonine kinases which act as intracellular signalling intermediates. Ribosomal protein S6 kinases are activated through phosphorylation in response to a variety of HORMONES and INTERCELLULAR SIGNALING PEPTIDES AND PROTEINS. Phosphorylation of RIBOSOMAL PROTEIN S6 by enzymes in this class results in increased expression of 5' top MRNAs. Although specific for RIBOSOMAL PROTEIN S6 members of this class of kinases can act on a number of substrates within the cell. The immunosuppressant SIROLIMUS inhibits the activation of ribosomal protein S6 kinases.
Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.
The time span between the beginning of physical activity by an individual and the termination because of exhaustion.
The chemical reactions that occur within the cells, tissues, or an organism. These processes include both the biosynthesis (ANABOLISM) and the breakdown (CATABOLISM) of organic materials utilized by the living organism.
The measurement of an organ in volume, mass, or heaviness.
A condition of involuntary weight loss of greater then 10% of baseline body weight. It is characterized by atrophy of muscles and depletion of lean body mass. Wasting is a sign of MALNUTRITION as a result of inadequate dietary intake, malabsorption, or hypermetabolism.
The relative amounts of various components in the body, such as percentage of body fat.
Expenditure of energy during PHYSICAL ACTIVITY. Intensity of exertion may be measured by rate of OXYGEN CONSUMPTION; HEAT produced, or HEART RATE. Perceived exertion, a psychological measure of exertion, is included.
Products in capsule, tablet or liquid form that provide dietary ingredients, and that are intended to be taken by mouth to increase the intake of nutrients. Dietary supplements can include macronutrients, such as proteins, carbohydrates, and fats; and/or MICRONUTRIENTS, such as VITAMINS; MINERALS; and PHYTOCHEMICALS.
Stable nitrogen atoms that have the same atomic number as the element nitrogen, but differ in atomic weight. N-15 is a stable nitrogen isotope.
A powerful flexor of the thigh at the hip joint (psoas major) and a weak flexor of the trunk and lumbar spinal column (psoas minor). Psoas is derived from the Greek "psoa", the plural meaning "muscles of the loin". It is a common site of infection manifesting as abscess (PSOAS ABSCESS). The psoas muscles and their fibers are also used frequently in experiments in muscle physiology.
Common name for the species Gallus gallus, the domestic fowl, in the family Phasianidae, order GALLIFORMES. It is descended from the red jungle fowl of SOUTHEAST ASIA.
The musculofibrous partition that separates the THORACIC CAVITY from the ABDOMINAL CAVITY. Contraction of the diaphragm increases the volume of the thoracic cavity aiding INHALATION.
General increase in bulk of a part or organ due to CELL ENLARGEMENT and accumulation of FLUIDS AND SECRETIONS, not due to tumor formation, nor to an increase in the number of cells (HYPERPLASIA).
A basic element found in nearly all organized tissues. It is a member of the alkaline earth family of metals with the atomic symbol Ca, atomic number 20, and atomic weight 40. Calcium is the most abundant mineral in the body and combines with phosphorus to form calcium phosphate in the bones and teeth. It is essential for the normal functioning of nerves and muscles and plays a role in blood coagulation (as factor IV) and in many enzymatic processes.
The repeating contractile units of the MYOFIBRIL, delimited by Z bands along its length.
Linear POLYPEPTIDES that are synthesized on RIBOSOMES and may be further modified, crosslinked, cleaved, or assembled into complex proteins with several subunits. The specific sequence of AMINO ACIDS determines the shape the polypeptide will take, during PROTEIN FOLDING, and the function of the protein.
Confinement of an individual to bed for therapeutic or experimental reasons.
Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control (induction or repression) of gene action at the level of transcription or translation.
A masticatory muscle whose action is closing the jaws; its posterior portion retracts the mandible.
A primary source of energy for living organisms. It is naturally occurring and is found in fruits and other parts of plants in its free state. It is used therapeutically in fluid and nutrient replacement.
Chemical substances having a specific regulatory effect on the activity of a certain organ or organs. The term was originally applied to substances secreted by various ENDOCRINE GLANDS and transported in the bloodstream to the target organs. It is sometimes extended to include those substances that are not produced by the endocrine glands but that have similar effects.
Radioactive substances added in minute amounts to the reacting elements or compounds in a chemical process and traced through the process by appropriate detection methods, e.g., Geiger counter. Compounds containing tracers are often said to be tagged or labeled. (Hawley's Condensed Chemical Dictionary, 12th ed)
A ribosomal protein that may play a role in controlling cell growth and proliferation. It is a major substrate of RIBOSOMAL PROTEIN S6 KINASES and plays a role in regulating the translation (TRANSLATION, GENETIC) of RNAs that contain an RNA 5' TERMINAL OLIGOPYRIMIDINE SEQUENCE.
Technique for limiting use, activity, or movement by immobilizing or restraining animal by suspending from hindlimbs or tails. This immobilization is used to simulate some effects of reduced gravity and study weightlessness physiology.
A large multisubunit complex that plays an important role in the degradation of most of the cytosolic and nuclear proteins in eukaryotic cells. It contains a 700-kDa catalytic sub-complex and two 700-kDa regulatory sub-complexes. The complex digests ubiquitinated proteins and protein activated via ornithine decarboxylase antizyme.
Use of electric potential or currents to elicit biological responses.
Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.
Lengthy and continuous deprivation of food. (Stedman, 25th ed)
The restriction of the MOVEMENT of whole or part of the body by physical means (RESTRAINT, PHYSICAL) or chemically by ANALGESIA, or the use of TRANQUILIZING AGENTS or NEUROMUSCULAR NONDEPOLARIZING AGENTS. It includes experimental protocols used to evaluate the physiologic effects of immobility.
The muscle tissue of the HEART. It is composed of striated, involuntary muscle cells (MYOCYTES, CARDIAC) connected to form the contractile pump to generate blood flow.
The processes and properties of living organisms by which they take in and balance the use of nutritive materials for energy, heat production, or building material for the growth, maintenance, or repair of tissues and the nutritive properties of FOOD.
An element with the atomic symbol N, atomic number 7, and atomic weight [14.00643; 14.00728]. Nitrogen exists as a diatomic gas and makes up about 78% of the earth's atmosphere by volume. It is a constituent of proteins and nucleic acids and found in all living cells.
A myogenic regulatory factor that controls myogenesis. Though it is not clear how its function differs from the other myogenic regulatory factors, MyoD appears to be related to fusion and terminal differentiation of the muscle cell.
Genetically identical individuals developed from brother and sister matings which have been carried out for twenty or more generations or by parent x offspring matings carried out with certain restrictions. This also includes animals with a long history of closed colony breeding.
The muscles of the PHARYNX are voluntary muscles arranged in two layers. The external circular layer consists of three constrictors (superior, middle, and inferior). The internal longitudinal layer consists of the palatopharyngeus, the salpingopharyngeus, and the stylopharyngeus. During swallowing, the outer layer constricts the pharyngeal wall and the inner layer elevates pharynx and LARYNX.
A protein found in the thin filaments of muscle fibers. It inhibits contraction of the muscle unless its position is modified by TROPONIN.
A heterogeneous group of inherited MYOPATHIES, characterized by wasting and weakness of the SKELETAL MUSCLE. They are categorized by the sites of MUSCLE WEAKNESS; AGE OF ONSET; and INHERITANCE PATTERNS.
Deuterium. The stable isotope of hydrogen. It has one neutron and one proton in the nucleus.
A guanine nucleotide exchange factor that acts to restore EUKARYOTIC INITIATION FACTOR-2 to its GTP bound form.
Identification of proteins or peptides that have been electrophoretically separated by blot transferring from the electrophoresis gel to strips of nitrocellulose paper, followed by labeling with antibody probes.
A muscle protein localized in surface membranes which is the product of the Duchenne/Becker muscular dystrophy gene. Individuals with Duchenne muscular dystrophy usually lack dystrophin completely while those with Becker muscular dystrophy have dystrophin of an altered size. It shares features with other cytoskeletal proteins such as SPECTRIN and alpha-actinin but the precise function of dystrophin is not clear. One possible role might be to preserve the integrity and alignment of the plasma membrane to the myofibrils during muscle contraction and relaxation. MW 400 kDa.
The properties, processes, and behavior of biological systems under the action of mechanical forces.
Refers to animals in the period of time just after birth.
Carbohydrates present in food comprising digestible sugars and starches and indigestible cellulose and other dietary fibers. The former are the major source of energy. The sugars are in beet and cane sugar, fruits, honey, sweet corn, corn syrup, milk and milk products, etc.; the starches are in cereal grains, legumes (FABACEAE), tubers, etc. (From Claudio & Lagua, Nutrition and Diet Therapy Dictionary, 3d ed, p32, p277)
A transferase that catalyzes formation of PHOSPHOCREATINE from ATP + CREATINE. The reaction stores ATP energy as phosphocreatine. Three cytoplasmic ISOENZYMES have been identified in human tissues: the MM type from SKELETAL MUSCLE, the MB type from myocardial tissue and the BB type from nervous tissue as well as a mitochondrial isoenzyme. Macro-creatine kinase refers to creatine kinase complexed with other serum proteins.
The long-term (minutes to hours) administration of a fluid into the vein through venipuncture, either by letting the fluid flow by gravity or by pumping it.
The withholding of food in a structured experimental situation.
Maintenance of a constant blood glucose level by perfusion or infusion with glucose or insulin. It is used for the study of metabolic rates (e.g., in glucose, lipid, amino acid metabolism) at constant glucose concentration.
A network of tubules and sacs in the cytoplasm of SKELETAL MUSCLE FIBERS that assist with muscle contraction and relaxation by releasing and storing calcium ions.
A non-essential amino acid present abundantly throughout the body and is involved in many metabolic processes. It is synthesized from GLUTAMIC ACID and AMMONIA. It is the principal carrier of NITROGEN in the body and is an important energy source for many cells.
Abstaining from all food.
Neurons which activate MUSCLE CELLS.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
A normal intermediate in the fermentation (oxidation, metabolism) of sugar. The concentrated form is used internally to prevent gastrointestinal fermentation. (From Stedman, 26th ed)
The synapse between a neuron and a muscle.
An endogenous substance found mainly in skeletal muscle of vertebrates. It has been tried in the treatment of cardiac disorders and has been added to cardioplegic solutions. (Reynolds JEF(Ed): Martindale: The Extra Pharmacopoeia (electronic version). Micromedex, Inc, Englewood, CO, 1996)
Cysteine proteinase found in many tissues. Hydrolyzes a variety of endogenous proteins including NEUROPEPTIDES; CYTOSKELETAL PROTEINS; proteins from SMOOTH MUSCLE; CARDIAC MUSCLE; liver; platelets; and erythrocytes. Two subclasses having high and low calcium sensitivity are known. Removes Z-discs and M-lines from myofibrils. Activates phosphorylase kinase and cyclic nucleotide-independent protein kinase. This enzyme was formerly listed as EC
An adenine nucleotide containing three phosphate groups esterified to the sugar moiety. In addition to its crucial roles in metabolism adenosine triphosphate is a neurotransmitter.
The range or frequency distribution of a measurement in a population (of organisms, organs or things) that has not been selected for the presence of disease or abnormality.
An intermediate filament protein found predominantly in smooth, skeletal, and cardiac muscle cells. Localized at the Z line. MW 50,000 to 55,000 is species dependent.
A process involving chance used in therapeutic trials or other research endeavor for allocating experimental subjects, human or animal, between treatment and control groups, or among treatment groups. It may also apply to experiments on inanimate objects.
Any of various animals that constitute the family Suidae and comprise stout-bodied, short-legged omnivorous mammals with thick skin, usually covered with coarse bristles, a rather long mobile snout, and small tail. Included are the genera Babyrousa, Phacochoerus (wart hogs), and Sus, the latter containing the domestic pig (see SUS SCROFA).
The main artery of the thigh, a continuation of the external iliac artery.
A sustained and usually painful contraction of muscle fibers. This may occur as an isolated phenomenon or as a manifestation of an underlying disease process (e.g., UREMIA; HYPOTHYROIDISM; MOTOR NEURON DISEASE; etc.). (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p1398)
The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.
Peptide Elongation Factor 2 catalyzes the translocation of peptidyl-tRNA from the A site to the P site of eukaryotic ribosomes by a process linked to the hydrolysis of GTP to GDP.
The major protein constituents of milk are CASEINS and whey proteins such as LACTALBUMIN and LACTOGLOBULINS. IMMUNOGLOBULINS occur in high concentrations in COLOSTRUM and in relatively lower concentrations in milk. (Singleton and Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed, p554)
The consumption of edible substances.
A substituted phenylaminoethanol that has beta-2 adrenomimetic properties at very low doses. It is used as a bronchodilator in asthma.
A component of eukaryotic initiation factor-4F that is involved in multiple protein interactions at the site of translation initiation. Thus it may serve a role in bringing together various initiation factors at the site of translation initiation.
A protein factor that regulates the length of R-actin. It is chemically similar, but immunochemically distinguishable from actin.
A syndrome with excessively high INSULIN levels in the BLOOD. It may cause HYPOGLYCEMIA. Etiology of hyperinsulinism varies, including hypersecretion of a beta cell tumor (INSULINOMA); autoantibodies against insulin (INSULIN ANTIBODIES); defective insulin receptor (INSULIN RESISTANCE); or overuse of exogenous insulin or HYPOGLYCEMIC AGENTS.
The edible portions of any animal used for food including domestic mammals (the major ones being cattle, swine, and sheep) along with poultry, fish, shellfish, and game.
Systems of enzymes which function sequentially by catalyzing consecutive reactions linked by common metabolic intermediates. They may involve simply a transfer of water molecules or hydrogen atoms and may be associated with large supramolecular structures such as MITOCHONDRIA or RIBOSOMES.
Peptide initiation factors from eukaryotic organisms. Over twelve factors are involved in PEPTIDE CHAIN INITIATION, TRANSLATIONAL in eukaryotic cells. Many of these factors play a role in controlling the rate of MRNA TRANSLATION.
Diminished effectiveness of INSULIN in lowering blood sugar levels: requiring the use of 200 units or more of insulin per day to prevent HYPERGLYCEMIA or KETOSIS.
The vein accompanying the femoral artery in the same sheath; it is a continuation of the popliteal vein and becomes the external iliac vein.
A polynucleotide consisting essentially of chains with a repeating backbone of phosphate and ribose units to which nitrogenous bases are attached. RNA is unique among biological macromolecules in that it can encode genetic information, serve as an abundant structural component of cells, and also possesses catalytic activity. (Rieger et al., Glossary of Genetics: Classical and Molecular, 5th ed)
Different forms of a protein that may be produced from different GENES, or from the same gene by ALTERNATIVE SPLICING.
Specialized connective tissue composed of fat cells (ADIPOCYTES). It is the site of stored FATS, usually in the form of TRIGLYCERIDES. In mammals, there are two types of adipose tissue, the WHITE FAT and the BROWN FAT. Their relative distributions vary in different species with most adipose tissue being white.
The rate at which oxygen is used by a tissue; microliters of oxygen STPD used per milligram of tissue per hour; the rate at which oxygen enters the blood from alveolar gas, equal in the steady state to the consumption of oxygen by tissue metabolism throughout the body. (Stedman, 25th ed, p346)
Domesticated bovine animals of the genus Bos, usually kept on a farm or ranch and used for the production of meat or dairy products or for heavy labor.
A portion of the food eaten for the day, usually at regular occasions during the day.
The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.
The non-genetic biological changes of an organism in response to challenges in its ENVIRONMENT.
A protein-serine-threonine kinase that is activated by PHOSPHORYLATION in response to GROWTH FACTORS or INSULIN. It plays a major role in cell metabolism, growth, and survival as a core component of SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION. Three isoforms have been described in mammalian cells.
Any substances taken in by the body that provide nourishment.
Cleavage of proteins into smaller peptides or amino acids either by PROTEASES or non-enzymatically (e.g., Hydrolysis). It does not include Protein Processing, Post-Translational.
Unstable isotopes of carbon that decay or disintegrate emitting radiation. C atoms with atomic weights 10, 11, and 14-16 are radioactive carbon isotopes.
Progressive restriction of the developmental potential and increasing specialization of function that leads to the formation of specialized cells, tissues, and organs.
The physiological renewal, repair, or replacement of tissue.
A strain of mice arising from a spontaneous MUTATION (mdx) in inbred C57BL mice. This mutation is X chromosome-linked and produces viable homozygous animals that lack the muscle protein DYSTROPHIN, have high serum levels of muscle ENZYMES, and possess histological lesions similar to human MUSCULAR DYSTROPHY. The histological features, linkage, and map position of mdx make these mice a worthy animal model of DUCHENNE MUSCULAR DYSTROPHY.
A highly conserved 76-amino acid peptide universally found in eukaryotic cells that functions as a marker for intracellular PROTEIN TRANSPORT and degradation. Ubiquitin becomes activated through a series of complicated steps and forms an isopeptide bond to lysine residues of specific proteins within the cell. These "ubiquitinated" proteins can be recognized and degraded by proteosomes or be transported to specific compartments within the cell.
A polypeptide that is secreted by the adenohypophysis (PITUITARY GLAND, ANTERIOR). Growth hormone, also known as somatotropin, stimulates mitosis, cell differentiation and cell growth. Species-specific growth hormones have been synthesized.
Physiological changes that occur in bodies after death.
One of the minor protein components of skeletal muscle. Its function is to serve as the calcium-binding component in the troponin-tropomyosin B-actin-myosin complex by conferring calcium sensitivity to the cross-linked actin and myosin filaments.
The phenotypic manifestation of a gene or genes by the processes of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION and GENETIC TRANSLATION.
Electrophoresis in which a polyacrylamide gel is used as the diffusion medium.
A large lobed glandular organ in the abdomen of vertebrates that is responsible for detoxification, metabolism, synthesis and storage of various substances.
Histochemical localization of immunoreactive substances using labeled antibodies as reagents.
Transport proteins that carry specific substances in the blood or across cell membranes.
Regular course of eating and drinking adopted by a person or animal.
The domestic dog, Canis familiaris, comprising about 400 breeds, of the carnivore family CANIDAE. They are worldwide in distribution and live in association with people. (Walker's Mammals of the World, 5th ed, p1065)
Proteins which participate in contractile processes. They include MUSCLE PROTEINS as well as those found in other cells and tissues. In the latter, these proteins participate in localized contractile events in the cytoplasm, in motile activity, and in cell aggregation phenomena.
Exercises that stretch the muscle fibers with the aim to increase muscle-tendon FLEXIBILITY, improve RANGE OF MOTION or musculoskeletal function, and prevent injuries. There are various types of stretching techniques including active, passive (relaxed), static, dynamic (gentle), ballistic (forced), isometric, and others.
A family of proteins that are structurally-related to Ubiquitin. Ubiquitins and ubiquitin-like proteins participate in diverse cellular functions, such as protein degradation and HEAT-SHOCK RESPONSE, by conjugation to other proteins.
Continuous involuntary sustained muscle contraction which is often a manifestation of BASAL GANGLIA DISEASES. When an affected muscle is passively stretched, the degree of resistance remains constant regardless of the rate at which the muscle is stretched. This feature helps to distinguish rigidity from MUSCLE SPASTICITY. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p73)
Studies comparing two or more treatments or interventions in which the subjects or patients, upon completion of the course of one treatment, are switched to another. In the case of two treatments, A and B, half the subjects are randomly allocated to receive these in the order A, B and half to receive them in the order B, A. A criticism of this design is that effects of the first treatment may carry over into the period when the second is given. (Last, A Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)
... and all available ATP in the muscle can be devoted to muscle contraction. It is a catabolic pathway, and relies upon protein ... Doolittle, Russell F. (1989). "Redundancies in Protein Sequences". In Fasman, Gerald D. (ed.). Prediction of Protein Structures ... In muscle and other tissues that degrade amino acids for fuel, amino groups are collected in the form of glutamate by ... Alanine (symbol Ala or A) is an α-amino acid that is used in the biosynthesis of proteins. It contains an amine group and a ...
... receptor 4 mediates Lewis lung carcinoma-induced muscle wasting via coordinate activation of protein degradation pathways". ... Toll-like receptor 4 mediates cancer-induced muscle wasting in a Lewis lung carcinoma model. It does so by directly activating ... cardiac muscle, pancreas, adipose tissue, and esophagus. In cases of lung metastasis, large tumor masses underwent necrosis, ... "A highly metastatic Lewis lung carcinoma orthotopic green fluorescent protein model". Clinical & Experimental Metastasis. 18 (1 ...
The biochemical implications of α-KIC are largely connected to other biochemical pathways. Protein Synthesis, skeletal muscle ... ɑ-KIC ingestion and increased skeletal muscle protein synthesis, regeneration, and proteolysis. Multiple studies have ... participants reported delayed onset of muscle soreness, as well as other positive effects such as increased muscle girth. It is ... Following this pathway, HMB in the cytosol is first converted to cytosolic β-hydroxy-β-methylglutaryl-CoA (HMG-CoA), which can ...
"Entrez Gene: GEM GTP binding protein overexpressed in skeletal muscle". Cohen L, Mohr R, Chen YY, et al. (1995). " ... "The GTP binding proteins Gem and Rad are negative regulators of the Rho-Rho kinase pathway". J Cell Biol. 157 (2): 291-302. doi ... GTP-binding protein GEM is a protein that in humans is encoded by the GEM gene. The protein encoded by this gene belongs to the ... 2005). "Towards a proteome-scale map of the human protein-protein interaction network". Nature. 437 (7062): 1173-8. doi:10.1038 ...
Three forms of class I protein are found in vertebrates. Aldolase A is preferentially expressed in muscle and brain; aldolase B ... Gluconeogenesis and the Calvin cycle, which are anabolic pathways, use the reverse reaction. Glycolysis, a catabolic pathway, ... The Escherichia coli galactitol operon protein, gatY, and N-acetyl galactosamine operon protein, agaY, which are tagatose- ... The protein subunits of both classes each have an α/β domain folded into a TIM barrel containing the active site. Several ...
GH results in increased muscle mass, lipolysis, and protein synthesis. Obesity and increased adipose tissue, especially ... where it stimulates gluconeogenesis and the release of IGF-1 through the JAK-STAT signaling pathway. IGF-1 promotes growth in a ... IPLEX's manufacturing company, Insmed, after selling its protein production facility, can no longer develop proteins, thus can ... IPLEX (Mecasermin rinfabate) is composed of recombinant human IGF-1 (rhIGF-1) and its binding protein IGFBP-3. It was approved ...
... and once synthesized by eNOS it results in phosphorylation of several proteins that cause smooth muscle relaxation. The ... The inducible pathway (iNOS) of nitrogen oxide synthesis in phagocytes can generate large amounts of NO that trigger apoptosis ... Cyclic-GMP activates protein kinase G, which causes reuptake of Ca2+ and the opening of calcium-activated potassium channels. ... Hemoglobin is a prominent example of a heme protein that may be modified by NO by both direct attack by NO and, independently, ...
At the same time they turn on the expression of vimentin, alpha smooth muscle actin (ACTA2), and fibroblast-specific protein 1 ... "A diverse set of proteins modulate the canonical Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway." at "The role of β-catenin in ... DIX domains are unique: the only other proteins known to have a DIX domain are Dishevelled and DIXDC1. (The single Dsh protein ... In Drosophila, the homologous protein is called armadillo. β-catenin is a subunit of the cadherin protein complex and acts as ...
PGF2alpha promotes muscle protein synthesis by signaling through the Akt/mTOR pathway, similar to leucine, β-hydroxy β- ... Activators of this pathway include PDGF and FGF. Arachidonic acid promotes the repair and growth of skeletal muscle tissue via ... muscles, and liver. Skeletal muscle is an especially active site of arachidonic acid retention, accounting for roughly 10-20% ... Note separate synthetic pathways, as described in section below.) Arachidonic acid is not one of the essential fatty acids. ...
... thus attenuating skeletal muscle protein degradation through the ubiquitin-proteasome pathway. Luckose F, Pandey MC, ... prevents muscle damage and increases muscle strength by reducing exercise-induced proteolysis in muscles and also helps in ... HMB has been shown to decrease skeletal muscle protein degradation both in vitro[72,73] and in vivo[78]. ... Indeed, HMB has ... "Effects of leucine and its metabolite β-hydroxy-β-methylbutyrate on human skeletal muscle protein metabolism" (PDF). J. Physiol ...
... and diseases in skeletal muscle cells affect protein breakdown. This knowledge will be used for muscle atrophy and growth ... He is widely regarded for his work in the pathways for the cellular breakdown of proteins (ubiquitin-proteasome path) and the ... Goldberg is focusing on the ATP-dependent pathway that hydrolyzes the proteins. He works to understand the enzymes' mechanisms ... Bacteria and mitochondria have this ubiquitin-proteasome pathway. It has a role in destroying misfolded proteins and ...
... or its transfer to the protein. Types include: Type II disorders involve malfunctioning trimming/processing of the protein- ... Their biosynthetic pathway is very complex and involves a hundred or more glycosyltransferases, glycosidases, transporters and ... Examples are the α-dystroglycanopathies (e.g. POMT1/POMT2-CDG (Walker-Warburg syndrome and Muscle-Eye-Brain syndrome)) with ... Mannosidase I creates a Man5GlcNAc2-structure on the protein, but note that this has a different structure than the one made on ...
Collagen is a primary structural protein in the human body, necessary for healthy blood vessels, muscle, skin, bone, cartilage ... Ascorbic acid is needed for a variety of biosynthetic pathways, by accelerating hydroxylation and amidation reactions. In the ... "The Albert Szent-Gyorgyi Papers Szeged, 1931-1947: Vitamin C, Muscles, and WWII". U.S. National Library of ...
Uterine muscle contractions are induced via a G-protein pathway stemming from the oxytocin receptor (OXTR), the binding and ... However, if there is a loss of muscle tone, see uterine atony, there is an increased risk of bleeding. Oxytocin is the first- ... The most common cause of postpartum hemorrhage is a loss of muscle tone in the uterus. Normally, the uterus will contract to ... It is dependent on maternal and fetal chemical signals to stimulate muscles in the uterus to contract and relax. Of such ...
... in particular for surfactant protein A (SP-A) in lungs alveoli, tissue plasminogen activator (tPA) in vascular smooth muscle ... Implications for the organization of the ER-to-Golgi pathway". Journal of Cell Science. 104 (3): 671-83. PMID 8314869. Razzaq ... Cytoskeleton-associated protein 4 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the CKAP4 gene. CKAP4 also historically known as ... a surfactant protein A binding protein, on type II pneumocytes". American Journal of Physiology. Lung Cellular and Molecular ...
... a developmentally regulated protein of intestine and muscle". Developmental Biology. 169 (2): 399-414. doi:10.1006/dbio. ... Gluconeogenesis is a pathway consisting of a series of eleven enzyme-catalyzed reactions. The pathway will begin in either the ... Transport of PEP across the mitochondrial membrane is accomplished by dedicated transport proteins; however no such proteins ... it triggers phosphorylation of enzymes and regulatory proteins by Protein Kinase A (a cyclic AMP regulated kinase) resulting in ...
Rho proteins regulate many important cellular processes, including cytokinesis, transcription, smooth muscle contraction, cell ... Dysregulation of the Rho signal transduction pathway has been implicated in many forms of cancer. Alternative splicing results ... Binding of this protein inhibits the GTPase activity of Rho proteins. This protein may interfere with the conversion of active ... Rhotekin is a protein that in humans is encoded by the RTKN gene. This gene encodes a scaffold protein that interacts with GTP- ...
... "alpha smooth muscle actin" (human gene = ACTA2) and for palladin, which is a cytoskeletal actin scaffold protein. They are ... Together with the co-activation of the non-canonical EGFR pathway, these events lead to upregulation of the ACTA2 gene and ... subsequent alpha smooth muscle actin protein production. Several regulators of the myofibroblast differentiation pathway have ... in a similar fashion to smooth muscle, when exposed to substances that cause smooth muscle to contract, such as adrenaline or ...
This pathway consists of agrin, muscle-specific tyrosine kinase (MuSK protein), AChRs and the AChR-clustering protein rapsyn, ... This protein belongs to a family of proteins that are receptor associated proteins of the synapse. It contains a conserved cAMP ... 43 kDa receptor-associated protein of the synapse (rapsyn) is a protein that in humans is encoded by the RAPSN gene. ... The rapsyn protein interacts directly with the AChRs and plays a vital role in agrin-induced clustering of the AChR. Without ...
... and the breakdown of other heme-containing proteins, such as muscle myoglobin and cytochromes. The unconjugated bilirubin then ... From here urobilinogen can take two pathways. It can either be further converted into stercobilinogen, which is then oxidized ... and protein levels, specifically, total protein and albumin. Other primary lab tests for liver function include gamma glutamyl ... Plasma protein show characteristic changes. Plasma albumin level is low but plasma globulins are raised due to an increased ...
... by inducing exon skipping in the dystrophin gene and thereby increasing the amount of dystrophin protein available to muscle ... The U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approved golodirsen in December 2019, under the accelerated approval pathway. The ...
Muscle proteins are either soluble in water (sarcoplasmic proteins, about 11.5 percent of total muscle mass) or in concentrated ... There are several hundred sarcoplasmic proteins. Most of them - the glycolytic enzymes - are involved in the glycolytic pathway ... All muscle tissue is very high in protein, containing all of the essential amino acids, and in most cases is a good source of ... Over time, the muscle proteins denature in varying degree, with the exception of the collagen and elastin of connective tissue ...
"Akt/mTOR pathway is a crucial regulator of skeletal muscle hypertrophy and can prevent muscle atrophy in vivo". Nature Cell ... At rest protein infusion stimulates protein synthesis 30 minutes after start of infusion, and protein synthesis stays elevated ... Metabolically, BCAAs promote protein synthesis and turnover, signaling pathways, and metabolism of glucose. Oxidation of BCAAs ... Metformin is able to activate AMP kinase which phosphorylates proteins involved in the mTOR pathway, as well as leads to the ...
Zhu AX, Zhao Y, Flier JS (Dec 1994). "Molecular cloning of two small GTP-binding proteins from human skeletal muscle". ... Hook1 and Rab proteins link Batten disease to defects in the endocytic pathway". Human Molecular Genetics. 13 (23): 3017-27. ... Ras-related protein Rab-11B is a protein that in humans is encoded by the RAB11B gene. Rab11b is reported as most abundantly ... Rab (Ras-related in brain) proteins form the largest section of the Ras superfamily of small GTPases. The Rab family proteins ...
"The Vg1-related protein Gdf3 acts in a Nodal signaling pathway in the pre-gastrulation mouse embryo". Development. 133 (2): 319 ... McPherron AC, Lawler AM, Lee SJ (May 1997). "Regulation of skeletal muscle mass in mice by a new TGF-beta superfamily member". ... GDF15 (also known as TGF-PL, MIC-1, PDF, PLAB, and PTGFB) has a role in regulating inflammatory and apoptotic pathways during ... GDF8 is now officially known as myostatin and controls the growth of muscle tissue. GDF9, like GDF3, lacks one cysteine ...
Bassols AM, Carreras J, Cussó R (December 1986). "Changes in glucose 1,6-bisphosphate content in rat skeletal muscle during ... 5. acts as a phosphate donor molecule for unknown nonmetabolic effector proteins. 6. It increases in concentration during ... The reactant glucose 1-phosphate is an important precursor molecule in many different pathways, including glycolysis, ... Lee AD, Katz A (March 1989). "Transient increase in glucose 1,6-bisphosphate in human skeletal muscle during isometric ...
"Pre-B-cell colony-enhancing factor regulates NAD+-dependent protein deacetylase activity and promotes vascular smooth muscle ... Revollo JR, Grimm AA, Imai S (December 2004). "The NAD biosynthesis pathway mediated by nicotinamide phosphoribosyltransferase ... "Pre-B-cell colony-enhancing factor regulates NAD+-dependent protein deacetylase activity and promotes vascular smooth muscle ... More recently, several groups have reported the crystal structure of Nampt/PBEF/visfatin and they all show that this protein is ...
"Inhibition of smooth muscle cell growth by nitric oxide and activation of cAMP-dependent protein kinase by cGMP". The American ... "Role of the arginine-nitric oxide pathway in the regulation of vascular smooth muscle cell proliferation". Proceedings of the ... Posttranslational modifications of eNOS include fatty acid acylation, protein-protein interactions, substrate, and co-factor ... Once produced in endothelial cells, NO diffuses across the vascular smooth muscle cell membranes and activates the enzyme ...
It may catalyse skeletal muscle hypertrophy, by inducing protein synthesis, and by blocking muscle atrophy. It is protective ... The IGF-2 receptor only binds IGF-2 and acts as a "clearance receptor"-it activates no intracellular signaling pathways, ... IGF-1 and IGF-2 are regulated by a family of proteins known as the IGF-binding proteins. These proteins help to modulate IGF ... The insulin-like growth factors (IGFs) are proteins with high sequence similarity to insulin. IGFs are part of a complex system ...
... and AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) signaling pathways. In the present study, we... ... Cellular protein synthesis is believed to be antagonistically regulated by mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) ... Mechanical stretch activates mammalian target of rapamycin and AMP-activated protein kinase pathways in skeletal muscle cells. ... Regulation of skeletal muscle growth by the IGF1-Akt/PKB pathway: insights from genetic models. Skelet Muscle 1:4PubMedCentral ...
In addition, the diabetic rats exhibited a reduced mRNA expression of regulatory proteins in the protein synthesis pathway and ... The expression levels of key regulatory proteins in the synthetic pathways (Akt, mTOR, GSK3 and 4E-BP1) and the degradation ... and the soleus muscles were removed and homogenized in extraction buffer for the subsequent measurement of protein and mRNA ... increased expression of those associated with protein degradation. A reduction in the skeletal muscle mass in the diabetic rats ...
... we examined whether TCTP induces alterations in RhoA pathway in vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs). We found that TCTP over- ... Because dys-regulation of RhoA/Rho kinase pathway is implicated in increased vascular contractility, ... We conclude that up-regulation of TCTP induces RhoA-mediated pathway, and that TCTP-induced RhoA plays a role in the regulation ... expression by adenovirus infection up-regulated RhoA pathway including the expression of RhoA, and its downstream signalings, ...
The Combined Effect of Electrical Stimulation and High-Load Isometric Contraction on Protein Degradation Pathways in Muscle ... High-load isometric exercise is considered an effective countermeasure against muscle atrophy, but therapeutic electrical ... Electrical stimulation without loading resulted in slight attenuation of muscle atrophy. Moreover, combining electrical ... we investigated the combined effectiveness of electrical stimulation and high-load isometric contraction in preventing muscle ...
MNK2 Inhibits eIF4G Activation Through a Pathway Involving Serine-Arginine-Rich Protein Kinase in Skeletal Muscle ... MNK2 Inhibits eIF4G Activation Through a Pathway Involving Serine-Arginine-Rich Protein Kinase in Skeletal Muscle ... MNK2 Inhibits eIF4G Activation Through a Pathway Involving Serine-Arginine-Rich Protein Kinase in Skeletal Muscle ... MNK2 Inhibits eIF4G Activation Through a Pathway Involving Serine-Arginine-Rich Protein Kinase in Skeletal Muscle ...
The upregulation of contractile proteins by cilostazol involves the cAMP/protein kinase A (PKA) signaling pathway, because the ... Promotes Vascular Smooth Muscles Cell Differentiation Through the cAMP Response Element-Binding Protein-Dependent Pathway. Wei- ... Promotes Vascular Smooth Muscles Cell Differentiation Through the cAMP Response Element-Binding Protein-Dependent Pathway ... Promotes Vascular Smooth Muscles Cell Differentiation Through the cAMP Response Element-Binding Protein-Dependent Pathway ...
Changes in inflammatory and oxidative stress factors and the protein synthesis pathway in injured skeletal muscle after ... Changes in inflammatory and oxidative stress factors and the protein synthesis pathway in injured skeletal muscle after ... Changes in inflammatory and oxidative stress factors and the protein synthesis pathway in injured skeletal muscle after ... Changes in inflammatory and oxidative stress factors and the protein synthesis pathway in injured skeletal muscle after ...
Inhibition of a signaling pathway in cardiac muscle cells by active mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase. ... Inhibition of a signaling pathway in cardiac muscle cells by active mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase. ... Inhibition of a signaling pathway in cardiac muscle cells by active mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase. Mol Biol Cell. ...
... de novo lipogenesis in rat muscle satellite cells through a sterol-regulatory-element-binding-protein-1c-dependent pathway ... de novo lipogenesis in rat muscle satellite cells through a sterol-regulatory-element-binding-protein-1c-dependent pathway ... de novo lipogenesis in rat muscle satellite cells through a sterol-regulatory-element-binding-protein-1c-dependent pathway ... de novo lipogenesis in rat muscle satellite cells through a sterol-regulatory-element-binding-protein-1c-dependent pathway ...
... including skeletal muscle. Disruption of calcium levels or accumulation of misfolded proteins in the ER lumen leads to stress, ... for the activation of the UPR in skeletal muscle of LLC tumor-bearing mice. Finally, the role of the XBP1 in skeletal muscle ... However, the role of ER stress and the UPR in the regulation of skeletal muscle mass and function had not been previously ... This dissertation demonstrates that the markers of ER stress are increased in skeletal muscle of mouse models of cancer ...
Enzyme and pathway databases. SignaLink: a signaling pathway resource with multi-layered regulatory networks ... Actin, gamma-enteric smooth muscle. Actin, gamma-enteric smooth muscle (Alpha-actin-3) (Gamma-2-actin) (Smooth muscle gamma- ... to allow unambiguous identification of a protein.,p>,a href=/help/protein_names target=_top>More...,/a>,/p>Protein namesi. ... View protein in SMART. SM00268 ACTIN, 1 hit. PROSITEi. View protein in PROSITE. PS00406 ACTINS_1, 1 hit. PS01132 ACTINS_ACT_ ...
... the thin filament regulatory complex which confers calcium-sensitivity to striated muscle actomyosin ATPase activity. ... Enzyme and pathway databases. Reactome - a knowledgebase of biological pathways and processes ... Protein-protein interaction databases. STRING: functional protein association networks. More...STRINGi. 10090. ... Protein-protein interaction databases. STRING: functional protein association networks. More...STRINGi. 10090. ...
... the expression of monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 in human aorta smooth muscle cells via multiple signaling pathways.. ... Paper: Interleukin-1beta promotes the expression of monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 in human aorta smooth muscle cells via ... Monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP1) plays a key role in monocyte/macrophage infiltration to the sub-endothelial space of ... In this study, we examined the intracellular signaling pathway of IL-1beta-induced MCP1 expression using various chemical ...
The PDB archive contains information about experimentally-determined structures of proteins, nucleic acids, and complex ... This protein in other organisms (by gene name): P45379 - Homo sapiens 3 * P13789 - Bos taurus no matching PDB entries ... Pathway View. * Analyze *Sequence & Structure Alignment. *Protein Symmetry. *Structure Quality. *Map Genomic Position to ... Protein disorder predictions are based on JRONN (Troshin, P. and Barton, G. J. unpublished), a Java implementation of RONN * ...
The PDB archive contains information about experimentally-determined structures of proteins, nucleic acids, and complex ... Troponin is the central regulatory protein of striated muscle contraction. Tn consists of three components: Tn-I which is the ... Pathway View. * Analyze *Sequence & Structure Alignment. *Protein Symmetry. *Structure Quality. *Map Genomic Position to ... This protein in other organisms (by gene name): P63316 - Homo sapiens 37 * P19429 - Homo sapiens 14 ...
... effect on the exercise-induced activation of muscle protein synthesis or muscle protein synthesis signalling pathways. ... signaling pathway, the main positive regulator of muscle protein synthesis. We hypothesized that a single intravenous EPO ... signalling pathway, the main positive regulator of muscle protein synthesis. We hypothesized that a single intravenous EPO ... would have a synergistic effect on skeletal muscle protein synthesis via activation of the AKT pathway. Methods: Ten young ( ...
BIOLOGICAL PATHWAYS; CALCIUM; CONTRACTION; IN VITRO; MUSCLES; RATS; TRACER TECHNIQUES; TRITIUM COMPOUNDS; ALDEHYDES; ALKALINE ... It has been hypothesized on the basis of studies on BC3H-1 myocytes that diacylglycerol generation with activation of protein ... They also show that the BC3H-1 myocyte is not a good model for studying regulation of glucose transport in skeletal muscle. ... The maximal effects of PLC-Cpmore » and hypoxia or muscle contractions were also not additive. However, the submaximal effects ...
... structurally equivalent to the residues that form the folding nucleus in an evolutionary unrelated fibronectin type III protein ... Muscle Proteins / chemistry* * Mutagenesis * Peptide Mapping * Protein Denaturation * Protein Folding* * Protein Kinases / ... Background: Do proteins that have the same structure fold by the same pathway even when they are unrelated in sequence? To ... Here, we present a detailed protein engineering phi value analysis of the folding pathway of TI I27, an immunoglobulin domain ...
Microtubules anchored to proteins in the nuclear membrane position muscle cell nuclei. March 16, 2018 Scientists at A*STAR have ... Researchers discover a novel protein degradation pathway. March 12, 2019, Florida State University ... Yu and Kochs work is the first to shed light on this protein turnover pathway. They ran their experiments in yeast, a good ... These proteins are vital to a number of biological functions, but researchers were searching for clues about how old proteins ...
Results: HS for 3 and 7 days induced a significant (p,0.05) decrease in the rate of global protein synthesis in soleus muscle ... signaling pathways controlling protein synthesis in rat soleus during early stages of mechanical unloading (hindlimb suspension ... Conclusion: Taken together, the results of our study suggest that a decline in the global rate of protein synthesis in rat ... The rate of protein synthesis was assessed using in-vivo SUnSET technique. ...
... apoptosis ameliorates vascular smooth muscle cell senescence through AMP-activated protein kinase signaling pathway ... Aging , AMP-Activated Protein Kinases , Apoptosis , Cardiovascular Diseases , Cellular Senescence , Hydrogen Peroxide , Muscle ... of the anti-apoptotic protein Bcl-2 was observed to increase and the levels of proteins related to the apoptosis pathway were ... Quercetin-induced apoptosis ameliorates vascular smooth muscle cell senescence through AMP Quercetin-induced ...
Independent studies of the role of the bHLH protein scleraxis in testicular Sertoli cells and paraxis in muscle development ... Independent studies of the role of the bHLH protein scleraxis in testicular Sertoli cells and paraxis in muscle development ... Independent studies of the role of the bHLH protein scleraxis in testicular Sertoli cells and paraxis in muscle development ... Integration of CREB and bHLH transcriptional signaling pathways through direct heterodimerization of the proteins: Role in ...
Sphingosine 1-phosphate stimulation of the p42/p44 mitogen-activated protein kinase pathway in airway smooth muscle. Role of ... Sphingosine 1-phosphate stimulation of the p42/p44 mitogen-activated protein kinase pathway in airway smooth muscle. Role of ... Sphingosine 1-phosphate stimulation of the p42/p44 mitogen-activated protein kinase pathway in airway smooth muscle. Role of ... T1 - Sphingosine 1-phosphate stimulation of the p42/p44 mitogen-activated protein kinase pathway in airway smooth muscle. Role ...
IGF-I stimulates protein synthesis in skeletal muscle through multiple signaling pathways during sepsis. Thomas C Vary American ... Skeletal muscle atrophy, a link between depression of protein synthesis and increase in degradation. Helen L Eley, Michael J ... Signaling pathways initiated by beta-hydroxy-beta-methylbutyrate to attenuate the depression of protein synthesis in skeletal ... Resistance exercise increases muscle protein synthesis and translation of eukaryotic initiation factor 2Bepsilon mRNA in a ...
Metabolic pathways Is the Subject Area "Metabolic pathways" applicable to this article? Yes. No. ... Muscle proteins Is the Subject Area "Muscle proteins" applicable to this article? Yes. No. ... Skeletal muscles Is the Subject Area "Skeletal muscles" applicable to this article? Yes. No. ... Muscle biochemistry Is the Subject Area "Muscle biochemistry" applicable to this article? Yes. No. ...
Hypothesis - The conserved ancestral signaling pathway from cilium to nucleus. Peter Satir and Birgit H. Satir propose a ... The protein is expressed in the somatic muscles of the embryo during stages 16 and 17 (Fig. 6C,D). Individual muscles were ... the apparent lack of RNA corresponding to all protein isoforms may be due to low levels of protein synthesis in the muscles of ... Cytoskeletal proteins of insect muscle: location of zeelins in Lethocerus flight and leg muscle. J. Cell Sci. 107, 1115-1129. ...
The mTOR pathway in muscle is upregulated during the hypertrophy phase.† KEY MESSAGES • Whey protein is one of the most heavily ... Muscle mTOR are muscle enzyme activators of protein synthesis and supported by whey protein and the BCAA, especially leucine ... MAX PURE WHEY PROTEIN by Max Muscle Sports Nutrition. Uploaded by. Max Muscle San Mateo, CA & San Francisco (Castro), CA ... Maximizing muscle protein anabolism: the role of protein quality. Curr Opin Clin Nutr Metab Care. 2009;12:66-71. 5. Phillips SM ...
Rampersad, O. R., & Wool, I. G. (1965). Protein synthesis by ribosomes from heart muscle: Effect of insulin and diabetes. ... Human amylin proteotoxicity impairs protein biosynthesis, and alters major cellular signaling pathways in the heart, brain and ... Enrichment by A. Pathway-associated metabolite sets and B. Location-Based Metabolite sets determined from from t-test ... A. Enrichment by pathway-associated metabolite sets. B. Location-Based Metabolite sets determined from t-test significant ...
Signaling pathways perturbing muscle mass. Curr. Opin. Clin. Nutr. Metab. Care. 13:225-229. doi:10.1097/MCO.0b013e32833862df. ... Atrogin-1, a muscle-specific F-box protein highly expressed during muscle atrophy. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA. 98:14440-14445. ... muscle atrophy F-box/atrogin-1, and muscle RING finger protein/MuRF1 (Bodine et al., 2001; Gomes et al., 2001; Glass, 2010), ... 3 E). Fst protein in the quadriceps muscle also was decreased, confirming the finding of the reduced Fst mRNA levels (Fig. 3 F ...
  • We found that MNK2 (mitogen-activated protein kinase-interacting kinase 2), but not MNK1, inhibited proteins involved in promoting protein synthesis, including eukaryotic translation initiation factor 4G (eIF4G) and mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR). (
  • Stimulation of the mTOR pathway by adding leucine and insulin increased the phosphorylation of p70S6K without inactivation of AMPK. (
  • We found that TCTP over-expression by adenovirus infection up-regulated RhoA pathway including the expression of RhoA, and its downstream signalings, phosphorylation of myosin phosphatase target protein (MYPT-1), and myosin light chain (MLC). (
  • Phosphorylation at serine 1108 (Ser 1108 ) of eIF4G, which is associated with enhanced protein translation, is promoted by insulin-like growth factor 1 and inhibited by rapamycin or starvation, suggesting that phosphorylation of this residue is regulated by mTOR. (
  • Phosphorylation of Ser 1108 in eIF4G, in gastrocnemius muscle, was increased in mice lacking MNK2, but not those lacking MNK1, and this increased phosphorylation was maintained in MNK2-null animals under atrophy conditions and upon starvation. (
  • An siRNA screen revealed that serine-arginine-rich protein kinases linked increased MNK2 activity to decreased eIF4G phosphorylation. (
  • In addition, we found that MNK2 interacted with mTOR and inhibited phosphorylation of the mTOR target, the ribosomal kinase p70S6K (70-kD ribosomal protein S6 kinase), through a mechanism independent of the kinase activity of MNK2. (
  • These data indicate that MNK2 plays a unique role, not shared by its closest paralog MNK1, in limiting protein translation through its negative effect on eIF4G Ser 1108 phosphorylation and p70S6K activation. (
  • Furthermore, cilostazol-activated cAMP response element (CRE)-binding protein (CREB), including phosphorylation at Ser133 and its nuclear translocation. (
  • Significant interaction effects in the phosphorylation levels of the members of the AKT signaling pathway indicated a differential activation of protein synthesis signaling in older subjects when compared to young subjects. (
  • Background/Aims: The purpose of the study was to assess the amount of rRNA and phosphorylation status of the key markers of mTORC1-dependent (70s6k, 4E-BP1) and mTORC1-independent (GSK-3β, AMPK) signaling pathways controlling protein synthesis in rat soleus during early stages of mechanical unloading (hindlimb suspension (HS) for 1-, 3- and 7 days). (
  • Further evidence for an involvement of this pathway was shown by an increased phosphorylation of mTOR, the 70-kDa ribosomal S6 kinase (p70(S6k)), and initiation factor 4E-binding protein (4E-BP1) and an increased association of eukaryotic initiation factor 2 (eIF4E) with eIF4G. (
  • However, in the presence of HMB, phosphorylation of mTOR, p70(S6k), and 4E-BP1 was increased, and inactive 4E-BP1-eIF4E complex was reduced, whereas the active eIF4G.eIF4E complex was increased, suggesting continual stimulation of protein synthesis. (
  • PIF induced autophosphorylation of the double-strand RNA-dependent protein kinase (PKR), leading to phosphorylation of eIF2 on the alpha-subunit, which would inhibit protein synthesis. (
  • However, in the presence of HMB, phosphorylation of PKR and eIF2alpha was attenuated, and this was also observed in skeletal muscle of cachectic mice administered HMB (0.25 g/kg). (
  • Meal feeding enhances formation of eIF4F in skeletal muscle: role of increased eIF4E availability and eIF4G phosphorylation. (
  • Muscle protein synthesis (MPS) is a complex process and involves transcriptional co-regulators, myogenic regulatory factors and the phosphorylation of the mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR). (
  • The positive effect of supplying whey proteins rich in the BCAA are mediated through signaling pathways controlling protein synthesis involves phosphorylation of the target enzymes mTOR and the sequential stimulation of p70 ribosomal S6 kinase (p70 S6K) through the regulation of mRNA translation and other cell growth-related responses. (
  • Here, we found that myostatin increased the phosphorylation of Smad3 in soleus and EDL muscles and promoted an increase in proteolysis in soleus and a decrease in protein turnover in EDL and C2C12 cell culture. (
  • Here we show in mice that excess dietary fat induced MKP-1 overexpression in skeletal muscle, and that this resulted in reduced p38 MAPK-mediated phosphorylation of PGC-1α on sites that promoted its stability. (
  • A common feature for activation of all MAP kinase isoforms is the requirement for phosphorylation of both a threonine and a neighboring tyrosine regulatory site by a specific upstream protein kinase for activation. (
  • 1 2 Binding of extracellular stimuli to their cell membrane receptors induces a sequence of protein kinase reaction, leading to phosphorylation and activation of MEK (MAP kinase/ERK kinase). (
  • Thus, highly specific protein kinase cascades lead to dual phosphorylation of tyrosine and threonine residues on these MAP kinases, inducing their full activation. (
  • In general, the extent of protein phosphorylation is balanced by an antagonism of kinases and phosphatases. (
  • PI3K activation was found to support phosphorylation of p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (p38 MAPK). (
  • Our findings establish two distinct pathways for regulation of NE uptake involving PI3K, one linked to transporter trafficking and a second linked to Ca 2+ -dependent, p38 MAPK phosphorylation that promotes activation of cell surface NETs. (
  • Another recently included article shows that sprint exercise enhances skeletal muscle p70S6k phosphorylation and more so in women than in men . (
  • These findings are consistent with the notion that muscle activity initiates AChR stabilization via the activation of calcium-dependent protein phosphorylation reactions. (
  • and improved the phosphorylation of AKT at Serine 473 residue, mTOR at Serine 2448 residue, and FOXO at Serine 256 residue in skeletal muscles of the offspring. (
  • They won the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine in 1992 for their work on phosphorylation and dephosphorylation and how it relates to protein kinase A activity. (
  • In the presence of vanadate, H2O2 induced tyrosine phosphorylation of PLD1, protein kinase C-α (PKC-α), and other unidentified proteins in rat vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs). (
  • Alcohol "decreases muscle protein synthesis" and "suppress[es] the phosphorylation and activation of the mTOR pathways. (
  • MCP1, a G protein-coupled receptor agonist, activates phosphorylation of cortactin on S405 and S418 residues in a time-dependent manner, and inhibition of its phosphorylation attenuates MCP1-induced HASMC G-actin polymerization, F-actin stress fiber formation, and migration. (
  • Cortactin phosphorylation on S405/S418 is found to be critical for its interaction with WAVE2, a member of the WASP family of cytoskeletal regulatory proteins required for cell migration. (
  • Skeletal muscle mass is regulated by activity, metabolism, and the availability of nutrients. (
  • The BCAA, especially leucine, have powerful anabolic effects on protein metabolism by increasing the rate of protein synthesis, decreasing the rate of protein degradation and promoting recovery. (
  • Among the key players in muscle function is a transcriptional activator protein called PGC-1alpha, which helps enhance various aspects of muscle cell function, including metabolism and mitochondrial biogenesis. (
  • Adiponectin enhances mitochondrial biogenesis and oxidative metabolism in skeletal muscle. (
  • It has been well documented that mitochondrial dysfunction, particularly impaired oxidative metabolism, in skeletal muscle is closely associated with obesity and insulin resistance ( 3 - 6 ). (
  • Most importantly, regardless of the origin of adiponectin, significant evidence suggests that adiponectin improves skeletal muscle oxidative metabolism through its own receptors and downstream signaling ( 7 , 13 - 15 ). (
  • Therefore, it has been proposed that hypoadiponectinemia and impaired adiponectin signaling may contribute to the decreased skeletal muscle oxidative metabolism in obesity-associated insulin resistance and even type 2 diabetes. (
  • Protein has profound effects on your metabolism. (
  • This thermic effect accounts for one of the ways that a high-protein diet speeds up metabolism. (
  • Proteins accelerate metabolism through several pathways. (
  • The effect of myostatin on protein metabolism is related to fiber type composition, which may be associated to the extent of atrophy mediated effect of myostatin on muscle. (
  • The three main proteolytic processes involved in the control of muscle protein metabolism in mammals are the lysosomal, the Ca 2+ -dependent, and the ubiquitin-proteasome (UPS) systems. (
  • Special attention is paid to the intensity of protein degradation during the active growth period characterized by a high rate of protein synthesis and metabolism in fish, as well as to protein degradation during the reproductive period characterized by predomination of catabolic processes in contrast to the growth period. (
  • Focusing on metabolic integration, rather than pathways, this book opens with three introductory chapters that explore the principles of metabolism and its control before moving onto 'themed' chapters that investigate liver, communication systems (endocrine and neurological), blood and vascular system, muscle and adipose tissue and renal biochemistry. (
  • High-performance physical activity and postexercise recovery lead to significant changes in amino acid and protein metabolism in skeletal muscle. (
  • Exercise produces diverse changes in amino acid metabolism and protein turnover in skeletal muscle. (
  • Acute changes in amino acid metabolism caused by exercise are largely catabolic with net negative balance between the rates of protein synthesis and protein breakdown and an increase in the rate of amino acid oxidation. (
  • Muscle protein metabolism is a dynamic process characterized by the balance between the synthesis and breakdown of muscle proteins. (
  • Christopher S. Fry and Blake B. Rasmussen, " Skeletal Muscle Protein Balance and Metabolism in the Elderly", Current Aging Science (2011) 4: 260. (
  • Among its related pathways are Galactose metabolism and DAG and IP3 signaling . (
  • In certain embodiments of the invention, a compound of the present invention activates the AMPK pathway, and can be used to treat metabolism-related disorders and conditions. (
  • For this reason, we evaluated its modulatory effect on Walker-256 tumour evolution and also on protein metabolism in gastrocnemius muscle and body composition. (
  • Metformin treatment not only decreases the tumour growth but also improves the protein metabolism in gastrocnemius muscle in tumour-bearing rats. (
  • Protein kinase A has several functions in the cell, including regulation of glycogen , sugar , and lipid metabolism . (
  • Skeletal muscles, hydration, metabolism and the central nervous system are the top areas that alcohol inhibits after one drink as outlined by the National Institute of Health for athletes. (
  • High-load isometric exercise is considered an effective countermeasure against muscle atrophy, but therapeutic electrical stimulation for muscle atrophy is often performed without loading. (
  • In the present study, we investigated the combined effectiveness of electrical stimulation and high-load isometric contraction in preventing muscle atrophy induced by hindlimb unloading. (
  • Electrical stimulation without loading resulted in slight attenuation of muscle atrophy. (
  • These findings suggest that the combination of electrical stimulation and high-load isometric contraction is effective as a countermeasure against muscle atrophy. (
  • During muscle atrophy, MNK2 expression increases. (
  • Effect of branched-chain amino acids on muscle atrophy in cancer cachexia. (
  • To optimize exercise interventions in diabetics, the chronology of inflammatory mediators in muscle and the signaling involved in muscle hypertrophy/atrophy must be understood. (
  • Atrophy is closely related to the inflammatory signaling pathways ( Bonaldo and Sandri, 2013 ). (
  • Activation of the PI3K/Akt pathway blocks skeletal muscle atrophy and induces hypertrophy. (
  • The hypertrophic effects of Akt are modulated partly by stimulating protein synthesis pathways downstream of GSK3β and mTOR ( Schiaffino and Mammucari, 2011 ), whereas the muscle-specific ubiquitin ligases MAFbx and MuRF1 are important for activating muscle atrophy. (
  • During muscle atrophy, MAFbx and MuRF1 bind to and mediate the ubiquitination of myofibrillar proteins for subsequent degradation. (
  • Modern medicine's understanding of the quick onset of muscle atrophy is a major factor behind the practice of getting hospitalized patients out of bed and moving about as active as possible as soon as is feasible, despite sutures, wounds, broken bones and pain. (
  • Moreover, starvation eventually leads to muscle atrophy. (
  • Disuse of the muscles, such as when muscle tissue is immobilized for even a few days of unuse - when the patient has a primary injury such as an immobilized broken bone (set in a cast or immobilized in traction), for example - will also lead rapidly to disuse atrophy. (
  • Neurogenic atrophy, which has a similar effect, is muscle atrophy resulting from damage to the nerve which stimulates the muscle, causing a shriveling around otherwise healthy limbs. (
  • Glucocorticoids, a class of medications used to treat allergic and other inflammatory conditions can induce muscle atrophy by increasing break-down of muscle proteins. (
  • Other syndromes or conditions which can induce skeletal muscle atrophy are liver disease, and starvation. (
  • Muscle atrophy occurs by a change in the normal balance between protein synthesis and protein degradation. (
  • During atrophy, there is a down-regulation of protein synthesis pathways, and an activation of protein degradation. (
  • The particular protein degradation pathway which seems to be responsible for much of the muscle loss seen in a muscle undergoing atrophy is the ATP-dependent ubiquitin/proteasome pathway. (
  • 15 Jagoe , RT & Goldberg , AL ( 2001 ) What do we really know about the ubiquitin-proteasome pathway in muscle atrophy? (
  • Angiotensin II Induces Skeletal Muscle Atrophy by Activating TFEB-Mediated MuRF1 Expression. (
  • Therefore, MAP kinase phosphatase-1 (MKP-1), a dual-specificity protein tyrosine phosphatase that exhibits catalytic activity toward both regulatory sites on MAP kinases, is suggested to be responsible for the downregulation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK), stress-activated protein kinase (SAPK), and p38 MAP kinase. (
  • In the present study, we examined the role of these MAP kinases in the induction of MKP-1 in vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs). (
  • Mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinases are important mediators involved in the intracellular network of interacting proteins that transduce extracellular cues to intracellular responses. (
  • In contrast to ERK, more recently described MAP kinases such as stress-activated protein kinase (SAPK), also referred to as c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK), and p38 MAP kinase are suggested to inhibit cellular proliferation and to induce apoptosis. (
  • Furthermore, it required shorter stimulation periods in the presence of the phosphatase inhibitors okadaic acid and calyculin A, whereas blockade of protein kinases with high doses of staurosporine blocked the stabilization. (
  • It is not to be confused with AMP-activated protein kinase or cyclin-dependent kinases . (
  • The catalytic subunit contains the active site, a series of canonical residues found in protein kinases that bind and hydrolyse ATP and a domain to bind the regulatory subunit. (
  • abstract = "The cAMP response element binding protein/activating transcription factor (CREB/ATF) family of transcription factors is hormone responsive and critical for nearly all mammalian cell types. (
  • Abstract -Mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinase cascades are major signaling systems by which cells transduce extracellular cues into intracellular responses. (
  • p>This section provides information about the protein and gene name(s) and synonym(s) and about the organism that is the source of the protein sequence. (
  • section indicates the name(s) of the gene(s) that code for the protein sequence(s) described in the entry. (
  • We report here that cultured airway smooth muscle cells contain transcripts of endothelial differentiation gene 1 (EDG-1), a prototypical orphan Gi-coupled receptor whose natural ligand is sphingosine 1-phosphate (S1P). (
  • In Drosophila flight muscle, myofilin has a molecular weight of 20 kDa and is one of five isoforms produced from a single gene. (
  • The anabolic effects of both whey protein and the BCAAs combined with exercise stimulates skeletal muscle gene expression. (
  • Finally, Don W. Cleveland, PhD, professor and chair of the Department of Cellular and Molecular Medicine and head of the Laboratory of Cell Biology at the Ludwig Institute for Cancer Research at UC San Diego and colleagues report the effects of elevated levels of a gene- regulating protein in mouse cells afflicted by a form of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis or ALS. (
  • Mitochondrial contents, expression, and activation status of p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) and PPARγ coactivator 1α (PGC-1α) were compared between skeletal muscle samples from adiponectin gene knockout, adiponectin-reconstituted, and control mice. (
  • An inhibitory effect of adiponectin on MKP1 gene expression was observed in mouse skeletal muscle and cultured C2C12 myotubes. (
  • Using adiponectin gene knockout and transgenic mouse models, studies have demonstrated that adiponectin increases mitochondrial biogenesis and oxidative capacity in skeletal muscle ( 16 , 17 ). (
  • However, the signaling pathway from adiponectin receptors to PGC-1α gene expression is still largely unknown. (
  • Therefore, p38 MAPK may play a pivotal role in mediating adiponectin-stimulated PGC-1α gene expression, activation, and mitochondrial biogenesis in skeletal muscle. (
  • To examine the role of adipose-resident macrophages in insulin resistance, we examined the gene expression of CD68, a macrophage marker, along with macrophage chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1) in human subcutaneous adipose tissue using real-time RT-PCR. (
  • The function of myostatin is highly conserved among mammals: naturally occurring mutations in the MSTN gene resulting in increased muscling have been identified in cattle ( 2 ⇓ ⇓ - 5 ), sheep ( 6 ), dogs ( 7 ), and humans ( 8 ). (
  • These responses were associated with upregulation of Atrogin-1 in both muscles and C2C12 cells, and LC3 gene only in soleus. (
  • In response to environmental demands, skeletal muscle remodels by activating signaling pathways to reprogram gene expression to sustain muscle performance. (
  • Protein kinase A activation inhibits DUX4 gene expression in myotubes from patients with facioscapulohumeral muscular dystrophy. (
  • 15 16 Furthermore, the kinetics of gene expression and the cellular localization are consistent with a role for MKP-1 in the compensatory inactivation of stimulated MAP kinase-signaling pathways. (
  • Although advances have been made using single gene/gene product or pathway studies, the complexity of the response to asbestos and the many unanswered questions suggested the need for a systems biology approach. (
  • These functional modules show signs of a complex interplay between signaling pathways consisting of both novel and previously described asbestos-related genes/gene products. (
  • The most important and abundant types of zinc-finger domain proteins include C2H2, really interesting new gene (RING), plant homeodomain (PHD), and Lin-ll, Isl-1, and Mec-3 (LIM domains). (
  • On the other hand, ablation of the PrP gene has been shown to directly affect skeletal muscles, for example, by enhancing oxidative damage ( 30 ) or by diminishing tolerance for physical exercise ( 51 ). (
  • The X-linked gene Chisel (Csl/Smpx) was first found expressed selectively in human cardiac and skeletal muscle cells [ PMID: 10598820 ]. (
  • Identification, mapping, and genomic structure of a novel X-chromosomal human gene (SMPX) encoding a small muscular protein. (
  • This gene encodes a muscle enzyme involved in glycogenolysis. (
  • Mutations in this gene are associated with McArdle disease (myophosphorylase deficiency), a glycogen storage disease of muscle. (
  • PYGM (Glycogen Phosphorylase, Muscle Associated) is a Protein Coding gene. (
  • By isolation and extensive characterization of conditional mutations in the Drosophila SERCA gene, we describe novel roles of this key protein in neuromuscular physiology and enable a genetic analysis of SERCA function. (
  • Interleukin-1beta promotes the expression of monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 in human aorta smooth muscle cells via multiple signaling pathways. (
  • IGF-I stimulates protein synthesis in skeletal muscle through multiple signaling pathways during sepsis. (
  • It consists of well-controlled actions of enzymes that link chains of ubiquitin (UB) to the protein that will be degraded by proteasome 26S ( 12 ). (
  • in this way, this treatment ameliorated chemical body composition, reduced the higher activities of proteolytic enzymes and decreased the protein waste. (
  • Many of the proteins are important enzymes in metabolic pathways like the glycolysis and gluconeogenesis. (
  • In cell biology , protein kinase A ( PKA [N 1] ) is a family of enzymes whose activity is dependent on cellular levels of cyclic AMP (cAMP). (
  • Is the Subject Area "Metabolic pathways" applicable to this article? (
  • 1.6 Enzyme-mediated Control of Metabolic Pathways. (
  • 3.3 Glycolysis and the K TCA Cycle as Models of Control of Metabolic Pathways. (
  • Because transamination reactions are readily reversible and pyruvate is present in all cells, alanine can be easily formed and thus has close links to metabolic pathways such as glycolysis, gluconeogenesis, and the citric acid cycle. (
  • 1 The molecular pathways responsible for enhanced protein synthesis and ensuing cardiac hypertrophy have been extensively characterized. (
  • Furthermore , we intend to describe how amino acids and resistance exercise effect the molecular pathways that regulate protein synthesis, with the main focus on pathways that activate and are activated by mTOR. (
  • 8 , 9 More than a dozen causal genes, coding for thick, thin, and Z disk proteins of sarcomeres, have been identified in probands and families with HCM. (
  • Muscles incubated with myostatin exhibited an increase in proteolysis with an increase of Atrogin-1, MuRF1 and LC3 genes. (
  • Two autophagic-related genes, the microtubule-associated protein light chain 3 (LC3) and the gamma-amino butyric acid receptor-associated protein (GABARAP), are indispensable for autophagic process since they anchor the lysosomal membrane to the autophagosome ( 9 , 10 ). (
  • In tumour cells, the phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K)-Akt-mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) pathway is always turned on due to mutation of key genes in this pathway. (
  • out of 540 different protein kinase genes that make up for human kinome, only one other protein kinase, Casein kinase 2 , is known to exist in a physiological tetrameric complex. (
  • Mutations in genes of the EGF pathway cause C. elegans hermaphrodites to form abnormal vulval tissue. (
  • This modern and advanced purification and homogenization process produces over 99% non-denatured amino acids which yields more intact whey protein fractions in addition to beta-lactoglobulins, alpha-lactoglobulins, serum albumin, lactoferrin and bioactive peptides with many biological health benefits. (
  • The amino acids from proteins build the structure of your muscles by turning on protein synthesis, which means building muscle. (
  • Without a ready supply of amino acids from dietary protein, the body turns to muscle for a source of energy. (
  • Branched-chain amino acids are essential nutrients that the body obtains from proteins found in food, especially meat, dairy products, and legumes. (
  • Branched-chain amino acids are used for many other conditions and may be taken by athletes to improve athletic performance, prevent fatigue, improve concentration, and reduce muscle breakdown during intense exercise. (
  • Branched-chain amino acids stimulate the building of protein in muscle and possibly reduce muscle breakdown. (
  • Taking branched-chain amino acids by mouth seems to reduce symptoms of the muscle disorder called tardive dyskinesia. (
  • Some studies also show that taking branched chain amino acids may reduce muscle soreness after exercise. (
  • Eating carbohydrates with an amino acid/protein mixture might improve insulin response in people with diabetes. (
  • Adiponectin is a 244-amino-acid protein with molecular weight of 30 kDa. (
  • Nitrogen balance, amino acid uptake, sometimes actual muscle growth is measured over the length of the study. (
  • This gave rise to the discovery of a new group of transcriptional activator proteins with a 30 amino acid repeating region. (
  • SizeOn contains high-quality whey protein hydrolysate, which is clinically proven to absorb even faster than free-form amino acids. (
  • The catabolic period after an overnight fast continues until adequate energy and amino acids are available to stimulate protein synthesis. (
  • Acute changes are driven by energy needs and amino acid availability, whereas long-term changes allow for adaptation of proteins for structure and performance (3,4). (
  • In particular, combining resistance exercise with essential amino acid supplementation restores the muscle protein anabolic response in older men. (
  • Muscle mass regulation is responsive to a variety of stimuli, whereas amino acids and resistance exercise are two major regulators. (
  • It has long been recognized that both amino acid and resistance exercise effect protein synthesis and protein degradation, although the effect of varying distribution of amino acids remain unknown. (
  • The purpose of this essay is to elucidate if there exist any scientific rationale to spread the amino acid intake over the day, with the purpose to maximize muscle protein accretion in response to resistance exercise. (
  • Studies that examine acute effects on protein synthesis or protein balance after resistance exercise and amino acid intake support the notion that there may be an advantage to spread the amino acid intake over the day, since the synthetic response to amino acids are transient. (
  • Both amino acids and resistance exercise seems to independently activate the intracellular pathways that regulate protein synthesis, with the effect being greatest when both are combined. (
  • Alanine (symbol Ala or A) is an α-amino acid that is used in the biosynthesis of proteins. (
  • Alanine is one of the twenty canonical α-amino acids used as building blocks (monomers) for the ribosome-mediated biosynthesis of proteins. (
  • In this model the selection of monomers (i.e. amino acids) for ribosomal protein synthesis is rather limited to those Alanine derivatives that are suitable for building α-helix or β-sheet secondary structural elements. (
  • Therefore, most canonical amino acids in proteins can be exchanged with Ala by point mutations while the secondary structure remains intact. (
  • This dissertation demonstrates that the markers of ER stress are increased in skeletal muscle of mouse models of cancer cachexia. (
  • Cancer-cachexia state frequently induces both fat and protein wasting, leading to death. (
  • Further, our results demonstrate that the targeted deletion of X-box binding protein (XBP1), a downstream target of the inositol-requiring enzyme 1α (IRE1α) arm of the UPR, attenuates the loss of skeletal muscle mass in LLC tumor-bearing mice. (
  • p38 is a member of the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) family and has been identified as a downstream molecule in the adiponectin-signaling pathway ( 15 , 18 , 19 ). (
  • The anterior-posterior patterning of LIN-32 expression and of differentiated ray neuroglial fates is brought about by the Wnt/β-catenin asymmetry pathway, including the Wnt ligand LIN-44, its receptor LIN-17, and downstream components LIT-1 (NLK), SYS-1 (β-catenin), and POP-1 (TCF). (
  • The rate of protein synthesis was assessed using in-vivo SUnSET technique. (
  • Conclusion: Taken together, the results of our study suggest that a decline in the global rate of protein synthesis in rat soleus during early stages of simulated microgravity is associated with impaired ribosome biogenesis as well as reduced activity of mTORC1-independent signaling pathways. (
  • After a meal as nutrients are absorbed, the rate of protein synthesis increases. (
  • Protein accretion occurs when the rate of protein synthesis exceeds the rate of protein degradation. (
  • In mouse skeletal muscle, EPO stimulation can activate the AKT serine/threonine kinase 1 (AKT) signaling pathway, the main positive regulator of muscle protein synthesis. (
  • Confocal immunofluorescence microscopy revealed that activated Pax7 + myoblasts coexpressed nuclear pSmad1/5/8, Id1, and Id3 in injured mouse skeletal muscle sections. (
  • Induced expression of the mutant TRIM63 in the mouse heart was associated with cardiac hypertrophy, activation of the MTOR-S6K and calcineurin pathways, and expression of the hypertrophic markers, which were normalized on turning off expression of the mutant protein. (
  • In contrast to the body of work on transcriptional mechanisms that drive cardiac hypertrophy, including class II HDACs, this report elucidates a novel growth-suppressing transcriptional pathway in cardiac muscle that opposes hypertrophic growth. (
  • In other words, without APJ, ignorance is bliss--the heart doesn't sense the danger and so it doesn't activate the hypertrophic pathways that lead to heart failure," Ruiz-Lozano said. (
  • Results showed XBP1 mediates overload-induced myofiber hypertrophy and skeletal muscle regeneration potentially through augmenting the proliferation of satellite cells in a non-cell-autonomous manner. (
  • Myogenic regulatory factors or MRFs include Myo-D, myogenin, MRF-4 and myf5 and are a family of muscle-specific transcription factors that play a critical role in muscle cell hypertrophy (increases in muscle cell size). (
  • The mTOR pathway in muscle is upregulated during the hypertrophy phase. (
  • A shift in protein homeostasis in favor of synthesis, resulting in increased cell protein content, is an established mechanism for cardiac hypertrophy. (
  • 2 In contrast, the potential contributions of the protein degradation pathways, including the ubiquitin-proteasome system (UPS), in maintaining cardiac protein homeostasis and the pathogenesis of cardiac hypertrophy are less well understood. (
  • The cellular targets for myostatin and activin A in muscle and the role of satellite cells in mediating muscle hypertrophy induced by inhibition of this signaling pathway have not been fully elucidated. (
  • Here we show that myostatin/activin A inhibition can cause muscle hypertrophy in mice lacking either syndecan4 or Pax7, both of which are important for satellite cell function and development. (
  • Moreover, we show that muscle hypertrophy after pharmacological blockade of this pathway occurs without significant satellite cell proliferation and fusion to myofibers and without an increase in the number of myonuclei per myofiber. (
  • Finally, we show that genetic ablation of Acvr2b , which encodes a high-affinity receptor for myostatin and activin A specifically in myofibers is sufficient to induce muscle hypertrophy. (
  • A new study shows that overexpression of the atypical transcriptional corepressor homeodomain-only protein (Hop) causes cardiac hypertrophy via recruitment of a class I HDAC. (
  • Heart failure represents the final common pathway for diverse disorders intrinsic to or impinging on the myocardium, including myocardial infarction and hypertension-induced cardiac hypertrophy. (
  • 1 ) as a novel specific autocrine/endocrine negative regulator of skeletal muscle mass, since its embryonary deletion promoted a large increase in muscle mass as a result of hyperplasia and hypertrophy. (
  • In this study, we showed that exacerbated hypertrophy induced by pressure overload in cardiac-deleted Pak1 mice was attributable to a failure to upregulate the antihypertrophic E3 ligase, Fbxo32, responsible for targeting proteins for the ubiquitin-degradation pathway. (
  • Together, these processes are called protein turnover and produce muscle growth or hypertrophy when synthesis is greater than breakdown and muscle wasting when synthesis is less than breakdown. (
  • instead, regular exercise is essential to optimize muscle growth and hypertrophy. (
  • Cellular protein synthesis is believed to be antagonistically regulated by mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) and AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) signaling pathways. (
  • The protein the researchers studied is essential to cellular processes, such as cell-cycle progression, and also plays a role in a class of diseases that includes muscular dystrophy and a premature aging syndrome called progeria. (
  • Accordingly, we investigated the relationship between quercetin-induced apoptosis and the inhibition of cellular senescence, and determined the mechanism of oxidative stress-induced vascular smooth muscle cell (VSMC) senescence. (
  • Herein, we studied the kinetic inflammatory profile and cellular signaling pathways modulated by physical exhaustion after the induction of type 1 diabetes by streptozotocin in rats. (
  • The best way to determine the role a protein plays in a particular cellular process is to see what happens when it's missing. (
  • Zinc-finger proteins (ZNFs) are involved in several cellular processes acting through different molecular mechanisms. (
  • It is now well established that the conversion of the cellular prion protein, PrP C , into its anomalous conformer, PrP Sc , is central to the onset of prion disease. (
  • The cellular prion protein (PrP C ) is a glycoprotein, prominently expressed in the mammalian central nervous system (CNS) and lymphoreticular system, that is anchored to the cell external surface through a glycolipidic moiety. (
  • As a possible target of trapidil, stimulation of cellular protein kinase A (PKA) activity was detected. (
  • The cellular background for these alterations are changes in morphology and function of SMC after endothelial denudation, resulting in their transformation from a contractile into a secretory phenotype that loses myofibrils, generates matrix proteins and responds to growth factors with cell proliferation ( Reines and Ross, 1993 ). (
  • AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) plays an essential role maintaining the cellular energetic status, acting as a fuel gauge. (
  • This G-protein function requires extra-cellular calcium mobilization in body-wall muscles. (
  • However, the cellular signaling pathways controlling the proliferation and differentiation of myoblasts are not fully understood. (
  • Our results also demonstrate that toll-like receptors-mediated signaling is responsible, at least in part, for the activation of the UPR in skeletal muscle of LLC tumor-bearing mice. (
  • ADAMs as mediators of EGF receptor transactivation by G protein-coupled receptors. (
  • increase muscle contraction force via activation of stimulatory G protein (G s )-coupled receptors (GPCRs), which in turn activates adenylyl cyclases (ACs). (
  • Recent studies suggest that G protein-coupled receptors linked to protein kinase C (PKC) down-regulate cell surface NET protein levels and diminish NE uptake capacity. (
  • During neuromuscular synapse development, the degradation rate of ACh receptors (AChRs) accumulated in the synaptic portion of the muscle membrane is drastically reduced under neural control, their half-life t1/2 increasing from 1 d to about 12 d. (
  • Skeletal muscle mass, contractile properties, and metabolic function are regulated through the coordinated activation of multiple intracellular signaling pathways and genetic reprogramming. (
  • Objective- Cilostazol, a potent type 3 phosphodiesterase inhibitor, has recently been found to reduce neointimal formation by inhibiting vascular smooth muscle cell (VSMC) proliferation. (
  • Therefore, knowledge of the delicate balance between pathways that lead to proliferation or survival and those which lead to apoptosis or cell death are crucial for understanding the etiologies behind several asbestos-induced lung disorders and diseases. (
  • Conclusions- GIT1 is a novel mediator of vascular remodeling by regulating VSMC proliferation, migration, and apoptosis through phospholipase Cγ and extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2 signaling pathways. (
  • The proliferation and migration of vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) contributes to the development of atherosclerosis and restenosis after angioplasty. (
  • 9 , 11 Based on these data, we propose that GIT1 is essential for VSMC proliferation, apoptosis, and migration through PLCγ and ERK1/2 pathway induced by GPCR and tyrosine kinase receptor, which subsequently affects vascular remodeling. (
  • The use of animal and cell models has suggested a number of putative functions for the protein, including cell signaling, adhesion, proliferation, and differentiation. (
  • Thus, inhibition of PDGF receptor binding and/or PDGF-activated signal transduction pathways seem to be promising targets to control injury-induced SMC proliferation. (
  • Stimulation of SMC proliferation by phorbol ester was used as a reference because PKC-induced mitogenesis has been shown to be independent of the PDGF-signaling pathway ( Sharma and Bhalla, 1993 ). (
  • These data suggest a model in which BMP signaling regulates Id1 and Id3 in muscle satellite cells, which directs their proper proliferation before terminal myogenic differentiation after skeletal muscle injury in postnatal animals. (
  • postnatal muscle regeneration requires the coordinated growth and proliferation of many cell populations. (
  • Resident muscle stem cells or satellite cells must also coordinate their activities with the above cell types as they undergo the processes of activation, proliferation, self-renewal, and terminal myogenic differentiation ( 4 , 45 , 50 ). (
  • We hypothesized that inhibitor of differentiation (Id) expression, mediated by bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) signaling, may play an important role in satellite cell proliferation during postnatal muscle regeneration following injury for the reasons discussed below. (
  • Several of the signaling pathways involved in the activation and proliferation of satellite cells have been identified ( 25 ). (
  • Despite the fact that metformin can decrease insulin levels and tumour's cell proliferation [ 14 ], few studies analyse metformin action on skeletal muscle in cachexia models. (
  • Thus, JAK1-STAT1-STAT3 constitutes a signaling pathway that promotes myoblast proliferation and prevents premature myoblast differentiation. (
  • However, pharmacological modulation of AMPK influenced the mTOR/p70S6K signaling pathway. (
  • 0.05) decrease in p-4E-BP1 content, p-AMPK content and increase in p-p70s6k content in rat soleus muscle. (
  • Furthermore, the inhibition of AMPK activation with compound C and siRNA inhibited apoptosis and aggravated VSMC senescence by reversing p53-p21 and p16 pathways. (
  • Time course changes in signaling pathways and protein synthesis in C2C12 myotubes following AMPK activation by AICAR. (
  • Inhibition of a signaling pathway in cardiac muscle cells by active mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase. (
  • Thorburn J, Carlson M, Mansour SJ, Chien KR, Ahn NG, Thorburn A. Inhibition of a signaling pathway in cardiac muscle cells by active mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase. (
  • Mechanism of the attenuation of proteolysis-inducing factor stimulated protein degradation in muscle by beta-hydroxy-beta-methylbutyrate. (
  • Koch and Yu found that a type of enzyme that typically regulates cell cycle progression is responsible for the breakdown of the protein Mps3, an integral inner nuclear membrane protein that is an essential component linking the nucleoskeleton to the cytoskeleton. (
  • The enzyme is the lifeguard that clears proteins away. (
  • Muscle mTOR are muscle enzyme activators of protein synthesis and supported by whey protein and the BCAA, especially leucine and exercise. (
  • There are three main energy pathways available to regenerate ATP-the phosphagen system, glycolysis and mitochondrial respiration. (
  • Exercise conditions that extensively tax either the phosphagen system or glycolysis will ultimately lead to depletion in the primary substrate (or fuel) for each energy pathway. (
  • Analysis of the interactions demonstrated the helix-loop-helix domain of bHLH proteins directly interacts with the leucine zipper (ZIP) region of CREB2/ATF4 to form heterodimers. (
  • The whey hydrolysate that includes over 50% di and tripeptides as well as a large array of pro-anabolic promoting components such as a high dose of L-LEUCINE (5 grams) to allow for unequaled support in athletic performance, skeletal muscle recuperation, explosiveness and most particularly, nearly instant increases in muscle size. (
  • The new version of SizeOn contains high amounts of whey protein hydrolysate, leucine, along with more carbohydrates and the insulinotropic powerhouse pterostilbene. (
  • The decrease in protein synthesis is associated with inhibition of translation initiation factors 4E and 4G and ribosomal protein S6 under regulatory controls of intracellular insulin signaling and leucine concentrations. (
  • After exercise, recovery of muscle protein synthesis requires dietary protein or BCAA to increase tissue levels of leucine in order to release the inhibition of the initiation factor 4 complex through activation of the protein kinase mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR). (
  • Together, insulin and leucine allow skeletal muscle to coordinate protein synthesis with physiological state and dietary intake. (
  • L-alanine is second only to leucine in rate of occurrence, accounting for 7.8% of the primary structure in a sample of 1,150 proteins. (
  • TRIM63 encoding Muscle RING Finger 1 (MuRF1) maintains muscle protein homeostasis by tagging the sarcomere proteins with ubiquitin for subsequent degradation by the ubiquitin-proteasome system (UPS). (
  • Cardiomyocytes showed an increase in proteolysis by activating autophagy and the ubiquitin proteasome system, and a decrease in protein synthesis by decreasing P70S6K. (
  • Striated Muscle Contraction. (
  • Troponin is the central regulatory protein of striated muscle contraction. (
  • Thick filaments in asynchronous insect flight muscle have an extremely regular structure, which is likely to be essential for the oscillatory contraction of these muscles. (
  • Oscillatory contraction in IFM is likely to depend on the precise geometry of thick filaments, and the assembly and maintenance of the structure would need accessory proteins. (
  • Herein, we evaluated the possible dual coupling of β 2 -AR to G s and G i proteins and the influence of the β 2 -AR/G s -G i /cAMP signaling cascade on skeletal muscle contraction. (
  • Lynch and Ryall, 2008 ), which culminates in potentiation of muscle contraction. (
  • However, the precise pathways implicated in this signaling shift and its physiological significance on regulation of skeletal muscle contraction remain unknown. (
  • The regulation also seems to be dependent on exercise intensity and volume, age of test subjects, contraction type and muscle fiber type. (
  • Adenosine triphosphate (ATP) provides the immediate source of energy for skeletal muscle contraction for these types of exercise scenarios, and is frequently referred to as the energy currency of the cell or the universal energy donor. (
  • Given that ATP is essential for repeated muscle contraction, it might seem logical that large stores of ATP exist within skeletal muscle. (
  • Conditional paralysis of SERCA mutants is also marked by prolonged neural activity-driven muscle contraction, thus reflecting the phylogenetically conserved role of SERCA in terminating contraction. (
  • IN neurons and muscles, local calcium transients control activities of proteins that directly mediate physiological processes such as transmitter release and contraction. (
  • Our observations indicate the existence of (a) hitherto uncovered molecular interactions important for SERCA function in vivo , (b) SERCA-dependent mechanisms that contribute substantially to control of calcium pools at the presynaptic motor terminal, and (c) SERCA-dependent modulation of ionic currents that regulate muscle contraction and excitability. (
  • To investigate the mechanism by which beta-hydroxy-beta-methylbutyrate (HMB) attenuates the depression of protein synthesis in the skeletal muscle of cachectic mice, a study has been carried out in murine myotubes in the presence of proteolysis-inducing factor (PIF). (
  • These results suggest that HMB attenuates the depression of protein synthesis by PIF in myotubes through multiple mechanisms. (
  • Extensor digitorum longus muscles and C2C12 myotubes exhibited a reduction in protein turnover. (
  • Aorta of TCTP-TG exhibited hypercontractile response compared to that of non-transgenic mice (NTG) suggesting dys-regulation of signaling pathways involved in the vascular contractility by TCTP. (
  • The transcriptional coactivator PPARγ coactivator 1α (PGC-1α) plays a central role in maintaining levels of oxidative myofibers in skeletal muscle. (
  • Because dys-regulation of RhoA/Rho kinase pathway is implicated in increased vascular contractility, we examined whether TCTP induces alterations in RhoA pathway in vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs). (
  • Methods and Results- Cilostazol may convert VSMCs from a serum-induced dedifferentiation state to a differentiated state, as indicated by a spindle-shaped morphology and an increase in the expression of SMC differentiation marker contractile proteins. (
  • Transfection of dominant-negative CREB (mutated Ser133) plasmid in VSMCs blocked cilostazol-stimulated contractile protein expression. (
  • In cultured VSMCs, hydrogen peroxide (H₂O₂) dose-dependently induced senescence, which was associated with increased numbers of senescence-associated β-galactosidase-positive cells, decreased expression of SMP30, and activation of p53-p21 and p16 pathways. (
  • Vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) undergo phenotypic changes in response to vascular injury such as angioplasty. (
  • We conclude that up-regulation of TCTP induces RhoA-mediated pathway, and that TCTP-induced RhoA plays a role in the regulation in vasculature. (
  • Maeng J, Sheverdin V, Shin H, Ha I, Bae SS, Yang-Yen H-F, Lee K. Up-Regulation of Rhoa/Rho Kinase Pathway by Translationally Controlled Tumor Protein in Vascular Smooth Muscle Cells. (
  • However, the role of ER stress and the UPR in the regulation of skeletal muscle mass and function had not been previously investigated. (
  • They also show that the BC3H-1 myocyte is not a good model for studying regulation of glucose transport in skeletal muscle. (
  • Up-regulation of the Ang II/AT1 receptor may compensate for the loss of gastric antrum ICC via the PI3k/Akt signaling pathway in STZ-induced diabetic mice. (
  • Alterations in the in vitro and in vivo regulation of muscle regeneration in healthy ageing and the influence of sarcopenia. (
  • Therefore, recently cloned dual-specificity protein tyrosine phosphatases (PTPases), which exhibit dual-catalytic activity toward phosphotyrosine and phosphothreonine in substrate proteins, may play a pivotal role in the regulation of MAP kinase-signaling pathways. (
  • Skeletal muscle plays a unique role as a source of plastic and energy substrates in fish, and, therefore, the process of muscle protein degradation is regarded as a key mechanism for the regulation of growth intensity in juvenile salmon and for maintenance of viability and reproductive capacity of salmonid fish during the maturation of gametes, starvation, and migration related to spawning. (
  • One mechanism by which this occurs is via MAPK scaffold proteins, which are thought to provide (1) specificity between distinct MAPK subfamilies by assembling individual MAPK modules and (2) precise spatial and temporal regulation to MAPK signaling ( Morrison and Davis, 2003 ). (
  • These findings underscore the need to understand the pathways supporting NET regulation. (
  • These short-term changes in the regulation of protein turnover appear to be produced by changes in the initiation phase of translation control of protein synthesis. (
  • However, little is known about the effect on mTOR pathway, an important link in the regulation of muscle protein synthesis. (
  • Herein, we used cell cultures and isolated muscles from rats to determine protein degradation and synthesis. (
  • Regarding the activation of proteins related to muscle synthesis and degradation, we found that the alterations induced by exhaustive exercise in the diabetic rats might involve pathways related to synthesis and muscle breakdown. (
  • Histone demethylase KDM3a, a novel regulator of vascular smooth muscle cells, controls vascular neointimal hyperplasia in diabetic rats. (
  • Animals were weighed three times a week, and after cachexia state has been detected, the rats were euthanised and muscle and tumour excised and analysed by biochemical and molecular assays. (
  • It has been hypothesized on the basis of studies on BC3H-1 myocytes that diacylglycerol generation with activation of protein kinase C (PKC) is involved in the stimulation of glucose transport in muscle by insulin. (
  • In the present study, we used the rat epitrochlearis muscle to evaluate the possibility that PKC activity mediates the stimulation of glucose transport by insulin in mammalian skeletal muscle. (
  • These findings argue against a role of diacylglycerol-mediated PKC activation in the stimulation of skeletal muscle glucose transport by insulin. (
  • These findings raise the possibility that PLC-Cp stimulates glucose transport by the exercise/hypoxia-activated, not the insulin-activated, pathway in skeletal muscle. (
  • Adiponectin mRNA and blood protein levels are inversely associated with obesity ( 7 ), which is a common cause of insulin resistance in humans. (
  • The expression and secretion into plasma of these and other cytokines has likened metabolic syndrome to a chronic state of inflammation, and this complex elaboration of inflammatory cytokines forms the basis for insulin resistance in liver and muscle and for tissue lipid accumulation ( 8 ). (
  • Eating protein with meals prevents insulin surges, which lead to high blood sugar and fat storage, according to 'The Fat Burning Bible' by Mackie Shilstone. (
  • Keeping insulin levels low by including protein at your meals and snacks keeps fat burning all day long. (
  • We identified distinct phosphatidylinositol 3-OH kinase (PI3K)-linked pathways supporting basal and insulin-triggered NE transport in the human noradrenergic neuroblastoma, SK-N-SH. (
  • Moreover, p38 MAPK activation and insulin activation of NETs were found to be sensitive to external Ca 2+ depletion, blockade of voltage-sensitive Ca 2+ channels, and inhibition of protein phosphatase 2A. (
  • Leucine's effect on mTOR is synergistic with insulin via the phosphoinositol 3-kinase signaling pathway. (
  • The small muscle-specific protein Csl modifies cell shape and promotes myocyte fusion in an insulin-like growth factor 1-dependent manner. (
  • In support of this hypothesis, older adults have either no response or a blunted response to nutrients, insulin and resistance exercise, and this anabolic resistance is likely a key factor in the loss of skeletal muscle mass with aging. (
  • Angiotensin II and epidermal growth factor induce cyclooxygenase-2 expression in intestinal epithelial cells through small GTPases using distinct signaling pathways. (
  • p38 MAPK plays an important role in maintaining skeletal muscle energy homeostasis, myotube differentiation, and skeletal muscle tissue mass ( 20 - 23 ). (
  • In muscle precursor cells, localizes predominantly to the nucleus and to a lesser extent to the cytoplasm at the proliferative phase, while mainly localizing to the cytoplasm at the differentiation phase (By similarity). (
  • The p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathway plays an important role in cell differentiation, but the signaling mechanisms by which it is activated during this process are largely unknown. (
  • These results document a novel mechanism of signaling during cell differentiation: the interaction of a MAPK scaffold protein with a cell surface receptor. (
  • among these, roles in cell adhesion, migration, and differentiation have been proposed whereby PrP C could act by modulating different cell-signaling pathways ( 63 ). (
  • We have found that adult inhibitor of differentiation (Id)-mutant (Id1 +/− Id3 −/− ) mice display delayed and reduced skeletal muscle regeneration after injury compared with either wild-type littermates or Id3-null mice. (
  • Troponin I is the inhibitory subunit of troponin, the thin filament regulatory complex which confers calcium-sensitivity to striated muscle actomyosin ATPase activity. (
  • Troponin T is the tropomyosin-binding subunit of troponin, the thin filament regulatory complex which confers calcium-sensitivity to striated muscle actomyosin ATPase activity. (
  • Activated AMP-activated protein kinase and increased peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ coactivator 1α (PGC-1α) have been suggested to mediate the regulatory effects of adiponectin on mitochondrial biogenesis and function ( 13 , 16 - 18 ). (
  • 3 MEK, the specific activator of ERK, is a dual-specificity protein kinase that phosphorylates both threonine and tyrosine regulatory sites in ERK. (
  • These findings suggest the existence of PKC-independent regulatory pathways supporting NET surface expression and/or transporter activation. (
  • Chisel protein plays a role in the regulatory network through which muscle cells coordinate their structural and functional states during growth, adaptation, and repair. (
  • On muscle injury, these Pax7 + cells become activated and begin to proliferate into fusion-competent myoblasts that have been shown to express the muscle regulatory transcription factor (MRF) Myf5 ( 4 , 25 , 45 ). (
  • Once released from their inhibitory Regulatory subunit, the catalytic subunits can go on to phosphorylate a huge number of other proteins in the minimal substrate context Arg-Arg-X-Ser/Thr. (
  • In myotome, the muscle precursor cells establish their myogenic fate to form proliferating myoblasts by selectively expressing one or a few myogenic regulatory factors (MRFs). (
  • All of these findings are consistent with satellite cells playing little or no role in myostatin/activin A signaling in vivo and render support that inhibition of this signaling pathway can be an effective therapeutic approach for increasing muscle growth even in disease settings characterized by satellite cell dysfunction. (
  • This study was designed to investigate the inhibition of mitogenesis by trapidil in cultured bovine coronary artery smooth muscle cells (SMC) and to identify major signal transduction pathways involved. (
  • Thus, PKA-mediated inhibition of the Raf-1/MAP kinase pathway may be involved in the antimitogenic actions of the compound. (
  • Evidence is presented that trapidil inhibits SMC mitogenesis via a direct, cAMP-independent PKA activation and, possibly, by a PKA-mediated inhibition of the Raf-1/MAP kinase pathway. (
  • Inhibition of BMP signaling in injured skeletal muscle by Noggin injection reduced pSmad1/5/8, Id1, and Id3 protein levels. (
  • Non-targeted cardiac metabolomics of HIP brain tissue at one year of age Enrichment by A. Pathway-associated metabolite sets, B. Location-Based Metabolite sets, and C. Disease-associated metabolite sets in the brain determined from from t-test significant metabolites identified. (
  • Owing to huge tissue mass and relatively high energy demand, skeletal muscle plays a critical role in energy expenditure in humans and most rodents ( 1 , 2 ). (
  • Lean muscle tissue increases metabolic rate because it needs calories to exist even when your body is at rest, according to 'Xtreme Lean' authors Jonathan Lawson and Steve Holman. (
  • Human muscle tissue. (
  • A CT scan can distinguish muscle tissue from other tissues and thereby estimate the amount of muscle tissue in the body. (
  • Fast loss of muscle tissue (relative to normal turnover), can be approximated by the amount of urea in the urine. (
  • Furthermore, 1 gram of nitrogen is roughly equivalent to 6 gram of protein, and 1 gram of protein is roughly equivalent to 4 gram of muscle tissue. (
  • Transports Vital Nutrients, Essential Minerals, and Growth Cofactors To Skeletal Muscle Tissue. (
  • One such tissue is skeletal muscle, which has been shown to express PrP C at significant levels ( 43 , 46 ) and has been found to upregulate PrP C levels under stress conditions ( 71 ). (
  • In muscle tissue, tumour led to a decreased protein synthesis and an increased proteolysis, showing the higher activity of the ubiquitin-proteasome pathway. (
  • The role of perivascular adipose tissue in vascular smooth muscle cell growth. (
  • To determine how developing epithelial tissue responds to G-protein-mediated muscle excitation, my lab is isolating and characterizing additional mutations that simultaneously affect behavioral and EGF-mediated development. (
  • Methods: The content of the key signaling molecules of various anabolic signaling pathways was determined by Western-blotting. (
  • In addition, we saw that myostatin activated proteolysis and inhibited protein synthesis in primary culture of neonatal cardiomyocytes and led to an increase in LC3-II and in the amount of polyubiquitinated proteins in parallel with a decrease in p-P70S6K. (
  • Kinetic production of cytokines and kinetic activation of proteins related to muscle synthesis (p70S6K and Akt) and degradation (GSK3, MuRF1, and MAFbx) were measured in the soleus muscle. (
  • Soon as per complement as whether or not for anabolic signalling pathways (mTOR-p70s6k)?and muscle protein synthesis, the members. (
  • Effects of tyrosine kinase and PI3K inhibitors on basal NET uptake appear to arise from a loss of cell surface NET protein, whereas the p38 MAPK-dependent enhancement of NE transport occurs without a detectable enhancement of surface NET. (
  • Tight control of these transcription factors during myogenesis is required, and their activities are regulated by signal transduction pathways. (
  • These results suggest that IL-1beta induces MCP1 expression through activation of NF-kappaB via the PC-PLC/PKC signaling pathway. (
  • This study aimed to investigate the underlying mechanisms through which adiponectin induces mitochondrial biogenesis in skeletal muscle. (
  • This is consistent with data that showed that S1P activated both c-Src and p42/p44 mitogen-activated protein kinase (p42/p44 MAPK) in a pertussis toxin (PTX)-sensitive manner in these cells. (
  • Therefore, our study indicates that adiponectin enhances p38 MAPK/PGC-1α signaling and mitochondrial biogenesis in skeletal muscle by suppressing MKP1 expression. (
  • There are four isoforms of p38 MAPK (α, β, γ, and δ), and p38α and p38γ are most abundantly expressed in skeletal muscle ( 20 , 21 ). (
  • In this study, we report that the Cdo intracellular region interacts with JLP, a scaffold protein for the p38α/β MAPK pathway. (
  • Angiotensin II signal transduction through small GTP-binding proteins: mechanism and significance in vascular smooth muscle cells. (
  • Angiotensin II-induced activation of p21-activated kinase 1 requires Ca2+ and protein kinase C{delta} in vascular smooth muscle cells. (
  • Because GIT1 regulates signaling by several vascular smooth muscle cell (VSMC) growth factors, we hypothesized that intima formation would be inhibited by GIT1 depletion. (
  • Hypoxia Increases Heat Shock Protein 90 (HSP90) Expression in Vascular Smooth Muscle. (
  • Elucidation of a Novel Biochemical Pathway Controlling Vascular Smooth Muscle Responsiveness in Shock-Induced Hypoxia. (
  • Selective activation of nuclear phospholipase D-1 by g protein-coupled receptor agonists in vascular smooth muscle cells. (
  • Monocyte chemotactic protein 1 (MCP1) stimulates vascular smooth muscle cell (VSMC) migration in vascular wall remodeling. (
  • Sphingosine 1-phosphate stimulation of the p42/p44 mitogen-activated protein kinase pathway in airway smooth muscle. (
  • Studies have been performed using exercise, electrical stimulation, transgenic animal models, disease states, and microgravity to show genetic alterations and transitions of muscle fibers in response to functional demands. (
  • These data suggest the induction of MKP-1, not only after stimulation of the cell growth-promoting ERK pathway but also in response to activation of stress-responsive MAP kinase signaling cascades. (
  • The effects of clenbuterol/fenoterol (β 2 -AR agonists), forskolin (AC activator), cAMP/8-bromo-cAMP, and adenosine were evaluated on isometric contractility of mouse diaphragm muscle induced by supramaximal direct electrical stimulation (0.1 Hz, 2 ms duration). (
  • During exercise, muscle protein synthesis decreases together with a net increase in protein degradation and stimulation of BCAA oxidation. (
  • Comparable inhibitory effects were obtained after stimulation of smooth muscle cells by phorbol ester, which suggests that the action of trapidil was not restricted to PDGF receptor-mediated mechanisms. (
  • It is known that myostatin can interfere with protein synthesis as well as protein breakdown in proliferating and adult myofibers ( 3 , 4 ). (
  • Furthermore, LOLA decreased protein breakdown and stimulated protein synthesis in muscle. (
  • Muscle protein undergoes constant change and remodeling through synthesis of new proteins and breakdown of existing proteins. (
  • For nongrowing adults, maintenance of constant muscle mass requires zero daily balance between synthesis and breakdown. (
  • During the course of a day, the comparative ratios of protein synthesis to breakdown change constantly. (
  • The rate of protein breakdown also rises but to a lesser extent, resulting in a net positive balance of protein turnover (Fig. 1). (
  • Protein breakdown changes less, resulting in a net catabolic period (Fig. 1). (
  • FIGURE 1 Skeletal muscle protein turnover illustrates the balance between protein synthesis (shaded bars) and protein breakdown (open bars) during different physiological conditions, including the anabolic period after a meal or the catabolic period during an overnight fast. (
  • Similar to changes during fasting, protein breakdown is higher than protein synthesis during exercise, resulting in a net catabolic period (Fig. 1). (
  • The time course of the changes in protein synthesis and breakdown are unknown, largely due to limitations in making measurements during exercise. (
  • However, basal muscle protein synthesis and breakdown rates do not differ between young and old adults, which has led to the hypothesis that older adults are resistant to anabolic stimuli. (
  • Is the amount of protein needed to optimize performance different than what's needed to maximize some aspect of muscular physiology? (
  • Goodman CA, Mayhew DL, Hornberger TA (2011) Recent progress toward understanding the molecular mechanisms that regulate skeletal muscle mass. (
  • Hornberger TA, Chien S (2006) Mechanical stimuli and nutrients regulate rapamycin-sensitive signaling through distinct mechanisms in skeletal muscle. (
  • Scientists at Dana-Farber Cancer Institute and Harvard Medical School have found that a common cancer protein leads a second, totally different life in normal adult brain cells: It helps regulate memory formation and may be implicated in Alzheimer's disease. (
  • Muscle costameric protein, Chisel/Smpx, associates with focal adhesion complexes and modulates cell spreading in vitro via a Rac1/p38 pathway. (
  • Lawrence JC Jr (2001) mTOR-dependent control of skeletal muscle protein synthesis. (
  • We hypothesized that a single intravenous EPO injection combined with acute resistance exercise would have a synergistic effect on skeletal muscle protein synthesis via activation of the AKT pathway. (
  • 2 h after the injection, the subjects completed an acute bout of leg extension resistance exercise to stimulate skeletal muscle protein synthesis. (
  • Scientists at A*STAR have revealed how microtubules, part of a cell's 'skeleton," position the multiple nuclei in muscle cells. (
  • Independent studies of the role of the bHLH protein scleraxis in testicular Sertoli cells and paraxis in muscle development using yeast-2-hybrid screens provided the novel observation that bHLH proteins can directly interact with ATF/CREB family members. (
  • Cells keep oxidative stress under control through various mechanisms," said Donna Zhang, a professor in the UA Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, explaining that most of these mechanisms involve Nrf2, a protein present in virtually every cell that acts as a molecular switch. (
  • That protein, Hrd1, is part of the cells' garbage disposal - it specializes in destroying misfolded proteins before they can accumulate and damage cell components. (
  • In cells with defined microtubule polarity, the Nod:beta gal fusion protein is an in vivo minus-end reporter for microtubules. (
  • To meet the increased demand, individual heart muscle cells start making more proteins, making the cells bigger. (
  • In mouse aortic smooth muscle cells (MASM), we found that the growth rate and [3H]-thymidine incorporation of the GIT1 KO MASM were significantly decreased compared with the wild-type MASM. (
  • Treatment of rat aortic smooth muscle cells with GIT1 small interfering RNA impaired cell migration. (
  • heart muscle cells has been associated with a cardioprotective effect of β 2 -AR agonists, via attenuation of G s -mediated inotropic response. (
  • Cyclins are a family of related proteins found in dividing cells. (
  • It localises to the costameric cytoskeleton of muscle cells through its association with focal adhesion proteins, where it may participate in regulating the dynamics of actin through the Rac1/p38 kinase pathway [ PMID: 15893749 ]. (
  • Although we did not observe differences in the numbers of quiescent Pax7 + satellite cells in adult uninjured hindlimb muscles, we did observe a significant reduction in the number of proliferating Pax7 + cells in the Id-mutant mice after muscle injury compared with either wild-type or Id3-null mice. (
  • In addition, other bone marrow-derived inflammatory cells, such as monocytes and macrophages, appear to be necessary for removal of necrotic debris and may exert other functions that allow for proper and efficient muscle regeneration ( 8 , 37 , 46 , 51 , 54 , 57 ). (
  • Satellite cells are a heterogeneous population of adult muscle stem cells, located beneath the basal lamina of skeletal muscle fibers ( 4 , 45 , 50 ). (
  • In resting muscle, these quiescent mononuclear cells express the paired box transcription factor Pax7 and, in some muscle types, Pax3. (
  • A subpopulation of Pax7 + satellite cells that does not express Myf5 has been proposed to be responsible for repopulating the stem cell niche in the regenerated muscle and once again become quiescent ( 26 ). (
  • This process helps cells to deal with energy stress conditions and bring them back to homoeostasis [ 8 ], controlling processes such as protein synthesis. (
  • Resveratrol reverses hydrogen peroxide-induced proliferative effects in human coronary smooth muscle cells: a novel signaling mechanism. (
  • Pressure promotes angiotensin II--mediated migration of human coronary smooth muscle cells through increase in oxidative stress. (
  • In neurons and muscles, removal of calcium by either pumping it out of the cell or sequestering it into intracellular stores restores cells to their resting state. (
  • These cells have proteins that make up the characteristics of the tumor. (
  • These proteins arise from blood vessels, nerve cells and muscle cells. (
  • The cytoplasmic and often nuclear expression of S100 protein is present in nearly all tumor cells, and vimentin typically stains tumor cell cytoplasm adjacent to vessel walls. (
  • Furthermore, quantitative polymerase chain reaction and western blotting were used to analyze inflammatory cytokines, oxidative stress factors and the Akt/mechanistic target of rapamycin (mTOR) pathway. (
  • These results indicate that inflammatory and oxidative stress factors and the Akt/mTOR pathway may serve important roles in the regeneration of muscle contusion. (
  • In addition, certain inflammatory factors and oxidative stress factors maintained high levels of expression at 14 days after injury, indicating that the healing process of muscle was still not fully achieved at this time. (
  • According to conventional wisdom, our bodies turn on their Nrf2-mediated protection pathway when subjected to high oxidative stress to limit the damage from the destructive oxygen compounds. (
  • We used 2 muscles from rat: soleus (which has a greater proportion of type I fibers, oxidative) and extensor digitorum longus (EDL, which has a greater proportion of type II fibers, glycolytic). (
  • Indeed, loss of PGC-1α expression has been linked to a reduction in the proportion of oxidative myofibers in the skeletal muscle of obese mice. (