Retrospective Studies: Studies used to test etiologic hypotheses in which inferences about an exposure to putative causal factors are derived from data relating to characteristics of persons under study or to events or experiences in their past. The essential feature is that some of the persons under study have the disease or outcome of interest and their characteristics are compared with those of unaffected persons.Disease Progression: The worsening of a disease over time. This concept is most often used for chronic and incurable diseases where the stage of the disease is an important determinant of therapy and prognosis.Treatment Outcome: Evaluation undertaken to assess the results or consequences of management and procedures used in combating disease in order to determine the efficacy, effectiveness, safety, and practicability of these interventions in individual cases or series.Pathology: A specialty concerned with the nature and cause of disease as expressed by changes in cellular or tissue structure and function caused by the disease process.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Follow-Up Studies: Studies in which individuals or populations are followed to assess the outcome of exposures, procedures, or effects of a characteristic, e.g., occurrence of disease.Prognosis: A prediction of the probable outcome of a disease based on a individual's condition and the usual course of the disease as seen in similar situations.Risk Factors: An aspect of personal behavior or lifestyle, environmental exposure, or inborn or inherited characteristic, which, on the basis of epidemiologic evidence, is known to be associated with a health-related condition considered important to prevent.Pathology, Clinical: A subspecialty of pathology applied to the solution of clinical problems, especially the use of laboratory methods in clinical diagnosis. (Dorland, 28th ed.)Pathology, Surgical: A field of anatomical pathology in which living tissue is surgically removed for the purpose of diagnosis and treatment.Cohort Studies: Studies in which subsets of a defined population are identified. These groups may or may not be exposed to factors hypothesized to influence the probability of the occurrence of a particular disease or other outcome. Cohorts are defined populations which, as a whole, are followed in an attempt to determine distinguishing subgroup characteristics.Survival Rate: The proportion of survivors in a group, e.g., of patients, studied and followed over a period, or the proportion of persons in a specified group alive at the beginning of a time interval who survive to the end of the interval. It is often studied using life table methods.Survival Analysis: A class of statistical procedures for estimating the survival function (function of time, starting with a population 100% well at a given time and providing the percentage of the population still well at later times). The survival analysis is then used for making inferences about the effects of treatments, prognostic factors, exposures, and other covariates on the function.Incidence: The number of new cases of a given disease during a given period in a specified population. It also is used for the rate at which new events occur in a defined population. It is differentiated from PREVALENCE, which refers to all cases, new or old, in the population at a given time.Postoperative Complications: Pathologic processes that affect patients after a surgical procedure. They may or may not be related to the disease for which the surgery was done, and they may or may not be direct results of the surgery.Neoplasm Staging: Methods which attempt to express in replicable terms the extent of the neoplasm in the patient.Age Factors: Age as a constituent element or influence contributing to the production of a result. It may be applicable to the cause or the effect of a circumstance. It is used with human or animal concepts but should be differentiated from AGING, a physiological process, and TIME FACTORS which refers only to the passage of time.Infant, Newborn: An infant during the first month after birth.Immunohistochemistry: Histochemical localization of immunoreactive substances using labeled antibodies as reagents.Severity of Illness Index: Levels within a diagnostic group which are established by various measurement criteria applied to the seriousness of a patient's disorder.Predictive Value of Tests: In screening and diagnostic tests, the probability that a person with a positive test is a true positive (i.e., has the disease), is referred to as the predictive value of a positive test; whereas, the predictive value of a negative test is the probability that the person with a negative test does not have the disease. Predictive value is related to the sensitivity and specificity of the test.Tomography, X-Ray Computed: Tomography using x-ray transmission and a computer algorithm to reconstruct the image.Disease Models, Animal: Naturally occurring or experimentally induced animal diseases with pathological processes sufficiently similar to those of human diseases. They are used as study models for human diseases.Cell Cycle: The complex series of phenomena, occurring between the end of one CELL DIVISION and the end of the next, by which cellular material is duplicated and then divided between two daughter cells. The cell cycle includes INTERPHASE, which includes G0 PHASE; G1 PHASE; S PHASE; and G2 PHASE, and CELL DIVISION PHASE.Kaplan-Meier Estimate: A nonparametric method of compiling LIFE TABLES or survival tables. It combines calculated probabilities of survival and estimates to allow for observations occurring beyond a measurement threshold, which are assumed to occur randomly. Time intervals are defined as ending each time an event occurs and are therefore unequal. (From Last, A Dictionary of Epidemiology, 1995)Sensitivity and Specificity: Binary classification measures to assess test results. Sensitivity or recall rate is the proportion of true positives. Specificity is the probability of correctly determining the absence of a condition. (From Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)Recurrence: The return of a sign, symptom, or disease after a remission.Pregnancy: The status during which female mammals carry their developing young (EMBRYOS or FETUSES) in utero before birth, beginning from FERTILIZATION to BIRTH.Breast Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the human BREAST.Prospective Studies: Observation of a population for a sufficient number of persons over a sufficient number of years to generate incidence or mortality rates subsequent to the selection of the study group.Multivariate Analysis: A set of techniques used when variation in several variables has to be studied simultaneously. In statistics, multivariate analysis is interpreted as any analytic method that allows simultaneous study of two or more dependent variables.Biopsy: Removal and pathologic examination of specimens in the form of small pieces of tissue from the living body.Risk Assessment: The qualitative or quantitative estimation of the likelihood of adverse effects that may result from exposure to specified health hazards or from the absence of beneficial influences. (Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 1988)Neoplasm Metastasis: The transfer of a neoplasm from one organ or part of the body to another remote from the primary site.Magnetic Resonance Imaging: Non-invasive method of demonstrating internal anatomy based on the principle that atomic nuclei in a strong magnetic field absorb pulses of radiofrequency energy and emit them as radiowaves which can be reconstructed into computerized images. The concept includes proton spin tomographic techniques.Neoplasm Recurrence, Local: The local recurrence of a neoplasm following treatment. It arises from microscopic cells of the original neoplasm that have escaped therapeutic intervention and later become clinically visible at the original site.Disease-Free Survival: Period after successful treatment in which there is no appearance of the symptoms or effects of the disease.Cell Line, Tumor: A cell line derived from cultured tumor cells.Length of Stay: The period of confinement of a patient to a hospital or other health facility.Prevalence: The total number of cases of a given disease in a specified population at a designated time. It is differentiated from INCIDENCE, which refers to the number of new cases in the population at a given time.Chi-Square Distribution: A distribution in which a variable is distributed like the sum of the squares of any given independent random variable, each of which has a normal distribution with mean of zero and variance of one. The chi-square test is a statistical test based on comparison of a test statistic to a chi-square distribution. The oldest of these tests are used to detect whether two or more population distributions differ from one another.Prostatic Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the PROSTATE.Reproducibility of Results: The statistical reproducibility of measurements (often in a clinical context), including the testing of instrumentation or techniques to obtain reproducible results. The concept includes reproducibility of physiological measurements, which may be used to develop rules to assess probability or prognosis, or response to a stimulus; reproducibility of occurrence of a condition; and reproducibility of experimental results.Tumor Markers, Biological: Molecular products metabolized and secreted by neoplastic tissue and characterized biochemically in cells or body fluids. They are indicators of tumor stage and grade as well as useful for monitoring responses to treatment and predicting recurrence. Many chemical groups are represented including hormones, antigens, amino and nucleic acids, enzymes, polyamines, and specific cell membrane proteins and lipids.Neoplasms: New abnormal growth of tissue. Malignant neoplasms show a greater degree of anaplasia and have the properties of invasion and metastasis, compared to benign neoplasms.Neoplasm Invasiveness: Ability of neoplasms to infiltrate and actively destroy surrounding tissue.Adenocarcinoma: A malignant epithelial tumor with a glandular organization.Biological Markers: Measurable and quantifiable biological parameters (e.g., specific enzyme concentration, specific hormone concentration, specific gene phenotype distribution in a population, presence of biological substances) which serve as indices for health- and physiology-related assessments, such as disease risk, psychiatric disorders, environmental exposure and its effects, disease diagnosis, metabolic processes, substance abuse, pregnancy, cell line development, epidemiologic studies, etc.Gene Expression Regulation, Neoplastic: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in neoplastic tissue.Lung Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the LUNG.Combined Modality Therapy: The treatment of a disease or condition by several different means simultaneously or sequentially. Chemoimmunotherapy, RADIOIMMUNOTHERAPY, chemoradiotherapy, cryochemotherapy, and SALVAGE THERAPY are seen most frequently, but their combinations with each other and surgery are also used.Mutation: Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.Mice, Transgenic: Laboratory mice that have been produced from a genetically manipulated EGG or EMBRYO, MAMMALIAN.Proportional Hazards Models: Statistical models used in survival analysis that assert that the effect of the study factors on the hazard rate in the study population is multiplicative and does not change over time.Logistic Models: Statistical models which describe the relationship between a qualitative dependent variable (that is, one which can take only certain discrete values, such as the presence or absence of a disease) and an independent variable. A common application is in epidemiology for estimating an individual's risk (probability of a disease) as a function of a given risk factor.Signal Transduction: The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.Case-Control Studies: Studies which start with the identification of persons with a disease of interest and a control (comparison, referent) group without the disease. The relationship of an attribute to the disease is examined by comparing diseased and non-diseased persons with regard to the frequency or levels of the attribute in each group.Pathology Department, Hospital: Hospital department which administers and provides pathology services.Cell Proliferation: All of the processes involved in increasing CELL NUMBER including CELL DIVISION.Statistics, Nonparametric: A class of statistical methods applicable to a large set of probability distributions used to test for correlation, location, independence, etc. In most nonparametric statistical tests, the original scores or observations are replaced by another variable containing less information. An important class of nonparametric tests employs the ordinal properties of the data. Another class of tests uses information about whether an observation is above or below some fixed value such as the median, and a third class is based on the frequency of the occurrence of runs in the data. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed, p1284; Corsini, Concise Encyclopedia of Psychology, 1987, p764-5)Reoperation: A repeat operation for the same condition in the same patient due to disease progression or recurrence, or as followup to failed previous surgery.Alzheimer Disease: A degenerative disease of the BRAIN characterized by the insidious onset of DEMENTIA. Impairment of MEMORY, judgment, attention span, and problem solving skills are followed by severe APRAXIAS and a global loss of cognitive abilities. The condition primarily occurs after age 60, and is marked pathologically by severe cortical atrophy and the triad of SENILE PLAQUES; NEUROFIBRILLARY TANGLES; and NEUROPIL THREADS. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp1049-57)Mice, Inbred C57BLAntineoplastic Agents: Substances that inhibit or prevent the proliferation of NEOPLASMS.Brain: The part of CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM that is contained within the skull (CRANIUM). Arising from the NEURAL TUBE, the embryonic brain is comprised of three major parts including PROSENCEPHALON (the forebrain); MESENCEPHALON (the midbrain); and RHOMBENCEPHALON (the hindbrain). The developed brain consists of CEREBRUM; CEREBELLUM; and other structures in the BRAIN STEM.Hospitals, University: Hospitals maintained by a university for the teaching of medical students, postgraduate training programs, and clinical research.Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols: The use of two or more chemicals simultaneously or sequentially in the drug therapy of neoplasms. The drugs need not be in the same dosage form.France: A country in western Europe bordered by the Atlantic Ocean, the English Channel, the Mediterranean Sea, and the countries of Belgium, Germany, Italy, Spain, Switzerland, the principalities of Andorra and Monaco, and by the duchy of Luxembourg. Its capital is Paris.Chronic Disease: Diseases which have one or more of the following characteristics: they are permanent, leave residual disability, are caused by nonreversible pathological alteration, require special training of the patient for rehabilitation, or may be expected to require a long period of supervision, observation, or care. (Dictionary of Health Services Management, 2d ed)Age Distribution: The frequency of different ages or age groups in a given population. The distribution may refer to either how many or what proportion of the group. The population is usually patients with a specific disease but the concept is not restricted to humans and is not restricted to medicine.Dog Diseases: Diseases of the domestic dog (Canis familiaris). This term does not include diseases of wild dogs, WOLVES; FOXES; and other Canidae for which the heading CARNIVORA is used.Hong Kong: The former British crown colony located off the southeast coast of China, comprised of Hong Kong Island, Kowloon Peninsula, and New Territories. The three sites were ceded to the British by the Chinese respectively in 1841, 1860, and 1898. Hong Kong reverted to China in July 1997. The name represents the Cantonese pronunciation of the Chinese xianggang, fragrant port, from xiang, perfume and gang, port or harbor, with reference to its currents sweetened by fresh water from a river west of it.Carcinoma, Squamous Cell: A carcinoma derived from stratified SQUAMOUS EPITHELIAL CELLS. It may also occur in sites where glandular or columnar epithelium is normally present. (From Stedman, 25th ed)Liver Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the LIVER.Medical Records: Recording of pertinent information concerning patient's illness or illnesses.Hospitalization: The confinement of a patient in a hospital.Sex Factors: Maleness or femaleness as a constituent element or influence contributing to the production of a result. It may be applicable to the cause or effect of a circumstance. It is used with human or animal concepts but should be differentiated from SEX CHARACTERISTICS, anatomical or physiological manifestations of sex, and from SEX DISTRIBUTION, the number of males and females in given circumstances.RNA, Messenger: RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.Tertiary Care Centers: A medical facility which provides a high degree of subspecialty expertise for patients from centers where they received SECONDARY CARE.Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction: A variation of the PCR technique in which cDNA is made from RNA via reverse transcription. The resultant cDNA is then amplified using standard PCR protocols.Lymphatic Metastasis: Transfer of a neoplasm from its primary site to lymph nodes or to distant parts of the body by way of the lymphatic system.HIV Infections: Includes the spectrum of human immunodeficiency virus infections that range from asymptomatic seropositivity, thru AIDS-related complex (ARC), to acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS).Acute Disease: Disease having a short and relatively severe course.Phenotype: The outward appearance of the individual. It is the product of interactions between genes, and between the GENOTYPE and the environment.Skin Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the SKIN.Comorbidity: The presence of co-existing or additional diseases with reference to an initial diagnosis or with reference to the index condition that is the subject of study. Comorbidity may affect the ability of affected individuals to function and also their survival; it may be used as a prognostic indicator for length of hospital stay, cost factors, and outcome or survival.Hospitals, Teaching: Hospitals engaged in educational and research programs, as well as providing medical care to the patients.Brain Neoplasms: Neoplasms of the intracranial components of the central nervous system, including the cerebral hemispheres, basal ganglia, hypothalamus, thalamus, brain stem, and cerebellum. Brain neoplasms are subdivided into primary (originating from brain tissue) and secondary (i.e., metastatic) forms. Primary neoplasms are subdivided into benign and malignant forms. In general, brain tumors may also be classified by age of onset, histologic type, or presenting location in the brain.Carcinoma: A malignant neoplasm made up of epithelial cells tending to infiltrate the surrounding tissues and give rise to metastases. It is a histological type of neoplasm but is often wrongly used as a synonym for "cancer." (From Dorland, 27th ed)Longitudinal Studies: Studies in which variables relating to an individual or group of individuals are assessed over a period of time.Pregnancy Outcome: Results of conception and ensuing pregnancy, including LIVE BIRTH; STILLBIRTH; SPONTANEOUS ABORTION; INDUCED ABORTION. The outcome may follow natural or artificial insemination or any of the various ASSISTED REPRODUCTIVE TECHNIQUES, such as EMBRYO TRANSFER or FERTILIZATION IN VITRO.Pathology, Oral: A dental specialty concerned with pathology of the oral cavity.IndiaKidney Failure, Chronic: The end-stage of CHRONIC RENAL INSUFFICIENCY. It is characterized by the severe irreversible kidney damage (as measured by the level of PROTEINURIA) and the reduction in GLOMERULAR FILTRATION RATE to less than 15 ml per min (Kidney Foundation: Kidney Disease Outcome Quality Initiative, 2002). These patients generally require HEMODIALYSIS or KIDNEY TRANSPLANTATION.United StatesApoptosis: One of the mechanisms by which CELL DEATH occurs (compare with NECROSIS and AUTOPHAGOCYTOSIS). Apoptosis is the mechanism responsible for the physiological deletion of cells and appears to be intrinsically programmed. It is characterized by distinctive morphologic changes in the nucleus and cytoplasm, chromatin cleavage at regularly spaced sites, and the endonucleolytic cleavage of genomic DNA; (DNA FRAGMENTATION); at internucleosomal sites. This mode of cell death serves as a balance to mitosis in regulating the size of animal tissues and in mediating pathologic processes associated with tumor growth.Cell Transformation, Neoplastic: Cell changes manifested by escape from control mechanisms, increased growth potential, alterations in the cell surface, karyotypic abnormalities, morphological and biochemical deviations from the norm, and other attributes conferring the ability to invade, metastasize, and kill.Autopsy: Postmortem examination of the body.Melanoma: A malignant neoplasm derived from cells that are capable of forming melanin, which may occur in the skin of any part of the body, in the eye, or, rarely, in the mucous membranes of the genitalia, anus, oral cavity, or other sites. It occurs mostly in adults and may originate de novo or from a pigmented nevus or malignant lentigo. Melanomas frequently metastasize widely, and the regional lymph nodes, liver, lungs, and brain are likely to be involved. The incidence of malignant skin melanomas is rising rapidly in all parts of the world. (Stedman, 25th ed; from Rook et al., Textbook of Dermatology, 4th ed, p2445)Drug Therapy, Combination: Therapy with two or more separate preparations given for a combined effect.Analysis of Variance: A statistical technique that isolates and assesses the contributions of categorical independent variables to variation in the mean of a continuous dependent variable.Precancerous Conditions: Pathological processes that tend eventually to become malignant. (From Dorland, 27th ed)Colorectal Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the COLON or the RECTUM or both. Risk factors for colorectal cancer include chronic ULCERATIVE COLITIS; FAMILIAL POLYPOSIS COLI; exposure to ASBESTOS; and irradiation of the CERVIX UTERI.Mice, Knockout: Strains of mice in which certain GENES of their GENOMES have been disrupted, or "knocked-out". To produce knockouts, using RECOMBINANT DNA technology, the normal DNA sequence of the gene being studied is altered to prevent synthesis of a normal gene product. Cloned cells in which this DNA alteration is successful are then injected into mouse EMBRYOS to produce chimeric mice. The chimeric mice are then bred to yield a strain in which all the cells of the mouse contain the disrupted gene. Knockout mice are used as EXPERIMENTAL ANIMAL MODELS for diseases (DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL) and to clarify the functions of the genes.Treatment Failure: A measure of the quality of health care by assessment of unsuccessful results of management and procedures used in combating disease, in individual cases or series.Cell Cycle Proteins: Proteins that control the CELL DIVISION CYCLE. This family of proteins includes a wide variety of classes, including CYCLIN-DEPENDENT KINASES, mitogen-activated kinases, CYCLINS, and PHOSPHOPROTEIN PHOSPHATASES as well as their putative substrates such as chromatin-associated proteins, CYTOSKELETAL PROTEINS, and TRANSCRIPTION FACTORS.RomaniaKidney Diseases: Pathological processes of the KIDNEY or its component tissues.BrazilSex Distribution: The number of males and females in a given population. The distribution may refer to how many men or women or what proportion of either in the group. The population is usually patients with a specific disease but the concept is not restricted to humans and is not restricted to medicine.Anti-Bacterial Agents: Substances that reduce the growth or reproduction of BACTERIA.Blotting, Western: Identification of proteins or peptides that have been electrophoretically separated by blot transferring from the electrophoresis gel to strips of nitrocellulose paper, followed by labeling with antibody probes.Drug Administration Schedule: Time schedule for administration of a drug in order to achieve optimum effectiveness and convenience.Polymerase Chain Reaction: In vitro method for producing large amounts of specific DNA or RNA fragments of defined length and sequence from small amounts of short oligonucleotide flanking sequences (primers). The essential steps include thermal denaturation of the double-stranded target molecules, annealing of the primers to their complementary sequences, and extension of the annealed primers by enzymatic synthesis with DNA polymerase. The reaction is efficient, specific, and extremely sensitive. Uses for the reaction include disease diagnosis, detection of difficult-to-isolate pathogens, mutation analysis, genetic testing, DNA sequencing, and analyzing evolutionary relationships.Kidney: Body organ that filters blood for the secretion of URINE and that regulates ion concentrations.Models, Biological: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Regression Analysis: Procedures for finding the mathematical function which best describes the relationship between a dependent variable and one or more independent variables. In linear regression (see LINEAR MODELS) the relationship is constrained to be a straight line and LEAST-SQUARES ANALYSIS is used to determine the best fit. In logistic regression (see LOGISTIC MODELS) the dependent variable is qualitative rather than continuously variable and LIKELIHOOD FUNCTIONS are used to find the best relationship. In multiple regression, the dependent variable is considered to depend on more than a single independent variable.Visual Acuity: Clarity or sharpness of OCULAR VISION or the ability of the eye to see fine details. Visual acuity depends on the functions of RETINA, neuronal transmission, and the interpretative ability of the brain. Normal visual acuity is expressed as 20/20 indicating that one can see at 20 feet what should normally be seen at that distance. Visual acuity can also be influenced by brightness, color, and contrast.Gene Expression Profiling: The determination of the pattern of genes expressed at the level of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION, under specific circumstances or in a specific cell.Cell Division: The fission of a CELL. It includes CYTOKINESIS, when the CYTOPLASM of a cell is divided, and CELL NUCLEUS DIVISION.Cells, Cultured: Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.Odds Ratio: The ratio of two odds. The exposure-odds ratio for case control data is the ratio of the odds in favor of exposure among cases to the odds in favor of exposure among noncases. The disease-odds ratio for a cohort or cross section is the ratio of the odds in favor of disease among the exposed to the odds in favor of disease among the unexposed. The prevalence-odds ratio refers to an odds ratio derived cross-sectionally from studies of prevalent cases.S Phase: Phase of the CELL CYCLE following G1 and preceding G2 when the entire DNA content of the nucleus is replicated. It is achieved by bidirectional replication at multiple sites along each chromosome.Medical Audit: A detailed review and evaluation of selected clinical records by qualified professional personnel for evaluating quality of medical care.Diagnostic Errors: Incorrect diagnoses after clinical examination or technical diagnostic procedures.Laparoscopy: A procedure in which a laparoscope (LAPAROSCOPES) is inserted through a small incision near the navel to examine the abdominal and pelvic organs in the PERITONEAL CAVITY. If appropriate, biopsy or surgery can be performed during laparoscopy.Immunosuppressive Agents: Agents that suppress immune function by one of several mechanisms of action. Classical cytotoxic immunosuppressants act by inhibiting DNA synthesis. Others may act through activation of T-CELLS or by inhibiting the activation of HELPER CELLS. While immunosuppression has been brought about in the past primarily to prevent rejection of transplanted organs, new applications involving mediation of the effects of INTERLEUKINS and other CYTOKINES are emerging.Genotype: The genetic constitution of the individual, comprising the ALLELES present at each GENETIC LOCUS.Outcome Assessment (Health Care): Research aimed at assessing the quality and effectiveness of health care as measured by the attainment of a specified end result or outcome. Measures include parameters such as improved health, lowered morbidity or mortality, and improvement of abnormal states (such as elevated blood pressure).Hospital Mortality: A vital statistic measuring or recording the rate of death from any cause in hospitalized populations.Bone Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer located in bone tissue or specific BONES.Stomach Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the STOMACH.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.G1 Phase: The period of the CELL CYCLE preceding DNA REPLICATION in S PHASE. Subphases of G1 include "competence" (to respond to growth factors), G1a (entry into G1), G1b (progression), and G1c (assembly). Progression through the G1 subphases is effected by limiting growth factors, nutrients, or inhibitors.JapanLiver Cirrhosis: Liver disease in which the normal microcirculation, the gross vascular anatomy, and the hepatic architecture have been variably destroyed and altered with fibrous septa surrounding regenerated or regenerating parenchymal nodules.Databases, Factual: Extensive collections, reputedly complete, of facts and data garnered from material of a specialized subject area and made available for analysis and application. The collection can be automated by various contemporary methods for retrieval. The concept should be differentiated from DATABASES, BIBLIOGRAPHIC which is restricted to collections of bibliographic references.Biopsy, Needle: Removal and examination of tissue obtained through a transdermal needle inserted into the specific region, organ, or tissue being analyzed.TurkeyPathology, Molecular: A subspecialty of pathology concerned with the molecular basis (e.g., mutations) of various diseases.Age of Onset: The age, developmental stage, or period of life at which a disease or the initial symptoms or manifestations of a disease appear in an individual.Neoplasm Grading: Methods which attempt to express in replicable terms the level of CELL DIFFERENTIATION in neoplasms as increasing ANAPLASIA correlates with the aggressiveness of the neoplasm.Malaysia: A parliamentary democracy with a constitutional monarch in southeast Asia, consisting of 11 states (West Malaysia) on the Malay Peninsula and two states (East Malaysia) on the island of BORNEO. It is also called the Federation of Malaysia. Its capital is Kuala Lumpur. Before 1963 it was the Union of Malaya. It reorganized in 1948 as the Federation of Malaya, becoming independent from British Malaya in 1957 and becoming Malaysia in 1963 as a federation of Malaya, Sabah, Sarawak, and Singapore (which seceded in 1965). The form Malay- probably derives from the Tamil malay, mountain, with reference to its geography. (From Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p715 & Room, Brewer's Dictionary of Names, 1992, p329)ROC Curve: A graphic means for assessing the ability of a screening test to discriminate between healthy and diseased persons; may also be used in other studies, e.g., distinguishing stimuli responses as to a faint stimuli or nonstimuli.Dose-Response Relationship, Drug: The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.Italytau Proteins: Microtubule-associated proteins that are mainly expressed in neurons. Tau proteins constitute several isoforms and play an important role in the assembly of tubulin monomers into microtubules and in maintaining the cytoskeleton and axonal transport. Aggregation of specific sets of tau proteins in filamentous inclusions is the common feature of intraneuronal and glial fibrillar lesions (NEUROFIBRILLARY TANGLES; NEUROPIL THREADS) in numerous neurodegenerative disorders (ALZHEIMER DISEASE; TAUOPATHIES).Nigeria: A republic in western Africa, south of NIGER between BENIN and CAMEROON. Its capital is Abuja.Gestational Age: The age of the conceptus, beginning from the time of FERTILIZATION. In clinical obstetrics, the gestational age is often estimated as the time from the last day of the last MENSTRUATION which is about 2 weeks before OVULATION and fertilization.Neovascularization, Pathologic: A pathologic process consisting of the proliferation of blood vessels in abnormal tissues or in abnormal positions.Patient Selection: Criteria and standards used for the determination of the appropriateness of the inclusion of patients with specific conditions in proposed treatment plans and the criteria used for the inclusion of subjects in various clinical trials and other research protocols.Ovarian Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the OVARY. These neoplasms can be benign or malignant. They are classified according to the tissue of origin, such as the surface EPITHELIUM, the stromal endocrine cells, and the totipotent GERM CELLS.Intensive Care Units: Hospital units providing continuous surveillance and care to acutely ill patients.Carcinoma, Hepatocellular: A primary malignant neoplasm of epithelial liver cells. It ranges from a well-differentiated tumor with EPITHELIAL CELLS indistinguishable from normal HEPATOCYTES to a poorly differentiated neoplasm. The cells may be uniform or markedly pleomorphic, or form GIANT CELLS. Several classification schemes have been suggested.Inflammation: A pathological process characterized by injury or destruction of tissues caused by a variety of cytologic and chemical reactions. It is usually manifested by typical signs of pain, heat, redness, swelling, and loss of function.Lung: Either of the pair of organs occupying the cavity of the thorax that effect the aeration of the blood.Mitosis: A type of CELL NUCLEUS division by means of which the two daughter nuclei normally receive identical complements of the number of CHROMOSOMES of the somatic cells of the species.Neoplasm Proteins: Proteins whose abnormal expression (gain or loss) are associated with the development, growth, or progression of NEOPLASMS. Some neoplasm proteins are tumor antigens (ANTIGENS, NEOPLASM), i.e. they induce an immune reaction to their tumor. Many neoplasm proteins have been characterized and are used as tumor markers (BIOMARKERS, TUMOR) when they are detectable in cells and body fluids as monitors for the presence or growth of tumors. Abnormal expression of ONCOGENE PROTEINS is involved in neoplastic transformation, whereas the loss of expression of TUMOR SUPPRESSOR PROTEINS is involved with the loss of growth control and progression of the neoplasm.Pancreatic Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the PANCREAS. Depending on the types of ISLET CELLS present in the tumors, various hormones can be secreted: GLUCAGON from PANCREATIC ALPHA CELLS; INSULIN from PANCREATIC BETA CELLS; and SOMATOSTATIN from the SOMATOSTATIN-SECRETING CELLS. Most are malignant except the insulin-producing tumors (INSULINOMA).Intraoperative Complications: Complications that affect patients during surgery. They may or may not be associated with the disease for which the surgery is done, or within the same surgical procedure.Phosphorylation: The introduction of a phosphoryl group into a compound through the formation of an ester bond between the compound and a phosphorus moiety.Aging: The gradual irreversible changes in structure and function of an organism that occur as a result of the passage of time.Recovery of Function: A partial or complete return to the normal or proper physiologic activity of an organ or part following disease or trauma.China: A country spanning from central Asia to the Pacific Ocean.EnglandScoliosis: An appreciable lateral deviation in the normally straight vertical line of the spine. (Dorland, 27th ed)Fracture Fixation, Internal: The use of internal devices (metal plates, nails, rods, etc.) to hold the position of a fracture in proper alignment.Postoperative Period: The period following a surgical operation.Antibodies, Monoclonal: Antibodies produced by a single clone of cells.Cross-Sectional Studies: Studies in which the presence or absence of disease or other health-related variables are determined in each member of the study population or in a representative sample at one particular time. This contrasts with LONGITUDINAL STUDIES which are followed over a period of time.Up-Regulation: A positive regulatory effect on physiological processes at the molecular, cellular, or systemic level. At the molecular level, the major regulatory sites include membrane receptors, genes (GENE EXPRESSION REGULATION), mRNAs (RNA, MESSENGER), and proteins.Cell Movement: The movement of cells from one location to another. Distinguish from CYTOKINESIS which is the process of dividing the CYTOPLASM of a cell.Immunoenzyme Techniques: Immunologic techniques based on the use of: (1) enzyme-antibody conjugates; (2) enzyme-antigen conjugates; (3) antienzyme antibody followed by its homologous enzyme; or (4) enzyme-antienzyme complexes. These are used histologically for visualizing or labeling tissue specimens.Preoperative Care: Care given during the period prior to undergoing surgery when psychological and physical preparations are made according to the special needs of the individual patient. This period spans the time between admission to the hospital to the time the surgery begins. (From Dictionary of Health Services Management, 2d ed)Wounds and Injuries: Damage inflicted on the body as the direct or indirect result of an external force, with or without disruption of structural continuity.Tunisia: A country in northern Africa between ALGERIA and LIBYA. Its capital is Tunis.Flow Cytometry: Technique using an instrument system for making, processing, and displaying one or more measurements on individual cells obtained from a cell suspension. Cells are usually stained with one or more fluorescent dyes specific to cell components of interest, e.g., DNA, and fluorescence of each cell is measured as it rapidly transverses the excitation beam (laser or mercury arc lamp). Fluorescence provides a quantitative measure of various biochemical and biophysical properties of the cell, as well as a basis for cell sorting. Other measurable optical parameters include light absorption and light scattering, the latter being applicable to the measurement of cell size, shape, density, granularity, and stain uptake.Endoscopy: Procedures of applying ENDOSCOPES for disease diagnosis and treatment. Endoscopy involves passing an optical instrument through a small incision in the skin i.e., percutaneous; or through a natural orifice and along natural body pathways such as the digestive tract; and/or through an incision in the wall of a tubular structure or organ, i.e. transluminal, to examine or perform surgery on the interior parts of the body.Cell Line: Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.Neurofibrillary Tangles: Abnormal structures located in various parts of the brain and composed of dense arrays of paired helical filaments (neurofilaments and microtubules). These double helical stacks of transverse subunits are twisted into left-handed ribbon-like filaments that likely incorporate the following proteins: (1) the intermediate filaments: medium- and high-molecular-weight neurofilaments; (2) the microtubule-associated proteins map-2 and tau; (3) actin; and (4) UBIQUITINS. As one of the hallmarks of ALZHEIMER DISEASE, the neurofibrillary tangles eventually occupy the whole of the cytoplasm in certain classes of cell in the neocortex, hippocampus, brain stem, and diencephalon. The number of these tangles, as seen in post mortem histology, correlates with the degree of dementia during life. Some studies suggest that tangle antigens leak into the systemic circulation both in the course of normal aging and in cases of Alzheimer disease.Gene Expression Regulation: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control (induction or repression) of gene action at the level of transcription or translation.Tumor Cells, Cultured: Cells grown in vitro from neoplastic tissue. If they can be established as a TUMOR CELL LINE, they can be propagated in cell culture indefinitely.Gene Expression: The phenotypic manifestation of a gene or genes by the processes of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION and GENETIC TRANSLATION.Pathology, Veterinary: The field of veterinary medicine concerned with the causes of and changes produced in the body by disease.Risk: The probability that an event will occur. It encompasses a variety of measures of the probability of a generally unfavorable outcome.Probability: The study of chance processes or the relative frequency characterizing a chance process.Tumor Suppressor Protein p53: Nuclear phosphoprotein encoded by the p53 gene (GENES, P53) whose normal function is to control CELL PROLIFERATION and APOPTOSIS. A mutant or absent p53 protein has been found in LEUKEMIA; OSTEOSARCOMA; LUNG CANCER; and COLORECTAL CANCER.Registries: The systems and processes involved in the establishment, support, management, and operation of registers, e.g., disease registers.Lymph Nodes: They are oval or bean shaped bodies (1 - 30 mm in diameter) located along the lymphatic system.Adenoma: A benign epithelial tumor with a glandular organization.Down-Regulation: A negative regulatory effect on physiological processes at the molecular, cellular, or systemic level. At the molecular level, the major regulatory sites include membrane receptors, genes (GENE EXPRESSION REGULATION), mRNAs (RNA, MESSENGER), and proteins.Mice, Nude: Mutant mice homozygous for the recessive gene "nude" which fail to develop a thymus. They are useful in tumor studies and studies on immune responses.Referral and Consultation: The practice of sending a patient to another program or practitioner for services or advice which the referring source is not prepared to provide.Head and Neck Neoplasms: Soft tissue tumors or cancer arising from the mucosal surfaces of the LIP; oral cavity; PHARYNX; LARYNX; and cervical esophagus. Other sites included are the NOSE and PARANASAL SINUSES; SALIVARY GLANDS; THYROID GLAND and PARATHYROID GLANDS; and MELANOMA and non-melanoma skin cancers of the head and neck. (from Holland et al., Cancer Medicine, 4th ed, p1651)Base Sequence: The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.Kidney Transplantation: The transference of a kidney from one human or animal to another.Epidemiologic Methods: Research techniques that focus on study designs and data gathering methods in human and animal populations.Uterine Cervical Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the UTERINE CERVIX.SingaporeLiver: A large lobed glandular organ in the abdomen of vertebrates that is responsible for detoxification, metabolism, synthesis and storage of various substances.Kidney Neoplasms: Tumors or cancers of the KIDNEY.
... that such individuals are likely to have one of the three following types of disease progression: *"Stage" one is characterized ... There is no randomized study in medical literature that has studied the response with amputation of patients who have failed ... The results are preliminary and are limited by their retrospective nature.[15] 7% of people who have CRPS in one limb later ... This may be involved in its pathology by enhancing sympathetic activity, vasoconstriction, or by some other unknown ...
"One million haemopoietic stem-cell transplants: a retrospective observational study". Lancet Haematol. 2015 Mar 2(3): e91-100. ... "Criteria for evaluating disease response and progression in patients with multiple myeloma treated by high-dose therapy and ... EL-Sobky TA, El-Haddad A, Elsobky E, Elsayed SM, Sakr HM (March 2017). "Reversal of skeletal radiographic pathology in a case ... Graft-versus-host disease[edit]. Main article: Graft-versus-host disease. Graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) is an inflammatory ...
Researchers could study the natural progression of the disease as long as they did not harm their subjects. The researchers ... This study is known as a retrospective study, since investigators pieced together information from the histories of patients ... US Public Health Study of Syphilis at Tuskegee began as a 6-month descriptive epidemiological study of the range of pathology ... The Center for Disease Control (CDC), which by then controlled the study, reaffirmed the need to continue the study until ...
A 2006 study that observed 133 patients found 31 (23.3%) had a recurrence of the disease within a five-year period. Use of ... progression-free survival. The 10-year disease-free survival is 40-50%. Younger ages showed lower 5 and 10-year survival rates ... A Children's Oncology Group study and a review of prognostic factors". Modern pathology : an official journal of the United ... However, a retrospective review of sterotactic radiosurgery showed it provided only a modest benefit to patients who had ...
Studies indicate that radiation therapy (radio therapy) may reduce the risk of progression in adults. In one study, stage I-II ... December 2015). "Nodular lymphocyte predominant Hodgkin lymphoma: a Lymphoma Study Association retrospective study". ... Diagnosis usually occurs at an early stage of disease progression. A treatment guide provided by NCCN Guidelines for Patients ... Expert pathology review of multiple morphologic and immunophenotypic features including the use of immunohistochemistry is ...
Case-control studies select subjects based on their disease status. It is a retrospective study. A group of individuals that ... evolution and progression of disease. A better understanding of heterogeneity of disease pathogenesis will further contribute ... "epidemiology of molecular pathology and heterogeneity of disease". In MPE, investigators analyze the relationships between; (A ... This has as a consequence that the control group can contain people with the disease under study when the disease has a high ...
The risk of disease progression and metastasis (spread of the cancer) may be increased, but this increase risk appears to be ... among patients with prostate cancer according to a retrospective study. The relative risk reduction was 57.7%. For patients at ... In the event of positive margins or locally advanced disease found on pathology, adjuvant radiation therapy may offer improved ... Multiple retrospective analyses have demonstrated that overall survival and disease-free survival outcomes are similar between ...
In several studies of patients with either form of plasma cell leukemia, the disease was associated with clonal IgG in 28% to ... As determined by a Mayo Clinic study of 48 individuals, smoldering Waldenström's macroglobulinemia's risk of progression to ... a retrospective cohort study". The Lancet. Haematology. 1 (1): e28-e36. doi:10.1016/S2352-3026(14)70001-8. PMC 4266993 . PMID ... El-Ayoubi A, Wang JQ, Hein N, Talaulikar D (2017). "Role of plasma cells in Waldenström macroglobulinaemia". Pathology. 49 (4 ...
Retrospective studies identified four other cases likely of similar cause. The rate of transmission from a single contaminated ... Use of RNA interference to slow the progression of scrapie has been studied in mice. The RNA blocks production of the protein ... Sattar, Hussain A. Fundamentals of Pathology. Chicago: Pathoma LLC. p. 187. "Creutzfeldt-Jakob Disease Fact Sheet , National ... Treatment: Pentosan polysulphate (PPS) was thought to slow the progression disease, and may have contributed to the longer than ...
He studied at the University of Turin under Giuseppe Levi, along with fellow students Salvador Luria and Rita Levi-Montalcini, ... At only 22, he graduated in morbid anatomy and pathology under the supervision of professor Giuseppe Levi. During these years ... Baltimore, D. (2012). "Retrospective: Renato Dulbecco (1914-2012)". Science. 335 (6076): 1587. doi:10.1126/science.1221692. ... epigenetic modification of a cell may contribute to the development or progression of cancer. Dulbecco and his group ...
One retrospective study of cases sent to a referral hospital reported a 14% prevalence of metastatic melanoma within the study ... Small tumors found early in the disease process (most frequently on the eyelid) can be treated with cisplatin or radiation with ... Rooney, James R.; John L. Robertson (1996). "Melanoma". Equine Pathology. Ames: Iowa State University Press. pp. 304-305. ... gene therapy injections utilizing interleukin-12 and 18-encoding DNA plasmids have shown promise in slowing the progression of ...
... a clinicopathological retrospective study of 76 cases". The Journal of Urology. 169 (1): 149-52. doi:10.1097/01.ju. ... Pathology and genetics of tumors of the urinary system and male genital organs. Eble JN, Epstein JI, Sesterhenn I (eds): Lyon, ... By far the most important cause is cigarette smoking, which contributes to approximately one-half of the disease burden. ... after progression on a platinum containing chemotherapy). Immunotherapy such as pembrolizumab is often used as second-line ...
The initial diagnostic impression can be a broad term describing a category of diseases instead of a specific disease or ... Retrospective diagnosis The labeling of an illness in a historical figure or specific historical event using modern knowledge, ... Diagnosis problems are the dominant cause of medical malpractice payments, accounting for 35% of total payments in a study of ... progression, prognosis, other outcomes, and possible treatments of her or his ailments, as well as providing advice for ...
... a case-control and retrospective cross-sectional MRI study at 3T". PLOS One. 9 (4): e93814. Bibcode:2014PLoSO...993814S. doi: ... Schematic initial progression of Lewy body deposits in the first stages of Parkinson's disease, as proposed by Braak and ... As of 2017 some scientists hypothesized that changes in the gut flora might be an early site of PD pathology, or might be part ... Maria, Nord (2017). Levodopa pharmacokinetics -from stomach to brain A study on patients with Parkinson's disease. Linköping: ...
... physicians will watch for progression of the disease using MRI. If any signs of further disease is shown, they will take action ... a multi-institutional retrospective study". British Journal of Haematology. 172 (5): 709-715. doi:10.1111/bjh.13883. PMID ... a diagnosis can be reached through the elimination of other CNS pathologies. Infiltration of malignant, differentiated B-cells ... Because this disease is non-curative and rather rare, treatment is only used to get rid of symptoms. Even so, due to the lack ...
RNA interference, usually microRNA, is being studied in tissue culture, pathology specimens and in preclinical animal studies. ... About 3 per 100,000 people develop the disease a year. It most often begins around 64 years of age and occurs more commonly in ... of the tumor is removed in retrospective analyses. The chances of near-complete initial removal of the tumor may be increased ... Prognostic Factors and Patterns of Progression". International Journal of Radiation Oncology*Biology*Physics. 69 (3): 820-24. ...
A third study, which was completed in 2014 found reduced decline in lung function and IPF disease progression. The data from ... A recent single-centre, retrospective, observational cohort study including incident patients diagnosed with ILD at Aarhus ... Veterinary Pathology. 51 (2): 372-384. doi:10.1177/0300985814521838. PMID 24569614. García-Sancho C; Buendía-Roldán I; ... A Cochrane review comparing pirfenidone with placebo, found a reduced risk of disease progression by 30%. FVC or VC was also ...
Lidder S, Ranawat V, Ahrens P (2009). "Surgical excision of wrist ganglia; literature review and nine-year retrospective study ... The progression of ganglion surgery worldwide is to use an arthroscopic or mini-opening method. Alternatively, a hypodermic ... It has been proposed recently that cystic adventitial disease, in which a cyst occurs within the popliteal artery near the knee ... The wide awake approach to hand and wrist ganglia: Ten-year experience, technical tips and review of macroscopic pathology and ...
The disease characteristically involves the jaw or other facial bone, distal ileum, cecum, ovaries, kidney, or breast. The ... "NIH study shows Burkitt lymphoma is molecularly distinct from other lymphomas". National Cancer Institute. Staudt L; et al. ( ... Brady G, MacArthur GJ, Farrell PJ (December 2007). "Epstein-Barr virus and Burkitt lymphoma". Journal of Clinical Pathology. 60 ... 2011). "Evaluation of the addition of rituximab to CODOX-M/ IVAC for Burkitt's lymphoma: a retrospective analysis" (pdf). ...
In one retrospective cohort study, baseline concentrations of serum IgG4, IgE and blood eosinophils were found to be ... "Consensus statement on the pathology of IgG4-related disease". Modern Pathology. 25 (9): 1181-1192. doi:10.1038/modpathol. ... The goal of treatment is the induction and maintenance of remission so as to prevent progression of fibrosis and organ ... related disease: an orphan disease with many faces". Orphanet Journal of Rare Diseases. 9: 110. doi:10.1186/s13023-014-0110-z. ...
... a new accurate test of Parkinson's disease: a case-control and retrospective cross-sectional MRI study at 3T". PLOS ONE. 9 (4 ... With the progression of the disease, rigidity typically affects the whole body and reduces the ability to move. Postural ... Schulz-Schaeffer WJ (August 2010). "The synaptic pathology of alpha-synuclein aggregation in dementia with Lewy bodies, ... World Parkinson Disease Association PDGENE - Database for Parkinson's Disease genetic association studies. ...
Two large-scale studies have demonstrated the benefits of idebenone. The Rescue of Hereditary Optic Disease Outpatient Study ( ... A retrospective analysis of 103 LHON patients by Carelli et al. builds upon these results. This study highlighted that 44 ... The eye pathology is limited to the retinal ganglion cell layer especially the maculopapillary bundle. Degeneration is evident ... "EPI-743 alters the natural history of progression of Leber hereditary optic neuropathy". AOS meeting. May 2011 Archived 2011-09 ...
This was based on animal studies and retrospective observational studies. However, large scale prospective studies have failed ... "Etiologic field effect: reappraisal of the field effect concept in cancer predisposition and progression". Modern Pathology ... Inflammatory bowel diseaseEdit. People with inflammatory bowel disease (ulcerative colitis and Crohn's disease) are at ... systematic review and dose-response meta-analysis for the Global Burden of Disease Study 2013". BMJ. 354: i3857. doi:10.1136/ ...
The only animals that have been successfully infected with the disease are rabbits which are used for in vivo studies of the ... Pythiosis is suspected to be heavily underdiagnosed due to unfamiliarity with the disease, the rapid progression and morbidity ... a retrospective study of 18 patients". Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy. 70: 1885-1892. doi:10.1093/jac/dkv008. Wolf, ... The resulting pathology results in anorexia, vomiting, diarrhea (sometimes bloody), and abdominal straining. Extensive weight ...
... which provides grants for clinical studies on safety and/or effectiveness of products for use in rare diseases or conditions. ... A retrospective review of English-language medical publications reporting on topical sirolimus treatment of facial ... Sirolimus was shown to inhibit the progression of dermal Kaposi's sarcoma in patients with renal transplants.[citation needed] ... "Comprehensive lung injury pathology induced by mTOR inhibitors". Clinical & Translational Oncology. 11 (8): 499-510. doi: ...
MS Caribbean Princess is a modified Grand Class cruise ship owned and operated by Princess Cruises, with a capacity of over 3,600 passengers, the largest carrying capacity in the Princess fleet until June 2013 when the new Royal Princess, another Princess ship superseded its record. She has 900 balcony staterooms and a deck of mini-suites. She was the first modern cruise ship with an outdoor theater, which Princess bills as "Movies Under The Stars".[citation needed] Caribbean Princess is slightly larger than the other ships in her class (Star Princess, Golden Princess, and Grand Princess), due to the addition of an additional deck of cabins called the Riviera deck. Another difference is that, being initially designed to cruise the Caribbean year-round, there is no sliding roof over the pool area for shelter in poor weather. On March 12, 2012, Caribbean Princess suffered an issue to her port side propulsion engine, which required her to return to her home port of San Juan, Puerto Rico after a ...
In 2001 the Triebel group identified a LAG3-associated protein, called LAP, that seemed to participate in immune system down-regulation.[41] Also in 2001 the Triebel group reported finding LAG3 expression on CD8+ tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes, with this LAG3 contributing to APC activation.[42] In August 2002 the first phenotypic analysis of the murine LAG-3 was reported by a team at St. Jude Children's Research Hospital in Memphis.[43] Molecular analysis reported by the St. Jude Children's Research Hospital team in November 2002 demonstrated that the inhibitory function of LAG-3 is performed via the protein's cytoplasmic domain.[44] In 2003 the Triebel group was able to identify the MHC class II signal transduction pathways in human dendritic cells induced by LAG3.[45] while the St. Jude Children's Research Hospital team showed that the absence of LAG3 caused no defect in T cell function.[16] In May 2004 the St. Jude Children's Research Hospital team showed, through LAG3 knockout mice, that ...
... (NMH) is a nationally ranked academic medical center hospital located in downtown Chicago, Illinois. It is the primary teaching hospital for Northwestern University's Feinberg School of Medicine. Along with its Prentice Women's Hospital and Stone Institute of Psychiatry, the hospital provides a total of 894 inpatient beds and encompasses more than 3 million square feet of medical building space. Virtually every medical specialty is represented by the over 1,600 physicians on the medical staff at Northwestern Memorial who also carry faculty appointments with Feinberg. It is the third tallest hospital in the United States and the fifth tallest hospital in the world. Northwestern Memorial Hospital is ranked as the sixth best hospital in the United States, ranked number one in the Chicago metro area, and ranked number one in the state of Illinois according to the 2013-14 U.S. News & World Report America's Best Hospitals "Honor Roll" report. Northwestern Memorial is ...
... is a complication of diabetes. It is caused by infarcted muscle tissue, usually in the thigh. The mean age at presentation is thirty-seven years with a reported range of nineteen to sixty-four years. The mean age of onset since diagnosis of diabetes is fifteen years. The female:male ratio is 1.3:1. Other diabetic complications such as nephropathy, neuropathy, retinopathy and hypertension are usually present. Its major symptom is the acute onset muscle pain, usually in the thigh, in the absence of trauma. Signs include exquisite muscle tenderness and swelling. Tissue biopsy is the gold standard. Macroscopically this reveals pale muscle tissue. Microscopically infarcted patches of myocytes. Necrotic muscle fibers are swollen and eosinophilic and lack striations and nuclei. Small-vessel walls are thickened and hyalinized, with luminal narrowing or complete occlusion. Biopsy cultures for bacteria, fungi, acid-fast bacilli and stains are negative in simple myonecrosis. Creatine ...
... is a series of epistolary young adult novels written by Meg Cabot, and is also the title of the first volume, published in 2000. The series revolves around Amelia 'Mia' Thermopolis, a teenager in New York who discovers that she is the princess of a small European principality called Genovia. Meg Cabot quotes the series' inspiration on her website stating: "I was inspired to write The Princess Diaries when my mom, after the death of my father, began dating one of my teachers; they later went on to get married just as Mia's mom does in the book! I have always had a 'thing' for princesses (my parents used to joke that when I was smaller, I did a lot of insisting that my 'real' parents, the king and queen, were going to come get me soon, and that everyone had better start being a LOT nicer to me) so I stuck a princess in the book just for kicks... and VOILÀ! The Princess Diaries was born." The books are noted for containing many popular culture references, which include ...
Surgical Outcomes Analysis & Research, SOAR, is a research laboratory of the Department of Surgery at the Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center with expertise in outcomes research. SOAR investigates surgical diseases and perioperative outcomes. The group focuses on pancreatic cancer, other gastrointestinal and hepatobiliary malignancies, vascular disease, and transplant surgery. SOAR's goal is to examine quality, delivery, and financing of care in order to have an immediate impact on patient care and system improvements. The group members utilize national health services and administrative databases, as well as institutional databases, to investigate and to address factors contributing to disease outcomes and healthcare disparities. The work in SOAR incorporates advanced statistical techniques, including logistic regression, prediction score, and decision analysis modeling. Outcomes Research evaluates the impact of health care on the health outcomes of patients and populations (see AHRQ for ...
A teoría da resposta antitumoral do sistema inmunitario in vivo foi recoñecida polo físico William B. Coley. En 1968, o Dr. Gale A Granger da Universidade de California, Irvine, informou do descubrimento dun factor citotóxico producido polos linfocitos e denominouno linfotoxina (LT).[7] O mérito deste descubrimento compartiuno coa Dra. Nancy H. Ruddle da Universidade Yale, que informou da mesma actividade nunha serie de artigos consecutivos publicados nese mesmo mes.[8] Posteriormente, en 1975, o Dr. Lloyd J. Old do Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, de Nova York, informou sobre outros factores citotóxicos producidos polos macrófagos e usou a denominación factor de necrose tumoral (TNF).[9] Ambos os factores foron descritos baseándose na súa capacidade de matar células L-929 de fibrosarcoma de rato. Estes conceptos foron ampliados a doenzas sistémicas en 1981, cando Ian A. Clark, da Universidade Nacional de Australia, en colaboración con Elizabeth Carswell no grupo do Dr. Old, ...
A lipoma is a benign tumor made of fat tissue. They are generally soft to the touch, movable, and painless. They usually occur just under the skin but occasionally may be deeper. Most are less than 5 cm in size. Common locations include upper back, shoulders, and abdomen. A few people have a number of lipomas. The cause is generally unclear. Risk factors include family history, obesity, and not enough exercise. Diagnosis is typically based on a physical exam. Occasionally medical imaging or tissue biopsy is used to confirm the diagnosis. Treatment is typically by observation or surgical removal. Rarely the condition may recur following removal, however, this can generally be managed with repeat surgery. They are not generally associated with a future risk of cancer. About 2% of people are affected. Lipomas typically occur in adults between 40 to 60 years of age. Males are more often affected than females. They are the most common non-cancerous soft tissue tumor. The first use of the term ...
Complication, in medicine, is an unfavorable evolution or consequence of a disease, a health condition or a therapy. The disease can become worse in its severity or show a higher number of signs, symptoms or new pathological changes, become widespread throughout the body or affect other organ systems. A new disease may also appear as a complication to a previous existing disease. A medical treatment, such as drugs or surgery may produce adverse effects or produce new health problem(s) by itself. Therefore, a complication may be iatrogenic (i.e. literally brought forth by the physician).. Medical knowledge about a disease, procedure or treatment usually entails a list of the most common complications, so that they can be foreseen, prevented or recognized more easily and speedily.. Depending on the degree of vulnerability, susceptibility, age, health status, immune system condition, etc. complications may arise more easily. Complications affect adversely the prognosis of a disease. Non-invasive ...
In 1999, financial analyst Harry Markopolos had informed the SEC that he believed it was legally and mathematically impossible to achieve the gains Madoff claimed to deliver. According to Markopolos, it took him four minutes to conclude that Madoff's numbers did not add up, and another minute to suspect they were likely fraudulent.[75]. After four hours of failed attempts to replicate Madoff's numbers, Markopolos believed he had mathematically proved Madoff was a fraud.[76] He was ignored by the SEC's Boston office in 2000 and 2001, as well as by Meaghan Cheung at the SEC's New York office in 2005 and 2007 when he presented further evidence. He has since co-authored a book with Gaytri Kachroo (the leader of his legal team) titled No One Would Listen. The book details the frustrating efforts he and his legal team made over a ten-year period to alert the government, the industry, and the press about Madoff's fraud.[75]. Although Madoff's wealth management business ultimately grew into a ...
Marsden 2004. októberében vette el feleségét, Christy Hicks, akitől 2010. februárjában 2 gyereke született.[3] A család jelenleg a tennessee-i Nashville-ben lakik, szomszédjuk Marsden nagy barátja a bírkózókat támogató Jerry Jarrett.[4] ...
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അദ്ദേഹത്തിന്റെ പിതാവ് ഒരു അപ്പോത്തിക്കെരി ആയിരുന്നു. കൂടാതെ ധാതുക്കൾ, നാണയങ്ങൾ, ജീവാശ്മങ്ങൾ, പ്രാണികൾ തുടങ്ങിയവയൊക്കെ ശേഖരിക്കുകയും ചെയ്യുമായിരുന്നു. സ്വാമ്മർഡാം പിതാവിനെ അദ്ദേഹത്തിന്റെ പ്രവർത്തികളിൽ സഹായിക്കുകയും അവയിൽ ആകർഷിതനാകാവുകയും ചെയ്തു. 1661-ൽ അദ്ദേഹം University of Leiden-ൽ വൈദ്യശാസ്ത്രം പഠിക്കാൻ തുടങ്ങി. അതോടൊപ്പം സ്വന്തമായി പ്രാണികളെ ശേഖരിക്കുകയും ചെയ്തു.[1] 1663-ൽ ...
Comparative Study; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, Non-U.S. Govt; Research Support, U.S. Govt, Non-P. ... Neurofibrillary pathology has a stereotypical progression in Alzheimers disease (AD) that is encapsulated in the Braak staging ... Neuropathologically defined subtypes of Alzheimers disease with distinct clinical characteristics: a retrospective study.. ... Neuropathologically defined subtypes of Alzheimers disease with distinct clinical characteristics: A retrospective study ...
Demyelinating Diseases / cerebrospinal fluid, classification, pathology*. Disease Progression. Female. Humans. Magnetic ... DESIGN: Observational, retrospective case study. SETTING: Thirteen French MS centers. Patients We retrospectively studied 60 ... CONCLUSIONS: Our study found some differences concerning the risk of evolution to clinically definite MS after a first ... These findings led us to propose criteria that should now be tested in a larger, prospective cohort study.. ...
... followed cases with levodopa-responsive Parkinsons disease who came to autopsy during the Sydney Multicenter Study of... ... The present study describes the pathological progression of longitudinally ... Williams DR, Lees AJ (2005) Visual hallucinations in the diagnosis of idiopathic Parkinsons disease: a retrospective autopsy ... Dementia Disease progression Lewy bodies Longitudinal study Parkinsons disease This is a preview of subscription content, log ...
Atherosclerosis is a progressive disease that causes vascular remodeling that can be positive or negative. The evolution of ... Carotid Arteries / pathology*. Carotid Artery Diseases / diagnosis*, etiology, therapy. Disease Progression. Female. Humans. ... First and foremost, this study was a retrospective analysis performed on a limited sample size. Further prospective studies in ... Our study subjects had lower lipids than the subjects of the study by Corti et al. Therefore our study showed progression of ...
Previous studies evaluating natural history of progression of AS shown that on average the rate of progression of Peak velocity ... Exclusion criteria includes diagnosis of Rheumatic heart disease, bicuspid aortic valve and other significant valvular ... pathology. Demographics, AS severity, statin use. Peak velocity, Mean gradient, Left ventricular function were recorded. Rate ... Recently there is a growing interest in the field of Bone modifiers reducing progression of AS. In this study we aim to study ...
Disease Progression. *Female. *Humans. *Liver/metabolism/pathology. *Male. *Middle Aged. *Prognosis. *Retrospective Studies ... This study assessed the relation between GP73 levels and liver disease severity, monitored the kinetic changes in GP73 levels ... This study assessed the relation between GP73 levels and liver disease severity, monitored the kinetic changes in GP73 levels ... This study enrolled 1150 patients with chronic HBV infections, 200 of whom were retrospectively enrolled in this study after ...
... studies on HNSCC patients that correlate the expression of the candidates with clinical parameters such as disease progression ... The goal to identify proteins representing individual tumor pathologies or subgroups of patient populations necessitates the ... One logical extension of this work would be to perform retrospective or prospective ... 5, c and d). The earlier studies required very high doses (2-5 μm) of the c-MET inhibitor SU11274 to kill HNSCC cells. This is ...
This study provides the most valid direct estimates yet available of the rate of progression from CIN3 to invasive cancer. ... Interpretation: This study provides the most valid direct estimates yet available of the rate of progression from CIN3 to ... a retrospective cohort study Lancet Oncol. 2008 May;9(5):425-34. doi: 10.1016/S1470-2045(08)70103-7. Epub 2008 Apr 11. ... in the subset of 92 such women who had persistent disease within 24 months. However, cancer risk at 30 years was only 0.7% (0.3 ...
A TheraSphere Advanced Dosimetry Retrospective Global Study in HCC Recruiting This retrospective, multinational, single-arm ... AEs related to disease progression will not be considered related to TheraSphere. ... will see stent-graft designs that focus specifically on the challenges of some of the nonaneurysmal thoracic aortic pathologies ... Molecular imaging holds promise to provide earlier and more precise disease diagnosis, improved disease characterization, and ...
... disease progression in patients after IVF to those without interval fertility treatments.A retrospective case-control study set ... Comparisons were made between the results of the MRI and postoperative pathology reports.The MRI and pathology report were the ... To study the association between female infertility and risk of incident chronic disease.STUDY DESIGN: Retrospective cohort ... Control-matched surgical evaluation of endometriosis progression after IVF: a retrospective cohort study. Minerva ginecologica ...
... pathology. Hodgkin Disease / therapy. *[MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Female. Humans. Kenya. Male. Retrospective Studies ... pathology. Hodgkin Disease / therapy. *[MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Aged. Clinical Trials as Topic. Disease Progression. ... Hodgkin Disease / drug therapy. Lung Neoplasms / pathology. Lymphoma, B-Cell / pathology. Neoplasms, Second Primary / pathology ... Hodgkin Disease / diagnosis. Hodgkin Disease / pathology. Lymphocytes / pathology. Positron-Emission Tomography / methods. ...
Feasibility Studies. Female. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Infant. Male. Retrospective Studies. Treatment Outcome ... MeSH-major] Hodgkin Disease / pathology. Hodgkin Disease / therapy. *[MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Antineoplastic Combined ... Disease Progression. Disease-Free Survival. Doxorubicin / administration & dosage. Female. Humans. Lymphatic Metastasis. Male. ... MeSH-major] Hodgkin Disease / pathology. Hodgkin Disease / radiotherapy. *[MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Analysis of Variance. ...
Perianal disease was less frequent than reported in Western and other Asian studies. One-fourth of Indian patients had ... Gender distribution and predominant ileo-colonic location of disease were similar to earlier Asian reports on Crohns disease. ... aggressive disease at diagnosis, but the tendency to p … ... pathology * Crohn Disease / surgery * Disease Progression * ... Asian studies indicate that the Asian disease phenotype may be different. Our aim was to study the disease behaviour in Indian ...
... in this retrospective study of surgical biopsy and resection specimens from the University of Utah Department of Pathology ( ... and to assess for expression that may contribute to disease progression and serve as a potential site for targeted therapy. ... In vivo xenograft studies using bladder cancer cell line models show that PIM kinase inhibition can reduce the tumor growth of ... PIM kinases act as downstream effectors as inhibitors of apoptosis and as positive regulators of G1-S phase progression through ...
The aim of this study was to investigate the frequency of the three most common features of autonomic dysfunction and analyze ... Methods Thirty patients with dementia with Lewy bodies and Parkinsons disease with dementia were included in this prospective ... There are no earlier studies addressing the influence of autonomic dysfunction on clinical course and survival. ... longitudinal follow-up study. Presence of incontinence and constipation was recorded at baseline. Blood pressure was measured ...
... pathologies in 21 cases of autopsy-confirmed PiD.This study was a retrospective analysis of patients with Picks disease ... Few studies have examined the clinical variability and disease progression in PiD. We describe the clinical features, ... Coexisting non-Picks pathology was also present in many cases. Our study highlights the clinical and pathologic heterogeneity ... and Lewy body disease (n = 1).Our study shows that bvFTD and PPA are the most common clinical phenotypes associated with PiD, ...
However, stroke was the default if history, examination, and disease progression suggested intracerebral vascular pathology, or ... A recent retrospective cohort study of stroke patients performed by Zinkstok, et al., was based on 12 European Centers and 5518 ... In this study, 1.8% of patients were ultimately diagnosed as having a stroke mimic.6 Patients were determined to have a mimic ... In the same study by Zinkstok, et al., global aphasia without hemiparesis (GAWH) was found to be more common in stroke mimics. ...
... assessing sleep to predict Alzheimers disease; Nudges to change palliative care ... Education and reducing your risk of heart disease; ... The study took place across 5 radiation oncology practices and ... and retrospective sleep evaluations to investigate the potential utility of sleep measures in predicting in vivo AD pathology ... Recent research has linked sleep disruption to the progression of Alzheimers disease (AD). The two main pathological features ...
Coexisting elevations of transaminase levels from nonalcoholic fatty liver disease and stable hepatitis B and C viral ... Statins play an important role in the care of patients with cardiovascular disease and have a good safety record in clinical ... A retrospective cohort study of 13,492 patients taking lovastatin5 and a prospective study of 320 patients taking pravastatin6 ... 4 In another matched study of 2,264 patients, those taking statins showed no differences in liver enzyme levels or progression ...
The bacterial flora appears to change with progression of disease. Keywords: bronchiectasis, inflammation, obstructive lung ... As there is generally a long-term retrospective history, it may be difficult to determine the exact role of such factors in the ... Extremes of age and smoking/chronic obstructive pulmonary disease may be important considerations. There are a variety of ... Studies have demonstrated that the small airways in bronchiectasis are obstructed from an inflammatory infiltrate in the wall. ...
In their study of 73 patients, the ORR was 26% (complete response rate, 7%) resulting in a median progression-free survival of ... Weaknesses of our study include the intrinsic biases associated with retrospective data reporting, the lack of centralized ... Non-responsive MCL was defined as stable or progressive disease. Data were censored in May 2018. Progression-free survival, ... pathology review, formalized radiological reporting, and prospective adverse event reporting.. Venetoclax monotherapy produces ...
To understand the disease process(es) and progression.. *Strengthening of disease diagnosis and prognosis through bio-molecular ... review and retrospective studies.. *To develop digitalized teaching modules based on salient research findings and outcome(s) ... The department has set goals of imparting best teaching in Veterinary Pathology. The department endeavors to equip the students ... Immuno-pathological studies of diseases of poultry and their diagnosis.. *Ante-mortem diagnosis of Rabies using immuno- ...
Clinical characteristics of epithelioid hemangioendothelioma: a single-center retrospective study. Eur J Med Res. 2019 Feb 28; ... After 4 months, progression of disease was documented and right hepatectomy was performed. A 68Ga-DOTA-E-[c(RGDfK)]2 positron ... Pleura revisited: From histology and pathophysiology to pathology and molecular biology.. Fetched: May 30th, 2019, 5:01am GMT. ... Studies on a few patients have demonstrated the stabilization of the disease in a proportion of patients with hepatic vascular ...
Other three succumbed to disease after progression. Conclusion:Due to a small number of this malignancy randomized studies are ... Method:It was a retrospective observational study done at a tertiary cancer center from January 2012 to December 2016. The ... b] Department of Pathology, Kidwai Cancer Institute, Bangalore, 560029, India Correspondence: [*] Corresponding author: ... Three patients received 2nd line and one received 3rd line chemotherapy on disease progression. After a median follow-up of 18 ...
Nephropathy is a chronic renal disease mainly affecting rural populations in the valleys of the Danube. In the absence of renal ... such biomarkers allows further inferences into cellular pathways involved in the progression and recovery of the pathology. Few ... we performed a retrospective metabonomics evaluation of frozen urine samples collected in epidemiological studies as well as ... Modification of Diet in Renal Disease; CKD: Chronic Kidney Disease. ...
  • Tumors of the head and neck represent a molecularly diverse set of human cancers, but relatively few proteins have actually been shown to drive the disease at the molecular level. (
  • Importantly, the strategy employed in this study is generic and therefore also of more general utility for the identification of novel drug targets and molecular pathway markers in tumors. (
  • This clinical trial studies how well yttrium Y 90 glass microspheres positron emission tomography (PET)/computed tomography (CT) works in imaging patients with liver tumors. (
  • Clinically, a significant proportion of superficial tumors (pTa and pT1) are deemed to recur after transurethral resection of the bladder (TURB) with only a minority of cases enduring progression to high-grade carcinoma that will ultimately progress to MI-BC. (
  • 9) Prognostic parameters that can accurately predict progression in patients with superficial tumors are actively sought to further facilitate identification of those in need of vigilant surveillance and an aggressive treatment plan. (
  • The natural history of these incidental tumors and the frequency of progression to symptomatic disease are unknown. (
  • The purpose of this study is to identify predictive molecular markers of response to continuous daily sunitinib at dose of 37.5 mg used in patients with poorly-differentiated Advanced/Inoperable NEURO-Endocrine Tumors. (
  • Despite the joint efforts of several research groups, which led to the new WHO classification (2002), the natural history of the disease remains heterogene and the resistance to conventional cytotoxic treatment remains the common denominator of these tumors. (
  • A Multicenter Phase II Open Study Coupled With a Translational Assessment of Biomarkers Predictive of Response to Sunitinib in Patients With Poorly-differentiated Advanced/Inoperable NEURO-Endocrine Tumors. (
  • Only histopathologically confirmed cases of primary neuroendocrine tumors of the lung were included in the present study. (
  • All the imaging studies stored in the electronic file system were reviewed, including plain radiographs and magnetic resonance imaging MRI studies, but the reviewers have particularly focused on the description of CT findings, which is currently the most accurate radiological method and most commonly utilized in the evaluation of lung tumors. (
  • H. pylori is a Gram-negative, bacilliform, motile, microaerophilic bacterium that colonizes the gastric mucosa in humans, causes gastritis and peptic ulcer disease, and is also an important risk factor for development of gastric cancer and mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT) lymphoma ( 9 - 11 ). (
  • These include aurora kinase A (AURKA) ( 17 ), polo-like kinase 1 (PLK1) ( 18 ), and c-MET ( 19 ), indicating that the observed molecular heterogeneity of the disease may be rooted in multiple kinase signaling pathways and underscoring the need for potential biomarkers and/or therapeutic targets for an individualized approach to the management of HNSCC. (
  • Epigenetic biomarkers are emerging as a viable screening tool for cervical disease. (
  • Recognition of a nonmotor preclinical phase spanning 20 or more years should guide the search for predictive biomarkers and the identification of risk or protective factors for Parkinson disease. (
  • All of this suggests that sunitinib could represent an important therapeutic option for moderate, or poorly differentiated inoperable TNE and needs to be explored in this pathology by identifying predictive biomarkers of response. (
  • Moreover, the DS3 has not yet been correlated with disease-specific measures of response such as achievement of therapeutic goals or broadly used biomarkers. (
  • The aim of this investigation was to evaluate PIM expression in low- and high-grade urothelial carcinoma, and to assess for expression that may contribute to disease progression and serve as a potential site for targeted therapy. (
  • OBJECTIVE: To assess the correlation between overexpression of LAT1 and local progression (LP) in prostatic carcinoma (PC) patients under expectant management (EM). (
  • While most invasive urothelial carcinomas are thought to originate through progression from dysplasia to flat carcinoma in situ (CIS) and high-grade noninvasive lesions, superficial urothelial lesions are thought to originate from benign urothelium through a process of urothelial hyperplasia. (
  • Out of this, 31 cases of serous carcinoma or mixed endometrial carcinoma with at least 5% serous component were selected for the study. (
  • Since 2006 year, Sunitinib has been approved to treat advanced kidney cancer also called advanced renal cell carcinoma (a typically chemoresistant disease for which there was no active treatment available). (
  • Human clinical trials have investigated milk thistle or silymarin primarily in individuals with hepatitis or cirrhosis, although small studies have been reported about individuals with acute lymphoblastic leukemia, prostate cancer, breast cancer, and hepatocellular carcinoma. (
  • In this review article, we discuss the followings: 1) Gleason grading system with its modification, 2) Grade group, 3) Intraductal carcinoma, and 4) molecular pathology. (
  • Subsequently, numerous studies highlighting practical issues on implementation of the new system, especially regarding the presence of intraductal carcinoma without invasive carcinoma, were published. (
  • Finally, when included in the same analysis, both Belgian and Croatian patients displayed similar urine metabolic signatures, suggesting a common etiology of both diseases. (
  • But the most striking advance in our understanding of the etiology of gastric cancer was the identification of the role of infection with Helicobacter pylori in the development of peptic ulcers and their progression to gastric dysplasia and gastric malignancy (reviewed in ref. 7 ). (
  • It was a retrospective observational study done at a tertiary cancer center from January 2012 to December 2016. (
  • In this observational study, we compared real-world efficacy, toxicity, and costs of four frequently employed treatment strategies for Burkitt lymphoma: the Lymphome Malins B (LMB), the Berlin-Frankfurt-Münster (BFM), the HOVON, and the CODOX-M/IVAC regimens. (
  • This group of cases had Lewy body distributions consistent with the Braak staging of disease. (
  • Approximately 25% of cases had an early malignant, dementia-dominant syndrome and severe neocortical disease consistent with dementia with Lewy bodies. (
  • These cases with higher loads of Lewy bodies and shorter survivals suggest that widespread Lewy body pathology either occurs at the onset of clinical disease or rapidly infiltrates the brain. (
  • The data are also not consistent with a unitary concept of the pathogenesis of Lewy body disease. (
  • Beyer MK, Larsen JP, Aarsland D (2007) Gray matter atrophy in Parkinson disease with dementia and dementia with Lewy bodies. (
  • Harding AJ, Broe GA, Halliday GM (2002) Visual hallucinations in Lewy body disease relate to Lewy bodies in the temporal lobe. (
  • Autonomic dysfunction is a well-known feature in neurodegenerative dementias, especially common in α-synucleinopathies like dementia with Lewy bodies and Parkinson's disease with dementia. (
  • Thirty patients with dementia with Lewy bodies and Parkinson's disease with dementia were included in this prospective, longitudinal follow-up study. (
  • Dementia with Lewy bodies (DLB) and dementia associated with Parkinson's disease (PDD) are neurodegenerative disorders with similar clinical and neuropathological features. (
  • Lewy bodies are also the histological markers of idiopathic Parkinson's disease (PD), pure autonomic failure (PAF) and multiple system atrophy (MSA), the so called α-synucleinopaties . (
  • However, more recent evidence of Lewy body pathology in other neuronal populations preceding nigral involvement suggests that the preclinical phase may be much longer. (
  • Extrapolation from series of postmortem brains with Lewy body pathology in the substantia nigra predicted a preclinical stage of approximately 5 years.3 Similarly, striatal fludeoxyglucose 18 dopamine positron emission tomography studies4-6 estimated a 6-year preclinical phase. (
  • However, the studies of Braak and colleagues17-19 emphasize that Lewy body pathology is much more widespread than previously acknowledged. (
  • Clinical presentation, age at onset, disease duration, and rate of cognitive decline differed between the AD subtypes. (
  • A group of younger onset patients with a typical long duration clinical course of Parkinson's disease. (
  • Median age at disease onset was 54 years, with PPA cases (median = 52 years) presenting earlier than bvFTD (median = 59). (
  • Median disease duration (onset-death) overall was 10 years and did not differ significantly between bvFTD (median = 9.5 years) and PPA (median = 13). (
  • Prevention of early-onset group B streptococcus neonatal diseases. (
  • here is convincing evidence that the Parkinson disease neurodegenerative process begins many years before the onset of motor manifestations. (
  • This pathology was associated with non-motor system TDP-43 pathology (Χ 2 = 17.5, p= 0.00003) and bulbar symptoms at onset (Χ 2 = 4.04, p= 0.044), but not age or disease duration. (
  • However, as Lander and Shork stated, glaucoma is a complex trait and, in the majority of cases, does not follow a clear-cut inheritance pattern, has a variable penetrance transmission and an insidious progression, and usually has a late onset [ 4 ]. (
  • The authors undertook this study to investigate whether craniotomy creates the opportunity for patients to receive and benefit from ipilimumab who would otherwise succumb to brain metastasis prior to the onset of regression. (
  • PNS cancers usually present as locally advanced disease due to the late onset of symptoms or the fact that early symptoms resemble common sinusitis or rhinitis. (
  • The mouse model revealed a collapse of the desmin network, and this undoubtedly contributes to the developing disease, yet similar structural changes in the cardiomyocyte cytoskeleton in another DRM animal model, which expressed a desmin mutation, resulted in significantly less morbidity and no mortality. (
  • The prevalence of obesity has increased markedly over the past two decades contributing to morbidity and mortality worldwide in the form of increasing rates of cardiovascular disease, diabetes and many types of cancer. (
  • In addition, obesity has been linked to increased mortality following cancer development and therefore could contribute not only to increased cancer incidence but also to increased tumour progression. (
  • The first quantifies risk of neurodegenerative disease and mortality in former players of association football and compares this with the risk of death from other causes. (
  • The analysis used cox-proportional hazard models, with a study endpoint of either mortality or December 2016. (
  • Mortality from circulatory disease and respiratory disease was lower in soccer players compared with controls, but mortality from neurodegenerative disease was higher and this disparity persisted even when mortality for cardiovascular and respiratory cause was accounted for (hazard ratio 3.53). (
  • In a subgroup analysis all-cause mortality and mortality secondary to neurodegenerative disease did not differ between outfield players and goalkeepers, but goalkeepers had fewer prescriptions for dementia related drugs than outfield players, consistent with known lower rates of traumatic brain injury (TBI) in goalkeepers. (
  • The presence of macular hypoautofluorescence in 3 patients correlated with the duration of the disease, a decreased visual acuity and the degree of inflammation in the affected eye, indicating a secondary diffuse lesion in the pigment epithelium in relation to a thinning of the choroid. (
  • The majority of studies to date on obesity-associated inflammation have examined adipose tissue macrophages and their role in exacerbating this inflammation. (
  • However, more recent animal studies have pointed to T cells as key regulators in the initiation and maintenance of obesity-associated inflammation. (
  • Recent studies indicate that erectile dysfunction (ED) and prostate cancer share common potential risk factors such as chronic inflammation, prostatitis, cigarette smoking, obesity, a high animal fat diet, sedentarism, and depression. (
  • However, such studies were focusing on late-stages of tumorigenesis, in which chronic inflammation had already developed. (
  • Hippocampal sparing and limbic-predominant AD subtypes might account for about 25% of cases, and hence should be considered when designing clinical, genetic, biomarker, and treatment studies in patients with AD. (
  • This study enrolled 1150 patients with chronic HBV infections, 200 of whom were retrospectively enrolled in this study after receiving 1 year of ETV treatment. (
  • At the National Women's Hospital, Auckland, New Zealand, treatment of CIN3 was withheld from a substantial number of women between 1965 and 1974 as part of an unethical clinical study. (
  • However, cancer risk at 30 years was only 0.7% (0.3-1.9) in 593 women whose initial treatment was deemed adequate or probably adequate, and whose treatment for recurrent disease was conventional. (
  • Conclusion:Due to a small number of this malignancy randomized studies are difficult to perform and optimum treatment strategy still need to be defined. (
  • The growth-modulation index (GMI) was defined as the ratio between the time to progression with trabectedin (TTP n ) and the TTP with the immediately prior line of treatment (TTP n-1 ). (
  • No consensus exists on the treatment of advanced stages of this disease. (
  • There was no significant difference between age, sex ratio, disease stage, or percentage HIV-positive patients between the treatment groups. (
  • Conclusions: Kidney transplant recipients benefit from receiving treatment with an ACEinh/ARB, especially in the presence of proteinuria and proven graft pathology. (
  • Currently ongoing is the PARTNER (Placement of AoRTic traNscathetER valves) trial, a Phase 3 multicenter study led by national co-principal investigators Dr. Martin Leon and Dr. Craig Smith and focused on the treatment of patients who are at high risk or not suitable for open heart valve replacement surgery. (
  • The time has come for improved terminology, study design, and focus on delineation of successful treatment variables in the interest of those individuals with clinical indications of FAI so that we can appropriately address their needs. (
  • In POAG, early detection and treatment is effective in reducing disease progression [ 2 ]. (
  • The distribution of the deficiency according to gender, type of disease, need of anti-TNF alpha treatment, and extension of disease was analysed. (
  • neither a fall in lung function suggesting progressive disease nor an improvement suggesting response to treatment was seen. (
  • Eleven of 12 courses of ipilimumab were stopped for disease progression, and 1 was stopped for treatment-induced colitis. (
  • In spite of not being related to the main objective of the present study, the post-treatment follow-up exams, whenever available, were also reviewed for correlation neuroendocrine cancer review imaging findings with the clinical progression according to the type of neoplasia neuroendocrine cancer review at the anatomopatho-logical study. (
  • The investigators hypothesize that initial DS3 scores will be predictive of both disease progression and patterns of response including imiglucerase dose sensitivity and completeness and maintenance of response and that sequential DS3 scores will accurately portray either clinical progression of disease or improvement in response to treatment. (
  • There have been few well-designed studies that comprehensively annotate phenotypic variation over time or measure treatment efficacy and dose response. (
  • In part, this is attributable to lack of a validated disease severity scoring system for GD1 to standardize the monitoring of progression and treatment response and to define patient cohorts in clinical studies. (
  • Thyroid surgery has a special place in the treatment of multiple thyroid pathologies . (
  • The purpose of this study was to determine the protective effects of chronic caffeine treatment on late-phase long-term potentiation (L-LTP) and its signalling cascade in the DG area of the hippocampus of rapid eye movement sleep-deprived rats. (
  • This retrospective study demonstrates that this treatment approach may be of some clinical benefit, and is generally well tolerated. (
  • For the purposes of this study, specialist treatment was defined as the therapy implemented following confirmation of MCC. (
  • Neuropathological studies demonstrate significant damage in brain regions outside the nigral dopamine (DA) system, including early degeneration of locus coeruleus norepinephrine (LC-NE) neurons, yet discussion of PD and treatment focus has remained dopaminergic-based. (
  • After funding for treatment was lost, the study was continued without informing the men they would never be treated. (
  • Although Clark is usually assigned blame for conceiving the Tuskegee Study, Dr. Thomas Parran Jr. is equally, if not more deserving of originating the notion of a non-treatment experiment in Macon County, Alabama. (
  • Among his conclusions was the recommendation that, "If one wished to study the natural history of syphilis in the Negro race uninfluenced by treatment, this county (Macon) would be an ideal location for such a study. (
  • and Department of Pathology (Lifei Liu), The 180th Hospital of the People's Liberation Army, Quanzhou, China. (
  • The department has set goals of imparting best teaching in Veterinary Pathology. (
  • The November case was identified by the hospital's medical imaging department after carrying out a retrospective study on about 2,500 chest scans performed between November 1 and April 30. (
  • The patients and their HLH-like symptoms initially were identified through the Michigan Hospital Department of Pathology Database by study collaborator Paul Harms, MD, and his team at the Michigan Center for Translational Pathology, University of Michigan Medical School. (
  • A descriptive retrospective study that took place in the ENT Department and Cervicofacial Surgery of Gabriel TOURE University Hospital of Bamako. (
  • Study of In Vivo Glucose Metabolism in High-fat Diet-fed Mice Using Oral Glucose Tolerance Test (OGTT) and Insulin Tolerance Test (ITT) Csörsz Nagy 1 , Elisa Einwallner 1 1 Department of Laboratory Medicine, Medical University of Vienna The current article describes the generation and metabolic characterization of high-fat diet-fed mice as a model of diet-induced insulin resistance and obesity. (
  • In this study, we retrospectively reviewed all 85 MGS cases diagnosed in the Department of Ophthalmology, Xinhua Hospital, Shanghai, China from November 2009 to November 2012. (
  • A retrospective study was performed at the pathology department of a referral hospital in Muscat, Oman, over a 5-year period. (
  • Patients We retrospectively studied 60 patients with ADEM who were older than 15 years with no history suggestive of an inflammatory event who presented to MS centers from January 1, 1995, through December 31, 2005. (
  • Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (
  • According to the Centers for Disease Control, the men were told they were being treated for "bad blood", a colloquialism that described various conditions such as syphilis, anemia, and fatigue. (
  • The aim of the study was to make a phenotypic description of the Spanish multicentre glaucoma group cohort of patients. (
  • Fenelon G, Mahieux F, Huon R, Ziegler M (2000) Hallucinations in Parkinson's disease: prevalence, phenomenology and risk factors. (
  • Little is known about the factors that affect progression of AS. (
  • Education has been correlated with heart disease, but the exact mechanisms underlying this relationship are still unclear and could be due to both education and heart disease sharing common causes such as parental socioeconomic status and genetic factors. (
  • The researchers evaluated a natural experiment, using the variation in U.S. state education policies (compulsory school laws) to estimate the population-level effects of education on heart disease and its risk factors. (
  • This study provides additional evidence of the effects of education policies on CVD in the U.S. and highlights the importance of cross-sectoral interventions to address social factors like education to improve overall health. (
  • As there is generally a long-term retrospective history, it may be difficult to determine the exact role of such factors in the pathogenesis. (
  • 5 Another retrospective study, examining how dietary habits play a role as risk factors for Crohn's, found that participants who were diagnosed with CD had a significantly higher intake of refined carbohydrate and starch. (
  • Canadians of lower socioeconomic status at greatest risk The prevalence of heart disease and certain key risk factors - hypertension, diabetes, and obesity - are increasing in all age groups and most income groups in Canada found a new study published in CMAJ (Canadian Medical Association Journal) ( (
  • Vitamin D deficiency is one of the most relevant nutritional factors in terms of bone pathology. (
  • A population-based case-control study on the association between prostate cancer and dietary factors was conducted from January 2015 to December 2016 in a single institution of the municipality of Catania, southern Italy (Registration number: 41/2015). (
  • Although researchers have found many correlations of essential elements to diseases, metabolic disorders, environmental exposures, and nutritional status, opponents of the concept of hair analysis object that hair samples are unreliable due to the influence of external factors. (
  • Further study in genetically susceptible individuals, and in early stages of sporadic PD, is warranted to develop hypotheses on the progression of cognitive function in PD and design interventional strategies to treat unmet needs in these patients. (
  • Cincinnati/Birmingham, Ala. - A group of people with fatal H1N1 flu died after their viral infections triggered a deadly hyperinflammatory disorder in susceptible individuals with gene mutations linked to the overactive immune response, according to a study in The Journal of Infectious Diseases . (
  • The Journal of infectious diseases. (
  • Clinical infectious diseases : an official publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America. (
  • Neutrophils have been extensively described in the pathophysiology of autoimmune and infectious diseases. (
  • In addition, data from epidemiologic studies conducted during the 2009 influenza A (H1N1) pandemic indicated that the risk for influenza complications was also increased among persons who are morbidly obese (body-mass index [BMI] ≥40) and American Indians/Alaska Natives ( 5 --8). (
  • Braak H, Rub U, Del Tredici K (2006) Cognitive decline correlates with neuropathological stage in Parkinson's disease. (
  • Hely MA, Morris JG, Rail D, Reid WG, O'Sullivan DJ, Williamson PM, Genge S, Broe GA (1989) The Sydney Multicentre Study of Parkinson's disease: a report on the first 3 years. (
  • Midsagittal T1-weighted MRI of a total of 419 subjects (125 Parkinson's disease (PD), 98 progressive supranuclear palsy (PSP), and 54 multiple system atrophy with predominant parkinsonian features (MSA-P) patients, and 142 normal subjects) between January 2012 and April 2016 was retrospectively assessed. (
  • Parkinson's disease (PD) is the second most common neurodegenerative disorder, affecting 1% of the population over age 60. (
  • Previous studies evaluating natural history of progression of AS shown that on average the rate of progression of Peak velocity across aortic valve is 0.24 m/s/year (m/s/yr). (
  • This study provides the most valid direct estimates yet available of the rate of progression from CIN3 to invasive cancer. (
  • Pubmed ID: 19168899 To investigate the potential role of optical density ratios (ODRs) obtained from subretinal fluid analysis in exudative macular disease and to identify the predictive role of ODRs under therapy in comparison to conventional morphometric measurements (CMMs). (
  • In vivo xenograft studies using bladder cancer cell line models show that PIM kinase inhibition can reduce the tumor growth of these tumor models suggesting that PIM kinase inhibitors may be active in human urothelial carcinomas. (
  • A study in Canada in collaboration with scientists from the United Kingdom tested the accuracy of a cervical cancer test based on epigenetics. (
  • At the diagnostic for the new anal AIN3 Units care involved in the study are those involved in the follow-up of patients with anal pathologies en France, especially anal cancer. (
  • MD Anderson has a long history of discovery in this field of rare ovarian cancer -- publishing a study in 2004 that changed the way serous carcinomas were graded and thereby identifying LGSC. (
  • The study was supported by the Sara Brown Musselman Fund for Serous Ovarian Cancer Research and the MD Anderson Cancer Center Support Grant from the National Cancer Institute (No. P30 CA016672). (
  • Obesity has increased markedly over the past two decades and while numerous epidemiological studies have established a significant association between obesity and cancer, with obesity estimated to account for up to 20% of cancer deaths, the underlying mechanisms remain unclear. (
  • The aim of this research project is to study adipose tissue from patients undergoing resective surgery for oesophageal and colorectal cancer, to investigate the mechanisms where obesity may contribute to the development and progression of these malignancies. (
  • In a prospective study, subpopulations of immune cells, including T cells, in freshly digested, resected subcutaneous and omental adipose tissue are being characterised and analysed in order to determine how obesity status and cancer can affect innate and adaptive immune cells. (
  • It is hoped that potential immuno-therapeutic targets will be identified which could prevent or slow the progression of a number of obesity-associated pathologies including cancer. (
  • Childhood, adolescents, and young adults (≤25 y) colorectal cancer: study of Anatolian Society of Medical Oncology. (
  • Distinct features of colorectal cancer in children and adolescents: a population-based study of 159 cases. (
  • Gastric cancer is therefore a highly preventable disease. (
  • One of the major tools to evaluate this type neuroendocrine cancer review pathology is the neuroendocrine markers as chromogranin A, serotonin, urinary 5-hydroxy indolacetic acid, and neuron specific enolase. (
  • Clinical data was obtained after review neuroendocrine cancer review the patients' records and imaging studies retrieved from the electronic file system of the authors' institution. (
  • The first project is a GWAS based on the newly-established Asia Breast Cancer Consortium and will include over 27,000 cases and controls recruited from 11 studies conducted among Asian women living in various parts of the world. (
  • These two newly-proposed projects will be built upon several well- conducted, NCI-funded studies to generate substantial novel information that will help to not only understand breast cancer biology and genetics, but also to improve risk assessment models and identify high-risk women for cost-efficient prevention of breast cancer. (
  • To determine the effects on breast cancer risk of the 6A polymorphism of the transforming growth factor beta type I receptor (T(3R-I). We will also study how expression levels of the TpR-l, and its principal substrate Smad2, affect breast cancer risk in women with proliferative breast lesions. (
  • These studies will explore potential influences on breast cancer risk of ER-mediated cell proliferation or the generation of oxidative estrogen metabolites that may damage DNA. (
  • The pathologies that received immunotherapy were the following: melanoma and lung cancer. (
  • what is the risk of progression from HGD to invasive cancer? (
  • Progression from HGD to invasive cancer is common, albeit not universal. (
  • Accumulating evidence also suggests the important role of neutrophils in cancer progression through their interaction with cancer and immune cells in blood and in the tumor microenvironment (TME). (
  • Most studies have described neutrophils as key drivers of cancer progression, due to their involvement in various tumor promoting functions including proliferation, aggressiveness, and dissemination, as well as in immune suppression. (
  • Materiales y Métodos: Se realizó un análisis retrospectivo en el Hospital Clínic de Barcelona entre enero de 2002 y mayo de 2016. (
  • Prevalence and incidence of IBD is steadily increasing in all areas of the world, and some claim that it has become a global disease. (
  • 2 ] A study based on Surveillance, Epidemiology and End Results (SEER) registry data found that the age-adjusted yearly incidence of GIST in the United States was 6.8 per million from 1992 to 2000. (
  • CONCLUSIONS: Our study found some differences concerning the risk of evolution to clinically definite MS after a first demyelinating episode suggestive of ADEM. (
  • CONCLUSIONS: Results of this study of multiple vascular beds indicated that different vascular locations exhibited varying progression of atherosclerosis and remodeling as monitored by CMR. (
  • The purpose of this study was to observe the natural progression of untreated syphilis in rural African-American men in Alabama under the guise of receiving free health care from the United States government. (
  • The purpose of this study was to examine arterial remodeling and progression/regression of atherosclerosis in aorta and carotid arteries of individuals at risk for atherosclerosis normalized over a 1-year period. (
  • 3 Previous studies have shown that reducing consumption of fructose and lactose by omitting fermentable carbohydrates from the diet can reduce abdominal symptoms. (
  • 3 Other studies have linked abdominal symptoms and pain to dairy and grains, especially wheat and rye, as well as to excess fiber intake. (
  • 6 Because of the potential role of dietary habits in the development, progression, and maintenance of CD symptoms and pathology, there may be benefit in treating CD patients with a dietary intervention. (
  • Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis is a neurodegenerative disease characterized clinically by motor symptoms including limb weakness, dysarthria, dysphagia, and respiratory compromise, and pathologically by inclusions of transactive response DNA-binding protein 43 kDa (TDP-43). (
  • Patients with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis also may demonstrate non-motor symptoms and signs of autonomic and energy dysfunction as hypermetabolism and weight loss that suggest the possibility of pathology in the forebrain, including hypothalamus. (
  • In fact, symptoms of tenosynovitis may occur before those of intra-articular disease. (
  • Finally the third study describes the performance of a novel PET imaging ligand in predicting symptoms of CTE in traumatic brain injury and distinguishing CTE patients from controls. (
  • The rate and extent of disease progression are variable and often independent of the age at which symptoms are first reported1. (
  • El ultrasonido y la tomografía axial computarizada informaron líquido libre en cavidad con cifras de hemoglobina en 6,4 g/L. La punción abdominal constató sangre roja que no coagulaba. (
  • A recent study showed that abdominal obesity rather than body mass index (BMI) or general overweight is associated with oesophageal adenocarcinoma. (
  • In future studies, Dr. Chan and colleagues plan to use this murine model "to evaluate [other] therapies that might delay the development of AMD. (
  • With the participation of an international consortium of investigators, the investigators will evaluate the validity of a new severity score system called DS3 for adult patients with Gaucher disease. (
  • The investigators will also collect DNA specimens that in future research will be used in conjunction with the DS3 scores to evaluate determinants of the clinical course and the response to treatments for Gaucher disease. (
  • The primary purpose of this study was to evaluate the public understanding of and attitudes toward epilepsy among the Chinese population in Malaysia. (
  • BACKGROUND: As third molar surgery is the most commonly procedure performed in Dentistry and has been accompanied by serious postoperative disorders such as pain, edema and trismus, the study aimed to evaluate if ultrasound device would be able to reduce such postoperative features. (