Insect Vectors: Insects that transmit infective organisms from one host to another or from an inanimate reservoir to an animate host.Insects: The class Insecta, in the phylum ARTHROPODA, whose members are characterized by division into three parts: head, thorax, and abdomen. They are the dominant group of animals on earth; several hundred thousand different kinds having been described. Three orders, HEMIPTERA; DIPTERA; and SIPHONAPTERA; are of medical interest in that they cause disease in humans and animals. (From Borror et al., An Introduction to the Study of Insects, 4th ed, p1)Hemiptera: A large order of insects characterized by having the mouth parts adapted to piercing or sucking. It is comprised of four suborders: HETEROPTERA, Auchenorrhyncha, Sternorrhyncha, and Coleorrhyncha.Genetic Vectors: DNA molecules capable of autonomous replication within a host cell and into which other DNA sequences can be inserted and thus amplified. Many are derived from PLASMIDS; BACTERIOPHAGES; or VIRUSES. They are used for transporting foreign genes into recipient cells. Genetic vectors possess a functional replicator site and contain GENETIC MARKERS to facilitate their selective recognition.Phytoplasma: A genus of minute bacteria in the family ACHOLEPLASMATACEAE that inhabit phloem sieve elements of infected PLANTS and cause symptoms such as yellowing, phyllody, and witches' brooms. Organisms lack a CELL WALL and thus are similar to MYCOPLASMA in animals. They are transmitted by over 100 species of INSECTS especially leafhoppers, planthoppers, and PSYLLIDS.Insect Proteins: Proteins found in any species of insect.Plant Diseases: Diseases of plants.Reoviridae: A family of unenveloped RNA viruses with cubic symmetry. The twelve genera include ORTHOREOVIRUS; ORBIVIRUS; COLTIVIRUS; ROTAVIRUS; Aquareovirus, Cypovirus, Phytoreovirus, Fijivirus, Seadornavirus, Idnoreovirus, Mycoreovirus, and Oryzavirus.Insect Control: The reduction or regulation of the population of noxious, destructive, or dangerous insects through chemical, biological, or other means.Disease Vectors: Invertebrates or non-human vertebrates which transmit infective organisms from one host to another.Ceratopogonidae: A family of biting midges, in the order DIPTERA. It includes the genus Culicoides which transmits filarial parasites pathogenic to man and other primates.Luteoviridae: A family of RNA plant viruses infecting disparate plant families. They are transmitted by specific aphid vectors. There are three genera: LUTEOVIRUS; Polerovirus; and Enamovirus.Tenuivirus: A genus of RNA plant viruses as yet unassigned to any family. Plant hosts are all in the family Poaceae. Each species is transmitted by a particular species of planthopper. The type species is Rice stripe virus.Rhodnius: A genus of the subfamily TRIATOMINAE. Rhodnius prolixus is a vector for TRYPANOSOMA CRUZI.Trypanosoma cruzi: The agent of South American trypanosomiasis or CHAGAS DISEASE. Its vertebrate hosts are man and various domestic and wild animals. Insects of several species are vectors.Vinca: A plant genus of the family APOCYNACEAE. Vinca rosea has been changed to CATHARANTHUS roseus.Spiroplasma citri: The type species of gram-negative bacteria in the genus SPIROPLASMA, family SPIROPLASMATACEAE, causing citrus stubborn disease.Triatominae: A subfamily of assassin bugs (REDUVIIDAE) that are obligate blood-suckers of vertebrates. Included are the genera TRIATOMA; RHODNIUS; and PANSTRONGYLUS, which are vectors of TRYPANOSOMA CRUZI, the agent of CHAGAS DISEASE in humans.Xylella: A genus of gram-negative, aerobic bacteria, in the family XANTHOMONADACEAE. It is found in the xylem of plant tissue.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Plant Viruses: Viruses parasitic on plants higher than bacteria.Host-Parasite Interactions: The relationship between an invertebrate and another organism (the host), one of which lives at the expense of the other. Traditionally excluded from definition of parasites are pathogenic BACTERIA; FUNGI; VIRUSES; and PLANTS; though they may live parasitically.Psychodidae: Small, hairy, moth-like flies which are of considerable public health importance as vectors of certain pathogenic organisms. Important disease-related genera are PHLEBOTOMUS, Lutzomyia, and Sergentomyia.Triatoma: A genus of the subfamily TRIATOMINAE. Several species are vectors of TRYPANOSOMA CRUZI.Aphids: A family (Aphididae) of small insects, in the suborder Sternorrhyncha, that suck the juices of plants. Important genera include Schizaphis and Myzus. The latter is known to carry more than 100 virus diseases between plants.Chagas Disease: Infection with the protozoan parasite TRYPANOSOMA CRUZI, a form of TRYPANOSOMIASIS endemic in Central and South America. It is named after the Brazilian physician Carlos Chagas, who discovered the parasite. Infection by the parasite (positive serologic result only) is distinguished from the clinical manifestations that develop years later, such as destruction of PARASYMPATHETIC GANGLIA; CHAGAS CARDIOMYOPATHY; and dysfunction of the ESOPHAGUS or COLON.Host-Pathogen Interactions: The interactions between a host and a pathogen, usually resulting in disease.Tospovirus: A genus of plant viruses in the family BUNYAVIRIDAE. Tomato spotted wilt virus is the type species. Transmission occurs by at least nine species of thrips.Tsetse Flies: Bloodsucking flies of the genus Glossina, found primarily in equatorial Africa. Several species are intermediate hosts of trypanosomes.Aedes: A genus of mosquitoes (CULICIDAE) frequently found in tropical and subtropical regions. YELLOW FEVER and DENGUE are two of the diseases that can be transmitted by species of this genus.Trypanosomatina: A suborder of monoflagellate parasitic protozoa that lives in the blood and tissues of man and animals. Representative genera include: Blastocrithidia, Leptomonas, CRITHIDIA, Herpetomonas, LEISHMANIA, Phytomonas, and TRYPANOSOMA. Species of this suborder may exist in two or more morphologic stages formerly named after genera exemplifying these forms - amastigote (LEISHMANIA), choanomastigote (CRITHIDIA), promastigote (Leptomonas), opisthomastigote (Herpetomonas), epimastigote (Blastocrithidia), and trypomastigote (TRYPANOSOMA).Pest Control, Biological: Use of naturally-occuring or genetically-engineered organisms to reduce or eliminate populations of pests.Trypanosoma: A genus of flagellate protozoans found in the blood and lymph of vertebrates and invertebrates, both hosts being required to complete the life cycle.Trypanosoma brucei brucei: A hemoflagellate subspecies of parasitic protozoa that causes nagana in domestic and game animals in Africa. It apparently does not infect humans. It is transmitted by bites of tsetse flies (Glossina).Oryza sativa: Annual cereal grass of the family POACEAE and its edible starchy grain, rice, which is the staple food of roughly one-half of the world's population.Base Sequence: The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.Phylogeny: The relationships of groups of organisms as reflected by their genetic makeup.Begomovirus: A genus of plant viruses in the family GEMINIVIRIDAE that are transmitted in nature by whitefly Bemisia tabaci.Insect Viruses: Viruses infecting insects, the largest family being BACULOVIRIDAE.Anopheles: A genus of mosquitoes (CULICIDAE) that are known vectors of MALARIA.Life Cycle Stages: The continuous sequence of changes undergone by living organisms during the post-embryonic developmental process, such as metamorphosis in insects and amphibians. This includes the developmental stages of apicomplexans such as the malarial parasite, PLASMODIUM FALCIPARUM.Salivary Glands: Glands that secrete SALIVA in the MOUTH. There are three pairs of salivary glands (PAROTID GLAND; SUBLINGUAL GLAND; SUBMANDIBULAR GLAND).Sequence Analysis, DNA: A multistage process that includes cloning, physical mapping, subcloning, determination of the DNA SEQUENCE, and information analysis.Amino Acid Sequence: The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.Vitis: A plant genus in the family VITACEAE, order Rhamnales, subclass Rosidae. It is a woody vine cultivated worldwide. It is best known for grapes, the edible fruit and used to make WINE and raisins.Genes, Insect: The functional hereditary units of INSECTS.Symbiosis: The relationship between two different species of organisms that are interdependent; each gains benefits from the other or a relationship between different species where both of the organisms in question benefit from the presence of the other.Moths: Insects of the suborder Heterocera of the order LEPIDOPTERA.Leishmania: A genus of flagellate protozoa comprising several species that are pathogenic for humans. Organisms of this genus have an amastigote and a promastigote stage in their life cycles. As a result of enzymatic studies this single genus has been divided into two subgenera: Leishmania leishmania and Leishmania viannia. Species within the Leishmania leishmania subgenus include: L. aethiopica, L. arabica, L. donovani, L. enrietti, L. gerbilli, L. hertigi, L. infantum, L. major, L. mexicana, and L. tropica. The following species are those that compose the Leishmania viannia subgenus: L. braziliensis, L. guyanensis, L. lainsoni, L. naiffi, and L. shawi.Leishmania mexicana: A parasitic hemoflagellate of the subgenus Leishmania leishmania that infects man and animals including rodents. The Leishmania mexicana complex causes both cutaneous (LEISHMANIASIS, CUTANEOUS) and diffuse cutaneous leishmaniasis (LEISHMANIASIS, DIFFUSE CUTANEOUS) and includes the subspecies amazonensis, garnhami, mexicana, pifanoi, and venezuelensis. L. m. mexicana causes chiclero ulcer, a form of cutaneous leishmaniasis (LEISHMANIASIS, CUTANEOUS) in the New World. The sandfly, Lutzomyia, appears to be the vector.Protozoan Proteins: Proteins found in any species of protozoan.Genes, Protozoan: The functional hereditary units of protozoa.Polymerase Chain Reaction: In vitro method for producing large amounts of specific DNA or RNA fragments of defined length and sequence from small amounts of short oligonucleotide flanking sequences (primers). The essential steps include thermal denaturation of the double-stranded target molecules, annealing of the primers to their complementary sequences, and extension of the annealed primers by enzymatic synthesis with DNA polymerase. The reaction is efficient, specific, and extremely sensitive. Uses for the reaction include disease diagnosis, detection of difficult-to-isolate pathogens, mutation analysis, genetic testing, DNA sequencing, and analyzing evolutionary relationships.Leishmania donovani: A parasitic hemoflagellate of the subgenus Leishmania leishmania that infects man and animals and causes visceral leishmaniasis (LEISHMANIASIS, VISCERAL). The sandfly genera Phlebotomus and Lutzomyia are the vectors.Larva: Wormlike or grublike stage, following the egg in the life cycle of insects, worms, and other metamorphosing animals.Spodoptera: A genus of owlet moths of the family Noctuidae. These insects are used in molecular biology studies during all stages of their life cycle.Baculoviridae: Family of INSECT VIRUSES containing two subfamilies: Eubaculovirinae (occluded baculoviruses) and Nudibaculovirinae (nonoccluded baculoviruses). The Eubaculovirinae, which contain polyhedron-shaped inclusion bodies, have two genera: NUCLEOPOLYHEDROVIRUS and GRANULOVIRUS. Baculovirus vectors are used for expression of foreign genes in insects.Insect Repellents: Substances causing insects to turn away from them or reject them as food.Lepidoptera: A large order of insects comprising the butterflies and moths.Insect Hormones: Hormones secreted by insects. They influence their growth and development. Also synthetic substances that act like insect hormones.Genome, Insect: The genetic complement of an insect (INSECTS) as represented in its DNA.Gene Transfer Techniques: The introduction of functional (usually cloned) GENES into cells. A variety of techniques and naturally occurring processes are used for the gene transfer such as cell hybridization, LIPOSOMES or microcell-mediated gene transfer, ELECTROPORATION, chromosome-mediated gene transfer, TRANSFECTION, and GENETIC TRANSDUCTION. Gene transfer may result in genetically transformed cells and individual organisms.Beetles: INSECTS of the order Coleoptera, containing over 350,000 species in 150 families. They possess hard bodies and their mouthparts are adapted for chewing.Transduction, Genetic: The transfer of bacterial DNA by phages from an infected bacterium to another bacterium. This also refers to the transfer of genes into eukaryotic cells by viruses. This naturally occurring process is routinely employed as a GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUE.Arthropod Vectors: Arthropods, other than insects and arachnids, which transmit infective organisms from one host to another or from an inanimate reservoir to an animate host.Insect Bites and Stings: Bites and stings inflicted by insects.Cloning, Molecular: The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.Diptera: An order of the class Insecta. Wings, when present, number two and distinguish Diptera from other so-called flies, while the halteres, or reduced hindwings, separate Diptera from other insects with one pair of wings. The order includes the families Calliphoridae, Oestridae, Phoridae, SARCOPHAGIDAE, Scatophagidae, Sciaridae, SIMULIIDAE, Tabanidae, Therevidae, Trypetidae, CERATOPOGONIDAE; CHIRONOMIDAE; CULICIDAE; DROSOPHILIDAE; GLOSSINIDAE; MUSCIDAE; TEPHRITIDAE; and PSYCHODIDAE. The larval form of Diptera species are called maggots (see LARVA).Adenoviridae: A family of non-enveloped viruses infecting mammals (MASTADENOVIRUS) and birds (AVIADENOVIRUS) or both (ATADENOVIRUS). Infections may be asymptomatic or result in a variety of diseases.Cell Line: Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.Hemolymph: The blood/lymphlike nutrient fluid of some invertebrates.Dependovirus: A genus of the family PARVOVIRIDAE, subfamily PARVOVIRINAE, which are dependent on a coinfection with helper adenoviruses or herpesviruses for their efficient replication. The type species is Adeno-associated virus 2.Bacterial Proteins: Proteins found in any species of bacterium.Lentivirus: A genus of the family RETROVIRIDAE consisting of non-oncogenic retroviruses that produce multi-organ diseases characterized by long incubation periods and persistent infection. Lentiviruses are unique in that they contain open reading frames (ORFs) between the pol and env genes and in the 3' env region. Five serogroups are recognized, reflecting the mammalian hosts with which they are associated. HIV-1 is the type species.Virulence: The degree of pathogenicity within a group or species of microorganisms or viruses as indicated by case fatality rates and/or the ability of the organism to invade the tissues of the host. The pathogenic capacity of an organism is determined by its VIRULENCE FACTORS.Insecticides: Pesticides designed to control insects that are harmful to man. The insects may be directly harmful, as those acting as disease vectors, or indirectly harmful, as destroyers of crops, food products, or textile fabrics.Transgenes: Genes that are introduced into an organism using GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUES.Cockroaches: Insects of the order Dictyoptera comprising several families including Blaberidae, BLATTELLIDAE, Blattidae (containing the American cockroach PERIPLANETA americana), Cryptocercidae, and Polyphagidae.Grasshoppers: Plant-eating orthopterans having hindlegs adapted for jumping. There are two main families: Acrididae and Romaleidae. Some of the more common genera are: Melanoplus, the most common grasshopper; Conocephalus, the eastern meadow grasshopper; and Pterophylla, the true katydid.Gene Expression: The phenotypic manifestation of a gene or genes by the processes of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION and GENETIC TRANSLATION.Species Specificity: The restriction of a characteristic behavior, anatomical structure or physical system, such as immune response; metabolic response, or gene or gene variant to the members of one species. It refers to that property which differentiates one species from another but it is also used for phylogenetic levels higher or lower than the species.Recombinant Proteins: Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.Bees: Insect members of the superfamily Apoidea, found almost everywhere, particularly on flowers. About 3500 species occur in North America. They differ from most WASPS in that their young are fed honey and pollen rather than animal food.Heteroptera: A suborder of HEMIPTERA, called true bugs, characterized by the possession of two pairs of wings. It includes the medically important families CIMICIDAE and REDUVIIDAE. (From Dorland, 28th ed)Tenebrio: A genus of beetles which infests grain products. Its larva is called mealworm.Support Vector Machines: Learning algorithms which are a set of related supervised computer learning methods that analyze data and recognize patterns, and used for classification and regression analysis.Transfection: The uptake of naked or purified DNA by CELLS, usually meaning the process as it occurs in eukaryotic cells. It is analogous to bacterial transformation (TRANSFORMATION, BACTERIAL) and both are routinely employed in GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUES.Immunity, Innate: The capacity of a normal organism to remain unaffected by microorganisms and their toxins. It results from the presence of naturally occurring ANTI-INFECTIVE AGENTS, constitutional factors such as BODY TEMPERATURE and immediate acting immune cells such as NATURAL KILLER CELLS.Bacteria: One of the three domains of life (the others being Eukarya and ARCHAEA), also called Eubacteria. They are unicellular prokaryotic microorganisms which generally possess rigid cell walls, multiply by cell division, and exhibit three principal forms: round or coccal, rodlike or bacillary, and spiral or spirochetal. Bacteria can be classified by their response to OXYGEN: aerobic, anaerobic, or facultatively anaerobic; by the mode by which they obtain their energy: chemotrophy (via chemical reaction) or PHOTOTROPHY (via light reaction); for chemotrophs by their source of chemical energy: CHEMOLITHOTROPHY (from inorganic compounds) or chemoorganotrophy (from organic compounds); and by their source for CARBON; NITROGEN; etc.; HETEROTROPHY (from organic sources) or AUTOTROPHY (from CARBON DIOXIDE). They can also be classified by whether or not they stain (based on the structure of their CELL WALLS) with CRYSTAL VIOLET dye: gram-negative or gram-positive.Culicidae: A family of the order DIPTERA that comprises the mosquitoes. The larval stages are aquatic, and the adults can be recognized by the characteristic WINGS, ANIMAL venation, the scales along the wing veins, and the long proboscis. Many species are of particular medical importance.Escherichia coli: A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria (GRAM-NEGATIVE FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC RODS) commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. It is usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce DIARRHEA and pyogenic infections. Pathogenic strains (virotypes) are classified by their specific pathogenic mechanisms such as toxins (ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI), etc.Flight, Animal: The use of wings or wing-like appendages to remain aloft and move through the air.Wasps: Any of numerous winged hymenopterous insects of social as well as solitary habits and having formidable stings.Tribolium: A genus of small beetles of the family Tenebrionidae; T. confusum is the "confused flour beetle".DNA, Bacterial: Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of bacteria.Green Fluorescent Proteins: Protein analogs and derivatives of the Aequorea victoria green fluorescent protein that emit light (FLUORESCENCE) when excited with ULTRAVIOLET RAYS. They are used in REPORTER GENES in doing GENETIC TECHNIQUES. Numerous mutants have been made to emit other colors or be sensitive to pH.Periplaneta: A genus in the family Blattidae containing several species, the most common being P. americana, the American cockroach.Anopheles gambiae: A species of mosquito in the genus Anopheles and the principle vector of MALARIA in Africa.Bombyx: A genus of silkworm MOTHS in the family Bombycidae of the order LEPIDOPTERA. The family contains a single species, Bombyx mori from the Greek for silkworm + mulberry tree (on which it feeds). A native of Asia, it is sometimes reared in this country. It has long been raised for its SILK and after centuries of domestication it probably does not exist in nature. It is used extensively in experimental GENETICS. (From Borror et al., An Introduction to the Study of Insects, 4th ed, p519)Hymenoptera: An extensive order of highly specialized insects including bees, wasps, and ants.Sequence Homology, Amino Acid: The degree of similarity between sequences of amino acids. This information is useful for the analyzing genetic relatedness of proteins and species.Mutation: Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.Virulence Factors: Those components of an organism that determine its capacity to cause disease but are not required for its viability per se. Two classes have been characterized: TOXINS, BIOLOGICAL and surface adhesion molecules that effect the ability of the microorganism to invade and colonize a host. (From Davis et al., Microbiology, 4th ed. p486)Sequence Alignment: The arrangement of two or more amino acid or base sequences from an organism or organisms in such a way as to align areas of the sequences sharing common properties. The degree of relatedness or homology between the sequences is predicted computationally or statistically based on weights assigned to the elements aligned between the sequences. This in turn can serve as a potential indicator of the genetic relatedness between the organisms.Retroviridae: Family of RNA viruses that infects birds and mammals and encodes the enzyme reverse transcriptase. The family contains seven genera: DELTARETROVIRUS; LENTIVIRUS; RETROVIRUSES TYPE B, MAMMALIAN; ALPHARETROVIRUS; GAMMARETROVIRUS; RETROVIRUSES TYPE D; and SPUMAVIRUS. A key feature of retrovirus biology is the synthesis of a DNA copy of the genome which is integrated into cellular DNA. After integration it is sometimes not expressed but maintained in a latent state (PROVIRUSES).DNA Primers: Short sequences (generally about 10 base pairs) of DNA that are complementary to sequences of messenger RNA and allow reverse transcriptases to start copying the adjacent sequences of mRNA. Primers are used extensively in genetic and molecular biology techniques.Genetic Engineering: Directed modification of the gene complement of a living organism by such techniques as altering the DNA, substituting genetic material by means of a virus, transplanting whole nuclei, transplanting cell hybrids, etc.Pupa: An inactive stage between the larval and adult stages in the life cycle of insects.Ants: Insects of the family Formicidae, very common and widespread, probably the most successful of all the insect groups. All ants are social insects, and most colonies contain three castes, queens, males, and workers. Their habits are often very elaborate and a great many studies have been made of ant behavior. Ants produce a number of secretions that function in offense, defense, and communication. (From Borror, et al., An Introduction to the Study of Insects, 4th ed, p676)Ascomycota: A phylum of fungi which have cross-walls or septa in the mycelium. The perfect state is characterized by the formation of a saclike cell (ascus) containing ascospores. Most pathogenic fungi with a known perfect state belong to this phylum.Gryllidae: The family Gryllidae consists of the common house cricket, Acheta domesticus, which is used in neurological and physiological studies. Other genera include Gryllotalpa (mole cricket); Gryllus (field cricket); and Oecanthus (tree cricket).Arachnid Vectors: Members of the class Arachnida, especially SPIDERS; SCORPIONS; MITES; and TICKS; which transmit infective organisms from one host to another or from an inanimate reservoir to an animate host.Photorhabdus: A genus of gram-negative bacteria existing symbiotically with nematodes of the family Heterorhabditidae (see RHABDITOIDEA). These nematodes infect a variety of soil-dwelling insects. Upon entering an insect host, the nematode releases Photorhabdus from its intestinal tract and the bacterium establishes a lethal septicemia in the insect.Feeding Behavior: Behavioral responses or sequences associated with eating including modes of feeding, rhythmic patterns of eating, and time intervals.Evolution, Molecular: The process of cumulative change at the level of DNA; RNA; and PROTEINS, over successive generations.Bacterial Infections: Infections by bacteria, general or unspecified.Promoter Regions, Genetic: DNA sequences which are recognized (directly or indirectly) and bound by a DNA-dependent RNA polymerase during the initiation of transcription. Highly conserved sequences within the promoter include the Pribnow box in bacteria and the TATA BOX in eukaryotes.Fungi: A kingdom of eukaryotic, heterotrophic organisms that live parasitically as saprobes, including MUSHROOMS; YEASTS; smuts, molds, etc. They reproduce either sexually or asexually, and have life cycles that range from simple to complex. Filamentous fungi, commonly known as molds, refer to those that grow as multicellular colonies.Genes, Bacterial: The functional hereditary units of BACTERIA.Nymph: The immature stage in the life cycle of those orders of insects characterized by gradual metamorphosis, in which the young resemble the imago in general form of body, including compound eyes and external wings; also the 8-legged stage of mites and ticks that follows the first moult.Plant Leaves: Expanded structures, usually green, of vascular plants, characteristically consisting of a bladelike expansion attached to a stem, and functioning as the principal organ of photosynthesis and transpiration. (American Heritage Dictionary, 2d ed)Drosophila melanogaster: A species of fruit fly much used in genetics because of the large size of its chromosomes.Biological Evolution: The process of cumulative change over successive generations through which organisms acquire their distinguishing morphological and physiological characteristics.Viruses: Minute infectious agents whose genomes are composed of DNA or RNA, but not both. They are characterized by a lack of independent metabolism and the inability to replicate outside living host cells.Juvenile Hormones: Compounds, either natural or synthetic, which block development of the growing insect.DNA, Complementary: Single-stranded complementary DNA synthesized from an RNA template by the action of RNA-dependent DNA polymerase. cDNA (i.e., complementary DNA, not circular DNA, not C-DNA) is used in a variety of molecular cloning experiments as well as serving as a specific hybridization probe.Beauveria: A mitosporic fungal genus. Teleomorphs are found in the family Clavicipitaceae and include Cordyceps bassiana. The species Beauveria bassiana is a common pathogen of ARTHROPODS and is used in PEST CONTROL.Plants: Multicellular, eukaryotic life forms of kingdom Plantae (sensu lato), comprising the VIRIDIPLANTAE; RHODOPHYTA; and GLAUCOPHYTA; all of which acquired chloroplasts by direct endosymbiosis of CYANOBACTERIA. They are characterized by a mainly photosynthetic mode of nutrition; essentially unlimited growth at localized regions of cell divisions (MERISTEMS); cellulose within cells providing rigidity; the absence of organs of locomotion; absence of nervous and sensory systems; and an alternation of haploid and diploid generations.Herbivory: The act of feeding on plants by animals.Insecticide Resistance: The development by insects of resistance to insecticides.Cells, Cultured: Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.Weevils: BEETLES in the family Curculionidae and the largest family in the order COLEOPTERA. They have a markedly convex shape and many are considered pests.Recombinant Fusion Proteins: Recombinant proteins produced by the GENETIC TRANSLATION of fused genes formed by the combination of NUCLEIC ACID REGULATORY SEQUENCES of one or more genes with the protein coding sequences of one or more genes.Genome, Bacterial: The genetic complement of a BACTERIA as represented in its DNA.Culex: A genus of mosquitoes (CULICIDAE) commonly found in tropical regions. Species of this genus are vectors for ST. LOUIS ENCEPHALITIS as well as many other diseases of man and domestic and wild animals.Arthropods: Members of the phylum Arthropoda, composed of organisms having a hard, jointed exoskeleton and paired jointed legs. It includes the class INSECTS and the subclass ARACHNIDA, many species of which are important medically as parasites or as vectors of organisms capable of causing disease in man.Disease Resistance: The capacity of an organism to defend itself against pathological processes or the agents of those processes. This most often involves innate immunity whereby the organism responds to pathogens in a generic way. The term disease resistance is used most frequently when referring to plants.Mosquito Control: The reduction or regulation of the population of mosquitoes through chemical, biological, or other means.Metarhizium: A mitosporic fungal genus in the family Clavicipitaceae. It has teleomorphs in the family Nectriaceae. Metarhizium anisopliae is used in PESTICIDES.Models, Biological: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Hemocytes: Any blood or formed element especially in invertebrates.Xenorhabdus: A genus of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic rod-shaped cells which are motile by peritrichous flagella. Late in the growth cycle, spheroplasts or coccoid bodies occur, resulting from disintegration of the cell wall. The natural habitat is the intestinal lumen of certain nematodes. (From Bergey's Manual of Determinative Bacteriology, 9th ed)Orthoptera: An order of insects comprising two suborders: Caelifera and Ensifera. They consist of GRASSHOPPERS, locusts, and crickets (GRYLLIDAE).Gene Expression Regulation, Bacterial: Any of the processes by which cytoplasmic or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in bacteria.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Mice, Inbred BALB CGram-Negative Bacteria: Bacteria which lose crystal violet stain but are stained pink when treated by Gram's method.Mice, Inbred C57BLOxylipins: Eighteen-carbon cyclopentyl polyunsaturated fatty acids derived from ALPHA-LINOLENIC ACID via an oxidative pathway analogous to the EICOSANOIDS in animals. Biosynthesis is inhibited by SALICYLATES. A key member, jasmonic acid of PLANTS, plays a similar role to ARACHIDONIC ACID in animals.Houseflies: Flies of the species Musca domestica (family MUSCIDAE), which infest human habitations throughout the world and often act as carriers of pathogenic organisms.Luminescent Proteins: Proteins which are involved in the phenomenon of light emission in living systems. Included are the "enzymatic" and "non-enzymatic" types of system with or without the presence of oxygen or co-factors.Genes, Reporter: Genes whose expression is easily detectable and therefore used to study promoter activity at many positions in a target genome. In recombinant DNA technology, these genes may be attached to a promoter region of interest.Oviposition: The process of laying or shedding fully developed eggs (OVA) from the female body. The term is usually used for certain INSECTS or FISHES with an organ called ovipositor where eggs are stored or deposited before expulsion from the body.Wolbachia: A genus of bacteria comprised of a heterogenous group of gram-negative small rods and coccoid forms associated with arthropods. (From Bergey's Manual of Systematic Bacteriology, vol 1, 1984)Oomycetes: Eukaryotes in the group STRAMENOPILES, formerly considered FUNGI, whose exact taxonomic level is unsettled. Many consider Oomycetes (Oomycota) a phylum in the kingdom Stramenopila, or alternatively, as Pseudofungi in the phylum Heterokonta of the kingdom Chromista. They are morphologically similar to fungi but have no close phylogenetic relationship to them. Oomycetes are found in both fresh and salt water as well as in terrestrial environments. (Alexopoulos et al., Introductory Mycology, 4th ed, pp683-4). They produce flagellated, actively motile spores (zoospores) that are pathogenic to many crop plants and FISHES.Cyclopentanes: A group of alicyclic hydrocarbons with the general formula R-C5H9.Plants, Genetically Modified: PLANTS, or their progeny, whose GENOME has been altered by GENETIC ENGINEERING.Pseudomonas syringae: A species of gram-negative, fluorescent, phytopathogenic bacteria in the genus PSEUDOMONAS. It is differentiated into approximately 50 pathovars with different plant pathogenicities and host specificities.Transformation, Genetic: Change brought about to an organisms genetic composition by unidirectional transfer (TRANSFECTION; TRANSDUCTION, GENETIC; CONJUGATION, GENETIC, etc.) and incorporation of foreign DNA into prokaryotic or eukaryotic cells by recombination of part or all of that DNA into the cell's genome.Gene Expression Regulation: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control (induction or repression) of gene action at the level of transcription or translation.Helper Viruses: Viruses which enable defective viruses to replicate or to form a protein coat by complementing the missing gene function of the defective (satellite) virus. Helper and satellite may be of the same or different genus.beta-Galactosidase: A group of enzymes that catalyzes the hydrolysis of terminal, non-reducing beta-D-galactose residues in beta-galactosides. Deficiency of beta-Galactosidase A1 may cause GANGLIOSIDOSIS, GM1.Ecosystem: A functional system which includes the organisms of a natural community together with their environment. (McGraw Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Molting: Periodic casting off FEATHERS; HAIR; or cuticle. Molting is a process of sloughing or desquamation, especially the shedding of an outer covering and the development of a new one. This phenomenon permits growth in ARTHROPODS, skin renewal in AMPHIBIANS and REPTILES, and the shedding of winter coats in BIRDS and MAMMALS.Fat Body: A nutritional reservoir of fatty tissue found mainly in insects and amphibians.Salicylic Acid: A compound obtained from the bark of the white willow and wintergreen leaves. It has bacteriostatic, fungicidal, and keratolytic actions.Gram-Negative Bacterial Infections: Infections caused by bacteria that show up as pink (negative) when treated by the gram-staining method.RNA, Messenger: RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction: A variation of the PCR technique in which cDNA is made from RNA via reverse transcription. The resultant cDNA is then amplified using standard PCR protocols.Transcription, Genetic: The biosynthesis of RNA carried out on a template of DNA. The biosynthesis of DNA from an RNA template is called REVERSE TRANSCRIPTION.Nucleopolyhedrovirus: A genus of the family BACULOVIRIDAE, subfamily Eubaculovirinae, characterized by the formation of crystalline, polyhedral occlusion bodies in the host cell nucleus. The type species is Autographa californica nucleopolyhedrovirus.Phytophthora: A genus of destructive parasitic OOMYCETES in the family Peronosporaceae, order Peronosporales, affecting numerous fruit, vegetable, and other crops. Differentiation of zoospores usually takes place in the sporangium and no vesicle is formed. It was previously considered a fungus.DEET: A compound used as a topical insect repellent that may cause irritation to eyes and mucous membranes, but not to the skin.Bacillus thuringiensis: A species of gram-positive bacteria which may be pathogenic for certain insects. It is used for the biological control of the Gypsy moth.Signal Transduction: The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.Phenotype: The outward appearance of the individual. It is the product of interactions between genes, and between the GENOTYPE and the environment.Plant Immunity: The inherent or induced capacity of plants to withstand or ward off biological attack by pathogens.Gene Expression Profiling: The determination of the pattern of genes expressed at the level of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION, under specific circumstances or in a specific cell.Gene Deletion: A genetic rearrangement through loss of segments of DNA or RNA, bringing sequences which are normally separated into close proximity. This deletion may be detected using cytogenetic techniques and can also be inferred from the phenotype, indicating a deletion at one specific locus.Blood-Borne Pathogens: Infectious organisms in the BLOOD, of which the predominant medical interest is their contamination of blood-soiled linens, towels, gowns, BANDAGES, other items from individuals in risk categories, NEEDLES and other sharp objects, MEDICAL WASTE and DENTAL WASTE, all of which health workers are exposed to. This concept is differentiated from the clinical conditions of BACTEREMIA; VIREMIA; and FUNGEMIA where the organism is present in the blood of a patient as the result of a natural infectious process.Population Density: Number of individuals in a population relative to space.Genetic Variation: Genotypic differences observed among individuals in a population.Pest Control: The reduction or regulation of the population of noxious, destructive, or dangerous plants, insects, or other animals. This includes control of plants that serve as habitats or food sources for animal pests.Malaria: A protozoan disease caused in humans by four species of the PLASMODIUM genus: PLASMODIUM FALCIPARUM; PLASMODIUM VIVAX; PLASMODIUM OVALE; and PLASMODIUM MALARIAE; and transmitted by the bite of an infected female mosquito of the genus ANOPHELES. Malaria is endemic in parts of Asia, Africa, Central and South America, Oceania, and certain Caribbean islands. It is characterized by extreme exhaustion associated with paroxysms of high FEVER; SWEATING; shaking CHILLS; and ANEMIA. Malaria in ANIMALS is caused by other species of plasmodia.Virus Replication: The process of intracellular viral multiplication, consisting of the synthesis of PROTEINS; NUCLEIC ACIDS; and sometimes LIPIDS, and their assembly into a new infectious particle.Gram-Positive Bacteria: Bacteria which retain the crystal violet stain when treated by Gram's method.RNA Interference: A gene silencing phenomenon whereby specific dsRNAs (RNA, DOUBLE-STRANDED) trigger the degradation of homologous mRNA (RNA, MESSENGER). The specific dsRNAs are processed into SMALL INTERFERING RNA (siRNA) which serves as a guide for cleavage of the homologous mRNA in the RNA-INDUCED SILENCING COMPLEX. DNA METHYLATION may also be triggered during this process.Gene Expression Regulation, Plant: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in plants.Plant Proteins: Proteins found in plants (flowers, herbs, shrubs, trees, etc.). The concept does not include proteins found in vegetables for which VEGETABLE PROTEINS is available.Adenovirus E1 Proteins: The very first viral gene products synthesized after cells are infected with adenovirus. The E1 region of the genome has been divided into two major transcriptional units, E1A and E1B, each expressing proteins of the same name (ADENOVIRUS E1A PROTEINS and ADENOVIRUS E1B PROTEINS).Lycopersicon esculentum: A plant species of the family SOLANACEAE, native of South America, widely cultivated for their edible, fleshy, usually red fruit.Viral Proteins: Proteins found in any species of virus.Population Dynamics: The pattern of any process, or the interrelationship of phenomena, which affects growth or change within a population.Drosophila: A genus of small, two-winged flies containing approximately 900 described species. These organisms are the most extensively studied of all genera from the standpoint of genetics and cytology.Drosophila Proteins: Proteins that originate from insect species belonging to the genus DROSOPHILA. The proteins from the most intensely studied species of Drosophila, DROSOPHILA MELANOGASTER, are the subject of much interest in the area of MORPHOGENESIS and development.Recombination, Genetic: Production of new arrangements of DNA by various mechanisms such as assortment and segregation, CROSSING OVER; GENE CONVERSION; GENETIC TRANSFORMATION; GENETIC CONJUGATION; GENETIC TRANSDUCTION; or mixed infection of viruses.Malpighian Tubules: Slender tubular or hairlike excretory structures found in insects. They emerge from the alimentary canal between the mesenteron (midgut) and the proctodeum (hindgut).Listeria monocytogenes: A species of gram-positive, rod-shaped bacteria widely distributed in nature. It has been isolated from sewage, soil, silage, and from feces of healthy animals and man. Infection with this bacterium leads to encephalitis, meningitis, endocarditis, and abortion.Sf9 Cells: Cell line derived from SF21 CELLS which are a cell line isolated from primary explants of SPODOPTERA FRUGIPERDA pupal tissue.Microbial Sensitivity Tests: Any tests that demonstrate the relative efficacy of different chemotherapeutic agents against specific microorganisms (i.e., bacteria, fungi, viruses).Arabidopsis: A plant genus of the family BRASSICACEAE that contains ARABIDOPSIS PROTEINS and MADS DOMAIN PROTEINS. The species A. thaliana is used for experiments in classical plant genetics as well as molecular genetic studies in plant physiology, biochemistry, and development.
Phytoplasma and Spiroplasma are plant pathogens associated with insect vectors. Whereas formerly the trivial name "mycoplasma" ...
The virus is transmitted via a vector (insects). Transmission routes are vector and mechanical. Agriculture was introduced into ... This introduction also included plant pathogens. Thirty eight potyvirus species have been isolated in Australia. Eighteen ...
"Insect Vectors and Their Pathogens of Maize in the Tropics". Radcliffe's IPM World Textbook. Retrieved 2015-10-18. Hallauer, ... The pathogen itself is a flexuous, rod-shaped virus measuring 12 x 750 nm. There are antiserum kits that can confirm the ... The vector for MDMV transmission is aphids. There are 15 aphid species that can non-persistently transmit MDMV. The aphids are ...
There are no known insect vectors; however, humans can be considered the main vector for this pathogen. This virus is ... Only seeds that have been tested and treated for the pathogen should be planted. The origin of PMMoV has been linked to the ... The Pepper Mild Mottle Virus is the major viral pathogen of peppers (Capsicum spp.). The host range of PMMoV include most ... Symptoms caused by this pathogen vary based on the specific host cultivar; however, a majority of the symptoms are very similar ...
Although bed bugs can be infected with at least 28 human pathogens, no studies have found that the insects are capable of ... Bed bugs are not known to transmit any pathogens as disease vectors. Certain signs and symptoms suggest the presence of bed ... The trichomes on the bean leaves capture the insects by impaling the feet (tarsi) of the insects. The leaves are then destroyed ... and to opaque black within two days as the insect digests its meal. Bed bugs may be mistaken for other insects, such as ...
Pathogen infection transmitted by insect or other arthropod vectors. Diseases carried by insects and other arthropod vectors ... and/or vector disease. Some personal pests of may vector pathogens:Lice, Fleas, Bedbugs, Ticks, Scabies mites The housefly is a ... are the main vectors. Lyme disease - Vectors: several species of the genus Ixodes Alkhurma virus (KFDV) - Vector: tick Kyasanur ... Vector: Ixodes scapularis Rift Valley Fever (RVF) - Vectors: fleas in the genera Aedes and Culex Scrub typhus - Vector: Chigger ...
Plant pathogens can spread rapidly over great distances, vectored by water, wind, insects, and humans. Across large regions and ... Pathogen host range can change quite suddenly if, for example, the pathogen's capacity to synthesize a host-specific toxin or ... Most plant pathogens reprogram host gene expression patterns to directly benefit the pathogen. Reprogrammed genes required for ... Attention must be paid to the specific pathogen isolates, to address variability within a single pathogen species. Selection of ...
... for his work on interactions between insect vectors and plant pathogens. Numerous further awards followed, including the ... Vectors of Plant Pathogens, 1980. Invertebrate Systems in Vitro, 1980. Vectors of Disease Agents, 1981. Mycoplasma Diseases of ... Pathogens, Vectors and Plant Diseases- Approaches to Control, 1982. Subviral Pathogens of Plants and Animals, 1985. Viral ... Aphids as Virus Vector, 1977. Insect and Plant Viruses-An Atlas, 1977. Viruses and Environment, 1978. Invertebrate Tissue ...
Many ectoparasites are known pathogen vectors, so they transmit these pathogens during nutrient acquisition.[15] ... Tsetse flies, the insect vector of Trypanosoma brucei, the causative agent of African trypanosomiasis are an example of an ... Plant Defense: Warding Off Attack by Pathogens, Herbivores and Parasitic Plants (First ed.). John Wiley and Son. 2010.. ... These insects have a specialised structure, a proboscis, that they use to pierce and draw nutrients from their host. These then ...
There is no evidence of the spread of the pathogen through insect vectors or seeds. The propagation of willows vegetatively ... An identifiable sign of the casual pathogen is oozing of Brenneria salicis from wounded, stained wood. The pathogen is capable ... As with most bacterial plant pathogens, the bacteria require a wound or opening such as stomata to enter the plant. Like many ... The presence of the pathogen on foliage during this latent phase does not mean infection, and willows with Brenneria salicis ...
It is a vector of many kinds of animal pathogens. The adult lesser mealworm beetle is roughly 6 millimeters long and widely ... Other insect residents of poultry housing include the housefly (Musca domestica) and its predator, Carcinops pumilio, a clown ... The lesser mealworm beetle is a vector of many pathogens. It spreads more than 30 bird diseases. It transmits animal viruses ... It is a vector for Eimeria, protozoa that cause coccidiosis in birds. It carries fowl tapeworms such as Choanotaenia ...
"Seasonal Development, Insect Vectors, and Host Range of Bacterial Wilt of Sweet Corn." Journal of Agricultural Research 60.10 ( ... Elliott wrote a widely used book, Manual of Bacterial Plant Pathogens, first published in 1930, reissued with revisions in 1951 ... Among her scientifically notable papers is one establishing the role of the flea beetle as a vector in the development of the ... Manual of Bacterial Plant Pathogens (1930) Halo-Blight of Oats (1920) "Helminthosporium-Turcicum Leaf Blight of Corn". ...
After identifying the insect(s) on the body, a time of death can be calculated, however, a forensic entomologist can never ... C. latifrons is also known for being a potential vector for disease. By ovipositing on their food as they feed the flies have ... the ability to transfer various pathogens. Medicocriminal entomology deals with the carrion feeding insects that infest human ... "General insect pests" (PDF). University of Arkansas Division of Agriculture. Retrieved July 27, 2010. J. H. Byrd. "Forensic ...
Invasive plant pathogens and insect vectors for plant diseases can also suppress agricultural yields and nursery stock. Citrus ... Introduced birds (e.g. pigeons), rodents and insects (e.g. mosquito, flea, louse and tsetse fly pests) can serve as vectors and ... Diseases may also be vectored by invasive insects such as the Asian citrus psyllid and the bacterial disease citrus greening. ... An early human vector occurred when prehistoric humans introduced the Pacific rat (Rattus exulans) to Polynesia. Vectors ...
It has not yet been determined if an insect vector for this pathogen exists. Although the dead-arm disease is usually looked ... Pre-existing wounds on the plant from annual pruning or insects allow the pathogen to gain entry into the next plant. However, ... Dead arm of grapevine is caused by an ascomycete fungal plant pathogen. This pathogen produces sexual spores (ascospores) in ... When the pathogen is in the teleomorph stage it is referred to as Cryptosporella viticola and during the anamorph stage is it ...
Another insect vector is the fruit fly (Drosophila melanogaster). The pathogen will often survive in the infected tubers until ... and may also be spread through insects, wind, and rain. An important insect vector is the seed corn maggot (Hylemya platura and ... The bacteria are carried in the intestinal tracts of these insects, which spread the pathogen to healthy tissue by feeding on ... The pathogen P. atrosepticum thrives in moist, cool conditions, typically causing symptoms at temperatures below 25 °C. It is ...
Arthropods are major vectors of human disease, with the pathogens typically transmitted by bites. Black flies (Simuliidae) ... Insect, spider and scorpion venom can cause serious injury or death. Dipterans account for the majority of insect bites, while ... Insect saliva contains anticoagulants and enzymes that cause local irritation and allergic reactions. Insect venoms can be ... Insects in Perspective. Prentice Hall. p. 359. ISBN 978-0-02-304500-4. Identifying insect bites and stings. ...
Beiträge zur Araneologie 3A:633-746 Nagler, C. and J. T. Haug (2015) From Fossil Parasitoids to Vectors: Insects as Parasites ... Black, W.C, IV (2003) Evolution of arthropod disease vectors. In: C.L. Greenblatt and M. Spigelman (eds) Emerging Pathogens: ... Parasites & Vectors 1:22 (8 pp.). Ferreira, L.F., A. Araújo, and A.N. Duarte (1993) Nematode larvae in fossilized animal ... Some examples include helminths caught in amber in the process of escaping from the body of an insect, lice found in the fur of ...
Some are rudimentary, being unprotected from flies and other disease vectors, while others are odorless and insect-free. ... Composting toilets that promise high rates of pathogen destruction are common. The availability of public and school latrines ...
... see also the Alert List Insect Vectors of Plant Pathogens Forest Insect Pest data in Canada since 1990. ... In Britain, John Curtis wrote the influential 1860 treatise Farm Insects, dealing with the insect pests of corn, roots, grass ... The dye extracted from cochineal insects was similarly replaced by technological advances. The idea of insects as human food, ... Insects are considered as pests for a variety of reasons, including their direct damage by feeding on crop plants in the field ...
It is obligately insect vector transmitted from xylem-feeding insects directly into the xylem, but infected plant material for ... If the foregut is shed, as during molting, the vector is no longer infected but may reacquire the pathogen. At present, there ... The bacterium also colonizes the foregut of insect vectors, which can be any xylem-feeding insects, often sharpshooters in ... The bacterium has a two-part life cycle: inside an insect vector, and inside a susceptible plant. While the bacterium has been ...
There are no insect vectors for this disease. This means that using insecticides has no effect on the susceptibility of a ... This pathogen only infects certain cultivars of tomato plants and is often referred to as Alternaria stem canker of tomato. ... There are no insect vectors, so applying insecticides have no effect on a plant's resistance to this disease. Cultural ... Resistance to the pathogen in tomato is inherited as a single gene expressing complete dominance. However, sensitivity to the ...
Insect activity, especially of the bean leaf beetle or other known vectors, can increase the chance of BPMV presence. ( ... All of these symptoms are difficult to differentiate from other viruses or pathogens, so seeing these symptoms does not ... If the virus is present but the insect vector is not, spraying insecticides will not be effective in managing the disease. ... University of Minnesota Extension, 2016) Disease Cycle and Pathogenesis BPMV can be transferred via insect vector such as the ...
Ants as potential vectors of pathogens in hospitals in the state of Sao Paulo, Brazil. Insect Science and its Application 14: ... They have been noted as having the potential to carry pathogens in hospital environments. The pharaoh ant, Monomorium pharaonis ...
"Interactions between a membrane protein of a pathogen and insect microfilament complex determines insect vector specificity". ... Phytoplasmas can overwinter in insect vectors or perennial plants. Phytoplasmas can have varying effects on their insect hosts ... They are transmitted from plant to plant by vectors (normally sap-sucking insects such as leafhoppers) in which they both ... Phytoplasmas are obligate bacterial parasites of plant phloem tissue and of the insect vectors that are involved in their plant ...
"PLOS Pathogens. 3 (5): e75. doi:10.1371/journal.ppat.0030075. PMC 1868956. PMID 17511518.. ... This infection of vectors without a previous blood meal seems to play a role in single, sudden breakouts of the disease.[25] ... Use insect repellent when outdoors such as those containing DEET, picaridin, ethyl butylacetylaminopropionate (IR3535), or oil ... The main vector (A. aegypti) also occurs in tropical and subtropical regions of Asia, the Pacific, and Australia, but yellow ...
... acting as vector for various patho-gens of diseases. The present study was conducted from April 2013 to March 2014 in various ... J Insect Physiol. 53:113-125. Snoddy ET, Appel AG (2008) Distribution of Blattella asahinai (Dictyoptera: Blattelli- dae) in ... J Vector Ecol. 28(1): 90-96. Lutterschmidt WI, Hutchison VH (1997) The critical thermal maximum: history and critique. Canad J ... Proc Inter Coll Social Insects.34: 45-50. Al-Marjani MF, Jafere FN, Abdul Hussain MT, Mezeal EA, Sahtte ZA, Hamza AH, Shanuor ...
The MOOC Medical entomology focuses on the insects and arthropods that impact human health as well as the associated diseases, ... MOOC Medical entomology - Insect vectors and transmission of pathogens. Moustique Aedes, vecteur de maladie comme la dengue. ... HomeEducationNewsMOOC Medical entomology - Insect vectors and transmission of pathogens ... Insect vectors: a mosquito capable of limiting viral infection. *Insecticide resistance genes affect vector competence for West ...
"It is highly unusual for a plant pathogen to cause such a profound response in the insect vector and the insects response may ... Citrus greening disease pathogen has gut-wrenching effect on insect vector Asian citrus psyllid mounts immune response against ... Citrus greening disease pathogen has gut-wrenching effect on insect vector. Boyce Thompson Institute ... citrus-greening-pathogen-has-gut-wrenching-effect-on-insect-vector/. Related Journal Article. http://dx.. doi.. org/. 10.. 1038 ...
Insect vectors transmit a variety of pathogens to a wide range of animal and plant hosts (1). Human vector-borne diseases ... the bacteria and their insect vectors showed that animal pathogens were virulent to their vectors whereas plant pathogens were ... A Plant Bacterial Pathogen Manipulates Its Insect Vectors Energy Metabolism. Nabil Killiny, Faraj Hijaz, Timothy A. Ebert, ... A Plant Bacterial Pathogen Manipulates Its Insect Vectors Energy Metabolism. Nabil Killiny, Faraj Hijaz, Timothy A. Ebert, ...
This article examines the common features of the host-pathogen relationship and of the arthropod vectors of the typhus and ... the arthropod vector is often more important in the natural maintenance of the pathogen. Consequently, coevolution of ... Rickettsial pathogens are highly specialized for obligate intracellular survival in both the vertebrate host and the ... including efficient pathogen replication, long-term maintenance of infection, and transstadial and transovarial transmission. ...
This Network is for anyone who studies the ability of insects to transmit viruses and diseases to plants. ... Note that the Symposium described below has a large section on Transmission of Plant Pathogens by Hemipteran VectorsSecond ... Hemiptera and other piercing-sucking herbivorous insects (e.g., thrips) are serious agricultural pests that negatively… ... One of the sections of this symposium is Hemipteran-Plant Pathogen Interactions. ...
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MOOC: Medical entomology - Insect vectors and transmission of pathogens. The MOOC Medical entomology focuses on the insects and ... Insect vectors: a mosquito capable of limiting viral infection. *Insecticide resistance genes affect vector competence for West ... Insect vectors: a mosquito capable of limiting viral infection. *Insecticide resistance genes affect vector competence for West ... Infravec2 new insect vector research tools: no-cost resources for scientists fighting mosquito-transmitted diseases ...
Plant begomoviruses subvert ubiquitination to suppress plant defenses against insect vectors Ping Li, Chao Liu, Wen-Hao Deng, ... PLOS Pathogens publishes Open Access research and commentary that significantly advance the understanding of pathogens and how ... PLOS Pathogens 2018 Reviewer and Editorial Board Thank You PLOS Pathogens: published February 27, 2019 , https://doi.org/ ... and colonization resistance against pathogens Yael Litvak, Andreas J. Bäumler ...
Results show that different pathogens evolved similar strategies such as manipulation of the immune response to infect vectors ... Results show that different pathogens evolved similar strategies such as manipulation of the immune response to infect vectors ... Therefore, the elucidation of the mechanisms involved in tick-pathogen interactions that affect vector competence is essential ... Vector competence is a component of vectorial capacity and depends on genetic determinants affecting the ability of a vector to ...
We describe the 2.1 Gbp nuclear genome of the tick, Ixodes scapularis (Say), which vectors pathogens that cause Lyme disease, ... Ticks transmit a large number of pathogens that cause human diseases. Here, the authors sequence the genome of the tick Ixodes ... Ticks transmit a large number of pathogens that cause human diseases. Here, the authors sequence the genome of the tick Ixodes ... Ticks transmit more pathogens to humans and animals than any other arthropod. ...
Phytoplasma and Spiroplasma are plant pathogens associated with insect vectors. Whereas formerly the trivial name "mycoplasma" ...
There is no animal or insect vector. Transmission. Transmission of S. pneumoniae occurs as the result of direct person-to- ... S. pneumoniae is a human pathogen. The reservoir for pneumococci is the nasopharynx of asymptomatic humans. ...
15.1 Insects as causes and vectors of disease 398. 15.2 Generalized disease cycles 399 ... 15.3 Pathogens 399. 15.4 Forensic entomology 413. 15.5 Insect nuisance and phobia 414 ... of insects, plus the three orders of non-insect hexapods. New boxes describe a worrying increase in insect threats to landscape ... 17.2 Economically significant insects under climate change 463. 17.3 Implications of climate change for insect biodiversity and ...
Fungal pathogens and insect vectors are inactive. * Exact dates for beginning and end of each time period may vary from year to ... 5) are the primary insect transmitters of C. fagacearum overland from diseased trees to healthy trees in Minnesota. Insect ... Risk of insect spread. Advisory notes. April through mid-July. High. Dont wound, prune or fell oaks in oak wilt counties ... Preventing spread by insects. Avoiding wounding or cutting healthy oaks, particularly during spring and early summer, is ...
... the bacterial pathogen associated with citrus greening disease. Developmental changes in the insect vector impact pathogen ... including insect proteins involved in bacterial adhesion and immunity. Compared with nymphs, adult insects had a higher titre ... protein interaction networks at the host-microbe interface are highly specific targets for controlling the insect vector ... citri immune system and commensal microbiota occur during development and regulate vector competency. In support of this ...
Liberibacter Asiaticus in the Microbiome of Its Insect Vector, , using High Throughput 16S rRNA Sequencing ... Characterization of the Relative Abundance of the Citrus Pathogen Ca. ... Liberibacter Asiaticus in the Microbiome of Its Insect Vector, Diaphorina citri, using High Throughput 16S rRNA Sequencing ... Personal hygiene and proper handling of currencies are encouraged to mitigate the spread of drug-resistant pathogens. ...
Liberibacter Asiaticus in the Microbiome of Its Insect Vector, , using High Throughput 16S rRNA Sequencing ... Characterization of the Relative Abundance of the Citrus Pathogen Ca. ... Liberibacter Asiaticus in the Microbiome of Its Insect Vector, Diaphorina citri, using High Throughput 16S rRNA Sequencing ... Liberibacter asiaticus(Las), and the naturally occurring endosymbiotic community of its insect vector, the Asian citrus psyllid ...
... or protection against pathogens [5, 7, 28-31]. I. hanoiensis was first described in 2003 from insect frass; it has not ... Drosophila melanogaster as a Potential Vector of Pathogens. Drosophila melanogaster can carry opportunistic pathogens of humans ... Differential Microbial Diversity in Drosophila melanogaster: Are Fruit Flies Potential Vectors of Opportunistic Pathogens?. ... Additionally, we investigated whether flies are potential vectors of human and plant pathogens. Eighteen species of fungi and ...
During transmission of most vector-borne diseases, the pathogen is delivered to the vertebrate host along with the arthropod ... the pathogen is delivered to the vertebrate host along with the arthropod saliva during blood feeding and previous studies have ... particularly during immune responses to vector-borne diseases such as malaria, filariasis or dengue virus infection. Here, we ... particularly during immune responses to vector-borne diseases such as malaria, filariasis or dengue virus infection. Here, we ...
Others eat herbivorous insects and could benefit agriculture or medicine. Still others may be vectors for deadly pathogens. ... The habitats that offer mites the most advantages are bodies, whether of mammals, birds, insects, or any other creature larger ... Engineered for survival, insect eggs hang on and hatch wherever their parents deposit them. ...
Bacteria; Bacterial-infections; Bacterial-disease; Microorganisms; Disease-incidence; Disease-vectors; Humans; Insects; ... outdoor workers experience an increased risk of infection with tick-borne pathogens. As part of a double blind randomized- ... Insect-repellents; Insecticides; Genes; Proteins; Antigens; Laboratory-testing; Nucleotides; Public-health ... Outdoors; Forestry; Pathogens; Forestry-workers; Infection-control; Protective-clothing; Protective-coatings; Parasitic- ...
... is unique among the enteric group of Gram-negative bacteria in relying on a blood-feeding insect for transmission. The Yersinia ... Host-Pathogen Interactions * Insect Vectors / microbiology* * Plague / microbiology * Plague / transmission* * Siphonaptera / ... Thus, the interactions of Y. pestis with its flea vector that lead to colonization and successful transmission are the result ... 1 Laboratory of Zoonotic Pathogens, Rocky Mountain Laboratories, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, ...
Control and monitoring of disease-vector insects are critical to global health, as insect vectors spread pathogens among humans ... Citrus greening disease pathogen has gut-wrenching effect on insect vector. The bacterium that causes citrus greening disease ... Blue-bellied insects may play a role in the fight against citrus greening. While searching for a potential Achilles heel in ... Juice plant pathogen could be treated with newly identified antibacterial agent. Theres nothing like a glass of orange juice ...
Autophagy pathway induced by a plant virus facilitates viral spread and transmission by its insect vector Yong Chen, Qian Chen ... PLOS Pathogens publishes Open Access research and commentary that significantly advance the understanding of pathogens and how ... PLOS Pathogens: published November 2, 2017 , https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.ppat.1006624 ... PLOS Pathogens: published November 30, 2017 , https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.ppat.1006642 ...
  • Background: Cockroaches are found as the most common urban pests of tropical countries, prompting economic and serious health risk problem for humans by carrying microbes and allergens, acting as vector for various patho-gens of diseases. (ac.ir)
  • Key features of insect structure, function, behaviour, ecology and classification are integrated with appropriate molecular studies. (wiley.com)
  • The study of beneficial insects is primarily focused on their ecology and life habits, the primary concern being the understanding of how to raise them and make them more productive, or protect them from human disturbance if they are native species such as wild bees . (newworldencyclopedia.org)
  • Forensic entomology specializes in the study of insect ecology for use in the legal system, as knowledge of insect behavior can yield useful information about crimes. (newworldencyclopedia.org)
  • Lance Durden is Professor of Vector Ecology and Curator of the Insect Collection in the Department of Biology at Georgia Southern University, Statesboro, USA. (google.com)
  • The members of the department conduct cutting-edge research on the ecology and biological control of insect pests and nematodes, including their chemical ecology, physiology, and biochemistry, using modern techniques of molecular biology and genomics. (agri.gov.il)
  • Journal of Vector Ecology. (ufl.edu)
  • Malaria, the most important vector-borne disease, causes 1 to 3 million deaths per year ( 2 ). (asm.org)
  • I retired in December 2013 but am still on the editorial board of Parasites and Vectors and the Malaria Journal and am an editor for Microbes and Infection. (keele.ac.uk)
  • Occasional cases of simian malaria transmitted to man have been reported (pathogens, e.g. (ciesin.org)
  • The measures used for the control of malaria include those against the parasite through the widespread use of antimalarial drugs for chemotherapy and chemosuppression and those against the anopheline vector. (ciesin.org)
  • When the researchers tested whether Csp_P could act against the malaria or dengue pathogens directly, they found that the bacterium, likely through production of toxic metabolites, can inhibit growth of Plasmodium at various stages during the parasite's life cycle, and also abolish dengue virus infectivity. (eurekalert.org)
  • This study identified a number of tick-borne pathogens that cause febrile infections often confused with malaria. (scirp.org)
  • The Anopheles mosquito, a vector for malaria , filariasis , and various arthropod-borne-viruses ( arboviruses ), inserts its delicate mouthpart under the skin and feeds on its host's blood. (wikipedia.org)
  • These determinants affect traits such as tick-host-pathogen and susceptibility to pathogen infection. (frontiersin.org)
  • Because of their exposure in tick-infested woodlands, outdoor workers experience an increased risk of infection with tick-borne pathogens. (cdc.gov)
  • Plant disease resistance protects plants from pathogens in two ways: by pre-formed structures and chemicals, and by infection-induced responses of the immune system. (wikipedia.org)
  • Although obvious qualitative differences in disease resistance can be observed when multiple specimens are compared (allowing classification as "resistant" or "susceptible" after infection by the same pathogen strain at similar inoculum levels in similar environments), a gradation of quantitative differences in disease resistance is more typically observed between plant strains or genotypes. (wikipedia.org)
  • The activation of the insect immune response upon infection with FDp, which is not naturally transmitted by E. variegatus , confirmed that this bacterium is mostly perceived as a potential pathogen. (asm.org)
  • Virus-derived long sRNAs strongly resemble insect piRNAs, leading to the speculation that the piRNA pathway is induced in response to viral infection. (frontiersin.org)
  • Reif KE, Palmer GH, Crowder DW, Ueti MW, Noh SM (2014) Restriction of Francisella novicida genetic diversity during infection of the vector midgut. (wsu.edu)
  • The insect vector of BN is Hyalesthes obsoletus , a polyphagous planthopper (Hemiptera: Cixiidae) that can occasionally feed on grapevine, although it is usually found on dicotyledonous weeds ( 1 , 2 ). (asm.org)
  • Triatoma virus (TrV), a dicistrovirus, is a pathogen of Triatoma infestans (Hemiptera: Reduviidae), one of the main vectors of Chagas disease. (hindawi.com)
  • The Asian citrus psyllid is most effective at transmitting CLas when infected as a nymph, and insects that are infected as adults are less successful vectors for the bacterium. (eurekalert.org)
  • These co-evolved protein interaction networks at the host-microbe interface are highly specific targets for controlling the insect vector responsible for the spread of citrus greening. (scienceopen.com)
  • The relationship between the causal agent of Huanglongbing (HLB), Ca. Liberibacter asiaticus (Las), and the naturally occurring endosymbiotic community of its insect vector, the Asian citrus psyllid (ACP), Diaphorina citri, was studied. (openmicrobiologyjournal.com)
  • Psyllids (family Psyllidae) are the vectors of mycoplasma-like organisms responsible for pear decline and greening disease of citrus. (ncsu.edu)
  • Harper came to WSU in 2017, after working in the Florida citrus industry, and he said his alarm about little cherry disease stems, at least in part, from his experience watching the impacts of citrus greening, an insect-vectored bacterial disease that he said behaves similarly to Western X. (goodfruit.com)
  • This document is in draft and is part of the current consultation on Registration requirements for insect-derived livestock feed ingredients, which will be open until August 17, 2019. (gc.ca)
  • Blake A.J., Go M.C., Hahn G.S., Grey H., Couture S., Gries G. 2019 Polarization of foliar reflectance: novel host plant cue for insect herbivores. (sfu.ca)
  • Entomology is the scientific study of insects . (newworldencyclopedia.org)
  • Given these factors and the sheer numbers of insects-combined with a human nature endowed with curiosity and creativity and an often viewed role as stewards of nature-it is not surprising that entomology is an important specialty within biology . (newworldencyclopedia.org)
  • He earned his M.S. and Ph.D. degrees in entomology at Cornell University before serving as medical entomologist and administrator of the Pennsylvania Vector Control Program, Allegheny County Health Department, Pittsburgh, PA. (google.com)
  • Mulch color, for example, has been shown to affect insect populations in crops such as pepper (Capsicum annuum L.), tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill. (thefreelibrary.com)
  • In addition, our ability to accurately define the impact of climatic factors on the risk of vector-borne disease is limited by poor understanding of the mechanistic link between environmental variables, such as temperature, and the vectorial capacity of insect vector populations ( 1 , 8 - 12 ). (pnas.org)
  • New boxes describe a worrying increase in insect threats to landscape and commercial trees (including eucalypts, palms and coffee) and explain the value of genetic data, including evolutionary developmental biology and DNA barcoding, in insect biodiversity studies. (wiley.com)
  • The combination of taking into account all aspects of insect biology, available control measures, economics, and environmental considerations is known as integrated pest management. (newworldencyclopedia.org)
  • The Division of Vector Biology and Control, World Health Organization, 1211 Geneva 27, Switzerland. (ciesin.org)
  • Insect molecular biology. (wikipedia.org)
  • While Plasmodium is known to frequently express its virulence by partially castrating its mosquito vectors, the effects of Wolbachia infections on mosquito fecundity are, in contrast, highly variable. (cambridge.org)
  • The Mooc is dedicated to students in biological or medical sciences, public health advisors (human and animal health), and stakeholders in vector control. (pasteur.fr)
  • Insects represent over half of the planet's biological diversity. (wiley.com)
  • Beneficial insects include those that are pollinators of agricultural crops and ornamental flowers and those imported or otherwise vital as biological control agents. (newworldencyclopedia.org)
  • Our research attempts to determine the effects of agricultural practices, including comparisons of conventional vs. organic, on the structure of insect communities, and determine the consequences of these variable community structures on ecosystem services such as biological control and pollination. (wsu.edu)
  • Cabbage maggots, Delia radicum (family Anthomyiidae) spread the fungal pathogen of blackleg ( Phoma lingam ). (ncsu.edu)
  • Plum curculio, Conotrachelus nenuphar (family Curculionidae), inoculate fruits of peach cherry and plum with Sclerotinia fructicola , the fungal pathogen of brown rot. (ncsu.edu)
  • Oak wilt, caused by the invasive fungal pathogen Ceratocystis fagacearum (Bretz) Hunt, is a serious and fatal disease of oaks, Quercus spp. (usda.gov)
  • The gamma subgroup of the Proteobacteria contains a number of important pathogens, including animal pathogenic Escherichia, Salmonella, Shigella , and Yersinia spp. (pnas.org)
  • Triatoma virus (TrV), together with Solenopsis invicta virus-1, is one of the two members of the Dicistroviridae family pathogenic to insects of medical importance [ 1 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • The bamboo mosquito, Tripteroides bambusa (Yamada) (Diptera: Culicidae) , is a common insect across East Asia. (mdpi.com)
  • thus, prevention relies predominantly on vector control interventions ( 5 , 6 ). (frontiersin.org)
  • Vector Control Assoc. 53: 74-78. (ufl.edu)
  • Activation of phytohormone-mediated defense responses against insect herbivory is another hallmark of this interaction, and recent studies have shown that regulation of phytohormone signaling is under the control of sRNAs. (frontiersin.org)
  • Potential for the Use of Msp in Mosquito Vector Control. (barnesandnoble.com)
  • Rational design of environment friendly insect control agents based on interference with the activity of the nervous system ( Vinnie Altstein ). (agri.gov.il)
  • 2. Rational design of environment friendly non-toxic insect control agents based on disruption of the neuroendocrine system (i.e., design of neuropeptide-antagonist based insecticides). (agri.gov.il)
  • 4. Development of receptor based high throughput screening assays for discovery of new insect control agents. (agri.gov.il)
  • IVM strategies are designed to achieve the greatest disease control benefit in the most cost-effective manner, while minimizing negative impacts on ecosystems (e.g. depletion of biodiversity) and adverse side-effects on public health from the excessive use of chemicals in vector control. (wikipedia.org)