Herpesvirus 4, Equid: A species of VARICELLOVIRUS and the chief cause of rhinopneumonitis in horses.Herpesvirus 1, Equid: A species of VARICELLOVIRUS causing abortion and respiratory disease in horses.Equidae: A family of hoofed MAMMALS consisting of HORSES, donkeys, and zebras. Members of this family are strict herbivores and can be classified as either browsers or grazers depending on how they feed.Herpesvirus 3, Equid: A species of VARICELLOVIRUS causing coital exanthema in horses.Horse Diseases: Diseases of domestic and wild horses of the species Equus caballus.Varicellovirus: A genus of the family HERPESVIRIDAE, subfamily ALPHAHERPESVIRINAE. Its species include those causing CHICKENPOX and HERPES ZOSTER in humans (HERPESVIRUS 3, HUMAN), as well as several animal viruses.Horses: Large, hoofed mammals of the family EQUIDAE. Horses are active day and night with most of the day spent seeking and consuming food. Feeding peaks occur in the early morning and late afternoon, and there are several daily periods of rest.Antelopes: Any of various ruminant mammals of the order Bovidae. They include numerous species in Africa and the American pronghorn.MP3-Player: Portable electronics device for storing and playing audio and or media files. MP3 for MPEG-1 audio layer 3, is a digital coding format.Radio: The transmission and reception of electric impulses or signals by means of electric waves without a connecting wire, or the use of these waves for the wireless transmission of electric impulses into which sound is converted. (From Webster's 3d)Herpesviridae Infections: Virus diseases caused by the HERPESVIRIDAE.Herpesviridae: A family of enveloped, linear, double-stranded DNA viruses infecting a wide variety of animals. Subfamilies, based on biological characteristics, include: ALPHAHERPESVIRINAE; BETAHERPESVIRINAE; and GAMMAHERPESVIRINAE.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Plant Diseases: Diseases of plants.Host-Pathogen Interactions: The interactions between a host and a pathogen, usually resulting in disease.Virulence: The degree of pathogenicity within a group or species of microorganisms or viruses as indicated by case fatality rates and/or the ability of the organism to invade the tissues of the host. The pathogenic capacity of an organism is determined by its VIRULENCE FACTORS.Bacterial Proteins: Proteins found in any species of bacterium.Bacteria: One of the three domains of life (the others being Eukarya and ARCHAEA), also called Eubacteria. They are unicellular prokaryotic microorganisms which generally possess rigid cell walls, multiply by cell division, and exhibit three principal forms: round or coccal, rodlike or bacillary, and spiral or spirochetal. Bacteria can be classified by their response to OXYGEN: aerobic, anaerobic, or facultatively anaerobic; by the mode by which they obtain their energy: chemotrophy (via chemical reaction) or PHOTOTROPHY (via light reaction); for chemotrophs by their source of chemical energy: CHEMOLITHOTROPHY (from inorganic compounds) or chemoorganotrophy (from organic compounds); and by their source for CARBON; NITROGEN; etc.; HETEROTROPHY (from organic sources) or AUTOTROPHY (from CARBON DIOXIDE). They can also be classified by whether or not they stain (based on the structure of their CELL WALLS) with CRYSTAL VIOLET dye: gram-negative or gram-positive.Immunity, Innate: The capacity of a normal organism to remain unaffected by microorganisms and their toxins. It results from the presence of naturally occurring ANTI-INFECTIVE AGENTS, constitutional factors such as BODY TEMPERATURE and immediate acting immune cells such as NATURAL KILLER CELLS.Virulence Factors: Those components of an organism that determine its capacity to cause disease but are not required for its viability per se. Two classes have been characterized: TOXINS, BIOLOGICAL and surface adhesion molecules that effect the ability of the microorganism to invade and colonize a host. (From Davis et al., Microbiology, 4th ed. p486)Bacterial Infections: Infections by bacteria, general or unspecified.Ascomycota: A phylum of fungi which have cross-walls or septa in the mycelium. The perfect state is characterized by the formation of a saclike cell (ascus) containing ascospores. Most pathogenic fungi with a known perfect state belong to this phylum.Phylogeny: The relationships of groups of organisms as reflected by their genetic makeup.Sequence Analysis, DNA: A multistage process that includes cloning, physical mapping, subcloning, determination of the DNA SEQUENCE, and information analysis.Disease Resistance: The capacity of an organism to defend itself against pathological processes or the agents of those processes. This most often involves innate immunity whereby the organism responds to pathogens in a generic way. The term disease resistance is used most frequently when referring to plants.Oomycetes: Eukaryotes in the group STRAMENOPILES, formerly considered FUNGI, whose exact taxonomic level is unsettled. Many consider Oomycetes (Oomycota) a phylum in the kingdom Stramenopila, or alternatively, as Pseudofungi in the phylum Heterokonta of the kingdom Chromista. They are morphologically similar to fungi but have no close phylogenetic relationship to them. Oomycetes are found in both fresh and salt water as well as in terrestrial environments. (Alexopoulos et al., Introductory Mycology, 4th ed, pp683-4). They produce flagellated, actively motile spores (zoospores) that are pathogenic to many crop plants and FISHES.DNA, Bacterial: Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of bacteria.Pseudomonas syringae: A species of gram-negative, fluorescent, phytopathogenic bacteria in the genus PSEUDOMONAS. It is differentiated into approximately 50 pathovars with different plant pathogenicities and host specificities.Phytophthora: A genus of destructive parasitic OOMYCETES in the family Peronosporaceae, order Peronosporales, affecting numerous fruit, vegetable, and other crops. Differentiation of zoospores usually takes place in the sporangium and no vesicle is formed. It was previously considered a fungus.Genome, Bacterial: The genetic complement of a BACTERIA as represented in its DNA.Fungi: A kingdom of eukaryotic, heterotrophic organisms that live parasitically as saprobes, including MUSHROOMS; YEASTS; smuts, molds, etc. They reproduce either sexually or asexually, and have life cycles that range from simple to complex. Filamentous fungi, commonly known as molds, refer to those that grow as multicellular colonies.Gram-Negative Bacteria: Bacteria which lose crystal violet stain but are stained pink when treated by Gram's method.Food, Genetically Modified: Food derived from genetically modified organisms (ORGANISMS, GENETICALLY MODIFIED).Polymerase Chain Reaction: In vitro method for producing large amounts of specific DNA or RNA fragments of defined length and sequence from small amounts of short oligonucleotide flanking sequences (primers). The essential steps include thermal denaturation of the double-stranded target molecules, annealing of the primers to their complementary sequences, and extension of the annealed primers by enzymatic synthesis with DNA polymerase. The reaction is efficient, specific, and extremely sensitive. Uses for the reaction include disease diagnosis, detection of difficult-to-isolate pathogens, mutation analysis, genetic testing, DNA sequencing, and analyzing evolutionary relationships.Sensitivity and Specificity: Binary classification measures to assess test results. Sensitivity or recall rate is the proportion of true positives. Specificity is the probability of correctly determining the absence of a condition. (From Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)DNA Primers: Short sequences (generally about 10 base pairs) of DNA that are complementary to sequences of messenger RNA and allow reverse transcriptases to start copying the adjacent sequences of mRNA. Primers are used extensively in genetic and molecular biology techniques.Sus scrofa: A species of SWINE, in the family Suidae, comprising a number of subspecies including the domestic pig Sus scrofa domestica.Spain: Parliamentary democracy located between France on the northeast and Portugual on the west and bordered by the Atlantic Ocean and the Mediterranean Sea.Deer: The family Cervidae of 17 genera and 45 species occurring nearly throughout North America, South America, and Eurasia, on most associated continental islands, and in northern Africa. Wild populations of deer have been established through introduction by people in Cuba, New Guinea, Australia, New Zealand, and other places where the family does not naturally occur. They are slim, long-legged and best characterized by the presence of antlers. Their habitat is forests, swamps, brush country, deserts, and arctic tundra. They are usually good swimmers; some migrate seasonally. (Walker's Mammals of the World, 5th ed, p1362)Animals, Wild: Animals considered to be wild or feral or not adapted for domestic use. It does not include wild animals in zoos for which ANIMALS, ZOO is available.Swine: Any of various animals that constitute the family Suidae and comprise stout-bodied, short-legged omnivorous mammals with thick skin, usually covered with coarse bristles, a rather long mobile snout, and small tail. Included are the genera Babyrousa, Phacochoerus (wart hogs), and Sus, the latter containing the domestic pig (see SUS SCROFA).Swine Diseases: Diseases of domestic swine and of the wild boar of the genus Sus.Zolazepam: A pyrazolodiazepinone with pharmacological actions similar to ANTI-ANXIETY AGENTS. It is commonly used in combination with TILETAMINE to obtain immobilization and anesthesia in animals.Quarantine: Restriction of freedom of movement of individuals who have been exposed to infectious or communicable disease in order to prevent its spread; a period of detention of vessels, vehicles, or travelers coming from infected or suspected places; and detention or isolation on account of suspected contagion. It includes government regulations on the detention of animals at frontiers or ports of entrance for the prevention of infectious disease, through a period of isolation before being allowed to enter a country. (From Dorland, 28th ed & Black's Veterinary Dictionary, 17th ed)KansasBabesia: A genus of tick-borne protozoan parasites that infests the red blood cells of mammals, including humans. There are many recognized species, and the distribution is world-wide.Babesiosis: A group of tick-borne diseases of mammals including ZOONOSES in humans. They are caused by protozoa of the genus BABESIA, which parasitize erythrocytes, producing hemolysis. In the U.S., the organism's natural host is mice and transmission is by the deer tick IXODES SCAPULARIS.Theileria: A genus of tick-borne protozoa parasitic in the lymphocytes, erythrocytes, and endothelial cells of mammals. Its organisms multiply asexually and then invade erythrocytes, where they undergo no further reproduction until ingested by a transmitting tick.Bulimia: Eating an excess amount of food in a short period of time, as seen in the disorder of BULIMIA NERVOSA. It is caused by an abnormal craving for food, or insatiable hunger also known as "ox hunger".Stem Cell Research: Experimentation on STEM CELLS and on the use of stem cells.Embryo Research: Experimentation on, or using the organs or tissues from, a human or other mammalian conceptus during the prenatal stage of development that is characterized by rapid morphological changes and the differentiation of basic structures. In humans, this includes the period from the time of fertilization to the end of the eighth week after fertilization.Pigmentation DisordersBibliometrics: The use of statistical methods in the analysis of a body of literature to reveal the historical development of subject fields and patterns of authorship, publication, and use. Formerly called statistical bibliography. (from The ALA Glossary of Library and Information Science, 1983)Wood: A product of hard secondary xylem composed of CELLULOSE, hemicellulose, and LIGNANS, that is under the bark of trees and shrubs. It is used in construction and as a source of CHARCOAL and many other products.Publications: Copies of a work or document distributed to the public by sale, rental, lease, or lending. (From ALA Glossary of Library and Information Science, 1983, p181)Body Water: Fluids composed mainly of water found within the body.
... primarily due to the similarity between EEV and other more devastating equid pathogens, such as the African horse sickness ... Some equids show no clinical signs at all but are biliary carriers. Although in this instance the animal is not in immediate ... midges affecting all equids. Since then the disease has become both widespread and prevalent, taking on epidemic proportions in ... Several studies have shown that between 50 and 75% of South African equids (notably horses, donkeys and zebras) are ...
Familiar examples of equid hybrids are the mule, a cross between a female horse and a male donkey, and the hinny, a cross ... Since the indigenous breeds are often well-adapted to local extremes in climate and have immunity to local pathogens, this can ...
Movar virus Equid herpesvirus 2 (EHV-2) Equid herpesvirus 5 (EHV-5) Equid herpesvirus 7 (EHV-7) - Asinine herpesvirus 2 ... Virus Pathogen Database and Analysis Resource (ViPR): Herpesviridae Viralzone: Rhadinovirus ICTV. ...
... which inhibits the synthesis of gamma-interferon and to Equid herpesvirus 2 (Equine herpesvirus 2) protein E7. It is also ... including the normal host defence against various intracellular pathogens, such as Leishmania, Toxoplasma, Measles virus, and ...
Meanwhile, equids and camelids that had evolved in North America (and later became extinct there) migrated into Asia as well at ... through the genetic history of parasites and pathogens of North American ungulates. An international Beringian Coevolution ... the American kiang-like equids, the short-faced bear, bonnet-horned muskoxen, and badger did not travel west. At the beginning ...
A poxvirus causes a very similar disease in equids (horses and donkeys). DNA studies suggest that this virus and the human ... Res Vet Sci 64(2):157-161 Virus Pathogen Database and Analysis Resource (ViPR): Poxviridae. ...
... es are vector-borne pathogens transmitted between vertebrate hosts by vectors such as mosquitoes, midges, gnats, ... equids, camelids, marsupials, sloths, bats, birds, large canine and feline carnivores and humans. The three economically most ...
Equid herpesvirus 2 Equid herpesvirus 5 Mustelid herpesvirus 1 Genus: Rhadinovirus Ateline herpesvirus 2 Ateline herpesvirus 3 ... Research in this area is almost exclusively performed using MHV68 as KSHV and EBV (the major human pathogens of this family) do ... Equid herpesvirus 7 Phocid herpesvirus 2 Saguinine herpesvirus 1 Viruses in Gammaherpesvirinae are enveloped, with icosahedral ...
Cervid herpesvirus 1 Cervid herpesvirus 2 Equid herpesvirus 1 Equid herpesvirus 3 Equid herpesvirus 4 Equid herpesvirus 8 Equid ... "A Genomic Approach to Unravel Host-Pathogen Interaction in Chelonians: The Example of Testudinid Herpesvirus 3". PLoS ONE. 10 ( ... Equid herpesvirus 2 Equid herpesvirus 5 Mustelid herpesvirus 1 Genus: Rhadinovirus Ateline herpesvirus 2 Ateline herpesvirus 3 ... equid). Human herpes viruses have been treated as an exception (human rather than hominid). Following the host-derived term, ...
Second, the pathogen must have a high infection rate, such that it is able to infect virtually all individuals of all ages and ... "Late quaternary equids (genus Equus) of South-western and South-central Siberia (PDF Download Available)". ResearchGate. ... "Late quaternary equids (genus Equus) of South-western and South-central Siberia (PDF Download Available)". ResearchGate. ... One suggestion is that pathogens were transmitted by the expanding humans via the domesticated dogs they brought with them. ...
Familiar examples of equid hybrids are the mule, a cross between a female horse and a male donkey, and the hinny, a cross ... Since the indigenous breeds are often well-adapted to local extremes in climate and have immunity to local pathogens, this can ...
In equids sera were examined by S-ELISA using soluble T. gondii antigen propagated in SPF-ECE showed the highest positive ... The present study aimed to detect the efficacy of soluble and whole T. gondii antigens propagated in specific pathogen-free of ... Total of 220 serum samples from 170 equids (90 donkeys and 55 horses and 25 mules) and 50 humans were collected from different ... Evaluation of Toxoplasma gondii propagated in specific pathogen free embryonated chicken egg, for diagnosis of toxoplasmosis in ...
Test the exclusivity of the PCR system using DNA extracts from pathogens with genetic similarities to the target (in this case ... Diallo, I. S., et al. Multiplex real-time PCR for the detection and differentiation of equid herpesvirus 1 (EHV-1) and equid ... Brault, S. A., et al. The immune response of foals to natural infection with equid herpesvirus-2 and its association with ... Equid herpesvirus-2 (EHV-2) is involved in a respiratory syndrome, with potential clinical manifestations such as nasal ...
Buy Techne Systemic Viral Pathogen Detection Kits for qPCR and more from our comprehensive selection of PCR Reagents from Cole- ... Quickly screen for viral pathogens to prevent the spreading of disease causing systemic viruses ... using these viral detection kits to accurately assess whether these disease-causing pathogens are present. Select a complete ...
Equid herpesvirus 1 (EHV-1) is a viral pathogen of horse populations worldwide spread by the respiratory route and is known for ... Equid herpesvirus 1 and equid herpesvirus 4 infection, p 829-859. In Coetzer JAW, Tustin RC, Infectious diseases of livestock. ... Equid herpesvirus 1 (EHV-1) is a large DNA virus belonging to the genus Varicellovirus of the Herpesviridae family (1). The ... Equine interferons following exposure to equid herpesvirus-1 or -4. J Interferon Res 9:389-392. doi:10.1089/jir.1989.9.389. ...
Dubey JP, Desmonts G (1987) Serological responses of equids fed Toxoplasma gondii oocysts. Equine Vet J 19:337-339PubMed ... Vengust G, Valencak Z, Bidovec A (2006) A serological survey of selected pathogens in wild boar in Slovenia. J Vet Med B 53:24- ... Antibodies to selected pathogens in wild boar (Sus scrofa) from Catalonia (NE Spain). ... Prevalence of antibodies to selected viral and bacterial pathogens in wild boar (Sus scrofa) in Campania Region, Italy. J Wildl ...
... and ecology of VEE viruses and the epidemiology of an unprecedented 1969 movement of VEE viruses from South America to equids ... Non-inactivated virus has been postulated to replicate in equids to high titers and to be infectious for the local populations ... L) Historically, VEE virus has been a pathogen studied for aerosol release as a potential biologic weapon. In the United States ... K) Sylvatic virus subtypes were of low or no virulence to experimentally infected equids. The virulence of epizootic subtypes ...
... is an infectious disease that affects equids worldwide. The disease is of global economic... ... Persistently infected equids are a continuous source for transmission of the protozoal pathogens by tick vectors or iatrogenic ... The presence of ticks capable of transmitting these pathogens on all continents increases the need for global surveillance to ... Dermacentor variabilis and Boophilus microplus (Acari: Ixodidae): experimental vectors of Babesia equi to equids. J Med Entomol ...
Vectorborne pathogens can infect any host species bitten by infected ticks. At least 4 Ehrlichia species have been implicated ... In 2013, to determine exposure of equids to ,1 tickborne organism, visiting veterinary students collected blood samples from ... In Mérida, Nicaragua, the potential for infection of horses by tickborne pathogens is a concern because of the horses often ... 13846) to the Intracellular Pathogens Research Laboratory, Center for Comparative Medicine and Translational Research, North ...
... primarily due to the similarity between EEV and other more devastating equid pathogens, such as the African horse sickness ... Some equids show no clinical signs at all but are biliary carriers. Although in this instance the animal is not in immediate ... midges affecting all equids. Since then the disease has become both widespread and prevalent, taking on epidemic proportions in ... Several studies have shown that between 50 and 75% of South African equids (notably horses, donkeys and zebras) are ...
As of the June 11 OIE report, results of tests on the other equids on the property were pending. Of these, 44 animals were ... was presented to a veterinary hospital in Kansas June 2 for acute illness consistent with infection of a blood-borne pathogen. ... The Raytown Equestrian Park, home to 64 equids, was quarantined June 6, and equine piroplasmosis (Theileria equi) was confirmed ... How veterinarians are helping the working equids of the developing world and their owners. ...
Frequency of shedding of respiratory pathogens in horses recently imported to the United States. Smith, F. L., Watson, J. L., ...
In Merida, Nicaragua, the potential for infection of horses by tickborne pathogens is a concern because of the horses often ... In 2013, to determine exposure of equids to ,1 tickborne organism, visiting veterinary students collected blood samples from ... involve few specimens and the greatest risk for people bitten by a tick lies in infection due to a tick-borne pathogen (2).. ...
Baculoviruses are lethal pathogens of insects, predominantly of the order Lepidoptera. These viruses have a bi-phasic life ... African horse sickness is a severe, often fatal, arboviral disease of equids. The control of African horse sickness virus (AHSV ... The prevalence of pathogens in wild populations has often been estimated by the appearance of overt symptoms in the host, and ... Hitchman R, Hodgson D, King LA, Cory JS, Hails R, Possee RD, Host mediated selection of pathogen genotypes as a mechanism for ...
... identify genes contributing to immune evasion and persistence in equid hosts, 2) identify genes involved in PBMC infection ... The continued risk of transmission of T. equi from clinically silent, persistently infected equids impedes the goal of ... variabilis, were identified as novel vectors in the 2009 Texas outbreak[5]. The re-emergence of this pathogen in the U.S. ... equi to equids eventually results in lysis of erythrocytes and prolonged anemia. Anemia associated with T. parva occurs later ...
Familiar examples of equid hybrids are the mule, a cross between a female horse and a male donkey, and the hinny, a cross ... Since the indigenous breeds are often well-adapted to local extremes in climate and have immunity to local pathogens, this can ...
Blood samples were collected from the sick horse, and PCR/RT-PCR analysis was performed to screen for equine viral pathogens ... Blood samples were collected from the sick horse, and PCR/RT-PCR analysis was performed to screen for equine viral pathogens ... Fukunaga, Y., Kumanomido, T., and Kamada, M. (2000). Getah virus as an equine pathogen. Vet. Clin. North Am. Equine Pract. 16, ... equid herpesviruses 1 and 4, and GETV using previously published PCR primers and procedures (Table 1), and GenStar Taq ...
Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus (VEEV) is an emerging pathogen of equids and humans, but infection of its rodent reservoir ... In 1993, an outbreak of encephalitis among 125 affected equids in coastal Chiapas, Mexico, resulted in a 50% case-fatality rate ... is an arbovirus that causes severe disease in humans in North America and in equids throughout the Americas. The enzootic ...
... to serve as a basic working tool-providing easy identifications to genus and species of adult strongylid nematodes of equids. ... and because they have emerged as the most significant nematode pathogens of horses, we provide a brief nomenclatural and ... and because they have emerged as the most significant nematode pathogens of horses, we provide a brief nomenclatural and ... Identification Keys to Strongylid Nematode Parasites of Equids. ... to genus and species of adult strongylid nematodes of equids. ...
Byas AD, Ebel GD. Byas AD, et al. Pathogens. 2020 Jan 7;9(1):48. doi: 10.3390/pathogens9010048. Pathogens. 2020. PMID: 31935992 ... Regarding neurological disorders in equids, in April-May 2018, at least 12 cases of equid mortality with acute neurological ... West Nile virus associated with equid encephalitis in Brazil, 2018 Aila Solimar Gonçalves Silva 1 , Ana Carolina Diniz Matos 1 ... West Nile virus associated with equid encephalitis in Brazil, 2018 Aila Solimar Gonçalves Silva et al. Transbound Emerg Dis. ...
Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus (VEEV) is an emerging pathogen of equids and humans, but infection of its rodent reservoir ... Rodent models have been used extensively to model flavivirus neurological disease, to discover host-pathogen interactions that ...
... an economically important disease of equids in most tropical and subtropical areas of the worl... ... Emerging tick-borne pathogens of public health importance: a mini-review.. Abstract Ticks are the most important vectors of ... Molecular detection of tick-borne pathogens in caracals (Caracal caracal) living in human-modified landscapes of South Africa ... Tick-borne pathogens include viruses (e.g. tick-borne encephalitis and Powassan); bacteria, such as the causative agents of ...
More research is needed to study the mechanism of enzymatic coagulation in equid species and if donkey cheese can be addressed ... and allows a good protection against pathogens agents. This application represents an informative step for further trials and ... and allows a good protection against pathogens agents. This application represents an informative step for further trials and ... More research is needed to study the mechanism of enzymatic coagulation in equid species and if donkey cheese can be addressed ...
Lets tie the knot:Marriage of complement and adaptive immunity in pathogen evasion, for better or worse Bennett Kaila M., ... Identification of a staphylococcal complement inhibitor with broad host specificity in equid Staphylococcus aureus strains De ... Reviewer of international peer-reviewed journals: Nature, Plos Pathogens, Journal of Immunology, Infection and Immunity, Cell ...
Both soft and hard tick species found in T&T have also been implicated in a number of blood-borne pathogens including Borrelia ... Hosts include bats, fowl, equids, wild and domestic ruminants, birds, rodents, marsupials, and a variety of reptiles such as ... associated pathogens, their effects on the host, and control methods. The book also reviews the basic biology of ticks. Ticks ... parasites are of veterinary and public health significance since they are responsible for the spread of a number of pathogens ...
Working equids (horses, ponies, donkeys, and mules) remain essential to ensure the livelihood of poor communities around the ... Within the family, some viruses are important human and veterinary pathogens, in need of diagnostic methods and antiviral ... The close relationship between humans and equids and the fact that the athlete horse is the terrestrial mammal that travels the ... most worldwide after humans are important elements to consider in the transmission of pathogens and diseases, amongst equids ...
  • This musical poem describes the history and ecology of VEE viruses and the epidemiology of an unprecedented 1969 movement of VEE viruses from South America to equids and humans in Central America from Costa Rica to Guatemala and Belize and in Mexico and the United States that continued until 1972. (cdc.gov)
  • In humans, tick infestations typically involve few specimens and the greatest risk for people bitten by a tick lies in infection due to a tick-borne pathogen (2). (thefreedictionary.com)
  • These parasites are of veterinary and public health significance since they are responsible for the spread of a number of pathogens to humans and animals. (livrariacultura.com.br)
  • The close relationship between humans and equids and the fact that the athlete horse is the terrestrial mammal that travels the most worldwide after humans are important elements to consider in the transmission of pathogens and diseases, amongst equids and to other species. (doabooks.org)
  • Finally, countries implementing One Health surveillance for WNV (in terms of early warning and early activation of prevention measures) consistently reported a positive impact on their activities, in particular when combining mosquito and bird surveillance with surveillance of cases in humans and equids. (biomedcentral.com)
  • However, hybrids feed on both birds and mammals and likely play an important role as a bridge vector in the epizootic transmission of the virus to humans and equids . (europa.eu)
  • Transmission of WNV occurs when mosquitoes are active (i.e. between spring and autumn) and most infections in humans and equids are observed between July and September [2, (europa.eu)
  • It is transmitted to humans and all infected/contaminated or potentially infected/contaminated material must be handled in a laboratory that meets the requirements for Containment Group 3 pathogens. (equusmagazine.com)
  • albopictus, may be met by two other viruses with the potential to become major human pathogens: Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus, already an important cause of neurological disease in humans and equids throughout the Americas, and Mayaro virus, a close relative of CHIKV that produces a comparably debilitating arthralgic disease in South America. (scienceopen.com)
  • In addition, the endemic infections with indirect transmission from the environment, the zoophilic fungal pathogens with near-direct transmission, the zoonotic fungi that can be directly transmitted from animals to humans, mycotoxicoses and antifungal resistance in animals will also be discussed. (deepdyve.com)
  • The current density of cats in Qatar may pose a risk for humans, as cats are natural hosts for a wide range of zoonotic pathogens, including T. gondii . (biomedcentral.com)
  • West Nile virus (WNV) infection is notifiable in humans and equids in the European Union (EU). (eurosurveillance.org)
  • For PCR testing, samples were shipped (US Department of Agriculture import permit no. 13846) to the Intracellular Pathogens Research Laboratory, Center for Comparative Medicine and Translational Research, North Carolina State University, College of Veterinary Medicine. (cdc.gov)
  • Many arboviruses recently have increased in importance as human and veterinary pathogens using a variety of mechanisms. (scienceopen.com)
  • The presence of ticks capable of transmitting these pathogens on all continents increases the need for global surveillance to prevent EP dissemination. (springer.com)
  • Worldwide, ticks are responsible for billions of dollars in losses in the livestock industry annually due to the effects of these pathogens. (livrariacultura.com.br)
  • Tropical lineages of Rhipicephalus sanguineus ticks play an essential role in the transmission of this pathogen. (unesp.br)
  • Conversely, susceptible introduced livestock and wildlife may be exposed to endemic ticks and tick-borne diseases or pathogens in their new habitat. (scielo.org.za)
  • other members of the genus include Dugbe virus and Kupe virus , both isolated from cattle ticks in East Africa, and the human pathogen Crimean Congo hemorrhagic fever virus (CCHFV). (biomedcentral.com)
  • In 2009, the outbreak of a febrile horse disease across Israel, later diagnosed as EEV, caused great concern primarily due to the similarity of EEV with the African horse sickness virus, one of the most devastating equine pathogens. (wikipedia.org)
  • There will also be workshops on specific disease agents, immunology, and diagnostics and special sessions focusing on emerging and re-emerging diseases, disease surveillance and outbreak managements, drug resistance, and genomic studies of equine pathogens. (thedonkeysanctuary.org.uk)
  • However, AI with contaminated fresh, cool-transported or frozen semen can also be responsible for transmission of venereal pathogens. (aaep.org)
  • For example, there is evidence that only a few capsule types of Klebsiela pneumoniae and only a few serotypes of Pseudomonas aeruginosa are truly venereal pathogens. (aaep.org)
  • Seroprevalences of anti-Sarcocystis neurona and anti-Neospora hughesi antibodies among healthy equids in the United States. (nih.gov)
  • A key theme is the constant evolution of staphylococci as they alter their genome, exchange DNA, and adapt to new environments, leading to the emergence of increasingly successful, antibiotic-resistant, immune-evading, and host-adapted colonizers and pathogens. (asmscience.org)
  • SPF-ECE is considered an appropriate experimental model for isolation and propagation of T. gondii tachyzoites , and their soluble antigens used in serological tests (S-ELISA, LAT, and MAGPT) have sensitivity and specificity more than the whole antigen and provided reliable diagnostic tools for detection of toxoplasmosis in human and equids. (springer.com)
  • Prevent economic loss, especially in the dairy and agricultural industry, using these viral detection kits to accurately assess whether these disease-causing pathogens are present. (coleparmer.com)
  • Disease is only seen in sheep and goats, with no disease seen or viraemia detected when cattle, buffalo, equids or other mammals are infected [ 1 , 7 ], although the limitations of early virus detection methods (pathogenesis in neonatal mouse brains) have to be borne in mind. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Mosquitoes have been implemented to carry many different disease pathogens and viruses that infect vertebrates. (tamu.edu)
  • Climate warming also could facilitate the expansion of the distributions of many arboviruses, as documented for bluetongue viruses (BTV), major pathogens of ruminants. (scienceopen.com)
  • Full Text Available The Bunyaviridae family is comprised of more than 350 viruses, of which many within the Hantavirus, Orthobunyavirus, Nairovirus, Tospovirus, and Phlebovirus genera are significant human or agricultural pathogens. (worldwidescience.org)
  • Whereas immunocompetent mice do not become ill when infected with Ebola, Lassa, dengue and other HF viruses, IFN-deficient mice typically develop severe or fatal disease when inoculated with these pathogens. (medworm.com)
  • However, T. gondii elicits strong antibody responses in its hosts and therefore assessment of seroprevalence is an alternative approach for studying the epidemiology of this pathogen. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The Raytown Equestrian Park, home to 64 equids, was quarantined June 6, and equine piroplasmosis ( Theileria equi ) was confirmed in the affected horse June 10. (thehorse.com)
  • The present study aimed to detect the efficacy of soluble and whole T. gondii antigens propagated in specific pathogen-free of embryonated chicken egg (SPF-ECE) used to improve the potency of serological assays for diagnosis of toxoplasmosis in equids and human. (springer.com)
  • This organism can be recovered from the uterus in acutely infected female equids that have genital discharges. (aaep.org)
  • Even though not strictly speaking correct, in this document, the term horse will be used to refer to all equids (horse, donkey, mule, and pony). (aaep.org)
  • The State of Pará has one of the largest herds of equids (horse, donkey and mule) in Brazil, most of these animals are found on cattle farms. (unesp.br)
  • BPV-1 and BPV-2 can also induce sarcomas and fibrosarcomas in other mammals, including equids (equine sarcoid) and, experimentally, rabbits, hamsters and mice ( Wiki: Bovine papillomavirus ). (violinet.org)
  • BACKGROUND: Major Histocompatibility Complex (MHC) genes are central to vertebrate immune response and are believed to be under balancing selection by pathogens. (up.ac.za)
  • Major Histocompatibility Complex genes as genetic markers in the conservation and management of wild equids. (fiu.edu)
  • Of 7320 equine foals reported born alive during 1997 on 1043 operations that had equids on 1 January 1997, and that participated in the United States National Animal Health Monitoring System (NAHMS) Equine 1998 Study, 120 foals were reported to have died (by either euthanasia or natural causes) within the first 2 days of a live birth. (isiarticles.com)
  • Although pathogens that infect fetal tissues can induce birth defects through the local production of type I IFN, it remains unknown why systemic IFN generated during maternal infections only rarely causes fetal developmental defects. (bvsalud.org)
  • P. equorum is the most pathogenic parasite of juvenile equids, and can cause poor growth, ill-thrift, weight loss, colic, and death subsequent to intestinal impaction or perforation. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Only 2 bot flies inhabit Nearctic circumpolar regions: the Caribou bot fly (Hypoderma tarandi) and the Caribou nasal bot fly (Cephenemyia trompe), a nonhuman pathogen (2). (thefreedictionary.com)
  • This program was initiated with the objective of detecting early the circulation of West Nile virus, a virus that can affect wild birds and equids and is transmitted by mosquito vectors to people. (cresa.cat)
  • Despite the interdependency between human and equid health in low income settings, and the fact that 80% of all global equids reside in developing nations, there is little existing literature for this group. (bl.uk)
  • Furthermore, at the DQA, positive selection was occurring at antigen binding sites, suggesting that a few selected residues may play a significant role in equid immune function. (up.ac.za)
  • The low pH in cheese, after 30 min from the production (pHat 30 min 5.34), shows the efficient activity of starter cultures in asses' milk, and allows a good protection against pathogens agents. (academicjournals.org)