Vibrio cholerae: The etiologic agent of CHOLERA.Vibrio: A genus of VIBRIONACEAE, made up of short, slightly curved, motile, gram-negative rods. Various species produce cholera and other gastrointestinal disorders as well as abortion in sheep and cattle.Cholera: An acute diarrheal disease endemic in India and Southeast Asia whose causative agent is VIBRIO CHOLERAE. This condition can lead to severe dehydration in a matter of hours unless quickly treated.DNA Transformation Competence: The ability of bacterial cells to take up exogenous DNA and be genetically transformed by it.Vibrio cholerae O1: Strains of VIBRIO CHOLERAE containing O ANTIGENS group 1. All are CHOLERA-causing strains (serotypes). There are two biovars (biotypes): cholerae and eltor (El Tor).Vibrio Infections: Infections with bacteria of the genus VIBRIO.Vibrio cholerae O139: Strains of VIBRIO CHOLERAE containing O ANTIGENS group 139. This strain emerged in India in 1992 and caused a CHOLERA epidemic.Bacterial Proteins: Proteins found in any species of bacterium.Vibrio vulnificus: A species of halophilic bacteria in the genus VIBRIO, which lives in warm SEAWATER. It can cause infections in those who eat raw contaminated seafood or have open wounds exposed to seawater.Gene Expression Regulation, Bacterial: Any of the processes by which cytoplasmic or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in bacteria.Vibrio cholerae non-O1: A strain of the VIBRIO CHOLERAE bacteria belonging to serogroup non-O1, infecting humans and other PRIMATES. It is related to VIBRIO CHOLERAE O1, but causes a disease less severe than CHOLERA. Eating raw shellfish contaminated with the bacteria results in GASTROENTERITIS.Cholera Toxin: An ENTEROTOXIN from VIBRIO CHOLERAE. It consists of two major protomers, the heavy (H) or A subunit and the B protomer which consists of 5 light (L) or B subunits. The catalytic A subunit is proteolytically cleaved into fragments A1 and A2. The A1 fragment is a MONO(ADP-RIBOSE) TRANSFERASE. The B protomer binds cholera toxin to intestinal epithelial cells, and facilitates the uptake of the A1 fragment. The A1 catalyzed transfer of ADP-RIBOSE to the alpha subunits of heterotrimeric G PROTEINS activates the production of CYCLIC AMP. Increased levels of cyclic AMP are thought to modulate release of fluid and electrolytes from intestinal crypt cells.Vibrio parahaemolyticus: A species of bacteria found in the marine environment, sea foods, and the feces of patients with acute enteritis.Virulence: The degree of pathogenicity within a group or species of microorganisms or viruses as indicated by case fatality rates and/or the ability of the organism to invade the tissues of the host. The pathogenic capacity of an organism is determined by its VIRULENCE FACTORS.Cholera Vaccines: Vaccines or candidate vaccines used to prevent infection with VIBRIO CHOLERAE. The original cholera vaccine consisted of killed bacteria, but other kinds of vaccines now exist.Water Microbiology: The presence of bacteria, viruses, and fungi in water. This term is not restricted to pathogenic organisms.Aliivibrio salmonicida: A species of gram-negative bacteria in the genus ALIIVIBRIO. Aliivibrio salmonicida is the causative agent of cold water vibriosis, a HEMORRHAGIC SEPTICEMIA of ATLANTIC SALMON.DNA, Bacterial: Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of bacteria.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Eels: Common name for an order (Anguilliformes) of voracious, elongate, snakelike teleost fishes.Luciferases, Bacterial: Luciferases from BACTERIA such as PHOTOBACTERIUM; VIBRIO; and PHOTORHABDUS.Fish Diseases: Diseases of freshwater, marine, hatchery or aquarium fish. This term includes diseases of both teleosts (true fish) and elasmobranchs (sharks, rays and skates).Genes, Bacterial: The functional hereditary units of BACTERIA.Virulence Factors: Those components of an organism that determine its capacity to cause disease but are not required for its viability per se. Two classes have been characterized: TOXINS, BIOLOGICAL and surface adhesion molecules that effect the ability of the microorganism to invade and colonize a host. (From Davis et al., Microbiology, 4th ed. p486)Seawater: The salinated water of OCEANS AND SEAS that provides habitat for marine organisms.Salmon: Fish of the genera ONCORHYNCHUS and Salmo in the family SALMONIDAE. They are anadromous game fish, frequenting the coastal waters of both the North Atlantic and Pacific. They are known for their gameness as a sport fish and for the quality of their flesh as a table fish. (Webster, 3d ed).Anthozoa: A class in the phylum CNIDARIA, comprised mostly of corals and anemones. All members occur only as polyps; the medusa stage is completely absent.Vibrio mimicus: A species of gram-negative bacteria in the genus VIBRIO, isolated from SHELLFISH, as well as from human diarrheal stools and ear infections.Siderophores: Low-molecular-weight compounds produced by microorganisms that aid in the transport and sequestration of ferric iron. (The Encyclopedia of Molecular Biology, 1994)Bacterial Outer Membrane Proteins: Proteins isolated from the outer membrane of Gram-negative bacteria.BangladeshFishes: A group of cold-blooded, aquatic vertebrates having gills, fins, a cartilaginous or bony endoskeleton, and elongated bodies covered with scales.Fimbriae Proteins: Proteins that are structural components of bacterial fimbriae (FIMBRIAE, BACTERIAL) or sex pili (PILI, SEX).Vibrio alginolyticus: A species of gram-negative, halophilic bacteria, in the genus VIBRIO. It is considered part of normal marine flora and commonly associated with ear infections and superficial wounds exposed to contaminated water sources.Gene Order: The sequential location of genes on a chromosome.Amino Acid Sequence: The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.Sequence Analysis, DNA: A multistage process that includes cloning, physical mapping, subcloning, determination of the DNA SEQUENCE, and information analysis.Plasmids: Extrachromosomal, usually CIRCULAR DNA molecules that are self-replicating and transferable from one organism to another. They are found in a variety of bacterial, archaeal, fungal, algal, and plant species. They are used in GENETIC ENGINEERING as CLONING VECTORS.O Antigens: The lipopolysaccharide-protein somatic antigens, usually from gram-negative bacteria, important in the serological classification of enteric bacilli. The O-specific chains determine the specificity of the O antigens of a given serotype. O antigens are the immunodominant part of the lipopolysaccharide molecule in the intact bacterial cell. (From Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed)Base Sequence: The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.Disease Outbreaks: Sudden increase in the incidence of a disease. The concept includes EPIDEMICS and PANDEMICS.Hemolysin Proteins: Proteins from BACTERIA and FUNGI that are soluble enough to be secreted to target ERYTHROCYTES and insert into the membrane to form beta-barrel pores. Biosynthesis may be regulated by HEMOLYSIN FACTORS.Bacteriophages: Viruses whose hosts are bacterial cells.Quorum Sensing: A phenomenon where microorganisms communicate and coordinate their behavior by the accumulation of signaling molecules. A reaction occurs when a substance accumulates to a sufficient concentration. This is most commonly seen in bacteria.Enterotoxins: Substances that are toxic to the intestinal tract causing vomiting, diarrhea, etc.; most common enterotoxins are produced by bacteria.Shellfish: Aquatic invertebrates belonging to the phylum MOLLUSCA or the subphylum CRUSTACEA, and used as food.Ostreidae: A family of marine mollusks in the class BIVALVIA, commonly known as oysters. They have a rough irregular shell closed by a single adductor muscle.Diarrhea: An increased liquidity or decreased consistency of FECES, such as running stool. Fecal consistency is related to the ratio of water-holding capacity of insoluble solids to total water, rather than the amount of water present. Diarrhea is not hyperdefecation or increased fecal weight.Serotyping: Process of determining and distinguishing species of bacteria or viruses based on antigens they share.Hemagglutinins: Agents that cause agglutination of red blood cells. They include antibodies, blood group antigens, lectins, autoimmune factors, bacterial, viral, or parasitic blood agglutinins, etc.Biofilms: Encrustations, formed from microbes (bacteria, algae, fungi, plankton, or protozoa) embedding in extracellular polymers, that adhere to surfaces such as teeth (DENTAL DEPOSITS); PROSTHESES AND IMPLANTS; and catheters. Biofilms are prevented from forming by treating surfaces with DENTIFRICES; DISINFECTANTS; ANTI-INFECTIVE AGENTS; and antifouling agents.Iron: A metallic element with atomic symbol Fe, atomic number 26, and atomic weight 55.85. It is an essential constituent of HEMOGLOBINS; CYTOCHROMES; and IRON-BINDING PROTEINS. It plays a role in cellular redox reactions and in the transport of OXYGEN.Bacterial Typing Techniques: Procedures for identifying types and strains of bacteria. The most frequently employed typing systems are BACTERIOPHAGE TYPING and SEROTYPING as well as bacteriocin typing and biotyping.Fimbriae, Bacterial: Thin, hairlike appendages, 1 to 20 microns in length and often occurring in large numbers, present on the cells of gram-negative bacteria, particularly Enterobacteriaceae and Neisseria. Unlike flagella, they do not possess motility, but being protein (pilin) in nature, they possess antigenic and hemagglutinating properties. They are of medical importance because some fimbriae mediate the attachment of bacteria to cells via adhesins (ADHESINS, BACTERIAL). Bacterial fimbriae refer to common pili, to be distinguished from the preferred use of "pili", which is confined to sex pili (PILI, SEX).
Non-O139 Vibrio Cholerae Isolate from China". Clinical Microbiology and Infection. 16: 1125-1129. Kheiri, Roohollah; Akhtari, ... Sun, J (1 Aug 2010). "Original Article: Characterization of Two Novel Gene Cassettes, Dfra27 and Aada16, in a Non-O1, ... Gut Pathogens. 8: 40. doi:10.1186/s13099-016-0123-3. ISSN 1757-4749. PMC 5006490 . PMID 27582900. Stokes, H.W.; et al. (Nov ... Rapa RA, Labbate M (2013). "The function of integron-associated gene cassettes in Vibrio species: the tip of the iceberg". ...
Staphylococcus aureus Staphylococcal enteritis Streptococcus Vibrio cholerae, including O1 and non-O1 Vibrio parahaemolyticus ... Pathogens vary in minimum infectious dose; for example, Shigella sonnei has a low estimated minimum dose of < 500 colony- ... Foodborne Pathogens: Microbiology And Molecular Biology. Horizon Scientific Press. ISBN 978-1-904455-00-4. Foodborne diseases, ... Doyle, M. P.; Erickson, M. C. (2006). "Reducing the carriage of foodborne pathogens in livestock and poultry". Poultry science ...
"Evolutionary Dynamics of Vibrio cholerae O1 following a Single-Source Introduction to Haiti". mBio. 4 (4): e00398-13. doi: ... and phylogenetics of bacterial pathogens to better understand the evolutionary role of these pathogens. Phylodynamic analysis ... Cholera is a diarrheal disease that is caused by the bacterium Vibrio cholerae. V. cholerae has been a popular bacterium for ... cholerae revealed that there was one single point source of the cholera outbreak in Haiti and it was similar to O1 strains ...
2000). "DNA sequence of both chromosomes of the cholera pathogen Vibrio cholerae". Nature. 406 (6795): 477-83. doi:10.1038/ ... Two serogroups of V. cholerae, O1 and O139, cause outbreaks of cholera. O1 causes the majority of outbreaks, while O139 - first ... "Vibrio Cholera Starts Spreading In India - QuintDaily". Copepods and cholera in untreated water Vibrio cholerae El Tor N16961 ... "Genomic science in understanding cholera outbreaks and evolution of Vibrio cholerae as a human pathogen". Current topics in ...
In Vibrio cholerae T6SS studies, it has been observed that serotype O37 has high vas gene expression. Serotypes O139 and O1 on ... Since then, Type VI secretion systems have been found in a quarter of all Proteobacterial genomes, including pathogens of ... The T6SS was first identified in 2006 in Vibrio cholerae, which causes cholera. ... "Quorum sensing regulation of the two hcp alleles in Vibrio cholerae O1 strains". PLoS One. 4: 3584-3596. doi:10.1128/JB.00114- ...
Cholera, Vibrio cholerae O1 and O139, and Other Pathogenic Vibrios in: Baron's Medical Microbiology (4th ed.). Univ of Texas ... They are grouped by the type of pathogen involved in disease transmission. Vibrio cholerae (cholera) Clostridium difficile ( ... Pathogens in fecal particles pass from one person to the mouth of another person. Main causes of fecal-oral disease ... Diseases caused by fecal-oral transmission include diarrhea, typhoid, cholera, polio and hepatitis. The foundations for the "F- ...
If an epidemic of cholera is suspected, the most common causative agent is V. cholerae O1. If V. cholerae serogroup O1 is not ... Cholera - Vibrio cholerae infection-Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. *. "Cholera". Encyclopædia Britannica. 6 (11th ... "Cholera transmission: the host, pathogen and bacteriophage dynamic". Nat Rev Microbiol. 7 (10): 693-702. doi:10.1038/ ... "Cholera's seven pandemics". CBC. 9 May 2008. Retrieved 15 July 2018.. *^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z aa ...
Rasheduzzaman; Desai, Ishaan (2014-02-06). "Evaluation in Mice of a Conjugate Vaccine for Cholera Made from Vibrio cholerae O1 ... Ryan has focused on advancing understanding of host-pathogen and immune responses during cholera, a human-restricted infection ... to the O-Specific Polysaccharide and Lipopolysaccharide of Vibrio cholerae O1 in Bangladeshi Adult Patients with Cholera". ... "Memory B Cell Responses to Vibrio cholerae O1 Lipopolysaccharide Are Associated with Protection against Infection from ...
... which specifically targets Vibrio cholerae serogroup O1, has acquired a CRISPR/Cas system that targets a V. cholera PICI-like ... Treatment with Cas9 can deplete abundant rRNA while increasing pathogen sensitivity in RNA-seq libraries. As of December 2014, ... PLoS Pathogens. 12 (6): e1005701. doi:10.1371/journal.ppat.1005701. PMC 4928872 . PMID 27362483. Lay summary - PLOS Media ... to be a strong selective pressure for the acquisition of antibiotic resistance and virulence factor in bacterial pathogens. ...
... which specifically targets Vibrio cholerae serogroup O1, has acquired a CRISPR/Cas system that targets a V. cholera PICI-like ... the opportunistic pathogen Candida albicans, zebrafish (Danio rerio), fruit flies (Drosophila melanogaster),[44 ...
V. cholerae serogroup O31 NRT36S, a human pathogen that produces a heat-stable enterotoxin (NAG-ST), is encapsulated. Here, we ... The capsule polysaccharide structure and biogenesis for non-O1 Vibrio cholerae NRT36S: Genes are embedded in the LPS region. ... The capsule polysaccharide structure and biogenesis for non-O1 Vibrio cholerae NRT36S : Genes are embedded in the LPS region. ... The capsule polysaccharide structure and biogenesis for non-O1 Vibrio cholerae NRT36S: Genes are embedded in the LPS region. ...
... cholerae (7). Such antigenic shifts can alter the interaction between the cholera pathogen and host immune system; hence the ... Genomic profiles of clinical and environmental isolates of Vibrio cholerae O1 in cholera-endemic areas of Bangladesh. Young-Gun ... Genomic profiles of clinical and environmental isolates of Vibrio cholerae O1 in cholera-endemic areas of Bangladesh ... Genomic profiles of clinical and environmental isolates of Vibrio cholerae O1 in cholera-endemic areas of Bangladesh ...
Vibrio cholerae is a human pathogen and natural inhabitant of aquatic environments. Serogroups O1/O139 have been associated ... cholerae non-O1/non-O139 with cladocerans by promoting growth of V. cholerae non-O1/non-O139 in the water and on the surfaces ... while non-O1/non-O139 serogroups usually cause human disease other than classical cholera. V. cholerae non-O1/non-O139 from the ... Interaction of Vibrio cholerae non-O1/non-O139 with Copepods, Cladocerans and Competing Bacteria in the Large Alkaline Lake ...
In this study, a total of 97 Vibrio cholerae O1 isolates from Mathbaria, Bangladesh, collected during 2010 and 2014 were ... The classical cholera toxin gene, ctxB1, was detected in 87 isolates, while eight had ctxB7. Of 95 CTX+V. cholerae O1, 90 ... The classical cholera toxin gene, ctxB1, was detected in 87 isolates, while eight had ctxB7. Of 95 CTX+ V. cholerae O1, 90 ... Sixteen of the V. cholerae O1 isolates showed higher MIC for azithromycin (≥0.5 μg/ml) and were further examined for ten ...
DNA sequence of both chromosomes of the cholera pathogen Vibrio cholerae. Nature 406: 477-483. ... Bacteriophage VP4 is a lytic phage of the Vibrio cholerae serogroup O1, and it is used in phage subtyping of V. cholerae ... O Antigen Is the Receptor of Vibrio cholerae Serogroup O1 El Tor Typing Phage VP4. Jialiang Xu, Jingyun Zhang, Xin Lu, Weili ... Characterization of Vibrio cholerae O1 El Tor galU and galE mutants: influence on lipopolysaccharide structure, colonization, ...
Altered El Tor Vibrio cholerae O1, with classical cholera toxin B gene, was isolated from 16 patients with severe diarrhea at ... Diarrheagenic Pathogens in Polymicrobial Infections [PDF - 356 KB - 6 pages] B. Lindsay et al. View Abstract. Cite This Article ... Polymicrobial infections frequently contained Vibrio cholerae O1 and rotavirus. When these agents were present, some co- ... Recent Clonal Origin of Cholera in Haiti [PDF - 196 KB - 3 pages] A. Ali et al. View Abstract. Cite This Article. Email this ...
... which may alternate among cholera epidemics. The rfbTgene is responsible for the conversion between the two... ... Background Vibrio cholerae serogroup O1 has two major serotypes, Ogawa and Inaba, ... DNA sequence of both chromosomes of the cholera pathogen Vibrio cholerae. Nature. 2000, 406 (6795): 477-483. 10.1038/35020000. ... Vibrio cholerae serogroup O1 has two major serotypes, Ogawa and Inaba, which may alternate among cholera epidemics. The rfbT ...
Cholera-like diarrhea was the major symptom (66.0%); some patients (20.3%) had severe dehydration. These strains lacked the ... We identified 281 Vibrio cholerae non-O1, non-O139 strains from patients with diarrhea in Kolkata, India. ... Fecal specimens were screened for V. cholerae and other enteric pathogens as described (8). NAGs were serotyped by using 206 ... Vibrio cholerae Non-O1, Non-O139 Serogroups and Cholera-like Diarrhea, Kolkata, India On This Page ...
Table describing the effectiveness of chlorine against disease-causing pathogens ... Vibrio cholerae O1 can assume a chlorine-resistant rugose survival form that is virulent for humans. J Infect Dis. 1996;174(6): ... Vibrio cholerae (smooth strain) 7 High. Short. Low. Low. 0.5. ,1. ,0.5. 100%. 20.0. 7.0. ... Vibrio cholerae (rugose strain) 7 High. Short. Low. Low. 2.0. 20. 40. 99.99%. 20.0. 7.0. ...
... cholera-causing strains of the serogroups O1 and O139, and non-O1 V. cholerae (NOVC) . Non-O1 V. cholerae (NOVC) typically ... It is also antigenically distinct from the V. cholerae O1 and O139 strains, which cause epidemic cholera in many countries. ... Vibrio cholerae species can be divided into 2 major groups: ... A look at the epidemiology of an occasionnal pathogen. ... cholera-causing strains of the serogroups O1 and O139, and non-O1 V. cholerae (NOVC) . Non-O1 V. cholerae (NOVC) typically ...
Vibrio cholerae is a pathogen of considerable public health concern because of its potential to cause large epidemics and ... Cholera outbreaks caused by an altered Vibrio cholerae O1 El Tor biotype strain producing classical cholera toxin B in Vietnam ... A new variant of Vibrio cholerae O1 El Tor causing cholera in India. J. Infect. 57:280-281. ... Genome sequence of hybrid Vibrio cholerae O1 MJ-1236, B-33, and CIRS101 and comparative genomics with V. cholerae. J. Bacteriol ...
Vibrio fluvialis infection remains among those infectious diseases posing a potentially serious threat to public health. This ... high densities of disease causing bacteria in the watersheds are regularly reported including incidences of emerging Vibrio ... paper addresses the epidemiology of this pathogen; pathogenesis of its disease; and its clinical manifestations in humans. ... Molecular analysis of antibiotic resistance gene clusters in Vibrio cholerae O139 and O1 SXT constins. Antimicrob. Agents ...
Vibrio cholerae, a gram-negative noninvasive enteric pathogen, is the causative agent of the severe diarrheal disease cholera. ... Emergence of fluoroquinolone-resistant strains of Vibrio cholerae O1 biotype El Tor among hospitalized patients with cholera in ... DNA sequence of both chromosomes of the cholera pathogen Vibrio cholerae. Nature 406:477-483. ... We cloned the gene from non-O1 V. cholerae, which is different from the O1 V. cholerae El Tor N16961 strain used for genome ...
2000) DNA sequence of both chromosomes of the cholera pathogen Vibrio cholerae. Nature 406:477-483. ... 1994) Historical perspectives on pandemic cholera. in Vibrio cholerae and cholera. eds Wachsmuth I. K., Blake P. A., Olsvik O. ... 1986) Culture conditions for stimulating cholera toxin production by Vibrio cholerae O1 El Tor. Microbiol. Immunol. 30:1075- ... Genetic organization of the regions associated with surface polysaccharide synthesis in Vibrio cholerae O1, O139 and Vibrio ...
These Pathogen Safety Data Sheets, regulated under Workplace Hazardous Materials Information System (WHMIS) legislation, are ... PATHOGEN SAFETY DATA SHEET - INFECTIOUS SUBSTANCES. SECTION I. - INFECTIOUS AGENT. NAME: Vibrio cholerae, serogroup O1, ... Pathogen Safety Data Sheets: Infectious Substances - Vibrio cholerae. ... 1983). Plasmid-Borne Multiple Drug Resistance in Vibrio cholerae Serogroup O1, Biotype E1 Tor: Evidence for a Point-Source ...
... but thus far there have been no reports of lysine acetylation taking place in the important human pathogen Vibrio cholerae. In ... In this study, we analyzed the lysine acetylproteome of the human pathogen V. cholerae V52. By applying a combination of immuno ... this study, we analyzed the lysine acetylproteome of the human pathogen V. cholerae V52. By applying a combination of immuno- ... In conclusion, this is the first global protein lysine acetylome analysis of V. cholerae and should constitute a valuable r... ...
... life-threatening diarrheal disease caused by Vibrio cholerae strains of the O1 and O139 serogroups. In contrast, non-O1, non- ... The bacterium Vibrio cholerae, like other human pathogens that reside in environmental reservoirs, survives predation by ... Strains of the O1 and O139 serogroups cause cholera, whereas non-O1/non-O139 strains cause human infections through poorly ... The Non-O1, Non-O139 V. cholerae Strain V52 Resists D. discoideum Predation. Bacterial predation by Dictyostelium is easily ...
We examined vibriocidal titers for 1 year after an episode of severe cholera in patients in Dhaka, Bangladesh; 16 of 53 (30%) ... These data and others suggest that an episode of severe cholera protects against symptomatic disease for several years, but ... Repeated exposures to V. cholerae in endemic areas may be a necessary component for long-lasting protection against severe ... patients had a fourfold or greater increase in vibriocidal titer between 6 and 12 months after an episode of severe cholera, ...
... species other than toxigenic Vibrio cholerae O1 and O139, which cause cholera). These pathogens typically cause ... other than toxigenic Vibrio cholerae O1 or O139, which are reportable as cholera) from a clinical specimen using a culture- ... other than toxigenic Vibrio cholerae O1 or O139, which are reportable as cholera) from a clinical specimen. ... Vibriosis (any species of the family Vibrionaceae, other than toxigenic Vibrio cholerae O1 or O139) , 2012 Case Definition ( ...
The Vibrio cholerae lipopolysaccharide O1 antigen is a major target of bacteriophages and the human immune system and is of ... cholerae, and show that the maintenance of these phase variable loci is an important means by which this facultative pathogen ... We used an O1-specific lytic bacteriophage as a tool to probe the capacity of V. cholerae to alter its O1 antigen and ... B) Proposed biosynthetic pathway for perosamine in V. cholerae O1. The pathway includes ManA for the conversion of F6P to M6P ...
"Genome structure and origin of nontoxigenic strains of Vibrio cholerae of El Tor biovar with different epidemiological ... New variants of Vibrio cholerae O1 biovar El Tor with attributes of the classical biovar from hospitalized patients with acute ... DNA sequence of both chromosomes of the cholera pathogen Vibrio cholerae. Heidelberg, J.F.; Eisen, J.A.; Nelson, W.C. ... Characteristics of Vibrio cholerae O1 isolated from water of the River Ganga, Varanasi ...
Vibrio cholerae is the classic example of a noninvasive enteric pathogen that induces a highly secretory diarrhea in the ... The Contribution of Accessory Toxins of Vibrio cholerae O1 El Tor to the Proinflammatory Response in a Murine Pulmonary Cholera ... The Contribution of Accessory Toxins of Vibrio cholerae O1 El Tor to the Proinflammatory Response in a Murine Pulmonary Cholera ... Cloning of the Vibrio cholerae recA gene and construction of a Vibrio cholerae recA mutant. J. Bacteriol. 165:715-722. ...
Because the nonculturable state has been considered to be a survival strategy for many bacterial pathogens (4, 5, 7-9, 19, 32 ... cholerae O1.. V. cholerae O1 Cells in Pond Water Microcosms.. Autoclaved MW microcosms inoculated with V. cholerae O1 yielded ... cholerae O1 cells shed by cholera patients increase transmissibility of cholera, such in vivo-formed clumps of V. cholerae O1, ... Vibrio cholerae serogroups O1 and O139 are associated with epidemic and pandemic cholera. Cholera is endemic in the Ganges ...
Vibrio Cholerae:. *O1 group: epidemics, biotypes El. Non O1 group: sporadic or non pathogens ... The most effective bacterial enteric pathogens, very low infective dose of 50 pathogens ... For example in Cholera, cAMP will open Cl channels at the apical membrane of enterocytes. This will cause an efflux of Cl into ... Community acquired, enteric pathogen. Non lactose fermenters, non H2S producers, non motile (salmonella does) ...
Identification of VCR, a Repeated Sequence Associated with a Locus Encoding a Hemagglutinin in Vibrio cholerae O1 ... DNA Sequence of Both Chromosomes of the Cholerae Pathogen Vibrio cholerae Heidelberg, J.F.; Eisen, J.A.; Nelson, W.C. ... VCR Repretitive Sequence Elements in the Vibrio cholerae Chromosome Constitute a Mega-Integron ... Comparative Study of Class 1 Integron and Vibrio cholerae Superintegron Integrase Activities ...
Human pathogenO139SerotypeOutbreaksPandemic choleraFoodborne pathogensAntigenBiotypeEpidemiologicalGram negativeCause choleraGenesDiarrheal disease choleraRecombinant cholera toxin B subunitLatin AmericaPathogenesisStaphylococcusToxin genePLoS PathogensShigellaAfricaMultidrugEndemic choleraEnteric PathogenBacterial pathogenVulnificusVirulence factorInabaCausative agent of choleraMolecularAutochthonousToxigenic Vibrio choleraeGenomeNatural inhabitant of aquaticStrains of atypicalPopulationsBacteriophageAquatic environmentsPhageDetectionNoninvasiveSerotypesSeventh pandemic
- V. cholerae serotype Ogawa biotype El tor is the main biotype circulating in Ghana with the emergence of a hybrid strain. (springer.com)
- OS Vibrio cholerae serotype O1 (strain ATCC 39315 / El Tor Inaba N16961). (genome.jp)
- The pathogen is known to be Vibrio cholera O1 serotype Ogawa. (scribd.com)
- Diagnosis of cholera in sporadic cases is intended to clarify the biowar and serotype of the pathogen. (doctorsask.com)
- The switching of serotype from Ogawa to Inaba and back to Ogawa has been observed temporally in Vibrio cholerae O1, which is responsible for endemic cholera in Bangladesh. (asm.org)
- Other serotypes, such as O4:K68, O1:K25, and O1:KUT (untypeable), that had molecular characteristics identical to that of the O3:K6 serotype were subsequently documented. (asm.org)
- Cholera outbreaks occur each year in the remote coastal areas of Bangladesh and epidemiological surveillance and routine monitoring of cholera in these areas is challenging. (frontiersin.org)
- Vibrio cholerae O1 has been responsible for several cholera outbreaks in developing countries. (cdc.gov)
- Nontoxigenic" variants of V. cholerae that do not carry the integrated CTXΦ prophage also cause disease, including sporadic outbreaks of watery diarrhea and isolated incidences of extraintestinal infections, septicemia, and inflammatory enterocolitis ( 2 , 6 - 8 ). (rupress.org)
- An epidemiological and ecological survey of V. cholerae in the coastal ecosystem of the Bay of Bengal provided firm evidence that nonculturable V. cholerae O1 cells are present between epidemics in biofilms in samples collected from bodies of water serving as drinking water source for the Mathbaria area of Bangladesh, where outbreaks of cholera occur annually ( 16 ). (pnas.org)
- There have since been numerous outbreaks and seven global pandemics of cholera . (bingj.com)
- To describe the use of molecular subtyping methodologies to investigate outbreaks caused by MDR enteric bacterial pathogens in sub-Saharan Africa and to describe the current status of molecular subtyping capabilities in the region. (scielo.org.za)
- Consequently, cholera outbreaks may be triggered predominantly in densely populated urban areas. (springer.com)
- Several recent studies have shown that transformation of the pathogen at the molecular level has ameliorated several cholera outbreaks and epidemics of with successive new clones of V. cholerae. (springer.com)
- The pathogen has spread worldwide and causes mainly hospital-associated outbreaks. (asm.org)
- There are many factors that cause foodborne illness, and foodborne pathogens are one of the most important factors. (creative-diagnostics.com)
- Among them, foodborne pathogens are the main cause of foodborne diseases. (creative-diagnostics.com)
- One of the major risks involves the consumption of raw or undercooked seafood that may be naturally contaminated by foodborne pathogens present in the marine environment. (gov.hk)
- 3. In contrast to most other foodborne pathogens, Vibrio spp. (gov.hk)
- its S. typhimurium infection is caused by consumption of eggs or poultry that are not adequately cooked or by other interactive human-animal pathogens Escherichia coli O157:H7 enterohemorrhagic (EHEC) which can cause hemolytic-uremic syndrome Other common bacterial foodborne pathogens are: Bacillus cereus Escherichia coli, other virulence properties, such as enteroinvasive (EIEC), enteropathogenic (EPEC), enterotoxigenic (ETEC), enteroaggregative (EAEC or EAgEC) Listeria monocytogenes Shigella spp. (wikipedia.org)
- With the increase in the demand for fish and seafood, aquaculture production is increasing, which could lead to new risks that will need to be addressed in the future to control foodborne pathogens. (asmscience.org)
- In this study, we investigated the receptor that phage VP4 uses to bind to El Tor strains of V. cholerae and found that it infects strains through adsorbing the O antigen of V. cholerae O1. (asm.org)
- Elaborate mutations of the O antigen may imbue V. cholerae strains with resistance to phage infection. (asm.org)
- Phase variable O antigen biosynthetic genes control expression of the major protective antigen and bacteriophage receptor in Vibrio cholerae O1. (nih.gov)
- The Vibrio cholerae lipopolysaccharide O1 antigen is a major target of bacteriophages and the human immune system and is of critical importance for vaccine design. (nih.gov)
- We identified two phase variable genes required for O1 antigen biosynthesis, manA and wbeL. (nih.gov)
- manA resides outside of the previously recognized O1 antigen biosynthetic locus, and encodes for a phosphomannose isomerase critical for the initial step in O1 antigen biosynthesis. (nih.gov)
- We determined that manA and wbeL phase variants are attenuated for virulence, providing functional evidence to further support the critical role of the O1 antigen for infectivity. (nih.gov)
- We provide the first report of phase variation modulating O1 antigen expression in V. cholerae, and show that the maintenance of these phase variable loci is an important means by which this facultative pathogen can generate the diverse subpopulations of cells needed for infecting the host intestinal tract and for escaping predation by an O1-specific phage. (nih.gov)
- Genetic organization of the O1 antigen biosynthetic locus and the proposed pathway for the synthesis of perosamine in V. cholerae O1. (nih.gov)
- A) Pictorial representation of the genes in the O1 antigen biosynthetic ( wbe ) locus. (nih.gov)
- The genes currently described as being required for O1 antigen biosynthesis are located between the gmh D and rjg flanking genes. (nih.gov)
- Work presented here however extends the O1 antigen biosynthetic cluster to include VC0269 ( manA ). (nih.gov)
- V. cholerae can be divided into serogroups on the basis of the O antigen. (gov.hk)
- In our article entitled "Study of avidity of antigen-specific antibody as a means of understanding development of long-term immunological memory after Vibrio cholerae O1 infection" we showed that antibody avidity after infection and immunization is a good correlate of the development and maintenance of memory B cell responses to V. cholerae O1 antigens. (omicsonline.org)
- Cholera patients showed a longer persistence of IgG and IgA antibodies of high avidity to both T cell dependent antigen, cholera toxin as well as the T cell independent antigen lipopolysaccharide (LPS). (omicsonline.org)
- LPS is considered as a major protective antigen for V. cholerae and thereby antibodies with high avidity directed against the LPS play a crucial role in protection [ 4 ]. (omicsonline.org)
- It is used for detection of vibrio cholera O1 Inaba antigen in the specimens of feces or environment water. (gv-medic.com)
- An interesting finding with human noroviruses and the second most common cause of gastrointestinal illness, rotavirus (although greatly diminishing due to childhood vaccination programs), is the need for certain histo-blood group antigen (HBGA) receptors for these pathogens to bind to target cells (Tan and Viang, 2014). (com.ng)
- Two of the first six cholera pandemics are known to have been caused by the classical biotype, while the ongoing seventh pandemic, which began in 1961, is caused by the El Tor biotype. (springer.com)
- Vibrio cholerae O1 classical (CL) biotype caused the fifth and sixth pandemics, and probably the earlier cholera pandemics, before the El Tor (ET) biotype initiated the seventh pandemic in Asia in the 1970s by completely displacing the CL biotype. (asm.org)
- Although the CL biotype was thought to be extinct in Asia and although it had never been reported from Latin America, V. cholerae CL and ET biotypes, including a hybrid ET, were found associated with areas of cholera endemicity in Mexico between 1991 and 1997. (asm.org)
- In this study, CL biotype strains isolated from areas of cholera endemicity in Mexico between 1983 and 1997 were characterized in terms of major phenotypic and genetic traits and compared with CL biotype strains isolated in Bangladesh between 1962 and 1989. (asm.org)
- According to sero- and biotyping data, all V. cholerae strains tested had the major phenotypic and genotypic characteristics specific for the CL biotype. (asm.org)
- For example, resistance of the Vibrio cholerae O1 El Tor biotype to polymyxin is a result of the remodeling of lipid A by the addition of glycine or diglycine. (asm.org)
- The classical O1 biotype, which is sensitive to polymyxin, cannot perform this modification ( 4 ). (asm.org)
- Molecular genetics of Vibrio cholerae 01 strains of atypical biotype. (northsouth.edu)
- Ashrafus Safa, Sultana Jinath , Kong, Richard, Y.C. Emergence of altered seventh pandemic Vibrio cholerae 01 strains of the El Tor Biotype. (northsouth.edu)
- Vibrio cholerae is a gram negative, non-spore forming, curved rod that is oxidase positive ( Footnote 1 , Footnote 2 , Footnote 3 ) . (canada.ca)
- Vibrio cholerae , a gram-negative noninvasive enteric pathogen, is the causative agent of the severe diarrheal disease cholera. (asm.org)
- A large number of Gram-negative bacterial pathogens carry genes homologous to vas genes and potential effector proteins secreted by this pathway (i.e., hemolysin-coregulated protein and VgrG). (pnas.org)
- A genus of curved, motile, GRAM NEGATIVE organisms that contains the bacillus, Vibrio cholerae that causes CHOLERA . (thefreedictionary.com)
- We show that vas genes are required for cytotoxicity of V. cholerae cells toward Dictyostelium amoebae and mammalian J774 macrophages by a contact-dependent mechanism. (pnas.org)
- The virulence factor predominantly responsible for this watery diarrhea is cholera toxin (CT), * a powerful enterotoxin encoded by the ctxA and ctxB genes carried on the transmissible prophage CTXΦ ( 4 , 5 ). (rupress.org)
- Underscoring the significance of these findings, he said the study shows that non-pathogenic cholera strains with the potential to acquire pathogenic genes have been circulating in this region for a significant amount of time, and that such bacterial reservoirs can potentially give rise to new epidemic strains. (medindia.net)
- Cholera toxin genes were detected by polymerase chain reaction in broth enrichments of samples collected in all visits except March 2012. (ajtmh.org)
- Genes that code for ctx and tcp have been associated with toxigenic V. cholerae acquired from their marine environment [ 6 ]. (springer.com)
- The epidemic cholera caused by Vibrio cholerae O1 appeared in Latin America in 1991 after a 100-year absence. (cdc.gov)
- Specialized microbiological studies on these waters are necessary to avoid a repeat of what happened in 1991, when epidemic cholera was reported in Peru and rapidly spread through Latin America and Mexico. (scielo.br)
- In conclusion, this is the first global protein lysine acetylome analysis of V. cholerae and should constitute a valuable resource for in-depth studies of the impact of lysine acetylation in pathogenesis and other cellular processes. (frontiersin.org)
- My laboratory conducts research into a number of enteric and invasive bacterial pathogens with a focus on the role of bacterial cell surface molecules in bacterial pathogenesis. (edu.au)
- Her research interest and specialism include food and water borne pathogens, transmission and pathogenesis of Helicobacter pylori in developing country, screening of enzyme producing microorganisms as a tool of bioremediation, development and application of novel DNA-based technologies as risk assessment tool, and screening of bcateriophages to use as phage therapy. (northsouth.edu)
- Cholera, an ancient diarrheal disease, continues to be a serious threat in countries of Asia, Africa, and South America. (frontiersin.org)
- Most of the cases are in the Indian subcontinent and Africa (in 2002 the WHO estimated that 97% of the cholera cases were in Africa) ( Footnote 2 , Footnote 3 ) . (canada.ca)
- Cholera, which is caused by toxigenic and drug-resistant V. cholerae strains, is a major public health concern in developing countries of Asia and Africa ( 11 ). (asm.org)
- Emergence of classical cholera toxin carrying El Tor strains of Vibrio cholerae O1 in Asia and Africa. (northsouth.edu)
- Growing problem of multidrug resistant enteric pathogens in Africa. (edu.gh)
- Genomic history of the seventh pandemic of cholera in Africa. (cdc.gov)
- The bacterial pathogen Vibrio cholerae can occupy both the human gut and aquatic reservoirs, where it may colonize chitinous surfaces that induce the expression of factors for three phenotypes: chitin utilization, DNA uptake by natural transformation, and contact-dependent bacterial killing via a type VI secretion system (T6SS). (nih.gov)
- It appears that clonal shifts in the causative agent of cholera represent a fundamental characteristic of cholera dynamics (see Background , which is published as supporting information on the PNAS web site, www.pnas.org ). (pnas.org)
- Vibrio cholerae , the causative agent of cholera, is autochthonous to the estuarine and marine environment worldwide. (frontiersin.org)
- Vibrio cholerae , the causative agent of cholera, is one of the most successful emerging and reemerging pathogens that has both human and environmental components in its life cycle ( 23 ). (asm.org)
- Furthermore, the presence of nonculturable V. cholerae O1 is confirmed by molecular methods ( 6 ). (pnas.org)
- Thus, molecular methods may be better suited to determine shifts in the abundance of Vibrio populations. (asm.org)
- Hence, we suggest a link between genotype and virulence characteristics of Vibrio anguillarum , which can be used to unravel the molecular evolution of V. anguillarum and can also be important from survey and diagnostic perspectives. (asm.org)
- Diversity, relatedness, and ecological interactions of toxigenic Vibrio cholerae O1 populations in two distinctive habitats, the human intestine and the aquatic environment, were analyzed. (pnas.org)
- Since the 2010 earthquake and cholera epidemic in Haiti, researchers have debated whether toxigenic Vibrio cholerae was already present in Haiti's aquatic environments," said Dr. J. Glenn Morris, MD, a professor in the University of Florida's College of Medicine and the director of the Emerging Pathogens Institute. (medindia.net)
- Epidemic cholera was reported in Haiti in 2010, with no information available on the occurrence or geographic distribution of toxigenic Vibrio cholerae in Haitian waters. (ajtmh.org)
- An ambient temperature stable and ready-to-use loop-mediated isothermal amplification assay for detection of toxigenic Vibrio cholerae in outbreak settings. (cdc.gov)
- Genetic profiling was done by enterobacterial repetitive intergenic consensus sequence-PCR, optimized for profiling by using the fully sequenced V. cholerae El Tor N16961 genome. (pnas.org)
- Some serotypes may serve as a reservoir for the cholera toxin phage genome ( Footnote 6 , Footnote 7 ) . (canada.ca)
- The ctx genetic element which has been reported to comprise the genome of a filamentous transportable phage (ctxΦ) [ 3 ] encodes the cholera toxin [ 4 ] and the pathogenicity island (VPI) that codes for the TCP, a type IV pilus, functions in colonization and acts as a receptor for ctxΦ. (springer.com)
- Minimal genetic change in Vibrio cholerae in Mozambique over time: Multilocus variable number tandem repeat analysis and whole genome sequencing. (cdc.gov)
- In conclusion, the resulting population structure supports the hypothesis that spatial and temporal fluctuations in the composition of toxigenic V. cholerae populations in the aquatic environment can cause shifts in the dynamics of the disease. (pnas.org)
- Cholera continues to pose a serious health threat globally, notably in those countries where clean drinking water is not available to local populations. (pnas.org)
- Based on our results, we suggest that manipulating the polarization of reflected light is a viable way to control chironomid populations and mitigate cholera dispersion. (biologists.org)
- This, in turn, may be a key element for V. cholerae to evolve new strains that can escape immunologic detection by host populations. (elsevier.com)
- Vibrio populations identified by QPCR-CDCE varied between summer and winter samples, suggesting distinct warm-water and year-round populations. (asm.org)
- Because all of these pathogens appear to maintain planktonic populations, considerable interest exists in understanding the prevalence and dynamics of specific Vibrio populations in the environment. (asm.org)
- Vibrio cholerae persists in aquatic environments predominantly in a nonculturable state. (pnas.org)
- However, fluorescent antibody-based studies show that V. cholerae O1 is, nevertheless, present in aquatic environments throughout the year ( 5 ). (pnas.org)
- Non-virulent deadly cholera strains may have been in Haiti's aquatic environments since the 1500s. (medindia.net)
- Aquatic environments such as rivers, estuaries and seas are the recognized reservoir for V. cholerae, where it can be found as free-living cells or attached to biotic or abiotic surfaces [ 2 ]. (springer.com)
- A phage biotyping scheme has been used to subtype the Chinese O1 El Tor strains for 40 years ( 11 ), and it has played an important role in surveillance and source tracing of cholera. (asm.org)
- Phage typing is a useful tool for studying the source or origin of V. cholerae for epidemiologic importance. (cdc.gov)
- Because of limitations of the Basu and Mukerjee scheme, a new phage-typing scheme for V. cholerae O1 was developed at the National Institute of Cholera and Enteric Diseases, India ( 1 - 3 ). (cdc.gov)
- During the course of a comprehensive study on the phage typing of V. cholerae O1, most strains isolated in Brazil were found to be sensitive with a set of 10 El Tor phages (ATCC 51352-B1-B10) ( 4 ). (cdc.gov)
- Samples were processed for phage isolation according to the procedure adopted for V. cholerae phages ( 5 , 6 ). (cdc.gov)
- Important steps of the noninvasive disease process include ingestion of V. cholerae along with contaminated food or water, passage through the gastric acid barrier of the stomach, adherence to and penetration through the intestinal mucus lining, adherence to intestinal epithelial cells, multiplication, and cholera toxin (CT) production ( 25 ). (asm.org)
- Since V. cholerae is noninvasive, mucosal immunity is likely important for protection. (asm.org)
- Vibrio cholerae O1 is a noninvasive mucosal pathogen that colonizes the surface of the small intestine and elaborates cholera toxin (CT), an ADP-ribosylating toxin that causes secretory diarrhea. (asm.org)
- However, because V. cholerae is noninvasive, it has been hypothesized that protection is effected by antibodies at the mucosal surface. (asm.org)