Patents as Topic: Exclusive legal rights or privileges applied to inventions, plants, etc.Foramen Ovale, Patent: A condition in which the FORAMEN OVALE in the ATRIAL SEPTUM fails to close shortly after birth. This results in abnormal communications between the two upper chambers of the heart. An isolated patent ovale foramen without other structural heart defects is usually of no hemodynamic significance.Heart Septal Defects, Atrial: Developmental abnormalities in any portion of the ATRIAL SEPTUM resulting in abnormal communications between the two upper chambers of the heart. Classification of atrial septal defects is based on location of the communication and types of incomplete fusion of atrial septa with the ENDOCARDIAL CUSHIONS in the fetal heart. They include ostium primum, ostium secundum, sinus venosus, and coronary sinus defects.Intellectual Property: Property, such as patents, trademarks, and copyright, that results from creative effort. The Patent and Copyright Clause (Art. 1, Sec. 8, cl. 8) of the United States Constitution provides for promoting the progress of science and useful arts by securing for limited times to authors and inventors, the exclusive right to their respective writings and discoveries. (From Black's Law Dictionary, 5th ed, p1014)Embolism, Paradoxical: Blockage of an artery due to passage of a clot (THROMBUS) from a systemic vein to a systemic artery without its passing through the lung which acts as a filter to remove blood clots from entering the arterial circulation. Paradoxical embolism occurs when there is a defect that allows a clot to cross directly from the right to the left side of the heart as in the cases of ATRIAL SEPTAL DEFECTS or open FORAMEN OVALE. Once in the arterial circulation, a clot can travel to the brain, block an artery, and cause a STROKE.Septal Occluder Device: A CATHETER-delivered implant used for closing abnormal holes in the cardiovascular system, especially HEART SEPTAL DEFECTS; or passageways intentionally made during cardiovascular surgical procedures.PatentsVascular Patency: The degree to which BLOOD VESSELS are not blocked or obstructed.Inventions: A novel composition, device, or process, independently conceived de novo or derived from a pre-existing model.Echocardiography, Transesophageal: Ultrasonic recording of the size, motion, and composition of the heart and surrounding tissues using a transducer placed in the esophagus.Drug Industry: That segment of commercial enterprise devoted to the design, development, and manufacture of chemical products for use in the diagnosis and treatment of disease, disability, or other dysfunction, or to improve function.Periodicals as Topic: A publication issued at stated, more or less regular, intervals.Congresses as Topic: Conferences, conventions or formal meetings usually attended by delegates representing a special field of interest.Licensure: The legal authority or formal permission from authorities to carry on certain activities which by law or regulation require such permission. It may be applied to licensure of institutions as well as individuals.Cardiac Catheterization: Procedures in which placement of CARDIAC CATHETERS is performed for therapeutic or diagnostic procedures.Treatment Outcome: Evaluation undertaken to assess the results or consequences of management and procedures used in combating disease in order to determine the efficacy, effectiveness, safety, and practicability of these interventions in individual cases or series.Textbooks as Topic: Books used in the study of a subject that contain a systematic presentation of the principles and vocabulary of a subject.Abstracting and Indexing as Topic: Activities performed to identify concepts and aspects of published information and research reports.Legislation, Drug: Laws concerned with manufacturing, dispensing, and marketing of drugs.Review Literature as Topic: Published materials which provide an examination of recent or current literature. Review articles can cover a wide range of subject matter at various levels of completeness and comprehensiveness based on analyses of literature that may include research findings. The review may reflect the state of the art. It also includes reviews as a literary form.Biotechnology: Body of knowledge related to the use of organisms, cells or cell-derived constituents for the purpose of developing products which are technically, scientifically and clinically useful. Alteration of biologic function at the molecular level (i.e., GENETIC ENGINEERING) is a central focus; laboratory methods used include TRANSFECTION and CLONING technologies, sequence and structure analysis algorithms, computer databases, and gene and protein structure function analysis and prediction.Prostheses and Implants: Artificial substitutes for body parts, and materials inserted into tissue for functional, cosmetic, or therapeutic purposes. Prostheses can be functional, as in the case of artificial arms and legs, or cosmetic, as in the case of an artificial eye. Implants, all surgically inserted or grafted into the body, tend to be used therapeutically. IMPLANTS, EXPERIMENTAL is available for those used experimentally.Urachus: An embryonic structure originating from the ALLANTOIS. It is a canal connecting the fetal URINARY BLADDER and the UMBILICUS. It is normally converted into a fibrous cord postnatally. When the canal fails to be filled and remains open (patent urachus), urine leaks through the umbilicus.Balloon Occlusion: Use of a balloon CATHETER to block the flow of blood through an artery or vein.Ductus Arteriosus: A fetal blood vessel connecting the pulmonary artery with the descending aorta.Randomized Controlled Trials as Topic: Works about clinical trials that involve at least one test treatment and one control treatment, concurrent enrollment and follow-up of the test- and control-treated groups, and in which the treatments to be administered are selected by a random process, such as the use of a random-numbers table.Blood Vessel Prosthesis: Device constructed of either synthetic or biological material that is used for the repair of injured or diseased blood vessels.Infant, Newborn: An infant during the first month after birth.Angiography: Radiography of blood vessels after injection of a contrast medium.Follow-Up Studies: Studies in which individuals or populations are followed to assess the outcome of exposures, procedures, or effects of a characteristic, e.g., occurrence of disease.Guidelines as Topic: A systematic statement of policy rules or principles. Guidelines may be developed by government agencies at any level, institutions, professional societies, governing boards, or by convening expert panels. The text may be cursive or in outline form but is generally a comprehensive guide to problems and approaches in any field of activity. For guidelines in the field of health care and clinical medicine, PRACTICE GUIDELINES AS TOPIC is available.Evidence-Based Medicine: An approach of practicing medicine with the goal to improve and evaluate patient care. It requires the judicious integration of best research evidence with the patient's values to make decisions about medical care. This method is to help physicians make proper diagnosis, devise best testing plan, choose best treatment and methods of disease prevention, as well as develop guidelines for large groups of patients with the same disease. (from JAMA 296 (9), 2006)Terminology as Topic: The terms, expressions, designations, or symbols used in a particular science, discipline, or specialized subject area.Benchmarking: Method of measuring performance against established standards of best practice.Research: Critical and exhaustive investigation or experimentation, having for its aim the discovery of new facts and their correct interpretation, the revision of accepted conclusions, theories, or laws in the light of newly discovered facts, or the practical application of such new or revised conclusions, theories, or laws. (Webster, 3d ed)Programmed Instruction as Topic: Instruction in which learners progress at their own rate using workbooks, textbooks, or electromechanical devices that provide information in discrete steps, test learning at each step, and provide immediate feedback about achievement. (ERIC, Thesaurus of ERIC Descriptors, 1996).Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Graft Occlusion, Vascular: Obstruction of flow in biological or prosthetic vascular grafts.Infant, Premature: A human infant born before 37 weeks of GESTATION.Ligation: Application of a ligature to tie a vessel or strangulate a part.Rosaniline Dyes: Compounds that contain the triphenylmethane aniline structure found in rosaniline. Many of them have a characteristic magenta color and are used as COLORING AGENTS.Drugs, Generic: Drugs whose drug name is not protected by a trademark. They may be manufactured by several companies.Aortography: Radiographic visualization of the aorta and its branches by injection of contrast media, using percutaneous puncture or catheterization procedures.Interviews as Topic: Conversations with an individual or individuals held in order to obtain information about their background and other personal biographical data, their attitudes and opinions, etc. It includes school admission or job interviews.Cardiac Surgical Procedures: Surgery performed on the heart.Heart Aneurysm: A localized bulging or dilatation in the muscle wall of a heart (MYOCARDIUM), usually in the LEFT VENTRICLE. Blood-filled aneurysms are dangerous because they may burst. Fibrous aneurysms interfere with the heart function through the loss of contractility. True aneurysm is bound by the vessel wall or cardiac wall. False aneurysms are HEMATOMA caused by myocardial rupture.Foramen Ovale: An opening in the wall between the right and the left upper chambers (HEART ATRIA) of a fetal heart. Oval foramen normally closes soon after birth; when it fails to close the condition is called PATENT OVAL FORAMEN.Embolism: Blocking of a blood vessel by an embolus which can be a blood clot or other undissolved material in the blood stream.Blood Vessel Prosthesis Implantation: Surgical insertion of BLOOD VESSEL PROSTHESES to repair injured or diseased blood vessels.Ibuprofen: A nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory agent with analgesic properties used in the therapy of rheumatism and arthritis.Herbals as Topic: Works about books, articles or other publications on herbs or plants describing their medicinal value.Infant, Premature, DiseasesPolytetrafluoroethylene: Homopolymer of tetrafluoroethylene. Nonflammable, tough, inert plastic tubing or sheeting; used to line vessels, insulate, protect or lubricate apparatus; also as filter, coating for surgical implants or as prosthetic material. Synonyms: Fluoroflex; Fluoroplast; Ftoroplast; Halon; Polyfene; PTFE; Tetron.Valsalva Maneuver: Forced expiratory effort against a closed GLOTTIS.Saphenous Vein: The vein which drains the foot and leg.United StatesEndarteritis: Inflammation of the inner endothelial lining (TUNICA INTIMA) of an artery.Anastomosis, Surgical: Surgical union or shunt between ducts, tubes or vessels. It may be end-to-end, end-to-side, side-to-end, or side-to-side.Research Support as Topic: Financial support of research activities.Embolization, Therapeutic: A method of hemostasis utilizing various agents such as Gelfoam, silastic, metal, glass, or plastic pellets, autologous clot, fat, and muscle as emboli. It has been used in the treatment of spinal cord and INTRACRANIAL ARTERIOVENOUS MALFORMATIONS, renal arteriovenous fistulas, gastrointestinal bleeding, epistaxis, hypersplenism, certain highly vascular tumors, traumatic rupture of blood vessels, and control of operative hemorrhage.Femoral Artery: The main artery of the thigh, a continuation of the external iliac artery.Echocardiography: Ultrasonic recording of the size, motion, and composition of the heart and surrounding tissues. The standard approach is transthoracic.Practice Guidelines as Topic: Directions or principles presenting current or future rules of policy for assisting health care practitioners in patient care decisions regarding diagnosis, therapy, or related clinical circumstances. The guidelines may be developed by government agencies at any level, institutions, professional societies, governing boards, or by the convening of expert panels. The guidelines form a basis for the evaluation of all aspects of health care and delivery.Biomedical Research: Research that involves the application of the natural sciences, especially biology and physiology, to medicine.Retrospective Studies: Studies used to test etiologic hypotheses in which inferences about an exposure to putative causal factors are derived from data relating to characteristics of persons under study or to events or experiences in their past. The essential feature is that some of the persons under study have the disease or outcome of interest and their characteristics are compared with those of unaffected persons.Femoral Vein: The vein accompanying the femoral artery in the same sheath; it is a continuation of the popliteal vein and becomes the external iliac vein.Bookplates as Topic: Labels pasted in books to mark their ownership and sometimes to indicate their location in a library. Private bookplates are often ornate or artistic: simpler and smaller ones bearing merely the owner's name are called "book labels." They are usually pasted on the front endpaper of books. (From Harrod, The Librarians' Glossary and Reference Book, 4th rev ed & Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed)Broadsides as Topic: Published pieces of paper or other material, usually printed on one side and intended to be read unfolded and usually intended to be posted, publicly distributed, or sold. (From Genre Terms: A Thesaurus for Use in Rare Book and Special Collections Cataloguing, 2d ed)Intracranial Embolism: Blocking of a blood vessel in the SKULL by an EMBOLUS which can be a blood clot (THROMBUS) or other undissolved material in the blood stream. Most emboli are of cardiac origin and are associated with HEART DISEASES. Other non-cardiac sources of emboli are usually associated with VASCULAR DISEASES.Heart Septal Defects: Abnormalities in any part of the HEART SEPTUM resulting in abnormal communication between the left and the right chambers of the heart. The abnormal blood flow inside the heart may be caused by defects in the ATRIAL SEPTUM, the VENTRICULAR SEPTUM, or both.Stents: Devices that provide support for tubular structures that are being anastomosed or for body cavities during skin grafting.Echocardiography, Doppler, Color: Echocardiography applying the Doppler effect, with the superposition of flow information as colors on a gray scale in a real-time image.Biosimilar Pharmaceuticals: BIOLOGIC PRODUCTS that are imitations but not exact replicas of innovator products.Patient Education as Topic: The teaching or training of patients concerning their own health needs.Clinical Trials as Topic: Works about pre-planned studies of the safety, efficacy, or optimum dosage schedule (if appropriate) of one or more diagnostic, therapeutic, or prophylactic drugs, devices, or techniques selected according to predetermined criteria of eligibility and observed for predefined evidence of favorable and unfavorable effects. This concept includes clinical trials conducted both in the U.S. and in other countries.Postoperative Complications: Pathologic processes that affect patients after a surgical procedure. They may or may not be related to the disease for which the surgery was done, and they may or may not be direct results of the surgery.Stroke: A group of pathological conditions characterized by sudden, non-convulsive loss of neurological function due to BRAIN ISCHEMIA or INTRACRANIAL HEMORRHAGES. Stroke is classified by the type of tissue NECROSIS, such as the anatomic location, vasculature involved, etiology, age of the affected individual, and hemorrhagic vs. non-hemorrhagic nature. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp777-810)Prosthesis Design: The plan and delineation of prostheses in general or a specific prosthesis.Arterial Occlusive Diseases: Pathological processes which result in the partial or complete obstruction of ARTERIES. They are characterized by greatly reduced or absence of blood flow through these vessels. They are also known as arterial insufficiency.Vena Cava, Inferior: The venous trunk which receives blood from the lower extremities and from the pelvic and abdominal organs.Urachal Cyst: Cyst occurring in a persistent portion of the urachus, presenting as an extraperitoneal mass in the umbilical region. It is characterized by abdominal pain, and fever if infected. It may rupture, leading to peritonitis, or it may drain through the umbilicus.Testicular Hydrocele: Accumulation of serous fluid between the layers of membrane (tunica vaginalis) covering the TESTIS in the SCROTUM.Curriculum: A course of study offered by an educational institution.Popliteal Artery: The continuation of the femoral artery coursing through the popliteal fossa; it divides into the anterior and posterior tibial arteries.Economic Competition: The effort of two or more parties to secure the business of a third party by offering, usually under fair or equitable rules of business practice, the most favorable terms.Arteriovenous Shunt, Surgical: Surgical shunt allowing direct passage of blood from an artery to a vein. (From Dorland, 28th ed)Migraine with Aura: A subtype of migraine disorder, characterized by recurrent attacks of reversible neurological symptoms (aura) that precede or accompany the headache. Aura may include a combination of sensory disturbances, such as blurred VISION; HALLUCINATIONS; VERTIGO; NUMBNESS; and difficulty in concentrating and speaking. Aura is usually followed by features of the COMMON MIGRAINE, such as PHOTOPHOBIA; PHONOPHOBIA; and NAUSEA. (International Classification of Headache Disorders, 2nd ed. Cephalalgia 2004: suppl 1)Veins: The vessels carrying blood away from the capillary beds.Webcasts as Topic: Transmission of live or pre-recorded audio or video content via connection or download from the INTERNET.Reoperation: A repeat operation for the same condition in the same patient due to disease progression or recurrence, or as followup to failed previous surgery.Prospective Studies: Observation of a population for a sufficient number of persons over a sufficient number of years to generate incidence or mortality rates subsequent to the selection of the study group.Mammary Arteries: Arteries originating from the subclavian or axillary arteries and distributing to the anterior thoracic wall, mediastinal structures, diaphragm, pectoral muscles and mammary gland.Investments: Use for articles on the investing of funds for income or profit.Tomography, X-Ray Computed: Tomography using x-ray transmission and a computer algorithm to reconstruct the image.Manuscripts as Topic: Compositions written by hand, as one written before the invention or adoption of printing. A manuscript may also refer to a handwritten copy of an ancient author. A manuscript may be handwritten or typewritten as distinguished from a printed copy, especially the copy of a writer's work from which printed copies are made. (Webster, 3d ed)Meta-Analysis as Topic: A quantitative method of combining the results of independent studies (usually drawn from the published literature) and synthesizing summaries and conclusions which may be used to evaluate therapeutic effectiveness, plan new studies, etc., with application chiefly in the areas of research and medicine.Equipment Design: Methods of creating machines and devices.Indomethacin: A non-steroidal anti-inflammatory agent (NSAID) that inhibits the enzyme cyclooxygenase necessary for the formation of prostaglandins and other autacoids. It also inhibits the motility of polymorphonuclear leukocytes.Lawyers: Persons whose profession is to give legal advice and assistance to clients and represent them in legal matters. (American Heritage Dictionary, 3d ed)Vascular Surgical Procedures: Operative procedures for the treatment of vascular disorders.Aneurysm: Pathological outpouching or sac-like dilatation in the wall of any blood vessel (ARTERIES or VEINS) or the heart (HEART ANEURYSM). It indicates a thin and weakened area in the wall which may later rupture. Aneurysms are classified by location, etiology, or other characteristics.Heart Defects, Congenital: Developmental abnormalities involving structures of the heart. These defects are present at birth but may be discovered later in life.Polyethylene Terephthalates: Polyester polymers formed from terephthalic acid or its esters and ethylene glycol. They can be formed into tapes, films or pulled into fibers that are pressed into meshes or woven into fabrics.Constriction, Pathologic: The condition of an anatomical structure's being constricted beyond normal dimensions.Risk Factors: An aspect of personal behavior or lifestyle, environmental exposure, or inborn or inherited characteristic, which, on the basis of epidemiologic evidence, is known to be associated with a health-related condition considered important to prevent.Heart Septum: This structure includes the thin muscular atrial septum between the two HEART ATRIA, and the thick muscular ventricular septum between the two HEART VENTRICLES.Tibial Arteries: The anterior and posterior arteries created at the bifurcation of the popliteal artery. The anterior tibial artery begins at the lower border of the popliteus muscle and lies along the tibia at the distal part of the leg to surface superficially anterior to the ankle joint. Its branches are distributed throughout the leg, ankle, and foot. The posterior tibial artery begins at the lower border of the popliteus muscle, lies behind the tibia in the lower part of its course, and is found situated between the medial malleolus and the medial process of the calcaneal tuberosity. Its branches are distributed throughout the leg and foot.Dehumanization: The process by which a person or group of persons comes to be regarded or treated as lacking in human qualities.Empirical Research: The study, based on direct observation, use of statistical records, interviews, or experimental methods, of actual practices or the actual impact of practices or policies.Thrombosis: Formation and development of a thrombus or blood clot in the blood vessel.Recurrence: The return of a sign, symptom, or disease after a remission.Heart Murmurs: Heart sounds caused by vibrations resulting from the flow of blood through the heart. Heart murmurs can be examined by HEART AUSCULTATION, and analyzed by their intensity (6 grades), duration, timing (systolic, diastolic, or continuous), location, transmission, and quality (musical, vibratory, blowing, etc).Pharmaceutical Preparations: Drugs intended for human or veterinary use, presented in their finished dosage form. Included here are materials used in the preparation and/or formulation of the finished dosage form.Radiography, Interventional: Diagnostic and therapeutic procedures that are invasive or surgical in nature, and require the expertise of a specially trained radiologist. In general, they are more invasive than diagnostic imaging but less invasive than major surgery. They often involve catheterization, fluoroscopy, or computed tomography. Some examples include percutaneous transhepatic cholangiography, percutaneous transthoracic biopsy, balloon angioplasty, and arterial embolization.Commerce: The interchange of goods or commodities, especially on a large scale, between different countries or between populations within the same country. It includes trade (the buying, selling, or exchanging of commodities, whether wholesale or retail) and business (the purchase and sale of goods to make a profit). (From Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed, p411, p2005 & p283)

Disease gene patents: overcoming unethical constraints on clinical laboratory medicine. (1/276)

The rapidly growing number of disease gene patents--patents that claim all methods for diagnosis of a particular genetic condition--threatens the ability of physicians to provide medical care to their patients. In the past, patented diagnostic tests were made broadly available to the medical community in the form of test kits or licenses to use the patented test. Disease gene tests, however, are being monopolized by a small number of providers. Monopolization of medical testing services: (a) threatens to restrict research activities; (b) creates unacceptable conflicts of interest; (c) may reduce patient access to testing; (d) may lead to inequitable extensions of patent terms on tests and related discoveries; and (e) grants to patent holders the ability to dictate the standard of care for testing, and to otherwise interfere with the practice of medicine. Because of the risks raised by monopolization, amendment of the patent law to require compulsory licensing of physicians providing medical services is recommended.  (+info)

Essential drugs in the new international economic environment. (2/276)

Recent global developments in the regulation of trade and intellectual property rights threaten to hinder the access of populations in developing countries to essential drugs. The authors argue for state intervention in the health and pharmaceutical markets in order to guarantee equitable access to these products.  (+info)

The future of molecular genetic testing. (3/276)

The potential applications for genetic testing are immense, with most diseases having some aspect influenced by, if not directly caused by, changes in the genome of the patient. The translation of genetic information into medical applications will be influenced by our understanding of the human genome, technological advances, and social, ethical, and legal issues surrounding genetic testing. With time, new genetic information will be translated into clinical tests for the diagnosis of current illness and prediction of future disease risk, and will be used for the development of genetically directed therapies and preventive interventions. Most genetic testing will be highly automated, with only rare genetic disease tests performed manually. The challenge for the clinical genetic laboratory is to keep pace with this information explosion to provide state-of-the-art genetic testing and to ensure that the genetic test results are used in a morally, ethically, and socially responsible way.  (+info)

Pharmaceutical policies in Canada: another example of federal-provincial discord. (4/276)

Pharmaceutical policy in Canada is set at both the federal and provincial levels of government. The federal government is responsible for intellectual property rights of manufacturers (patents) and the initial approval and labelling of prescription drugs and for ensuring overall market competitiveness. The provincial government has responsibility and jurisdiction over the funding of all health care services, including pharmaceuticals. Various interactions between the pharmaceutical industry, the federal and provincial governments and consumers have shaped the current landscape for prescription drugs in Canada. One key failing of the system is that the federal government is almost completely insulated from the impact of its policies because, although it regulates drug prices, it does not buy any drugs. In contrast, provincial governments have no jurisdiction over market competitiveness or pricing, yet end up paying for most of the drug expenditures incurred.  (+info)

Effect of multiple-source entry on price competition after patent expiration in the pharmaceutical industry. (5/276)

OBJECTIVE: To analyze the effect of multiple-source drug entry on price competition after patent expiration in the pharmaceutical industry. DATA SOURCES: Originators and their multiple-source drugs selected from the 35 chemical entities whose patents expired from 1984 through 1987. Data were obtained from various primary and secondary sources for the patents' expiration dates, sales volume and units sold, and characteristics of drugs in the sample markets. STUDY DESIGN: The study was designed to determine significant factors using the study model developed under the assumption that the off-patented market is an imperfectly segmented market. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: After patent expiration, the originators' prices continued to increase, while the price of multiple-source drugs decreased significantly over time. By the fourth year after patent expiration, originators' sales had decreased 12 percent in dollars and 30 percent in quantity. Multiple-source drugs increased their sales twofold in dollars and threefold in quantity, and possessed about one-fourth (in dollars) and half (in quantity) of the total market three years after entry. CONCLUSION: After patent expiration, multiple-source drugs compete largely with other multiple-source drugs in the price-sensitive sector, but indirectly with the originator in the price-insensitive sector. Originators have first-mover advantages, and therefore have a market that is less price sensitive after multiple-source drugs enter. On the other hand, multiple-source drugs target the price-sensitive sector, using their lower-priced drugs. This trend may indicate that the off-patented market is imperfectly segmented between the price-sensitive and insensitive sector. Consumers as a whole can gain from the entry of multiple-source drugs because the average price of the market continually declines after patent expiration.  (+info)

Pending resolution: the question of who owns DNA. (6/276)

With the emergence of the Human Genome Project and its private counterparts, the U.S. Patent and Trademark Office has begun receiving applications for the patenting of genes and genetic sequences. Earlier patent decisions regarding similar scientific advances limited patents to organisms "made by the hand of man," which would seem to remove discovered genes from patent protection. But many applicants have been successful in attaining patents for genes based on their ability to demonstrate the ultimate utility of the gene, for instance in medicine. One controversy regarding genomic patenting, however, is that patents apparently have been granted for mere gene fragments devoid of much demonstrable utility. Furthermore, critics fear that gene patenting will retard research by squelching scientists' ability to share findings freely.  (+info)

Patenting human genetic material: refocusing the debate. (7/276)

The biotechnology industry has become firmly established over the past twenty years and gene patents have played an important part in this phenomenon. However, concerns have been raised over the patentability of human genetic material, through public protests and international statements, but to little effect. Here we discuss some of these concerns, the patent authorities' response to them, and ways in which to address these issues and to move the debate forward using current legal structures.  (+info)

Patent protection of pharmaceuticals. (8/276)

Patenting of biologically active compounds by academic institutions is discussed, with emphasis on patents for already known compounds.  (+info)

  • The Pilot Program provides applicants who submit eligible U.S. patent applications with the opportunity to conduct an interview with the patent examiner after he or she conducts a prior art search, but before issuance of a first Office Action on the merits. (
  • The Pilot Program gives applicants who submit certain patent applications the opportunity to conduct an interview with the patent examiner prior to issuance of a first Office Action on the merits. (
  • Self-initiated steps taken by future patent applicants, such as the one taken in the present decision, will also go a long way in tackling the issue head-on. (
  • This was incorporated into the Statute of Monopolies (1624) in which Parliament restricted the Crown's power explicitly so that the King could only issue letters patent to the inventors or introducers of original inventions for a fixed number of years. (
  • industrial design rights are called design patents in the US, plant breeders' rights are sometimes called plant patents , and utility models and Gebrauchsmuster are sometimes called petty patents or innovation patents . (
  • The choice of standard-essential patents (SEPs) is particularly suited because of the 'strategic' importance of such patents for China's indigenous innovation program. (
  • The choice of standard-essential patents (SEPs) is particularly suited because of the {\textquoteleft}strategic{\textquoteright} importance of such patents for China{\textquoteright}s indigenous innovation program. (
  • Which brings us to the issue of pendency in the Indian Patent Office: This issue is currently being effectively tackled by the Government and measures such as computerization of work-flow, automation, electronic transfer of applications between branches etc. have indeed led to a decline in the number of pending matters. (
  • It focuses on the case of China and looks specifically at patent applications declared as essential to a technological standard. (
  • We find that patent applications by foreign firms are treated unfavorably when examiners know that they are declared as standard essential. (
  • If not, the patent examiner will issue a Pre-Interview Communication setting forth a one-month time period (extendible for thirty days under the enhanced program) during which the applicant may request or decline the interview. (
  • If no agreement is reached, the patent examiner will issue a First Action Interview Office Action, to which the applicant must respond like a typical Office Action. (
  • Patents were systematically granted in Venice as of 1474, where they issued a decree by which new and inventive devices had to be communicated to the Republic in order to obtain legal protection against potential infringers. (
  • As Venetians emigrated, they sought similar patent protection in their new homes. (
  • We particularly address some of the neglected or seemingly arcane points that nevertheless are critical to the researcher, medical practitioner, scientist, or indeed anyone seeking informed opinions about patent protection of new biotechnologies and genetic technologies. (
  • Although there is some evidence that some form of patent rights was recognized in Ancient Greece in the Greek city of Sybaris , the first statutory patent system is generally regarded to be the Venetian Patent Statute of 1474. (
  • The procedure for granting patents, requirements placed on the patentee, and the extent of the exclusive rights vary widely between countries according to national laws and international agreements. (
  • The professional activity of patent attorneys consists in representing natural persons and legal entities or rendering the necessary assistance to them in the field of protection of intellectual property objects (geographical indications, appellations of origin and traditional specialties guaranteed, trademarks, inventions, industrial designs, plant varieties, topographies of integrated circuits). (
  • If the patent law is to protect novel and useful inventions, it must be determined just what should be regarded as an "invention" and what as "novel" and "useful. (
  • How should priority be decided in cases of nearly simultaneous inventions: Should the patent go to him who was first in getting the idea, or to him who was first in putting it into patentable form, or to him who was first in submitting it to the patent office? (
  • some make "improvement inventions" eligible only for supplementary "patents of addition" of shorter duration, terminating, for example, with the primary patent on the invention that they improve. (
  • US Supreme Court decisions have raised substantial uncertainty around whether certain inventions are abstract ideas, laws of nature, or natural phenomenon, or contain sufficient additional elements to be patent eligible. (
  • Three recent Federal Circuit decisions, along with new updates from the USPTO, offer guidance on which steps to take in patenting healthcare IT-related inventions. (
  • Enfish suggests that narrowly drawn claims are more likely to pass patent eligibility muster than broader ones, sound advice for patenting algorithm-intensive inventions in the healthcare field. (
  • The recent Federal Circuit decisions and USPTO guidance suggest that inventions relating to abstract ideas, laws of nature, and natural phenomena may become patent eligible if applied in narrowly defined real-world terms, especially involving combinations of elements (subject to other patent laws requiring inventions to be novel and non-obvious) which lead to below-referenced outcomes or results. (
  • Interestingly, challenges on gene patents in Australia and Europe have all resulted in law in this area remaining unchanged, where new inventions relating to isolated biological materials, including genes, remain patentable. (
  • Even though the specific patent application before the Court was unanimously rejected, the boundaries of patent-eligible inventions remain uncertain. (
  • This logic guided passage of the 1980 Bayh-Dole Act , which lets universities, small businesses and nonprofits own patents for inventions and discoveries that stem from federally funded research. (
  • But if nonprofits and small businesses could patent the inventions they developed, then they could exclusively license these inventions and defuse the threat of competition. (
  • These offices secure patents and then work to license the patented inventions and discoveries. (
  • Well-known musicians and other entertainers often identify opportunities for innovation in their industry and are able to obtain patent protection for such inventions. (
  • As the above examples illustrate, professional entertainers, through their own use of musical instruments and/or the need to enhance an act, saw a need for improved products and received patent protection for their inventions. (
  • Probably the most successful was the anti-software-patent campaign in Europe that resulted in the rejection by the European Parliament of the Proposed directive on the patentability of computer-implemented inventions which, the free software community argues, would have made software patents enforceable in the European Union. (
  • On August 21, 2019, the Government of Canada published amendments to the Patented Medicines Regulations that set out the long-awaited framework applicable to the price regulation of patented drugs in Canada. (
  • In other words, Facebook's view is that Facebook Messenger, Instagram, and WhatsApp were built on the company's own ideas rather than on BlackBerry's patents. (
  • The company's unwavering commitment to technology and protecting its R&D+i results, combined with the work of more than 730 researchers focused on developing and improving new technologies, has led to significant growth in the number of patents, which currently exceeds 220 applications and awards. (
  • Like all other patents, a filing doesn't mean that Microsoft is set to announce folding smartphone/tablet hybrids, nor does it mean a folding phone is even in the company's future. (
  • On September 11, 2017, Amazon's most infamous patent expires -the "one-click patent" that allows Amazon to control the selling of goods to consumers with a single click. (
  • In comparison to 2017, China's share has increased by 11.6% which is greatly influenced by the factor of seeking patent protection from other corporations within the country. (
  • The Commission already issued a warning against Motorola Mobility's aggressive patent enforcement when it approved Google's acquisition of the cell phone maker in February. (
  • That ban centered on European Patent EP2059868 , and pertained to Samsung's use of Google's stock Android 2.2.1 or later, which began copying the iPhone technique Apple invented to simplify the navigation and direct manipulation of photos, often referred to as simply the "bounce back" patent. (
  • Following its success in Germany, Google's efforts to attack Apple's invention in the U.S. serves as a tactic to reduce Samsung's nearly billion dollar penalty for infringing the patented invention in producing Galaxy phones designed to look and work identically to Apple's iPhone, beginning back in 2010. (
  • Google's previous efforts to "protect Android" from infringement claims originally centered around buying up billions of dollars worth of patents and using these to support its licensees after they were sued. (
  • Using application-level data from the Patent Office from 2001 to 2012, merged with personnel data on patent examiners, we explore the extent to which the key decision of examiners-whether to allow a patent-is shaped by the granting styles of her surrounding peers. (
  • The Association of University Technology Managers' annual licensing survey shows total university income from patents increasing from $699 million in 1997 to $1.07 billion in 2001. (
  • None of the patents are related to Microsoft's own online CRM software, the heart of the Salesforce offering. (
  • However, the 2009 lawsuit against TomTom involved the use of Microsoft's patents for long filenames on FAT filesystems, the code for which was in the Linux kernel, not in any TomTom-developed software. (
  • Given that patents on full-length, naturally occurring genes with introns and exons will no longer be a barrier to entry for diagnostic companies, going forward the market will see more competition. (
  • By the end of 2000, 500,000 naturally occurring genes or DNA sequences were patented or patent-pending. (
  • The invention relates generally to computerized information management technologies and, more particularly but not by way of limitation, to the generation of relevant domain-specific topics for a corpus of data to facilitate subsequent search and retrieval operations for the data. (
  • External Data Spec Patents in environment-related technologies Patent search strategies for various areas of 'environmental' technologies have been developed at OECD and have been used to produce the dataset. (
  • If they are actually patented, I would think that you could search for the actual patent. (
  • I own both of these stocks, and neither one would be a viable business without a usable patent protection system. (
  • The patent at issue claims a method of preparing frozen liver cells that can be thawed and re-frozen while remaining viable. (
  • None of the folks at Phylos really see patenting as a viable tool for the average breeder. (
  • You will need to reveal your product to others so begin a provisional patent as soon as you are confident your concept is viable. (
  • In a 117-page complaint to the Central District Court of California, BlackBerry leans on seven patents to make its case against Facebook. (
  • Sonos alleges Lenbrook infringes on seven patents, including the two patents that D&M was found in a jury trial to have willfully infringed. (
  • Below is a brief background on the Patented Medicine Prices Review Board (the "PMPRB" or the "Board"), four key changes to the Regulations , including differences from the originally proposed text, and developments to watch for regarding the amendments. (
  • The Regulations currently do not specify any "other factors" under the Patent Act that the Board is required to consider. (
  • Right now there is a backlog of 620,000 pending patents with as many as 500,000 new patents filed every year, Lofgren said, so inventors can face a three-year wait for patent applications to be processed and approved or denied. (
  • In the U.S., Google argued on behalf of its Motorola Mobility subsidiary that Apple's patents should be ignored as worthless even as it distributed copies of Android that purposely emulated a variety of original elements of the iPhone that it knew to be patented. (
  • Motos patents have been worthless in their fight against suits. (
  • But according to Florian Mueller of FOSS Patents , the company from the Valencia region of Spain successfully defended itself from accusations of infringing upon the design-related patent. (
  • Florian Mueller, the founder of an anti-patent Web site , said he is concerned that despite this change in voting weights the EU Council is still pushing ahead a decision. (
  • The Court observed that the modern age allows more and more people to innovate, thus posing a challenge for patent law to strike the balance between protecting inventors and avoiding inappropriate monopolies. (
  • BRUSSELS (AP) - The European Union's competition watchdog on Tuesday opened two investigations into whether Motorola Mobility, which is being bought by Google, is unfairly restricting competitors from accessing essential patents. (
  • Motorola Mobility holds patents that are essential for standards linked to 2G and 3G mobile telecommunications, compressing video for online use, as well as wireless LAN technologies. (
  • In its complaint against Motorola Mobility, Microsoft claimed that the cell phone maker was demanding excessively high prices for using some of its key patents. (
  • Written topic submissions must be received by the Office on or before February 12, 2016 to be considered. (
  • The company filed a 105-page complaint against networking hardware company Avaya in 2016, using a much more technical and less common-sense slate of eight patents. (
  • In issuing the patent, the U.S. Patent Office acknowledged Litetronics' proprietary one-piece "rail system" which includes LED lamps, drivers, connecting wire and rare-earth magnetic holders. (
  • As with those successful models, the RFID consortium is intended to provide a structured approach for holders of essential RFID patents to receive fair compensation for those patents, at a reasonable cost to the end-user, thus promoting rapid adoption of RFID. (
  • What pharmaceutical company is going to develop a treatment whose success means having to pay out its profits as royalties to a slew of patent holders? (
  • A Portland biotechnology company has launched a 3-D map that charts the genetic evolution of cannabis genomes, protecting strains like OG Kush from future patent attempts by big agricultural companies such as Monsanto. (
  • NanoSphere Health Sciences (CSE:NSHS) (OTC: NSHSF) has been awarded a breakthrough patent, granting the biotech innovator full ownership over the standardized delivery of cannabis into systemic circul. (
  • A technique to determine topics associated with, or classifications for, a data corpus uses an initial domain-specific word list to identify word combinations (one or more words) that appear in the data corpus significantly more often than expected. (
  • Topics may be used to guide information retrieval and/or the display of topic classifications during user query operations. (
  • In its database on 'Patents by technology' the OECD identifies 9 primary groups of technology based patent classifications one of which is defined as Selected environment-related technologies. (
  • Data for the primary area Selected environment-related technologies was downloaded along with data for Total patents (including all primary classifications). (
  • In fact, many in the patent field had predicted the courts would throw out the suit. (
  • Under the registration system the validity of a registered patent is examined only if an interested party attacks it in the courts and asks that the patent be invalidated. (
  • Under the Supreme Court's ruling, a patent owner will now only be entitled to bring suit in federal courts having jurisdiction over a state where the defendant is either incorporated, or has a regular and established business and is also engaging in infringing activity. (
  • The patent could also be interpreted by the courts to cover any other elements (e.g. e-commerce engine, card systems, ERP connectors) that integrate with the basic system. (
  • Essa may have a point that the patent could be given wider application by the courts, but I'm not a patent lawyer or a judge. (
  • Plaintiff admits that the average license fees have been between $10,000 and $25,000, but argues that they properly reflect "the uncertainties of the ever-evolving § 101 jurisprudence and the value of previous licenses granted under the Patents-in-Suit to similarly situated [d]efendants. (
  • Non-exclusive" allows the university to sell multiple licenses on a single patented invention. (
  • According to the Office's Federal Register notice, case study topics submitted under the new pilot program should be more than mere statements of an issue or problem encountered by the submitter, but should propose a specific correlation or trend for study, and where possible, suggest a methodology for its investigation. (
  • Furthermore, international patents enable growth in cutting-edge markets in a globalized world, following a proprietary methodology of prioritizing patents and regions according to their potential. (
  • Patent Term Adjustment Reductions in View of the Federal Circuit Decision in Supernus Pharm. (
  • Axon misled this Court and convinced the judge to take an overly narrow view of our patent,' said Digital Ally Chief Executive Stanton Ross. (
  • On January 9, 2015, the Federal Register published final rules implementing changes to patent term adjustment (PTA) in view of Novartis v. Lee , which the Federal Circuit decided last January. (
  • As I mentioned in my initial post on this patent , my view is that Blackboard's patent is for an "education" system, not a learning system. (
  • In 2000, 34,000 new patents listing at least one gene or sequence, and usually more than one, were filed each month. (
  • Brando was granted a series of patents beginning in 2002 directed to a "Drumhead Tensioning Device and Method. (
  • This week, BlackBerry sued Facebook (NASDAQ: FB) for infringing on seven technology patents, asking the social network to shut down all three of its popular messaging apps. (
  • He said that many critics of gene patents considered the idea that isolating a gene made it patentable "a 'lawyer's trick' that circumvents the prohibition on the direct patenting of the DNA in our bodies but which, in practice, reaches the same result. (
  • While the decision will impact patents for certain gene-based diagnostics, the biopharma industry will not likely be significantly altered. (
  • Further, many gene patents are old and will expire in one to five years (Myriad's patents on cDNAs expire in 2015). (
  • Sumimo is planning to develop a treatment for osteoporosis, and its patent on your so-far-nameless bone-building gene will help assure it gets a return on its investment if its research ever does result in a marketable drug. (
  • The first U.S. patent granting rights to a specific gene or gene sequence hit the books in 1980. (
  • The owners of these patents are typically corporations, academic institutions or charitable research groups, although the U.S. Department of Health is also a major player in the gene-patenting game, having applied for patents covering more than 3,000 pieces of human life. (
  • Looking at the example of the un-named bone-growth gene patented by Sumimo, a more practical problem comes to light. (
  • Sumimo's patent claims that the gene it discovered may lead to an effective treatment for osteoporosis. (
  • Under the terms of the settlement, Semicondutor Manufacturing will pay Taiwan Semiconductor $175 million over six years and the two companies will cross license each others patents through December 2010. (
  • Under EU law, companies that hold patents for technologies that are essential for industry standards have to make these available to rivals at a fair price. (
  • The Commission has increased its scrutiny of suspected abuse of standard-essential patents especially among technology companies in recent months. (
  • The game ends when one of the player's 'companies' runs out of money, patents, or appeals. (
  • Both companies have suffered set back after set back when it comes to patents. (
  • But White expects Monsanto and similar companies to seek weed patents. (
  • And that new turn is the announcement today that a patent pool is being formed by some 20 companies to establish royalty rates and manage royalty payments on implementations of EPC Global RFID standards. (
  • When other companies are awarded patents, they simply join the pool, and the royalty that implementers are charged doesn't go up. (
  • Innovators and companies from the country filed close to 600,000 patents in this year which is 1.6% less compared to the preceding year. (
  • Chinese companies have long recognized that their patent strategies are critical to their success in U.S. markets. (
  • Companies worried that because the research results were in the public domain and unprotected by patents, they'd face competition and limited profits if they decided to develop a technology further. (
  • Microsoft delivers on its promise and files suit against for infringing on nine of its patents, none of which are tied to the companies' online CRM offerings. (
  • With the patent boom has come growth in the number of university-related startup companies and in income from patent licensing. (
  • Community leaders such as Richard Stallman, Alan Cox, Bruce Perens, and Linus Torvalds and companies such as Red Hat, and MySQL, and community groups such as FSFE, IFSO, all believe that patents cause problems for free software. (
  • Some software companies who hold significant patent portfolios have made non-aggression pledges to the free software community. (
  • It may be non-news that mega-corp B is throwing legal fees at mega-corp A. For me, the value is that it is being report which helps to draw attention to the rabies riddled dog that is the US patent system. (
  • Redmond filed a patent this week for the system, which would monitor, record and analyze your brain activity while you're using your PC. (
  • This patented system eliminates the need for multiple-piece components, streamlining the installation process. (
  • This U.S. patent further covers the unique method of retrofitting a fluorescent lamp fixture facilitated only by the Litetronics retrofit system and kit. (
  • At the core of the '949 Patent are aspects of Sonos's unconventional system architecture - a "controller" and a plurality of "independent playback devices" (e.g., "zone players") communicating over a "local area network" (LAN). (
  • Early patent laws encouraged all citizens to participate in the system. (
  • The patent describes a process for identifying the accent of a person and then adjusting the computer generated voice to produce an output with a similar accent. (
  • The '359 Patent does not teach or claim any new hardware, software, or other computer technology for performing this routine process. (
  • It certainly helped me understand the basics of patenting process. (
  • The Federal Circuit announced en banc that the so-called 'machine-or-transformation' test would henceforth be the sole test to determine whether a claimed process describes patentable subject matter. (
  • But there's a hitch in the process, and it's not just the strangeness of someone patenting his or her discovery of a naturally occurring part or process of the human body. (
  • Finishing room fire, ash borers and pine beetles, soyboard panels, and amazing cedar wood chip sculptures using a patented process were among the most viewed reports this week at Woodworking Network. (
  • The PMPRB is a quasi-judicial body established in 1987 under the Patent Act with the mandate of ensuring that prices charged for patented medicines sold in Canada are not excessive. (
  • I assume all the local Amazons round the world have been paying one-click royalties to the group patent holder in a tax haven somewhere. (
  • The lawsuit also challenged the patents on First Amendment grounds, but Judge Sweet ruled that because the issues in the case could be decided within patent law, the constitutional question need not be decided. (
  • Axon said the U.S. District Court for Kansas found that Axon's signal technology did not infringe on Digital Ally's patent, and dismissed the case in its entirety. (
  • However, this effort has proven to be both unsustainable expensive (particularly in the case of Motorola) and a legal dead end, due to the fact that most of the patents it acquired are already committed to FRAND (Fair, Reasonable and Non Discriminatory) licensing, which prevents them from being effectively used to win sales bans against Apple's products. (
  • The US is clearly a special case - the only country stupid enough to allow complex patent cases to be handled by a random group of idiots (i.e., people like us) instead of proper judges and specialists. (
  • In this billion dollar case which was the largest court win between Samsung and Apple, there was a combination of both design patent violations and utility patent violations. (
  • Rothschild Patent Imaging, LLC offered to let us settle for a high five figure amount, for which they would drop the case and give us a license to carry on developing Shotwell. (
  • Two other patent-infringement claims in that case - also involved in the Lenbrook lawsuit - were settled out of court. (
  • However, where a patent contains an explicit promise of a specific result, the case-law has developed a requirement that this so-called 'promised utility' be demonstrated or soundly predicted as of the Canadian filing date of the patent application. (
  • In this case, Astra's '653 patent was invalidated for lack of utility. (
  • The Court stated that the law in this area is "unsettled", but found that the heightened disclosure requirement vis-à-vis sound prediction only applies in the case of a "new use" patent, if it exists at all. (
  • Where that's the case and the facts and their strategic best interests otherwise allow, they may sue the patent owner first, filing suit in a more neutral, or patent un-friendly, district court. (