Exclusive legal rights or privileges applied to inventions, plants, etc.
A condition in which the FORAMEN OVALE in the ATRIAL SEPTUM fails to close shortly after birth. This results in abnormal communications between the two upper chambers of the heart. An isolated patent ovale foramen without other structural heart defects is usually of no hemodynamic significance.
Developmental abnormalities in any portion of the ATRIAL SEPTUM resulting in abnormal communications between the two upper chambers of the heart. Classification of atrial septal defects is based on location of the communication and types of incomplete fusion of atrial septa with the ENDOCARDIAL CUSHIONS in the fetal heart. They include ostium primum, ostium secundum, sinus venosus, and coronary sinus defects.
Property, such as patents, trademarks, and copyright, that results from creative effort. The Patent and Copyright Clause (Art. 1, Sec. 8, cl. 8) of the United States Constitution provides for promoting the progress of science and useful arts by securing for limited times to authors and inventors, the exclusive right to their respective writings and discoveries. (From Black's Law Dictionary, 5th ed, p1014)
Blockage of an artery due to passage of a clot (THROMBUS) from a systemic vein to a systemic artery without its passing through the lung which acts as a filter to remove blood clots from entering the arterial circulation. Paradoxical embolism occurs when there is a defect that allows a clot to cross directly from the right to the left side of the heart as in the cases of ATRIAL SEPTAL DEFECTS or open FORAMEN OVALE. Once in the arterial circulation, a clot can travel to the brain, block an artery, and cause a STROKE.
A CATHETER-delivered implant used for closing abnormal holes in the cardiovascular system, especially HEART SEPTAL DEFECTS; or passageways intentionally made during cardiovascular surgical procedures.
"In the context of medicine, patents refer to legal exclusivity rights granted to inventors of new medicines, medical devices, or processes, providing them with exclusive control over its use, sale, and manufacture for a limited period."
The degree to which BLOOD VESSELS are not blocked or obstructed.
A novel composition, device, or process, independently conceived de novo or derived from a pre-existing model.
Ultrasonic recording of the size, motion, and composition of the heart and surrounding tissues using a transducer placed in the esophagus.
That segment of commercial enterprise devoted to the design, development, and manufacture of chemical products for use in the diagnosis and treatment of disease, disability, or other dysfunction, or to improve function.
A publication issued at stated, more or less regular, intervals.
Conferences, conventions or formal meetings usually attended by delegates representing a special field of interest.
The legal authority or formal permission from authorities to carry on certain activities which by law or regulation require such permission. It may be applied to licensure of institutions as well as individuals.
Procedures in which placement of CARDIAC CATHETERS is performed for therapeutic or diagnostic procedures.
Evaluation undertaken to assess the results or consequences of management and procedures used in combating disease in order to determine the efficacy, effectiveness, safety, and practicability of these interventions in individual cases or series.
Books used in the study of a subject that contain a systematic presentation of the principles and vocabulary of a subject.
Activities performed to identify concepts and aspects of published information and research reports.
Laws concerned with manufacturing, dispensing, and marketing of drugs.
Published materials which provide an examination of recent or current literature. Review articles can cover a wide range of subject matter at various levels of completeness and comprehensiveness based on analyses of literature that may include research findings. The review may reflect the state of the art. It also includes reviews as a literary form.
Body of knowledge related to the use of organisms, cells or cell-derived constituents for the purpose of developing products which are technically, scientifically and clinically useful. Alteration of biologic function at the molecular level (i.e., GENETIC ENGINEERING) is a central focus; laboratory methods used include TRANSFECTION and CLONING technologies, sequence and structure analysis algorithms, computer databases, and gene and protein structure function analysis and prediction.
Artificial substitutes for body parts, and materials inserted into tissue for functional, cosmetic, or therapeutic purposes. Prostheses can be functional, as in the case of artificial arms and legs, or cosmetic, as in the case of an artificial eye. Implants, all surgically inserted or grafted into the body, tend to be used therapeutically. IMPLANTS, EXPERIMENTAL is available for those used experimentally.
An embryonic structure originating from the ALLANTOIS. It is a canal connecting the fetal URINARY BLADDER and the UMBILICUS. It is normally converted into a fibrous cord postnatally. When the canal fails to be filled and remains open (patent urachus), urine leaks through the umbilicus.
Use of a balloon CATHETER to block the flow of blood through an artery or vein.
A fetal blood vessel connecting the pulmonary artery with the descending aorta.
Works about clinical trials that involve at least one test treatment and one control treatment, concurrent enrollment and follow-up of the test- and control-treated groups, and in which the treatments to be administered are selected by a random process, such as the use of a random-numbers table.
Device constructed of either synthetic or biological material that is used for the repair of injured or diseased blood vessels.
An infant during the first month after birth.
Radiography of blood vessels after injection of a contrast medium.
Studies in which individuals or populations are followed to assess the outcome of exposures, procedures, or effects of a characteristic, e.g., occurrence of disease.
A systematic statement of policy rules or principles. Guidelines may be developed by government agencies at any level, institutions, professional societies, governing boards, or by convening expert panels. The text may be cursive or in outline form but is generally a comprehensive guide to problems and approaches in any field of activity. For guidelines in the field of health care and clinical medicine, PRACTICE GUIDELINES AS TOPIC is available.
An approach of practicing medicine with the goal to improve and evaluate patient care. It requires the judicious integration of best research evidence with the patient's values to make decisions about medical care. This method is to help physicians make proper diagnosis, devise best testing plan, choose best treatment and methods of disease prevention, as well as develop guidelines for large groups of patients with the same disease. (from JAMA 296 (9), 2006)
The terms, expressions, designations, or symbols used in a particular science, discipline, or specialized subject area.
Method of measuring performance against established standards of best practice.
Critical and exhaustive investigation or experimentation, having for its aim the discovery of new facts and their correct interpretation, the revision of accepted conclusions, theories, or laws in the light of newly discovered facts, or the practical application of such new or revised conclusions, theories, or laws. (Webster, 3d ed)
Instruction in which learners progress at their own rate using workbooks, textbooks, or electromechanical devices that provide information in discrete steps, test learning at each step, and provide immediate feedback about achievement. (ERIC, Thesaurus of ERIC Descriptors, 1996).
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
Obstruction of flow in biological or prosthetic vascular grafts.
A human infant born before 37 weeks of GESTATION.
Application of a ligature to tie a vessel or strangulate a part.
Compounds that contain the triphenylmethane aniline structure found in rosaniline. Many of them have a characteristic magenta color and are used as COLORING AGENTS.
Drugs whose drug name is not protected by a trademark. They may be manufactured by several companies.
Radiographic visualization of the aorta and its branches by injection of contrast media, using percutaneous puncture or catheterization procedures.
Conversations with an individual or individuals held in order to obtain information about their background and other personal biographical data, their attitudes and opinions, etc. It includes school admission or job interviews.
Surgery performed on the heart.
A localized bulging or dilatation in the muscle wall of a heart (MYOCARDIUM), usually in the LEFT VENTRICLE. Blood-filled aneurysms are dangerous because they may burst. Fibrous aneurysms interfere with the heart function through the loss of contractility. True aneurysm is bound by the vessel wall or cardiac wall. False aneurysms are HEMATOMA caused by myocardial rupture.
An opening in the wall between the right and the left upper chambers (HEART ATRIA) of a fetal heart. Oval foramen normally closes soon after birth; when it fails to close the condition is called PATENT OVAL FORAMEN.
Blocking of a blood vessel by an embolus which can be a blood clot or other undissolved material in the blood stream.
Surgical insertion of BLOOD VESSEL PROSTHESES to repair injured or diseased blood vessels.
A nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory agent with analgesic properties used in the therapy of rheumatism and arthritis.
Works about books, articles or other publications on herbs or plants describing their medicinal value.
'Infant, Premature, Diseases' refers to health conditions or abnormalities that specifically affect babies born before 37 weeks of gestation, often resulting from their immature organ systems and increased vulnerability due to preterm birth.
Homopolymer of tetrafluoroethylene. Nonflammable, tough, inert plastic tubing or sheeting; used to line vessels, insulate, protect or lubricate apparatus; also as filter, coating for surgical implants or as prosthetic material. Synonyms: Fluoroflex; Fluoroplast; Ftoroplast; Halon; Polyfene; PTFE; Tetron.
Forced expiratory effort against a closed GLOTTIS.
The vein which drains the foot and leg.
The term "United States" in a medical context often refers to the country where a patient or study participant resides, and is not a medical term per se, but relevant for epidemiological studies, healthcare policies, and understanding differences in disease prevalence, treatment patterns, and health outcomes across various geographic locations.
Inflammation of the inner endothelial lining (TUNICA INTIMA) of an artery.
Surgical union or shunt between ducts, tubes or vessels. It may be end-to-end, end-to-side, side-to-end, or side-to-side.
Financial support of research activities.
A method of hemostasis utilizing various agents such as Gelfoam, silastic, metal, glass, or plastic pellets, autologous clot, fat, and muscle as emboli. It has been used in the treatment of spinal cord and INTRACRANIAL ARTERIOVENOUS MALFORMATIONS, renal arteriovenous fistulas, gastrointestinal bleeding, epistaxis, hypersplenism, certain highly vascular tumors, traumatic rupture of blood vessels, and control of operative hemorrhage.
The main artery of the thigh, a continuation of the external iliac artery.
Ultrasonic recording of the size, motion, and composition of the heart and surrounding tissues. The standard approach is transthoracic.
Directions or principles presenting current or future rules of policy for assisting health care practitioners in patient care decisions regarding diagnosis, therapy, or related clinical circumstances. The guidelines may be developed by government agencies at any level, institutions, professional societies, governing boards, or by the convening of expert panels. The guidelines form a basis for the evaluation of all aspects of health care and delivery.
Research that involves the application of the natural sciences, especially biology and physiology, to medicine.
Studies used to test etiologic hypotheses in which inferences about an exposure to putative causal factors are derived from data relating to characteristics of persons under study or to events or experiences in their past. The essential feature is that some of the persons under study have the disease or outcome of interest and their characteristics are compared with those of unaffected persons.
The vein accompanying the femoral artery in the same sheath; it is a continuation of the popliteal vein and becomes the external iliac vein.
Labels pasted in books to mark their ownership and sometimes to indicate their location in a library. Private bookplates are often ornate or artistic: simpler and smaller ones bearing merely the owner's name are called "book labels." They are usually pasted on the front endpaper of books. (From Harrod, The Librarians' Glossary and Reference Book, 4th rev ed & Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed)
Published pieces of paper or other material, usually printed on one side and intended to be read unfolded and usually intended to be posted, publicly distributed, or sold. (From Genre Terms: A Thesaurus for Use in Rare Book and Special Collections Cataloguing, 2d ed)
Blocking of a blood vessel in the SKULL by an EMBOLUS which can be a blood clot (THROMBUS) or other undissolved material in the blood stream. Most emboli are of cardiac origin and are associated with HEART DISEASES. Other non-cardiac sources of emboli are usually associated with VASCULAR DISEASES.
Abnormalities in any part of the HEART SEPTUM resulting in abnormal communication between the left and the right chambers of the heart. The abnormal blood flow inside the heart may be caused by defects in the ATRIAL SEPTUM, the VENTRICULAR SEPTUM, or both.
Devices that provide support for tubular structures that are being anastomosed or for body cavities during skin grafting.
Echocardiography applying the Doppler effect, with the superposition of flow information as colors on a gray scale in a real-time image.
BIOLOGIC PRODUCTS that are imitations but not exact replicas of innovator products.
The teaching or training of patients concerning their own health needs.
Works about pre-planned studies of the safety, efficacy, or optimum dosage schedule (if appropriate) of one or more diagnostic, therapeutic, or prophylactic drugs, devices, or techniques selected according to predetermined criteria of eligibility and observed for predefined evidence of favorable and unfavorable effects. This concept includes clinical trials conducted both in the U.S. and in other countries.
Pathologic processes that affect patients after a surgical procedure. They may or may not be related to the disease for which the surgery was done, and they may or may not be direct results of the surgery.
A group of pathological conditions characterized by sudden, non-convulsive loss of neurological function due to BRAIN ISCHEMIA or INTRACRANIAL HEMORRHAGES. Stroke is classified by the type of tissue NECROSIS, such as the anatomic location, vasculature involved, etiology, age of the affected individual, and hemorrhagic vs. non-hemorrhagic nature. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp777-810)
The plan and delineation of prostheses in general or a specific prosthesis.
Pathological processes which result in the partial or complete obstruction of ARTERIES. They are characterized by greatly reduced or absence of blood flow through these vessels. They are also known as arterial insufficiency.
The venous trunk which receives blood from the lower extremities and from the pelvic and abdominal organs.
Cyst occurring in a persistent portion of the urachus, presenting as an extraperitoneal mass in the umbilical region. It is characterized by abdominal pain, and fever if infected. It may rupture, leading to peritonitis, or it may drain through the umbilicus.
Accumulation of serous fluid between the layers of membrane (tunica vaginalis) covering the TESTIS in the SCROTUM.
A course of study offered by an educational institution.
The continuation of the femoral artery coursing through the popliteal fossa; it divides into the anterior and posterior tibial arteries.
The effort of two or more parties to secure the business of a third party by offering, usually under fair or equitable rules of business practice, the most favorable terms.
Surgical shunt allowing direct passage of blood from an artery to a vein. (From Dorland, 28th ed)
A subtype of migraine disorder, characterized by recurrent attacks of reversible neurological symptoms (aura) that precede or accompany the headache. Aura may include a combination of sensory disturbances, such as blurred VISION; HALLUCINATIONS; VERTIGO; NUMBNESS; and difficulty in concentrating and speaking. Aura is usually followed by features of the COMMON MIGRAINE, such as PHOTOPHOBIA; PHONOPHOBIA; and NAUSEA. (International Classification of Headache Disorders, 2nd ed. Cephalalgia 2004: suppl 1)
The vessels carrying blood away from the capillary beds.
Transmission of live or pre-recorded audio or video content via connection or download from the INTERNET.
A repeat operation for the same condition in the same patient due to disease progression or recurrence, or as followup to failed previous surgery.
Observation of a population for a sufficient number of persons over a sufficient number of years to generate incidence or mortality rates subsequent to the selection of the study group.
Arteries originating from the subclavian or axillary arteries and distributing to the anterior thoracic wall, mediastinal structures, diaphragm, pectoral muscles and mammary gland.
Use for articles on the investing of funds for income or profit.
Tomography using x-ray transmission and a computer algorithm to reconstruct the image.
Compositions written by hand, as one written before the invention or adoption of printing. A manuscript may also refer to a handwritten copy of an ancient author. A manuscript may be handwritten or typewritten as distinguished from a printed copy, especially the copy of a writer's work from which printed copies are made. (Webster, 3d ed)
A quantitative method of combining the results of independent studies (usually drawn from the published literature) and synthesizing summaries and conclusions which may be used to evaluate therapeutic effectiveness, plan new studies, etc., with application chiefly in the areas of research and medicine.
Methods of creating machines and devices.
A non-steroidal anti-inflammatory agent (NSAID) that inhibits the enzyme cyclooxygenase necessary for the formation of prostaglandins and other autacoids. It also inhibits the motility of polymorphonuclear leukocytes.
Persons whose profession is to give legal advice and assistance to clients and represent them in legal matters. (American Heritage Dictionary, 3d ed)
Operative procedures for the treatment of vascular disorders.
Pathological outpouching or sac-like dilatation in the wall of any blood vessel (ARTERIES or VEINS) or the heart (HEART ANEURYSM). It indicates a thin and weakened area in the wall which may later rupture. Aneurysms are classified by location, etiology, or other characteristics.
Developmental abnormalities involving structures of the heart. These defects are present at birth but may be discovered later in life.
Polyester polymers formed from terephthalic acid or its esters and ethylene glycol. They can be formed into tapes, films or pulled into fibers that are pressed into meshes or woven into fabrics.
The condition of an anatomical structure's being constricted beyond normal dimensions.
An aspect of personal behavior or lifestyle, environmental exposure, or inborn or inherited characteristic, which, on the basis of epidemiologic evidence, is known to be associated with a health-related condition considered important to prevent.
This structure includes the thin muscular atrial septum between the two HEART ATRIA, and the thick muscular ventricular septum between the two HEART VENTRICLES.
The anterior and posterior arteries created at the bifurcation of the popliteal artery. The anterior tibial artery begins at the lower border of the popliteus muscle and lies along the tibia at the distal part of the leg to surface superficially anterior to the ankle joint. Its branches are distributed throughout the leg, ankle, and foot. The posterior tibial artery begins at the lower border of the popliteus muscle, lies behind the tibia in the lower part of its course, and is found situated between the medial malleolus and the medial process of the calcaneal tuberosity. Its branches are distributed throughout the leg and foot.
The process by which a person or group of persons comes to be regarded or treated as lacking in human qualities.
The study, based on direct observation, use of statistical records, interviews, or experimental methods, of actual practices or the actual impact of practices or policies.
Formation and development of a thrombus or blood clot in the blood vessel.
The return of a sign, symptom, or disease after a remission.
Heart sounds caused by vibrations resulting from the flow of blood through the heart. Heart murmurs can be examined by HEART AUSCULTATION, and analyzed by their intensity (6 grades), duration, timing (systolic, diastolic, or continuous), location, transmission, and quality (musical, vibratory, blowing, etc).
Drugs intended for human or veterinary use, presented in their finished dosage form. Included here are materials used in the preparation and/or formulation of the finished dosage form.
Diagnostic and therapeutic procedures that are invasive or surgical in nature, and require the expertise of a specially trained radiologist. In general, they are more invasive than diagnostic imaging but less invasive than major surgery. They often involve catheterization, fluoroscopy, or computed tomography. Some examples include percutaneous transhepatic cholangiography, percutaneous transthoracic biopsy, balloon angioplasty, and arterial embolization.
The interchange of goods or commodities, especially on a large scale, between different countries or between populations within the same country. It includes trade (the buying, selling, or exchanging of commodities, whether wholesale or retail) and business (the purchase and sale of goods to make a profit). (From Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed, p411, p2005 & p283)

Disease gene patents: overcoming unethical constraints on clinical laboratory medicine. (1/276)

The rapidly growing number of disease gene patents--patents that claim all methods for diagnosis of a particular genetic condition--threatens the ability of physicians to provide medical care to their patients. In the past, patented diagnostic tests were made broadly available to the medical community in the form of test kits or licenses to use the patented test. Disease gene tests, however, are being monopolized by a small number of providers. Monopolization of medical testing services: (a) threatens to restrict research activities; (b) creates unacceptable conflicts of interest; (c) may reduce patient access to testing; (d) may lead to inequitable extensions of patent terms on tests and related discoveries; and (e) grants to patent holders the ability to dictate the standard of care for testing, and to otherwise interfere with the practice of medicine. Because of the risks raised by monopolization, amendment of the patent law to require compulsory licensing of physicians providing medical services is recommended.  (+info)

Essential drugs in the new international economic environment. (2/276)

Recent global developments in the regulation of trade and intellectual property rights threaten to hinder the access of populations in developing countries to essential drugs. The authors argue for state intervention in the health and pharmaceutical markets in order to guarantee equitable access to these products.  (+info)

The future of molecular genetic testing. (3/276)

The potential applications for genetic testing are immense, with most diseases having some aspect influenced by, if not directly caused by, changes in the genome of the patient. The translation of genetic information into medical applications will be influenced by our understanding of the human genome, technological advances, and social, ethical, and legal issues surrounding genetic testing. With time, new genetic information will be translated into clinical tests for the diagnosis of current illness and prediction of future disease risk, and will be used for the development of genetically directed therapies and preventive interventions. Most genetic testing will be highly automated, with only rare genetic disease tests performed manually. The challenge for the clinical genetic laboratory is to keep pace with this information explosion to provide state-of-the-art genetic testing and to ensure that the genetic test results are used in a morally, ethically, and socially responsible way.  (+info)

Pharmaceutical policies in Canada: another example of federal-provincial discord. (4/276)

Pharmaceutical policy in Canada is set at both the federal and provincial levels of government. The federal government is responsible for intellectual property rights of manufacturers (patents) and the initial approval and labelling of prescription drugs and for ensuring overall market competitiveness. The provincial government has responsibility and jurisdiction over the funding of all health care services, including pharmaceuticals. Various interactions between the pharmaceutical industry, the federal and provincial governments and consumers have shaped the current landscape for prescription drugs in Canada. One key failing of the system is that the federal government is almost completely insulated from the impact of its policies because, although it regulates drug prices, it does not buy any drugs. In contrast, provincial governments have no jurisdiction over market competitiveness or pricing, yet end up paying for most of the drug expenditures incurred.  (+info)

Effect of multiple-source entry on price competition after patent expiration in the pharmaceutical industry. (5/276)

OBJECTIVE: To analyze the effect of multiple-source drug entry on price competition after patent expiration in the pharmaceutical industry. DATA SOURCES: Originators and their multiple-source drugs selected from the 35 chemical entities whose patents expired from 1984 through 1987. Data were obtained from various primary and secondary sources for the patents' expiration dates, sales volume and units sold, and characteristics of drugs in the sample markets. STUDY DESIGN: The study was designed to determine significant factors using the study model developed under the assumption that the off-patented market is an imperfectly segmented market. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: After patent expiration, the originators' prices continued to increase, while the price of multiple-source drugs decreased significantly over time. By the fourth year after patent expiration, originators' sales had decreased 12 percent in dollars and 30 percent in quantity. Multiple-source drugs increased their sales twofold in dollars and threefold in quantity, and possessed about one-fourth (in dollars) and half (in quantity) of the total market three years after entry. CONCLUSION: After patent expiration, multiple-source drugs compete largely with other multiple-source drugs in the price-sensitive sector, but indirectly with the originator in the price-insensitive sector. Originators have first-mover advantages, and therefore have a market that is less price sensitive after multiple-source drugs enter. On the other hand, multiple-source drugs target the price-sensitive sector, using their lower-priced drugs. This trend may indicate that the off-patented market is imperfectly segmented between the price-sensitive and insensitive sector. Consumers as a whole can gain from the entry of multiple-source drugs because the average price of the market continually declines after patent expiration.  (+info)

Pending resolution: the question of who owns DNA. (6/276)

With the emergence of the Human Genome Project and its private counterparts, the U.S. Patent and Trademark Office has begun receiving applications for the patenting of genes and genetic sequences. Earlier patent decisions regarding similar scientific advances limited patents to organisms "made by the hand of man," which would seem to remove discovered genes from patent protection. But many applicants have been successful in attaining patents for genes based on their ability to demonstrate the ultimate utility of the gene, for instance in medicine. One controversy regarding genomic patenting, however, is that patents apparently have been granted for mere gene fragments devoid of much demonstrable utility. Furthermore, critics fear that gene patenting will retard research by squelching scientists' ability to share findings freely.  (+info)

Patenting human genetic material: refocusing the debate. (7/276)

The biotechnology industry has become firmly established over the past twenty years and gene patents have played an important part in this phenomenon. However, concerns have been raised over the patentability of human genetic material, through public protests and international statements, but to little effect. Here we discuss some of these concerns, the patent authorities' response to them, and ways in which to address these issues and to move the debate forward using current legal structures.  (+info)

Patent protection of pharmaceuticals. (8/276)

Patenting of biologically active compounds by academic institutions is discussed, with emphasis on patents for already known compounds.  (+info)

A patent, in the context of medicine and healthcare, generally refers to a government-granted exclusive right for an inventor to manufacture, use, or sell their invention for a certain period of time, typically 20 years from the filing date. In the medical field, patents may cover a wide range of inventions, including new drugs, medical devices, diagnostic methods, and even genetic sequences.

The purpose of patents is to provide incentives for innovation by allowing inventors to profit from their inventions. However, patents can also have significant implications for access to medical technologies and healthcare costs. For example, a patent on a life-saving drug may give the patent holder the exclusive right to manufacture and sell the drug, potentially limiting access and driving up prices.

It's worth noting that the patent system is complex and varies from country to country. In some cases, there may be ways to challenge or circumvent patents in order to increase access to medical technologies, such as through compulsory licensing or generic substitution.

Patent Foramen Ovale (PFO) is a medical condition where the foramen ovale, an opening between the left and right atria of the heart in a fetus, does not close completely after birth. This results in a small flap-like opening that allows blood to pass from the right atrium to the left atrium. While this condition is typically harmless in itself, it can potentially allow blood clots to pass from the right side of the heart to the left, which could then travel to the brain and cause a stroke. Patent Foramen Ovale is usually an incidental finding during tests for other conditions.

Atrial septal defect (ASD) is a type of congenital heart defect that involves the septum, which is the wall that separates the two upper chambers of the heart (atria). An ASD is a hole or abnormal opening in the atrial septum, allowing oxygen-rich blood to leak into the oxygen-poor blood chambers in the heart. This leads to an overload of blood in the right side of the heart, which can cause enlargement of the heart and increased work for the right ventricle.

ASDs can vary in size, and small defects may not cause any symptoms or require treatment. Larger defects, however, can result in symptoms such as shortness of breath, fatigue, and heart rhythm abnormalities. Over time, if left untreated, ASDs can lead to complications like pulmonary hypertension, atrial fibrillation, and stroke.

Treatment for ASD typically involves surgical closure of the defect or catheter-based procedures using devices to close the hole. The choice of treatment depends on factors such as the size and location of the defect, the patient's age and overall health, and the presence of any coexisting conditions.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Intellectual Property" is not a term that has a specific medical definition. Instead, it is a legal and business concept. Intellectual property refers to creations of the mind, such as inventions, literary and artistic works, symbols, names, images, and designs used in commerce. It is protected by law through various types of intellectual property rights, such as patents, trademarks, copyrights, and trade secrets.

However, in a broader context, protecting intellectual property can have implications for medical research and development, innovation, and collaboration. For instance, patent protection encourages biomedical companies to invest in the development of new drugs and therapies by providing them with exclusive rights to manufacture and sell their inventions for a certain period. Similarly, trademark protection helps ensure that medical products and services are reliably and distinctly identified, while copyright protection can apply to written works like medical research articles or educational materials.

Paradoxical embolism is a medical condition that occurs when a blood clot or other material (embolus) from a vein passes through an abnormal connection between the right and left sides of the heart and lodges in an artery in the systemic circulation. This is considered "paradoxical" because the embolus originates from the venous system but bypasses the lungs and travels directly to the arterial system.

Under normal circumstances, blood flows from the body's veins into the right atrium of the heart, then through the tricuspid valve into the right ventricle, where it is pumped through the pulmonary artery into the lungs for oxygenation. The now oxygen-rich blood returns to the left atrium via the pulmonary veins, passes through the mitral valve into the left ventricle, and is then pumped out to the body's arteries.

However, in certain conditions such as a patent foramen ovale (PFO) or an atrial septal defect (ASD), there can be an abnormal communication between the right and left atria. This allows for the possibility of a paradoxical embolism to occur when a clot or other material from the venous system passes through this connection into the arterial system, bypassing filtration and oxygenation in the lungs.

Paradoxical embolism can lead to serious consequences, such as stroke, transient ischemic attack (TIA), or tissue damage in various organs, depending on where the embolus lodges. Treatment typically involves addressing the underlying cause of the paradoxical embolism and may include anticoagulation therapy, surgical closure of the abnormal connection, or other interventions as necessary.

A septal occluder device is a type of medical implant used to close defects or holes in the heart, specifically within the septum, which is the wall that separates the two sides of the heart. The device typically consists of two disc-shaped components connected by a waist, resembling a button or an umbrella.

The procedure for implanting a septal occluder device involves inserting it through a catheter, which is introduced into a vein in the leg and guided to the heart. Once in position, the discs of the device expand and are pressed against the septum on both sides of the hole, effectively closing it. Over time, tissue grows over the device, permanently sealing the defect.

Septal occluder devices are commonly used to treat atrial septal defects (ASD) and patent foramen ovale (PFO), which are two types of congenital heart defects that can cause symptoms such as shortness of breath, fatigue, and heart palpitations. The use of these devices has revolutionized the treatment of these conditions, allowing for less invasive procedures and faster recovery times compared to traditional surgical methods.

I believe there may be some confusion in your question. "Patents" are not a medical term, but rather a legal concept related to the exclusive rights granted to inventors for their inventions. In the context of medicine and healthcare, patents might apply to new drugs, medical devices, or other innovative treatments that have been developed.

A patent is a form of intellectual property right that gives its owner the legal right to exclude others from making, using, selling, and importing an invention for a limited period of time, usually 20 years from the filing date of the application. In order to be eligible for a patent, an invention must meet certain criteria, such as being novel, non-obvious, and useful.

In the medical field, patents can play a critical role in incentivizing innovation and investment in research and development. At the same time, they can also raise concerns about access to affordable healthcare, particularly when patents are held by companies that have significant market power.

Vascular patency is a term used in medicine to describe the state of a blood vessel (such as an artery or vein) being open, unobstructed, and allowing for the normal flow of blood. It is an important concept in the treatment and management of various cardiovascular conditions, such as peripheral artery disease, coronary artery disease, and deep vein thrombosis.

Maintaining vascular patency can help prevent serious complications like tissue damage, organ dysfunction, or even death. This may involve medical interventions such as administering blood-thinning medications to prevent clots, performing procedures to remove blockages, or using devices like stents to keep vessels open. Regular monitoring of vascular patency is also crucial for evaluating the effectiveness of treatments and adjusting care plans accordingly.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "inventions" is not a term that has a medical definition. An invention is a unique or novel device, method, composition, or process that is created by someone, typically through significant creativity and innovation. It may be a product or a procedure that is newly designed or constructed, or it may be a new use for an existing product or process.

If you have any questions related to healthcare, medicine, or biology, I would be happy to try to help answer them!

Transesophageal echocardiography (TEE) is a type of echocardiogram, which is a medical test that uses sound waves to create detailed images of the heart. In TEE, a special probe containing a transducer is passed down the esophagus (the tube that connects the mouth to the stomach) to obtain views of the heart from behind. This allows for more detailed images of the heart structures and function compared to a standard echocardiogram, which uses a probe placed on the chest. TEE is often used in patients with poor image quality from a standard echocardiogram or when more detailed images are needed to diagnose or monitor certain heart conditions. It is typically performed by a trained cardiologist or sonographer under the direction of a cardiologist.

The "drug industry" is also commonly referred to as the "pharmaceutical industry." It is a segment of the healthcare sector that involves the research, development, production, and marketing of medications or drugs. This includes both prescription and over-the-counter medicines used to treat, cure, or prevent diseases and medical conditions in humans and animals.

The drug industry comprises various types of organizations, such as:

1. Research-based pharmaceutical companies: These are large corporations that focus on the research and development (R&D) of new drugs, clinical trials, obtaining regulatory approvals, manufacturing, and marketing their products globally. Examples include Pfizer, Johnson & Johnson, Roche, and Merck.

2. Generic drug manufacturers: After the patent for a brand-name drug expires, generic drug manufacturers can produce and sell a similar version of the drug at a lower cost. These companies must demonstrate that their product is bioequivalent to the brand-name drug in terms of safety, quality, and efficacy.

3. Biotechnology companies: These firms specialize in developing drugs using biotechnological methods, such as recombinant DNA technology, gene therapy, or monoclonal antibodies. Many biotech companies focus on specific therapeutic areas, like oncology, immunology, or neurology.

4. Contract research organizations (CROs): CROs provide various services to the drug industry, including clinical trial management, data analysis, regulatory affairs support, and pharmacovigilance. They work with both large pharmaceutical companies and smaller biotech firms to help streamline the drug development process.

5. Drug delivery system companies: These organizations focus on developing innovative technologies for delivering drugs more effectively and safely to patients. Examples include transdermal patches, inhalers, or long-acting injectables.

6. Wholesalers and distributors: Companies that purchase drugs from manufacturers and distribute them to pharmacies, hospitals, and other healthcare providers.

The drug industry plays a crucial role in improving public health by discovering, developing, and delivering new treatments for various diseases and medical conditions. However, it is also subject to criticism and regulation due to concerns about high drug prices, marketing practices, and the potential for conflicts of interest between industry and healthcare professionals.

A "periodical" in the context of medicine typically refers to a type of publication that is issued regularly, such as on a monthly or quarterly basis. These publications include peer-reviewed journals, magazines, and newsletters that focus on medical research, education, and practice. They may contain original research articles, review articles, case reports, editorials, letters to the editor, and other types of content related to medical science and clinical practice.

As a "Topic," periodicals in medicine encompass various aspects such as their role in disseminating new knowledge, their impact on clinical decision-making, their quality control measures, and their ethical considerations. Medical periodicals serve as a crucial resource for healthcare professionals, researchers, students, and other stakeholders to stay updated on the latest developments in their field and to share their findings with others.

The term "Congresses as Topic" refers to large, formal meetings that are held to discuss and exchange information on a specific topic or field, usually academic or professional in nature. In the context of medical science, a congress is an event where healthcare professionals, researchers, and experts gather to present and discuss the latest research, developments, and innovations in their field. Medical congresses can cover a wide range of topics, including specific diseases, treatments, medical specialties, public health issues, or healthcare policies. These events often include keynote speeches, panel discussions, workshops, poster sessions, and networking opportunities for attendees. Examples of well-known medical congresses are the annual meetings of the American Medical Association, the American Heart Association, and the European Society of Cardiology.

Licensure is the process by which a government regulatory agency grants a license to a physician (or other healthcare professional) to practice medicine (or provide healthcare services) in a given jurisdiction. The licensing process typically requires the completion of specific educational and training requirements, passing written and/or practical exams, and meeting other state-specific criteria.

The purpose of licensure is to ensure that healthcare professionals meet minimum standards of competence and safety in order to protect the public. Licensure laws vary by state, so a physician who is licensed to practice medicine in one state may not be able to practice in another state without obtaining additional licensure.

Cardiac catheterization is a medical procedure used to diagnose and treat cardiovascular conditions. In this procedure, a thin, flexible tube called a catheter is inserted into a blood vessel in the arm or leg and threaded up to the heart. The catheter can be used to perform various diagnostic tests, such as measuring the pressure inside the heart chambers and assessing the function of the heart valves.

Cardiac catheterization can also be used to treat certain cardiovascular conditions, such as narrowed or blocked arteries. In these cases, a balloon or stent may be inserted through the catheter to open up the blood vessel and improve blood flow. This procedure is known as angioplasty or percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI).

Cardiac catheterization is typically performed in a hospital cardiac catheterization laboratory by a team of healthcare professionals, including cardiologists, radiologists, and nurses. The procedure may be done under local anesthesia with sedation or general anesthesia, depending on the individual patient's needs and preferences.

Overall, cardiac catheterization is a valuable tool in the diagnosis and treatment of various heart conditions, and it can help improve symptoms, reduce complications, and prolong life for many patients.

Treatment outcome is a term used to describe the result or effect of medical treatment on a patient's health status. It can be measured in various ways, such as through symptoms improvement, disease remission, reduced disability, improved quality of life, or survival rates. The treatment outcome helps healthcare providers evaluate the effectiveness of a particular treatment plan and make informed decisions about future care. It is also used in clinical research to compare the efficacy of different treatments and improve patient care.

"Textbooks as Topic" is a medical subject heading (MeSH) used in the National Library of Medicine's cataloging system to describe works that are about textbooks as a genre or medium, rather than a specific subject. This can include discussions on the history of medical textbooks, their role in medical education, comparisons between different types of textbooks, and analysis of their content and effectiveness. It may also cover issues related to the production, distribution, and accessibility of medical textbooks.

Abstracting and indexing are processes used in the field of information science to organize, summarize, and categorize published literature, making it easier for researchers and other interested individuals to find and access relevant information.

Abstracting involves creating a brief summary of a publication, typically no longer than a few hundred words, that captures its key points and findings. This summary is known as an abstract and provides readers with a quick overview of the publication's content, allowing them to determine whether it is worth reading in full.

Indexing, on the other hand, involves categorizing publications according to their subject matter, using a controlled vocabulary or set of keywords. This makes it easier for users to search for and find publications on specific topics, as they can simply look up the relevant keyword or subject heading in the index.

Together, abstracting and indexing are essential tools for managing the vast and growing amount of published literature in any given field. They help ensure that important research findings and other information are easily discoverable and accessible to those who need them, thereby facilitating the dissemination of knowledge and advancing scientific progress.

'Drug legislation' refers to the laws and regulations that govern the production, distribution, sale, possession, and use of medications and pharmaceutical products within a given jurisdiction. These laws are designed to protect public health and safety by establishing standards for drug quality, ensuring appropriate prescribing and dispensing practices, preventing drug abuse and diversion, and promoting access to necessary medications. Drug legislation may also include provisions related to clinical trials, advertising, packaging, labeling, and reimbursement. Compliance with these regulations is typically enforced through a combination of government agencies, professional organizations, and legal penalties for non-compliance.

"Review literature" is a term used to describe a type of scientific or academic writing that summarizes and synthesizes existing research on a particular topic. A review literature article, also known as a literature review, provides an overview of the current state of knowledge on a subject, highlighting the most important studies, methods, findings, and controversies.

A well-conducted review literature article is based on a thorough and systematic search of the relevant scientific or academic databases, journals, and other sources of information. The selection of studies for inclusion in the review is typically based on specific criteria, such as the quality of the research design, the relevance of the findings to the topic, and the publication date.

The purpose of a review literature article is to provide a critical analysis of the existing research, identify gaps in the current knowledge, and suggest directions for future research. It can also serve as a guide for researchers, clinicians, policymakers, and other stakeholders who are interested in staying up-to-date with the latest developments in their field.

In medical contexts, review literature articles are often used to inform evidence-based practice, clinical guidelines, and health policy decisions. They can also help to identify research priorities and guide funding agencies in allocating resources for future studies.

Biotechnology is defined in the medical field as a branch of technology that utilizes biological processes, organisms, or systems to create products that are technologically useful. This can include various methods and techniques such as genetic engineering, cell culture, fermentation, and others. The goal of biotechnology is to harness the power of biology to produce drugs, vaccines, diagnostic tests, biofuels, and other industrial products, as well as to advance our understanding of living systems for medical and scientific research.

The use of biotechnology has led to significant advances in medicine, including the development of new treatments for genetic diseases, improved methods for diagnosing illnesses, and the creation of vaccines to prevent infectious diseases. However, it also raises ethical and societal concerns related to issues such as genetic modification of organisms, cloning, and biosecurity.

Prostheses: Artificial substitutes or replacements for missing body parts, such as limbs, eyes, or teeth. They are designed to restore the function, appearance, or mobility of the lost part. Prosthetic devices can be categorized into several types, including:

1. External prostheses: Devices that are attached to the outside of the body, like artificial arms, legs, hands, and feet. These may be further classified into:
a. Cosmetic or aesthetic prostheses: Primarily designed to improve the appearance of the affected area.
b. Functional prostheses: Designed to help restore the functionality and mobility of the lost limb.
2. Internal prostheses: Implanted artificial parts that replace missing internal organs, bones, or tissues, such as heart valves, hip joints, or intraocular lenses.

Implants: Medical devices or substances that are intentionally placed inside the body to replace or support a missing or damaged biological structure, deliver medication, monitor physiological functions, or enhance bodily functions. Examples of implants include:

1. Orthopedic implants: Devices used to replace or reinforce damaged bones, joints, or cartilage, such as knee or hip replacements.
2. Cardiovascular implants: Devices that help support or regulate heart function, like pacemakers, defibrillators, and artificial heart valves.
3. Dental implants: Artificial tooth roots that are placed into the jawbone to support dental prostheses, such as crowns, bridges, or dentures.
4. Neurological implants: Devices used to stimulate nerves, brain structures, or spinal cord tissues to treat various neurological conditions, like deep brain stimulators for Parkinson's disease or cochlear implants for hearing loss.
5. Ophthalmic implants: Artificial lenses that are placed inside the eye to replace a damaged or removed natural lens, such as intraocular lenses used in cataract surgery.

The urachus is a vestigial structure in humans, which is a fibrous cord that connects the umbilicus (navel or belly button) to the dome-shaped top of the bladder. In fetal development, the urachus is the passageway for urine to move from the developing bladder to the allantois, an outpouching of the hindgut that ultimately becomes part of the placenta.

After birth, the urachus usually obliterates and turns into a fibrous cord called the median umbilical ligament. However, in some cases, the urachus may not completely obliterate, leading to various congenital abnormalities such as urachal cysts, urachal sinuses, or urachal fistulas. These conditions can cause symptoms like lower abdominal pain, infection, and sometimes even sepsis if left untreated.

It's worth noting that the urachus is not a commonly discussed structure in routine medical practice, but it does have clinical significance in certain pediatric surgical cases and congenital anomalies.

Balloon occlusion is a medical procedure that involves the use of a small, deflated balloon at the end of a catheter, which can be inserted into a blood vessel or other tubular structure in the body. Once the balloon is in position, it is inflated with a fluid or gas to create a blockage or obstruction in the vessel. This can be used for various medical purposes, such as:

1. Controlling bleeding: By inflating the balloon in a blood vessel, doctors can temporarily stop the flow of blood to a specific area, allowing them to treat injuries or abnormalities that are causing excessive bleeding.
2. Vessel narrowing or blockage assessment: Balloon occlusion can be used to assess the severity of narrowing or blockages in blood vessels. By inflating the balloon and measuring the pressure differences upstream and downstream, doctors can determine the extent of the obstruction and plan appropriate treatment.
3. Embolization therapy: In some cases, balloon occlusion is used to deliver embolic agents (such as coils, particles, or glue) that block off blood flow to specific areas. This can be useful in treating conditions like tumors, arteriovenous malformations, or aneurysms.
4. Temporary vessel occlusion during surgery: During certain surgical procedures, it may be necessary to temporarily stop the flow of blood to a specific area. Balloon occlusion can be used to achieve this quickly and safely.
5. Assisting in the placement of stents or other devices: Balloon occlusion can help position and deploy stents or other medical devices by providing temporary support or blocking off blood flow during the procedure.

It is important to note that balloon occlusion procedures carry potential risks, such as vessel injury, infection, or embolism (the blockage of a blood vessel by a clot or foreign material). These risks should be carefully weighed against the benefits when considering this type of treatment.

The Ductus Arteriosus is a fetal blood vessel that connects the pulmonary trunk (the artery that carries blood from the heart to the lungs) and the aorta (the largest artery in the body, which carries oxygenated blood from the heart to the rest of the body). This vessel allows most of the blood from the right ventricle of the fetal heart to bypass the lungs, as the fetus receives oxygen through the placenta rather than breathing air.

After birth, with the first breaths, the blood oxygen level increases and the pressure in the lungs rises. As a result, the circulation in the newborn's body changes, and the Ductus Arteriosus is no longer needed. Within the first few days or weeks of life, this vessel usually closes spontaneously, turning into a fibrous cord called the Ligamentum Arteriosum.

Persistent Patency of the Ductus Arteriosus (PDA) occurs when the Ductus Arteriosus does not close after birth, which can lead to various complications such as heart failure and pulmonary hypertension. This condition is often seen in premature infants and may require medical intervention or surgical closure of the vessel.

A randomized controlled trial (RCT) is a type of clinical study in which participants are randomly assigned to receive either the experimental intervention or the control condition, which may be a standard of care, placebo, or no treatment. The goal of an RCT is to minimize bias and ensure that the results are due to the intervention being tested rather than other factors. This design allows for a comparison between the two groups to determine if there is a significant difference in outcomes. RCTs are often considered the gold standard for evaluating the safety and efficacy of medical interventions, as they provide a high level of evidence for causal relationships between the intervention and health outcomes.

A blood vessel prosthesis is a medical device that is used as a substitute for a damaged or diseased natural blood vessel. It is typically made of synthetic materials such as polyester, Dacron, or ePTFE (expanded polytetrafluoroethylene) and is designed to mimic the function of a native blood vessel by allowing the flow of blood through it.

Blood vessel prostheses are used in various surgical procedures, including coronary artery bypass grafting, peripheral arterial reconstruction, and the creation of arteriovenous fistulas for dialysis access. The choice of material and size of the prosthesis depends on several factors, such as the location and diameter of the vessel being replaced, the patient's age and overall health status, and the surgeon's preference.

It is important to note that while blood vessel prostheses can be effective in restoring blood flow, they may also carry risks such as infection, thrombosis (blood clot formation), and graft failure over time. Therefore, careful patient selection, surgical technique, and postoperative management are crucial for the success of these procedures.

A newborn infant is a baby who is within the first 28 days of life. This period is also referred to as the neonatal period. Newborns require specialized care and attention due to their immature bodily systems and increased vulnerability to various health issues. They are closely monitored for signs of well-being, growth, and development during this critical time.

Angiography is a medical procedure in which an x-ray image is taken to visualize the internal structure of blood vessels, arteries, or veins. This is done by injecting a radiopaque contrast agent (dye) into the blood vessel using a thin, flexible catheter. The dye makes the blood vessels visible on an x-ray image, allowing doctors to diagnose and treat various medical conditions such as blockages, narrowing, or malformations of the blood vessels.

There are several types of angiography, including:

* Cardiac angiography (also called coronary angiography) - used to examine the blood vessels of the heart
* Cerebral angiography - used to examine the blood vessels of the brain
* Peripheral angiography - used to examine the blood vessels in the limbs or other parts of the body.

Angiography is typically performed by a radiologist, cardiologist, or vascular surgeon in a hospital setting. It can help diagnose conditions such as coronary artery disease, aneurysms, and peripheral arterial disease, among others.

Follow-up studies are a type of longitudinal research that involve repeated observations or measurements of the same variables over a period of time, in order to understand their long-term effects or outcomes. In medical context, follow-up studies are often used to evaluate the safety and efficacy of medical treatments, interventions, or procedures.

In a typical follow-up study, a group of individuals (called a cohort) who have received a particular treatment or intervention are identified and then followed over time through periodic assessments or data collection. The data collected may include information on clinical outcomes, adverse events, changes in symptoms or functional status, and other relevant measures.

The results of follow-up studies can provide important insights into the long-term benefits and risks of medical interventions, as well as help to identify factors that may influence treatment effectiveness or patient outcomes. However, it is important to note that follow-up studies can be subject to various biases and limitations, such as loss to follow-up, recall bias, and changes in clinical practice over time, which must be carefully considered when interpreting the results.

'Guidelines' in the medical context are systematically developed statements or sets of recommendations designed to assist healthcare professionals and patients in making informed decisions about appropriate health care for specific clinical circumstances. They are based on a thorough evaluation of the available evidence, including scientific studies, expert opinions, and patient values. Guidelines may cover a wide range of topics, such as diagnosis, treatment, prevention, screening, and management of various diseases and conditions. They aim to standardize care, improve patient outcomes, reduce unnecessary variations in practice, and promote efficient use of healthcare resources.

Evidence-Based Medicine (EBM) is a medical approach that combines the best available scientific evidence with clinical expertise and patient values to make informed decisions about diagnosis, treatment, and prevention of diseases. It emphasizes the use of systematic research, including randomized controlled trials and meta-analyses, to guide clinical decision making. EBM aims to provide the most effective and efficient care while minimizing variations in practice, reducing errors, and improving patient outcomes.

"Terminology as a topic" in the context of medical education and practice refers to the study and use of specialized language and terms within the field of medicine. This includes understanding the meaning, origins, and appropriate usage of medical terminology in order to effectively communicate among healthcare professionals and with patients. It may also involve studying the evolution and cultural significance of medical terminology. The importance of "terminology as a topic" lies in promoting clear and accurate communication, which is essential for providing safe and effective patient care.

Benchmarking in the medical context refers to the process of comparing healthcare services, practices, or outcomes against a widely recognized standard or within best practice recommendations, with the aim of identifying areas for improvement and implementing changes to enhance the quality and efficiency of care. This can involve comparing data on various metrics such as patient satisfaction, clinical outcomes, costs, and safety measures. The goal is to continuously monitor and improve the quality of healthcare services provided to patients.

Research, in the context of medicine, is a systematic and rigorous process of collecting, analyzing, and interpreting information in order to increase our understanding, develop new knowledge, or evaluate current practices and interventions. It can involve various methodologies such as observational studies, experiments, surveys, or literature reviews. The goal of medical research is to advance health care by identifying new treatments, improving diagnostic techniques, and developing prevention strategies. Medical research is typically conducted by teams of researchers including clinicians, scientists, and other healthcare professionals. It is subject to ethical guidelines and regulations to ensure that it is conducted responsibly and with the best interests of patients in mind.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Programmed Instruction" is not a medical term or concept. It is a educational theory and teaching strategy that was developed in the mid-20th century. Programmed instruction involves presenting information to learners in small, manageable chunks or "frames," with each frame building upon the previous one. Learners are often asked to respond to questions or prompts after each frame, which allows them to immediately apply what they have learned and receive feedback. This approach is designed to help learners progress at their own pace and take an active role in their learning process. It has been used in various settings, including medical education, to teach a wide range of topics.

In the field of medicine, "time factors" refer to the duration of symptoms or time elapsed since the onset of a medical condition, which can have significant implications for diagnosis and treatment. Understanding time factors is crucial in determining the progression of a disease, evaluating the effectiveness of treatments, and making critical decisions regarding patient care.

For example, in stroke management, "time is brain," meaning that rapid intervention within a specific time frame (usually within 4.5 hours) is essential to administering tissue plasminogen activator (tPA), a clot-busting drug that can minimize brain damage and improve patient outcomes. Similarly, in trauma care, the "golden hour" concept emphasizes the importance of providing definitive care within the first 60 minutes after injury to increase survival rates and reduce morbidity.

Time factors also play a role in monitoring the progression of chronic conditions like diabetes or heart disease, where regular follow-ups and assessments help determine appropriate treatment adjustments and prevent complications. In infectious diseases, time factors are crucial for initiating antibiotic therapy and identifying potential outbreaks to control their spread.

Overall, "time factors" encompass the significance of recognizing and acting promptly in various medical scenarios to optimize patient outcomes and provide effective care.

Graft occlusion in the context of vascular surgery refers to the complete or partial blockage of a blood vessel that has been surgically replaced or repaired with a graft. The graft can be made from either synthetic materials or autologous tissue (taken from another part of the patient's body).

Graft occlusion can occur due to various reasons, including:

1. Thrombosis: Formation of a blood clot within the graft, which can obstruct blood flow.
2. Intimal hyperplasia: Overgrowth of the inner lining (intima) of the graft or the adjacent native vessel, causing narrowing of the lumen and reducing blood flow.
3. Atherosclerosis: Deposition of cholesterol and other substances in the walls of the graft, leading to hardening and narrowing of the vessel.
4. Infection: Bacterial or fungal infection of the graft can cause inflammation, weakening, and ultimately occlusion of the graft.
5. Mechanical factors: Kinking, twisting, or compression of the graft can lead to obstruction of blood flow.

Graft occlusion is a significant complication following vascular surgery, as it can result in reduced perfusion to downstream tissues and organs, leading to ischemia (lack of oxygen supply) and potential tissue damage or loss.

A premature infant is a baby born before 37 weeks of gestation. They may face various health challenges because their organs are not fully developed. The earlier a baby is born, the higher the risk of complications. Prematurity can lead to short-term and long-term health issues, such as respiratory distress syndrome, jaundice, anemia, infections, hearing problems, vision problems, developmental delays, and cerebral palsy. Intensive medical care and support are often necessary for premature infants to ensure their survival and optimal growth and development.

Ligation, in the context of medical terminology, refers to the process of tying off a part of the body, usually blood vessels or tissue, with a surgical suture or another device. The goal is to stop the flow of fluids such as blood or other substances within the body. It is commonly used during surgeries to control bleeding or to block the passage of fluids, gases, or solids in various parts of the body.

Rosaniline dyes are a type of basic dye that were first synthesized in the late 19th century. They are named after rosaniline, which is a primary chemical used in their production. Rosaniline dyes are characterized by their ability to form complexes with metal ions, which can then bind to proteins and other biological molecules. This property makes them useful as histological stains, which are used to highlight specific structures or features within tissues and cells.

Rosaniline dyes include a range of different chemicals, such as methyl violet, crystal violet, and basic fuchsin. These dyes are often used in combination with other staining techniques to provide contrast and enhance the visibility of specific cellular components. For example, they may be used to stain nuclei, cytoplasm, or other structures within cells, allowing researchers and clinicians to visualize and analyze tissue samples more effectively.

It's worth noting that some rosaniline dyes have been found to have potential health hazards, particularly when used in certain forms or concentrations. Therefore, it's important to follow proper safety protocols when handling these chemicals and to use them only under the guidance of trained professionals.

A generic drug is a medication that contains the same active ingredients as an originally marketed brand-name drug, known as its "innovator" or "reference listed" drug. The active ingredient is the component of the drug that is responsible for its therapeutic effect. Generic drugs are required to have the same quality, strength, purity, and stability as their brand-name counterparts. They must also meet the same rigorous Food and Drug Administration (FDA) standards regarding safety, effectiveness, and manufacturing.

Generic drugs are typically less expensive than their brand-name equivalents because generic manufacturers do not have to repeat the costly clinical trials that were required for the innovator drug. Instead, they demonstrate through bioequivalence studies that their product is therapeutically equivalent to the reference listed drug. This means that the generic drug delivers the same amount of active ingredient into a patient's bloodstream in the same timeframe as the brand-name drug.

In summary, generic drugs are copies of brand-name drugs with the same active ingredients, dosage forms, strengths, routes of administration, and intended uses. They must meet FDA regulations for safety, efficacy, and manufacturing standards, ensuring that they provide patients with the same therapeutic benefits as their brand-name counterparts at a more affordable price.

Aortography is a medical procedure that involves taking X-ray images of the aorta, which is the largest blood vessel in the body. The procedure is usually performed to diagnose or assess various conditions related to the aorta, such as aneurysms, dissections, or blockages.

To perform an aortography, a contrast dye is injected into the aorta through a catheter that is inserted into an artery, typically in the leg or arm. The contrast dye makes the aorta visible on X-ray images, allowing doctors to see its structure and any abnormalities that may be present.

The procedure is usually performed in a hospital or outpatient setting and may require sedation or anesthesia. While aortography can provide valuable diagnostic information, it also carries some risks, such as allergic reactions to the contrast dye, damage to blood vessels, or infection. Therefore, it is typically reserved for situations where other diagnostic tests have been inconclusive or where more invasive treatment may be required.

I'm happy to help, but it seems there might be some confusion in your question. "Interviews" is a broad topic that isn't typically a medical term or subject. However, interviews can certainly be a part of medical settings and procedures, such as job interviews for healthcare positions, patient interviews during medical consultations, or research interviews in clinical studies.

In the context of medical education, an interview might refer to the process by which medical schools evaluate applicants for admission, known as the medical school interview. This is a critical component of the application process and typically involves one-on-one conversations between the applicant and an admissions committee member or a series of multiple mini-interviews (MMIs) with various evaluators.

If you could provide more context or clarify what you mean by "Interviews as Topic" in a medical setting, I'd be happy to help further!

Cardiac surgical procedures are operations that are performed on the heart or great vessels (the aorta and vena cava) by cardiothoracic surgeons. These surgeries are often complex and require a high level of skill and expertise. Some common reasons for cardiac surgical procedures include:

1. Coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG): This is a surgery to improve blood flow to the heart in patients with coronary artery disease. During the procedure, a healthy blood vessel from another part of the body is used to create a detour around the blocked or narrowed portion of the coronary artery.
2. Valve repair or replacement: The heart has four valves that control blood flow through and out of the heart. If one or more of these valves become damaged or diseased, they may need to be repaired or replaced. This can be done using artificial valves or valves from animal or human donors.
3. Aneurysm repair: An aneurysm is a weakened area in the wall of an artery that can bulge out and potentially rupture. If an aneurysm occurs in the aorta, it may require surgical repair to prevent rupture.
4. Heart transplantation: In some cases, heart failure may be so severe that a heart transplant is necessary. This involves removing the diseased heart and replacing it with a healthy donor heart.
5. Arrhythmia surgery: Certain types of abnormal heart rhythms (arrhythmias) may require surgical treatment. One such procedure is called the Maze procedure, which involves creating a pattern of scar tissue in the heart to disrupt the abnormal electrical signals that cause the arrhythmia.
6. Congenital heart defect repair: Some people are born with structural problems in their hearts that require surgical correction. These may include holes between the chambers of the heart or abnormal blood vessels.

Cardiac surgical procedures carry risks, including bleeding, infection, stroke, and death. However, for many patients, these surgeries can significantly improve their quality of life and longevity.

A heart aneurysm, also known as a ventricular aneurysm, is a localized bulging or ballooning of the heart muscle in the left ventricle, which is the main pumping chamber of the heart. This condition typically occurs following a myocardial infarction (heart attack), where blood flow to a portion of the heart muscle is blocked, leading to tissue death and weakness in the heart wall. As a result, the weakened area may stretch and form a sac-like bulge or aneurysm.

Heart aneurysms can vary in size and may cause complications such as blood clots, arrhythmias (irregular heartbeats), or heart failure. In some cases, they may be asymptomatic and discovered during routine imaging tests. The diagnosis of a heart aneurysm is typically made through echocardiography, cardiac MRI, or cardiac CT scans. Treatment options depend on the size, location, and symptoms of the aneurysm and may include medications, surgical repair, or implantation of a device to support heart function.

The foramen ovale is a fetal cardiovascular structure that usually closes after birth. It's a flap-like opening between the right and left atria (the upper chambers) of the heart. This opening allows oxygen-rich blood from the mother to bypass the fetal lungs and go directly to the fetal brain and body.

After birth, when the newborn starts breathing and blood pressure in the lungs increases, the pressure in the left atrium also rises, causing the flap to close and seal the foramen ovale. In about 25% of adults, this flap doesn't close completely, resulting in a condition known as a patent foramen ovale (PFO), which is usually asymptomatic but can rarely lead to complications such as stroke or migraine with aura.

An embolism is a medical condition that occurs when a substance, such as a blood clot or an air bubble, blocks a blood vessel. This can happen in any part of the body, but it is particularly dangerous when it affects the brain (causing a stroke) or the lungs (causing a pulmonary embolism). Embolisms can cause serious harm by preventing oxygen and nutrients from reaching the tissues and organs that need them. They are often the result of underlying medical conditions, such as heart disease or deep vein thrombosis, and may require immediate medical attention to prevent further complications.

Blood vessel prosthesis implantation is a surgical procedure in which an artificial blood vessel, also known as a vascular graft or prosthetic graft, is inserted into the body to replace a damaged or diseased native blood vessel. The prosthetic graft can be made from various materials such as Dacron (polyester), PTFE (polytetrafluoroethylene), or bovine/human tissue.

The implantation of a blood vessel prosthesis is typically performed to treat conditions that cause narrowing or blockage of the blood vessels, such as atherosclerosis, aneurysms, or traumatic injuries. The procedure may be used to bypass blocked arteries in the legs (peripheral artery disease), heart (coronary artery bypass surgery), or neck (carotid endarterectomy). It can also be used to replace damaged veins for hemodialysis access in patients with kidney failure.

The success of blood vessel prosthesis implantation depends on various factors, including the patient's overall health, the location and extent of the vascular disease, and the type of graft material used. Possible complications include infection, bleeding, graft thrombosis (clotting), and graft failure, which may require further surgical intervention or endovascular treatments.

Ibuprofen is a non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) often used for its analgesic (pain-relieving), antipyretic (fever-reducing), and anti-inflammatory effects. It works by inhibiting the enzyme cyclooxygenase, which is involved in the production of prostaglandins that cause inflammation and induce pain and fever. Ibuprofen is commonly used to alleviate symptoms of various conditions such as headaches, menstrual cramps, arthritis, mild fever, and minor aches and pains. It is available over-the-counter in various forms, including tablets, capsules, suspensions, and topical creams or gels.

"Herbals as Topic" is not a medical condition or diagnosis itself, but rather it refers to the study and discussion of herbal medicine or phytotherapy in the context of medical and healthcare practices. Herbal medicine involves the use of plants and plant extracts for medicinal purposes, either alone or combined with conventional treatments.

The National Center for Complementary and Integrative Health (NCCIH) defines herbal products as "products made from plants (or parts of plants) used to treat illnesses or promote health and well-being." These products can come in many forms, including teas, capsules, powders, extracts, and tinctures.

When discussing "Herbals as Topic," it is important to consider the potential benefits and risks associated with their use, as well as any interactions between herbal supplements and conventional medications. It is also crucial to ensure that patients are fully informed about the quality, safety, and efficacy of herbal products they may choose to use. Healthcare professionals should maintain an open and non-judgmental dialogue with their patients regarding their use of herbal medicine, encouraging evidence-based decision-making and promoting safe and effective integrative healthcare practices.

A "premature infant" is a newborn delivered before 37 weeks of gestation. They are at greater risk for various health complications and medical conditions compared to full-term infants, due to their immature organ systems and lower birth weight. Some common diseases and health issues that premature infants may face include:

1. Respiratory Distress Syndrome (RDS): A lung disorder caused by the lack of surfactant, a substance that helps keep the lungs inflated. Premature infants, especially those born before 34 weeks, are at higher risk for RDS.
2. Intraventricular Hemorrhage (IVH): Bleeding in the brain's ventricles, which can lead to developmental delays or neurological issues. The risk of IVH is inversely proportional to gestational age, meaning that the earlier the infant is born, the higher the risk.
3. Necrotizing Enterocolitis (NEC): A gastrointestinal disease where the intestinal tissue becomes inflamed and can die. Premature infants are at greater risk for NEC due to their immature digestive systems.
4. Jaundice: A yellowing of the skin and eyes caused by an accumulation of bilirubin, a waste product from broken-down red blood cells. Premature infants may have higher rates of jaundice due to their liver's immaturity.
5. Infections: Premature infants are more susceptible to infections because of their underdeveloped immune systems. Common sources of infection include the mother's genital tract, bloodstream, or hospital environment.
6. Anemia: A condition characterized by a low red blood cell count or insufficient hemoglobin. Premature infants may develop anemia due to frequent blood sampling, rapid growth, or inadequate erythropoietin production.
7. Retinopathy of Prematurity (ROP): An eye disorder affecting premature infants, where abnormal blood vessel growth occurs in the retina. Severe ROP can lead to vision loss or blindness if not treated promptly.
8. Developmental Delays: Premature infants are at risk for developmental delays due to their immature nervous systems and environmental factors such as sensory deprivation or separation from parents.
9. Patent Ductus Arteriosus (PDA): A congenital heart defect where the ductus arteriosus, a blood vessel that connects two major arteries in the fetal heart, fails to close after birth. Premature infants are at higher risk for PDA due to their immature cardiovascular systems.
10. Hypothermia: Premature infants have difficulty maintaining body temperature and are at risk for hypothermia, which can lead to increased metabolic demands, poor feeding, and infection.

Polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) is not inherently a medical term, but it is a chemical compound with significant uses in the medical field. Medically, PTFE is often referred to by its brand name, Teflon. It is a synthetic fluoropolymer used in various medical applications due to its unique properties such as high resistance to heat, electrical and chemical interaction, and exceptional non-reactivity with body tissues.

PTFE can be found in medical devices like catheters, where it reduces friction, making insertion easier and minimizing trauma. It is also used in orthopedic and dental implants, drug delivery systems, and sutures due to its biocompatibility and non-adhesive nature.

The Valsalva maneuver is a medical procedure that involves forced exhalation against a closed airway, typically by closing one's mouth, pinching the nose shut, and then blowing. This maneuver increases the pressure in the chest and affects the heart's filling and pumping capabilities, as well as the pressures within the ears and eyes.

It is often used during medical examinations to test for conditions such as heart murmurs or to help clear the ears during changes in air pressure (like when scuba diving or flying). It can also be used to help diagnose or monitor conditions related to the autonomic nervous system, such as orthostatic hypotension or dysautonomia.

However, it's important to perform the Valsalva maneuver correctly and under medical supervision, as improper technique or overdoing it can lead to adverse effects like increased heart rate, changes in blood pressure, or even damage to the eardrum.

The saphenous vein is a term used in anatomical description to refer to the great or small saphenous veins, which are superficial veins located in the lower extremities of the human body.

The great saphenous vein (GSV) is the longest vein in the body and originates from the medial aspect of the foot, ascending along the medial side of the leg and thigh, and drains into the femoral vein at the saphenofemoral junction, located in the upper third of the thigh.

The small saphenous vein (SSV) is a shorter vein that originates from the lateral aspect of the foot, ascends along the posterior calf, and drains into the popliteal vein at the saphenopopliteal junction, located in the popliteal fossa.

These veins are often used as conduits for coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) surgery due to their consistent anatomy and length.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "United States" is a geopolitical entity, specifically the name of the country consisting of 50 states, and it is not a medical term or concept. Therefore, I can't provide a medical definition for it. If you have any questions related to health, medicine, or biology, I would be happy to try to help answer those!

Endarteritis is a medical condition that refers to the inflammation of the inner lining (intima) of an artery, particularly the portion that comes into contact with the heart. This condition can affect any artery in the body and is often caused by bacterial or fungal infections that spread through the bloodstream.

Endarteritis can lead to the narrowing or complete blockage of the affected artery, which can result in tissue damage or even death in severe cases. The symptoms of endarteritis depend on the location and extent of the inflammation, but they may include fever, chills, fatigue, weight loss, and pain or weakness in the affected area. Treatment typically involves antibiotics to eliminate the underlying infection and may also include surgery to remove damaged tissue or restore blood flow.

Surgical anastomosis is a medical procedure that involves the connection of two tubular structures, such as blood vessels or intestines, to create a continuous passage. This technique is commonly used in various types of surgeries, including vascular, gastrointestinal, and orthopedic procedures.

During a surgical anastomosis, the ends of the two tubular structures are carefully prepared by removing any damaged or diseased tissue. The ends are then aligned and joined together using sutures, staples, or other devices. The connection must be secure and leak-free to ensure proper function and healing.

The success of a surgical anastomosis depends on several factors, including the patient's overall health, the location and condition of the structures being joined, and the skill and experience of the surgeon. Complications such as infection, bleeding, or leakage can occur, which may require additional medical intervention or surgery.

Proper postoperative care is also essential to ensure the success of a surgical anastomosis. This may include monitoring for signs of complications, administering medications to prevent infection and promote healing, and providing adequate nutrition and hydration.

"Research Support as Topic" is not a specific medical term or diagnosis. However, in the context of medical literature and research, "research support" refers to the resources, funding, and infrastructure that enable and facilitate the conduct of scientific research. This can include financial support from various sources such as government agencies, private organizations, or institutions; access to laboratory facilities, equipment, and databases; and technical assistance in study design, data collection and analysis, and manuscript preparation.

When "research support" is designated as a topic in medical literature, it typically refers to articles that discuss the various aspects of research funding, ethics, and management, including best practices for grant writing, financial conflict of interest disclosures, and responsible conduct of research. It may also include studies that examine the impact of research support on the quality, quantity, and outcomes of scientific research.

Therapeutic embolization is a medical procedure that involves intentionally blocking or obstructing blood vessels to stop excessive bleeding or block the flow of blood to a tumor or abnormal tissue. This is typically accomplished by injecting small particles, such as microspheres or coils, into the targeted blood vessel through a catheter, which is inserted into a larger blood vessel and guided to the desired location using imaging techniques like X-ray or CT scanning. The goal of therapeutic embolization is to reduce the size of a tumor, control bleeding, or block off abnormal blood vessels that are causing problems.

The femoral artery is the major blood vessel that supplies oxygenated blood to the lower extremity of the human body. It is a continuation of the external iliac artery and becomes the popliteal artery as it passes through the adductor hiatus in the adductor magnus muscle of the thigh.

The femoral artery is located in the femoral triangle, which is bound by the sartorius muscle anteriorly, the adductor longus muscle medially, and the biceps femoris muscle posteriorly. It can be easily palpated in the groin region, making it a common site for taking blood samples, measuring blood pressure, and performing surgical procedures such as femoral artery catheterization and bypass grafting.

The femoral artery gives off several branches that supply blood to the lower limb, including the deep femoral artery, the superficial femoral artery, and the profunda femoris artery. These branches provide blood to the muscles, bones, skin, and other tissues of the leg, ankle, and foot.

Echocardiography is a medical procedure that uses sound waves to produce detailed images of the heart's structure, function, and motion. It is a non-invasive test that can help diagnose various heart conditions, such as valve problems, heart muscle damage, blood clots, and congenital heart defects.

During an echocardiogram, a transducer (a device that sends and receives sound waves) is placed on the chest or passed through the esophagus to obtain images of the heart. The sound waves produced by the transducer bounce off the heart structures and return to the transducer, which then converts them into electrical signals that are processed to create images of the heart.

There are several types of echocardiograms, including:

* Transthoracic echocardiography (TTE): This is the most common type of echocardiogram and involves placing the transducer on the chest.
* Transesophageal echocardiography (TEE): This type of echocardiogram involves passing a specialized transducer through the esophagus to obtain images of the heart from a closer proximity.
* Stress echocardiography: This type of echocardiogram is performed during exercise or medication-induced stress to assess how the heart functions under stress.
* Doppler echocardiography: This type of echocardiogram uses sound waves to measure blood flow and velocity in the heart and blood vessels.

Echocardiography is a valuable tool for diagnosing and managing various heart conditions, as it provides detailed information about the structure and function of the heart. It is generally safe, non-invasive, and painless, making it a popular choice for doctors and patients alike.

Practice guidelines, also known as clinical practice guidelines, are systematically developed statements that aim to assist healthcare professionals and patients in making informed decisions about appropriate health care for specific clinical circumstances. They are based on a thorough evaluation of the available scientific evidence, consensus of expert opinion, and consideration of patient preferences. Practice guidelines can cover a wide range of topics, including diagnosis, management, prevention, and treatment options for various medical conditions. They are intended to improve the quality and consistency of care, reduce unnecessary variations in practice, and promote evidence-based medicine. However, they should not replace clinical judgment or individualized patient care.

Biomedical research is a branch of scientific research that involves the study of biological processes and diseases in order to develop new treatments and therapies. This type of research often involves the use of laboratory techniques, such as cell culture and genetic engineering, as well as clinical trials in humans. The goal of biomedical research is to advance our understanding of how living organisms function and to find ways to prevent and treat various medical conditions. It encompasses a wide range of disciplines, including molecular biology, genetics, immunology, pharmacology, and neuroscience, among others. Ultimately, the aim of biomedical research is to improve human health and well-being.

Retrospective studies, also known as retrospective research or looking back studies, are a type of observational study that examines data from the past to draw conclusions about possible causal relationships between risk factors and outcomes. In these studies, researchers analyze existing records, medical charts, or previously collected data to test a hypothesis or answer a specific research question.

Retrospective studies can be useful for generating hypotheses and identifying trends, but they have limitations compared to prospective studies, which follow participants forward in time from exposure to outcome. Retrospective studies are subject to biases such as recall bias, selection bias, and information bias, which can affect the validity of the results. Therefore, retrospective studies should be interpreted with caution and used primarily to generate hypotheses for further testing in prospective studies.

The femoral vein is the large vein that runs through the thigh and carries oxygen-depleted blood from the lower limbs back to the heart. It is located in the femoral triangle, along with the femoral artery and nerve. The femoral vein begins at the knee as the popliteal vein, which then joins with the deep vein of the thigh to form the femoral vein. As it moves up the leg, it is joined by several other veins, including the great saphenous vein, before it becomes the external iliac vein at the inguinal ligament in the groin.

A bookplate, also known as ex libris, is a label or plate placed in a book, often on the front endpaper, to indicate ownership. It typically contains the name, motto, or coat of arms of the book's owner. Medical bookplates as a topic may refer to the study of these plates as they appear in medical books, or to the design and creation of bookplates for medical professionals or institutions. These bookplates can provide insight into the history of medicine and the cultural attitudes towards it.

A broadside, in the context of medical terminology, typically refers to a type of publication that is printed on one side of a large sheet of paper. In a historical context, broadsides were often used to disseminate information about medical treatments, public health announcements, or advertisements for medical services or products.

In modern times, the term "broadsides" may also refer to the sudden and intense delivery of medical treatment, such as in the case of broadside chemotherapy. This refers to the administration of multiple chemotherapeutic agents all at once, with the intention of delivering a concentrated and powerful blow to cancer cells.

It's worth noting that the term "broadsides" has a variety of meanings and uses outside of the medical field as well, including in reference to naval warfare, poetry, and more.

An intracranial embolism is a medical condition that occurs when a blood clot or other foreign material (embolus) forms elsewhere in the body and travels to the blood vessels within the brain. This embolus then blocks the flow of blood in the cerebral arteries, leading to potential damage or death of brain tissue. Common sources of intracranial emboli include heart conditions such as atrial fibrillation, valvular heart disease, or following a heart attack; or from large-vessel atherosclerosis in the carotid arteries. Symptoms can vary depending on the location and size of the obstruction, but may include sudden weakness or numbness, confusion, difficulty speaking, vision loss, severe headache, or even loss of consciousness. Immediate medical attention is required to diagnose and treat intracranial embolism, often involving anticoagulation therapy, endovascular procedures, or surgery.

A heart septal defect is a type of congenital heart defect, which means it is present at birth. It involves an abnormal opening in the septum, the wall that separates the two sides of the heart. This opening allows oxygen-rich blood to leak into the oxygen-poor blood chambers in the heart.

There are several types of heart septal defects, including:

1. Atrial Septal Defect (ASD): A hole in the atrial septum, the wall between the two upper chambers of the heart (the right and left atria).
2. Ventricular Septal Defect (VSD): A hole in the ventricular septum, the wall between the two lower chambers of the heart (the right and left ventricles).
3. Atrioventricular Septal Defect (AVSD): A combination of an ASD and a VSD, often accompanied by malformation of the mitral and/or tricuspid valves.

The severity of a heart septal defect depends on the size of the opening and its location in the septum. Small defects may cause no symptoms and may close on their own over time. Larger defects can lead to complications, such as heart failure, pulmonary hypertension, or infective endocarditis, and may require medical or surgical intervention.

A stent is a small mesh tube that's used to treat narrow or weak arteries. Arteries are blood vessels that carry blood away from your heart to other parts of your body. A stent is placed in an artery as part of a procedure called angioplasty. Angioplasty restores blood flow through narrowed or blocked arteries by inflating a tiny balloon inside the blocked artery to widen it.

The stent is then inserted into the widened artery to keep it open. The stent is usually made of metal, but some are coated with medication that is slowly and continuously released to help prevent the formation of scar tissue in the artery. This can reduce the chance of the artery narrowing again.

Stents are also used in other parts of the body, such as the neck (carotid artery) and kidneys (renal artery), to help maintain blood flow and prevent blockages. They can also be used in the urinary system to treat conditions like ureteropelvic junction obstruction or narrowing of the urethra.

Echocardiography, Doppler, color is a type of ultrasound test that uses sound waves to create detailed moving images of the heart and its blood vessels. In this technique, color Doppler is used to visualize the direction and speed of blood flow through the heart and great vessels. The movement of the red blood cells causes a change in frequency of the reflected sound waves (Doppler shift), which can be used to calculate the velocity and direction of the blood flow. By adding color to the Doppler image, it becomes easier for the interpreting physician to understand the complex three-dimensional motion of blood through the heart. This test is often used to diagnose and monitor various heart conditions, including valve disorders, congenital heart defects, and cardiac muscle diseases.

A biosimilar is a biological product that is highly similar to and has no clinically meaningful differences from an existing approved reference biologic product. The abbreviated licensure pathway for biosimilars was created to provide more treatment options, increase access to lifesaving medications, and potentially lower healthcare costs. Biosimilars are designed to have similar safety, purity, and potency as the original biologic drug, also known as the reference product.

Biological products are typically large, complex molecules that are produced using living organisms or cells through highly complex manufacturing processes. Because of their complexity, even minor changes in the manufacturing process can result in different versions of the same biological product having slight differences in clinically inactive components. As a result, biosimilars are not considered generic versions of the reference product, but rather highly similar copies that have been shown to have no clinically meaningful differences in terms of safety, purity, and potency.

Biosimilars are typically introduced after the patent for the original biologic drug has expired, and they are subject to rigorous testing and regulatory approval before they can be marketed. The testing process includes extensive characterization and comparison to the reference product, as well as clinical trials to demonstrate that the biosimilar is safe and effective for its intended use.

In summary, biosimilars are biological products that are highly similar to and have no clinically meaningful differences from an existing approved reference biologic product. They are designed to increase access to lifesaving medications, provide more treatment options, and potentially lower healthcare costs.

Patient education, as defined by the US National Library of Medicine's Medical Subject Headings (MeSH), is "the teaching or training of patients concerning their own health needs. It includes the patient's understanding of his or her condition and the necessary procedures for self, assisted, or professional care." This encompasses a wide range of activities and interventions aimed at helping patients and their families understand their medical conditions, treatment options, self-care skills, and overall health management. Effective patient education can lead to improved health outcomes, increased patient satisfaction, and better use of healthcare resources.

Clinical trials are research studies that involve human participants and are designed to evaluate the safety and efficacy of new medical treatments, drugs, devices, or behavioral interventions. The purpose of clinical trials is to determine whether a new intervention is safe, effective, and beneficial for patients, as well as to compare it with currently available treatments. Clinical trials follow a series of phases, each with specific goals and criteria, before a new intervention can be approved by regulatory authorities for widespread use.

Clinical trials are conducted according to a protocol, which is a detailed plan that outlines the study's objectives, design, methodology, statistical analysis, and ethical considerations. The protocol is developed and reviewed by a team of medical experts, statisticians, and ethicists, and it must be approved by an institutional review board (IRB) before the trial can begin.

Participation in clinical trials is voluntary, and participants must provide informed consent before enrolling in the study. Informed consent involves providing potential participants with detailed information about the study's purpose, procedures, risks, benefits, and alternatives, as well as their rights as research subjects. Participants can withdraw from the study at any time without penalty or loss of benefits to which they are entitled.

Clinical trials are essential for advancing medical knowledge and improving patient care. They help researchers identify new treatments, diagnostic tools, and prevention strategies that can benefit patients and improve public health. However, clinical trials also pose potential risks to participants, including adverse effects from experimental interventions, time commitment, and inconvenience. Therefore, it is important for researchers to carefully design and conduct clinical trials to minimize risks and ensure that the benefits outweigh the risks.

Postoperative complications refer to any unfavorable condition or event that occurs during the recovery period after a surgical procedure. These complications can vary in severity and may include, but are not limited to:

1. Infection: This can occur at the site of the incision or inside the body, such as pneumonia or urinary tract infection.
2. Bleeding: Excessive bleeding (hemorrhage) can lead to a drop in blood pressure and may require further surgical intervention.
3. Blood clots: These can form in the deep veins of the legs (deep vein thrombosis) and can potentially travel to the lungs (pulmonary embolism).
4. Wound dehiscence: This is when the surgical wound opens up, which can lead to infection and further complications.
5. Pulmonary issues: These include atelectasis (collapsed lung), pneumonia, or respiratory failure.
6. Cardiovascular problems: These include abnormal heart rhythms (arrhythmias), heart attack, or stroke.
7. Renal failure: This can occur due to various reasons such as dehydration, blood loss, or the use of certain medications.
8. Pain management issues: Inadequate pain control can lead to increased stress, anxiety, and decreased mobility.
9. Nausea and vomiting: These can be caused by anesthesia, opioid pain medication, or other factors.
10. Delirium: This is a state of confusion and disorientation that can occur in the elderly or those with certain medical conditions.

Prompt identification and management of these complications are crucial to ensure the best possible outcome for the patient.

A stroke, also known as cerebrovascular accident (CVA), is a serious medical condition that occurs when the blood supply to part of the brain is interrupted or reduced, leading to deprivation of oxygen and nutrients to brain cells. This can result in the death of brain tissue and cause permanent damage or temporary impairment to cognitive functions, speech, memory, movement, and other body functions controlled by the affected area of the brain.

Strokes can be caused by either a blockage in an artery that supplies blood to the brain (ischemic stroke) or the rupture of a blood vessel in the brain (hemorrhagic stroke). A transient ischemic attack (TIA), also known as a "mini-stroke," is a temporary disruption of blood flow to the brain that lasts only a few minutes and does not cause permanent damage.

Symptoms of a stroke may include sudden weakness or numbness in the face, arm, or leg; difficulty speaking or understanding speech; vision problems; loss of balance or coordination; severe headache with no known cause; and confusion or disorientation. Immediate medical attention is crucial for stroke patients to receive appropriate treatment and prevent long-term complications.

Prosthesis design is a specialized field in medical device technology that involves creating and developing artificial substitutes to replace a missing body part, such as a limb, tooth, eye, or internal organ. The design process typically includes several stages: assessment of the patient's needs, selection of appropriate materials, creation of a prototype, testing and refinement, and final fabrication and fitting of the prosthesis.

The goal of prosthesis design is to create a device that functions as closely as possible to the natural body part it replaces, while also being comfortable, durable, and aesthetically pleasing for the patient. The design process may involve collaboration between medical professionals, engineers, and designers, and may take into account factors such as the patient's age, lifestyle, occupation, and overall health.

Prosthesis design can be highly complex, particularly for advanced devices such as robotic limbs or implantable organs. These devices often require sophisticated sensors, actuators, and control systems to mimic the natural functions of the body part they replace. As a result, prosthesis design is an active area of research and development in the medical field, with ongoing efforts to improve the functionality, comfort, and affordability of these devices for patients.

Arterial occlusive diseases are medical conditions characterized by the blockage or narrowing of the arteries, which can lead to a reduction in blood flow to various parts of the body. This reduction in blood flow can cause tissue damage and may result in serious complications such as tissue death (gangrene), organ dysfunction, or even death.

The most common cause of arterial occlusive diseases is atherosclerosis, which is the buildup of plaque made up of fat, cholesterol, calcium, and other substances in the inner lining of the artery walls. Over time, this plaque can harden and narrow the arteries, restricting blood flow. Other causes of arterial occlusive diseases include blood clots, emboli (tiny particles that travel through the bloodstream and lodge in smaller vessels), inflammation, trauma, and certain inherited conditions.

Symptoms of arterial occlusive diseases depend on the location and severity of the blockage. Common symptoms include:

* Pain, cramping, or fatigue in the affected limb, often triggered by exercise and relieved by rest (claudication)
* Numbness, tingling, or weakness in the affected limb
* Coldness or discoloration of the skin in the affected area
* Slow-healing sores or wounds on the toes, feet, or legs
* Erectile dysfunction in men

Treatment for arterial occlusive diseases may include lifestyle changes such as quitting smoking, exercising regularly, and eating a healthy diet. Medications to lower cholesterol, control blood pressure, prevent blood clots, or manage pain may also be prescribed. In severe cases, surgical procedures such as angioplasty, stenting, or bypass surgery may be necessary to restore blood flow.

The inferior vena cava (IVC) is the largest vein in the human body that carries deoxygenated blood from the lower extremities, pelvis, and abdomen to the right atrium of the heart. It is formed by the union of the left and right common iliac veins at the level of the fifth lumbar vertebra. The inferior vena cava is a retroperitoneal structure, meaning it lies behind the peritoneum, the lining that covers the abdominal cavity. It ascends through the posterior abdominal wall and passes through the central tendon of the diaphragm to enter the thoracic cavity.

The inferior vena cava is composed of three parts:

1. The infrarenal portion, which lies below the renal veins
2. The renal portion, which receives blood from the renal veins
3. The suprahepatic portion, which lies above the liver and receives blood from the hepatic veins before draining into the right atrium of the heart.

The inferior vena cava plays a crucial role in maintaining venous return to the heart and contributing to cardiovascular function.

A urachal cyst is a rare type of abdominal wall defect that results from the persistent embryonic remnant of the urachus, which is a canal-like structure that connects the bladder to the umbilicus (belly button) during fetal development. This canal normally obliterates and becomes a fibrous cord known as the median umbilical ligament after birth. However, if it fails to do so, it can result in the formation of various urachal anomalies, including a urachal cyst.

A urachal cyst is a fluid-filled sac that forms along any part of the urachus, usually located between the bladder and the umbilicus. These cysts are typically asymptomatic but can become infected or inflamed, leading to symptoms such as abdominal pain, tenderness, fever, and a palpable mass in the lower abdomen. In some cases, urachal cysts may also cause urinary tract infections or bladder irritation. Diagnosis is usually made through imaging studies such as ultrasound, CT scan, or MRI, and treatment typically involves surgical excision of the cyst to prevent complications.

A testicular hydrocele is a type of fluid-filled sac that forms around the testicle (testis), typically in the scrotum. This sac, known as the tunica vaginalis, normally contains a small amount of fluid that helps to lubricate and protect the testicle. However, when an excessive amount of fluid accumulates in this sac, it results in the formation of a hydrocele.

Testicular hydroceles can be congenital (present at birth) or acquired later in life due to various reasons such as injury, inflammation, or infection in the scrotal area. They are usually painless but may cause discomfort or a feeling of heaviness in the scrotum, especially when they become large. In some cases, hydroceles may resolve on their own without treatment, while others may require surgical intervention to drain the fluid and repair the underlying issue.

It is essential to differentiate between hydroceles and other conditions with similar symptoms, such as hernias or tumors, which may require more urgent medical attention. A healthcare professional can perform a physical examination and possibly recommend further testing, like an ultrasound, to confirm the diagnosis of a testicular hydrocele.

In the context of medical education, a curriculum refers to the planned and organized sequence of experiences and learning opportunities designed to achieve specific educational goals and objectives. It outlines the knowledge, skills, and attitudes that medical students or trainees are expected to acquire during their training program. The curriculum may include various components such as lectures, small group discussions, clinical rotations, simulations, and other experiential learning activities. It is typically developed and implemented by medical education experts and faculty members in consultation with stakeholders, including learners, practitioners, and patients.

The popliteal artery is the continuation of the femoral artery that passes through the popliteal fossa, which is the area behind the knee. It is the major blood vessel that supplies oxygenated blood to the lower leg and foot. The popliteal artery divides into the anterior tibial artery and the tibioperoneal trunk at the lower border of the popliteus muscle. Any damage or blockage to this artery can result in serious health complications, including reduced blood flow to the leg and foot, which may lead to pain, cramping, numbness, or even tissue death (gangrene) if left untreated.

Economic competition in the context of healthcare and medicine generally refers to the rivalry among healthcare providers, organizations, or pharmaceutical companies competing for patients, resources, market share, or funding. This competition can drive innovation, improve quality of care, and increase efficiency. However, it can also lead to cost-containment measures that may negatively impact patient care and safety.

In the pharmaceutical industry, economic competition exists between different companies developing and marketing similar drugs. This competition can result in lower prices for consumers and incentives for innovation, but it can also lead to unethical practices such as price gouging or misleading advertising.

Regulation and oversight are crucial to ensure that economic competition in healthcare and medicine promotes the well-being of patients and the public while discouraging harmful practices.

An arteriovenous shunt is a surgically created connection between an artery and a vein. This procedure is typically performed to reroute blood flow or to provide vascular access for various medical treatments. In a surgical setting, the creation of an arteriovenous shunt involves connecting an artery directly to a vein, bypassing the capillary network in between.

There are different types of arteriovenous shunts used for specific medical purposes:

1. Arteriovenous Fistula (AVF): This is a surgical connection created between an artery and a vein, usually in the arm or leg. The procedure involves dissecting both the artery and vein, then suturing them directly together. Over time, the increased blood flow to the vein causes it to dilate and thicken, making it suitable for repeated needle punctures during hemodialysis treatments for patients with kidney failure.
2. Arteriovenous Graft (AVG): An arteriovenous graft is a synthetic tube used to connect an artery and a vein when a direct AVF cannot be created due to insufficient vessel size or poor quality. The graft can be made of various materials, such as polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) or Dacron. Grafts are more prone to infection and clotting compared to native AVFs but remain an essential option for patients requiring hemodialysis access.
3. Central Venous Catheter (CVC): A central venous catheter is a flexible tube inserted into a large vein, often in the neck or groin, and advanced towards the heart. CVCs can be used as temporary arteriovenous shunts for patients who require immediate hemodialysis access but do not have time to wait for an AVF or AVG to mature. However, they are associated with higher risks of infection and thrombosis compared to native AVFs and AVGs.

In summary, a surgical arteriovenous shunt is a connection between an artery and a vein established through a medical procedure. The primary purpose of these shunts is to provide vascular access for hemodialysis in patients with end-stage renal disease or to serve as temporary access when native AVFs or AVGs are not feasible.

"Migraine with Aura" is a neurological condition that is formally defined by the International Classification of Headache Disorders (ICHD) as follows:

"An migraine attack with focal neurological symptoms that usually develop gradually over 5 to 20 minutes and last for less than 60 minutes. Motor weakness is not a feature of the aura."

The symptoms of an aura may include visual disturbances such as flickering lights, zigzag lines, or blind spots; sensory disturbances such as tingling or numbness in the face, arms, or legs; and speech or language difficulties. These symptoms are caused by abnormal electrical activity in the brain and typically precede or accompany a migraine headache, although they can also occur without a headache.

It's important to note that not all people who experience migraines will have an aura, and some people may have an aura without a headache. If you are experiencing symptoms of a migraine with aura or any other type of headache, it is recommended that you consult with a healthcare professional for proper diagnosis and treatment.

Veins are blood vessels that carry deoxygenated blood from the tissues back to the heart. They have a lower pressure than arteries and contain valves to prevent the backflow of blood. Veins have a thin, flexible wall with a larger lumen compared to arteries, allowing them to accommodate more blood volume. The color of veins is often blue or green due to the absorption characteristics of light and the reduced oxygen content in the blood they carry.

A medical webcast is a digital broadcast of a live or recorded medical education event, seminar, or conference transmitted via the internet. It may include lectures, presentations, discussions, and question-and-answer sessions delivered by medical professionals, researchers, or experts in various fields of medicine. Medical webcasts serve as a valuable resource for continuing medical education (CME) and professional development, allowing healthcare providers to stay current with the latest advances, treatments, and guidelines in their respective fields. They may also provide opportunities for remote participation and interaction with presenters and other attendees through live chats, polls, or Q&A sessions.

A reoperation is a surgical procedure that is performed again on a patient who has already undergone a previous operation for the same or related condition. Reoperations may be required due to various reasons, such as inadequate initial treatment, disease recurrence, infection, or complications from the first surgery. The nature and complexity of a reoperation can vary widely depending on the specific circumstances, but it often carries higher risks and potential complications compared to the original operation.

Prospective studies, also known as longitudinal studies, are a type of cohort study in which data is collected forward in time, following a group of individuals who share a common characteristic or exposure over a period of time. The researchers clearly define the study population and exposure of interest at the beginning of the study and follow up with the participants to determine the outcomes that develop over time. This type of study design allows for the investigation of causal relationships between exposures and outcomes, as well as the identification of risk factors and the estimation of disease incidence rates. Prospective studies are particularly useful in epidemiology and medical research when studying diseases with long latency periods or rare outcomes.

The mammary arteries are a set of blood vessels that supply oxygenated blood to the mammary glands, which are the structures in female breasts responsible for milk production during lactation. The largest mammary artery, also known as the internal thoracic or internal mammary artery, originates from the subclavian artery and descends along the inner side of the chest wall. It then branches into several smaller arteries that supply blood to the breast tissue. These include the anterior and posterior intercostal arteries, lateral thoracic artery, and pectoral branches. The mammary arteries are crucial in maintaining the health and function of the breast tissue, and any damage or blockage to these vessels can lead to various breast-related conditions or diseases.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "investments" is not a term that has a specific medical definition. It is an economic and financial term that refers to the allocation of resources, usually money, with the expectation of receiving future returns or benefits. This could include purchasing stocks, bonds, real estate, or other assets with the goal of generating income or appreciating in value over time.

If you have any questions related to medical terminology or health-related concepts, I'd be happy to help!

X-ray computed tomography (CT or CAT scan) is a medical imaging method that uses computer-processed combinations of many X-ray images taken from different angles to produce cross-sectional (tomographic) images (virtual "slices") of the body. These cross-sectional images can then be used to display detailed internal views of organs, bones, and soft tissues in the body.

The term "computed tomography" is used instead of "CT scan" or "CAT scan" because the machines take a series of X-ray measurements from different angles around the body and then use a computer to process these data to create detailed images of internal structures within the body.

CT scanning is a noninvasive, painless medical test that helps physicians diagnose and treat medical conditions. CT imaging provides detailed information about many types of tissue including lung, bone, soft tissue and blood vessels. CT examinations can be performed on every part of the body for a variety of reasons including diagnosis, surgical planning, and monitoring of therapeutic responses.

In computed tomography (CT), an X-ray source and detector rotate around the patient, measuring the X-ray attenuation at many different angles. A computer uses this data to construct a cross-sectional image by the process of reconstruction. This technique is called "tomography". The term "computed" refers to the use of a computer to reconstruct the images.

CT has become an important tool in medical imaging and diagnosis, allowing radiologists and other physicians to view detailed internal images of the body. It can help identify many different medical conditions including cancer, heart disease, lung nodules, liver tumors, and internal injuries from trauma. CT is also commonly used for guiding biopsies and other minimally invasive procedures.

In summary, X-ray computed tomography (CT or CAT scan) is a medical imaging technique that uses computer-processed combinations of many X-ray images taken from different angles to produce cross-sectional images of the body. It provides detailed internal views of organs, bones, and soft tissues in the body, allowing physicians to diagnose and treat medical conditions.

A medical definition of "Manuscripts as Topic" refers to the study and analysis of written documents that report original research or scholarly work in the field of medicine. This can include research articles, review articles, case reports, and other types of manuscripts that are submitted for publication in medical journals. The study of manuscripts as a topic may involve analyzing their content, structure, and quality, as well as evaluating the peer-review process and editorial policies of medical journals. Additionally, it can also cover the historical development of medical knowledge and practices through the examination of ancient and medieval medical manuscripts.

A meta-analysis is a statistical method used to combine and summarize the results of multiple independent studies, with the aim of increasing statistical power, improving estimates of effect size, and identifying sources of heterogeneity. It involves systematically searching for and selecting relevant studies, assessing their quality and risk of bias, extracting and analyzing data using appropriate statistical models, and interpreting the findings in the context of the existing literature. Meta-analyses can provide more reliable evidence than individual studies, especially when the results are inconsistent or inconclusive, and can inform clinical guidelines, public health policies, and future research directions.

Equipment design, in the medical context, refers to the process of creating and developing medical equipment and devices, such as surgical instruments, diagnostic machines, or assistive technologies. This process involves several stages, including:

1. Identifying user needs and requirements
2. Concept development and brainstorming
3. Prototyping and testing
4. Design for manufacturing and assembly
5. Safety and regulatory compliance
6. Verification and validation
7. Training and support

The goal of equipment design is to create safe, effective, and efficient medical devices that meet the needs of healthcare providers and patients while complying with relevant regulations and standards. The design process typically involves a multidisciplinary team of engineers, clinicians, designers, and researchers who work together to develop innovative solutions that improve patient care and outcomes.

Indomethacin is a non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) that is commonly used to reduce pain, inflammation, and fever. It works by inhibiting the activity of certain enzymes in the body, including cyclooxygenase (COX), which plays a role in producing prostaglandins, chemicals involved in the inflammatory response.

Indomethacin is available in various forms, such as capsules, suppositories, and injectable solutions, and is used to treat a wide range of conditions, including rheumatoid arthritis, osteoarthritis, ankylosing spondylitis, gout, and bursitis. It may also be used to relieve pain and reduce fever in other conditions, such as dental procedures or after surgery.

Like all NSAIDs, indomethacin can have side effects, including stomach ulcers, bleeding, and kidney damage, especially when taken at high doses or for long periods of time. It may also increase the risk of heart attack and stroke. Therefore, it is important to use indomethacin only as directed by a healthcare provider and to report any unusual symptoms or side effects promptly.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Lawyers" is not a term that has a medical definition. The term "Lawyer" refers to a person who is qualified and authorized to practice law in a court of law. They offer advice on legal matters and represent clients in court or in other legal proceedings. If you have any questions about medical terminology, I would be happy to help!

Vascular surgical procedures are operations that are performed to treat conditions and diseases related to the vascular system, which includes the arteries, veins, and capillaries. These procedures can be invasive or minimally invasive and are often used to treat conditions such as peripheral artery disease, carotid artery stenosis, aortic aneurysms, and venous insufficiency.

Some examples of vascular surgical procedures include:

* Endarterectomy: a procedure to remove plaque buildup from the inside of an artery
* Bypass surgery: creating a new path for blood to flow around a blocked or narrowed artery
* Angioplasty and stenting: using a balloon to open a narrowed artery and placing a stent to keep it open
* Aneurysm repair: surgically repairing an aneurysm, a weakened area in the wall of an artery that has bulged out and filled with blood
* Embolectomy: removing a blood clot from a blood vessel
* Thrombectomy: removing a blood clot from a vein

These procedures are typically performed by vascular surgeons, who are trained in the diagnosis and treatment of vascular diseases.

An aneurysm is a localized, balloon-like bulge in the wall of a blood vessel. It occurs when the pressure inside the vessel causes a weakened area to swell and become enlarged. Aneurysms can develop in any blood vessel, but they are most common in arteries at the base of the brain (cerebral aneurysm) and the main artery carrying blood from the heart to the rest of the body (aortic aneurysm).

Aneurysms can be classified as saccular or fusiform, depending on their shape. A saccular aneurysm is a round or oval bulge that projects from the side of a blood vessel, while a fusiform aneurysm is a dilated segment of a blood vessel that is uniform in width and involves all three layers of the arterial wall.

The size and location of an aneurysm can affect its risk of rupture. Generally, larger aneurysms are more likely to rupture than smaller ones. Aneurysms located in areas with high blood pressure or where the vessel branches are also at higher risk of rupture.

Ruptured aneurysms can cause life-threatening bleeding and require immediate medical attention. Symptoms of a ruptured aneurysm may include sudden severe headache, neck stiffness, nausea, vomiting, blurred vision, or loss of consciousness. Unruptured aneurysms may not cause any symptoms and are often discovered during routine imaging tests for other conditions.

Treatment options for aneurysms depend on their size, location, and risk of rupture. Small, unruptured aneurysms may be monitored with regular imaging tests to check for growth or changes. Larger or symptomatic aneurysms may require surgical intervention, such as clipping or coiling, to prevent rupture and reduce the risk of complications.

Congenital heart defects (CHDs) are structural abnormalities in the heart that are present at birth. They can affect any part of the heart's structure, including the walls of the heart, the valves inside the heart, and the major blood vessels that lead to and from the heart.

Congenital heart defects can range from mild to severe and can cause various symptoms depending on the type and severity of the defect. Some common symptoms of CHDs include cyanosis (a bluish tint to the skin, lips, and fingernails), shortness of breath, fatigue, poor feeding, and slow growth in infants and children.

There are many different types of congenital heart defects, including:

1. Septal defects: These are holes in the walls that separate the four chambers of the heart. The two most common septal defects are atrial septal defect (ASD) and ventricular septal defect (VSD).
2. Valve abnormalities: These include narrowed or leaky valves, which can affect blood flow through the heart.
3. Obstruction defects: These occur when blood flow is blocked or restricted due to narrowing or absence of a part of the heart's structure. Examples include pulmonary stenosis and coarctation of the aorta.
4. Cyanotic heart defects: These cause a lack of oxygen in the blood, leading to cyanosis. Examples include tetralogy of Fallot and transposition of the great arteries.

The causes of congenital heart defects are not fully understood, but genetic factors and environmental influences during pregnancy may play a role. Some CHDs can be detected before birth through prenatal testing, while others may not be diagnosed until after birth or later in childhood. Treatment for CHDs may include medication, surgery, or other interventions to improve blood flow and oxygenation of the body's tissues.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Polyethylene Terephthalates" is not a medical term. It is a type of polymer used in the manufacturing of various products, such as plastic bottles and textile fibers. Medically, you might encounter the abbreviation "PET" or "PET scan," which stands for "Positron Emission Tomography." A PET scan is a type of medical imaging that provides detailed pictures of the body's interior. If you have any medical terms you would like defined, I'd be happy to help!

Pathological constriction refers to an abnormal narrowing or tightening of a body passage or organ, which can interfere with the normal flow of blood, air, or other substances through the area. This constriction can occur due to various reasons such as inflammation, scarring, or abnormal growths, and can affect different parts of the body, including blood vessels, airways, intestines, and ureters. Pathological constriction can lead to a range of symptoms and complications depending on its location and severity, and may require medical intervention to correct.

Medical Definition:

"Risk factors" are any attribute, characteristic or exposure of an individual that increases the likelihood of developing a disease or injury. They can be divided into modifiable and non-modifiable risk factors. Modifiable risk factors are those that can be changed through lifestyle choices or medical treatment, while non-modifiable risk factors are inherent traits such as age, gender, or genetic predisposition. Examples of modifiable risk factors include smoking, alcohol consumption, physical inactivity, and unhealthy diet, while non-modifiable risk factors include age, sex, and family history. It is important to note that having a risk factor does not guarantee that a person will develop the disease, but rather indicates an increased susceptibility.

The heart septum is the thick, muscular wall that divides the right and left sides of the heart. It consists of two main parts: the atrial septum, which separates the right and left atria (the upper chambers of the heart), and the ventricular septum, which separates the right and left ventricles (the lower chambers of the heart). A normal heart septum ensures that oxygen-rich blood from the lungs does not mix with oxygen-poor blood from the body. Any defect or abnormality in the heart septum is called a septal defect, which can lead to various congenital heart diseases.

The tibial arteries are three major arteries that supply blood to the lower leg and foot. They are branches of the popliteal artery, which is a continuation of the femoral artery. The three tibial arteries are:

1. Anterior tibial artery: This artery runs down the front of the leg and supplies blood to the muscles in the anterior compartment of the leg, as well as to the foot. It becomes the dorsalis pedis artery as it approaches the ankle.
2. Posterior tibial artery: This artery runs down the back of the leg and supplies blood to the muscles in the posterior compartment of the leg. It then branches into the fibular (peroneal) artery and the medial and lateral plantar arteries, which supply blood to the foot.
3. Fibular (peroneal) artery: This artery runs down the outside of the leg and supplies blood to the muscles in the lateral compartment of the leg. It also provides branches that anastomose with the anterior and posterior tibial arteries, forming a network of vessels that helps ensure adequate blood flow to the foot.

Together, these arteries play a critical role in providing oxygenated blood and nutrients to the lower leg and foot, helping to maintain their health and function.

Dehumanization is a process or phenomenon in which a person or group is treated or regarded as lacking basic human qualities and emotions, such as compassion, empathy, or individuality. This can occur through various means, including language, propaganda, social policies, or actions that deprive individuals of their rights, dignity, or freedom. Dehumanization can have serious consequences, including increased prejudice, discrimination, and violence against the targeted group. It is considered a violation of basic human rights and is often associated with totalitarian regimes, genocide, and other large-scale human rights abuses.

Empirical research is a type of scientific investigation that involves the collection and analysis of observable and measurable data to draw conclusions about patterns or relationships in reality. It is based on empirical evidence, which means evidence obtained through direct observation or experience, rather than theoretical reasoning or deduction. In medical research, empirical studies often involve the use of controlled experiments, surveys, or observational studies to test hypotheses and generate new knowledge about health, disease, and treatment outcomes. The results of empirical research can help inform clinical decision-making, public health policy, and future research directions.

Thrombosis is the formation of a blood clot (thrombus) inside a blood vessel, obstructing the flow of blood through the circulatory system. When a clot forms in an artery, it can cut off the supply of oxygen and nutrients to the tissues served by that artery, leading to damage or tissue death. If a thrombus forms in the heart, it can cause a heart attack. If a thrombus breaks off and travels through the bloodstream, it can lodge in a smaller vessel, causing blockage and potentially leading to damage in the organ that the vessel supplies. This is known as an embolism.

Thrombosis can occur due to various factors such as injury to the blood vessel wall, abnormalities in blood flow, or changes in the composition of the blood. Certain medical conditions, medications, and lifestyle factors can increase the risk of thrombosis. Treatment typically involves anticoagulant or thrombolytic therapy to dissolve or prevent further growth of the clot, as well as addressing any underlying causes.

Recurrence, in a medical context, refers to the return of symptoms or signs of a disease after a period of improvement or remission. It indicates that the condition has not been fully eradicated and may require further treatment. Recurrence is often used to describe situations where a disease such as cancer comes back after initial treatment, but it can also apply to other medical conditions. The likelihood of recurrence varies depending on the type of disease and individual patient factors.

A heart murmur is an abnormal sound heard during a heartbeat, which is caused by turbulent blood flow through the heart. It is often described as a blowing, whooshing, or rasping noise. Heart murmurs can be innocent (harmless and not associated with any heart disease) or pathological (indicating an underlying heart condition). They are typically detected during routine physical examinations using a stethoscope. The classification of heart murmurs includes systolic, diastolic, continuous, and functional murmurs, based on the timing and auscultatory location. Various heart conditions, such as valvular disorders, congenital heart defects, or infections, can cause pathological heart murmurs. Further evaluation with diagnostic tests like echocardiography is often required to determine the underlying cause and appropriate treatment.

Pharmaceutical preparations refer to the various forms of medicines that are produced by pharmaceutical companies, which are intended for therapeutic or prophylactic use. These preparations consist of an active ingredient (the drug) combined with excipients (inactive ingredients) in a specific formulation and dosage form.

The active ingredient is the substance that has a therapeutic effect on the body, while the excipients are added to improve the stability, palatability, bioavailability, or administration of the drug. Examples of pharmaceutical preparations include tablets, capsules, solutions, suspensions, emulsions, ointments, creams, and injections.

The production of pharmaceutical preparations involves a series of steps that ensure the quality, safety, and efficacy of the final product. These steps include the selection and testing of raw materials, formulation development, manufacturing, packaging, labeling, and storage. Each step is governed by strict regulations and guidelines to ensure that the final product meets the required standards for use in medical practice.

Interventional radiography is a subspecialty of radiology that uses imaging guidance (such as X-ray fluoroscopy, ultrasound, CT, or MRI) to perform minimally invasive diagnostic and therapeutic procedures. These procedures typically involve the insertion of needles, catheters, or other small instruments through the skin or a natural body opening, allowing for targeted treatment with reduced risk, trauma, and recovery time compared to traditional open surgeries.

Examples of interventional radiography procedures include:

1. Angiography: Imaging of blood vessels to diagnose and treat conditions like blockages, narrowing, or aneurysms.
2. Biopsy: The removal of tissue samples for diagnostic purposes.
3. Drainage: The removal of fluid accumulations (e.g., abscesses, cysts) or the placement of catheters to drain fluids continuously.
4. Embolization: The blocking of blood vessels to control bleeding, tumor growth, or reduce the size of an aneurysm.
5. Stenting and angioplasty: The widening of narrowed or blocked vessels using stents (small mesh tubes) or balloon catheters.
6. Radiofrequency ablation: The use of heat to destroy tumors or abnormal tissues.
7. Cryoablation: The use of extreme cold to destroy tumors or abnormal tissues.

Interventional radiologists are medical doctors who have completed specialized training in both diagnostic imaging and interventional procedures, allowing them to provide comprehensive care for patients requiring image-guided treatments.

I believe you may have mixed up the terms "medicine" and "commerce." Commerce is a broad term that refers to the buying and selling of goods and services. It is not typically used in a medical context, so it does not have a specific medical definition. However, I can provide you with some related terms that might be helpful:

1. Medical commerce: This term generally refers to the business aspects of healthcare, such as the buying and selling of medical supplies, equipment, and services. It may also refer to the economic relationships between various stakeholders in the healthcare system, including providers, insurers, pharmaceutical companies, and patients.
2. Telemedicine commerce: This term specifically refers to the use of technology to facilitate remote consultations and transactions between healthcare providers and patients. Examples include online appointment scheduling, virtual consultations, and electronic prescribing.
3. Medical tourism: This is a form of commerce where people travel to other countries to receive medical treatment or procedures that may be less expensive or more accessible than in their home country. It can also refer to the business of providing medical services to international patients.
4. Healthcare marketing: This term refers to the activities and strategies used by healthcare organizations to promote their products, services, and brands to potential customers. It includes advertising, public relations, social media, content marketing, and other tactics designed to build awareness, generate leads, and drive sales.

I hope this information is helpful! Let me know if you have any further questions or concerns.

Patent Office. "Knitting Machinery - an overview , ScienceDirect Topics". www.sciencedirect.com. Retrieved 2022-12-08. ( ... Henry Josiah Griswold received a patent [number 3257] in 1873 for "Improvements in Knitting Machinery," and another patent [ ... ISBN 978-1-78500-686-9. Cutler, John; Underhay, Frank George; Moulton, Hugh Fletcher (1887). Reports of Patent, Design, Trade ...
"The Warwick Patent". Colonial Records & Topics. CT State Library. Archived from the original on August 11, 2016. Retrieved ... the Warwick Patent of 1631. The patent, however, had been physically lost, and the annexation was almost certainly illegal. The ...
"System and method for determining directional and non-directional fluid wave and current". US Patent office. Hogan, C Michael ( ... October 2011). "Icon Encyclopedia of Earth Topics". Washington, D.C.: Environmental Information Coalition, National Council for ... "Acoustic doppler current profiler, US Patent 5615173". "Pulse-to-Pulse Coherent Doppler Sonar Signal Processing Techniques, ... this method was protected by US patent 5615173 until 2011. The pulse-to-pulse coherent method relies on a sequence of transmit ...
"Topics of the Times". The New York Times. March 1, 1900. p. 1. Annual Report of the Commissioner of Patents. Government ... J.F. Pickering, African American inventor, was issued U.S. Patent No. 643,975 for the first dirigible powered by an electric ... was patented in 1854. The problem with 1900 technology would be recalled, near the end of the 20th century, when the Year 2000 ...
... first thread on this topic" (Press release). Archived from the original on 2007-09-28. Linspire, Microsoft in Linux-related ... The U.S. patent 5,072,412 concerns the desktop User Interface, see here "Patent-troll company attacks Novell and Red Hat". 2007 ... "Top patent awardee donates 500 patents to open source". LinuxDevices.com - news. Ziff Davis Publishing Holdings Inc. 2005-01-11 ... For this study, Ravicher performed patent searches to estimate the patent-risk of the Linux kernel: In conclusion, he found ...
Topics in Applied Mechanics (Schwerin Memorial Volume). ASIN B0093DD5Z2. GB patent 137332, Th. von Kármán & W. Zurovec, " ... Espacenet Patent Search. Retrieved 2 July 2014. "GB747890 (A) - Rotary wing aircraft". Espacenet Patent Search. Retrieved 2 ... von Kármán, "Rotary wing aircraft", published 18 April 1956 CA patent 561896A, S. W. Yuan & Th. von Kármán, "Aircraft", ... von; Biot, M. A. (2004) [Cornell University Press, 1954]. Aerodynamics: Selected Topics in the Light of Their Historical ...
Beano received U.S. Patent 5,445,957 on August 29, 1995. The estimated expiration date of the patent is December 5, 2014. As of ... "Morebeer's Brew Chat • View topic - Beano (The anti-gas stuff) helps brewing?". Archived from the original on 2016-09-18. ... "US Patent 6,344,196". "US Patent 5,989,544". "Improbable Research". www.improbable.com. August 2006. "GlaxoSmithKline Completes ... Its patent was acquired by GlaxoSmithKline in 2001 from Block Drug. GlaxoSmithKline sold Beano and 16 other brands to Prestige ...
"Jaramillo-Botero - United States". Justia patents. United States Patent and Trademark Office. Retrieved Aug 20, 2014. (CS1 ... Topics in Current Chemistry. Vol. 307. pp. 1-42. doi:10.1007/978-3-642-24968-6. ISBN 978-3-642-24967-9. PMID 21243466. S2CID ... They bore two children, Tomas (2004-) and Lucas (2000-2009). He holds multiple US and European patents as of 2016. Kirchner, ...
Occasionally, the journal publishes thematic issues; topics have included patents, gender and technology, and ecology. ... To adequately address these topics in all their complexity, a truly interdisciplinary approach was needed. And this was to be ...
... patent examiners as a reference to get a "quick outline of an unfamiliar topic". Citations of Wikipedia as prior art, however, ... The review of patent and patent applications through wiki projects was proposed in 2005 by patent attorney J. Matthew Buchanan ... Patexia provides a free online search engine capable of searching patents and patent litigation by patent number, company, or ... Examples of wiki projects the Peer to Patent Project Cambia patent lens annotation of patents Wikipatents (see also Broache, ...
"US Patent 811,858" "Resistivity of some common materials". MWS Wire Industries, Inc. ""Advanced Topic: Oxidation Resistant ... Patented in 1906 by Albert Marsh (US patent 811,859), nichrome is the oldest documented form of resistance heating alloy. A ...
Among her topics are farms and factories run by immigrants; architectural preservation work; environmental sustainability; ... philanthropies donating plants to the poor; and newly patented household appliances. Her pioneering guidebook for car travelers ... Among her other frequent topics were nurturing children's curiosity; life on houseboats; and connecting the urban poor with ...
US Patent US 3457262 A. Gutsche K, Muftic MK (1972). Pyrimidine derivatives. US Patent US 3632584 A Albrecht R, Muftic MK, ... He was also interested in experimental or parapsychological topics; building upon the work of Walter John Kilner and under the ... US Patent US 3716531 A. Branimir Jelić, Političke uspomene i rad Dra Branimira Jelića, p. 412, Izdavač M. Šamija, 1982 Bryan, ... Patents Kutzsche A, Muftic MK, Peissker H (1969). 3-methyl-5-isopropylphenyl esters of n-pyrrolidino and n-morpholino ...
However, none of Zobel's patents or articles appear to discuss this topic. It is unclear whether he actually designed anything ... Zobel, O J, Wave Filter, U.S. Patent 1,538,964, filed January 15, 1921, issued May 26, 1925. Zobel's U.S. Patent 1,538,964 (p.4 ... Patent 2,767,380, filed September 30, 1952, issued October 16, 1956. Zobel, O J, Microwave Filter, U.S. Patent 2,623,120, filed ... The last of Zobel's prolific list of patents occurred for Bell Labs in the 1950s, by which time he was residing in Morristown, ...
Norman P (2002). "Pfizer, Inc.: analysis of patenting 1998 - 2001". Expert Opinion on Therapeutic Patents. 12 (5): 725-732. doi ... Current Topics in Medicinal Chemistry. 8 (12): 1008-1023. doi:10.2174/156802608785161439. PMID 18691129. ...
She has published extensively on these topics and holds several patents. Stojanovic and her husband, Zoran Zvonar, were the ... "Patents by Inventor Milica Stojanovic". patents.justia.com. Retrieved June 4, 2021. Wilson, Katie (2010). "Milica Stojanovic ...
Ad hoc mode was first described by Chai Keong Toh in his 1996 patent of wireless ad hoc routing, implemented on Lucent WaveLAN ... A consensus has not been reached globally and is a controversial topic. In 2009, the Australian CSIRO was awarded $200 million ... "CSIRO wins legal battle over wi-fi patent". ABC News. 1 April 2012. Archived from the original on 7 August 2019. Retrieved 27 ... Wi-Fi uses a large number of patents held by many different organizations. Australia, the United States and The Netherlands ...
25 May - The Parliament of England passes the Statute of Monopolies, requiring patent monopolies to show novelty. The Parlement ... and other 17th century topics". London: Gresham College. Archived from the original on 28 September 2007. Retrieved 6 June 2011 ... Bloxam, G. A. (1957). "Letters Patent for Inventions: their Use and Misuse". Journal of Industrial Economics. Wiley. 5 (3). ...
Patent infringement typically is caused by using or selling a patented invention without permission from the patent holder, i.e ... Scholia has a topic profile for Intellectual property. Media related to Intellectual property at Wikimedia Commons The European ... On patents - Daniel B. Ravicher (6 August 2008). "Protecting Freedom In The Patent System: The Public Patent Foundation's ... The scope of the patented invention or the extent of protection is defined in the claims of the granted patent. There is safe ...
z o.o British patent 24398 German patent D.R.P. 92564. Encyklopedia. Vol. 2. Warszawa: PWN. 1991. Kubiatowski, Jerzy (1984). ... He was very successful in this topic and it made him famous. Later he founded battery factories in Frankfurt, (Germany) and ... He obtained 98 patents on his inventions. In 1922 he returned to Poland, where a year later he founded a factory in Biała, ... He obtained a patent for manufacturing lead-acid batteries. He also has designed commutator and electrolytic rectifiers. In ...
He has been a director of several companies and awarded four full international patents. Grant has over four hundred ... advising the Scottish Government on topics regarding science, engineering and technology. Grant was president of the European ...
The fundamental threat of software patents for Open Source Software was an important topic. As already in 1999 one could ... Core topics of LinuxTag 2008 were "Highlights of digital lifestyle" and the "Mobile + Embedded Area". LinuxTag 2009 took place ... Each year's event also had its own motto, often reflecting a specific topic which was focused in that year. LinuxTag regards ... The conference included a business track for the first time, devoted to such topics as IT security, legal aspects of Free ...
Patent application WO 2009125444, Andrea Rossi, "Method and Apparatus for carrying out nickel and hydrogen exothermal reactions ... or rhetorical bases of the topic in question. Though some of the listed topics continue to be investigated scientifically, ... This is a list of topics that have, either currently or in the past, been characterized as pseudoscience by academics or ... Detailed discussion of these topics may be found on their main pages. These characterizations were made in the context of ...
He writes frequently on this topic on his own web site, the Forbes site and others. Templeton is inventor on 21 patents in self ... "Patent Database Search Results: IN/"Templeton, Bradley" in US Patent Collection". patft.uspto.gov. Retrieved 2019-08-07. "Brad ... "AUUG broadens topic base at annual conference". Computerworld. Retrieved 2019-08-07. "Global Leaders Forum 2018". glfchosun.com ...
In addition, various committees of the JPAA are studying and researching specific topics. Committees include the Patent ... The Patent Attorney can prepare expert opinions with respect to patent, utility model, design, and trademark. A Patent Attorney ... Japan Patent Attorneys Association. Membership Breakdown of the Japan Patent Attorneys Association (PDF), Japan Patent Attorney ... The Japanese Patent Attorney System was established on July 1, 1899, fourteen years after the Patent Law System was organized ...
Everitt disclosed the concept to the US Patent Office, but did not file a patent at that time. He then approached the Daniel ... Here he met Peter Sandretto, who was also interested in radio navigation topics. Sandretto left Bell in 1932 to become the ... Espenschied eventually filed a patent on the idea in 1930. By this time, Newhouse had left Ohio State and taken a position at ... Espenschied's patent was not granted until 1936, and its publication generated intense interest. Around the same time, Bell ...
Current Topics in Medicinal Chemistry. 8 (16): 1480-1. doi:10.2174/156802608786264209. PMID 19006848. Fraley ME (June 2009). " ... Expert Opinion on Therapeutic Patents. 19 (9): 1259-75. doi:10.1517/13543770903045009. PMID 19552508. S2CID 23242384. Strike ...
Teegarden BR, Al Shamma H, Xiong Y (2008). "5-HT(2A) inverse-agonists for the treatment of insomnia". Current Topics in ... Eric Garcia, Christian Hoff, U.S. Patent 20,120,022,292 (2012 to Sanofi-Aventis). v t e (Articles with short description, Short ...
"Patent US1505592 - Frozen confectionery - Google Patents". Retrieved 2017-04-09. "Popsicle". 5 June 2020. Retrieved 2020-10-05 ... "Pogo or Corn Dog? - Off-Topic - Giant Bomb". giantbomb.com. Retrieved 2017-04-09. "What's Different in Canada , Pogo Sticks". ... Dempster, George R. "US Patent #2150821". Google Patents. Retrieved 2010-11-20. "Beginnings: The Dempster Dumpster". Classic ... "United States Patent and Trademark Office latest status info for trademark serial #78356610". tarr.uspto.gov. Retrieved 2017-04 ...
Eaton K, Sallee FR, Sah R (2007). "Relevance of neuropeptide Y (NPY) in psychiatry". Current Topics in Medicinal Chemistry. 7 ( ... Recent Patents on CNS Drug Discovery. 1 (3): 315-24. doi:10.2174/157488906778773689. PMID 18221213. Vona-Davis LC, McFadden DW ... Kamiji MM, Inui A (2007). "NPY Y2 and Y4 receptors selective ligands: promising anti-obesity drugs?". Current Topics in ... MacNeil DJ (2007). "NPY Y1 and Y5 receptor selective antagonists as anti-obesity drugs". Current Topics in Medicinal Chemistry ...
Topics. Topics. Select Category. .NET. 3D. Academic OSes. AMD. Amiga & AROS. Android. Apple. Benchmarks. BSD & Darwin. Bugs & ... The Patent Act of 1790 was the United States first patent statute. It was titled "An Act to promote the progress of useful ... Home > Legal > Samsung, HTC License Massive Patent Portfolio. Samsung, HTC License Massive Patent Portfolio. Thom Holwerda 2010 ... Acacia are patent trolls, who buy patents and go after other companies and schools. However, they have engineers which also ...
Patent ductus arteriosus (PDA) is a condition in which the ductus arteriosus does not close. The word patent means open. ... Patent ductus arteriosus (PDA) is a condition in which the ductus arteriosus does not close. The word patent means open. ... Patent ductus arteriosus (PDA) is a condition in which the ductus arteriosus does not close. The word "patent" means open. ...
Stans NoTubes awarded 5th patent for low-profile Bead Socket Technology tubeless rim profile design. Velocity & others will ... Our overworked patent system with clerks that arent encouraged to look at patents with a critical eye is the real problem, & ... Building on Stans original Bead Socket Technology (BST) design first patented in 2004, U.S. Patent 9,649,878 provides ... Stans NoTubes awarded 5th patent for Bead Socket Technology rim design. Written by Tyler Benedict Jul 31, 2017 12:00 p.m. ET. ...
Topics * Back to parent navigation item * Topics * Artificial Intelligence * Brexit * Broker Software Platforms ... but said the cover would allow it to protect various patents and trademarks which were integral to the groups development and ...
Sri Sankaran, Patent Attorney, Winthrop & Weinstine Recent developments in executive, legislative, and judicial branches ... Topics. Topics. Select Category. Advertising. Agreements. Almost Advice. AlphaWatch. Articles. Audio. Branding. Civil Procedure ... Patent Assertion, patent infringement, Patent Trolls, Vermont, Vermont Consumer Protection Act ... Home , Guest Bloggers , New Challenges for So-Called "Patent Trolls". New Challenges for So-Called "Patent Trolls". By Duets ...
During an assisted patent search, we help you get acquainted with patent searches. ... Patent specifications reveal valuable information on technologies and competitors. ... Assisted Patent Search. *Swiss patent applicants can request to have a Swiss Patent Application Search carried out. This search ... Switzerland modernises its Patents Act. The final vote on the partial revision of the Patents Act was held in Parliament on 15 ...
Recent Topics. Southcoast Rail by Commuterrail1050. Sun Apr 14, 2024 6:18 am ... Patent number 2,662,488. Appproved Dec 15, 1953. Inventor of record: Joseph F Clary (Budd Co.). Available at uspto.gov. 4 ... This patent was granted but never used. The idea was provide the operating crew protection and better visibility by raising the ... Budd RDC Patent Part II. Forum for the discussion of the Budd Company and Budd-Thyssen through bankruptcy. Wiki: https://en. ...
... but to then start slapping patents on it as if it is something wonderfull makes me sick. When I do my redesign (which I have ... mail a new topic. *Contemporary messages sorted: *by date. *by thread. *by subject ...
announced today that the U.S. Patent and Trademark Office granted the company a U.S. Patent titled DNA Based Bar Code for... ... announced today that the U.S. Patent and Trademark Office granted the company a U.S. Patent titled DNA Based Bar Code for ... "This patent is a critical component of our IP portfolio that includes many innovations to create a more digital, transparent, ... The patent discloses a novel method for encoding and decoding digital information to and from DNA strands. The SafeTraces ...
Separately, Oracle has made a new filing in its previously announced patent infringement suit with Google, which covers the use ... The company has now provided specific examples of Android code that it states infringes its Java patents, also arguing that " ... Apple has filed two patent lawsuits against Motorola, claiming that the recovering handset vendor had infringed its ... which claims that a number of Apple products infringe Motorola patents, across a number of areas including radio interfaces, ...
Topics: Unified Patent Court You May Be Interested. The New European Unified Patent Court with Marianne Schaffner and Thierry ... The brand-new "unitary patent". From 1 June 2023, it will also be possible for a European patent to obtain unitary effect in ... For the life sciences industry, the choice between such a so-called "unitary patent" (UP) and a classical European patent (EP) ... The Unified Patent Court is coming soon but the Unitary Patent is coming even earlier ...
... patent laws inequitable conduct doctrine has attracted considerable attention from judges, legislators, patent lawyers, and ... Intellectual Property: Patent Law eJournal. Subscribe to this fee journal for more curated articles on this topic ... In recent years, patent laws inequitable conduct doctrine has attracted considerable attention from judges, legislators, ... Cotter, Thomas F., An Economic Analysis of Patent Laws Inequitable Conduct Doctrine (January 6, 2011). Arizona Law Review, Vol ...
The patented invention is defined by the patent claims, and a patent is infringed if one or more of those claims are infringed ... After a patent owner ascertained that another company is infringing one or more of its patents, the patent owner may provide a ... Patent Infringement. by Pinskylaw.ca » 15 Sep 2013, 09:51 Dealing with patent infringement entails two primary acts: (1) ... An un-expired patent is infringed if the patented invention is made, used, offered for sale, or sold in Canada or imported into ...
Start Over You searched for: Subjects Patents as Topic ✖Remove constraint Subjects: Patents as Topic Publication Year 1800 to ... Patents as Topic 6. Before the Commissioner of Patents, in the matter of extension of letters patent of the United States, ... Patents as Topic 3. An argument against professional patents Author(s): Arthur, Robert, 1819-1880 Publication: Baltimore : ... Patents as Topic 2. American dental patents: a vindication of the truth of certain articles in the American journal of dental ...
Saudi Arabia News Topics; Specialized News Sections on Saudi Arabia News ... Saudi Arabia Patents & Trademarks News Topics Loading ... Saudi Arabia Prisons News Topics Loading ... ... News Search , All News Topics , Middle East , Saudi Arabia Saudi Arabia News Saudi Arabia Agriculture, Farming & Forestry Saudi ... Saudi Arabia Miscellaneous News Topics * Osama bin Laden (Al-Qaida Leader) News ...
Topics * Aging & Disability * Behavioral Health * Biomedical Research, Science, & Technology * Children, Youth, & Families ... Premarket Notifications and Patents for Breast Pumps Before and After the ACA ... Premarket Notifications and Patents for Breast Pumps Before and After the ACA ...
If you recall, we covered this topic earlier this year.) This ruling is important for the growing personalized medicine segment ... that diagnostic tests used to determine whether the right dose of medicine has been delivered to a patient can be patented. ...
Research Topics. Interact with an engaged, global community of your peers who come together to discuss their work and ... Therapeutic Solutions files patent for stem cell-based cancer vaccine. By The Science Advisory Board staff writers. May 24, ... Therapeutic Solutions International announced new data and a patent filing demonstrating that lithium carbonate augments the ... 2021 -- Therapeutic Solutions International has filed a patent for data that show a positive combined effect between its tumor ...
Topics. Topics. Select Category. 101. 112. 314(a). 315(b). 325(d). Administrative Procedure Act. Amendment. Appeals. Bio/Pharma ... real-party-in-interest/privy disputes in AIA trials were the sole province of the Patent Trial & Appeal Board (PTAB). Now that ...
Apple filed new patents related to XR technology, so could this be a sign that the Apple Glasses are back in production? ... However, when posting, one must stay true to the topic, and not just share some random thoughts, which are not directly related ... Patent shows new Vision Pro feature… Or one for the Apple AR Glasses? You tell us By Stanislav Serbezov ... There are other reasons too, like the ones listed out in this patent submission from Apple, which showcases some really cool ...
Topics * Topic: Intellectual Property * Topic: Litigation * Topic: Patents Filter by Topics. Filter by Topics. Intellectual ... As part of this implementation, amendments to the Patent Act, the Patent Rules and the PM(NOC) Regulations, as well as the new ... CETA Implementation: New Era of Pharmaceutical Patent Litigation Begins. September 21, 2017. Share on Facebook Share on Twitter ... Ontario Court of Appeal Dismisses Apotexs Novel Patent… Ontario Court of Appeal Dismisses Apotexs Novel Patent Damages Appeal ...
Topics. *Trademark Litigation (232). *Copyright Litigation (185). *Patent Litigation (74). *Trade Dress (43) ... VA 1-627-918; VA 1-627-828; VA 1-627-832) and three design patents (Design Patent Nos. D592,893 for a table; D644,852 for a ... Cosmos Furniture Sued For Copyright and Design Patent Infringement Again. August 30, 2018. , Milord A. Keshishian. ... Amini is suing Cosmos Furniture, both its U.S. and Canadian companies, for copyright infringement, design patent infringement, ...
GSK sues Pfizer over patents for RSV vaccine. GlaxoSmithKline sued Pfizer on Wednesday over patent infringement, alleging the ... Moderna sues Pfizer, BioNTech for Covid-19 vaccine patent infringement. Moderna said it is suing rival vaccine makers Pfizer ... and BioNTech, alleging the partners infringed on its patents in developing their Covid-19. ...
Access your favorite topics in a personalized feed while youre on the go. download the app ... Thanks to a series of patent filings, we can see the kind of flying car designs that the Zee.Aero has experimented with. ... This patent even suggests it will be able to fold up when not flying to save space .... ... Bloomberg says the company worked on this design - patent no. 9,242,738 - for several years, but none of the prototypes they ...
BROWSE BY TOPICS. .jnews_6622b6b3bf14c.jeg_block_heading_6 .jeg_block_title span, .jnews_6622b6b3bf14c.jeg_block_heading_6 .jeg ...
Will Stricter Laws Regarding Software Patents Nullify Search Algorithms and Google PageRank? Jul 23, 2008 Will Google Buy ...
Patent office granted over one lakh patents in the last one year (15-Mar-2023 to 14-Mar-2024). Every working day, 250 patents ... Indian patent office grants 1 lakh patents in past year. "Every 6 minutes one technology is seeking IP protection in India. In ... 2023, an all-time high of 90,300 patent applications were received. ...
Stay on Top of Hot Topics in Patent Damages Litigation Elizabeth M. Manno April 18, 2024 ... Stay on Top of Hot Topics in Patent Damages Litigation. April 18, 2024 @ 01:15 pm ... Patent Filings Roundup: Slow Week in PTAB and District Court, Ideahub Subsidiary Challenges Instituted; Patent Armory Continues ... Patent Filings Roundup: Slow Week in PTAB and District Court, Ideahub Subsidiary Challenges Instituted; Patent Armory Continues ...
About Intellectual Property IP Training IP Outreach IP for… IP and... IP in... Patent & Technology Information Trademark ... Goals Enforcement Frontier Technologies Mobile Applications Sports Tourism PATENTSCOPE Patent Analytics International Patent ... The International Patent System ePCT Budapest - The International Microorganism Deposit System Madrid - The International ... Judgements IP Resources IP Reports Patent Protection Trademark Protection Industrial Design Protection Geographical Indication ...
  • This tool allows you to consult the full patents in the Belgian patent register, as well as the bibliographical data and even the correspondence between the Intellectual Property Office and the patent grantees. (fgov.be)
  • For 2023, we identified ten stories that were covered on Patent Docs last year that we believe had (or are likely to have) a significant impact on patent practitioners and applicants. (patentdocs.org)
  • In addition, we will be offering a live webinar on the 'Top Patent Law Stories of 2023' on January 23, 2024 from 10:00 am to 11:15 am (CT). (patentdocs.org)
  • The World Intellectual Property Organization shows Chinese institutions filed 29,853 AI patents in 2022, a modest rise from 2021's 29,000. (readwrite.com)
  • This divergence means China now accounts for over 40% of global AI patent applications, with Japan and South Korea trailing behind with a combined 16,700 applications in 2022. (readwrite.com)
  • As inventors have sought worldwide patent protection for their AI-based ideas, the number of international patent filings has expanded rapidly over the last few years. (jdsupra.com)
  • [7] Although a majority of AI-related patents are being filed in these three countries, Europe and Australia are also seeing substantial increases in such patent filings. (jdsupra.com)
  • China's commitment to leading the AI frontier is evident, with a significant uptick in patent filings that dwarf those of the U.S. (readwrite.com)
  • In a move that underscores China's technological ambitions, Bloomberg reports the nation has recorded a surge in AI-related patent filings. (readwrite.com)
  • China's surge in AI patent filings isn't merely about numbers. (readwrite.com)
  • China's dominance in AI patent filings began as early as 2017, a time when the nation also saw a boom in AI applications across various industries. (readwrite.com)
  • Searches can be performed based on keywords, applicant names, international patent classification categories and many other search criteria, in different languages. (fgov.be)
  • METHODS: A systematic literature search was performed in PubMed to identify all published literature on the impact of patent expiration on drug prices. (medscape.com)
  • Aiming at the defects, the embodiment of the invention discloses a method and a system for inputting topics, which can search editable target texts to replace target images. (google.com)
  • At Patents you can conduct a Patent Search, File a Patent Application, find a Patent Attorney, or search available technology through our Patent Exchange. (patents.com)
  • Enter search terms to find related medical topics, multimedia and more. (msdmanuals.com)
  • Address orders to the Commissioner of Patents and Trademarks, P.O. Box 1450, Alexandria, VA., 22313-1450, or click here for online ordering. (uspto.gov)
  • These blob-like formations indicate both how many patents have been earned by individual employees as well as the number of connections with co-inventors from within each company. (ipwatchdog.com)
  • Despite that, on average, Apple still lists more inventors per patent than Google does. (ipwatchdog.com)
  • As a result of their different R&D operations, both Google and Apple may be financially successful in the current moment but Apple has a more diversified portfolio of successful products, seemingly ironic in the face of a higher concentration of patents among inventors. (ipwatchdog.com)
  • This right frequently appears to conflict with the intellectual property regime that governs pharmaceutical patents. (nih.gov)
  • The intellectual property was acquired from other firms, a common practice among fast-rising internet companies that need to build patent arsenals to defend against incumbents with lots of intellectual property. (theregister.com)
  • In recent years, it has settled patent claims against Avaya, Blu and Cisco, and struck intellectual property licensing deals with other firms. (theregister.com)
  • [14] However, Chinese patent law prohibits patents directed towards "rules and methods for intellectual activities" and "methods for the diagnosis or treatment of diseases. (jdsupra.com)
  • To protect ideas relating to intellectual activities in Chinese patent applications, practitioners suggest providing as many comprehensive details as possible regarding the invention in the disclosure. (jdsupra.com)
  • Beginning with applications submitted for due dates on or after September 25, 2017, citations of newly issued patents can be included in post-submission materials. (nih.gov)
  • In the last 5 years, and recently stimulated by the approval of pexidartinib (Turalio™, Daiichi Sankyo) in 2019 for the treatment of tenosynovial giant cell tumors, there has been a large increase in activity (both journal articles and patent applications) around small molecule inhibitors of CSF1R. (nih.gov)
  • [16] Furthermore, regarding AI-assisted medical diagnosis and treatment methods, Chinese practitioners suggest focusing on the specific device utilized for diagnosis or treatment of diseases and/or the specific image or data processing method, as these aspects are more clearly established as patentable subject matter in Chinese patent law. (jdsupra.com)
  • The embodiment of the invention relates to the technical field of topic collection and discloses a method and a system for topic entry. (google.com)
  • [13] Chinese patent law defines an invention as any new technical solution proposed for a product, a process, or the improvement thereof. (jdsupra.com)
  • For example, Chinese patent applications should fully describe how the invention provides a stated functionality and how it achieves a desired technical effect. (jdsupra.com)
  • While not every patent leads to a groundbreaking invention, companies like Huawei have showcased that innovation can indeed follow intent. (readwrite.com)
  • A provisional patent application can now be reported when an invention is barred and a valid provisional application date has been provided. (nih.gov)
  • Previously, a patent report could not be saved when the invention status of the associated invention report was equal to "Barred" and a valid provisional patent application date had been entered. (nih.gov)
  • In fact, according to a 2016 study, approximately 75% of all AI-related patent publications in the world come from three jurisdictions: China, Japan, and the United States. (jdsupra.com)
  • Are pharmaceutical patents protected by human rights? (nih.gov)
  • Patents and the obligation to protect health: examining the significance of human rights considerations in the protection of pharmaceutical patents. (nih.gov)
  • RESULTS: The 16 identified studies that assessed impact of patent expiry on drug prices showed that price developments after patent expiration varied between countries. (medscape.com)
  • Given the growing tide of efficient infringement among tech businesses , it is no doubt much easier for a company such as Google to operate in an open innovation way, applying open source principles to patented technologies from outside of the company as well as from those inside the company and partners. (ipwatchdog.com)
  • Facebook is suing BlackBerry for alleged patent infringement six months after BlackBerry sued Facebook for alleged patent infringement. (theregister.com)
  • As most of you know software patents have become an exercise in the absurd. (metrojacksonville.com)
  • CLS Bank: Software Patents at Risk? (louisianalawblog.com)
  • a]nd let's be clear: if all of these claims, including the system claims, are not patent-eligible, this case is the death of hundreds of thousands of patents, including all business methods, financial system, and software patents as well as many computer implemented and telecommunications patents. (louisianalawblog.com)
  • This blog covers software patent news and issues with a particular focus on wireless, mobile devices (smartphones, tablet computers, connected cars) as well as select antitrust matters surrounding those devices. (fosspatents.com)
  • Copies of patent applications or any other materials related to a patent application or issued patent will not be accepted as post-submission materials, unless specified in the Funding Opportunity Announcement (FOA) for which the application was submitted or in a special Guide Notice. (nih.gov)
  • This database provides access to international patent applications on the day of publication itself and in full text, as well as to the patent documents of the participating national or regional patent offices. (fgov.be)
  • Institution agrees to notify NIDDK and Collaborator in writing upon the filing of any patent applications related to the research with the Agent. (nih.gov)
  • The following information is provided in relation to the ISAs (other than the United States Patent and Trademark Office (USPTO)) available for international applications filed under the PCT with the USPTO as receiving Office (RO/US). (uspto.gov)
  • The article also suggests how such trends may impact the prosecution of AI-related patent applications in the United States. (jdsupra.com)
  • China has overtaken the United States in the number of annual patent applications filed in the area of artificial intelligence. (jdsupra.com)
  • [8] Recent studies revealed that China accounts for around 37% of published AI-related patent applications [9] and about 22% of granted AI-related patents in the world. (jdsupra.com)
  • [10] Two main factors appear to be driving the number of Chinese patent applications. (jdsupra.com)
  • China was the only jurisdiction where the universities filed more AI-related patent applications than its corporations. (jdsupra.com)
  • Subject matter eligibility requirements can be a barrier to prosecuting AI-related patent applications in the Chinese Patent Office. (jdsupra.com)
  • Editors assign relevant stories to staff writers or freelance contributors with expertise in each particular topic area. (readwrite.com)
  • The Authors and Contributors of "Patent Docs" are patent attorneys and agents, many of whom hold doctorates in a diverse array of disciplines. (patentdocs.org)
  • Advanced Model Engine includes Equifax NeuroDecision ® Technology , a patent-pending machine learning technology for regulatory-compliant, advanced neural network modeling in credit scoring. (prnewswire.com)
  • This panel will include specialists working both privately and within the government and will highlight careers such as a patent agent, patent examiner, and technology transfer specialist. (nih.gov)
  • The U.S. House passed legislation to rein in some patent lawsuits that technology companies say could reduce the time they spend fighting such suits in court. (claimsjournal.com)
  • The updated policy adds citations of issued patents to the list of acceptable post-submission materials. (nih.gov)
  • After reflecting upon the events of the past twelve months, Patent Docs presents its 17th annual list of top patent stories. (patentdocs.org)
  • As always, we love to hear from Patent Docs readers, so if you think we left something off the list or disagree with anything we included, please let us know. (patentdocs.org)
  • Looking at the list of pre-PREA and off-patent drugs, it is obvious that the cost of developing pediatric formulations will be very high. (nih.gov)
  • CONCLUSION: Drug prices decrease significantly after patent expiry. (medscape.com)
  • Bibliographic data and procedural information are available for all patent files, from the first publication to the grant of the patent. (fgov.be)
  • [6] Research indicates that most AI-related patent activity takes place in the United States and Asia. (jdsupra.com)
  • If you are looking to hire a patent attorney, you've come to the right place. (patents.com)
  • The Japanese Patent Office (JPO) appears to be a patent-friendly forum for obtaining protection for AI-related innovations and consequently advantageous for patent owners. (jdsupra.com)
  • Apple has long utilized a business model with a heavy focus on research and development , investing in innovation to improve its successful consumer electronics products, obtaining patents and then dominating an entire sector. (ipwatchdog.com)
  • While patents are a measure of intent and innovation, they're also strategic tools. (readwrite.com)
  • The patent title field now accepts up to 300 characters. (nih.gov)
  • However, a group of five Judges (Lourie, Dyk, Prost, Reyna, and Wallach) rejected patent eligibility of the computer system claims, concluding that incorporation of the method into a computer program was an insufficient limitation. (louisianalawblog.com)
  • In fact, these excellent visualizations almost certainly show why Google has for so long pursued an agenda to weaken the U.S. patent system. (ipwatchdog.com)
  • Facebook's patents cover voice instant messaging, personalized media services on a mobile device, a GPS management system, computer security, user-configured phone service, and operating a trusted state computer system. (theregister.com)
  • It is administered by the European Patent Office (EPO), in collaboration with the national offices of the EPO member states. (fgov.be)
  • European Patent Office as Searching and Examining Authority The European Patent Office (EPO) may act as the International Searching Authority (ISA) or the International Preliminary Examining Authority (IPEA) for an international application filed with the United States Receiving Office or the International Bureau (IB) as Receiving Office where at least one of the applicants is either a national or resident of the United States of America. (uspto.gov)
  • With Mayo in mind, the Federal Circuit noted that routine and conventional steps are insufficient limitations to an otherwise patent ineligible subject matter (i.e., laws of nature, natural phenomena, and abstract ideas) to overcome the judicially created exclusion. (louisianalawblog.com)
  • It contains all national patent publications from 1984 to the present. (fgov.be)
  • Its voice instant messaging patent, for example, covers a method for determining whether a device in an instant messaging conversation supports voice calls. (theregister.com)
  • Patents are available using simple keyword or date criteria. (patents.com)
  • The Impact of Patent Expiry on Drug Prices: A Systematic Literature Review. (medscape.com)
  • OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to evaluate the impact of patent expiry on drug prices by means of a systematic literature review. (medscape.com)
  • The identified studies indicated that drug prices decreased significantly after patent expiry with drug price ratios ranging from 6.6 to 66% 1-5 years after patent expiry. (medscape.com)
  • Can drug patents be morally justified? (nih.gov)
  • If this viewpoint is allowed to stand, all computer programs, which at a basic level rely to some degree on one of the three judicially excluded criteria, may be excluded from patent protection. (louisianalawblog.com)
  • Since falling behind in the smartphone market, BlackBerry has tried to boost its revenue by forcing other companies to license its patents. (theregister.com)
  • The opinion of the five Judges strongly denote their belief that recent Supreme Court decisions may have overturned Alappat and, in light of the possible overruling of Alappat , that the incorporation of a computer program into a computer, relying on an abstract idea, is not patent eligible. (louisianalawblog.com)
  • Check out our recent podcast on this topic! (nih.gov)
  • Purely "conventional or obvious" "[pre]-solution activity" is normally not sufficient to transform an unpatentable law of nature into a patent-eligible application of such a law. (louisianalawblog.com)
  • Patent Number' changed to `Patent or Application Serial No. (nih.gov)
  • Join us to discover what it takes to enter the exciting and rewarding field of patent processing. (nih.gov)
  • Consult the Federated Register via the European Patent Register . (fgov.be)
  • This online tool gives you access to more than 100 million published patent-related documents. (fgov.be)
  • This is problematic because it means defenders of the present patent regime can continue using human rights documents to support their position. (nih.gov)
  • You can check whether there has been a prior registration for similar or related patents published in Belgium. (fgov.be)
  • The United States Patent Office has recently stated that while the Index of Patents says that on February 9, 1811, a patent was issued to Robert Fulton, the office is unable to furnish a copy of it, as the records of this and other early patents were destroyed in the Patent [p.339] Office fire of 1836. (todayinsci.com)
  • Read the NIH Guide Notice NOT-OD-17-066 for additional details on citing issued patents in post-submission materials. (nih.gov)