Transfer of immunity from immunized to non-immune host by administration of serum antibodies, or transplantation of lymphocytes (ADOPTIVE TRANSFER).
The probability that an event will occur. It encompasses a variety of measures of the probability of a generally unfavorable outcome.
An aspect of personal behavior or lifestyle, environmental exposure, or inborn or inherited characteristic, which, on the basis of epidemiologic evidence, is known to be associated with a health-related condition considered important to prevent.
Studies in which subsets of a defined population are identified. These groups may or may not be exposed to factors hypothesized to influence the probability of the occurrence of a particular disease or other outcome. Cohorts are defined populations which, as a whole, are followed in an attempt to determine distinguishing subgroup characteristics.
Observation of a population for a sufficient number of persons over a sufficient number of years to generate incidence or mortality rates subsequent to the selection of the study group.
The number of new cases of a given disease during a given period in a specified population. It also is used for the rate at which new events occur in a defined population. It is differentiated from PREVALENCE, which refers to all cases, new or old, in the population at a given time.
Studies in which individuals or populations are followed to assess the outcome of exposures, procedures, or effects of a characteristic, e.g., occurrence of disease.
An evanescent cutaneous reaction occurring when antibody is injected into a local area on the skin and antigen is subsequently injected intravenously along with a dye. The dye makes the rapidly occurring capillary dilatation and increased vascular permeability readily visible by leakage into the reaction site. PCA is a sensitive reaction for detecting very small quantities of antibodies and is also a method for studying the mechanisms of immediate hypersensitivity.
The qualitative or quantitative estimation of the likelihood of adverse effects that may result from exposure to specified health hazards or from the absence of beneficial influences. (Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 1988)
Statistical models used in survival analysis that assert that the effect of the study factors on the hazard rate in the study population is multiplicative and does not change over time.
Studies which start with the identification of persons with a disease of interest and a control (comparison, referent) group without the disease. The relationship of an attribute to the disease is examined by comparing diseased and non-diseased persons with regard to the frequency or levels of the attribute in each group.
Movement of a body part initiated and maintained by a mechanical or electrical device to restore normal range of motion to joints, muscles, or tendons after surgery, prosthesis implantation, contracture flexion, or long immobilization.
Contamination of the air by tobacco smoke.
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
Inhaling and exhaling the smoke of burning TOBACCO.
A range of values for a variable of interest, e.g., a rate, constructed so that this range has a specified probability of including the true value of the variable.
Works about clinical trials that involve at least one test treatment and one control treatment, concurrent enrollment and follow-up of the test- and control-treated groups, and in which the treatments to be administered are selected by a random process, such as the use of a random-numbers table.
A set of techniques used when variation in several variables has to be studied simultaneously. In statistics, multivariate analysis is interpreted as any analytic method that allows simultaneous study of two or more dependent variables.
Evaluation undertaken to assess the results or consequences of management and procedures used in combating disease in order to determine the efficacy, effectiveness, safety, and practicability of these interventions in individual cases or series.
Age as a constituent element or influence contributing to the production of a result. It may be applicable to the cause or the effect of a circumstance. It is used with human or animal concepts but should be differentiated from AGING, a physiological process, and TIME FACTORS which refers only to the passage of time.
A distribution function used to describe the occurrence of rare events or to describe the sampling distribution of isolated counts in a continuum of time or space.
Studies used to test etiologic hypotheses in which inferences about an exposure to putative causal factors are derived from data relating to characteristics of persons under study or to events or experiences in their past. The essential feature is that some of the persons under study have the disease or outcome of interest and their characteristics are compared with those of unaffected persons.
A class of statistical procedures for estimating the survival function (function of time, starting with a population 100% well at a given time and providing the percentage of the population still well at later times). The survival analysis is then used for making inferences about the effects of treatments, prognostic factors, exposures, and other covariates on the function.
An infant during the first month after birth.
The status during which female mammals carry their developing young (EMBRYOS or FETUSES) in utero before birth, beginning from FERTILIZATION to BIRTH.
Factors that can cause or prevent the outcome of interest, are not intermediate variables, and are not associated with the factor(s) under investigation. They give rise to situations in which the effects of two processes are not separated, or the contribution of causal factors cannot be separated, or the measure of the effect of exposure or risk is distorted because of its association with other factors influencing the outcome of the study.
Procedures for finding the mathematical function which best describes the relationship between a dependent variable and one or more independent variables. In linear regression (see LINEAR MODELS) the relationship is constrained to be a straight line and LEAST-SQUARES ANALYSIS is used to determine the best fit. In logistic regression (see LOGISTIC MODELS) the dependent variable is qualitative rather than continuously variable and LIKELIHOOD FUNCTIONS are used to find the best relationship. In multiple regression, the dependent variable is considered to depend on more than a single independent variable.
Factors which produce cessation of all vital bodily functions. They can be analyzed from an epidemiologic viewpoint.
A prediction of the probable outcome of a disease based on a individual's condition and the usual course of the disease as seen in similar situations.
Maleness or femaleness as a constituent element or influence contributing to the production of a result. It may be applicable to the cause or effect of a circumstance. It is used with human or animal concepts but should be differentiated from SEX CHARACTERISTICS, anatomical or physiological manifestations of sex, and from SEX DISTRIBUTION, the number of males and females in given circumstances.
The systems and processes involved in the establishment, support, management, and operation of registers, e.g., disease registers.
Predetermined sets of questions used to collect data - clinical data, social status, occupational group, etc. The term is often applied to a self-completed survey instrument.
The ratio of two odds. The exposure-odds ratio for case control data is the ratio of the odds in favor of exposure among cases to the odds in favor of exposure among noncases. The disease-odds ratio for a cohort or cross section is the ratio of the odds in favor of disease among the exposed to the odds in favor of disease among the unexposed. The prevalence-odds ratio refers to an odds ratio derived cross-sectionally from studies of prevalent cases.
All deaths reported in a given population.
Pathological conditions involving the CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM including the HEART; the BLOOD VESSELS; or the PERICARDIUM.
Tumors, cancer or other neoplasms produced by exposure to ionizing or non-ionizing radiation.
Tumors or cancer of the human BREAST.
The exposure to potentially harmful chemical, physical, or biological agents that occurs as a result of one's occupation.
Resistance to a disease-causing agent induced by the introduction of maternal immunity into the fetus by transplacental transfer or into the neonate through colostrum and milk.
Diseases caused by factors involved in one's employment.
The proportion of survivors in a group, e.g., of patients, studied and followed over a period, or the proportion of persons in a specified group alive at the beginning of a time interval who survive to the end of the interval. It is often studied using life table methods.
Statistical models which describe the relationship between a qualitative dependent variable (that is, one which can take only certain discrete values, such as the presence or absence of a disease) and an independent variable. A common application is in epidemiology for estimating an individual's risk (probability of a disease) as a function of a given risk factor.
New abnormal growth of tissue. Malignant neoplasms show a greater degree of anaplasia and have the properties of invasion and metastasis, compared to benign neoplasms.
Research techniques that focus on study designs and data gathering methods in human and animal populations.
The total number of cases of a given disease in a specified population at a designated time. It is differentiated from INCIDENCE, which refers to the number of new cases in the population at a given time.
NECROSIS of the MYOCARDIUM caused by an obstruction of the blood supply to the heart (CORONARY CIRCULATION).
An imbalance between myocardial functional requirements and the capacity of the CORONARY VESSELS to supply sufficient blood flow. It is a form of MYOCARDIAL ISCHEMIA (insufficient blood supply to the heart muscle) caused by a decreased capacity of the coronary vessels.
The frequency of different ages or age groups in a given population. The distribution may refer to either how many or what proportion of the group. The population is usually patients with a specific disease but the concept is not restricted to humans and is not restricted to medicine.
In screening and diagnostic tests, the probability that a person with a positive test is a true positive (i.e., has the disease), is referred to as the predictive value of a positive test; whereas, the predictive value of a negative test is the probability that the person with a negative test does not have the disease. Predictive value is related to the sensitivity and specificity of the test.
Behaviors associated with the ingesting of alcoholic beverages, including social drinking.
A method of studying a drug or procedure in which both the subjects and investigators are kept unaware of who is actually getting which specific treatment.
A group of pathological conditions characterized by sudden, non-convulsive loss of neurological function due to BRAIN ISCHEMIA or INTRACRANIAL HEMORRHAGES. Stroke is classified by the type of tissue NECROSIS, such as the anatomic location, vasculature involved, etiology, age of the affected individual, and hemorrhagic vs. non-hemorrhagic nature. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp777-810)
The exposure to potentially harmful chemical, physical, or biological agents in the environment or to environmental factors that may include ionizing radiation, pathogenic organisms, or toxic chemicals.
A giant elastic protein of molecular mass ranging from 2,993 kDa (cardiac), 3,300 kDa (psoas), to 3,700 kDa (soleus) having a kinase domain. The amino- terminal is involved in a Z line binding, and the carboxy-terminal region is bound to the myosin filament with an overlap between the counter-connectin filaments at the M line.
Any deviation of results or inferences from the truth, or processes leading to such deviation. Bias can result from several sources: one-sided or systematic variations in measurement from the true value (systematic error); flaws in study design; deviation of inferences, interpretations, or analyses based on flawed data or data collection; etc. There is no sense of prejudice or subjectivity implied in the assessment of bias under these conditions.
The number of males and females in a given population. The distribution may refer to how many men or women or what proportion of either in the group. The population is usually patients with a specific disease but the concept is not restricted to humans and is not restricted to medicine.
An indicator of body density as determined by the relationship of BODY WEIGHT to BODY HEIGHT. BMI=weight (kg)/height squared (m2). BMI correlates with body fat (ADIPOSE TISSUE). Their relationship varies with age and gender. For adults, BMI falls into these categories: below 18.5 (underweight); 18.5-24.9 (normal); 25.0-29.9 (overweight); 30.0 and above (obese). (National Center for Health Statistics, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention)
The return of a sign, symptom, or disease after a remission.
A response to a cue that is instrumental in avoiding a noxious experience.
Regular course of eating and drinking adopted by a person or animal.
The confinement of a patient in a hospital.
Leukemia produced by exposure to IONIZING RADIATION or NON-IONIZING RADIATION.
Sensitive tests to measure certain antigens, antibodies, or viruses, using their ability to agglutinate certain erythrocytes. (From Stedman, 26th ed)
Compounds, usually hormonal, taken orally in order to block ovulation and prevent the occurrence of pregnancy. The hormones are generally estrogen or progesterone or both.
Ongoing scrutiny of a population (general population, study population, target population, etc.), generally using methods distinguished by their practicability, uniformity, and frequently their rapidity, rather than by complete accuracy.
The prototypical analgesic used in the treatment of mild to moderate pain. It has anti-inflammatory and antipyretic properties and acts as an inhibitor of cyclooxygenase which results in the inhibition of the biosynthesis of prostaglandins. Aspirin also inhibits platelet aggregation and is used in the prevention of arterial and venous thrombosis. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p5)
Studies in which variables relating to an individual or group of individuals are assessed over a period of time.
Tumors or cancer of the LUNG.
Resistance and recovery from distortion of shape.
The number of offspring a female has borne. It is contrasted with GRAVIDITY, which refers to the number of pregnancies, regardless of outcome.
A beverage made from ground COFFEA beans (SEEDS) infused in hot water. It generally contains CAFFEINE and THEOPHYLLINE unless it is decaffeinated.
A latent susceptibility to disease at the genetic level, which may be activated under certain conditions.
Studies designed to examine associations, commonly, hypothesized causal relations. They are usually concerned with identifying or measuring the effects of risk factors or exposures. The common types of analytic study are CASE-CONTROL STUDIES; COHORT STUDIES; and CROSS-SECTIONAL STUDIES.
The properties, processes, and behavior of biological systems under the action of mechanical forces.
A spectrum of pathological conditions of impaired blood flow in the brain. They can involve vessels (ARTERIES or VEINS) in the CEREBRUM, the CEREBELLUM, and the BRAIN STEM. Major categories include INTRACRANIAL ARTERIOVENOUS MALFORMATIONS; BRAIN ISCHEMIA; CEREBRAL HEMORRHAGE; and others.
The genetic constitution of the individual, comprising the ALLELES present at each GENETIC LOCUS.
The presence of co-existing or additional diseases with reference to an initial diagnosis or with reference to the index condition that is the subject of study. Comorbidity may affect the ability of affected individuals to function and also their survival; it may be used as a prognostic indicator for length of hospital stay, cost factors, and outcome or survival.
Persistently high systemic arterial BLOOD PRESSURE. Based on multiple readings (BLOOD PRESSURE DETERMINATION), hypertension is currently defined as when SYSTOLIC PRESSURE is consistently greater than 140 mm Hg or when DIASTOLIC PRESSURE is consistently 90 mm Hg or more.
Professionals qualified by graduation from an accredited school of nursing and by passage of a national licensing examination to practice nursing. They provide services to patients requiring assistance in recovering or maintaining their physical or mental health.
Abnormal growths of tissue that follow a previous neoplasm but are not metastases of the latter. The second neoplasm may have the same or different histological type and can occur in the same or different organs as the previous neoplasm but in all cases arises from an independent oncogenic event. The development of the second neoplasm may or may not be related to the treatment for the previous neoplasm since genetic risk or predisposing factors may actually be the cause.
Tumors or cancer of the COLON or the RECTUM or both. Risk factors for colorectal cancer include chronic ULCERATIVE COLITIS; FAMILIAL POLYPOSIS COLI; exposure to ASBESTOS; and irradiation of the CERVIX UTERI.
Results of conception and ensuing pregnancy, including LIVE BIRTH; STILLBIRTH; SPONTANEOUS ABORTION; INDUCED ABORTION. The outcome may follow natural or artificial insemination or any of the various ASSISTED REPRODUCTIVE TECHNIQUES, such as EMBRYO TRANSFER or FERTILIZATION IN VITRO.
A naturally radioactive element with atomic symbol Rn, atomic number 86, and atomic weight 222. It is a member of the noble gas family found in soil, and is released during the decay of radium.
A statistical technique that isolates and assesses the contributions of categorical independent variables to variation in the mean of a continuous dependent variable.
Any substance in the air which could, if present in high enough concentration, harm humans, animals, vegetation or material. Substances include GASES; PARTICULATE MATTER; and volatile ORGANIC CHEMICALS.
Social and economic factors that characterize the individual or group within the social structure.
Statistical formulations or analyses which, when applied to data and found to fit the data, are then used to verify the assumptions and parameters used in the analysis. Examples of statistical models are the linear model, binomial model, polynomial model, two-parameter model, etc.
A dermal inflammatory reaction produced under conditions of antibody excess, when a second injection of antigen produces intravascular antigen-antibody complexes which bind complement, causing cell clumping, endothelial damage, and vascular necrosis.
The physiological period following the MENOPAUSE, the permanent cessation of the menstrual life.
A country spanning from central Asia to the Pacific Ocean.
Individuals whose ancestral origins are in the continent of Europe.
Typical way of life or manner of living characteristic of an individual or group. (From APA, Thesaurus of Psychological Index Terms, 8th ed)
A distribution in which a variable is distributed like the sum of the squares of any given independent random variable, each of which has a normal distribution with mean of zero and variance of one. The chi-square test is a statistical test based on comparison of a test statistic to a chi-square distribution. The oldest of these tests are used to detect whether two or more population distributions differ from one another.
The act, process, or result of passing from one place or position to another. It differs from LOCOMOTION in that locomotion is restricted to the passing of the whole body from one place to another, while movement encompasses both locomotion but also a change of the position of the whole body or any of its parts. Movement may be used with reference to humans, vertebrate and invertebrate animals, and microorganisms. Differentiate also from MOTOR ACTIVITY, movement associated with behavior.
The relating of causes to the effects they produce. Causes are termed necessary when they must always precede an effect and sufficient when they initiate or produce an effect. Any of several factors may be associated with the potential disease causation or outcome, including predisposing factors, enabling factors, precipitating factors, reinforcing factors, and risk factors.
A carotenoid that is a precursor of VITAMIN A. It is administered to reduce the severity of photosensitivity reactions in patients with erythropoietic protoporphyria (PORPHYRIA, ERYTHROPOIETIC). (From Reynolds JEF(Ed): Martindale: The Extra Pharmacopoeia (electronic version). Micromedex, Inc, Engewood, CO, 1995.)
Therapy with two or more separate preparations given for a combined effect.
A food group comprised of EDIBLE PLANTS or their parts.
A country in western Europe bordered by the Atlantic Ocean, the English Channel, the Mediterranean Sea, and the countries of Belgium, Germany, Italy, Spain, Switzerland, the principalities of Andorra and Monaco, and by the duchy of Luxembourg. Its capital is Paris.
The distance and direction to which a bone joint can be extended. Range of motion is a function of the condition of the joints, muscles, and connective tissues involved. Joint flexibility can be improved through appropriate MUSCLE STRETCHING EXERCISES.
Disease having a short and relatively severe course.
A quantitative method of combining the results of independent studies (usually drawn from the published literature) and synthesizing summaries and conclusions which may be used to evaluate therapeutic effectiveness, plan new studies, etc., with application chiefly in the areas of research and medicine.
Levels within a diagnostic group which are established by various measurement criteria applied to the seriousness of a patient's disorder.
Anti-inflammatory agents that are non-steroidal in nature. In addition to anti-inflammatory actions, they have analgesic, antipyretic, and platelet-inhibitory actions.They act by blocking the synthesis of prostaglandins by inhibiting cyclooxygenase, which converts arachidonic acid to cyclic endoperoxides, precursors of prostaglandins. Inhibition of prostaglandin synthesis accounts for their analgesic, antipyretic, and platelet-inhibitory actions; other mechanisms may contribute to their anti-inflammatory effects.
Systematic collections of factual data pertaining to the diet of a human population within a given geographic area.
Warfare involving the use of NUCLEAR WEAPONS.
Application of statistical procedures to analyze specific observed or assumed facts from a particular study.
Damage inflicted on the body as the direct or indirect result of an external force, with or without disruption of structural continuity.
Studies in which the presence or absence of disease or other health-related variables are determined in each member of the study population or in a representative sample at one particular time. This contrasts with LONGITUDINAL STUDIES which are followed over a period of time.
Country located in EUROPE. It is bordered by the NORTH SEA, BELGIUM, and GERMANY. Constituent areas are Aruba, Curacao, Sint Maarten, formerly included in the NETHERLANDS ANTILLES.
The major immunoglobulin isotype class in normal human serum. There are several isotype subclasses of IgG, for example, IgG1, IgG2A, and IgG2B.
Measurable and quantifiable biological parameters (e.g., specific enzyme concentration, specific hormone concentration, specific gene phenotype distribution in a population, presence of biological substances) which serve as indices for health- and physiology-related assessments, such as disease risk, psychiatric disorders, environmental exposure and its effects, disease diagnosis, metabolic processes, substance abuse, pregnancy, cell line development, epidemiologic studies, etc.
The use of hormonal agents with estrogen-like activity in postmenopausal or other estrogen-deficient women to alleviate effects of hormone deficiency, such as vasomotor symptoms, DYSPAREUNIA, and progressive development of OSTEOPOROSIS. This may also include the use of progestational agents in combination therapy.
Products in capsule, tablet or liquid form that provide dietary ingredients, and that are intended to be taken by mouth to increase the intake of nutrients. Dietary supplements can include macronutrients, such as proteins, carbohydrates, and fats; and/or MICRONUTRIENTS, such as VITAMINS; MINERALS; and PHYTOCHEMICALS.
The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.
The end-stage of CHRONIC RENAL INSUFFICIENCY. It is characterized by the severe irreversible kidney damage (as measured by the level of PROTEINURIA) and the reduction in GLOMERULAR FILTRATION RATE to less than 15 ml per min (Kidney Foundation: Kidney Disease Outcome Quality Initiative, 2002). These patients generally require HEMODIALYSIS or KIDNEY TRANSPLANTATION.
The N-glucuronide conjugate of cotinine is a major urinary metabolite of NICOTINE. It thus serves as a biomarker of exposure to tobacco SMOKING. It has CNS stimulating properties.
Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.
Exercises that stretch the muscle fibers with the aim to increase muscle-tendon FLEXIBILITY, improve RANGE OF MOTION or musculoskeletal function, and prevent injuries. There are various types of stretching techniques including active, passive (relaxed), static, dynamic (gentle), ballistic (forced), isometric, and others.
A subclass of DIABETES MELLITUS that is not INSULIN-responsive or dependent (NIDDM). It is characterized initially by INSULIN RESISTANCE and HYPERINSULINEMIA; and eventually by GLUCOSE INTOLERANCE; HYPERGLYCEMIA; and overt diabetes. Type II diabetes mellitus is no longer considered a disease exclusively found in adults. Patients seldom develop KETOSIS but often exhibit OBESITY.
Pathologic processes that affect patients after a surgical procedure. They may or may not be related to the disease for which the surgery was done, and they may or may not be direct results of the surgery.
A heterogeneous group of disorders characterized by HYPERGLYCEMIA and GLUCOSE INTOLERANCE.
Postnatal deaths from BIRTH to 365 days after birth in a given population. Postneonatal mortality represents deaths between 28 days and 365 days after birth (as defined by National Center for Health Statistics). Neonatal mortality represents deaths from birth to 27 days after birth.
Tumors or cancer of the PROSTATE.
Conditions or pathological processes associated with the disease of diabetes mellitus. Due to the impaired control of BLOOD GLUCOSE level in diabetic patients, pathological processes develop in numerous tissues and organs including the EYE, the KIDNEY, the BLOOD VESSELS, and the NERVE TISSUE.
Period after successful treatment in which there is no appearance of the symptoms or effects of the disease.
The repeating contractile units of the MYOFIBRIL, delimited by Z bands along its length.
A process leading to shortening and/or development of tension in muscle tissue. Muscle contraction occurs by a sliding filament mechanism whereby actin filaments slide inward among the myosin filaments.
The health status of the family as a unit including the impact of the health of one member of the family on the family as a unit and on individual family members; also, the impact of family organization or disorganization on the health status of its members.
A plan for collecting and utilizing data so that desired information can be obtained with sufficient precision or so that an hypothesis can be tested properly.
The study of chance processes or the relative frequency characterizing a chance process.
Summarizing techniques used to describe the pattern of mortality and survival in populations. These methods can be applied to the study not only of death, but also of any defined endpoint such as the onset of disease or the occurrence of disease complications.
Diseases which have one or more of the following characteristics: they are permanent, leave residual disability, are caused by nonreversible pathological alteration, require special training of the patient for rehabilitation, or may be expected to require a long period of supervision, observation, or care. (Dictionary of Health Services Management, 2d ed)
The worsening of a disease over time. This concept is most often used for chronic and incurable diseases where the stage of the disease is an important determinant of therapy and prognosis.
Parliamentary democracy located between France on the northeast and Portugual on the west and bordered by the Atlantic Ocean and the Mediterranean Sea.
The regular and simultaneous occurrence in a single interbreeding population of two or more discontinuous genotypes. The concept includes differences in genotypes ranging in size from a single nucleotide site (POLYMORPHISM, SINGLE NUCLEOTIDE) to large nucleotide sequences visible at a chromosomal level.
A nonparametric method of compiling LIFE TABLES or survival tables. It combines calculated probabilities of survival and estimates to allow for observations occurring beyond a measurement threshold, which are assumed to occur randomly. Time intervals are defined as ending each time an event occurs and are therefore unequal. (From Last, A Dictionary of Epidemiology, 1995)
The proportion of patients with a particular disease during a given year per given unit of population.
A group of islands in the southwest Pacific. Its capital is Wellington. It was discovered by the Dutch explorer Abel Tasman in 1642 and circumnavigated by Cook in 1769. Colonized in 1840 by the New Zealand Company, it became a British crown colony in 1840 until 1907 when colonial status was terminated. New Zealand is a partly anglicized form of the original Dutch name Nieuw Zeeland, new sea land, possibly with reference to the Dutch province of Zeeland. (From Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p842 & Room, Brewer's Dictionary of Names, 1992, p378)
Antibodies produced by a single clone of cells.
An alcoholic beverage usually made from malted cereal grain (as barley), flavored with hops, and brewed by slow fermentation.
Any dummy medication or treatment. Although placebos originally were medicinal preparations having no specific pharmacological activity against a targeted condition, the concept has been extended to include treatments or procedures, especially those administered to control groups in clinical trials in order to provide baseline measurements for the experimental protocol.
Crafts, trades, professions, or other means of earning a living.
A stratum of people with similar position and prestige; includes social stratification. Social class is measured by criteria such as education, occupation, and income.
Educational attainment or level of education of individuals.
The age of the mother in PREGNANCY.
A measure of the quality of health care by assessment of unsuccessful results of management and procedures used in combating disease, in individual cases or series.
Physical activity which is usually regular and done with the intention of improving or maintaining PHYSICAL FITNESS or HEALTH. Contrast with PHYSICAL EXERTION which is concerned largely with the physiologic and metabolic response to energy expenditure.
Acquired or learned food preferences.
The physical activity of a human or an animal as a behavioral phenomenon.
The monitoring of the level of toxins, chemical pollutants, microbial contaminants, or other harmful substances in the environment (soil, air, and water), workplace, or in the bodies of people and animals present in that environment.
The statistical reproducibility of measurements (often in a clinical context), including the testing of instrumentation or techniques to obtain reproducible results. The concept includes reproducibility of physiological measurements, which may be used to develop rules to assess probability or prognosis, or response to a stimulus; reproducibility of occurrence of a condition; and reproducibility of experimental results.
A systematic collection of factual data pertaining to health and disease in a human population within a given geographic area.
Individuals whose ancestral origins are in the continent of Africa.
The fleshy or dry ripened ovary of a plant, enclosing the seed or seeds.
A purely physical condition which exists within any material because of strain or deformation by external forces or by non-uniform thermal expansion; expressed quantitatively in units of force per unit area.
Sudden increase in the incidence of a disease. The concept includes EPIDEMICS and PANDEMICS.
A subtype of striated muscle, attached by TENDONS to the SKELETON. Skeletal muscles are innervated and their movement can be consciously controlled. They are also called voluntary muscles.
Variant forms of the same gene, occupying the same locus on homologous CHROMOSOMES, and governing the variants in production of the same gene product.
Binary classification measures to assess test results. Sensitivity or recall rate is the proportion of true positives. Specificity is the probability of correctly determining the absence of a condition. (From Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)
The age, developmental stage, or period of life at which a disease or the initial symptoms or manifestations of a disease appear in an individual.
A status with BODY WEIGHT that is grossly above the acceptable or desirable weight, usually due to accumulation of excess FATS in the body. The standards may vary with age, sex, genetic or cultural background. In the BODY MASS INDEX, a BMI greater than 30.0 kg/m2 is considered obese, and a BMI greater than 40.0 kg/m2 is considered morbidly obese (MORBID OBESITY).
The species Oryctolagus cuniculus, in the family Leporidae, order LAGOMORPHA. Rabbits are born in burrows, furless, and with eyes and ears closed. In contrast with HARES, rabbits have 22 chromosome pairs.
The mass or quantity of heaviness of an individual at BIRTH. It is expressed by units of pounds or kilograms.
Organized periodic procedures performed on large groups of people for the purpose of detecting disease.
The concept covering the physical and mental conditions of women.
Conditions or pathological processes associated with pregnancy. They can occur during or after pregnancy, and range from minor discomforts to serious diseases that require medical interventions. They include diseases in pregnant females, and pregnancies in females with diseases.
A progressive, malignant disease of the blood-forming organs, characterized by distorted proliferation and development of leukocytes and their precursors in the blood and bone marrow. Leukemias were originally termed acute or chronic based on life expectancy but now are classified according to cellular maturity. Acute leukemias consist of predominately immature cells; chronic leukemias are composed of more mature cells. (From The Merck Manual, 2006)
Therapy for the insufficient cleansing of the BLOOD by the kidneys based on dialysis and including hemodialysis, PERITONEAL DIALYSIS, and HEMODIAFILTRATION.
Statistical models in which the value of a parameter for a given value of a factor is assumed to be equal to a + bx, where a and b are constants. The models predict a linear regression.
A group of islands in Polynesia, in the north central Pacific Ocean, comprising eight major and 114 minor islands, largely volcanic and coral. Its capital is Honolulu. It was first reached by Polynesians about 500 A.D. It was discovered and named the Sandwich Islands in 1778 by Captain Cook. The islands were united under the rule of King Kamehameha 1795-1819 and requested annexation to the United States in 1893 when a provisional government was set up. Hawaii was established as a territory in 1900 and admitted as a state in 1959. The name is from the Polynesian Owhyhii, place of the gods, with reference to the two volcanoes Mauna Kea and Mauna Loa, regarded as the abode of the gods. (From Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p493 & Room, Brewer's Dictionary of Names, 1992, p2330)
Expulsion of the product of FERTILIZATION before completing the term of GESTATION and without deliberate interference.
Nitrogen oxide (NO2). A highly poisonous gas. Exposure produces inflammation of lungs that may only cause slight pain or pass unnoticed, but resulting edema several days later may cause death. (From Merck, 11th ed) It is a major atmospheric pollutant that is able to absorb UV light that does not reach the earth's surface.
Large vessels propelled by power or sail used for transportation on rivers, seas, oceans, or other navigable waters. Boats are smaller vessels propelled by oars, paddles, sail, or power; they may or may not have a deck.
The movement of materials across cell membranes and epithelial layers against an electrochemical gradient, requiring the expenditure of metabolic energy.
Divisions of the year according to some regularly recurrent phenomena usually astronomical or climatic. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
Serum that contains antibodies. It is obtained from an animal that has been immunized either by ANTIGEN injection or infection with microorganisms containing the antigen.
A class of statistical methods applicable to a large set of probability distributions used to test for correlation, location, independence, etc. In most nonparametric statistical tests, the original scores or observations are replaced by another variable containing less information. An important class of nonparametric tests employs the ordinal properties of the data. Another class of tests uses information about whether an observation is above or below some fixed value such as the median, and a third class is based on the frequency of the occurrence of runs in the data. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed, p1284; Corsini, Concise Encyclopedia of Psychology, 1987, p764-5)
A disorder of cardiac function caused by insufficient blood flow to the muscle tissue of the heart. The decreased blood flow may be due to narrowing of the coronary arteries (CORONARY ARTERY DISEASE), to obstruction by a thrombus (CORONARY THROMBOSIS), or less commonly, to diffuse narrowing of arterioles and other small vessels within the heart. Severe interruption of the blood supply to the myocardial tissue may result in necrosis of cardiac muscle (MYOCARDIAL INFARCTION).
The rotational force about an axis that is equal to the product of a force times the distance from the axis where the force is applied.
Agents that prevent clotting.
The joint that is formed by the inferior articular and malleolar articular surfaces of the TIBIA; the malleolar articular surface of the FIBULA; and the medial malleolar, lateral malleolar, and superior surfaces of the TALUS.
Bleeding or escape of blood from a vessel.
... active investment strategies give priority to the principles as they seek superior risk adjusted financial returns relative to ... Calvert's passive indices include companies on the basis of these principles and the results of a comprehensive research system ...
Skeptical Inquirer notes that "Kabat ... helps readers understand relative versus absolute risk, medical research, [and] how ... In the book, Kabat also discusses the science relating to the adverse health effects of passive smoking, arguing that anti- ... He is the author of Hyping Health Risks: Environmental Hazards in Daily Life and the Science of Epidemiology and Getting Risk ... Hartge, Patricia (2017). "Getting Risk Right: Understanding the Science of Elusive Health Risks". American Journal of ...
Others urge use of numbers to describe level of relative or (preferably) absolute risk of completed suicide.[6] ... The items could be grouped into three categories: "Active Suicidal Desire, Preparation, and Passive Suicidal Desire." Initial ... Suicide risk assessment should distinguish between acute and chronic risk. Acute risk might be raised because of recent changes ... There are risks and disadvantages to both over-estimation and under-estimation of suicide risk. Over-sensitivity to risk can ...
In active portfolio management, the aim is to maximize the relative return (often subject to a risk constraint). In passive ... Relative return is a measure of the return of an investment portfolio relative to a theoretical passive reference portfolio or ... Thus, the risk-free rate is an appropriate benchmark to use for measuring the relative return of absolute return strategies. ... Within passive portfolio management, the absolute value of the relative return is often called the tracking error, which is ...
A 2000 meta-analysis found a relative risk of 1.48 for lung cancer among men exposed to secondhand smoke, and a relative risk ... Passive smoking is strongly associated with an increased risk of stroke, and this increased risk is disproportionately high at ... Risk of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) According to a 2015 review, passive smoking may increase the risk of ... Some scientists believe that the risk of passive smoking, in particular the risk of developing coronary heart diseases, may ...
It has been shown that there is a two to a threefold greater risk of having social phobia if a first-degree relative also has ... Passive social media usage may cause social anxiety in some people. ... The fear or anxiety is judged to be out of proportion to the actual risk of being negatively evaluated or to the consequences ... Stein, M. B.; Fuetsch, M.; Müller, N.; Höfler, M.; Lieb, R.; Wittchen, H. U. (2001). "Social Anxiety Disorder and the Risk of ...
A 2000 meta-analysis found a relative risk of 1.48 for lung cancer among men exposed to secondhand smoke, and a relative risk ... Lung cancer: passive smoking is a risk factor for lung cancer.[10][11] In the United States passive smoke is estimated to cause ... Risk of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD)[23]. *According to a 2015 review, passive smoking may increase the risk of ... Another component of criticism cited by Milloy focused on relative risk and epidemiological practices in studies of passive ...
... have a relative risk of breast cancer between 2.1 and 4.0. The risk increases with increased dose. In addition, the risk is ... which exclude passive smokers from the control group, generally show elevated risks associated with active as well as passive ... One or two drinks each day increases the relative risk to 150% of normal, and six drinks per day increases the risk to 330% of ... with an average relative risk around 0.7) have all been correlated to lowered breast cancer risk in premenopausal women, but ...
They did this by estimating the relative risks of smoking, accounted for by physician visits, hospital admission, and death ... Passive smoking includes both secondhand smoke and third-hand smoke, which is a type of tobacco smoke that remains in the ... "Health risks - Daily smokers - OECD Data". Choi, Sunhye; Kim, Yoonjung; Park, Suyeon; Lee, Jihye; Oh, Kyungwon (2014- ... The Korea Youth Risk Behavior Web-based Survey (KYRBWS) annually tracks smoking behavior in Korean adolescents, defined as ...
describe the effect of having a risk allele on the individual who harbours it, relative to an individual who does not harbour a ... due to the problem of passive gene-environment correlation.[46] The simple observation that the children of parents who use ... Compare this to risk alleles within APOE, which pose much smaller risk compared to APP, but are far more common and therefore ... Adoption studies show that adoptees are routinely more similar to their biological relatives than their adoptive relatives for ...
This considers risk and return and does not consider weights relative to the entire market. This may result in overweighting ... Smith, David M.; Yousif, Kevin K., Passive Equity Investing, CFA Institute, p. 14 Smith, David M.; Yousif, Kevin K., Passive ... Smith, David M.; Yousif, Kevin K., Passive Equity Investing, CFA Institute, p. 7 Smith, David M.; Yousif, Kevin K., Passive ... Smith, David M.; Yousif, Kevin K., Passive Equity Investing, CFA Institute, p. 8 Smith, David M.; Yousif, Kevin K., Passive ...
It is also argued that passive marijuana smoking de facto constitutes victimization in some cases of drug use. More generally ... consistency with the evolutionary notion of empathy being gradually extended from close relatives to more distant relatives ... explaining the appearance of cruelty to animals being a risk factor for violence to humans as a result of criminal ...
... and advance our understanding of the relative risks posed by unknown sequences." Hybrid Forecasting Competition (HFC) aims to " ... passive, and persistent measurement to predict an individual's job performance". It designs and tests sensors which can collect ... IARPA characterizes its mission as follows: "To envision and lead high-risk, high-payoff research that delivers innovative ... IARPA characterizes its mission as follows: To envision and lead high-risk, high-payoff research that delivers innovative ...
Text messaging had the greatest relative risk, with drivers of heavy vehicles or trucks being more than 23 times more likely to ... A potential passive cost to drivers merely wearing the Glass was also observed. Messaging using either device impaired driving ... The low number of scientific studies may be indicative of a general assumption that if talking on a mobile phone increases risk ... Risk and Insurance Management Society. 2012-05-20. Retrieved 2012-06-05. "The Truth & Consequences of Distracted Driving". ...
It measures the return of a portfolio in excess of the risk-free rate, compared to the total risk of the portfolio. This ... This measure is relative, as it evaluates portfolio performance in reference to a benchmark, making the result strongly ... and obtained through passive management, from abnormal performance (or outperformance) due to the manager's skill (or luck), ... have highlighted two important factors that characterize a company's risk in addition to market risk. These factors are the ...
"Is passive smoking increasing cancer risk?". Scandinavian Journal of Work, Environment & Health. 13 (3): 193-6. June 1987. doi: ... relative risk estimates for the major histological types from a pooled analysis of case-control studies. International Journal ... "Passive smoking and heart disease. Mechanisms and risk". JAMA. 273 (13): 1047-53. April 1995. doi:10.1001/jama. ... "Tobacco smoking and risk of bladder cancer". Scandinavian Journal of Urology and Nephrology. Supplementum. 42 (218): 45-54. ...
A relative construction is almost always preferred to the present verbal adjective (e.g. les garçons qui sautent preferred to ... les garçons sautants), especially when there is a risk of orthographic confusion in some irregular cases (e.g. adj. résident vs ... ", "des fruits confits", and "des poires confites." As they are passive participles, this inflection only occurs with ...
First-degree relatives may have as much as a 500 times increase in prevalence, but if this risk is greater in the same- ... Active and/or passive fibrous septa Stage 4 - biliary cirrhosis: Nodules present, garland or jigsaw puzzle pattern Medical ... Multiple Independent Associations at Four Established Risk Loci and Epistasis Between 1p31 and 7q32 Risk Variants". Human ... People with more severe PBC may have jaundice (yellowing of the eyes and skin). PBC impairs bone density and the risk of ...
It estimates that, what is states is a low-risk option, will reduce overall CO₂ emissions by 70% compared with the UK average ... Step Two, the Passivhaus (or Passive house) Standard takes full advantage of existing energy-efficient technology without ... for buildings of each type - a result it feels is highly significant given the relative ease and low cost with which this ... geothermal and waste heat resources at lower costs than new electricity sources and reducing the risk that the UK will be ...
The goal of a TAA strategy is to improve the risk-adjusted returns of passive management investing. TAA strategies can be ... For example, many systematic TAA strategies try to use quantitative Trend Following or Relative Strength techniques to produce ... If a tactical approach were found that could increase returns without an increase in risk, investors would flock to that ... Investors who utilize the tactical asset allocation strategy generally want to hedge risk in a volatile market. However, Larry ...
Harvey, S.; Keashly, L. (2003). "Predicting the risk for aggression in the workplace: Risk factors, self-esteem, and time at ... For example, failing to deny false rumors about a coworker would be classified as verbal-passive-indirect. Purposely avoiding ... This term refers to the aggressors' subjective evaluation of the relative effects and danger of committing an aggressive act. ... In other words, aggressors want an act to have a large effect with relatively low risk of danger to themselves. Individuals in ...
... it is considered a second-line treatment because of the risk of adverse side-effects. Natalizumab halves the risk of suffering ... Evidence on relative effectiveness in reducing disability progression is unclear. All medications are associated with adverse ... OT's can help manage tremors by outfitting the patient using small passive weights to decrease the intensity of the tremors. ... A physiotherapist can help to reduce spasticity and avoid the development of contractures with techniques such as passive ...
In bats, the relative alveolar surface area and pulmonary capillary blood volume are larger than in most other small ... Since their bodies are relatively small and lightweight, bats are not at risk of blood flow rushing to their heads when ... In most mammals, the walls of the veins provide mainly passive resistance, maintaining their shape as deoxygenated blood flows ... The relative proportion of extant bat forelimb digits compared with those of Eocene fossil bats have no significant differences ...
The rate at which water can be produced depends on relative humidity and ambient air temperature and size of the compressor. ... A variation of this technology has been developed to be more environmentally friendly, primarily through the use of passive ... is then passed into a holding tank with purification and filtration system to help keep the water pure and reduce the risk ... Therefore, water vapor is removed from the cooled air and the relative humidity in the room is lowered. The water is usually ...
A passive/active flexion test is commonly performed along with a thorough hoof examination. A basic neurological exam may also ... This serves to identify any preexisting problems which may hinder a horse's future performance and reduce buyer risk. The ... Veterinarians are to determine the relative 'soundness' of the horse; they are really assessing "...the health status of the ...
Vermeir and Verbeke (2006) argue that consumers are passive with regard to sustainable consumption, and work within their ... Furthermore, Owens (2000: 1142) argues that "if people had more information about environmental risks, they would become more ... This relates to broader issues relative to methods of environmental governance. Attempts by government to affect public ... The Role of Worldviews and Climate Change Risk Perception". Environment and Behavior. 50 (7): 749-780. doi:10.1177/ ...
In bats, the relative alveolar surface area and pulmonary capillary blood volume are larger than in most other small ... The currently known viruses that have been found in bats are reviewed and the risks of transmission to humans are highlighted. ... In most mammals, the walls of the veins provide mainly passive resistance, maintaining their shape as deoxygenated blood flows ... A. fistulata (shown lapping sugar water from a tube) has the longest tongue, relative to body length, of any mammal-and now ...
Swap contracts exposure investors to counterparty credit risk, low liquidity risk, interest rate risk, and tax policy risk. ... The proportion invested in passive funds varies widely across jurisdictions and fund type. The relative appeal of passive funds ... but reduced other risks. "Some passive strategies amplify market volatility, and the shift [towards passive investing] has ... "What is Passive Investing?". Passive Investing Zone. Retrieved May 1, 2017. Smith, David M.; Yousif, Kevin K., Passive Equity ...
High-risk groups in the United States include: those over 45 years old; those with a first degree relative with diabetes; some ... "Relation of active, passive, and quitting smoking with incident type 2 diabetes: a systematic review and meta-analysis". The ... increases the risk of developing diabetes by 1.5 times and is the greatest risk of the common genetic variants.[13] Most of the ... while medication does not reduce risk after withdrawal.[80] While low vitamin D levels are associated with an increased risk of ...
Relative contraindications are conditions where increased risk is acceptable in some situations and where low-force and soft- ... Spinal manipulation is a passive manual maneuver during which a three-joint complex is taken past the normal range of movement ... Risk-benefit. A 2012 systematic review concluded that no accurate assessment of risk-benefit exists for cervical manipulation.[ ... Committee to Assess Health Risks from Exposure to Low Levels of Ionizing Radiation, Board on Radiation Effects Research, U.S. ...
Reclining wheelchairs are preferred in some cases for some medical purposes, such as reducing the risk of pressure sores, ... providing passive movement of hip and knee joints, and making it easier to perform some nursing procedures, such as ... or other attached device in the same relative position throughout the day.[10] Tilting wheelchairs are commonly used by people ... the parts of the body that are the most at risk for tissue breakdown include the ischial tuberosities, coccyx, sacrum and ...
Today, the closest living relatives of cetaceans are the hippopotamuses; these share a semi-aquatic ancestor that branched off ... Six are considered at risk, as they are ranked Critically Endangered (the North Atlantic right whale), "Endangered" (blue whale ... A 2008 study found that sperm whales sleep in vertical postures just under the surface in passive shallow 'drift-dives', ... The success of belugas turned attention to maintaining their relative, the narwhal, in captivity. However, in repeated attempts ...
It is not like a lifeless thing, which remains purely passive. Weakened and diminished by Adam's fall, free will is yet not ... One of the most heated debates in biology is that of "nature versus nurture", concerning the relative importance of genetics ... while not risking the introduction of luck (random decision making). The selection process is deterministic, although it may be ... According to their suggestion, man has relative freedom, i.e. freedom in degrees, that can be in- or decreased through ...
In the next few years, the cost data of these technologies operating at commercial scale, and their relative performance, will ... "Biodiversity conservation in the era of biofuels: risks and opportunities". Frontiers in Ecology and the Environment. 9 (3): ... outlined the wider and interrelated factors that need to be considered when deciding on the relative merits of pursuing one ...
Heroic risk-taking has also been interpreted as a costly signal of ability.[6]. ... Thus, giving grades and promotions based only on an individual's performance relative to a small local group, as is common, may ...
The yin can be characterized as slow, soft, yielding, diffuse, cold, wet, and passive.[103] ... but the relative importance of each must still be investigated.[34] The nature versus nurture question, for example, is ... badly enough to risk one's life trying to escape."[117] :28-9 ... passive and dependent,[23] and called for a "drastic reshaping ... "Risk: Feminine Protection (interview with Julia Serano)". Bitch. Archived from the original on September 15, 2013. Retrieved ...
Relative humidity[edit]. Main article: Relative humidity. The relative humidity (. R. H. {\displaystyle (RH}. or ϕ. ). {\ ... that they cannot be used until the risk from condensation has passed. In situations where time is critical, increasing air flow ... Relative humidity, expressed as a percentage, indicates a present state of absolute humidity relative to a maximum humidity ... Relative humidity is an important metric used in weather forecasts and reports, as it is an indicator of the likelihood of ...
Most are passive intermediaries, making money by simply channelling funds from regional OMS funds to healthcare providers. ... In June 2010 adults with pre-existing conditions became eligible to join a temporary high-risk pool.[41] In 2014, applicants of ... has sight of the claims made by policyholders and therefore can redistribute the funds its holds on the basis of relative ... arising from a chronic condition or from avoidable risk-taking) are studied on a case-per-case basis. ...
Central IV lines carry risks of bleeding, infection, gangrene, thromboembolism and gas embolism (see Risks below). They are ... The best way to determine if a person will benefit from fluids is by doing a passive leg raise followed by measuring the output ... The risk is greater with a central IV. Air bubbles of less than 30 microliters are thought to dissolve into the circulation ... This reduces the risk of infection, since bacteria from the skin surface are not able to travel directly into the vein. These ...
I think I would have done almost exactly the same as Iacobus except that I would have put the relative clause in the passive ... A category that remains populated by only one article is at some risk of being eventually merged or deleted. Andrew Dalby ( ... And would one really use a relative clause in that way in a treaty title? It sounds weird to me, but maybe I'm just not ... using a relative clause, might work but would be more clumsy. Evidently Germanic languages go for nouns. Andrew Dalby ( ...
Uzuegbu, UE; Onyesom, I (June 2009). "Fructose-induced increase in ethanol metabolism and the risk of Syndrome X in man". ... "Relative Fahruntüchtigkeit")) ... Passive drinking. *Binge drinking devices *Beer bong. *Yard of ...
Passive immunotherapy has potential benefit in treatment of chikungunya. Studies in animals using passive immunotherapy have ... The risk of death is around 1 in 1,000.[4] The very young, old, and those with other health problems are at risk of more severe ... However, since 2005, following several decades of relative inactivity, chikungunya has re-emerged and caused large outbreaks in ... albopictus could mean an increased risk for outbreaks in other areas where the Asian tiger mosquito is present.[76] A ...
In addition to safety risks, many jobs also present risks of disease, illness and other long-term health problems. Among the ... Personal health depends partially on the active, passive, and assisted cues people observe and adopt about their own health. ... One difficulty is the issue raised by the debate over the relative strengths of genetics and other factors; interactions ... See also: Social determinants of health and Risk factor. Generally, the context in which an individual lives is of great ...
Additional passive components such as grading capacitors and resistors need to be connected in parallel with each thyristor in ... The other terminal, at high voltage relative to ground, is connected to a transmission line. The earthed terminal may be ... There has been debate over the technical feasibility of this proposal[50] and the political risks involved in energy ... A voltage sourced converter can therefore feed power to an AC network consisting only of passive loads, something which is ...
The risk of marine mammals and fish being struck by tidal turbine blades; ... Energy is collected from the relative motion of the body compared to the fixed point. Oscillating wave surge converters often ... The presence of the buoys may affect fish, marine mammals, and birds as potential minor collision risk and roosting sites. ... Environmental concerns include minor risk of collision, artificial reefing near the fixed point, EMF effects from subsea cables ...
Passive infrared sensors react to changes in heat, such as the pattern created by a moving person. The control must have an ... The American Medical Association in 2012[60] issued a warning that extended exposure to light at night increases the risk of ... GAI represents the relative separation of object colors illuminated by a light source; the greater the GAI, the greater the ... The best applications for passive infrared occupancy sensors are open spaces with a clear view of the area being scanned. ...
Poumadère M.; Perrin A. (2013). "Risk Assessment of Radiofrequencies and Public Information". Journal of Risk Analysis and ... Also, with the permittivity of the brain decreasing as one gets older and the higher relative volume of the exposed growing ... There is no strong or consistent evidence that mobile phone use increases the risk of getting brain cancer or other head tumors ... According to the WHO, the "precautionary principle" is "a risk management policy applied in circumstances with a high degree of ...
Normal Accidents: Living with High-Risk Technologies (1984). *Nuclear or Not? Does Nuclear Power Have a Place in a Sustainable ... New reactor designs have features of passive nuclear safety, which may help. In the United States, the NRC carries out "Force ... Despite the relative dramatic increases in radiation, the contamination levels still fall below the World Health Organization's ... "SOURCES, EFFECTS AND RISKS OF IONIZING RADIATION : UNSCEAR 2013 Report" (PDF). Retrieved 12 March 2019.. .mw-parser ...
One of the ways in which researchers attempt to dissect the relative influence of genetic and environmental factors on ... Epstein, Monica K.; Poythress, Norman G.; Brandon, Karen O. (26 July 2016). "The Self-Report Psychopathy Scale and Passive ... more risk-taking in the form of substance abuse,[34] a tendency to prefer immediate but smaller amounts of money over delayed ... empirical studies have been conducted in an effort to understand the relative contributions of biology (nature) and ...
This might be due to failing health, reaching the end of their lives and the death of friends and relatives.[77] ... Miclea, M.; Miu, A. (2010). "Emotion Regulation and Decision Making Under Risk and Uncertainty". Emotion. 10 (2): 257-65. doi: ... Rumination, an example of attentional deployment,[16] is defined as the passive and repetitive focusing of one's attention on ... As opposed to distraction, individuals show a relative preference to engage in reappraisal when facing stimuli of low negative ...
The ties of kinship meant that the relatives of a murdered person were obliged to exact vengeance for his or her death. This ... Anyway, battle put the princes' lives at risk, as is demonstrated by the Northumbrian and Mercian overlordships brought to an ... the six "tenses" - really tense/aspect combinations - of Latin), and have no synthetic passive voice (although it did still ... The latter became the woman's personal property, but the former may have been paid to her relatives, at least during the early ...
However, this risks oversimplifying the biology so key aspects of the animal design are overlooked. Robotic fish also allow ... Fish, FE; Lauder, GV (2006). "Passive and active flow control by swimming fishes and mammals". Annual Review of Fluid Mechanics ... "Scientists find missing link between the dolphin, whale and its closest relative, the hippo". Science News Daily. 2005-01-25. ... a close relative of the tunas (family Scombridae) II. Kinematics". The Journal of Experimental Biology. 206 (16): 2749-2758. ...
Engel 1989) Patients who ask too many questions risk seeming offensive or irritating, and a good patient is a passive one. ... Female relatives traditionally help Japanese woman through labor. While men traditionally do not help in labor, one recent 2011 ... Maltreating it, therefore, risks causing harm or disease in the child. In some Japanese households, a mother may show a child ... Massage, stroking, and acupressure by female relatives are commonly utilized techniques to help a woman in Japan through labor ...
Passive heating methods exist which seek heat using low energy input. Solar energy can be captured from periods of relative ... relative humidity and vapor pressure deficit) in order to reduce production risk prior to cultivation of a specific crop. ... "Unprecedented 21st century drought risk in the American Southwest and Central Plains". Science Advances. 1 (1): e1400082. doi ...
... must have protection against systemic market risk and should be too small to create new systemic risks for the market.[17] ... relative value, tactical trading (including managed futures), and multi-strategy. This number does not include option income ... Alternative investments are sometimes used as a way of reducing overall investment risk through diversification. ... Active / passive management. *Hedge Funds. *Impact investing. *Manager of managers. *Socially responsible investing ...
To help decrease the risk of financial loss should the mare die or abort the foal while pregnant, many studs have a live foal ... Her reaction to the teaser, whether hostile or passive, is noted. A mare that is in heat will generally tolerate a teaser ( ... and the Caspian horse is believed to be a very close relative of Ottoman horses from the earliest origins of the Turks in ...
Coffee consumption is associated with a lower overall risk of cancer.[70] This is primarily due to a decrease in the risks of ... Due to the relative safety of MDMA, some researchers such as David Nutt have criticized the scheduling level, writing a ... and it may somewhat reduce the risk of type 2 diabetes.[76] Drinking 1-3 cups of coffee per day does not affect the risk of ... Nkondjock A (May 2009). "Coffee consumption and the risk of cancer: an overview". Cancer Lett. 277 (2): 121-5. doi:10.1016/j. ...
Potential biases in estimating absolute and relative case-fatality risks during outbreaks. PLoS Negl Trop Dis 2015;9:e0003846. ... Second, when estimating the proportion of cases with severe outcomes, the observational data collected through passive ... Although the absolute risks for severe outcomes for women were low, pregnant women were at increased risk for severe COVID-19- ... Understanding the risk posed by SARS-CoV-2 infection in pregnant women can inform clinical practice, risk communication, and ...
Studies Exposure to Relative Risk (95% CI). Passive Smoking. Cohort Studies. Hirayama (1984) Spouses smoking. in cig/day. No ( ... Studies Exposure to Passive Smoking Relative Risk 95% CI. Stjernfeldt et al., 1986 Non-Hodgkins Lymphoma (n = 16). Mothers ... Association Between Exposure to Passive Smoking and Risk of Non-Hodgkins Lymphoma and Lymphoma in Children ... ASSOCIATION BETWEEN PASSIVE SMOKE EXPOSURE AND RISK OF NASAL SINUS CANCER IN NONSMOKERS ...
... relative risk, 0.98; 95% CI, 0.93-1.05) for passive smoking and breast cancer, and the point estimate for risk in premenopausal ... An initial report on active and passive smoking risks for breast cancer in the CTS found significantly higher risks for ... Passive Smoking and Risk of Breast Cancer in the California Teachers Study. Peggy Reynolds, Debbie Goldberg, Susan Hurley, ... Active and passive smoking and risk of breast cancer by age 50 years among German women. Am J Epidemiol 2002;156:616-26. ...
ERR excess relative risk. EUV extreme ultraviolet. EV1 velocity vector. EV2 zenith direction ... CPD crew passive dosimeter. CPDS charged particle directional spectrometer. CSSP Committee on Solar and Space Physics ... 1 Radiation Risks and the Vision for Space Exploration 7-23 * 2 Specifying and Predicting the Space Radiation Environment 24-37 ... This workshop report presents a discussion of radiation risks for the VSE, an assessment of specifying and predicting the space ...
We previously demonstrated that ascertainment of diabetes with this passive surveillance approach is relatively complete. A ... We then examined the effect of birth weight on the relative risk of mortality after adjusting for age, sex, and birth year. ... Relative Risk of Mortality Associated With Diabetes as a Function of Birth Weight. ... Relative Risk of Mortality Associated With Diabetes as a Function of Birth Weight ...
... also from passive surveillance program. Infection rates of A. americanum ticks (IAA) encompass both Ehrlichia chaffeensis and E ... Relative Risk for Ehrlichiosis and Lyme Disease in an Area Where Vectors for Both Are Sympatric, New Jersey, USA Andrea Egizi. ... Relative Risk for Ehrlichiosis and Lyme Disease in an Area Where Vectors for Both Are Sympatric, New Jersey, USA. ... Parameters used in relative risk calculations for ehrlichiosis and Lyme disease, by vector, Monmouth County, New Jersey, USA* ...
... we will start by talking about absolute versus relative performance and mandates. The second ... ... is comfortable with the performance relative to the selected index and risk taken by the investment manager to achieve such a ... The focus will then shift to the two main categories of investment vehicles, active and passive funds, and what they entail in ... You will first learn about absolute and relative performance, risk-adjusted returns and how to decompose investment performance ...
Overwhelming evidence? Like relative risks of 1.19 at a significance level of P,0.1? As for measuring passive smoking ... The study claims a relative risk of 1.02 for death due to stagnant air. The whole thing is an absolute classic, from the ... A number watcher in the other Washington has spotted what could be the record low for a claimed relative risk. The honour goes ... Campaigners fume over low-risk passive smoking claim).. The backlash was led by the establishment organisation that published ...
The HNBP groups 10-year CVD risk was also significantly reduced (p , 0.05). The pre-post differences in SBP and DBP were ... on reducing the risk of developing CVD by enhancing their physical fitness level and improving the detailed markers of high- ... had the effect of reducing the 10-year CVD risk through a substantial reduction in SBP, overall physical fitness improvement, ... and HSP70 and calculated the Framingham risk scores for comparison. A significant post-intervention reduction in the mean ...
We examine the relation between passive ownership and financial reporting quality measured by Beneishs (1999) earnings ... We also find that higher passive ownership relative to total fund ownership yields higher risk-adjusted returns among firms ... Passive ownership may offer greater monitoring benefit to the firms with high M-Scores than firms with low M-Scores. ... Passive Ownership and Earnings Manipulation. 9th Conference on Financial Markets and Corporate Governance (FMCG) 2018 ...
Two meta-analyses reported the relative risks (1.2-1.7) of passive smoke in the development of otitis media (OM). ... Education of parents in the form of risk factor reduction is useful. Modifiable risk factors include breastfeeding exclusively ... Uhari M, Hietala J, Tuokko H. Risk of acute otitis media in relation to the viral etiology of infections in children. Clin ... Niemelä M, Pihakari O, Pokka T, Uhari M. Pacifier as a risk factor for acute otitis media: A randomized, controlled trial of ...
The relative risk of these adverse events is similar for manual therapy plus exercise treatment and for sham/passive/control ... B. Cagnie, E. Barbaix, E. Vinck, K. DHerde, and D. Cambier, "Atherosclerosis in the vertebral artery: an intrinsic risk factor ... S. Haldeman, F. J. Kohlbeck, and M. McGregor, "Risk factors and precipitating neck movements causing vertebrobasilar artery ... which constitutes a risk of bias. Third, the present study was conducted on asymptomatic subjects, so it is not possible to ...
... but rather reviewed and assessed the size and relative certainty of the risk.11.Jan J. Barendregt, Luc Bonneux, and Paul J. Van ... 1995.This study did not identify the potential dollar cost of passive smoking risk, ... In part, this study discussed the external costs of passive smoking but found that this effect was uncertain and too small, ... based on estimates of smoking attributable risk (what share of each disease is due to smoking).The editors add that this $50 ...
Passive and active are really about degrees - not a strict black/white, binary thing. With passive, you still must decide how ... I overweight REITS relative to US market-cap using the Vanguard index fund. That said, I have a nice slug of the market beta ... The reduction of downside risk could go a very long way to dramatically reducing sequence of returns risk, which is what has ... passive just a touch One of the key sellling points for passives was the zero churn.. Whether factor investing is a useful ...
We find index and enhanced funds earn returns and exhibit risk commensurate with underlying indices. Relative to index funds, ... The Index Tracking Strategies of Passive and Enhanced Index Equity Funds UNSW School of Banking and Finance Working Paper No. ... Keywords: Passive funds, Enhanced index funds, Tracking Error, Index funds, Portfolio configuration, Index revisions, Trading ... Frino, Alex and Oetomo, Teddy and Gallagher, David R., The Index Tracking Strategies of Passive and Enhanced Index Equity Funds ...
The pooled unadjusted relative risk from these studies is 1.4.45 A recent case-controlled study found differences in nicotine ... Risk factors for acute wheezing in infants and children: viruses, passive smoke, and IgE antibodies to inhalant allergies. ... Halken S, Host A, Nilsson L, Taudorf E. Passive smoking as a risk factor for development of obstructive respiratory disease and ... Adults are at risk of myocardial infarction,172 whereas children are at risk for a variety of respiratory tract conditions and ...
Among never smokers, NHL risk increased with increasing lifetime exposure to passive smoking (relative risk = 1.51 (95% CI: ... 5 years of passive smoking; P for trend = 0.03), particularly for follicular lymphoma (relative risk = 2.89 (95% CI: 1.23, 6.80 ... Height was positively associated with risk of all B-cell NHLs (for >1.70 vs. 1.61-1.65 m, relative risk = 1.50, 95% confidence ... Cases and their relatives completed structured questionnaires assessing breast cancer risk factors and family history of cancer ...
Relative risk of redness and swelling reported was 0.24 (95% CI. 0.13-0.42) compared to a clinical trial, while it was 71.0 (44 ... compared to passive surveillance. Active surveillance by parental reports is a useful complement to passive surveillance of ... Relative risk of redness and swelling reported was 0.24 (95% CI. 0.13-0.42) compared to a clinical trial, while it was 71.0 (44 ... Relative risk of redness and swelling reported was 0.24 (95% CI. 0.13-0.42) compared to a clinical trial, while it was 71.0 (44 ...
The relative risk of lung cancer associated with active smoking is about 17, yet only about 1.3 for passive smoking. Active ... smoking around a child merely increases the risk of adverse health consequences. And in almost all cases, that increased risk ... There is an increased risk of ear infections and lower respiratory tract infections. But to compare that to child abuse?. It ... And all of this is simply because smoking presents an increased risk of surgical complications?. How can you ethically, as a ...
You will first learn about absolute and relative performance, risk-adjusted returns and how to decompose investment performance ... The focus will then shift to the two main categories of investment vehicles, active and passive funds, and what they entail in ... this region may not become very active when youre experiencing risk. But when youre really risk averse, this region may be a ... It processes financial returns and risk in the same way as other returns in risk and ...
The relative risk for these variables was estimated with a multiple regression model (logit). The annual average of 6200 ... Exposure to NO2 was measured with passive samplers (Palmes tubes) in 310 school children aged 5-14 years. The children wore ... 2000) Personal exposure of children to nitrogen dioxide relative to concentrations in outdoor air. Occup Environ Med 57:472-476 ... On the other hand, the role of risk factors present at home, and the differences between children are not clear. We think that ...
Over time, this foreign control permeated the culture, and the resulting passive behavior seems to have been ingrained in ... North American, European, and South African companies had relative monopolies in many industries, most noticeably mining. ... Zambia Journal: No Risk, No Reward. Guest blogger Brian McBrearity will be reporting from time to time about his experiences ... The aversion to risk appears to stem from colonial times, when the British controlled Zambia, then Northern Rhodesia. A map of ...
... and less passive in decision making (relative risk 0.6, 0.5 to 0.8). There is some evidence that when patients have made well ... relative risk 0.8, 0.6 to 0.9).6 These effects seem to be strengthened when patients are given decision coaching (a brief ...
The pooled relative risk (RR) for experiencing adverse events with exercise, or with sham/passive/control interventions ... The relative risk of adverse events appears greater with drug therapy but less with usual care. ... The risk of major adverse events with manual therapy is low, but around half manual therapy patients may experience minor to ... To explore the incidence and risk of adverse events with manual therapies. ...
Yet, if passive smoking increases the risk from one in 1,000 to one in 500 this can be presented as increasing the risk by 100 ... Risk reduction means almost nothing without knowing if this is relative or absolute. Equally, odds ratios are almost impossible ... Terms like risk reduction, number needed to treat (NNT), odds ratios, lives saved, and disease prevention are used with ... For example, the risk of lung cancer for a non-smoker is extremely small. ...
... matter rather than cotinine to calculate the relative exposure of passive and active smokers would reduce the excess risk ... Hackshaw et al also estimate an excess risk of 19% from passive smoking, by extrapolating from the risk in current smokers, and ... it uses a new adjustment technique that takes no account of the varying relative risks from smoking in the 37 studies. Despite ... Passive smoking and lung cancer BMJ 1998; 317 :346 doi:10.1136/bmj.317.7154.346 ...
... time series analysis and relative risk mapping. Tests results for Escherichia coli and coliforms from private and small public ... Total coliform and Escherichia coli contamination in rural well water: analysis for passive .... Jul. 13, 2017. With increasing ...
... time series analysis and relative risk mapping. Tests results for Escherichia coli and coliforms from private and small public ... Total coliform and Escherichia coli contamination in rural well water: analysis for passive .... Jul. 13, 2017. With increasing ... of drinking water quality for appraisal to public health officials and take corrective measures regarding health risk when ...
  • An initial report on active and passive smoking risks for breast cancer in the CTS found significantly higher risks for subsequently developing breast cancer among women who were current smokers at the time they completed a baseline questionnaire ( 4 ). (
  • EDITOR-Hackshaw et al estimate a 26% excess risk of lung cancer (95% confidence interval 7% to 47%) in non-smokers who live with a smoker. (
  • Hackshaw et al also estimate an excess risk of 19% from passive smoking, by extrapolating from the risk in current smokers, and this may also be too high. (
  • Non-smokers who live with and around smokers stand a 30% higher risk of acquiring heart diseases. (
  • An earlier study had also warned that healthy non-smokers who are exposed to second-hand tobacco smoke are at the increased risk of developing coronary atherosclerosis. (
  • Instead, the EPA's analysis was based on 11 U.S. studies that examined the risks of contracting lung cancer to nonsmoking spouses married to smokers, a different matter altogether. (
  • [10] [11] In the United States passive smoke is estimated to cause more than 7,000 deaths from lung cancer a year among non-smokers. (
  • Epidemiologic evidence, suggesting that passive smoking at home is related to heart disease in never smokers, has been accumulating. (
  • Nine epidemiological studies have evaluated the relative risk (RR) for heart disease in never smokers living with current or former smokers relative to never smokers living with nonsmokers. (
  • Exposure to two or more smokers in the house quadrupled the risk. (
  • Methods Healthy nonsmokers (age SEM 30.3 ± 1.3 years, n = 10) were exposed to 30 min of SHS yielding cotinine levels commonly observed in passive smokers and to smokefree air on 2 separate days. (
  • The data for passive smokers came from around 150,000 people. (
  • Recent meta-analyses of lung cancer risk associated with ETS at work estimated a 19% and 39% increase in lung cancer risk for never-smokers exposed regularly to second-hand smoke in the workplace. (
  • the summary lung cancer risk for women never-smokers in the highest category of combined residential and occupational lifetime ETS exposure was estimated at 1.78 (95% Confidence Interval (CI): 1.49-2.12), and for those women in the highest category of occupational exposures the summary risk was 2.25 (95% CI: 1.81- 2.79). (
  • PAF is derived mathematically by combining the prevalence of the risk factor (Pc-current smokers and Pf-ex-smokers) in the target population with a measure of association between the risk factor and burden (Rc-current smokers, Rf-ex-smokers), obtained from epidemiological studies. (
  • Consistent with previous international studies of smoking related mortality, we used the American Cancer Society Cancer Prevention Study II (CPS-II) relative risk estimates for smoking related diseases (Table 1).14 The CPS-II is an ongoing prospective study of 1,185,106 residents in the US, aged 30 years or over, for those who, in 1982, had never smoked regularly, and for those who were then current cigarette smokers. (
  • 4. Evidence suggests that changes in the composition and design of the cigarette itself may have had some impact on the relative risk of lung cancer, as well as on the shift in the types of lung cancer occurring in the contemporary cohorts of smokers. (
  • The purpose of this study was to investigate the association between secondhand smoke and the risk of developing a first event of acute coronary syndromes (ACS), i.e. acute myocardial infarction or unstable angina, among non-smokers, in relation to the presence of several other cardiovascular risk factors. (
  • The purpose of this study is to investigate the association between passive smoking and the risk of developing non-fatal acute coronary syndromes, among non-smokers, after taking into account the presence of several cardiovascular risk factors. (
  • In other words, the results are - as The Sunday Telegraph stated - consistent with there being no real cancer risk for non-smokers, and even with there being a reduced risk. (
  • A report published in the British Medical Journal last October was hailed by the anti-tobacco lobby as definitive proof when it claimed that non-smokers living with smokers had a 25 per cent risk of developing lung cancer. (
  • It confirms what we and many other scientists have long believed, that while smoking in public may be annoying to some non-smokers, the science does not show that being around a smoker is a lung-cancer risk. (
  • Conclusion: These results suggest that cumulative exposures to high levels of sidestream smoke may increase breast cancer risk among postmenopausal women who themselves have never smoked tobacco products. (
  • No such risks were noted for passive smoke exposures, which were limited to information about household sources of exposure in that same baseline questionnaire. (
  • Because of the high prevalence of lifetime nonsmokers in the cohort (66%), and because of the current interest in passive smoking, more detailed questions on source, setting, timing, and dose of passive smoking exposures were included in the second (Wave II) survey mailed in Fall, 1997. (
  • The major weakness in the studies was the indirect methods used for assessing passive smoking exposure and the lack of data on environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) exposures outside the home. (
  • Firms that had been performingwell suddenly announced large losses due to credit exposures that turned sour, interest rate positions taken,or derivative exposures that may or may not have been assumed to hedge balance sheet risk. (
  • Conversely, we seek to control and limit risk factor exposures that can bubble up across stock portfolios and create risk redundancies if left unchecked. (
  • Therefore, we aim to measure, limit and diversify the amount of active risk return variation our portfolios experience directly from factor exposures. (
  • Furthermore, a greater percentage of our excess return should be driven by the idiosyncratic risks our managers bring to the portfolio, where we believe they possess explainable "edge" in their approach and thus also a greater chance of repeatable success, rather than from factor exposures whose predictability of returns are more capricious. (
  • Breathing moderate to high levels of ambient air pollution and secondhand smoke, with estimated exposures at far less than smoking one cigarette a day, still increased risk of CVD death by approximately 20 percent to 30 percent compared to those without exposure. (
  • The large ACS CPS-II data set allowed researchers to pinpoint excess risk of cardiovascular death associated with relatively small increments of cigarette smoking while controlling for other risk factors such as education, marital status, body mass, alcohol consumption, occupational exposures and diet. (
  • Even passive exposures to ambient air pollution and secondhand smoke contribute to significant increases in cardiovascular mortality. (
  • In addition, given the potential risks and consequent global disease burden, epidemiologic studies are urgently needed to quantify the cardiovascular risks of particulate matter exposures from indoor biomass burning in developing countries, which lie in the dose gap of current evidence. (
  • Moreover, the effects of relatively light exposures, the duration of the exposure, and the interaction between passive smoking with other risk factors related to cardiovascular disease, have rarely been investigated in the past. (
  • This mechanism would not explain why parental smoking increases the risk and severity of respiratory syncytial virus bronchiolitis in infants. (
  • 12 Household smoking increases the frequency of attacks, 27 the number of emergency department visits, 28 and the risk of intubation. (
  • Yet, if passive smoking increases the risk from one in 1,000 to one in 500 this can be presented as increasing the risk by 100 per cent. (
  • The California Environmental Protection Agency concluded in 2005 that passive smoking increases the risk of breast cancer in younger, primarily premenopausal women by 70% [8] and the US Surgeon General has concluded that the evidence is "suggestive," but still insufficient to assert such a causal relationship. (
  • Studies have consistently shown that a delay in starting appropriate and adequately dosed antibiotic therapy increases the mortality risk. (
  • Conclusions The presence of short BFlh fascicles and low levels of eccentric knee flexor strength in elite soccer players increases the risk of future HSI. (
  • Secondhand smoke (SHS) increases the risk of vascular disease and is a major public health concern, but the mechanism(s) of action are not fully understood. (
  • According to the literature, cigarette mainstream smoke (MS) essentially increases the risk of two major groups of life threatening diseases: Cancer and Cardiovascular diseases. (
  • Drinking alcohol increases breast cancer risk: every extra unit per day increases the risk by 12 per cent (and a large glass of wine is about three units). (
  • Now, if they were asked if smoking increases the risk of getting lung cancer, then their answer based upon current evidence should have be "yes. (
  • If they would say that smoking increases the incidence of lung cancer or that smoking is a risk factor in the development of lung cancer, then I would agree. (
  • Because of the large number of individuals who have been regularly exposed, even small increases in individual risk associated with ETS exposure can impact a substantial number of Canadians. (
  • Moreover, the previous risk increases progressively from 15% to 256% if one or more of the classical cardiovascular risk factors (i.e. hypertension, hypercholesterolemia, diabetes mellitus, sedentary life and family history of premature coronary heart disease) are present. (
  • Consequently, this study supports the hypothesis that even occasional secondhand smoke increases the risk of developing acute coronary syndromes, especially when other risk factors are present. (
  • New Delhi: Indirect inhalation of cigarette smoke has its own health risks and new statistics have revealed a disturbing fact, saying that about 6 million people die of tobacco use or exposure to secondhand smoke. (
  • Breathing secondhand smoke can have immediate adverse effects on your blood and blood vessels, increasing the risk of having a heart attack. (
  • Speaking about this, Dr TS Kler, Chairman, Pushpawati Singhania Heart Institute, New Delhi said, "Passive smoking or exposure to secondhand smoke is a 'hidden' risk factor for heart disease and needs more awareness and attention. (
  • People who already have heart disease or are at a high risk of suffering adverse effects from breathing secondhand smoke should take special precautions to avoid exposure even for a brief period. (
  • Exposure to secondhand smoke may increase the risk of cognitive impairment and dementia in adults 50 and over. (
  • The objective of this study was to examine the evidence for an association between active smoking (AS) or passive exposure to secondhand smoke and allergic conditions. (
  • While reading David Nutt's book on the harms caused by legal and illegal drugs and how to minimise them ( Drugs without the hot air ), I came across a claim which reminded me of some previous questions on passive smoking here (for example this question Is secondhand smoke dangerous? ). (
  • People who had never smoked, but were exposed to secondhand smoke, were at a 22% higher risk of developing type 2 diabetes than people who had never smoked, but had been exposed to secondhand smoke. (
  • Generally, the UK media reported the story accurately, with most headlines focusing on the 22% risk increase attributed to secondhand smoke exposure - otherwise known as passive smoking. (
  • Researchers plotted relative risks of cardiovascular death from increments of cigarette smoking along with comparison estimates for secondhand smoke and air pollution over estimated inhaled doses of fine particulate matter. (
  • Second, the risk assessment includes not only an inhalation unit risk (IUR) for the cancer endpoints, but also a reference concentration (RfC) for nonmalignant disease. (
  • Passive smoking is the inhalation of smoke, called second-hand smoke ( SHS ), or environmental tobacco smoke ( ETS ), by persons other than the intended "active" smoker. (
  • Preliminary data on exposure to passive inhalation of tobacco smoke, available for a subset of cases and controls, showed no differences except for more frequent exposure among male cases than controls to sidestream tobacco smoke at work. (
  • A household risk factor survey administered to a sub- tiple respiratory viruses, including respiratory syncytial set (61%) of participants identifi ed the following risk factors: virus, parainfl uenza viruses, adenovirus, and rhinovirus, young age, asthma, and increasing person density in the can cause similar signs and symptoms ( 14 ). (
  • To study infl uenza in Nicaragua, a developing country in This scarcity of data can be attributed to limited laboratory Central America, we conducted a cohort study to evaluate resources and capabilities, as well as to the lower priority the prevalence and seasonal pattern of ILI and its associ- given to infl uenza compared with other infectious diseases ated risk factors among children. (
  • Reduce risk factors for cardiovascular to sarcoidosis involving the heart. (
  • Indicator data on active and passive smoking as well as extensive information on breast cancer risk factors were collected on the baseline survey. (
  • I think the factors (at least size, value, momentum, and market) are based on very intuitive forward looking risk and/or behavioral based explanations. (
  • The etiologic role of medical history, lifestyle, family history, and occupational risk factors in sporadic Burkitt lymphoma (BL) is unknown, but epidemiologic and clinical evidence suggests that risk factors may vary by age. (
  • Our aim was to identify etiologic risk factors for PTCL overall, and for specific PTCL subtypes, by analyzing data from 15 epidemiologic studies participating in the InterLymph Consortium. (
  • The estimation of the IUR for cancer is based on a subcohort of Libby miners, discarding the vast majority of lung cancers and mesotheliomas in the entire cohort and ignoring important time-related factors in exposure and risk, including effect modification by age. (
  • On the other hand, the role of risk factors present at home, and the differences between children are not clear. (
  • The risk of progression from exposure to the tuberculosis bacilli to the development of active disease is a two-stage process governed by both exogenous and endogenous risk factors. (
  • Along with well-established risk factors (such as human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), malnutrition, and young age), emerging variables such as diabetes, indoor air pollution, alcohol, use of immunosuppressive drugs, and tobacco smoke play a significant role at both the individual and population level. (
  • The risk of progression to infection and disease is two different aspects and proper understanding of these factors is essential for planning TB control strategies [ 10 ]. (
  • The risk of infection following TB exposure is primarily governed by exogenous factors and is determined by an intrinsic combination of the infectiousness of the source case, proximity to contact and social and behavioural risk factors including smoking, alcohol, and indoor air pollution. (
  • This paper aims to summarize the risk factors which contribute to TB infection and disease at both individual and population level. (
  • The search strategy for this paper included searching PubMed, Medline, and EMBASE databases for known risk factors. (
  • Only English language papers were included in the search, and the searches were limited to studies of risk factors influencing TB infection and disease. (
  • Primarily to identify factors which have the biggest impact on the frequency of passive transportation e.g. seasonal climatic conditions, socioeconomic factors or the design of vehicles? (
  • RRs ranging from controlled for confounding by cardiovascular risk factors such as cholesterol, blood pressure, and obesity showed RRs ranging from 1.59 to 2.01. (
  • The goal of a thorough risk assessment is to learn about the circumstances of an individual person with regard to suicide, including warning signs, risk factors, and protective factors. (
  • Acute risk might be raised because of recent changes in the person's circumstances or mental state, while chronic risk is determined by a diagnosis of a mental illness, and social and demographic factors. (
  • Let's consider value and growth factors and explore the ramifications of an investor being over / under exposed to one or the other as an active risk source over the last 12 months and over time more generally. (
  • After adjusting for age and other factors, the relative risk of lymphoma for cats exposed to any household environmental tobacco smoke was roughly two-and-a-half times that of cats not exposed. (
  • The patient's medical history should include an assessment for risk factors related to multidrug-resistant (MDR) pathogens. (
  • 4 What is known is that a number of non-modifiable risk factors, including increasing age and injury history, have been shown to increase the risk of a future HSI in elite soccer. (
  • 5-7 Recently greater attention has been directed to modifiable risk factors that can be altered via a range of interventions. (
  • 8-10 These risk factors include isokinetically derived eccentric knee flexor strength 10 and muscle imbalances (between-limb and hamstring:quadriceps ratios). (
  • It also having took account of many known contributory risk factors for diabetes, including diet and physical activity. (
  • It is only one of many risk factors for lung cancer. (
  • A lot of DNOAP potential relative risk factors were evaluated and reported in the literature, including age, gender, weight, duration and type of diabetes, bone mineral density, peripheral neuropathy and arterial disease, trauma history, and some others. (
  • And, the relationship between DNOAP and those potential relative risk factors are still need to further clarify. (
  • In the current study, we give comprehensive review of the current updates of pathogenesis and those potential relative risk factors of DNOAP. (
  • In this highland area, areas of high malaria risk are consistent in epidemic and non-epidemic years and are associated with specific ecological risk factors. (
  • Ongoing interventions in areas of ecological risk factors could be a cost-effective method of significantly reducing malaria incidence and blunting or preventing epidemics, even in the absence of malaria early warning systems. (
  • Although cigarette smoking is one of the most important modifiable risk factors for coronary heart disease, the effects of passive smoking on health have not been fully recognized by many existing public health policies [ 1 ]. (
  • The CARDIO2000 is a multicentre case-control study that investigates the association between several demographic, nutritional, lifestyle, biochemical and clinical risk factors with the risk of developing non-fatal acute coronary syndromes. (
  • An IARC-coordinated International collaborative case-control study was aimed at investigating the relationship between exposure to ETS and to other environmental and occupational risk factors and the risk of lung cancer in subjects who have never smoked tobacco. (
  • Additional analyses are continuing on risk factors other than ETS. (
  • The potential cost-effectiveness and feasibility of dietary interventions aimed at reducing hypertension risk are of considerable interest and significance in public health. (
  • There is some evidence that when patients have made well informed decisions, they also adhere better to treatment regimens 11 and that when informed patients face discretionary surgery, they make more conservative decisions, often deferring or declining interventions (relative risk 0.8, 0.6 to 0.9). (
  • The pooled relative risk (RR) for experiencing adverse events with exercise, or with sham/passive/control interventions compared to manual therapy was similar, but for drug therapies greater (RR 0.05, CI 95% 0.01-0.20) and less with usual care (RR 1.91, CI 95% 1.39-2.64). (
  • [1] Risk for suicide is re-evaluated throughout the course of care to assess the patient's response to personal situational changes and clinical interventions. (
  • Cumulating evidence, most recently reviewed by a panel on tobacco smoke and breast cancer risk commissioned by the Ontario Tobacco Research Unit and the Public Health Agency of Canada ( 3 ), has implicated active smoking as a contributor to women's risk of breast cancer. (
  • The evidence for a relationship between passive smoking and breast cancer, however, remains more tenuous. (
  • The evidence is consistent with the notion that passive owners act as monitors, but relinquish their monitoring role to the Big 4 auditing firms. (
  • The latest iteration of the Cochrane systematic review includes 55 trials 6 and provides evidence that patients who have used these tools are better informed (mean difference 15.2/100 95% confidence interval 11.7 to 18.7) and less passive in decision making (relative risk 0.6, 0.5 to 0.8). (
  • Firstly, it is based on the comparatively low misclassification rates seen in American and British populationsand ignores evidence of far higher rates in Asian women (table) 2 - 4 Secondly, it uses a new adjustment technique that takes no account of the varying relative risks from smoking in the 37 studies. (
  • Such effects are inferred indirectly from cotinine data, and the direct evidence that exposure to smoke in the workplace, in social situation, and during childhood is not associated with risk of lung cancer is ignored. (
  • In addition I wonder what is the evidence of the relative effectiveness of risk reduction techniques such as the spraying of planes and trains? (
  • A 2012 meta-analysis found no evidence that passive smoking was associated with an increased risk of pancreatic cancer. (
  • [2] Accurate and defensible risk assessment requires a clinician to integrate a clinical judgment with the latest evidence-based practice, [3] although accurate prediction of low base rate events, such as suicide, is inherently difficult and prone to false positives . (
  • Melsen et al found evidence for mortality attributable to VAP among other patient subgroups, but this risk could not be quantified because of heterogeneity in study results. (
  • Evidence of these bonds eroding portfolio value is scant, allowing active investors to create less benchmark dependent portfolios, without incrementally adding significant credit risk. (
  • However, if we consider the range of RBEs for neutron carcinogenesis that are consistent with the limited experimental and clinical evidence,[4-7] then it is very possible that neutron-induced second cancer risks will be significant for contemporary proton radiotherapy. (
  • 7 ][Level of evidence: 3iiiA] More common conditions with an increased risk include: a personal history of colorectal cancer or adenomas, first degree family history of colorectal cancer or adenomas, and a personal history of ovarian, endometrial, or breast cancer. (
  • Yet the scientists have found that there was no statistical evidence that passive smoking caused lung cancer. (
  • A spokesman for Action on Smoking and Health said the findings "seem rather surprising given the evidence from other major reviews on the subject which have shown a clear association between passive smoking and a number of diseases. (
  • Background: Although recent reviews have suggested active smoking to be a risk factor for breast cancer, the association with passive smoke exposure remains controversial. (
  • In this course, you will learn about the famous dichotomy between active and passive investing, how to appropriately measure and analyze investment performance and what the future trends in the investment management industry are. (
  • The focus will then shift to the two main categories of investment vehicles, active and passive funds, and what they entail in terms of expected performance. (
  • Can Active Aerobic Exercise Reduce the Risk of Cardiovascular Disease in Prehypertensive Elderly Women by Improving HDL Cholesterol and Inflammatory Markers? (
  • This study aims to verify the efficacy of exercise programs designed to prevent and treat hypertension-induced cardiovascular disease (CVD) by analyzing the effects of a 6-month active aerobic exercise program, administered to prehypertensive elderly women, on reducing the risk of developing CVD by enhancing their physical fitness level and improving the detailed markers of high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) and inflammatory markers. (
  • In conclusion, the 6-month active aerobic exercise program of moderate intensity administered to prehypertensive elderly women (≥65 years) had the effect of reducing the 10-year CVD risk through a substantial reduction in SBP, overall physical fitness improvement, increase in HDL-C, decrease in SAA concentration, and substantial decrease in inflammatory biomarkers. (
  • Active surveillance by parental reports is a useful complement to passive surveillance of childhood immunisations to generate hypotheses for evaluation. (
  • Overall, about 10-15% of those infected go on to develop active disease at some stage later in life [ 2 ], but the risk of progression is much higher at about 10% per year [ 8 , 9 ] in HIV-positive and other immunocompromized individuals. (
  • Epidemiological studies have shown that both active and passive cigarette smoking increase the risk of atherosclerosis. (
  • In active portfolio management, the aim is to maximize the relative return (often subject to a risk constraint). (
  • The items could be grouped into three categories: "Active Suicidal Desire, Preparation, and Passive Suicidal Desire. (
  • Among children and adolescents, both active and passive exposure to SHS were associated with a modest increased risk for allergic diseases, and passive smoking was associated with an increased risk for food allergy. (
  • At Commonfund, we aim to build multi-manager, active risk equity portfolios with a clear objective of consistent outperformance versus passive policy benchmarks. (
  • Our approach is to take intentional and measured "risk away from the benchmark" by allocating to a variety of managers who employ active risk strategies that are uncorrelated to one another. (
  • Well, we think it's a big deal because we prefer some risk types to others and this factor lens gives us the ability to differentiate and, thus, build "intentional" active risk equity portfolios. (
  • The intended outcome of allocating risk in such a measured and controlled manner is that the volatility of our active return versus the benchmark should be fairly tight and the sources of that volatility will be readily identifiable. (
  • A subtle trap occurs in the transition from the cautious, nondirectional, noncausal, passive language that scientists use in reporting the results of observational studies to the active language favored in mass media. (
  • For example, a description of an association (e.g., associated with reduced risk) can become, via a change to the active voice (reduces risk), an unwarranted description of cause and effect. (
  • Is active management's decade-long losing streak to passive management due to high fees, a lack of manager skill, or something else? (
  • Morningstar currently classifies mutual funds as either active or passive and provides summary return data for the average actively managed mutual fund by asset class. (
  • Many studies have suggested links between different smoking behaviours - active smoking, passive smoking, and being an ex-smoker - with a higher risk of developing type 2 diabetes. (
  • The second trend is the shift towards passive mandates, a shift that makes the sterling market increasingly attractive for active investors. (
  • Being a non-smoker , cutting down on alcohol , keeping a healthy weight , being active , eating a healthy balanced diet and enjoying the sun safely can all reduce the risk of developing cancer. (
  • FDA relies on active and passive methods for postmarket surveillance and can require specific studies and risk evaluation and mitigation strategies for certain products, including those with abuse liability. (
  • Given that active and passive surveillance approaches have different strengths and weaknesses, multiple approaches may be necessary to evaluate population-level effects. (
  • Today, most practitioners recognize the importance of an interactive book, which encourages active as opposed to passive learning. (
  • However, the relationship between passive smoking and the development of acute coronary syndromes, especially in countries with high prevalence of active smoking, is not well studied. (
  • Among the materials investigated were those of known health risk, such as coke oven and roofing tar emissions and cigarette smoke condensates, and those of unknown hazard, such as exhaust from diesel-and gasoline-powered vehicles. (
  • Yes, a US white male (USWM) cigarette smoker has an 8% lifetime chance of dying from lung cancer but the USWM nonsmoker also has a 1% chance of dying from lung cancer (see Appendix A). In fact, the data used is biased in the way that it was collected and the actual risk for a smoker is probably less. (
  • I personally would not smoke cigarettes and take that risk, nor recommend cigarette smoking to others, but the numbers were less than I had been led to believe. (
  • The nonlinear exposure-response relationship that is revealed-much steeper at lower than at higher doses-explains the seemingly inconsistent risks observed from ambient air pollution and cigarette smoking but also raises important questions about the relative benefits of control at different points along the curve. (
  • Given the high prevalence of cigarette smoking, the public health consequences of passive smoking with regard to coronary heart disease are important. (
  • OBJECTIVE -Birth weight is a risk factor for both diabetes and mortality. (
  • Diabetes is a risk factor for mortality. (
  • CONCLUSIONS -The excess mortality observed for diabetes appears disproportionately concentrated among abnormal-birth-weight individuals, thus identifying a subset of at-risk diabetic individuals and reinforcing the importance of NBW deliveries. (
  • Several studies have reported an association between diabetes and abnormal birth weight ( 1 - 11 ), and abnormal birth weight has been implicated as a risk factor for mortality in studies of the general population ( 12 - 15 ). (
  • If appropriate empiric antibiotics are selected, the subsequent adjustment of antibiotics does not improve the patient's mortality risk. (
  • This authority will provide a structured process for manufacturers to introduce products that may have "modified-risk" for morbidity or mortality relative to traditional tobacco products, with postmarketing surveillance and studies a condition of marketing. (
  • We applied population-attributable fraction (PAF) methods that combine summary measures of prevalence, relative risk and mortality.13 Population-attributable fraction estimates the proportion of disease that can be attributed to a particular risk factor. (
  • The use of relative risk estimates from international studies has previously been used to describe the burden of smoking-related disease in New Zealand.15-17 In many ways the CPS-II estimates have unofficially taken the role of being the "gold standard" for the effect measure in estimating smoking attributable mortality. (
  • Because birth weight is modifiable, the risk of death associated with diabetes could be reduced in the future. (
  • The relationship between passive smoking and the risk of cardiovascular disease was reviewed and discussed. (
  • Exposure to second-hand smoke at work, home or elsewhere results in a disproportionate rise in markers that increase the risk of cardiovascular disease, University of Nottingham researchers have found. (
  • Even small amounts of smoke - such as from smoking a few cigarettes a day, inhaling someone else's tobacco smoke or breathing polluted air - increase the risk of death from cardiovascular disease (CVD), researchers report in Circulation: Journal of the American Heart Association. (
  • We view the investment universe through a risk factor lens and have the quantitative capabilities and machine learning techniques to measure the various risks existing managers bring and potential managers might bring to our portfolios. (
  • Furthermore, we seek out and build into our portfolios non-traditional risk factor premiums that do not typically occur in traditional stock picking portfolios: these also offer diversification value in addition to potentially uncorrelated excess return sources. (
  • Reducing the risk of option portfolios. (
  • Recent studies comparing women exposed to Environmental Tobacco Smoke and non-exposed women, demonstrate that women exposed while pregnant have higher risks of delivering a child with congenital abnormalities, longer lengths, smaller head circumferences, and low birth weight. (
  • Risk increased with both the duration and quantity of tobacco smoke exposure. (
  • A multicentre population-based case-control study to determine the relative risk of lung cancer in nonsmokers exposed to environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) was carried out in five metropolitan areas in the USA. (
  • Those exposed to environmental tobacco smoke from their spouse, it claimed, have a `relative risk' (RR) of lung cancer of 1.16, with a so-called 95 per cent confidence interval (more of this later) ranging from 0.93 to 1.44. (
  • The study is one of the largest ever to look at the link between passive smoking - or environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) - and lung cancer, and had been eagerly awaited by medical experts and campaigning groups. (
  • THE world's leading health organisation has withheld from publication a study which shows that not only might there be no link between passive smoking and lung cancer but that it could even have a protective effect. (
  • We read with interest a recently published study on personal exposure of asthmatic children to nitrogen dioxide (NO 2 ), relative to concentrations in outdoor air. (
  • 2000 ) Personal exposure of children to nitrogen dioxide relative to concentrations in outdoor air. (
  • Cox proportional hazards models were fit to estimate hazard ratios (HR) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CI) associated with several lifetime passive smoke exposure metrics. (
  • Acknowledging those risks, millions of Americans have quit smoking because they estimate that the possible costs exceed any possible benefits. (
  • So this paper isn't actually a direct observation of outcomes but an entirely model-based estimate that starts (as far as I can tell) with an estimate of the relative risks. (
  • Then, by sifting out the effect of all these other potential causes, the research team was able to give an estimate of the risk of lung cancer due to inhaling someone else's smoke. (
  • We aimed to estimate the relative importance of genetic transmission and direct environmental exposure in these associations on three occasions in early childhood. (
  • Guardiola C, De Marzi L, Prezado Y. Verification of a Monte Carlo dose calculation engine in proton minibeam radiotherapy in a passive scattering beamline for preclinical trials. (
  • If a patient is being evaluated because of a diagnosis of cancer in a biologic relative and is found to have genetic susceptibility to cancer, she should be offered counseling and follow-up, with referral as appropriate, to ensure delivery of care consistent with current standards. (
  • The results are consistent with their being no additional risk for a person living or working with a smoker and could be consistent with passive smoke having a protective effect against lung cancer. (
  • For example, the risk of lung cancer for a non-smoker is extremely small. (
  • But even so, the risk of a smoker getting lung cancer is much less than anyone would suspect. (
  • When we look at the data over a longer period, such as 50 years as we did here, the lifetime relative risk is only 8 (see Appendix A). That means that even using the biased data that is out there, a USWM smoker has only an 8x more risk of dying from lung cancer than a nonsmoker. (
  • U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) recently conducted a risk assessment for exposure to Libby amphibole asbestos that is precedent-setting for two reasons. (
  • First, the Agency has not previously conducted a risk assessment for a specific type of asbestos fiber. (
  • An assessment of the risk of ischemic heart disease (IHD) resulting from ETS exposure was performed. (
  • Further refinements are recommended to increase quality, outcome and cost-effectiveness of lung cancer screening: inclusion of risk models, reduction of effective radiation dose, computer-assisted volumetric measurements and assessment of comorbidities (chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and vascular calcification). (
  • Suicide risk assessment is a process of estimating the likelihood for a person to attempt or die by suicide . (
  • [5] Some experts recommend abandoning suicide risk assessment as it is so inaccurate. (
  • [6] In addition suicide risk assessment is often conflated with assessment of self-harm which has little overlap with completed suicide. (
  • Instead, it is suggested that the emotional state which has caused the suicidal thoughts , feelings or behaviour should be the focus of assessment with a view to helping the patient rather than reducing the anxiety of clinician who overestimates the risk of suicide and are fearful of litigation. (
  • Suicide risk assessment should distinguish between acute and chronic risk. (
  • See also Grosse & Khoury, 2006 for the clinical utility of genetic testing, Offit, 2008 for issues surrounding genomic disease profiling, and Pharoah, 2008 for the possible utility of genomic profiling in breast cancer risk assessment. (
  • The calculations were based on disease-specific relative risk estimates and area-specific estimates of the proportion of people exposed to second-hand smoke, by comparative risk assessment methods, with data from 192 countries during 2004. (
  • 2.08 (95% CI: 1.44- 3.01) for more complete passive exposure assessment. (
  • The FSR's assessment of financial risks is therefore presented in the context of the Bank's assessment of macroeconomic conditions, as given in its Monetary Policy Report . (
  • However at the population level impact of this risk factor could vary depending on the local prevalence of the HIV. (
  • A recent meta-analysis (systematic summary) of studies of lung cancer risk in women who had never smoked, but whose spouse smoked, estimated a relative risk (RR) of 1.24 (i.e., a 24% increase in risk compared to women whose spouses had never smoked). (
  • However, the quantitative aspects of the association between ETS exposure and lung cancer risk are not well established, nor is the interaction between exposure to ETS and exposure to other carcinogens. (
  • The relative risk (RR) of lung cancer risk was 1.16 (95% CI 0.93-1.44) for exposure to ETS from the spouse, 1.17 (95% CI 0.94-1.45) for workplace ETS exposure and 1.14 (0.88-1.47) for combined spousal and workplace exposure. (
  • There was no association between lung cancer risk and ETS exposure during childhood. (
  • In response to these limitations a BWTK has been developed for regularly monitoring of drinking water quality for appraisal to public health officials and take corrective measures regarding health risk when desired. (
  • Passive smoking has this serious hidden health risk! (
  • Exposure to the harmful chemicals in tobacco can also occur through second hand smoking or passive smoking, which is an equally serious health hazard. (
  • Specific groups such as health care workers and indigenous population are also at an increased risk of TB infection and disease. (
  • Smoking tobacco products over a long period of time may entail significant health risks. (
  • Indeed, many states (led by California and Florida) have decided over the last few years to severely restrict smoking in commercial establishments on the basis of a 1993 Environmental Protection Agency report that classified ETS as a "Group A Carcinogen," that is, as a significant risk to health. (
  • It now turns out that the influential 1993 EPA report "Respiratory Health Effects of Passive Smoking: Lung Cancer and Other Disorders" was as phony as a three-dollar bill. (
  • When the highly manipulated smaller sample finally "confessed" that passive smoking was a health risk, the EPA proudly announced it had "proven" its preconceived conclusions. (
  • The EPA chose to omit entirely from its analysis two recent U.S. ETS studies that had determined that passive smoking was NOT a statistically significant health risk. (
  • Worse for the EPA, including those studies with the "cherry-picked" 11 produces a result that shows no statistically significant health risks associated with passive smoking, even at reduced confidence levels. (
  • [1] [2] The health risks of second-hand smoke are a matter of scientific consensus . (
  • In the absence of appropriate reference materials, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency initiated comparative genotoxicity studies to determine the relative mutagenic and carcinogenic activity and, ultimately, the potential human health risk due to exposure to various complex emission products. (
  • The main accusation of the WHO and internationalpublic health against the tobacco industry is that the industry has distorted science to deflect theimpact of primary and passive smoke on human health. (
  • A health writer's first attempt at expressing results from a new observational study read, "Frequent fish consumption was associated with a 50% reduction in the relative risk of dying from a heart attack. (
  • Risk components (insurance, health and safety and security issues, personal trauma). (
  • And now when I ask the women in my heart health presentation audiences to raise their hands if they know what their blood pressure is, it's common to see at least 1/3 of the group who have absolutely no clue about this significant risk factor for heart attack. (
  • to as second-hand smoke or passive smoking, has been established as a causal risk factor for a number of health problems, principally cardiovascular, respiratory, and cancer outcomes. (
  • 1a, 2a ETS has been established as a causal risk factor for a number of health problems. (
  • When they, or experts in genetics to whom they refer, counsel on genetics, they should provide accurate information and, if needed, emotional support for patients burdened by the results or consequences of genetic diagnoses, be they related to preconception or prenatal care, cancer risks, or other implications for health. (
  • The astounding results are set to throw wide open the debate on passive smoking health risks. (
  • The Government's own Scientific Committee on Smoking and Health is also expected to report shortly - possibly in time for this Wednesday's National No Smoking day - on the hazards of passive smoking. (
  • However despite my sustained interest in passive transportation I consider that there is a lack of suitable scientific studies to determine if we underestimate or overestimate its role in SIT projects? (
  • Terms like 'risk reduction, number needed to treat (NNT), odds ratios, lives saved, and disease prevention' are used with little explanation. (
  • Risk reduction means almost nothing without knowing if this is relative or absolute. (
  • Using the 'time period gained' principle, when we look at the hypertension trials we need to strip aside probabilities, confidence intervals, odds ratios, risk reduction and lives saved and look at the actual figures. (
  • Correlation-its role in risk reduction. (
  • 10. Estimating Volatility for Profitable Trading and Risk Reduction. (
  • If abnormal birth weight is a risk factor, it could help identify high-risk diabetic individuals. (
  • Daycare enrollment is a greater risk factor for otitis media (OM) than parental smoking. (
  • Previously, study size has limited the ability to compare and contrast the risk factor profiles among these heterogeneous subtypes. (
  • passive smoking is a risk factor for lung cancer. (
  • Smoking is a potential risk factor for these conditions, but so far, results from individual studies have been conflicting. (
  • Under our microscope, we disentangle, map and tally "risk away from the benchmark" quite specifically to known risks such as: market risk (i.e., simple beta exposure), regional risk (relative country bets) factor risks (like value or growth), sector risks (like healthcare or financials) and idiosyncratic risk (security specific risk that is difficult to attribute to the aforementioned). (
  • Finally, we risk weight our allocations across managers such that no single allocation (or cross-manager redundant risk factor) should drive total portfolio excess return over any reasonable length of time. (
  • Why do we pay such close attention to factor risks? (
  • Recognizing this, 800 basis points of risk away from the benchmark resulting from a factor bet where significant edge is not apparent represents a risk we aim to limit. (
  • In addition a recent prospective cohort study in elite Australian Rules Football identified eccentric weakness during the Nordic hamstring exercise as risk factor for a future HSI. (
  • It follows that proton therapy should reduce overall second cancer risks relative to any comparable photon modality. (
  • Infection rates of I. scapularis ticks with Borrelia burgdorferi ( I IS ) also from passive surveillance program. (
  • 0.13-0.42) compared to a clinical trial, while it was 71.0 (44-114) compared to passive surveillance. (
  • O'Connor, Richard J.. "Postmarketing Surveillance for "modified-risk" Tobacco Products. (
  • TY - JOUR T1 - Postmarketing surveillance for "modified-risk" tobacco products. (
  • Methods: Detailed lifetime information on passive smoke exposure by setting (home, work, or social) and by age of exposure was collected in 1997 from 57,523 women who were lifetime nonsmokers and had no history of breast cancer. (
  • Results: For all breast cancer, measures of higher lifetime passive smoking intensity and duration were associated with nonstatistically significant HRs of 1.11 to 1.14. (
  • We also find that higher passive ownership relative to total fund ownership yields higher risk-adjusted returns among firms with high M-scores. (
  • Using relative risk mapping we were able to identify areas of higher risk for bacterial contamination of groundwater in the province not previously identified. (
  • Today, Cancer Research UK scientists have published research showing that taller people seem to be have a higher risk of cancer. (
  • This study is the latest in a long line of studies that have linked being taller to a higher risk of cancer, including testicular and ovarian cancer. (
  • Although it seems that height and cancer risk are fairly clearly linked, with a 16 per cent higher relative risk for every extra 10cm (4 inches) of height, researchers are stumped about the reasons why this might be happening. (
  • Our genetic make-up also affects our adult height, and one recent study by Cancer Research UK scientists, looking into certain genetic changes in prostate cancer risk, found that one particular change was associated with being taller, and also linked to a higher risk of prostate cancer. (
  • In this study, the researchers found that every extra 10cm (or 4 inches) of height was associated with a 17 per cent higher risk of the disease. (
  • Comparing that to the effect of weight , the risk for women with the highest BMIs is 40 per cent higher than for the slimmest women. (
  • Women with no children have a 43 per cent higher risk of this disease than those who have had children. (
  • risk for falls secondary to capillary endothelial damage or residuals of brain death is cardiogenic shock are at higher glucose concentrations than does a 170-kev beta () error, is the mostmon dysrhythmia occurring in the first step toward the individual to be approximately 17 percent of women. (
  • 2. The relative risk for dying from _____ among women 35 years of age and older is now higher than for men. (
  • A statistically significant dose response was detected when analysis was restricted to women with moderate to high levels of passive smoke exposure. (
  • This study provides the foundation to explore these risk relationships in a more substantive way because we queried respondents in a second questionnaire to obtain a full characterization of passive smoke exposure across time periods, ages of exposure, and settings (home, workplace, and social) to assess temporal, situational, and lifetime measures of exposure. (
  • Judge Osteen determined that the EPA had "cherry picked" its data and had grossly manipulated "scientific procedure and scientific norms" in order to rationalize the agency's own preconceived conclusion that passive smoking caused 3,000 lung cancer deaths a year. (
  • On the face of it, the conclusion is clear: the study had found a 16 per cent greater risk of cancer among those living with a smoking spouse. (
  • Conclusion There is a set of intrinsic functional and structural ankle deficits associated with significantly increased risk of ankle injury. (
  • These findings can inform clinical practice, risk communication, and medical countermeasure allocation. (
  • The commercial bankinganalysis covered a number of North American super-regionals and quasi-money centerinstitutions as well as several firms outside the U.S. The information obtained covered boththe philosophy and practice of financial risk management. (
  • However, there are, largely unsubstantiated, concerns that long periods overseas can result in elements of skills wastage, absorption within cultures of bad practice or desensitisation to risk. (
  • they have emerged from sustained research and practice on risks and hazards, climate impacts, and resilience ( 14 ). (
  • Recently, the Futures and Options Association has recommended that directors of major banks become actively involved in policies of risk management, rather than to delegate them, which is the current practice of many banks. (
  • To reduce the risk for severe illness and death from COVID-19, pregnant women should be counseled about the importance of seeking prompt medical care if they have symptoms and measures to prevent SARS-CoV-2 infection should be strongly emphasized for pregnant women and their families during all medical encounters, including prenatal care visits. (
  • 19 , 20 A meta-analysis concluded that ETS was associated with an approximate doubling of the risk of lower respiratory tract infection in children, with the risk declining after the age of 2. (
  • Although the absolute risks for severe outcomes for women were low, pregnant women were at increased risk for severe COVID-19-associated illness. (
  • In economic decision making, outcomes are described in terms of risk (uncertain outcomes with certain probabilities) and ambiguity (uncertain outcomes with uncertain probabilities). (
  • In a functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) experiment, we contrasted ambiguity, defined as a lack of information about outcome probabilities, to risk, where outcome probabilities are known, or ignorance, where outcomes are completely unknown and unknowable. (
  • Where multiple studies reported comparable outcomes, meta-analysis was conducted using a random-effects model to produce relative risks (RRs) or risk ratios and 95% confidence intervals (CIs). (
  • 6 months old with influenza are at risk for adverse outcomes. (
  • Pooled data on 17,347 patients showed that among trauma patients, the estimated relative risk was 1.09 (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.87-1.37), and among patients with acute respiratory distress syndrome, the relative risk was 0.86 (95% CI, 0.72-1.04). (
  • 95% CI 1.9 to 8.7) significantly increased the risk of a HSI. (
  • In this issue of ONCOLOGY, Hoppe et al argue that early-stage Hodgkin lymphoma (HL) is a disease that can benefit significantly from proton therapy, relative to current state-of-the-art photon-based treatments. (
  • If possible, focus only on the "delta" impact on biological risk & security due to synthetic biology, not the entire biological security and risk landscape. (
  • 4] Neutrons are well known to be highly carcinogenic,[4-7] and the relative biological effectiveness (RBE) for low-dose neutron carcinogenesis is high compared with photons. (
  • Clinical proton beam therapy has been based on the use of a generic relative biological effectiveness (RBE) of 1.0 or 1. (
  • McNamara A, Willers H, Paganetti H. Modelling variable proton relative biological effectiveness for treatment planning. (
  • Marteinsdottir M, Paganetti H. Applying a variable relative biological effectiveness (RBE) might affect the analysis of clinical trials comparing photon and proton therapy for prostate cancer. (
  • The overall risk to the financial system is broadly unchanged since November 2017. (
  • Here, we will start by talking about absolute versus relative performance and mandates. (
  • And the bad news for those hailing the WHO results as proof-positive of a cancer link with passive smoking is that the study's own confidence interval of 0.93 to 1.44 includes a relative risk of 1 - that is, no extra risk. (
  • And tall people, just as much as short, can benefit from living healthily - not just by lowering their risk of cancer, but of lots of other diseases too. (
  • This is far from likely if the recognized existence of at-risk groups and the inequitable occurrence of chronic diseases such as cancer are taken into account. (
  • When these sources were considered jointly, an increasing risk of lung cancer with increasing duration of exposure was observed. (
  • Studies of each of these problems suggest independent effects of both pre- and postnatal exposure for each, with the respiratory risk associated with parental smoking seeming to be greatest during fetal development and the first several years of life. (
  • In smoking households, children are at greater risk of hospitalization for respiratory illness. (
  • Those that do lack the confidence to make decisions with conviction, lack the willingness to accept the risk that comes with those decisions. (
  • We included cohort, case-control, and cross-sectional studies reporting odds ratio (OR) or relative risk (RR) estimates and confidence intervals of smoking and allergic conditions, first among the general population and then among children. (
  • Among women, cases were more likely than controls to have worked in a textile-related job (relative risk = 3.10, 95% confidence interval 1.11-8.64), but the significance of this finding is not clear. (
  • The WHO last week accused The Sunday Telegraph of concentrating on the study's confidence intervals while ignoring the study's 'headline' relative risk figure of 1.16. (
  • Cyber attacks and other operational-risk incidents could seriously disrupt the financial system if they propagated widely or undermined confidence. (
  • For instance, we value idiosyncratic risk highly as it provides significant diversification value and alpha potential. (
  • Nevertheless, any risk-management benefit is offset by a significant performance penalty. (
  • But there's also a lot we can do to reduce the risk of developing cancer in the first place. (
  • Using credit derivatives to reduce credit risk. (
  • 6 Identification of intrinsic ankle performance characteristics that can be improved to reduce the risk of first-time ankle injury and subsequent re-injury has clinical value, and the potential to raise sports participation rates, prolong sporting careers and improve quality of life. (
  • In particular, the effectiveness of restricted sodium or increased potassium intake on mitigating hypertension risk has been demonstrated in clinical and observational research. (
  • Associations between maternal symptoms of depression and offspring emotional problems were predominantly explained by passive genetic transmission at 1.5 and 3 years postpartum. (
  • Although epidemiological studies have shown an increased risk of certain types of cancer in places such as Hong Kong, where there is high consumption of smoked foods, the link is by association only. (
  • The first of these points, of course, relates to classical early and late sequelae, and the second relates to the risks of radiation-induced second cancers. (
  • It's likely that future research, aimed at discovering more about how height and cancer risk are linked will give us some useful insights into how these cancers start and develop - insights that may lead to ways to improve treatment and care. (
  • 8 , 9 ] These high-risk groups account for only 23% of all colorectal cancers. (
  • Limiting screening or early cancer detection to only these high-risk groups would miss the majority of colorectal cancers. (
  • Tobacco use by spouses was associated with a 30% excess risk of lung cancer. (
  • The results only point to a small increase in risk, and most people aren't so much taller than average that their height would have a strong effect on their chances of developing cancer. (
  • Linking even small amounts of alcohol to cancer risk, providing groundbreaking results about the effects of hormone replacement therapy , and studying weight , reproductive history and diet, the results from the study have helped us understand more than ever before about what affects cancer risk. (
  • Studies suggest that pregnant women might be at increased risk for severe illness associated with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) ( 1 , 2 ). (
  • Personally I think that more scientific studies should be carried out to increase our understanding of passive transportation of mosquitoes to better anticipate its impact on control efforts. (
  • Yet none of the studies in the original sample reported a strong relative cancer risk associated with ETS. (
  • Eligible studies compared assisted HIV partner notification services to passive or no notification. (
  • Each study was rated for quality, and this took into account whether the studies adjusted for lifestyle variables - such as diet, alcohol intake and physical activity - that could influence diabetes risk independently of smoking behaviour. (
  • The overall premenopausal breast cancer risk associated with ETS was 1.68 (95% CI: 1.33-2.12), and 2.19 (95% CI: 1.68-2.84) for the 5 studies that incorporated three sources of exposure. (
  • Determining the functional deficits which promote injury risk in all ankles, through studies inclusive of previously injured and never injured ankles, will enable training to be directed at improving known deficits in all sports participants. (
  • Understanding COVID-19-associated risks among pregnant women is important for prevention counseling and clinical care and treatment. (
  • Over-sensitivity to risk can have undesirable consequences, including inappropriate deprivation of patients' rights and squandering of scarce clinical resources. (
  • On the other hand, underestimating suicidality as a result of a dismissive attitude or lack of clinical skill jeopardizes patient safety and risks clinician liability. (
  • [8] Risk level can be described semantically (in words) e.g. as Nonexistent, Mild, Moderate, Severe, or Extreme, and the clinical response can be determined accordingly. (
  • To a general audience, language such as, "fish consumption is linked [or tied] to the risk of heart attacks" may sound causal even when a causal relationship is not warranted. (
  • A. There is a causal relationship between exposure to nicotine and risk for cancer. (