Relating to the size of solids.
Colloids with a gaseous dispersing phase and either liquid (fog) or solid (smoke) dispersed phase; used in fumigation or in inhalation therapy; may contain propellant agents.
Substances made up of an aggregation of small particles, as that obtained by grinding or trituration of a solid drug. In pharmacy it is a form in which substances are administered. (From Dorland, 28th ed)
Nanometer-sized particles that are nanoscale in three dimensions. They include nanocrystaline materials; NANOCAPSULES; METAL NANOPARTICLES; DENDRIMERS, and QUANTUM DOTS. The uses of nanoparticles include DRUG DELIVERY SYSTEMS and cancer targeting and imaging.
Chemistry dealing with the composition and preparation of agents having PHARMACOLOGIC ACTIONS or diagnostic use.
The preparation, mixing, and assembling of a drug. (From Remington, The Science and Practice of Pharmacy, 19th ed, p1814)
The application of scientific knowledge or technology to pharmacy and the pharmaceutical industry. It includes methods, techniques, and instrumentation in the manufacture, preparation, compounding, dispensing, packaging, and storing of drugs and other preparations used in diagnostic and determinative procedures, and in the treatment of patients.
Forms to which substances are incorporated to improve the delivery and the effectiveness of drugs. Drug carriers are used in drug-delivery systems such as the controlled-release technology to prolong in vivo drug actions, decrease drug metabolism, and reduce drug toxicity. Carriers are also used in designs to increase the effectiveness of drug delivery to the target sites of pharmacological actions. Liposomes, albumin microspheres, soluble synthetic polymers, DNA complexes, protein-drug conjugates, and carrier erythrocytes among others have been employed as biodegradable drug carriers.
Small uniformly-sized spherical particles, of micrometer dimensions, frequently labeled with radioisotopes or various reagents acting as tags or markers.
Colloids with liquid continuous phase and solid dispersed phase; the term is used loosely also for solid-in-gas (AEROSOLS) and other colloidal systems; water-insoluble drugs may be given as suspensions.
Usually inert substances added to a prescription in order to provide suitable consistency to the dosage form. These include binders, matrix, base or diluent in pills, tablets, creams, salves, etc.
Colloids formed by the combination of two immiscible liquids such as oil and water. Lipid-in-water emulsions are usually liquid, like milk or lotion. Water-in-lipid emulsions tend to be creams. The formation of emulsions may be aided by amphiphatic molecules that surround one component of the system to form MICELLES.
A class of lipoproteins of small size (4-13 nm) and dense (greater than 1.063 g/ml) particles. HDL lipoproteins, synthesized in the liver without a lipid core, accumulate cholesterol esters from peripheral tissues and transport them to the liver for re-utilization or elimination from the body (the reverse cholesterol transport). Their major protein component is APOLIPOPROTEIN A-I. HDL also shuttle APOLIPOPROTEINS C and APOLIPOPROTEINS E to and from triglyceride-rich lipoproteins during their catabolism. HDL plasma level has been inversely correlated with the risk of cardiovascular diseases.
Two-phase systems in which one is uniformly dispersed in another as particles small enough so they cannot be filtered or will not settle out. The dispersing or continuous phase or medium envelops the particles of the discontinuous phase. All three states of matter can form colloids among each other.
A class of lipoproteins of small size (18-25 nm) and light (1.019-1.063 g/ml) particles with a core composed mainly of CHOLESTEROL ESTERS and smaller amounts of TRIGLYCERIDES. The surface monolayer consists mostly of PHOSPHOLIPIDS, a single copy of APOLIPOPROTEIN B-100, and free cholesterol molecules. The main LDL function is to transport cholesterol and cholesterol esters to extrahepatic tissues.
Deacetylated CHITIN, a linear polysaccharide of deacetylated beta-1,4-D-glucosamine. It is used in HYDROGEL and to treat WOUNDS.
The exposure to potentially harmful chemical, physical, or biological agents by inhaling them.
Microscopy in which the object is examined directly by an electron beam scanning the specimen point-by-point. The image is constructed by detecting the products of specimen interactions that are projected above the plane of the sample, such as backscattered electrons. Although SCANNING TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY also scans the specimen point by point with the electron beam, the image is constructed by detecting the electrons, or their interaction products that are transmitted through the sample plane, so that is a form of TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY.
The infective system of a virus, composed of the viral genome, a protein core, and a protein coat called a capsid, which may be naked or enclosed in a lipoprotein envelope called the peplos.
Transparent, tasteless crystals found in nature as agate, amethyst, chalcedony, cristobalite, flint, sand, QUARTZ, and tridymite. The compound is insoluble in water or acids except hydrofluoric acid.
A biocompatible polymer used as a surgical suture material.
Systems for the delivery of drugs to target sites of pharmacological actions. Technologies employed include those concerning drug preparation, route of administration, site targeting, metabolism, and toxicity.
The ability of a substance to be dissolved, i.e. to form a solution with another substance. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
Nanoparticles produced from metals whose uses include biosensors, optics, and catalysts. In biomedical applications the particles frequently involve the noble metals, especially gold and silver.
Nanometer-sized, hollow, spherically-shaped objects that can be utilized to encapsulate small amounts of pharmaceuticals, enzymes, or other catalysts (Glossary of Biotechnology and Nanobiotechnology, 4th ed).
Characteristics or attributes of the outer boundaries of objects, including molecules.
The chemical and physical integrity of a pharmaceutical product.
Microscopy using an electron beam, instead of light, to visualize the sample, thereby allowing much greater magnification. The interactions of ELECTRONS with specimens are used to provide information about the fine structure of that specimen. In TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY the reactions of the electrons that are transmitted through the specimen are imaged. In SCANNING ELECTRON MICROSCOPY an electron beam falls at a non-normal angle on the specimen and the image is derived from the reactions occurring above the plane of the specimen.
Electron microscopy in which the ELECTRONS or their reaction products that pass down through the specimen are imaged below the plane of the specimen.
Method of using a polycrystalline powder and Rietveld refinement (LEAST SQUARES ANALYSIS) of X-RAY DIFFRACTION or NEUTRON DIFFRACTION. It circumvents the difficulties of producing single large crystals.
Devices that cause a liquid or solid to be converted into an aerosol (spray) or a vapor. It is used in drug administration by inhalation, humidification of ambient air, and in certain analytical instruments.
The testing of materials and devices, especially those used for PROSTHESES AND IMPLANTS; SUTURES; TISSUE ADHESIVES; etc., for hardness, strength, durability, safety, efficacy, and biocompatibility.
Poly-2-methylpropenoic acids. Used in the manufacture of methacrylate resins and plastics in the form of pellets and granules, as absorbent for biological materials and as filters; also as biological membranes and as hydrogens. Synonyms: methylacrylate polymer; poly(methylacrylate); acrylic acid methyl ester polymer.
The quality or state of being wettable or the degree to which something can be wet. This is also the ability of any solid surface to be wetted when in contact with a liquid whose surface tension is reduced so that the liquid spreads over the surface of the solid.
Lipid-protein complexes involved in the transportation and metabolism of lipids in the body. They are spherical particles consisting of a hydrophobic core of TRIGLYCERIDES and CHOLESTEROL ESTERS surrounded by a layer of hydrophilic free CHOLESTEROL; PHOSPHOLIPIDS; and APOLIPOPROTEINS. Lipoproteins are classified by their varying buoyant density and sizes.
Particles of any solid substance, generally under 30 microns in size, often noted as PM30. There is special concern with PM1 which can get down to PULMONARY ALVEOLI and induce MACROPHAGE ACTIVATION and PHAGOCYTOSIS leading to FOREIGN BODY REACTION and LUNG DISEASES.
Dosage forms of a drug that act over a period of time by controlled-release processes or technology.
Materials which have structured components with at least one dimension in the range of 1 to 100 nanometers. These include NANOCOMPOSITES; NANOPARTICLES; NANOTUBES; and NANOWIRES.
Quartz (SiO2). A glassy or crystalline form of silicon dioxide. Many colored varieties are semiprecious stones. (From Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
Method of tissue preparation in which the tissue specimen is frozen and then dehydrated at low temperature in a high vacuum. This method is also used for dehydrating pharmaceutical and food products.
The process of breakdown of food for metabolism and use by the body.
The most abundant protein component of HIGH DENSITY LIPOPROTEINS or HDL. This protein serves as an acceptor for CHOLESTEROL released from cells thus promoting efflux of cholesterol to HDL then to the LIVER for excretion from the body (reverse cholesterol transport). It also acts as a cofactor for LECITHIN CHOLESTEROL ACYLTRANSFERASE that forms CHOLESTEROL ESTERS on the HDL particles. Mutations of this gene APOA1 cause HDL deficiency, such as in FAMILIAL ALPHA LIPOPROTEIN DEFICIENCY DISEASE and in some patients with TANGIER DISEASE.
Foodstuff used especially for domestic and laboratory animals, or livestock.
Air pollutants found in the work area. They are usually produced by the specific nature of the occupation.
Condition of having pores or open spaces. This often refers to bones, bone implants, or bone cements, but can refer to the porous state of any solid substance.
Compounds formed by the joining of smaller, usually repeating, units linked by covalent bonds. These compounds often form large macromolecules (e.g., BIOPOLYMERS; PLASTICS).
Polymerized forms of styrene used as a biocompatible material, especially in dentistry. They are thermoplastic and are used as insulators, for injection molding and casting, as sheets, plates, rods, rigid forms and beads.
Differential thermal analysis in which the sample compartment of the apparatus is a differential calorimeter, allowing an exact measure of the heat of transition independent of the specific heat, thermal conductivity, and other variables of the sample.
The branch of medicine concerned with the application of NANOTECHNOLOGY to the prevention and treatment of disease. It involves the monitoring, repair, construction, and control of human biological systems at the molecular level, using engineered nanodevices and NANOSTRUCTURES. (From Freitas Jr., Nanomedicine, vol 1, 1999).
Polymers of ETHYLENE OXIDE and water, and their ethers. They vary in consistency from liquid to solid depending on the molecular weight indicated by a number following the name. They are used as SURFACTANTS, dispersing agents, solvents, ointment and suppository bases, vehicles, and tablet excipients. Some specific groups are NONOXYNOLS, OCTOXYNOLS, and POLOXAMERS.
A cytosolic ribonucleoprotein complex that acts to induce elongation arrest of nascent presecretory and membrane proteins until the ribosome becomes associated with the rough endoplasmic reticulum. It consists of a 7S RNA and at least six polypeptide subunits (relative molecular masses 9, 14, 19, 54, 68, and 72K).
A generic term for fats and lipoids, the alcohol-ether-soluble constituents of protoplasm, which are insoluble in water. They comprise the fats, fatty oils, essential oils, waxes, phospholipids, glycolipids, sulfolipids, aminolipids, chromolipids (lipochromes), and fatty acids. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
A process of separating particulate matter from a fluid, such as air or a liquid, by passing the fluid carrier through a medium that will not pass the particulates. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
A nonionic polyoxyethylene-polyoxypropylene block co-polymer with the general formula HO(C2H4O)a(-C3H6O)b(C2H4O)aH. It is available in different grades which vary from liquids to solids. It is used as an emulsifying agent, solubilizing agent, surfactant, and wetting agent for antibiotics. Poloxamer is also used in ointment and suppository bases and as a tablet binder or coater. (Martindale The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 31st ed)
Spherical particles of nanometer dimensions.
Protein components on the surface of LIPOPROTEINS. They form a layer surrounding the hydrophobic lipid core. There are several classes of apolipoproteins with each playing a different role in lipid transport and LIPID METABOLISM. These proteins are synthesized mainly in the LIVER and the INTESTINES.
Silver. An element with the atomic symbol Ag, atomic number 47, and atomic weight 107.87. It is a soft metal that is used medically in surgical instruments, dental prostheses, and alloys. Long-continued use of silver salts can lead to a form of poisoning known as ARGYRIA.
Earth or other matter in fine, dry particles. (Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed)
The development and use of techniques to study physical phenomena and construct structures in the nanoscale size range or smaller.
The administration of drugs by the respiratory route. It includes insufflation into the respiratory tract.
The monitoring of the level of toxins, chemical pollutants, microbial contaminants, or other harmful substances in the environment (soil, air, and water), workplace, or in the bodies of people and animals present in that environment.
Solid dosage forms, of varying weight, size, and shape, which may be molded or compressed, and which contain a medicinal substance in pure or diluted form. (Dorland, 28th ed)
Completed forms of the pharmaceutical preparation in which prescribed doses of medication are included. They are designed to resist action by gastric fluids, prevent vomiting and nausea, reduce or alleviate the undesirable taste and smells associated with oral administration, achieve a high concentration of drug at target site, or produce a delayed or long-acting drug effect.
Any substance in the air which could, if present in high enough concentration, harm humans, animals, vegetation or material. Substances include GASES; PARTICULATE MATTER; and volatile ORGANIC CHEMICALS.
Artificial, single or multilaminar vesicles (made from lecithins or other lipids) that are used for the delivery of a variety of biological molecules or molecular complexes to cells, for example, drug delivery and gene transfer. They are also used to study membranes and membrane proteins.
A polyvinyl polymer of variable molecular weight; used as suspending and dispersing agent and vehicle for pharmaceuticals; also used as blood volume expander.
A milky, product excreted from the latex canals of a variety of plant species that contain cauotchouc. Latex is composed of 25-35% caoutchouc, 60-75% water, 2% protein, 2% resin, 1.5% sugar & 1% ash. RUBBER is made by the removal of water from latex.(From Concise Encyclopedia Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 3rd ed). Hevein proteins are responsible for LATEX HYPERSENSITIVITY. Latexes are used as inert vehicles to carry antibodies or antigens in LATEX FIXATION TESTS.
A dark-gray, metallic element of widespread distribution but occurring in small amounts; atomic number, 22; atomic weight, 47.90; symbol, Ti; specific gravity, 4.5; used for fixation of fractures. (Dorland, 28th ed)
Cholesterol which is contained in or bound to high-density lipoproteins (HDL), including CHOLESTEROL ESTERS and free cholesterol.
The scattering of x-rays by matter, especially crystals, with accompanying variation in intensity due to interference effects. Analysis of the crystal structure of materials is performed by passing x-rays through them and registering the diffraction image of the rays (CRYSTALLOGRAPHY, X-RAY). (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
The act and process of chewing and grinding food in the mouth.
The assembly of VIRAL STRUCTURAL PROTEINS and nucleic acid (VIRAL DNA or VIRAL RNA) to form a VIRUS PARTICLE.
A large family of narrow-leaved herbaceous grasses of the order Cyperales, subclass Commelinidae, class Liliopsida (monocotyledons). Food grains (EDIBLE GRAIN) come from members of this family. RHINITIS, ALLERGIC, SEASONAL can be induced by POLLEN of many of the grasses.
A small aerosol canister used to release a calibrated amount of medication for inhalation.
Preparation for electron microscopy of minute replicas of exposed surfaces of the cell which have been ruptured in the frozen state. The specimen is frozen, then cleaved under high vacuum at the same temperature. The exposed surface is shadowed with carbon and platinum and coated with carbon to obtain a carbon replica.
Methylester of cellulose. Methylcellulose is used as an emulsifying and suspending agent in cosmetics, pharmaceutics and the chemical industry. It is used therapeutically as a bulk laxative.
The motion of air currents.
A class of lipoproteins of very light (0.93-1.006 g/ml) large size (30-80 nm) particles with a core composed mainly of TRIGLYCERIDES and a surface monolayer of PHOSPHOLIPIDS and CHOLESTEROL into which are imbedded the apolipoproteins B, E, and C. VLDL facilitates the transport of endogenously made triglycerides to extrahepatic tissues. As triglycerides and Apo C are removed, VLDL is converted to INTERMEDIATE-DENSITY LIPOPROTEINS, then to LOW-DENSITY LIPOPROTEINS from which cholesterol is delivered to the extrahepatic tissues.
Separation of particles according to density by employing a gradient of varying densities. At equilibrium each particle settles in the gradient at a point equal to its density. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
A polysaccharide with glucose units linked as in CELLOBIOSE. It is the chief constituent of plant fibers, cotton being the purest natural form of the substance. As a raw material, it forms the basis for many derivatives used in chromatography, ion exchange materials, explosives manufacturing, and pharmaceutical preparations.
Application of pharmaceutically active agents on the tissues of the EYE.
Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.
Respirators to protect individuals from breathing air contaminated with harmful dusts, fogs, fumes, mists, gases, smokes, sprays, or vapors.
A clear, odorless, tasteless liquid that is essential for most animal and plant life and is an excellent solvent for many substances. The chemical formula is hydrogen oxide (H2O). (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
Agents that modify interfacial tension of water; usually substances that have one lipophilic and one hydrophilic group in the molecule; includes soaps, detergents, emulsifiers, dispersing and wetting agents, and several groups of antiseptics.
The tendency of a gas or solute to pass from a point of higher pressure or concentration to a point of lower pressure or concentration and to distribute itself throughout the available space. Diffusion, especially FACILITATED DIFFUSION, is a major mechanism of BIOLOGICAL TRANSPORT.
The presence of bacteria, viruses, and fungi in the air. This term is not restricted to pathogenic organisms.
Vaccines using supra-molecular structures composed of multiple copies of recombinantly expressed viral structural proteins. They are often antigentically indistinguishable from the virus from which they were derived.
Methods of creating machines and devices.
A spectroscopic technique in which a range of wavelengths is presented simultaneously with an interferometer and the spectrum is mathematically derived from the pattern thus obtained.
The extent to which the active ingredient of a drug dosage form becomes available at the site of drug action or in a biological medium believed to reflect accessibility to a site of action.
SURFACE-ACTIVE AGENTS that induce a dispersion of undissolved material throughout a liquid.
A polymer prepared from polyvinyl acetates by replacement of the acetate groups with hydroxyl groups. It is used as a pharmaceutic aid and ophthalmic lubricant as well as in the manufacture of surface coatings artificial sponges, cosmetics, and other products.
A CHROMATOGRAPHY method using supercritical fluid, usually carbon dioxide under very high pressure (around 73 atmospheres or 1070 psi at room temperature) as the mobile phase. Other solvents are sometimes added as modifiers. This is used both for analytical (SFC) and extraction (SFE) purposes.
Major structural proteins of triacylglycerol-rich LIPOPROTEINS. There are two forms, apolipoprotein B-100 and apolipoprotein B-48, both derived from a single gene. ApoB-100 expressed in the liver is found in low-density lipoproteins (LIPOPROTEINS, LDL; LIPOPROTEINS, VLDL). ApoB-48 expressed in the intestine is found in CHYLOMICRONS. They are important in the biosynthesis, transport, and metabolism of triacylglycerol-rich lipoproteins. Plasma Apo-B levels are high in atherosclerotic patients but non-detectable in ABETALIPOPROTEINEMIA.
Any aspect of the operations in the preparation, processing, transport, storage, packaging, wrapping, exposure for sale, service, or delivery of food.
The various filaments, granules, tubules or other inclusions within mitochondria.
Compounds that provide LUBRICATION between surfaces in order to reduce FRICTION.
A device that delivers medication to the lungs in the form of a dry powder.
The second most abundant protein component of HIGH DENSITY LIPOPROTEINS or HDL. It has a high lipid affinity and is known to displace APOLIPOPROTEIN A-I from HDL particles and generates a stable HDL complex. ApoA-II can modulate the activation of LECITHIN CHOLESTEROL ACYLTRANSFERASE in the presence of APOLIPOPROTEIN A-I, thus affecting HDL metabolism.
Calcium salts of phosphoric acid. These compounds are frequently used as calcium supplements.
The principal sterol of all higher animals, distributed in body tissues, especially the brain and spinal cord, and in animal fats and oils.
Cholesterol which is contained in or bound to low density lipoproteins (LDL), including CHOLESTEROL ESTERS and free cholesterol.
Synthesized magnetic particles under 100 nanometers possessing many biomedical applications including DRUG DELIVERY SYSTEMS and CONTRAST AGENTS. The particles are usually coated with a variety of polymeric compounds.
A normal intermediate in the fermentation (oxidation, metabolism) of sugar. The concentrated form is used internally to prevent gastrointestinal fermentation. (From Stedman, 26th ed)
A yellow metallic element with the atomic symbol Au, atomic number 79, and atomic weight 197. It is used in jewelry, goldplating of other metals, as currency, and in dental restoration. Many of its clinical applications, such as ANTIRHEUMATIC AGENTS, are in the form of its salts.
The resistance that a gaseous or liquid system offers to flow when it is subjected to shear stress. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
A type of familial lipid metabolism disorder characterized by a variable pattern of elevated plasma CHOLESTEROL and/or TRIGLYCERIDES. Multiple genes on different chromosomes may be involved, such as the major late transcription factor (UPSTREAM STIMULATORY FACTORS) on CHROMOSOME 1.
The property of objects that determines the direction of heat flow when they are placed in direct thermal contact. The temperature is the energy of microscopic motions (vibrational and translational) of the particles of atoms.
Gases, fumes, vapors, and odors escaping from the cylinders of a gasoline or diesel internal-combustion engine. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed & Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed)
The diversion of RADIATION (thermal, electromagnetic, or nuclear) from its original path as a result of interactions or collisions with atoms, molecules, or larger particles in the atmosphere or other media. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
Nanometer-scale composite structures composed of organic molecules intimately incorporated with inorganic molecules. (Glossary of Biotechnology and Nanobiotechology Terms, 4th ed)
A mixture of very-low-density lipoproteins (VLDL), particularly the triglyceride-poor VLDL, with slow diffuse electrophoretic mobilities in the beta and alpha2 regions which are similar to that of beta-lipoproteins (LDL) or alpha-lipoproteins (HDL). They can be intermediate (remnant) lipoproteins in the de-lipidation process, or remnants of mutant CHYLOMICRONS and VERY-LOW-DENSITY LIPOPROTEINS which cannot be metabolized completely as seen in FAMILIAL DYSBETALIPOPROTEINEMIA.
Particles consisting of aggregates of molecules held loosely together by secondary bonds. The surface of micelles are usually comprised of amphiphatic compounds that are oriented in a way that minimizes the energy of interaction between the micelle and its environment. Liquids that contain large numbers of suspended micelles are referred to as EMULSIONS.
Compressed gases or vapors in a container which, upon release of pressure and expansion through a valve, carry another substance from the container. They are used for cosmetics, household cleaners, and so on. Examples are BUTANES; CARBON DIOXIDE; FLUOROCARBONS; NITROGEN; and PROPANE. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
Structural proteins of the alpha-lipoproteins (HIGH DENSITY LIPOPROTEINS), including APOLIPOPROTEIN A-I and APOLIPOPROTEIN A-II. They can modulate the activity of LECITHIN CHOLESTEROL ACYLTRANSFERASE. These apolipoproteins are low in atherosclerotic patients. They are either absent or present in extremely low plasma concentration in TANGIER DISEASE.
Centrifugation with a centrifuge that develops centrifugal fields of more than 100,000 times gravity. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
The normality of a solution with respect to HYDROGEN ions; H+. It is related to acidity measurements in most cases by pH = log 1/2[1/(H+)], where (H+) is the hydrogen ion concentration in gram equivalents per liter of solution. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
The study of the deformation and flow of matter, usually liquids or fluids, and of the plastic flow of solids. The concept covers consistency, dilatancy, liquefaction, resistance to flow, shearing, thixotrophy, and VISCOSITY.
Tailored macromolecules harboring covalently-bound biologically active modules that target specific tissues and cells. The active modules or functional groups can include drugs, prodrugs, antibodies, and oligonucleotides, which can act synergistically and be multitargeting.
The adhesion of gases, liquids, or dissolved solids onto a surface. It includes adsorptive phenomena of bacteria and viruses onto surfaces as well. ABSORPTION into the substance may follow but not necessarily.
The outer protein protective shell of a virus, which protects the viral nucleic acid.
The physical phenomena describing the structure and properties of atoms and molecules, and their reaction and interaction processes.
Hard or soft soluble containers used for the oral administration of medicine.
A mild astringent and topical protectant with some antiseptic action. It is also used in bandages, pastes, ointments, dental cements, and as a sunblock.
Inorganic compounds that contain chromium as an integral part of the molecule.
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
Inorganic or organic compounds containing trivalent iron.
Positively charged particles composed of two protons and two NEUTRONS, i.e. equivalent to HELIUM nuclei, which are emitted during disintegration of heavy ISOTOPES. Alpha rays have very strong ionizing power, but weak penetrability.
An oxide of aluminum, occurring in nature as various minerals such as bauxite, corundum, etc. It is used as an adsorbent, desiccating agent, and catalyst, and in the manufacture of dental cements and refractories.
The formation of crystalline substances from solutions or melts. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
Polymers of organic acids and alcohols, with ester linkages--usually polyethylene terephthalate; can be cured into hard plastic, films or tapes, or fibers which can be woven into fabrics, meshes or velours.
The quality or state of being able to be bent or creased repeatedly. (From Webster, 3d ed)
The contamination of indoor air.
The study of CHEMICAL PHENOMENA and processes in terms of the underlying PHYSICAL PHENOMENA and processes.
Pharmacologic agents delivered into the nostrils in the form of a mist or spray.
Drugs intended for human or veterinary use, presented in their finished dosage form. Included here are materials used in the preparation and/or formulation of the finished dosage form.
Electrophoresis in which a polyacrylamide gel is used as the diffusion medium.
Natural or synthetic dyes used as coloring agents in processed foods.
Proteins that form the CAPSID of VIRUSES.
Uptake of substances through the SKIN.
A disaccharide of GLUCOSE and GALACTOSE in human and cow milk. It is used in pharmacy for tablets, in medicine as a nutrient, and in industry.
Electron microscopy involving rapid freezing of the samples. The imaging of frozen-hydrated molecules and organelles permits the best possible resolution closest to the living state, free of chemical fixatives or stains.
Liquids that dissolve other substances (solutes), generally solids, without any change in chemical composition, as, water containing sugar. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
Viruses which lack a complete genome so that they cannot completely replicate or cannot form a protein coat. Some are host-dependent defectives, meaning they can replicate only in cell systems which provide the particular genetic function which they lack. Others, called SATELLITE VIRUSES, are able to replicate only when their genetic defect is complemented by a helper virus.
Any of a group of polysaccharides of the general formula (C6-H10-O5)n, composed of a long-chain polymer of glucose in the form of amylose and amylopectin. It is the chief storage form of energy reserve (carbohydrates) in plants.
An area showing altered staining behavior in the nucleus or cytoplasm of a virus-infected cell. Some inclusion bodies represent "virus factories" in which viral nucleic acid or protein is being synthesized; others are merely artifacts of fixation and staining. One example, Negri bodies, are found in the cytoplasm or processes of nerve cells in animals that have died from rabies.
A measure of the amount of WATER VAPOR in the air.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
Domesticated bovine animals of the genus Bos, usually kept on a farm or ranch and used for the production of meat or dairy products or for heavy labor.
Liquid chromatographic techniques which feature high inlet pressures, high sensitivity, and high speed.
Accumulation of a drug or chemical substance in various organs (including those not relevant to its pharmacologic or therapeutic action). This distribution depends on the blood flow or perfusion rate of the organ, the ability of the drug to penetrate organ membranes, tissue specificity, protein binding. The distribution is usually expressed as tissue to plasma ratios.
Synthetic or natural materials, other than DRUGS, that are used to replace or repair any body TISSUES or bodily function.
The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.
Either of the pair of organs occupying the cavity of the thorax that effect the aeration of the blood.
The first stomach of ruminants. It lies on the left side of the body, occupying the whole of the left side of the abdomen and even stretching across the median plane of the body to the right side. It is capacious, divided into an upper and a lower sac, each of which has a blind sac at its posterior extremity. The rumen is lined by mucous membrane containing no digestive glands, but mucus-secreting glands are present in large numbers. Coarse, partially chewed food is stored and churned in the rumen until the animal finds circumstances convenient for rumination. When this occurs, little balls of food are regurgitated through the esophagus into the mouth, and are subjected to a second more thorough mastication, swallowed, and passed on into other parts of the compound stomach. (From Black's Veterinary Dictionary, 17th ed)
Technique whereby the weight of a sample can be followed over a period of time while its temperature is being changed (usually increased at a constant rate).
Fatty acid esters of cholesterol which constitute about two-thirds of the cholesterol in the plasma. The accumulation of cholesterol esters in the arterial intima is a characteristic feature of atherosclerosis.
The sum of the weight of all the atoms in a molecule.
An anti-inflammatory, synthetic glucocorticoid. It is used topically as an anti-inflammatory agent and in aerosol form for the treatment of ASTHMA.
A property of the surface of an object that makes it stick to another surface.
A muscarinic antagonist used as an antispasmodic, in rhinitis, in urinary incontinence, and in the treatment of ulcers. At high doses it has nicotinic effects resulting in neuromuscular blocking.
Drugs used for their effects on the respiratory system.
Complexes of RNA-binding proteins with ribonucleic acids (RNA).
Unctuous combustible substances that are liquid or easily liquefiable on warming, and are soluble in ether but insoluble in water. Such substances, depending on their origin, are classified as animal, mineral, or vegetable oils. Depending on their behavior on heating, they are volatile or fixed. (Dorland, 28th ed)
The ratio of the density of a material to the density of some standard material, such as water or air, at a specified temperature.
Intermediate-density subclass of the high-density lipoproteins, with particle sizes between 7 to 8 nm. As the larger lighter HDL2 lipoprotein, HDL3 lipoprotein is lipid-rich.
A series of hydrocarbons containing both chlorine and fluorine. These have been used as refrigerants, blowing agents, cleaning fluids, solvents, and as fire extinguishing agents. They have been shown to cause stratospheric ozone depletion and have been banned for many uses.
Lipids containing one or more phosphate groups, particularly those derived from either glycerol (phosphoglycerides see GLYCEROPHOSPHOLIPIDS) or sphingosine (SPHINGOLIPIDS). They are polar lipids that are of great importance for the structure and function of cell membranes and are the most abundant of membrane lipids, although not stored in large amounts in the system.
An enzyme secreted from the liver into the plasma of many mammalian species. It catalyzes the esterification of the hydroxyl group of lipoprotein cholesterol by the transfer of a fatty acid from the C-2 position of lecithin. In familial lecithin:cholesterol acyltransferase deficiency disease, the absence of the enzyme results in an excess of unesterified cholesterol in plasma. EC
Synthetic thermoplastics that are tough, flexible, inert, and resistant to chemicals and electrical current. They are often used as biocompatible materials for prostheses and implants.
A plant species of the family POACEAE. It is a tall grass grown for its EDIBLE GRAIN, corn, used as food and animal FODDER.
The process of intracellular viral multiplication, consisting of the synthesis of PROTEINS; NUCLEIC ACIDS; and sometimes LIPIDS, and their assembly into a new infectious particle.
Cholesterol which is contained in or bound to very low density lipoproteins (VLDL). High circulating levels of VLDL cholesterol are found in HYPERLIPOPROTEINEMIA TYPE IIB. The cholesterol on the VLDL is eventually delivered by LOW-DENSITY LIPOPROTEINS to the tissues after the catabolism of VLDL to INTERMEDIATE-DENSITY LIPOPROTEINS, then to LDL.
The application of high intensity ultrasound to liquids.
A group of compounds that are derivatives of octadecanoic acid which is one of the most abundant fatty acids found in animal lipids. (Stedman, 25th ed)
The process of keeping pharmaceutical products in an appropriate location.
The engulfing and degradation of microorganisms; other cells that are dead, dying, or pathogenic; and foreign particles by phagocytic cells (PHAGOCYTES).
Semi-synthetic complex derived from nucleic-acid free viral particles. They are essentially reconstituted viral coats, where the infectious nucleocapsid is replaced by a compound of choice. Virosomes retain their fusogenic activity and thus deliver the incorporated compound (antigens, drugs, genes) inside the target cell. They can be used for vaccines (VACCINES, VIROSOME), drug delivery, or gene transfer.
Sorbitan mono-9-octadecanoate poly(oxy-1,2-ethanediyl) derivatives; complex mixtures of polyoxyethylene ethers used as emulsifiers or dispersing agents in pharmaceuticals.
Proteins found in any species of virus.
A nonmetallic element with atomic symbol C, atomic number 6, and atomic weight [12.0096; 12.0116]. It may occur as several different allotropes including DIAMOND; CHARCOAL; and GRAPHITE; and as SOOT from incompletely burned fuel.
Conditions with excess LIPIDS in the blood.
Strongly cationic polymer that binds to certain proteins; used as a marker in immunology, to precipitate and purify enzymes and lipids. Synonyms: aziridine polymer; Epamine; Epomine; ethylenimine polymer; Montrek; PEI; Polymin(e).
Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.
Any of various animals that constitute the family Suidae and comprise stout-bodied, short-legged omnivorous mammals with thick skin, usually covered with coarse bristles, a rather long mobile snout, and small tail. Included are the genera Babyrousa, Phacochoerus (wart hogs), and Sus, the latter containing the domestic pig (see SUS SCROFA).
Removal of moisture from a substance (chemical, food, tissue, etc.).
Supplying a building or house, their rooms and corridors, with fresh air. The controlling of the environment thus may be in public or domestic sites and in medical or non-medical locales. (From Dorland, 28th ed)
Pollution prevention through the design of effective chemical products that have low or no toxicity and use of chemical processes that reduce or eliminate the use and generation of hazardous substances.
An optical source that emits photons in a coherent beam. Light Amplification by Stimulated Emission of Radiation (LASER) is brought about using devices that transform light of varying frequencies into a single intense, nearly nondivergent beam of monochromatic radiation. Lasers operate in the infrared, visible, ultraviolet, or X-ray regions of the spectrum.
A phenomenon in which infection by a first virus results in resistance of cells or tissues to infection by a second, unrelated virus.
A condition of elevated levels of TRIGLYCERIDES in the blood.
Seeds from grasses (POACEAE) which are important in the diet.
Ribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of viruses.
The species Oryctolagus cuniculus, in the family Leporidae, order LAGOMORPHA. Rabbits are born in burrows, furless, and with eyes and ears closed. In contrast with HARES, rabbits have 22 chromosome pairs.
Zirconium. A rather rare metallic element, atomic number 40, atomic weight 91.22, symbol Zr. (From Dorland, 28th ed)
Electrophoresis applied to BLOOD PROTEINS.

Glomerular size-selective dysfunction in NIDDM is not ameliorated by ACE inhibition or by calcium channel blockade. (1/6488)

BACKGROUND: In patients with insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (IDDM) and overt nephropathy glomerular barrier size-selectivity progressively deteriorates with time and is effectively improved by angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) inhibition. Whether similar glomerular functional changes develop in proteinuric patients with non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (NIDDM), and whether antihypertensive agents can favorably affect glomerular filtration of macromolecules in these patients, has not been documented yet. METHODS: We investigated renal hemodynamics and fractional clearance of neutral dextrans of graded sizes, in nine proteinuric patients with NIDDM and renal biopsy findings of typical diabetic glomerulopathy. Six healthy volunteers served as controls. We also investigated the effects of an ACE inhibitor and of a calcium channel blocker, both given in doses targeted to achieve a comparable level of systemic blood pressure control, on glomerular hemodynamics and sieving function. Theoretical analysis of glomerular macromolecule transport was adopted to evaluate intrinsic glomerular membrane permeability properties. RESULTS: Fractional clearance of large macromolecules (42 to 66 A in radius) was significantly higher in diabetic patients than in controls, and the distribution of membrane pore radii was calculated to be shifted towards larger pore sizes in diabetics (mean radius increased from 55 to 60 A). Despite effective blood pressure control, neither antihypertensive affected glomerular hemodynamics to any significant extent. Fractional clearance of dextrans, as well as of albumin and IgG, and total urinary proteins were not modified by either treatments. CONCLUSIONS: These data indicate that patients with NIDDM and overt nephropathy develop abnormalities in size-selective function of the glomerular barrier and, at variance to IDDM, such changes were not ameliorated either by ACE inhibition or calcium channel blockade.  (+info)

Dynamics of plaque formation in Alzheimer's disease. (2/6488)

Plaques that form in the brains of Alzheimer patients are made of deposits of the amyloid-beta peptide. We analyze the time evolution of amyloid-beta deposition in immunostained brain slices from transgenic mice. We find that amyloid-beta deposits appear in clusters whose characteristic size increases from 14 microm in 8-month-old mice to 22 microm in 12-month-old mice. We show that the clustering has implications for the biological growth of amyloid-beta by presenting a growth model that accounts for the experimentally observed structure of individual deposits and predicts the formation of clusters of deposits and their time evolution.  (+info)

Cryoelectron microscopy of a nucleating model bile in vitreous ice: formation of primordial vesicles. (3/6488)

Because gallstones form so frequently in human bile, pathophysiologically relevant supersaturated model biles are commonly employed to study cholesterol crystal formation. We used cryo-transmission electron microscopy, complemented by polarizing light microscopy, to investigate early stages of cholesterol nucleation in model bile. In the system studied, the proposed microscopic sequence involves the evolution of small unilamellar to multilamellar vesicles to lamellar liquid crystals and finally to cholesterol crystals. Small aliquots of a concentrated (total lipid concentration = 29.2 g/dl) model bile containing 8.5% cholesterol, 22.9% egg yolk lecithin, and 68.6% taurocholate (all mole %) were vitrified at 2 min to 20 days after fourfold dilution to induce supersaturation. Mixed micelles together with a category of vesicles denoted primordial, small unilamellar vesicles of two distinct morphologies (sphere/ellipsoid and cylinder/arachoid), large unilamellar vesicles, multilamellar vesicles, and cholesterol monohydrate crystals were imaged. No evidence of aggregation/fusion of small unilamellar vesicles to form multilamellar vesicles was detected. Low numbers of multilamellar vesicles were present, some of which were sufficiently large to be identified as liquid crystals by polarizing light microscopy. Dimensions, surface areas, and volumes of spherical/ellipsoidal and cylindrical/arachoidal vesicles were quantified. Early stages in the separation of vesicles from micelles, referred to as primordial vesicles, were imaged 23-31 min after dilution. Observed structures such as enlarged micelles in primordial vesicle interiors, segments of bilayer, and faceted edges at primordial vesicle peripheries are probably early stages of small unilamellar vesicle assembly. A decrease in the mean surface area of spherical/ellipsoidal vesicles was correlated with the increased production of cholesterol crystals at 10-20 days after supersaturation by dilution, supporting the role of small unilamellar vesicles as key players in cholesterol nucleation and as cholesterol donors to crystals. This is the first visualization of an intermediate structure that has been temporally linked to the development of small unilamellar vesicles in the separation of vesicles from micelles in a model bile and suggests a time-resolved system for further investigation.  (+info)

Sodium ion uptake into isolated plasma membrane vesicles: indirect effects of other ions. (4/6488)

Vesicles derived from plasma membrane of corneal endothelium were agitated to their minimum size distribution. When isotonic salt solutions surrounding the vesicles were changed there were alterations to the vesicle size distribution: the modal point of the logarithmic distribution did not change but the log variance did, indicating that substantial fission and fusion of vesicles occurred depending upon the nature of the surrounding solute. Orientation and total membrane area was conserved in the transformed population of vesicles. Although the ions added to the external isotonic salt solutions in the present series of experiments have no direct effect upon sodium membrane transporters in these membranes, kinetics of sodium accumulation into the vesicles were affected in a way that correlated with changes to the vesicle size distribution. Early-saturating (<1 min) intravesicular concentrations of sodium corresponded with apparently stable populations. Late-saturating (>1 min) intravesicular concentrations of sodium corresponded with significant vesicle distribution shifts and included a few seconds of delay. During the linear accumulation phase, both populations showed similar magnitudes of sodium transport. The significance of these data is discussed.  (+info)

Morphological behavior of acidic and neutral liposomes induced by basic amphiphilic alpha-helical peptides with systematically varied hydrophobic-hydrophilic balance. (5/6488)

Lipid-peptide interaction has been investigated using cationic amphiphilic alpha-helical peptides and systematically varying their hydrophobic-hydrophilic balance (HHB). The influence of the peptides on neutral and acidic liposomes was examined by 1) Trp fluorescence quenched by brominated phospholipid, 2) membrane-clearing ability, 3) size determination of liposomes by dynamic light scattering, 4) morphological observation by electron microscopy, and 5) ability to form planar lipid bilayers from channels. The peptides examined consist of hydrophobic Leu and hydrophilic Lys residues with ratios 13:5, 11:7, 9:9, 7:11, and 5:13 (abbreviated as Hels 13-5, 11-7, 9-9, 7-11, and 5-13, respectively; Kiyota, T., S. Lee, and G. Sugihara. 1996. Biochemistry. 35:13196-13204). The most hydrophobic peptide (Hel 13-5) induced a twisted ribbon-like fibril structure for egg PC liposomes. In a 3/1 (egg PC/egg PG) lipid mixture, Hel 13-5 addition caused fusion of the liposomes. Hel 13-5 formed ion channels in neutral lipid bilayer (egg PE/egg PC = 7/3) at low peptide concentrations, but not in an acidic bilayer (egg PE/brain PS = 7/3). The peptides with hydrophobicity less than Hel 13-5 (Hels 11-7 and Hel 9-9) were able to partially immerse their hydrophobic part of the amphiphilic helix in lipid bilayers and fragment liposome to small bicelles or micelles, and then the bicelles aggregated to form a larger assembly. Peptides Hel 11-7 and Hel 9-9 each formed strong ion channels. Peptides (Hel 7-11 and Hel 5-13) with a more hydrophilic HHB interacted with an acidic lipid bilayer by charge interaction, in which the former immerses the hydrophobic part in lipid bilayer, and the latter did not immerse, and formed large assemblies by aggregation of original liposomes. The present study clearly showed that hydrophobic-hydrophilic balance of a peptide is a crucial factor in understanding lipid-peptide interactions.  (+info)

Concatemerization of tRNA molecules in the presence of trivaline derivative. (6/6488)

The interaction of tRNA with trivaline dansyl hydrazide trifluoroacetate (DHTV) has been studied. The shape of curves of fluorimetric titration of tRNA with DHTV and vice versa can be explained only by formation of DHTV dimers on tRNA molecules, and subsequent association of DHTV-saturated tRNA molecules with each other. The ability of tRNA molecules to form concatemers in solution in the presence of DHTV has been demonstrated by electron microscopy. Electron microscopy of the tRNA-DHTV complexes stained with uranyl acetate revealed flexible rods 6-7 nm thick and up to several micrometers long.  (+info)

Hexavalent chromium responsible for lung lesions induced by intratracheal instillation of chromium fumes in rats. (7/6488)

Lung toxicity of chromium fumes (Cr fumes) was examined by a single intratracheal instillation into rats of 10.6 mg and 21.3 mg Cr fumes/kg body weight and by repeated (3 times) instillations of 10.8 mg and 21.7 mg Cr fumes/kg. The pathological changes were compared with those induced by single administrations of 3.2 mg and 19.2 mg Na2CO3 solution-insoluble fraction of Cr fumes (Cr-Fr)/kg and 20.8 mg commercially available chromium (III) oxide powder (Cr (III) oxide)/kg. Single and repeated administrations of Cr fumes suppressed growth rate in a dose-dependent manner, but administrations of Cr-Fr and Cr (III) oxide did not. A single administration of Cr fumes produced granulomas in the entire airways and alveoli with progressive fibrotic changes, as well as severe mobilization and destruction of macrophages and foamy cells. Those histopathological changes were aggravated by the repeated administration of Cr fumes. On the other hand, single administrations of Cr-Fr and Cr (III) oxide produced no remarkable histopathological changes. Cr fumes were found to be composed of 73.5% chromium (III) oxide and 26.5% chromium (VI) oxide. The primary particles of Cr fumes and Cr-Fr were similar, 0.02 micron in size (sigma g: 1.25), and Cr (III) oxide particles were 0.30 micron in size (sigma g: 1.53), measured by analytical electron microscopy (ATEM). Diffuse clusters of the primary particles in Cr fumes were identified as Cr (VI) oxide. The present results suggested that the lung toxicity of Cr fumes was mainly caused by these Cr (VI) oxide (CrO3) particles in Cr fumes.  (+info)

A new model rat with acute bronchiolitis and its application to research on the toxicology of inhaled particulate matter. (8/6488)

The aim of the present study was to establish a useful animal model that simulates humans sensitive to inhaled particulate matter (PM). We have developed a new rat model of acute bronchiolitis (Br) by exposing animals to NiCl2 (Ni) aerosols for five days. Three days following the Ni exposure, the animals developed signs of tachypnea, mucous hypersecretion, and bronchiolar inflammation which seemed to progress quickly during the fourth to fifth day. They recovered from lesions after four weeks in clean air. To assess the sensitivity of the Br rats to inhaled particles, two kinds of PM of respirable size were tested with doses similar to or a little higher to the recommended threshold limit values (TLVs) for the working environment in Japan. Titanium dioxide (TiO2 = Ti) was chosen as an inert and insoluble particles and vanadium pentoxide (V2O5 = V), as a representative soluble and toxic airborne material. The Br rats exposed to either Ti or V were compared the pathological changes in the lungs and the clearance of particles to those in normal control or Br rats kept in clean air. The following significant differences were observed in Br rats: 1. delayed recovery from pre-existing lesions or exacerbated inflammation, 2. reductions in deposition and clearance rate of inhaled particles with the progress of lesions. The present results suggest that Br rats are more susceptible to inhaled particles than control rats. Therefore, concentrations of particulate matter lower than the TLVs for Japan, which have no harmful effects on normal lungs, may not always be safe in the case of pre-existing lung inflammation.  (+info)

The condition is caused by mutations in genes that code for proteins involved in lipid metabolism, such as the low-density lipoprotein receptor gene (LDLR), apolipoprotein A-1 gene (APOA1), and proprotein convertase subtilisin/kexin type 9 (PCSK9) genes. These mutations can lead to the overproduction or underexpression of certain lipids, leading to the characteristic lipid abnormalities seen in HeFH.

HeFH is usually inherited in an autosomal dominant manner, meaning that a single copy of the mutated gene is enough to cause the condition. However, some cases may be caused by recessive inheritance or de novo mutations. The condition can affect both children and adults, and it is important for individuals with HeFH to be monitored closely by a healthcare provider to manage their lipid levels and reduce the risk of cardiovascular disease.

Treatment for HeFH typically involves a combination of dietary modifications, such as reducing saturated fat intake and increasing fiber and omega-3 fatty acid intake, and medications, such as statins, to lower cholesterol levels. In some cases, apheresis or liver transplantation may be necessary to reduce lipid levels. Early detection and management of HeFH can help prevent or delay the development of cardiovascular disease, which is the leading cause of death worldwide.

There are several types of hyperlipidemia, including:

1. High cholesterol: This is the most common type of hyperlipidemia and is characterized by elevated levels of low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol, also known as "bad" cholesterol.
2. High triglycerides: This type of hyperlipidemia is characterized by elevated levels of triglycerides in the blood. Triglycerides are a type of fat found in the blood that is used for energy.
3. Low high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol: HDL cholesterol is known as "good" cholesterol because it helps remove excess cholesterol from the bloodstream and transport it to the liver for excretion. Low levels of HDL cholesterol can contribute to hyperlipidemia.

Symptoms of hyperlipidemia may include xanthomas (fatty deposits on the skin), corneal arcus (a cloudy ring around the iris of the eye), and tendon xanthomas (tender lumps under the skin). However, many people with hyperlipidemia have no symptoms at all.

Hyperlipidemia can be diagnosed through a series of blood tests that measure the levels of different types of cholesterol and triglycerides in the blood. Treatment for hyperlipidemia typically involves dietary changes, such as reducing intake of saturated fats and cholesterol, and increasing physical activity. Medications such as statins, fibric acid derivatives, and bile acid sequestrants may also be prescribed to lower cholesterol levels.

In severe cases of hyperlipidemia, atherosclerosis (hardening of the arteries) can occur, which can lead to cardiovascular disease, including heart attacks and strokes. Therefore, it is important to diagnose and treat hyperlipidemia early on to prevent these complications.

There are several causes of hypertriglyceridemia, including:

* Genetics: Some people may inherit a tendency to have high triglyceride levels due to genetic mutations that affect the genes involved in triglyceride metabolism.
* Obesity: Excess body weight is associated with higher triglyceride levels, as there is more fat available for energy.
* Diabetes: Both type 1 and type 2 diabetes can lead to high triglyceride levels due to insulin resistance and altered glucose metabolism.
* High-carbohydrate diet: Consuming high amounts of carbohydrates, particularly refined or simple carbohydrates, can cause a spike in blood triglycerides.
* Alcohol consumption: Drinking too much alcohol can increase triglyceride levels in the blood.
* Certain medications: Some drugs, such as anabolic steroids and some antidepressants, can raise triglyceride levels.
* Underlying medical conditions: Certain medical conditions, such as hypothyroidism, kidney disease, and polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS), can also contribute to high triglyceride levels.

Hypertriglyceridemia is typically diagnosed with a blood test that measures the level of triglycerides in the blood. Treatment options for hypertriglyceridemia depend on the underlying cause of the condition, but may include lifestyle modifications such as weight loss, dietary changes, and medications to lower triglyceride levels.

There is often a need for a certain average particle size for the ensemble of particles. The particle size of a spherical ... particle size Weight-based particle size equals the diameter of the sphere that has the same weight as a given particle. Useful ... volume of particle Area-based particle size Area-based particle size equals the diameter of the sphere that has the same ... see also grain size). There are several methods for measuring particle size and particle size distribution. Some of them are ...
... , particle size measurement, or simply particle sizing, is the collective name of the technical ... or mean size of the particles in a powder or liquid sample. Particle size analysis is the part of particle science, and it is ... The particle size measurement is typically achieved by means of devices, called Particle Size Analyzers (PSA), which are based ... Having properly sized particles allow aggregate companies to create long-lasting roads and other products. Particle size ...
... to describe particle size distributions. It is still widely used in mineral processing to describe particle size distributions ... Particle size (general) Sauter mean diameter - mathematical description of average particle size, based on an idealized sphere ... particles above a certain size, and "passes" particles below that size, is universally used in presenting PSD data of all kinds ... The particle-size distribution (PSD) of a powder, or granular material, or particles dispersed in fluid, is a list of values or ...
Particle size describes the size of particles. Particle size may also refer to: Grain size (also called particle size), the ... Particle size distribution Particle (disambiguation) This disambiguation page lists articles associated with the title Particle ... size. If an internal link led you here, you may wish to change the link to point directly to the intended article. ( ...
... analytical procedures such as particle size analysis. Particles are characterized by their individual size and shape, and by ... The space between particles in bulk means that the bulk density is less than the density of individual particles. The way in ... Particle technology is the "science and technology related to the handling and processing of particles and powders." This ... increasing size by flocculation, granulation, powder compaction, tableting, crystallization particle separation, such as ...
Owing to their size, UFPs are considered to be respirable particles. Contrary to the behaviour of inhaled PM10 and PM2.5, ... Ultrafine particles (UFPs) are particulate matter of nanoscale size (less than 0.1 μm or 100 nm in diameter). Regulations do ... W.G. Kreyling; M. Semmler-Behnke; W. Möller (2006). "Ultrafine particle-lung interactions: does size matter?". Journal of ... The important detail is the definition of size, stated: "The lower and upper sizes considered within this document are 7 nm and ...
The size distribution of particles to be collected is source specific. For example, particles produced by mechanical means ( ... This mechanism enables certain scrubbers to effectively remove the very tiny particles (less than 0.1 µm). In the particle size ... and submicrometre particles. The most critical sized particles are those in the 0.1 to 0.5 micrometres range because they are ... and a decrease in liquid-droplet size. However, collection by diffusion increases as particle size decreases. ...
2006). "Volume-exclusion effects in tethered-particle experiments: bead size matters". Physical Review Letters. 96 (8): 088306 ... Tethered particle motion (TPM) is a biophysical method that is used for studying various polymers such as DNA and their ... Both techniques give us the coordinate of the end-to-end vector in a resolution better than pixel size. Usually, the whole ... the pixel size on the camera may reduce the resolution of the measure. In order to extract the exact bead's position (that ...
Vision based particle sizing units obtain two dimensional images that are analyzed by computer software to obtain particle size ... Vision based particle sizing units obtain two dimensional images that are analyzed by computer software to obtain particle size ... Vision based systems are also used to measure dry particle size. With a vision based system quick and efficient particle sizing ... Remote particle counters can have a particle size detection range from 0.1 to 100 micrometres and may feature one of a variety ...
... the sharper is particle minimal size cutoff. During the heterogeneous nucleation process in the nucleation chamber, particles ... A condensation particle counter or CPC is a particle counter that detects and counts aerosol particles by first enlarging them ... This is of special importance because particles sized down from 50 nm are generally undetectable with conventional optical ... This amount grows (vapor pressure decreases) along with decrease in particle size, the critical diameter for which condensation ...
The aggregating suspension is forced through a narrow capillary particle counter and the size of each aggregate is being ... This dependence may reflect different particle properties or different ion affinities to the particle surface. Since particles ... At higher particle concentrations, the growing clusters may interlink, and form a particle gel. Such a gel is an elastic solid ... The larger the cluster size, the faster their settling velocity. Therefore, aggregating particles sediment and this mechanism ...
The relative size of a scattering particle is defined by its size parameter x, which is the ratio of its characteristic ... Scattering from any spherical particles with arbitrary size parameter is explained by the Mie theory. Mie theory, also called ... Light scattering by particles is the process by which small particles (e.g. ice crystals, dust, atmospheric particulates, ... so long as the size and critical dimensions of a particle are much larger than the wavelength of light. The light can be ...
Rudorf, Sofia; Joachim O. Radler (2012). "Self-assembly of stable monomolecular nucleic acid lipid particles with a size of 30 ... Stable nucleic acid lipid particles (SNALPs) are microscopic particles approximately 120 nanometers in diameter, smaller than ... The SNALPs ranged from 71 - 84 nm in size and were composed of synthetic cholesterol, phospholipid DSPC, PEG lipid PEGC-DMA, ... The SNALPs (around 81 nm in size here) were formulated by spontaneous vesiculation from a mixture of cholesterol, dipalmitoyl ...
... whereas particle damping is used to imply multiple auxiliary masses of small size in a cavity. The principle behind particle ... Through analyses, one can find the right kind, size and consistency of particles for the given application. Therefore, they are ... Particle damping is the use of particles moving freely in a cavity to produce a damping effect. Active and passive damping ... The discrete element method makes use of particle mechanics, whereby individual particles are modeled with 6-degrees of freedom ...
Particle size < 5 μm. droplet transmission - small and usually wet particles that stay in the air for a short period of time. ... The size of the particles for droplet infections are > 5 μm. Organisms spread by droplet transmission include respiratory ... They infect others via the upper and lower respiratory tracts." The size of the particles for airborne infections need to be < ... Particle size > 5 μm. direct physical contact - touching an infected individual, including sexual contact indirect physical ...
Hot particles contained in far-traveled nuclear fallout range in size from 10 nanometers to 20 micrometers, whereas those ... Hot particle dosimetry and radiobiology-past and present The Hot Particle Problem Hot particles and lung cancer statistics - An ... Due to their small size, hot particles may be swallowed, inhaled or enter the body by other means. Once lodged in the body, ... Hot particles at Dounreay Nuclear Monitor Investigating fallout from nuclear testing-Hot Particles and the Cold War, Pier ...
Sivarupan, T.; Taylor, J. A.; Cáceres, C. H. (2014). Effect of Si and Cu Content on the Size of Intermetallic Phase Particles ... Sivarupan, T.; Taylor, J. A.; Cáceres, C. H. (2014). Effect of Si and Cu Content on the Size of Intermetallic Phase Particles ... "Effect of Si Content on the Size of Fe-Rich Intermetallic Particles in Al-xSi-0.8Fe Alloys". Materials Science Forum. 765: 107- ... The size of these phases depends on the secondary dendrite arm spacing, as well as the Si content of the alloy, of the primary ...
... with significantly higher size in cancer cells than healthy ones. Particle size distributions. Molar mass distributions. ... Particle size distributions produced by comminution with random impacts, such as in ball milling.[citation needed] The file ... City sizes (population) satisfy Gibrat's Law. The growth process of city sizes is proportionate and invariant with respect to ... Even if that's not true, the size distributions at any age of things that grow over time tends to be log-normal. A second ...
Particle size distribution. Distribution of silicate and aluminate phases. Reactivity of hydrating phases. Gypsum/hemihydrates ... Emulsion polymers are supplied as suspensions of polymer particles. They contain about 50% solids. Such particles can ... usually below 40 μm in average particle size, enable hydraulic cement slurries as low as 8 PpG (960 Kg/m^3) Gaseous extenders ... The smaller size of the Cl− ions causes a greater tendency to diffuse into the C-S-H membrane. Eventually the C-S-H membrane ...
Particle size: ≤20mm. Note: These indexes are the lowest requirements for the coal, the better coal will be better at practice ...
This produces silt particles whose size of 10-30 microns is determined by Moss defects. Production of silt-sized grains from ... It also corresponds to a Tanner gap in the distribution of particle sizes in sediments: Particles between 120 and 30 microns in ... Since most clay mineral particles are smaller than 2 microns, while most detrital particles between 2 and 62 microns in size ... Glacial loess has a typical particle size of about 25 microns. Desert loess contains either larger or smaller particles, with ...
... whereas homogeneous particles are only surface-active. Twenty years later, a plethora of Janus particles of different sizes, ... A Janus particle size of 200 nm was found to deposit on the surface of fibers and were very efficient for the design of water- ... Variety of janus particles in sizes 10µm to 53µm in diameter are currently commercially available from Cospheric, who holds a ... Zwitterionic Janus particles do not behave like classical dipoles, since their size is much larger than the distance at which ...
As the film thickness is reduced, the film becomes more and more orange peeled in texture due to the particle size and glass ... Most powder coatings have a particle size in the range of 2 to 50 μm, a softening temperature Tg around 80 °C, a melting ... The most important properties to consider are chemical composition and density; particle shape and size; and impact resistance ... combines the advantages of powder coatings and liquid coatings by dispersing very fine powders of 1-5 µm sized particles into ...
Particle size and formulation. Physicochemical factors. Drugs given by enteral administration may be subjected to significant ...
... has occurred if the apparent particle size is determined to be beyond the typical size range for colloidal particles. The ... There is an upper size-limit for the diameter of colloidal particles because particles larger than 1 μm tend to sediment, and ... it backscattered by the colloidal particles. The backscattering intensity is directly proportional to the average particle size ... If the apparent size of the particles increases due to them clumping together via aggregation, it will result in slower ...
Particle size distribution range from 10 nanometers right up to 100 microns. NanoBrook Omni-Particle Size Analyzer and Zeta ... Brookhaven has an extensive range of products for particle characterization. 90Plus-Particle Size Analyzer. Based on the ... Improved Techniques for Particle Size Determination by Quasi-Elastic Light Scattering by I. D. Morrison, E. G. Grabowski, and C ... and phase analysis for particle size, zeta potential, molecular mass, and absolute molar mass analysis. Product designs started ...
". "Apparatus and method for particle analysis". "Apparatus and method for particle analysis". "Particle Size Distribution ... In 1989, he, with son Ekhard Preikschat, invented a scanning laser diode microscope for particle-size analysis. He and Ekhard ... and a scanning laser diode microscope for particle analysis (1989). He was the only engineer to work on both sides of the Space ...
"Particle Size Distribution Analysis". Archived from the original on 2016-10-09. Retrieved 2016-10-06. Hoffman, David P.; ... In 1989, Fritz Karl Preikschat, with his son Ekhard Preikschat, invented the scanning laser diode microscope for particle-size ... Here, the size of the scanning volume is determined by the spot size (close to diffraction limit) of the optical system because ... The size of this diffraction pattern and the focal volume it defines is controlled by the numerical aperture of the system's ...
The Brownian motion becomes progressively less prominent, as the particles grow in size or the viscosity of the medium ... As a result, the sol particles show random or zig-zag movements. This random or zig-zag motion of the colloidal particles in a ... Colloidal particles in a sol are continuously bombarded by the molecules of the dispersion medium on all sides. The impacts are ... Such random motion is visible under ultramicroscopes and for bigger particles even under ordinary microscopes. ...
On the other hand, the resolution of optical microscopy requires that the particle size investigated exceeds at least 100 nm. ... Particle deposition is the spontaneous attachment of particles to surfaces. The particles in question are normally colloidal ... For small particles and low salt, the diffuse layer will extend far beyond the particle, and thus create an exclusion zone ... particles, while the surfaces involved may be planar, curved, or may represent particles much larger in size than the ...
It is a large, brick-shaped, enveloped virus that ranges in size from 265-295 nm. The viral genetic material is contained in a ... The newly formed virus particles can be released during cell lysis, or they can derive a host cell produced membrane and be ...
... as the particle size reported will assume that the particles are spherical, where in fact an elongated particle might pass ... The size of the average particle on each sieve is then analysed to get a cut-off point or specific size range, which is then ... For coarse material, sizes that range down to #100 mesh (150μm), a sieve analysis and particle size distribution is accurate ... surface attraction effects between the particles themselves and between particles and the screen increase as the particle size ...
The size restriction seems to have less to do with structural impediment caused by the added section and more to do with the ... If a "phagemid" vector is used (a simplified display construct vector) phage particles will not be released from the E. coli ... To overcome the size problem of pVIII, artificial coat proteins have been designed. An example is Weiss and Sidhu's inverted ... The disadvantage of using T7 is that the size of the protein that can be expressed on the surface is limited to shorter ...
... two different dielectric particles with equal size but different permittivity. In theory, the particles analyzed by Mie theory ... The greater the particle size, the more of the light is scattered in the forward direction. The blue colour of the sky results ... If the size of the particle is equal to several wavelengths in the material, then the scattered fields have some features. ... "ISO 13320:2009 - Particle size analysis -- Laser diffraction methods". Retrieved 2015-11-02. He, L; Kear-Padilla, ...
Olive, K.A. (Particle Data Group); et al. (2014). "28. Cosmic Rays in Review of Particle Physics" (PDF). Chin. Phys. C. 38 (9 ... The muon flux at the Earth's surface is such that a single muon passes through an area the size of a human hand per second. ... The drift tubes measure particle coordinates in X and Y with a typical accuracy of several hundred micrometers. The MMT can be ... With an invention of this particle tracking technique, he worked out the methods to generate the muogram as a function of ...
... rejected the idea that these particles were thrown off from all the cells of the body. He called the particles "pangens", later ... At the beginning January on receiving an estimate of the size of the two volume book from the printers he wrote to his ... He proposed that each part of an organism contains minute invisible particles which he called gemmules. These were capable of ... presupposing the existence of material particles in the germ which possess the properties of the living being ... I must ...
Softimage also contains tools to simulate particles, particle strands, rigid body dynamics, soft body dynamics, cloth, hair and ... MOTOR is a feature that transfers animation between characters, regardless of their size or proportions. GATOR can transfer ... Among the main uses for ICE are procedural modeling, deformation, rigging and particle simulation. It can also be used to ...
... 's per-particle abundance in the Solar System is 0.083 ppb (parts per billion). This figure is about two thirds of ... The Nd3+ ion is similar in size to the early lanthanides of the cerium group (those from lanthanum up to samarium and europium ... a centimeter-sized sample of neodymium corrodes completely in about a year. Like its neighbor praseodymium, it readily burns at ... Period 6 elements Rare earth metals Abundances in the source are listed relative to silicon rather than in per-particle ...
Mud leaving the underflow is further screened with fine mesh to separate larger particles allowing only barite size particles ... to separate particles and the underflow passes to the fine screen mesh where in particles larger than barite are discarded and ... mud flows to the inlet head section of the desander and/or desilter entering the hydrocyclones for separation of particles. ...
The size of each level in the pyramid generally represents biomass, which can be measured as the dry weight of an organism. ... "the continued movement of the particles of earth". Even earlier, in 1768 John Bruckner described nature as "one continued web ... Charles Elton pioneered the concept of food cycles, food chains, and food size in his classical 1927 book "Animal Ecology"; ... Charles Elton subsequently pioneered the concept of food cycles, food chains, and food size in his classical 1927 book "Animal ...
The batteries were sized to allow up to three months of operation for the payload sphere. Various mission constraints limited ... medium-energy-range particle detectors, two triple coincidence telescopes, a cosmic-ray integrating ionization chamber, cosmic ... greatly increasing its size by a significant and almost prohibitive degree. The intense efforts devoted in the 1960s to ... increasing the latter's required size. The Moon departure rocket, larger moon landing rocket and any Earth atmosphere entry ...
In particle physics, the hadron particles that make up all matter, such as neutrons and protons, are composed of more basic ... The tube follows the field lines, possibly turning, twisting, and changing its cross sectional size and shape as the field ... why quarks are never seen separately in particle experiments. Flux rope: Twisted magnetic flux tube. Fibril field: Magnetic ... particles called quarks, which are bound together by thin flux tubes of strong nuclear force field. The flux tube model is ...
The 19S regulatory particles can recognize ubiquitin-labeled protein as degradation substrate, unfold the protein to linear, ... The human protein 26S proteasome non-ATPase regulatory subunit 14 is 37 kDa in size and composed of 324 amino acids. The ... Thus, 19S regulatory particle pertains a series of important capabilities to address these functional challenges. To recognize ... 26S proteasome complex is usually consisted of a 20S core particle (CP, or 20S proteasome) and one or two 19S regulatory ...
Other notable minimalist swarm algorithm is Bare bones particle swarms (BB-PSO), which is based on particle swarm optimisation ... Other than the population size N {\displaystyle N} , the only tunable parameter is the disturbance threshold Δ {\displaystyle \ ... DFO bears many similarities with other existing continuous, population-based optimisers (e.g. particle swarm optimization and ... ISBN 978-83-60810-58-3. Kennedy, J. (2003). Bare bones particle swarms. Proceedings of the 2003 IEEE Swarm Intelligence ...
The original device is based upon a suspension of asymmetric particles in a thin fluid layer which, when acted upon by acoustic ... However, the acoustic microscopes emit ultrasound ranging from 5 MHz to beyond 400 MHz so that micrometre size resolution can ...
If visible, the CGM of the Andromeda Galaxy (1.3-2 million ly) would stretch 3 times the size of the width of the Big Dipper- ... The WHIM is expected to form a filamentary structure of tenuous, highly ionized baryons with a density of 1−10 particles per ... "Hubble Shows the True Size of Andromeda". September 2020. (CS1 maint: ignored ISBN errors, Articles with short description, ...
She is introduced as an assistant particle physics professor at Columbia University, but her bid for tenure fails after her ... Vigo's spirit possesses and remains within his life-size self-portrait, which inevitably arrives at the restoration department ... Like Erin, her expertise is Particle Physics, but Abby fancies herself as a fearless parapsychologist, having an additional ...
These physical properties can include density, particle size and shape, electrical and magnetic properties, and surface ... This simplify conventional processing routes and allows a substantial reduction in the size of a metal processing plant. DESs ... Mineral processing begins with beneficiation, consisting of initially breaking down the ore to required sizes depending on the ...
... as well as with a limited distribution of particle sizes. In 2002, the production of nano-sized aluminum particles required ... A critical aspect of the production is the ability to produce particles of sizes in the tens of nano-meter range, ... Nano-thermite or super-thermite is a metastable intermolecular composite (MIC) characterized by a particle size of its main ... Thermate Pyrotechnic composition "Effect of Al particle size on the thermal degradation of Al/teflon mixtures" (PDF). ...
... a particle physics experiment Ansco Panda, a camera Google Panda, a search-results ranking algorithm Panda, a brand of ... a small or medium-sized marked British police car Phillips Panda, a moped USS Panda (IX-125), a U.S. Navy tanker Panda crossing ...
Mechanics of elastic collisions predict that the maximum energy transfer occurs during collisions of two particles of equal ... Borehole size Borehole salinity Borehole temperature and pressure Mud cake Mud weight Formation salinity Tool standoff from ...
Elementary particles entering the wall will likely decay to other particles or black holes. If all decay paths leads to very ... 1 gives the critical radius as A bubble smaller than the critical size can overcome the potential barrier via quantum ... Particle Data Group) (2018). "Review of Particle Physics". Physical Review D. 98 (3): 1-708. Bibcode:2018PhRvD..98c0001T. doi: ... enclosing the false-vacuum particle instead of immediate decay. Multi-particle objects can be stabilized as Q-balls, although ...
Maxwell, David (1 February 2003). "Try a 120 for Size". Armada International. ISSN 0252-9793. Norman, Michael. Soviet Mediums ... providing firepower of that of DU ammunition in a DU particle-free environment. South Korea holds related patents on Japan, ...
... cloud particle size spectrometer to measure particle size and shape SN - nephelometer to search for cloud particles SAS - ... cloud particle size spectrometer to measure particle size and shape LN - nephelometer to search for cloud particles temperature ...
Any technique that removes material from the printed part has the potential to generate particles that can be inhaled or cause ... have established occupational exposure limits at the nanoparticle size. As of March 2018,[update] the US Government has set 3D ... A National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) study noted particle emissions from a fused filament peaked a ... Emissions from fused filament printers can include a large number of ultrafine particles and volatile organic compounds (VOCs ...
Depending on the size of the pot or the heat needed, one could remove the inner rings. 18th-century Neoclassical cocklestove in ... Some stoves use a catalytic converter, which causes combustion of the gas and smoke particles not previously burned. Other ... Because of its compact size, the stove could be housed in a large fireplace or used free-standing in the middle of a room by ... It would take another 30 years until the technology had been refined and the size of the iron stove been reduced enough for ...
... applies to the case when the scattering particle is very small (x ≪ 1, with a particle size < 1/10 of ... The size of a scattering particle is often parameterized by the ratio x = 2 π r λ {\displaystyle x={\frac {2\pi r}{\lambda }}} ... Scattering by particles with a size comparable to or larger than the wavelength of the light is typically treated by the Mie ... The particle, therefore, becomes a small radiating dipole whose radiation we see as scattered light. The particles may be ...
This is much the same as an ionization chamber in particle physics. The size and location of these electrodes determine the ... The establishment of this compatibility constitutes the basis of the invention of GDD and the leap from particle physics to ... The GDD is in principle an adaptation of techniques for particle detection used in nuclear physics and astronomy. The ... case with the addition of an amplification of signal along the principle of a proportional amplifier as used in particle ...
Additionally, optional particles (e.g. কি -ki, না -na, etc.) are often encliticised onto the first or last word of a yes-no ... "Summary by language size". Ethnologue. 2019. Archived from the original on 24 April 2019. Retrieved 21 February 2019. "Bangla ...
The particles or entities may be molecules, atoms, ions, electrons, or other, depending on the context, and should be specified ... 1865: Loschmidt makes the first estimate of the size of gas molecules and hence of number of molecules in a given volume of gas ... The latter may refer to other measurements such as mass or volume, rather than the number of particles. There are proposals to ... To avoid ambiguity, the nature of the particles should be specified in any measurement of the amount of substance: thus, a ...
NIOSH and MSHA conducted a joint survey to determine the range of coal particle sizes found in dust samples collected from ... Draft NIOSH document, "Recent Coal Dust Particle Size Surveys and the Implications for Mine Explosions;" 10/1/09 [PDF - 33,636 ... Subject: This report gives the results of recent coal dust particle size surveys and large-scale explosion tests and how this ... Given the results of the recent coal dust particle size survey and large-scale explosion tests, NIOSH recommends a new standard ...
The quest for a knowledge of particle size has led to the development of a large number of particle sizing techniques. Allen ( ... It works on the basis of the fact that when the spring is stretched and agitated, the particle size of the powder discharged ... The weight of the powder discharged is measured and particle size distribution (PSD) is then provided as a plot of percentage ... This paper describes the design and development of a spring particle size analyser, which overcomes most of the problems ...
Composting > Compost Particle Size Compost Particle Size. Microorganisms are not capable of chewing or mechanically attacking ... the relationship between particle size and surface area is the same. Clearly, when a small difference in particle size can ... As particle size decreases, the amount of surface area goes up just about as rapidly as the number series used a few paragraphs ... Some larger single-cell creatures can surround or envelop and then "swallow" tiny food particles. Once inside the cell this ...
... uses emulsions and suspensions to increase drug efficacy by controlling their particle size and size distribution. Among ... discusses ways to develop a robust homogenization process for making pharmaceutical emulsions by evaluating droplet size ... Products » Particle Characterization » Particle Size Analysis for Homogenization Process Development Particle Size Analysis for ... uses emulsions and suspensions to increase drug efficacy by controlling their particle size and size distribution. Among ...
Effects of particle size and moisture levels in mixed rations on the feeding behavior of dairy heifers - Volume 8 Issue 10 ... Effect of varying total mixed ration particle size on rumen digesta and fecal particle size and digestibility in lactating ... Heifers fed the Medium diet showed a preference for medium particles with no preference for the other particle sizes. In ... Kononoff, PJ, Heinrichs, AJ and Lehman, HA 2003a. The effect of corn silage particle size on eating behavior, chewing ...
The mean particle diameter decreased from 500 to 50 nm with a decrease in the (BaCl2 + TiO2)/(NaOH + KOH) molar ratio from 0.44 ... The BaTiO3 particles prepared with the (BaCl2 + TiO2)/(NaOH + KOH) molar ratio of 0.32 and 0.22 showed excellent sinterability ... The size of BaTiO3 particles was controlled by adjusting the molar ratio of the starting materials (BaCl2 + TiO2) to ... The size of BaTiO3 particles was controlled by adjusting the molar ratio of the starting materials (BaCl2 + TiO2) to ...
... are some of the other major factors driving the growth of particle size analysis market.. The global particle size analysis ... The global Particle size analysis market size is projected to reach USD 492 million by 2026 from USD 371 million in 2021, ... The particle size analysis industry is segmented into five regional segments, namely, North America, Europe, Asia Pacific, ... What is the expected addressable market value of global particle size analysis market over a 5-year period?. ...
How to Remove Agglomerates: Sifter for Micron-Size Particles. From each bulk bag unloader, particles are micronized in a vortex ...
What is the particle size of the DUSSMASS - Dust Surface Mass Concentration variable from MERRA-2 Reanalyses?. * Quote ... What is the particle size of the DUSSMASS - Dust Surface Mass Concentration variable from MERRA-2 Reanalyses?. Use this Forum ... Re: What is the particle size of the DUSSMASS - Dust Surface Mass Concentration variable from MERRA-2 Reanalyses?. * Quote ... Re: What is the particle size of the DUSSMASS - Dust Surface Mass Concentration variable from MERRA-2 Reanalyses?. * Quote ...
Brierley, G. J., & Hickin, E. J. (1985). The downstream gradation of particle sizes in the Squamish river, British Columbia. ... Brierley, Gary J. ; Hickin, Edward J. / The downstream gradation of particle sizes in the Squamish river, British Columbia. In ... Brierley, GJ & Hickin, EJ 1985, The downstream gradation of particle sizes in the Squamish river, British Columbia, Earth ... The downstream gradation of particle sizes in the Squamish river, British Columbia. Earth Surface Processes and Landforms. 1985 ...
particle size of quarry dust mozambique. Particle size distribution and particle sizerelated. Particle size distribution and ... particle size. · Breakdown of Particle Sizes. The most useful particle size distribution includes a breakdown of the particle ... Coal Dust Particle Size Survey of US Mines. particle size survey to determine the range of coal particle sizes found in dust ... quarry dust size machine. quarry dust size machine particle size of quarry dust- Rock Crusher MillRock. particle size of quarry ...
... 0-9. A. B. C. D. E. F. G. H. I. J. K. L. M. N. O. P. Q. R. S. T. U. V. W ...
... we offer cutting-edge industry updates and solutions for particle reduction challenges. ... From grains to stones and from wood to ore, humans have been using tools to break down the size of ... ... Fundamentals of Size Reduction. Posted on 11/14/22 11:51 AM ...
In this article, we will define what a particle size distribution curve is and how you can generate one of your own. ... size distribution curves provide an inside look into the quality of your sample material after undergoing a particle size ... As it details the average particle size, smallest particle size, and largest particle size, it is easiest to compare it to the ... A particle size distribution curve is a graph that gives lab operators an inside look into the size of the individual particles ...
... mainly focusing on the effects of particle sizes and enrichment of Pb2+. When the exposed particle size is higher than 100 nm, ... As the particle size decreases from 100 nm, cell mortality goes up. Although the internalization of polystyrene nanoplastics in ... Toxicity of polystyrene nanoplastics to human embryonic kidney cells and human normal liver cells: Effect of particle size and ...
Nanobacteria are tiny particles that create calcium deposits in the body. It is thought that all calcium that is outside of the ... bones (except in the blood) is from these particles. Calcium deposits or plaques can cause serious problems if they obstruct ...
Filter Pore Size. Most portable filters are microfilters with a pore size ,1 µm, which should readily remove bacteria and ... Large particles like silt and sand will settle by gravity (sedimentation). Cloudiness due to dissolved substances or smaller ... Table 2-11 Waterborne pathogens (average sizes) & filter pore size needed to achieve disinfection. ... Filter pore size is the primary determinant of a filters effectiveness (see Figure 2-01). Manufacturers claiming a US ...
... using the particle size to set up the shredder machine. The difficulty is separating the waste particles in an image, which can ... We assessed several state-of-the-art deep learning algorithms and computer vision techniques for estimating the particle size ... This work focused on estimating size by using the texture from the input image, captured at a fixed height from the camera lens ...
Narrow Particle Size Range 0.7 Micron Precipitated Barium Sulphate. Slim Particle Dimension Variety .7 Micron Precipitated ... Oxidation Resistance Natural Micro Graphite Powder Narrow Particle Size Range 0.7 Micron Precipitated Barium Sulphate → ... OMEC Laser particle dimension analyzer. Whiteness analyzer. Certain gravity analyzer. Our Certification - ISO 9001:2008. - RoHS ... Very good particle dimensions .7 micron. - Large BaSO4 content. - Superb whitness Software PowEPTcoating (powdr paint), paint, ...
DONATO, Lúcio Flávio Azevedo et al. Evaluate the depth of two composites cure with different filler particles sizes. Odontol. ... This in vitro study aimed to evaluate the depth of two composites cure with different filler particles sizes. Two micro-hybrid ...
Particle sizeopen allclose all. Particle size 1. Percentile:. D50. Mean:. ca. 34 µm. Remarks on result:. other: D50 - standard ... particle size distribution (granulometry). Type of information:. experimental study. Adequacy of study:. key study. Reliability ... Measured using a RISE 2002 Laser Diffraction Particle Size Analyser. Type of distribution:. other: Laser diffraction. Test ...
Particle size distribution. The particle size distribution is determined with the help of the DLG cascade sieve system which is ... Particle size distribution. The results of the particle size distribution test are shown in figures 8 and 9. ... The graphs show that the set chop length has a clear effect on the distribution of the various particle sizes in the sieves. ... The test shows that the selected chop length has a significant effect on the particle size distribution in the sample so that ...
Shim-pack GIST NH2 is capable of the analysis of vitamin E or simultaneous analysis of sugars that are hard to separate in reversed phase mode.
Importance of particle sizing for quality control of ground calcium carbonate investigated through laser diffraction method on ... Typical size values and size distribution curves were compared to evaluate the quality and stability of the sizing process of ... Measuring Particle Size Distribution of Calcium Carbonate Powders with Laser Diffraction Method. 2021-09-14Application Note ... In this investigation, particle size distributions of three different ground calcium carbonates were measured by the laser ...
In accordance with column 2 of REACH annex VII, particle size distribution does not need to be conducted as the substance is a ...
... buy Fine particle size Coated Nano Precipitated Calcium Carbonate for Sealants and Adhesives use from China manufacturer. ... Fine particle Light Calcium Carbonate for PVC cables and wires * Fine particle Precipitated Calcium Carbonate for PVC cables ... Fine particle size Coated Nano Precipitated Calcium Carbonate for Sealants and Adhesives use. ...
We present a systematic, quantitative pore-scale study of the impact of spatial correlations in particle sizes on the drainage ... Immiscible fluid displacement in porous media with spatially correlated particle sizes. Advances in Water Resources. 2019 Jun; ... We present a systematic, quantitative pore-scale study of the impact of spatial correlations in particle sizes on the drainage ... We present a systematic, quantitative pore-scale study of the impact of spatial correlations in particle sizes on the drainage ...
Particle size distribution, scanning electron microscopic images of chalk dusts and compressive strength of two types of chalks ... Majumdar, Deepanjan and Prince William, S P M (2009) Chalk dustfall during classroom teaching: particle size distribution and ... 11 particles from both types of boards. Scanning electron microscope images revealed that chalk particles had random shape, ... Settling chalk particles were collected for 30 min during teaching in glass Petri plates placed in classrooms within 3 m ...
Patent application title: METHOD AND DEVICE FOR DETERMINING THE SIZE OF A TRANSPARENT PARTICLE. Inventors: Cameron Tropea ( ...
  • Given the results of the recent coal dust particle size survey and large-scale explosion tests, NIOSH recommends a new standard of 80% total incombustible content be required in the intake airways of bituminous coal mines. (
  • The results are presented of a recent coal dust particle size survey to determine the range of coal particles sizes found in dust samples collected from intake airways from 47 coal mines in MSHA's ten bituminous coal mine health and safety districts (see figure 1). (
  • Giorgia De Matteis works as application specialist for particle characterization and surface charge at Anton Paar GmbH. (
  • 1. INTRODUCTION TO PARTICLE SIZE CHARACTERIZATION Knowledge of particle sizes and the size distribution of a powder system is a prerequisite for most production and processing operations. (
  • Recently it was speculated that ultrafine particles may translocate from deposition sites in the lungs to systemic circulation. (
  • In additional studies, the biokinetics of ultrafine particles and soluble 192Ir was studied after administra- tion by either gavage or intratracheal instillation or intravenous injection. (
  • This report gives the results of recent coal dust particle size surveys and large-scale explosion tests and how this data impacts rock dusting requirements for underground coal mines. (
  • There is a common need to determine the amount of material in …CONE CRUSHER MODELLING AND SIMULATION process and calculate a product particle size distribution Crushers are usually a part of a ... grinding mill to produce less than 10 micron particle size. (
  • The quest for a knowledge of particle size has led to the development of a large number of particle sizing techniques. (
  • so deagglomeration process are necessary for getting particles of narrow particle size distribution. (
  • 40 burnability …High precision and reproducible data from Horiba LA-950 particle size analyzer provide the critical information for evaluating different equipment and processing conditions. (
  • The pharmaceutical industry, in particular, uses emulsions and suspensions to increase drug efficacy by controlling their particle size and size distribution. (
  • This webinar discusses ways to develop a robust homogenization process for making pharmaceutical emulsions by evaluating droplet size distribution. (
  • Both Y and Z types interaction chambers from Microfluidics produce emulsions with fine size and fairly uniform distribution. (
  • ISO 22412:2017 specifies the application of dynamic light scattering (DLS) to the measurement of average hydrodynamic particle size and the measurement of the size distribution of mainly submicrometre-sized particles, emulsions or fine bubbles dispersed in liquids. (
  • This paper describes the design and development of a spring particle size analyser, which overcomes most of the problems associated with the above conventional techniques. (
  • The weight of the powder discharged is measured and particle size distribution (PSD) is then provided as a plot of percentage mass of discharged powder versus the corresponding particle size. (
  • Hence size distribution of the particles is the most important parameters to be understood. (
  • The present study is intended to quantify the net effects of turbulence on the particle size distribution in the mixing layer. (
  • A ball mill bauxite received from the mines is crushed to a particle size of less than 25 mm cost andParticle size distribution jaw crusher. (
  • particle size distribution jaw crusher. (
  • Custom Particle Size Distribution for Manufacturing. (
  • Y type is slightly more efficient than Z type.particle size distribution in cement mill. (
  • Particle Sizes Distribution Models. (
  • Hindalco manufactures ground hydrate with different particle size (5-15 micron) distribution. (
  • Surface-treated fine hydrate …Cement milling particle size distribution. (
  • particle size reduction ultra fine grindingltra-fine grinding particle size reduction services 050 microns the process engineers at fluid energy recognize that no one jet mill is suitable for all learn morearticle size grinding millarticle size distribution mills bayer - …Particle Size Distribution Mills Bayer. (
  • Particle size distribution and particle sizerelated. (
  • Particle size distribution and particle sizerelated crystalline silica content in granite quarry dust Sirianni G1 Hosgood HD 3rd Slade MD Borak J Author information 1Department of Occupational Safety and Health Management University of New Haven West Haven Connecticut USA. (
  • Particle Size Distribution of Settled Dust In 1958, San Bernardino County Air Pollution Control District adopted rules and regulations for the control of dust, fumes and particulate matter. (
  • Particle size distribution of dust at emission (dust PSD) is an essential quantity to estimate in dust studies. (
  • What Is a Particle Size Distribution Curve? (
  • This is where a reliable particle size distribution curve comes into play. (
  • But what exactly does a particle size distribution curve entail. (
  • How Would You Define a Particle Size Distribution Curve? (
  • Particle size distribution is the process in which a sample of material that is typically taken from a production line is examined to identify the average size of the individual particles. (
  • The particle size distribution curve is a graph that is generated to illustrate the average particle size, the smallest particle size, and the largest particle size. (
  • A good sample should, in general, follow the same particle size distribution curve every time you run it. (
  • How Do I Generate a Particle Size Distribution Curve? (
  • This is what gives you the peak that is synonyms with a proper particle size distribution curve. (
  • Thinking back to math class, a distribution curve is really the mean, mode, and average of your particle sizes. (
  • What Common Mistakes Are Made When Generating a Particle Size Distribution Curve? (
  • The common mistakes that are seen when lab operators generate a particle size distribution curve ultimately come down to two factors: inconsistency and human error. (
  • Additional user requirements include particle size distribution and bulk density. (
  • The size distribution for thelecithin/clinoptilolite complex was determined with a dynamic light scattering technique. (
  • As particle size decreases, the amount of surface area goes up just about as rapidly as the number series used a few paragraphs back to illustrate the multiplication of microorganisms. (
  • As the particle size decreases from 100 nm, cell mortality goes up. (
  • Particle analysis, whether is test sieve analysis, air jet sieve analysis, or dynamic image analysis, is an essential aspect of a wide range of quality control programs across dozens of industries. (
  • When conducting a particle size analysis, particularly test sieve analysis, you have a set stack of test sieves, some falling on the coarse end of the spectrum and some falling on the fine. (
  • Particles of any solid substance, generally under 30 microns in size, often noted as PM30. (
  • There was a time when I would have had to explain to you what an N95 mask is, how it is designed to filter out 95% of fine particles, defined as stuff in the air less than 2.5 microns in size. (
  • But, as the poet said, all that is less than 2.5 microns in size is not coronavirus. (
  • The mean particle diameter decreased from 500 to 50 nm with a decrease in the (BaCl 2 + TiO 2 )/(NaOH + KOH) molar ratio from 0.44 to 0.04. (
  • Particles of 10 microns diameter and less. (
  • Ultrafine 192Ir radio-labeled iridium particles (15 and 80 nm count median diameter) generated by spark discharging were inhaled by young adult, healthy, male WKY rats ventilated for 1 h via an endotracheal tube. (
  • Downstream trends for various particle size statistics, plotted with distance from a major sediment source, are considered according to two scenarios. (
  • This reflects a very rapid decline in particle size immediately downstream of the major sediment source. (
  • A hazardous particulate size less than 5 microns. (
  • Accurate measurements of the particle size and zeta potential is needed to monitor properties of bulk foods such as aggregation, sedimentation, phase separation, flocculation. (
  • UV spectrometry scanning electron microscopy particle size measurements. (
  • What is the particle size of the 'DUSSMASS - Dust Surface Mass Concentration' variable from MERRA-2 Reanalyses? (
  • Is it the dust surface mass concentration at the particle size of PM10? (
  • The N95 had its moment - a moment that seemed to be passing as the concentration of airborne coronavirus particles decreased. (
  • Des échantillons de sang ont été prélevés pendant les 24 heures suivant l'administration de la dose et la concentration en aténolol a été évaluée par chromatographie en phase liquide à haute performance. (
  • The formulations were characterized according to size, polydispersity index, pH, encapsulation rate and in vitro release. (
  • The size of aerosol particles often reveals their source or type. (
  • 2019).Thus turbulence has two opposite effects on the particle size, but net effects have been unquantified. (
  • It is known that atmospheric CO 2 absorbed in the particles and various materials stuck to particles' surfaces are advected and transported to the deep layers in the ocean. (
  • The National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) and MSHA conducted a joint survey to determine the range of coal particle sizes found in dust samples collected from intake and return airways of U.S. coal mines. (
  • You can refer to the FAQs at for the specific size of each dust bin. (
  • Luckily, the lungs have another function they have defense mechanisms that protects them by removing dust particles from the respiratory system. (
  • particle size survey to determine the range of coal particle sizes found in dust samples collected from intake airways in 50 US coal mines in MSHA s 10 bituminous Coal Mine Safety and Health Districts (seeFig. (
  • Particles such as sea salt and desert dust tend to be larger than aerosols that come from burning-including forest fires and the burning of fossil fuels for energy. (
  • quarry mining and particle separation ILS COLLECTION. (
  • Sand Quarry Magnetic Separator Iron Particles. (
  • At high concentrations, particle-particle interactions and multiple light scattering can become dominant and can result in apparent particle sizes that differ between concentrated and dilute suspensions. (
  • Volume and surface area of the sinking particle as well as its sinking velocity are key parameters for the transport, and all these parameters depend on particle size. (
  • Although compost heaps are made of much larger particles than soil, the relationship between particle size and surface area is the same. (
  • Allen (1997) cites over 50 methods for particle size analysis based on a variety of principles with different degrees of sophistication. (
  • The end result of any particle analysis process is an accurate look into the individual particles that make up your production line. (
  • W.S. Tyler has been a leader of the particle size analysis industry for over 140 years and leverages these yeats of experience to guide lab operators towards a process that is successful, reliable, and efficient. (
  • To make this process easy, it is recommended that a 100g sample is used to conduct a particle size analysis when possible. (
  • This document describes methods for the measurement of particle size distributions for cellulose nanocrystals using atomic force microscopy and transmission electron microscopy. (
  • Efficacy is not compromised by contaminants or particles in the water. (
  • Two experiments on replacement heifers (175±12 days of age) assessed the effects of forage particle length and moisture on feeding behavior. (
  • From each bulk bag unloader, particles are micronized in a vortex mill (at floor level), pneumatically conveyed into the product collector, and screened in the centrifugal sifter below it. (
  • In waste management, the first step is often coarse shredding, using the particle size to set up the shredder machine. (
  • Turbulent flow was first simulated until the turbulence became statistically steady, and then packets of 10-12 µm in size (radius) were continuously deployed at the surface. (
  • 1% of the deposited particles into secondary organs such as liver, spleen, heart, and brain was measured after systemic uptake from the lungs. (
  • Calcined alumina is ground in fluid energy mills or ceramic lined ball mills to meet the desired particle size required by the customers. (
  • alumina hydrate is ground using mechanical mills and ceramic lined ball mills to obtain finer particle sizes. (
  • Particles that will pass through the nose and throat, reaching the lungs. (
  • Particles that will penetrate into the gas exchange region of the lungs. (
  • Approximately 30% of the chemicals produced in the world are in the form of powder and nearly all aspects of the technology related to their manufacture, handling or application at some stage require a knowledge of the particle size. (
  • It works on the basis of the fact that when the spring is stretched and agitated, the particle size of the powder discharged from the spring coils is equal to the spring's openings. (
  • In Experiment 1, dry matter intake (DMI) and eating rate (DMI/min) tended to increase, whereas daily eating time decreased as the feed particle size decreased. (
  • For example, phytoplankton in the oceanic surface mixing layer absorb carbon by photosynthesis, and sink as particles. (
  • Particle size, surface potential, entrapment efficiency, and drug release behavior were studied in vitro. (
  • These results suggest that turbulent shear increase volume transport of particles but can decrease transport via their surfaces. (
  • Results showed CSO-SA/EMO particle size was larger and potential was smaller than that of stearic acid-g-chitosan oligosaccharide. (
  • This could lead to accumulation and potentially adverse reactions in critical organs such as liver, heart, and even brain, consistent with the hypothesis that ultrafine insoluble particles may play a role in the onset of cardiovas- cular diseases, as growing evidence from epidemiological studies suggests. (
  • This cleared fraction includes particles deposited in the alveolar region. (
  • heifers fed the Short diet selected against long particles and in favor of short and fine particles. (
  • abstract = "The exponential downstream decline in particle size predicted by Sternberg (1875) is examined within a highly active alpine fluvial environment, the gravel‐bed Squamish River in southwestern British Columbia. (
  • Some larger single-cell creatures can surround or envelop and then "swallow" tiny food particles. (
  • 2008). On the other hand, recent studies show that strong turbulence breaks larger particles and limits their sizes to about Kolmogorov's scale (Takeuchi et al. (
  • These effects were larger than the size-limiting effects due to turbulence. (