Particle Size: Relating to the size of solids.Aerosols: Colloids with a gaseous dispersing phase and either liquid (fog) or solid (smoke) dispersed phase; used in fumigation or in inhalation therapy; may contain propellant agents.Powders: Substances made up of an aggregation of small particles, as that obtained by grinding or trituration of a solid drug. In pharmacy it is a form in which substances are administered. (From Dorland, 28th ed)Nanoparticles: Nanometer-sized particles that are nanoscale in three dimensions. They include nanocrystaline materials; NANOCAPSULES; METAL NANOPARTICLES; DENDRIMERS, and QUANTUM DOTS. The uses of nanoparticles include DRUG DELIVERY SYSTEMS and cancer targeting and imaging.Chemistry, Pharmaceutical: Chemistry dealing with the composition and preparation of agents having PHARMACOLOGIC ACTIONS or diagnostic use.Drug Compounding: The preparation, mixing, and assembling of a drug. (From Remington, The Science and Practice of Pharmacy, 19th ed, p1814)Technology, Pharmaceutical: The application of scientific knowledge or technology to pharmacy and the pharmaceutical industry. It includes methods, techniques, and instrumentation in the manufacture, preparation, compounding, dispensing, packaging, and storing of drugs and other preparations used in diagnostic and determinative procedures, and in the treatment of patients.Drug Carriers: Forms to which substances are incorporated to improve the delivery and the effectiveness of drugs. Drug carriers are used in drug-delivery systems such as the controlled-release technology to prolong in vivo drug actions, decrease drug metabolism, and reduce drug toxicity. Carriers are also used in designs to increase the effectiveness of drug delivery to the target sites of pharmacological actions. Liposomes, albumin microspheres, soluble synthetic polymers, DNA complexes, protein-drug conjugates, and carrier erythrocytes among others have been employed as biodegradable drug carriers.Microspheres: Small uniformly-sized spherical particles, of micrometer dimensions, frequently labeled with radioisotopes or various reagents acting as tags or markers.Suspensions: Colloids with liquid continuous phase and solid dispersed phase; the term is used loosely also for solid-in-gas (AEROSOLS) and other colloidal systems; water-insoluble drugs may be given as suspensions.Excipients: Usually inert substances added to a prescription in order to provide suitable consistency to the dosage form. These include binders, matrix, base or diluent in pills, tablets, creams, salves, etc.Emulsions: Colloids formed by the combination of two immiscible liquids such as oil and water. Lipid-in-water emulsions are usually liquid, like milk or lotion. Water-in-lipid emulsions tend to be creams. The formation of emulsions may be aided by amphiphatic molecules that surround one component of the system to form MICELLES.Lipoproteins, HDL: A class of lipoproteins of small size (4-13 nm) and dense (greater than 1.063 g/ml) particles. HDL lipoproteins, synthesized in the liver without a lipid core, accumulate cholesterol esters from peripheral tissues and transport them to the liver for re-utilization or elimination from the body (the reverse cholesterol transport). Their major protein component is APOLIPOPROTEIN A-I. HDL also shuttle APOLIPOPROTEINS C and APOLIPOPROTEINS E to and from triglyceride-rich lipoproteins during their catabolism. HDL plasma level has been inversely correlated with the risk of cardiovascular diseases.Colloids: Two-phase systems in which one is uniformly dispersed in another as particles small enough so they cannot be filtered or will not settle out. The dispersing or continuous phase or medium envelops the particles of the discontinuous phase. All three states of matter can form colloids among each other.Lipoproteins, LDL: A class of lipoproteins of small size (18-25 nm) and light (1.019-1.063 g/ml) particles with a core composed mainly of CHOLESTEROL ESTERS and smaller amounts of TRIGLYCERIDES. The surface monolayer consists mostly of PHOSPHOLIPIDS, a single copy of APOLIPOPROTEIN B-100, and free cholesterol molecules. The main LDL function is to transport cholesterol and cholesterol esters to extrahepatic tissues.Chitosan: Deacetylated CHITIN, a linear polysaccharide of deacetylated beta-1,4-D-glucosamine. It is used in HYDROGEL and to treat WOUNDS.Inhalation Exposure: The exposure to potentially harmful chemical, physical, or biological agents by inhaling them.Microscopy, Electron, Scanning: Microscopy in which the object is examined directly by an electron beam scanning the specimen point-by-point. The image is constructed by detecting the products of specimen interactions that are projected above the plane of the sample, such as backscattered electrons. Although SCANNING TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY also scans the specimen point by point with the electron beam, the image is constructed by detecting the electrons, or their interaction products that are transmitted through the sample plane, so that is a form of TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY.Virion: The infective system of a virus, composed of the viral genome, a protein core, and a protein coat called a capsid, which may be naked or enclosed in a lipoprotein envelope called the peplos.Silicon Dioxide: Transparent, tasteless crystals found in nature as agate, amethyst, chalcedony, cristobalite, flint, sand, QUARTZ, and tridymite. The compound is insoluble in water or acids except hydrofluoric acid.Polyglycolic Acid: A biocompatible polymer used as a surgical suture material.Drug Delivery Systems: Systems for the delivery of drugs to target sites of pharmacological actions. Technologies employed include those concerning drug preparation, route of administration, site targeting, metabolism, and toxicity.Solubility: The ability of a substance to be dissolved, i.e. to form a solution with another substance. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Metal Nanoparticles: Nanoparticles produced from metals whose uses include biosensors, optics, and catalysts. In biomedical applications the particles frequently involve the noble metals, especially gold and silver.Nanocapsules: Nanometer-sized, hollow, spherically-shaped objects that can be utilized to encapsulate small amounts of pharmaceuticals, enzymes, or other catalysts (Glossary of Biotechnology and Nanobiotechnology, 4th ed).Surface Properties: Characteristics or attributes of the outer boundaries of objects, including molecules.Drug Stability: The chemical and physical integrity of a pharmaceutical product.Microscopy, Electron: Microscopy using an electron beam, instead of light, to visualize the sample, thereby allowing much greater magnification. The interactions of ELECTRONS with specimens are used to provide information about the fine structure of that specimen. In TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY the reactions of the electrons that are transmitted through the specimen are imaged. In SCANNING ELECTRON MICROSCOPY an electron beam falls at a non-normal angle on the specimen and the image is derived from the reactions occurring above the plane of the specimen.Microscopy, Electron, Transmission: Electron microscopy in which the ELECTRONS or their reaction products that pass down through the specimen are imaged below the plane of the specimen.Powder Diffraction: Method of using a polycrystalline powder and Rietveld refinement (LEAST SQUARES ANALYSIS) of X-RAY DIFFRACTION or NEUTRON DIFFRACTION. It circumvents the difficulties of producing single large crystals.Nebulizers and Vaporizers: Devices that cause a liquid or solid to be converted into an aerosol (spray) or a vapor. It is used in drug administration by inhalation, humidification of ambient air, and in certain analytical instruments.Materials Testing: The testing of materials and devices, especially those used for PROSTHESES AND IMPLANTS; SUTURES; TISSUE ADHESIVES; etc., for hardness, strength, durability, safety, efficacy, and biocompatibility.Polymethacrylic Acids: Poly-2-methylpropenoic acids. Used in the manufacture of methacrylate resins and plastics in the form of pellets and granules, as absorbent for biological materials and as filters; also as biological membranes and as hydrogens. Synonyms: methylacrylate polymer; poly(methylacrylate); acrylic acid methyl ester polymer.Wettability: The quality or state of being wettable or the degree to which something can be wet. This is also the ability of any solid surface to be wetted when in contact with a liquid whose surface tension is reduced so that the liquid spreads over the surface of the solid.Lipoproteins: Lipid-protein complexes involved in the transportation and metabolism of lipids in the body. They are spherical particles consisting of a hydrophobic core of TRIGLYCERIDES and CHOLESTEROL ESTERS surrounded by a layer of hydrophilic free CHOLESTEROL; PHOSPHOLIPIDS; and APOLIPOPROTEINS. Lipoproteins are classified by their varying buoyant density and sizes.Particulate Matter: Particles of any solid substance, generally under 30 microns in size, often noted as PM30. There is special concern with PM1 which can get down to PULMONARY ALVEOLI and induce MACROPHAGE ACTIVATION and PHAGOCYTOSIS leading to FOREIGN BODY REACTION and LUNG DISEASES.Delayed-Action Preparations: Dosage forms of a drug that act over a period of time by controlled-release processes or technology.Nanostructures: Materials which have structured components with at least one dimension in the range of 1 to 100 nanometers. These include NANOCOMPOSITES; NANOPARTICLES; NANOTUBES; and NANOWIRES.Quartz: Quartz (SiO2). A glassy or crystalline form of silicon dioxide. Many colored varieties are semiprecious stones. (From Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Freeze Drying: Method of tissue preparation in which the tissue specimen is frozen and then dehydrated at low temperature in a high vacuum. This method is also used for dehydrating pharmaceutical and food products.Digestion: The process of breakdown of food for metabolism and use by the body.Apolipoprotein A-I: The most abundant protein component of HIGH DENSITY LIPOPROTEINS or HDL. This protein serves as an acceptor for CHOLESTEROL released from cells thus promoting efflux of cholesterol to HDL then to the LIVER for excretion from the body (reverse cholesterol transport). It also acts as a cofactor for LECITHIN CHOLESTEROL ACYLTRANSFERASE that forms CHOLESTEROL ESTERS on the HDL particles. Mutations of this gene APOA1 cause HDL deficiency, such as in FAMILIAL ALPHA LIPOPROTEIN DEFICIENCY DISEASE and in some patients with TANGIER DISEASE.Animal Feed: Foodstuff used especially for domestic and laboratory animals, or livestock.Air Pollutants, Occupational: Air pollutants found in the work area. They are usually produced by the specific nature of the occupation.Porosity: Condition of having pores or open spaces. This often refers to bones, bone implants, or bone cements, but can refer to the porous state of any solid substance.Polymers: Compounds formed by the joining of smaller, usually repeating, units linked by covalent bonds. These compounds often form large macromolecules (e.g., BIOPOLYMERS; PLASTICS).Polystyrenes: Polymerized forms of styrene used as a biocompatible material, especially in dentistry. They are thermoplastic and are used as insulators, for injection molding and casting, as sheets, plates, rods, rigid forms and beads.Calorimetry, Differential Scanning: Differential thermal analysis in which the sample compartment of the apparatus is a differential calorimeter, allowing an exact measure of the heat of transition independent of the specific heat, thermal conductivity, and other variables of the sample.Nanomedicine: The branch of medicine concerned with the application of NANOTECHNOLOGY to the prevention and treatment of disease. It involves the monitoring, repair, construction, and control of human biological systems at the molecular level, using engineered nanodevices and NANOSTRUCTURES. (From Freitas Jr., Nanomedicine, vol 1, 1999).Polyethylene Glycols: Polymers of ETHYLENE OXIDE and water, and their ethers. They vary in consistency from liquid to solid depending on the molecular weight indicated by a number following the name. They are used as SURFACTANTS, dispersing agents, solvents, ointment and suppository bases, vehicles, and tablet excipients. Some specific groups are NONOXYNOLS, OCTOXYNOLS, and POLOXAMERS.Signal Recognition Particle: A cytosolic ribonucleoprotein complex that acts to induce elongation arrest of nascent presecretory and membrane proteins until the ribosome becomes associated with the rough endoplasmic reticulum. It consists of a 7S RNA and at least six polypeptide subunits (relative molecular masses 9, 14, 19, 54, 68, and 72K).Lipids: A generic term for fats and lipoids, the alcohol-ether-soluble constituents of protoplasm, which are insoluble in water. They comprise the fats, fatty oils, essential oils, waxes, phospholipids, glycolipids, sulfolipids, aminolipids, chromolipids (lipochromes), and fatty acids. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Filtration: A process of separating particulate matter from a fluid, such as air or a liquid, by passing the fluid carrier through a medium that will not pass the particulates. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Poloxamer: A nonionic polyoxyethylene-polyoxypropylene block co-polymer with the general formula HO(C2H4O)a(-C3H6O)b(C2H4O)aH. It is available in different grades which vary from liquids to solids. It is used as an emulsifying agent, solubilizing agent, surfactant, and wetting agent for antibiotics. Poloxamer is also used in ointment and suppository bases and as a tablet binder or coater. (Martindale The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 31st ed)Nanospheres: Spherical particles of nanometer dimensions.Apolipoproteins: Protein components on the surface of LIPOPROTEINS. They form a layer surrounding the hydrophobic lipid core. There are several classes of apolipoproteins with each playing a different role in lipid transport and LIPID METABOLISM. These proteins are synthesized mainly in the LIVER and the INTESTINES.Silver: Silver. An element with the atomic symbol Ag, atomic number 47, and atomic weight 107.87. It is a soft metal that is used medically in surgical instruments, dental prostheses, and alloys. Long-continued use of silver salts can lead to a form of poisoning known as ARGYRIA.Dust: Earth or other matter in fine, dry particles. (Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed)Nanotechnology: The development and use of techniques to study physical phenomena and construct structures in the nanoscale size range or smaller.Administration, Inhalation: The administration of drugs by the respiratory route. It includes insufflation into the respiratory tract.TriglyceridesEnvironmental Monitoring: The monitoring of the level of toxins, chemical pollutants, microbial contaminants, or other harmful substances in the environment (soil, air, and water), workplace, or in the bodies of people and animals present in that environment.Tablets: Solid dosage forms, of varying weight, size, and shape, which may be molded or compressed, and which contain a medicinal substance in pure or diluted form. (Dorland, 28th ed)Dosage Forms: Completed forms of the pharmaceutical preparation in which prescribed doses of medication are included. They are designed to resist action by gastric fluids, prevent vomiting and nausea, reduce or alleviate the undesirable taste and smells associated with oral administration, achieve a high concentration of drug at target site, or produce a delayed or long-acting drug effect.Air Pollutants: Any substance in the air which could, if present in high enough concentration, harm humans, animals, vegetation or material. Substances include GASES; PARTICULATE MATTER; and volatile ORGANIC CHEMICALS.Liposomes: Artificial, single or multilaminar vesicles (made from lecithins or other lipids) that are used for the delivery of a variety of biological molecules or molecular complexes to cells, for example, drug delivery and gene transfer. They are also used to study membranes and membrane proteins.Povidone: A polyvinyl polymer of variable molecular weight; used as suspending and dispersing agent and vehicle for pharmaceuticals; also used as blood volume expander.Latex: A milky, product excreted from the latex canals of a variety of plant species that contain cauotchouc. Latex is composed of 25-35% caoutchouc, 60-75% water, 2% protein, 2% resin, 1.5% sugar & 1% ash. RUBBER is made by the removal of water from latex.(From Concise Encyclopedia Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 3rd ed). Hevein proteins are responsible for LATEX HYPERSENSITIVITY. Latexes are used as inert vehicles to carry antibodies or antigens in LATEX FIXATION TESTS.Titanium: A dark-gray, metallic element of widespread distribution but occurring in small amounts; atomic number, 22; atomic weight, 47.90; symbol, Ti; specific gravity, 4.5; used for fixation of fractures. (Dorland, 28th ed)Cholesterol, HDL: Cholesterol which is contained in or bound to high-density lipoproteins (HDL), including CHOLESTEROL ESTERS and free cholesterol.X-Ray Diffraction: The scattering of x-rays by matter, especially crystals, with accompanying variation in intensity due to interference effects. Analysis of the crystal structure of materials is performed by passing x-rays through them and registering the diffraction image of the rays (CRYSTALLOGRAPHY, X-RAY). (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Mastication: The act and process of chewing and grinding food in the mouth.Virus Assembly: The assembly of VIRAL STRUCTURAL PROTEINS and nucleic acid (VIRAL DNA or VIRAL RNA) to form a VIRUS PARTICLE.Poaceae: A large family of narrow-leaved herbaceous grasses of the order Cyperales, subclass Commelinidae, class Liliopsida (monocotyledons). Food grains (EDIBLE GRAIN) come from members of this family. RHINITIS, ALLERGIC, SEASONAL can be induced by POLLEN of many of the grasses.Metered Dose Inhalers: A small aerosol canister used to release a calibrated amount of medication for inhalation.Freeze Fracturing: Preparation for electron microscopy of minute replicas of exposed surfaces of the cell which have been ruptured in the frozen state. The specimen is frozen, then cleaved under high vacuum at the same temperature. The exposed surface is shadowed with carbon and platinum and coated with carbon to obtain a carbon replica.Methylcellulose: Methylester of cellulose. Methylcellulose is used as an emulsifying and suspending agent in cosmetics, pharmaceutics and the chemical industry. It is used therapeutically as a bulk laxative.Air Movements: The motion of air currents.Lipoproteins, VLDL: A class of lipoproteins of very light (0.93-1.006 g/ml) large size (30-80 nm) particles with a core composed mainly of TRIGLYCERIDES and a surface monolayer of PHOSPHOLIPIDS and CHOLESTEROL into which are imbedded the apolipoproteins B, E, and C. VLDL facilitates the transport of endogenously made triglycerides to extrahepatic tissues. As triglycerides and Apo C are removed, VLDL is converted to INTERMEDIATE-DENSITY LIPOPROTEINS, then to LOW-DENSITY LIPOPROTEINS from which cholesterol is delivered to the extrahepatic tissues.Centrifugation, Density Gradient: Separation of particles according to density by employing a gradient of varying densities. At equilibrium each particle settles in the gradient at a point equal to its density. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Cellulose: A polysaccharide with glucose units linked as in CELLOBIOSE. It is the chief constituent of plant fibers, cotton being the purest natural form of the substance. As a raw material, it forms the basis for many derivatives used in chromatography, ion exchange materials, explosives manufacturing, and pharmaceutical preparations.Administration, Ophthalmic: Application of pharmaceutically active agents on the tissues of the EYE.Cell Line: Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.Respiratory Protective Devices: Respirators to protect individuals from breathing air contaminated with harmful dusts, fogs, fumes, mists, gases, smokes, sprays, or vapors.Water: A clear, odorless, tasteless liquid that is essential for most animal and plant life and is an excellent solvent for many substances. The chemical formula is hydrogen oxide (H2O). (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Surface-Active Agents: Agents that modify interfacial tension of water; usually substances that have one lipophilic and one hydrophilic group in the molecule; includes soaps, detergents, emulsifiers, dispersing and wetting agents, and several groups of antiseptics.Diffusion: The tendency of a gas or solute to pass from a point of higher pressure or concentration to a point of lower pressure or concentration and to distribute itself throughout the available space. Diffusion, especially FACILITATED DIFFUSION, is a major mechanism of BIOLOGICAL TRANSPORT.Air Microbiology: The presence of bacteria, viruses, and fungi in the air. This term is not restricted to pathogenic organisms.Vaccines, Virus-Like Particle: Vaccines using supra-molecular structures composed of multiple copies of recombinantly expressed viral structural proteins. They are often antigentically indistinguishable from the virus from which they were derived.Equipment Design: Methods of creating machines and devices.Spectroscopy, Fourier Transform Infrared: A spectroscopic technique in which a range of wavelengths is presented simultaneously with an interferometer and the spectrum is mathematically derived from the pattern thus obtained.Biological Availability: The extent to which the active ingredient of a drug dosage form becomes available at the site of drug action or in a biological medium believed to reflect accessibility to a site of action.Emulsifying Agents: SURFACE-ACTIVE AGENTS that induce a dispersion of undissolved material throughout a liquid.Polyvinyl Alcohol: A polymer prepared from polyvinyl acetates by replacement of the acetate groups with hydroxyl groups. It is used as a pharmaceutic aid and ophthalmic lubricant as well as in the manufacture of surface coatings artificial sponges, cosmetics, and other products.Chromatography, Supercritical Fluid: A CHROMATOGRAPHY method using supercritical fluid, usually carbon dioxide under very high pressure (around 73 atmospheres or 1070 psi at room temperature) as the mobile phase. Other solvents are sometimes added as modifiers. This is used both for analytical (SFC) and extraction (SFE) purposes.Apolipoproteins B: Major structural proteins of triacylglycerol-rich LIPOPROTEINS. There are two forms, apolipoprotein B-100 and apolipoprotein B-48, both derived from a single gene. ApoB-100 expressed in the liver is found in low-density lipoproteins (LIPOPROTEINS, LDL; LIPOPROTEINS, VLDL). ApoB-48 expressed in the intestine is found in CHYLOMICRONS. They are important in the biosynthesis, transport, and metabolism of triacylglycerol-rich lipoproteins. Plasma Apo-B levels are high in atherosclerotic patients but non-detectable in ABETALIPOPROTEINEMIA.Food Handling: Any aspect of the operations in the preparation, processing, transport, storage, packaging, wrapping, exposure for sale, service, or delivery of food.Submitochondrial Particles: The various filaments, granules, tubules or other inclusions within mitochondria.Lubricants: Compounds that provide LUBRICATION between surfaces in order to reduce FRICTION.Dry Powder Inhalers: A device that delivers medication to the lungs in the form of a dry powder.Apolipoprotein A-II: The second most abundant protein component of HIGH DENSITY LIPOPROTEINS or HDL. It has a high lipid affinity and is known to displace APOLIPOPROTEIN A-I from HDL particles and generates a stable HDL complex. ApoA-II can modulate the activation of LECITHIN CHOLESTEROL ACYLTRANSFERASE in the presence of APOLIPOPROTEIN A-I, thus affecting HDL metabolism.Calcium Phosphates: Calcium salts of phosphoric acid. These compounds are frequently used as calcium supplements.Cholesterol: The principal sterol of all higher animals, distributed in body tissues, especially the brain and spinal cord, and in animal fats and oils.Cholesterol, LDL: Cholesterol which is contained in or bound to low density lipoproteins (LDL), including CHOLESTEROL ESTERS and free cholesterol.Acrylic ResinsMagnetite Nanoparticles: Synthesized magnetic particles under 100 nanometers possessing many biomedical applications including DRUG DELIVERY SYSTEMS and CONTRAST AGENTS. The particles are usually coated with a variety of polymeric compounds.Lactic Acid: A normal intermediate in the fermentation (oxidation, metabolism) of sugar. The concentrated form is used internally to prevent gastrointestinal fermentation. (From Stedman, 26th ed)Gold: A yellow metallic element with the atomic symbol Au, atomic number 79, and atomic weight 197. It is used in jewelry, goldplating of other metals, as currency, and in dental restoration. Many of its clinical applications, such as ANTIRHEUMATIC AGENTS, are in the form of its salts.Viscosity: The resistance that a gaseous or liquid system offers to flow when it is subjected to shear stress. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Hydrocarbons, FluorinatedHyperlipidemia, Familial Combined: A type of familial lipid metabolism disorder characterized by a variable pattern of elevated plasma CHOLESTEROL and/or TRIGLYCERIDES. Multiple genes on different chromosomes may be involved, such as the major late transcription factor (UPSTREAM STIMULATORY FACTORS) on CHROMOSOME 1.Temperature: The property of objects that determines the direction of heat flow when they are placed in direct thermal contact. The temperature is the energy of microscopic motions (vibrational and translational) of the particles of atoms.Vehicle Emissions: Gases, fumes, vapors, and odors escaping from the cylinders of a gasoline or diesel internal-combustion engine. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed & Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed)Scattering, Radiation: The diversion of RADIATION (thermal, electromagnetic, or nuclear) from its original path as a result of interactions or collisions with atoms, molecules, or larger particles in the atmosphere or other media. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Nanocomposites: Nanometer-scale composite structures composed of organic molecules intimately incorporated with inorganic molecules. (Glossary of Biotechnology and Nanobiotechology Terms, 4th ed)Lipoproteins, IDL: A mixture of very-low-density lipoproteins (VLDL), particularly the triglyceride-poor VLDL, with slow diffuse electrophoretic mobilities in the beta and alpha2 regions which are similar to that of beta-lipoproteins (LDL) or alpha-lipoproteins (HDL). They can be intermediate (remnant) lipoproteins in the de-lipidation process, or remnants of mutant CHYLOMICRONS and VERY-LOW-DENSITY LIPOPROTEINS which cannot be metabolized completely as seen in FAMILIAL DYSBETALIPOPROTEINEMIA.Micelles: Particles consisting of aggregates of molecules held loosely together by secondary bonds. The surface of micelles are usually comprised of amphiphatic compounds that are oriented in a way that minimizes the energy of interaction between the micelle and its environment. Liquids that contain large numbers of suspended micelles are referred to as EMULSIONS.Aerosol Propellants: Compressed gases or vapors in a container which, upon release of pressure and expansion through a valve, carry another substance from the container. They are used for cosmetics, household cleaners, and so on. Examples are BUTANES; CARBON DIOXIDE; FLUOROCARBONS; NITROGEN; and PROPANE. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Apolipoproteins A: Structural proteins of the alpha-lipoproteins (HIGH DENSITY LIPOPROTEINS), including APOLIPOPROTEIN A-I and APOLIPOPROTEIN A-II. They can modulate the activity of LECITHIN CHOLESTEROL ACYLTRANSFERASE. These apolipoproteins are low in atherosclerotic patients. They are either absent or present in extremely low plasma concentration in TANGIER DISEASE.Ultracentrifugation: Centrifugation with a centrifuge that develops centrifugal fields of more than 100,000 times gravity. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Hydrogen-Ion Concentration: The normality of a solution with respect to HYDROGEN ions; H+. It is related to acidity measurements in most cases by pH = log 1/2[1/(H+)], where (H+) is the hydrogen ion concentration in gram equivalents per liter of solution. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Rheology: The study of the deformation and flow of matter, usually liquids or fluids, and of the plastic flow of solids. The concept covers consistency, dilatancy, liquefaction, resistance to flow, shearing, thixotrophy, and VISCOSITY.Nanoconjugates: Tailored macromolecules harboring covalently-bound biologically active modules that target specific tissues and cells. The active modules or functional groups can include drugs, prodrugs, antibodies, and oligonucleotides, which can act synergistically and be multitargeting.Adsorption: The adhesion of gases, liquids, or dissolved solids onto a surface. It includes adsorptive phenomena of bacteria and viruses onto surfaces as well. ABSORPTION into the substance may follow but not necessarily.Capsid: The outer protein protective shell of a virus, which protects the viral nucleic acid.Physicochemical Phenomena: The physical phenomena describing the structure and properties of atoms and molecules, and their reaction and interaction processes.Capsules: Hard or soft soluble containers used for the oral administration of medicine.Zinc Oxide: A mild astringent and topical protectant with some antiseptic action. It is also used in bandages, pastes, ointments, dental cements, and as a sunblock.Chromium Compounds: Inorganic compounds that contain chromium as an integral part of the molecule.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Ferric Compounds: Inorganic or organic compounds containing trivalent iron.Alpha Particles: Positively charged particles composed of two protons and two NEUTRONS, i.e. equivalent to HELIUM nuclei, which are emitted during disintegration of heavy ISOTOPES. Alpha rays have very strong ionizing power, but weak penetrability.Aluminum Oxide: An oxide of aluminum, occurring in nature as various minerals such as bauxite, corundum, etc. It is used as an adsorbent, desiccating agent, and catalyst, and in the manufacture of dental cements and refractories.Crystallization: The formation of crystalline substances from solutions or melts. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Polyesters: Polymers of organic acids and alcohols, with ester linkages--usually polyethylene terephthalate; can be cured into hard plastic, films or tapes, or fibers which can be woven into fabrics, meshes or velours.Pliability: The quality or state of being able to be bent or creased repeatedly. (From Webster, 3d ed)Air Pollution, Indoor: The contamination of indoor air.Chemistry, Physical: The study of CHEMICAL PHENOMENA and processes in terms of the underlying PHYSICAL PHENOMENA and processes.Nasal Sprays: Pharmacologic agents delivered into the nostrils in the form of a mist or spray.Pharmaceutical Preparations: Drugs intended for human or veterinary use, presented in their finished dosage form. Included here are materials used in the preparation and/or formulation of the finished dosage form.Electrophoresis, Polyacrylamide Gel: Electrophoresis in which a polyacrylamide gel is used as the diffusion medium.Food Coloring Agents: Natural or synthetic dyes used as coloring agents in processed foods.Capsid Proteins: Proteins that form the CAPSID of VIRUSES.Skin Absorption: Uptake of substances through the SKIN.Lactose: A disaccharide of GLUCOSE and GALACTOSE in human and cow milk. It is used in pharmacy for tablets, in medicine as a nutrient, and in industry.Cryoelectron Microscopy: Electron microscopy involving rapid freezing of the samples. The imaging of frozen-hydrated molecules and organelles permits the best possible resolution closest to the living state, free of chemical fixatives or stains.Solvents: Liquids that dissolve other substances (solutes), generally solids, without any change in chemical composition, as, water containing sugar. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Defective Viruses: Viruses which lack a complete genome so that they cannot completely replicate or cannot form a protein coat. Some are host-dependent defectives, meaning they can replicate only in cell systems which provide the particular genetic function which they lack. Others, called SATELLITE VIRUSES, are able to replicate only when their genetic defect is complemented by a helper virus.Starch: Any of a group of polysaccharides of the general formula (C6-H10-O5)n, composed of a long-chain polymer of glucose in the form of amylose and amylopectin. It is the chief storage form of energy reserve (carbohydrates) in plants.Magnetics: The study of MAGNETIC PHENOMENA.Inclusion Bodies, Viral: An area showing altered staining behavior in the nucleus or cytoplasm of a virus-infected cell. Some inclusion bodies represent "virus factories" in which viral nucleic acid or protein is being synthesized; others are merely artifacts of fixation and staining. One example, Negri bodies, are found in the cytoplasm or processes of nerve cells in animals that have died from rabies.Humidity: A measure of the amount of WATER VAPOR in the air.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Cattle: Domesticated bovine animals of the genus Bos, usually kept on a farm or ranch and used for the production of meat or dairy products or for heavy labor.Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid: Liquid chromatographic techniques which feature high inlet pressures, high sensitivity, and high speed.Tissue Distribution: Accumulation of a drug or chemical substance in various organs (including those not relevant to its pharmacologic or therapeutic action). This distribution depends on the blood flow or perfusion rate of the organ, the ability of the drug to penetrate organ membranes, tissue specificity, protein binding. The distribution is usually expressed as tissue to plasma ratios.Biocompatible Materials: Synthetic or natural materials, other than DRUGS, that are used to replace or repair any body TISSUES or bodily function.ManikinsKinetics: The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.Lung: Either of the pair of organs occupying the cavity of the thorax that effect the aeration of the blood.Rumen: The first stomach of ruminants. It lies on the left side of the body, occupying the whole of the left side of the abdomen and even stretching across the median plane of the body to the right side. It is capacious, divided into an upper and a lower sac, each of which has a blind sac at its posterior extremity. The rumen is lined by mucous membrane containing no digestive glands, but mucus-secreting glands are present in large numbers. Coarse, partially chewed food is stored and churned in the rumen until the animal finds circumstances convenient for rumination. When this occurs, little balls of food are regurgitated through the esophagus into the mouth, and are subjected to a second more thorough mastication, swallowed, and passed on into other parts of the compound stomach. (From Black's Veterinary Dictionary, 17th ed)Thermogravimetry: Technique whereby the weight of a sample can be followed over a period of time while its temperature is being changed (usually increased at a constant rate).Cholesterol Esters: Fatty acid esters of cholesterol which constitute about two-thirds of the cholesterol in the plasma. The accumulation of cholesterol esters in the arterial intima is a characteristic feature of atherosclerosis.Molecular Weight: The sum of the weight of all the atoms in a molecule.Beclomethasone: An anti-inflammatory, synthetic glucocorticoid. It is used topically as an anti-inflammatory agent and in aerosol form for the treatment of ASTHMA.Adhesiveness: A property of the surface of an object that makes it stick to another surface.Propantheline: A muscarinic antagonist used as an antispasmodic, in rhinitis, in urinary incontinence, and in the treatment of ulcers. At high doses it has nicotinic effects resulting in neuromuscular blocking.Respiratory System Agents: Drugs used for their effects on the respiratory system.Ribonucleoproteins: Complexes of RNA-binding proteins with ribonucleic acids (RNA).Oils: Unctuous combustible substances that are liquid or easily liquefiable on warming, and are soluble in ether but insoluble in water. Such substances, depending on their origin, are classified as animal, mineral, or vegetable oils. Depending on their behavior on heating, they are volatile or fixed. (Dorland, 28th ed)Specific Gravity: The ratio of the density of a material to the density of some standard material, such as water or air, at a specified temperature.Lipoproteins, HDL3: Intermediate-density subclass of the high-density lipoproteins, with particle sizes between 7 to 8 nm. As the larger lighter HDL2 lipoprotein, HDL3 lipoprotein is lipid-rich.Chlorofluorocarbons: A series of hydrocarbons containing both chlorine and fluorine. These have been used as refrigerants, blowing agents, cleaning fluids, solvents, and as fire extinguishing agents. They have been shown to cause stratospheric ozone depletion and have been banned for many uses.Phospholipids: Lipids containing one or more phosphate groups, particularly those derived from either glycerol (phosphoglycerides see GLYCEROPHOSPHOLIPIDS) or sphingosine (SPHINGOLIPIDS). They are polar lipids that are of great importance for the structure and function of cell membranes and are the most abundant of membrane lipids, although not stored in large amounts in the system.Phosphatidylcholine-Sterol O-Acyltransferase: An enzyme secreted from the liver into the plasma of many mammalian species. It catalyzes the esterification of the hydroxyl group of lipoprotein cholesterol by the transfer of a fatty acid from the C-2 position of lecithin. In familial lecithin:cholesterol acyltransferase deficiency disease, the absence of the enzyme results in an excess of unesterified cholesterol in plasma. EC 2.3.1.43.Polyethylenes: Synthetic thermoplastics that are tough, flexible, inert, and resistant to chemicals and electrical current. They are often used as biocompatible materials for prostheses and implants.Zea mays: A plant species of the family POACEAE. It is a tall grass grown for its EDIBLE GRAIN, corn, used as food and animal FODDER.Virus Replication: The process of intracellular viral multiplication, consisting of the synthesis of PROTEINS; NUCLEIC ACIDS; and sometimes LIPIDS, and their assembly into a new infectious particle.Cholesterol, VLDL: Cholesterol which is contained in or bound to very low density lipoproteins (VLDL). High circulating levels of VLDL cholesterol are found in HYPERLIPOPROTEINEMIA TYPE IIB. The cholesterol on the VLDL is eventually delivered by LOW-DENSITY LIPOPROTEINS to the tissues after the catabolism of VLDL to INTERMEDIATE-DENSITY LIPOPROTEINS, then to LDL.Sonication: The application of high intensity ultrasound to liquids.Stearic Acids: A group of compounds that are derivatives of octadecanoic acid which is one of the most abundant fatty acids found in animal lipids. (Stedman, 25th ed)Drug Storage: The process of keeping pharmaceutical products in an appropriate location.Phagocytosis: The engulfing and degradation of microorganisms; other cells that are dead, dying, or pathogenic; and foreign particles by phagocytic cells (PHAGOCYTES).Virosomes: Semi-synthetic complex derived from nucleic-acid free viral particles. They are essentially reconstituted viral coats, where the infectious nucleocapsid is replaced by a compound of choice. Virosomes retain their fusogenic activity and thus deliver the incorporated compound (antigens, drugs, genes) inside the target cell. They can be used for vaccines (VACCINES, VIROSOME), drug delivery, or gene transfer.Polysorbates: Sorbitan mono-9-octadecanoate poly(oxy-1,2-ethanediyl) derivatives; complex mixtures of polyoxyethylene ethers used as emulsifiers or dispersing agents in pharmaceuticals.Viral Proteins: Proteins found in any species of virus.Carbon: A nonmetallic element with atomic symbol C, atomic number 6, and atomic weight [12.0096; 12.0116]. It may occur as several different allotropes including DIAMOND; CHARCOAL; and GRAPHITE; and as SOOT from incompletely burned fuel.Hyperlipidemias: Conditions with excess LIPIDS in the blood.Polyethyleneimine: Strongly cationic polymer that binds to certain proteins; used as a marker in immunology, to precipitate and purify enzymes and lipids. Synonyms: aziridine polymer; Epamine; Epomine; ethylenimine polymer; Montrek; PEI; Polymin(e).Models, Biological: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Swine: Any of various animals that constitute the family Suidae and comprise stout-bodied, short-legged omnivorous mammals with thick skin, usually covered with coarse bristles, a rather long mobile snout, and small tail. Included are the genera Babyrousa, Phacochoerus (wart hogs), and Sus, the latter containing the domestic pig (see SUS SCROFA).Desiccation: Removal of moisture from a substance (chemical, food, tissue, etc.).Ventilation: Supplying a building or house, their rooms and corridors, with fresh air. The controlling of the environment thus may be in public or domestic sites and in medical or non-medical locales. (From Dorland, 28th ed)Green Chemistry Technology: Pollution prevention through the design of effective chemical products that have low or no toxicity and use of chemical processes that reduce or eliminate the use and generation of hazardous substances.Lasers: An optical source that emits photons in a coherent beam. Light Amplification by Stimulated Emission of Radiation (LASER) is brought about using devices that transform light of varying frequencies into a single intense, nearly nondivergent beam of monochromatic radiation. Lasers operate in the infrared, visible, ultraviolet, or X-ray regions of the spectrum.Viral Interference: A phenomenon in which infection by a first virus results in resistance of cells or tissues to infection by a second, unrelated virus.Hypertriglyceridemia: A condition of elevated levels of TRIGLYCERIDES in the blood.Cereals: Seeds from grasses (POACEAE) which are important in the diet.RNA, Viral: Ribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of viruses.Rabbits: The species Oryctolagus cuniculus, in the family Leporidae, order LAGOMORPHA. Rabbits are born in burrows, furless, and with eyes and ears closed. In contrast with HARES, rabbits have 22 chromosome pairs.Zirconium: Zirconium. A rather rare metallic element, atomic number 40, atomic weight 91.22, symbol Zr. (From Dorland, 28th ed)

Glomerular size-selective dysfunction in NIDDM is not ameliorated by ACE inhibition or by calcium channel blockade. (1/6488)

BACKGROUND: In patients with insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (IDDM) and overt nephropathy glomerular barrier size-selectivity progressively deteriorates with time and is effectively improved by angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) inhibition. Whether similar glomerular functional changes develop in proteinuric patients with non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (NIDDM), and whether antihypertensive agents can favorably affect glomerular filtration of macromolecules in these patients, has not been documented yet. METHODS: We investigated renal hemodynamics and fractional clearance of neutral dextrans of graded sizes, in nine proteinuric patients with NIDDM and renal biopsy findings of typical diabetic glomerulopathy. Six healthy volunteers served as controls. We also investigated the effects of an ACE inhibitor and of a calcium channel blocker, both given in doses targeted to achieve a comparable level of systemic blood pressure control, on glomerular hemodynamics and sieving function. Theoretical analysis of glomerular macromolecule transport was adopted to evaluate intrinsic glomerular membrane permeability properties. RESULTS: Fractional clearance of large macromolecules (42 to 66 A in radius) was significantly higher in diabetic patients than in controls, and the distribution of membrane pore radii was calculated to be shifted towards larger pore sizes in diabetics (mean radius increased from 55 to 60 A). Despite effective blood pressure control, neither antihypertensive affected glomerular hemodynamics to any significant extent. Fractional clearance of dextrans, as well as of albumin and IgG, and total urinary proteins were not modified by either treatments. CONCLUSIONS: These data indicate that patients with NIDDM and overt nephropathy develop abnormalities in size-selective function of the glomerular barrier and, at variance to IDDM, such changes were not ameliorated either by ACE inhibition or calcium channel blockade.  (+info)

Dynamics of plaque formation in Alzheimer's disease. (2/6488)

Plaques that form in the brains of Alzheimer patients are made of deposits of the amyloid-beta peptide. We analyze the time evolution of amyloid-beta deposition in immunostained brain slices from transgenic mice. We find that amyloid-beta deposits appear in clusters whose characteristic size increases from 14 microm in 8-month-old mice to 22 microm in 12-month-old mice. We show that the clustering has implications for the biological growth of amyloid-beta by presenting a growth model that accounts for the experimentally observed structure of individual deposits and predicts the formation of clusters of deposits and their time evolution.  (+info)

Cryoelectron microscopy of a nucleating model bile in vitreous ice: formation of primordial vesicles. (3/6488)

Because gallstones form so frequently in human bile, pathophysiologically relevant supersaturated model biles are commonly employed to study cholesterol crystal formation. We used cryo-transmission electron microscopy, complemented by polarizing light microscopy, to investigate early stages of cholesterol nucleation in model bile. In the system studied, the proposed microscopic sequence involves the evolution of small unilamellar to multilamellar vesicles to lamellar liquid crystals and finally to cholesterol crystals. Small aliquots of a concentrated (total lipid concentration = 29.2 g/dl) model bile containing 8.5% cholesterol, 22.9% egg yolk lecithin, and 68.6% taurocholate (all mole %) were vitrified at 2 min to 20 days after fourfold dilution to induce supersaturation. Mixed micelles together with a category of vesicles denoted primordial, small unilamellar vesicles of two distinct morphologies (sphere/ellipsoid and cylinder/arachoid), large unilamellar vesicles, multilamellar vesicles, and cholesterol monohydrate crystals were imaged. No evidence of aggregation/fusion of small unilamellar vesicles to form multilamellar vesicles was detected. Low numbers of multilamellar vesicles were present, some of which were sufficiently large to be identified as liquid crystals by polarizing light microscopy. Dimensions, surface areas, and volumes of spherical/ellipsoidal and cylindrical/arachoidal vesicles were quantified. Early stages in the separation of vesicles from micelles, referred to as primordial vesicles, were imaged 23-31 min after dilution. Observed structures such as enlarged micelles in primordial vesicle interiors, segments of bilayer, and faceted edges at primordial vesicle peripheries are probably early stages of small unilamellar vesicle assembly. A decrease in the mean surface area of spherical/ellipsoidal vesicles was correlated with the increased production of cholesterol crystals at 10-20 days after supersaturation by dilution, supporting the role of small unilamellar vesicles as key players in cholesterol nucleation and as cholesterol donors to crystals. This is the first visualization of an intermediate structure that has been temporally linked to the development of small unilamellar vesicles in the separation of vesicles from micelles in a model bile and suggests a time-resolved system for further investigation.  (+info)

Sodium ion uptake into isolated plasma membrane vesicles: indirect effects of other ions. (4/6488)

Vesicles derived from plasma membrane of corneal endothelium were agitated to their minimum size distribution. When isotonic salt solutions surrounding the vesicles were changed there were alterations to the vesicle size distribution: the modal point of the logarithmic distribution did not change but the log variance did, indicating that substantial fission and fusion of vesicles occurred depending upon the nature of the surrounding solute. Orientation and total membrane area was conserved in the transformed population of vesicles. Although the ions added to the external isotonic salt solutions in the present series of experiments have no direct effect upon sodium membrane transporters in these membranes, kinetics of sodium accumulation into the vesicles were affected in a way that correlated with changes to the vesicle size distribution. Early-saturating (<1 min) intravesicular concentrations of sodium corresponded with apparently stable populations. Late-saturating (>1 min) intravesicular concentrations of sodium corresponded with significant vesicle distribution shifts and included a few seconds of delay. During the linear accumulation phase, both populations showed similar magnitudes of sodium transport. The significance of these data is discussed.  (+info)

Morphological behavior of acidic and neutral liposomes induced by basic amphiphilic alpha-helical peptides with systematically varied hydrophobic-hydrophilic balance. (5/6488)

Lipid-peptide interaction has been investigated using cationic amphiphilic alpha-helical peptides and systematically varying their hydrophobic-hydrophilic balance (HHB). The influence of the peptides on neutral and acidic liposomes was examined by 1) Trp fluorescence quenched by brominated phospholipid, 2) membrane-clearing ability, 3) size determination of liposomes by dynamic light scattering, 4) morphological observation by electron microscopy, and 5) ability to form planar lipid bilayers from channels. The peptides examined consist of hydrophobic Leu and hydrophilic Lys residues with ratios 13:5, 11:7, 9:9, 7:11, and 5:13 (abbreviated as Hels 13-5, 11-7, 9-9, 7-11, and 5-13, respectively; Kiyota, T., S. Lee, and G. Sugihara. 1996. Biochemistry. 35:13196-13204). The most hydrophobic peptide (Hel 13-5) induced a twisted ribbon-like fibril structure for egg PC liposomes. In a 3/1 (egg PC/egg PG) lipid mixture, Hel 13-5 addition caused fusion of the liposomes. Hel 13-5 formed ion channels in neutral lipid bilayer (egg PE/egg PC = 7/3) at low peptide concentrations, but not in an acidic bilayer (egg PE/brain PS = 7/3). The peptides with hydrophobicity less than Hel 13-5 (Hels 11-7 and Hel 9-9) were able to partially immerse their hydrophobic part of the amphiphilic helix in lipid bilayers and fragment liposome to small bicelles or micelles, and then the bicelles aggregated to form a larger assembly. Peptides Hel 11-7 and Hel 9-9 each formed strong ion channels. Peptides (Hel 7-11 and Hel 5-13) with a more hydrophilic HHB interacted with an acidic lipid bilayer by charge interaction, in which the former immerses the hydrophobic part in lipid bilayer, and the latter did not immerse, and formed large assemblies by aggregation of original liposomes. The present study clearly showed that hydrophobic-hydrophilic balance of a peptide is a crucial factor in understanding lipid-peptide interactions.  (+info)

Concatemerization of tRNA molecules in the presence of trivaline derivative. (6/6488)

The interaction of tRNA with trivaline dansyl hydrazide trifluoroacetate (DHTV) has been studied. The shape of curves of fluorimetric titration of tRNA with DHTV and vice versa can be explained only by formation of DHTV dimers on tRNA molecules, and subsequent association of DHTV-saturated tRNA molecules with each other. The ability of tRNA molecules to form concatemers in solution in the presence of DHTV has been demonstrated by electron microscopy. Electron microscopy of the tRNA-DHTV complexes stained with uranyl acetate revealed flexible rods 6-7 nm thick and up to several micrometers long.  (+info)

Hexavalent chromium responsible for lung lesions induced by intratracheal instillation of chromium fumes in rats. (7/6488)

Lung toxicity of chromium fumes (Cr fumes) was examined by a single intratracheal instillation into rats of 10.6 mg and 21.3 mg Cr fumes/kg body weight and by repeated (3 times) instillations of 10.8 mg and 21.7 mg Cr fumes/kg. The pathological changes were compared with those induced by single administrations of 3.2 mg and 19.2 mg Na2CO3 solution-insoluble fraction of Cr fumes (Cr-Fr)/kg and 20.8 mg commercially available chromium (III) oxide powder (Cr (III) oxide)/kg. Single and repeated administrations of Cr fumes suppressed growth rate in a dose-dependent manner, but administrations of Cr-Fr and Cr (III) oxide did not. A single administration of Cr fumes produced granulomas in the entire airways and alveoli with progressive fibrotic changes, as well as severe mobilization and destruction of macrophages and foamy cells. Those histopathological changes were aggravated by the repeated administration of Cr fumes. On the other hand, single administrations of Cr-Fr and Cr (III) oxide produced no remarkable histopathological changes. Cr fumes were found to be composed of 73.5% chromium (III) oxide and 26.5% chromium (VI) oxide. The primary particles of Cr fumes and Cr-Fr were similar, 0.02 micron in size (sigma g: 1.25), and Cr (III) oxide particles were 0.30 micron in size (sigma g: 1.53), measured by analytical electron microscopy (ATEM). Diffuse clusters of the primary particles in Cr fumes were identified as Cr (VI) oxide. The present results suggested that the lung toxicity of Cr fumes was mainly caused by these Cr (VI) oxide (CrO3) particles in Cr fumes.  (+info)

A new model rat with acute bronchiolitis and its application to research on the toxicology of inhaled particulate matter. (8/6488)

The aim of the present study was to establish a useful animal model that simulates humans sensitive to inhaled particulate matter (PM). We have developed a new rat model of acute bronchiolitis (Br) by exposing animals to NiCl2 (Ni) aerosols for five days. Three days following the Ni exposure, the animals developed signs of tachypnea, mucous hypersecretion, and bronchiolar inflammation which seemed to progress quickly during the fourth to fifth day. They recovered from lesions after four weeks in clean air. To assess the sensitivity of the Br rats to inhaled particles, two kinds of PM of respirable size were tested with doses similar to or a little higher to the recommended threshold limit values (TLVs) for the working environment in Japan. Titanium dioxide (TiO2 = Ti) was chosen as an inert and insoluble particles and vanadium pentoxide (V2O5 = V), as a representative soluble and toxic airborne material. The Br rats exposed to either Ti or V were compared the pathological changes in the lungs and the clearance of particles to those in normal control or Br rats kept in clean air. The following significant differences were observed in Br rats: 1. delayed recovery from pre-existing lesions or exacerbated inflammation, 2. reductions in deposition and clearance rate of inhaled particles with the progress of lesions. The present results suggest that Br rats are more susceptible to inhaled particles than control rats. Therefore, concentrations of particulate matter lower than the TLVs for Japan, which have no harmful effects on normal lungs, may not always be safe in the case of pre-existing lung inflammation.  (+info)

*Depletion force

Because the particles were considered as hard-core (completely rigid) particles, the emerging picture of the underlying ... and depletants in solution is typically modeled by treating the large colloids and small depletants as dissimilarly sized hard ... there is interaction potential between colloidal particles and depletant particles that is described similarly by the hard- ... Typically, depletant particles are very small compared to the colloids so d ≪ D {\displaystyle d\ll D} The underlying ...

*Scanning mobility particle sizer

A scanning mobility particle sizer (SMPS) is an analytical instrument that measures the size and number concentration of ... The particles that are investigated can be of biological or chemical nature. The instrument can be used for air quality ... aerosol particles with diameters from 2.5 nm to 1000 nm. They employ a continuous, fast-scanning technique to provide high- ...

*Synthesis of nanoparticles by fungi

... and cadmium sulfide nanoparticles can vary depending on particle size: 25-50 nm silver particles peak ca. 415 nm, gold ... 450 is indicative of quantum size particles. Larger nanoparticle of each type will have UV-Vis absorption peaks or edges that ... smaller particles appear pink while large particles appear purple. Intracellular gold nanoparticle synthesis typically turns ... Gold nanoparticles can vary in shape and size depending on the pH of the ion solution. Gericke and Pinches (2006) reported that ...

*Aerosol mass spectrometry

The lens focuses the particles into a narrow particle beam. The beam now travels through the particle sizing chamber where the ... Aerosol particles are defined as suspended solid and liquid particles with size range of 3 nm to 100 μm in diameter. Aerosol ... The Aerodyne AMS is made up of three sections; The aerosol inlet, the particle sizing chamber, and the particle detection ... As the particle beam exit the flight tube, it enters the particle composition detection chamber. In this section the particles ...

*Nanoparticles for drug delivery to the brain

Nanoparticles range in size from 10 - 1000 nm (or 1 µm) and they can be made from natural or artificial polymers, lipids, ... This process can ultimately form a uniform dispersion of small droplets in a fluid substance by subdividing particles until the ... In solid lipid nanoparticles, the drug molecules are dissolved in the particle's solid hydrophobic lipid core, this is called ... These means include dissolving or absorbing a drug throughout the nanoparticle, encapsulating a drug inside the particle, or ...

*Particle-size distribution

... to describe particle size distributions. It is still widely used in mineral processing to describe particle size distributions ... particles above a certain size, and "passes" particles below that size, is universally used in presenting PSD data of all kinds ... Particle size (general) Sauter mean diameter one mathematical description of particle size Granulometry (morphology) Optical ... The particle-size distribution (PSD) of a powder, or granular material, or particles dispersed in fluid, is a list of values or ...

*Magnetic nanoparticles

In most cases, the particles range from 1 to 100 nm in size and may display superparamagnetism. Ferrite nanoparticles or iron ... Grain sizes can be as small as 3 nanometers. If it's possible to modify the MNPs at this small scale, the information density ... The size, shape, and composition of the magnetic nanoparticles very much depends on the type of salts used (e.g.chlorides, ... Iron oxide particles have been used for the detection of Gram negative bacteria like Escherichia coli and for detection of Gram ...

*Nanoparticle-biomolecule conjugate

Nanoparticles are minuscule particles, typically measured in nanometers (nm), that are used in nanobiotechnology to explore the ... 2008). "ZnO controllable sized quantum dots produced by polyol method: An experimental and theoretical study". Materials ... These stabilizers bind to the nanoparticles in a way that prevents other particles from bonding with them. Some effective ... Nanoparticles are desirable in today's industry for their high surface area-to-volume ratio in comparison with larger particles ...

*Particle counter

Vision based particle sizing units obtain two dimensional images that are analyzed by computer software to obtain particle size ... Vision based systems are also used to measure dry particle size. With a vision based system quick and efficient particle sizing ... Remote particle counters can have a particle size detection range from 0.1 to 100 micrometres and may feature one of a variety ... Aerosol particle counters Liquid particle counters Solid particle counters Play media Aerosol particle counters are used to ...

*Particle size

... or gaseous particles (bubbles). The notion of particle size applies to colloidal particles, particles in ecology, particles ... There is often a need for a certain average particle size for the ensemble of particles. The particle size of a spherical ... particle size Weight-based particle size equals the diameter of the sphere that has the same weight as a given particle. Useful ... volume of particle Area-based particle size Area-based particle size equals the diameter of the sphere that has the same ...

*Particle size (disambiguation)

Particle size describes the size of particles. Particle size may also refer to: Grain size (also called particle size), the ... size of soils, powders, gravel, etc. Particle size distribution Particle (disambiguation). ...

*Particle size analysis

... , particle size measurement, or simply particle sizing is the collective name of the technical procedures ... or mean size of the particles in a powder or liquid sample. Particle size analysis is part of particle science, and its ... The particle size measurement is typically achieved by means of devices called Particle Size Analyzers (PSA) which are based on ... Having properly sized particles allow aggregate companies to create long-lasting roads and other products. Particle size ...

*Well cementing

Particle size distribution. Distribution of silicate and aluminate phases. Reactivity of hydrating phases. Gypsum/hemihydrates ... Emulsion polymers are supplied as suspensions of polymer particles. They contain about 50% solids. Such particles can ... The smaller size of the Cl− ions causes a greater tendency to diffuse into the C-S-H membrane. Eventually the C-S-H membrane ... Bentonite in concentrations of 2-4% is also added to prevent segregation of particles and slurry. Gilsonite - Used to obtain ...

*Coal burner

Particle size: ≤20mm. Note: These indexes are the lowest requirements for the coal, the better coal will be better at practice ...

*Silt

doi:10.1111/j.1475-4762.2007.00730.x. "Particle Size (618.43)". National Soil Survey Handbook Part 618 (42-55) Soil Properties ... their size ranges overlap. Clays are formed from thin plate-shaped particles held together by electrostatic forces, so present ... the sand-silt distinction is made at the 0.05 mm particle size. The USDA system has been adopted by the Food and Agriculture ... the sand-silt distinction is made at the 0.075 mm particle size (i.e., material passing the #200 sieve). Silts and clays are ...

*Enteral administration

Particle size and formulation. Physicochemical factors. Drugs given by enteral administration may be subjected to significant ...

*Brookhaven Instruments

Particle size distribution range from 10 nanometers right up to 100 microns. NanoBrook Omni-- Particle Size Analyzer and Zeta ... Brookhaven has an extensive range of products for particle characterization. 90Plus-Particle Size Analyzer. Based on the ... Improved Techniques for Particle Size Determination by Quasi-Elastic Light Scattering by I. D. Morrison, E. G. Grabowski, and C ... particle size, zeta potential, molecular mass and absolute molar mass analysis. Product designs started when their founders ...

*Loam

... particle size > 63 µm), silt (particle size > 2 µm), and a smaller amount of clay (particle size < 2 µm). By weight, its ... Loess Particle size (grain size) Soil texture Kaufmann, Robert K.; Cutler J. Cleveland (2008). Environmental Science. McGraw- ... A soil dominated by one or two of the three particle size groups can behave like loam if it has a strong granular structure, ...

*Feed manufacturing

Particle size influences feed digestibility. The particle sizes of fish pellet feed are influenced by both grain properties and ... 2006), evaluating different corn particle sizes in the broiler feed found that the largest particle size (2.242 mm) gave better ... however argued that the development of broiler was influenced by changing particle sizes. However variation in particle size ... The milling process affects particle size based on the mill equipment type used, and some properties of the mill equipment (for ...

*Rotex Global

Direct Drive Screener Particle Size Analyzers: • GRADEX 2000 Particle Size Analyzer • GRADEX 3000 Particle Size Analyzer • ... Rotex offers a variety of screeners and separators, particle size analyzers, and feeders and conveyors.Screeners & Separators ...

*Substrate (marine biology)

Substrate (biology) Particle size (grain size). ... Sand - Particles between 0.06 and 2 mm in diameter. Granule - ...

*Ultrasonic machining

... the slurry's material and particle size; and the amplitude of the sonotrode's vibration. The surface finish of materials after ... Where m is the mass of the particle, v is the velocity of the particle when striking the surface and to is the contact time, ... Typical grain sizes of the abrasive material range from 100 to 1000, where smaller grains (higher grain number) produce ... The average force imparted by a particle of the slurry impacting the work piece's surface and rebounding can be characterized ...

*Feret diameter

This measure is used in the analysis of particle sizes, for example in microscopy, where it is applied to projections of a ... Feret diameter is used in the analysis of particle size and its distribution, e.g. in a powder or a polycrystalline solid; ... Henk G. Merkus (1 January 2009). Particle Size Measurements: Fundamentals, Practice, Quality. Springer. pp. 15-. ISBN 978-1- ... Characterization of particles and particle systems. vscht.cz Yasuo Arai (31 August 1996). Chemistry of Powder Production. ...

*Toner

Originally, the particle size of toner averaged 14-16 micrometres or greater. To improve image resolution, particle size was ... Material Safety Data Sheets: HP LaserJet Print Cartridges from Hewlett-Packard Toner Particles - Monitoring Particle Size ... Further reductions in particle size producing further improvements in resolution are being developed through the application of ... Because of this and the small particle size, toner should not be vacuumed with a conventional home vacuum cleaner. Static ...

*Ammonium perchlorate composite propellant

The propellant particle size distribution has a profound impact on APCP rocket motor performance. Smaller AP and Al particles ... Therefore, a particle's rate of temperature rise is maximized when the particle size is minimized. Common APCP formulations ... The combustion time of the aluminum particles in the hot combustion gas varies depending on aluminum particle size and shape. ... The burn rate is heavily dependent on mean AP particle size as the AP absorbs heat to decompose into a gas before it can ...

*Camelpox

It is a large, brick-shaped, enveloped virus that ranges in size from 265-295 nm. The viral genetic material is contained in ... The newly formed virus particles can be released during cell lysis, or they can derive a host cell produced membrane and be ...

*High-frequency vibrating screens

... efficient if the process is operated with appropriate feed concentration and size particles. Generally, a suitable particle ... This will result in the undesired particle size that is not allowed to pass through the apertures into the product stream. It ... It is also generally used for finger separations; between 12mm to 45μm particle size. The rotary sifter will usually be chosen ... Blinding can occur significantly if particle sizes are not within the screens' designed criteria. Another problem that is often ...
Data & statistics on Particle size distributions of two different particle size fuels: Particle size distributions of two different particle size fuels., Particle size distribution (PSD) for different fuels at 7.0 MPa (a) and 10.2 MPa (b) injection pressure. Averaged over run times and time span when particle is detectable., Relative effects of a thermodenuder and different temperature conditions on the size-number 12 distribution (ELPI - greased sintered plates - sample from the CVS - secondary dilution ( x 10 ) with N2) of Diesel exhaust particles as measured over an hot NEDC test cycle ( Euro 3 - Common Rail Turbocharged Diesel car - Fuel : 270 ppm S ). The total particle numbers are drastically affected by the 13 presence ......
TY - GEN. T1 - Effect of particle size on densification of copper powder during electric-field activated sintering for micro-scale forming. AU - Huang, Kunlan. AU - Qin, Yi. AU - Yang, Yi. PY - 2014/9/9. Y1 - 2014/9/9. N2 - A novel Micro-forming technology, called electric-field activated sintering for micro-scale forming (Micro-FAST), was introduced for the forming of micro-components. The effect of particle size on densification is revealed for copper powder being sintered under the influence from electrical field and force-field during forming of micro-components. Three kinds of copper powders of different particle sizes ((i) average particle size of 0.5μm; (ii) average particle size of 30μm and (iii) the mixture powders with 20% weight of 30μm and 80% weight of 0.5μm) with no binder were used for the experiments. The results show that the density of the compact sintered with mixed copper powders is the largest due to more volume of liquid phase was formed in the particles contacts. The ...
Physical activity (PA) and high aerobic fitness protects against cardiovascular disease and early death possibly among others because of an anti-atherogenic impact on lipoprotein particle concentrations. The objective of this study was to determine the impact of PA and diet on lipoprotein particle concentrations. Thirty-one severely obese women (age 43.6 ± 10.2 years; body mass index 43.0 ± 6.3 kg m−2) participated in a 1-year lifestyle intervention with repeated measurements of lipoprotein particle subclass concentrations and size of very low density lipoprotein (VLDL), low density lipoprotein (LDL) and high density lipoprotein (HDL), as well as fat mass, PA and diet. Multiple regression was used to determine associations with change (Δ) in two principal components (PCs) describing lipoprotein distributions: ΔPC 1 LIPO (dominated by VLDL and LDL) and ΔPC 2 LIPO (dominated by large HDL and mean HDL particle size). ΔPA duration was the only variable that was significantly related to ΔPC ...
Hepatic steatosis (HS), the most frequent liver disorder, was reported to be an independent predictor of cardiovascular disease. HS, if combined with the metabolic syndrome (MetS), might have a synergistic effect on low-density lipoprotein (LDL) particle size. Carotid intima-media thickness (IMT) and plaque formation, and HS were diagnosed ultrasonographically, and the MetS was diagnosed using the ATP III criteria in 274 healthy workers (mean age ± SD, 43.5 ± 7.1 yrs). LDL particle size was measured with density gradient ultracentrifugation, and subfractions were classified as large, buoyant LDL I (27.2~28.5 nm) and small, dense LDL III (24.2~25.5). All participants were grouped into three categories: control, subjects with HS alone and those with both HS and the MetS. The subjects with HS alone were 84 (30.7%), whereas those with HS and the MetS were 46 (16.8%). LDL peak particle sizes showed significant negative correlations with carotid mean IMTs. LDL peak particle size and LDL I (%) decreased
Particle size analysis is not a topic that many people master, but it does have an undisputable role in the products they consume or use daily. It practically refers to collecting particles with the purpose of characterizing their size distribution. Particle size analysis represents a crucial process for numerous industries, from pharmaceuticals and building materials, food and beverages to cosmetics. Selecting the right method for completing this process is very important for obtaining optimal results. The most common particle size analysis and characterization methods include laser diffraction, dynamic light scattering and automated imaging.. Laser diffraction is the favorite method used by manufacturers because it works for a multitude of products and provides accurate results. They use light intensity to determine particle size. Dynamic light scattering is more adequate for macromolecules offering information about the size, weight and zeta potential or "charge" of the particle. The process ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Effect of alginate size, mannuronic/guluronic acid content and pH on particle size, thermodynamics and composition of complexes with beta-lactoglobulin. AU - Stender, Emil G. P.. AU - Khan, Sanaullah. AU - Ipsen, Richard. AU - Madsen, Finn. AU - Hägglund, Per. AU - Abou Hachem, Maher. AU - Almdal, Kristoffer. AU - Westh, Peter. AU - Svensson, Birte. PY - 2018/1. Y1 - 2018/1. U2 - 10.1016/j.foodhyd.2017.09.001. DO - 10.1016/j.foodhyd.2017.09.001. M3 - Journal article. VL - 75. SP - 157. EP - 163. JO - Food Hydrocolloids. JF - Food Hydrocolloids. SN - 0268-005X. ER - ...
Advanced Textile Materials: Effects of Addition Amount, Particle Size Distribution and Average Particle Size of NaCl Porogen on the Pore Connectivity of Silk Fibroin (|i|SF|/i|) /Hydroxyapatite (|i|HA|/i|) Porous Composites
AIM: To determine distribution, size, and phenotype of low density lipoprotein (LDL) subclasses and examine the influence of plasma lipid concentrations on lipoprotein particle size in both healthy population and patients with myocardial infarction.
Data & statistics on Particle size distribution of sediments from South West Spit: Particle size distribution of sediments from South West Spit, Particle Size Distribution (psd) of sediment particles, Sieve sizes used for sediment particle distribution and the Wentworth sediment size categories (Buchanan 1984) Sieve Number...
Particle size analysis, zeta potential measurement, rheology, molecular weight and size measurement, size exclusion / gel permeation chromatography sec/gpc
Particle size analysis, zeta potential measurement, rheology, molecular weight and size measurement, size exclusion / gel permeation chromatography sec/gpc
Professional Particle Size Measurement Systems - Precision Particle Size Measurement for Laboratory & Research - Your Number 1 Partner for Research & Quality Management
Dry deposition of atmospheric particles is critically dependent on particle size and plays a key role in dictating the mass and number distributions of atmospheric particles. However, modeling dry deposition is constrained by a lack of understanding of controlling dependencies and accurate size-resolved observations. We present size-resolved particle number fluxes for sub-100-nm particle diameters (Dp) over a deciduous forest derived using eddy covariance applied to data from a fast mobility particle sizer. The size-resolved particle number fluxes in 18 diameters between 8 and 100 nm were collected during leaf-on and are statistically robust. Particle deposition velocities normalized by friction velocity (v d +) are approximately four times smaller than comparable values for coniferous forests reported elsewhere. Comparison of the data with output from a new one-dimensional mechanistic particle deposition model designed for broadleaf forest exhibits greater accord with the measurements than two ...
A scanning mobility particle sizer (SMPS) is an analytical instrument that measures the size and number concentration of aerosol particles with diameters from 2.5 nm to 1000 nm. They employ a continuous, fast-scanning technique to provide high-resolution measurements. The particles that are investigated can be of biological or chemical nature. The instrument can be used for air quality measurement indoors, vehicle exhaust, research in bioaerosols, atmospheric studies, and toxicology testing. Lev Solomonovich Ruzer; Naomi H. Harley (2013). Aerosols Handbook: Measurement, Dosimetry, and Health Effects (Second ed.). CRC Press. pp. 234-. ISBN 978-1-4398-5519-5. Retrieved 28 April 2013. Burtscher, H. (2005). "Physical characterization of particulate emissions from diesel engines: a review". Journal of Aerosol Science. 36 (7): 896-932. doi:10.1016/j.jaerosci.2004.12.001. ISSN 0021-8502 ...
Particle Size and Standard Deviation - CPMProduct 15 - 40 . . to particle size reduction. Increasing energy costs, increasing customer awareness of . choice for particle size reduction (grinding) applications. . For certain special applications such as high moisture grain, some form of a raked tooth with different . In many cases, this reduction in noise means a roller.dental grinding particle size customer case,Particle Grinding & Milling Services- Woodbury, MinnesotaAVEKAs particle grinding and milling services are useful for a variety of industries . Using Multiple Processes To Solve a Customers Needs · Milling and size . In each case, media, typically larger than the material to be ground, is added to a.Particle Size Reduction Solutions - PraterMany decades and 6,000 customers later, Praters products are some of the most versatile and . Prater Particle Size Reduction Application Case Studies.. ...
0091] As mentioned above, once formed, the abrasive aggregates may be classified, or separated into various size ranges as desired before being applied to a substrate or otherwise utilized in a polishing operation. In addition to the abrasive aggregates, a resultant powder may include an amount of material smaller than the desired aggregate size. The particulate material composed of the thus formed aggregates generally has an average particle size within a range of about 10 to about 2500 microns. Typically, the aggregate has an average particle size not less than about 10 microns, not less than about 20 microns, not less than about 30 microns, or not less than about 50 microns, not less than 100 microns, not less than 200 microns. Upper limits for average particle size are driven by particular end use applications and generally the abrasive aggregate average particle size is not greater than about 2500 microns, not greater than about 1500 microns, not greater than about 1000 microns, not greater ...
... Across most sectors, the particle size of products and materials is a critical parameter in their manufacture. Changing the particle size distribution of a material has a massive impact on its characteristics and its behaviour either during its manufacture, within the final product or on its effects within the environment.For example, the particle size distribution of a product like coffee greatly impacts its taste and quality. As discussed in Malvern Panlyticals Application Note : MRK781-01.The key factors which need to be considered include:• Dissolution rate• Flowability / Pump rates• Stability• Appearance• Safety• Environmental ImpactA current hot topic both nationally and worldwide is surrounding how a materials particle size distribution effects the safety of that material. For example, if the material has a high fraction of particles within the respirable range - PM1, PM2.5 or PM10, how does this impact on the health of either the workers in the factories and
OBJECTIVE: To test the hypothesis that children and adults with a history of Kawasaki disease (KD) are more likely to have abnormal lipoprotein particle profiles that could place them at increased risk for developing atherosclerosis later in life. STUDY DESIGN: Fasting serum samples were obtained from 192 children and 63 adults with history of KD and 90 age-similar healthy controls. Lipoprotein particle concentrations and sizes were measured by nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy (LipoScience Inc, Raleigh, North Carolina), and serum was assayed for total cholesterol (TC), triglycerides, and high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol (HDL-C). Low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol was estimated using the Friedewald formula. Data were analyzed in a least-square means model, with adjustment for age and sex and with the use of Holm correction for multiple comparisons. RESULTS: Compared with respective control groups, both adult and pediatric subjects with KD had significantly lower mean very ...
Background Feeding alfalfa hay is often recommended for its buffering components, like protein and calcium, to prevent lesions of the gastric mucosa in horses. Until now, there has been no information...
We investigate a new proxy for ENSO climate variability based on particle-size data from long-term, coastal sediment records preserved in a barrier estuary setting. Corresponding ~4-8 year periodicities identified from Wavelet analysis of particle-size data from Pescadero Marsh in Central Coast California and rainfall data from San Francisco reflect established ENSO periodicity, as further evidenced in the Multivariate ENSO Index (MEI), and thus confirms an important ENSO control on both precipitation and barrier regime variability. Despite the fact that barrier estuary mean particle size is influenced by coastal erosion, precipitation and streamflow, balanced against barrier morphology and volume, it is encouraging that considerable correspondence can also be observed in the time series of MEI, regional rainfall and site-based mean particle size over the period 1871-2008. This correspondence is, however, weakened after c.1970 by temporal variation in sedimentation rate and event-based ...
The INtegrated Mapping FOr the Sustainable Development of Irelands MArine Resource (INFOMAR) programme is a joint venture between the Geological Survey of Ireland (GSI) and the Marine Institute (MI). The programme is the successor to the Irish National Seabed Survey (INSS) and concentrates on creating integrated mapping products related to the seabed. INFOMAR Seabed Samples Particle Size Analysis represent locations where samples have been taken and particle size analysis (PSA) carried out on samples.. Sediment type classification based on percentage sand, mud and gravel (after Folk 1954). Every sediment is a mixture of grains of varying sizes. It groups grains into mud, sand and gravel on the basis of their diameter. The relative proportion of the grains in the three categories is then used to describe the sediment and is displayed in a diagram commonly called a "Folk triangle". This classification has 15 terms to describe the seabed sediments.. Samples from the seabed are taken by grab and ...
The INtegrated Mapping FOr the Sustainable Development of Irelands MArine Resource (INFOMAR) programme is a joint venture between the Geological Survey of Ireland (GSI) and the Marine Institute (MI). The programme is the successor to the Irish National Seabed Survey (INSS) and concentrates on creating integrated mapping products related to the seabed. INFOMAR Seabed Samples Particle Size Analysis represent locations where samples have been taken and particle size analysis (PSA) carried out on samples.. Sediment type classification based on percentage sand, mud and gravel (after Folk 1954). Every sediment is a mixture of grains of varying sizes. It groups grains into mud, sand and gravel on the basis of their diameter. The relative proportion of the grains in the three categories is then used to describe the sediment and is displayed in a diagram commonly called a "Folk triangle". This classification has 15 terms to describe the seabed sediments.. Samples from the seabed are taken by grab and ...
Particulate compositions that comprise macro-particulates, and degradable particulates in an amount sufficient to reduce friction between the macro-particulates, the degradable particulates having a mean particle diameter of at least about 20 times smaller than the mean particle diameter of the macro-particulates are disclosed herein. Also disclosed are fluids that comprise a liquid component, and a particulate composition, the particulate composition comprising macro-particulates and degradable particulates having a mean particle diameter of at least about 20 times smaller than the mean particle diameter of the macro-particulates, wherein the degradable particulates are present in the particulate composition in an amount sufficient to reduce friction between the macro-particulates. Methods of using the particulate compositions and fluids are also disclosed.
In order to design civil structures that are supported by soils, the shear strength parameters of soils are required. Due to the large particle size of coarse-grained soils, large direct shear tests should be performed. In this study, large direct shear tests on three types of coarse grained soils (4.5 mm, 7.9 mm, and 15.9 mm) were performed to evaluate the effects of particle size on the shear behavior of coarse grained soils with/without geogrid reinforcements. Based on the direct shear test results, it was found that, in the case of no-reinforcement, the larger the maximum particle size became, the larger the friction angle was. Compared with the no-reinforcement case, the cases reinforced with either soft geogrid or stiff geogrid have smaller friction angles. The cohesion of the soil reinforced with stiff geogrid was larger than that of the soil reinforced with soft geogrid. The difference in the shear strength occurs because the case with a stiff geogrid has more soil to geogrid contact area,
Inline In-Situ Particle Size Measurement, Analysis and Characterization. Size distribution of droplets, crystals, cells. Online Particle Analysis, Inspection and Monitoring
Inline In-Situ Particle Size Measurement, Analysis and Characterization. Size distribution of droplets, crystals, cells. Online Particle Analysis, Inspection and Monitoring
When it comes to wear resistance, the only things that really matter are the density of the filler particles, and the size of the particles. The more densely packed, the less the wear, and the smaller the particle size, the better.. Hybrids do exceptionally well on density but less well on particle size. The more recently developed ones resist wear quite well because they are highly filled. These are still some of the most wear-resistant composites on the market.. Agglomerated nanofills (microfills) do better on particle size but less well on density of particles. They generally exhibit poor working characteristics and shallow depth of cure, but they have the best wear characteristics compared to any of the other categories. In my experience, nanofills are somewhat more prone to fracture than other types of composites.. Nanohybrids, the newest addition to the composite pantheon (75% to 82% filled by weight, containing agglomerated nanofil particles interspersed with micro and nano sized ...
NANOCAT® Superfine Fe2O3 can be used as catalyst or as an oxidant for CO oxidation, depending on the availability of the 02. FIG. 3 shows a comparison between the catalytic activity of Fe203 nanoparticles (NANOCAT® Superfine Iron Oxide (SFIO) from MACH I, Inc., King of Prussia, PA) having an average particle size of about 3 nm, versus Fe203 powder (from Aldrich Chemical Company) having an average particle size of about 5/xm. The Fe203 nanoparticles show a much higher percentage of conversion of carbon monoxide to carbon dioxide than the Fe203 having an average particle size of about 5jum. As shown in FIG. 3, 50 mg of the NANOCAT® Fe203 can catalyze more than 98% CO to C02 at 400 C in an inlet gas mixture of 3.4% CO and 20.6% 02 at 1000 ml/minute. Under identical conditions, the same amount of the a-Fe203 powder with a particle size of 5 /-tm, can only catalyze about 10% CO to C02. In addition to that, the initial light off temperature for NANOCAT® Fe203 is more than 100 °C lower than that ...
Zetasizer Nano S90 for molecular / particle size measurement using Dynamic Light Scattering. Also measures molecular weight by Static Light Scattering.
Feed intake was highest for the 8mm particle size and lowest for the 2mm particle size, and average egg weight was highest when hens were offered rations containing 2mm particle sizes (see table). Particle size had no significant effect on yolk colour index or percentage shell. However, there was a tendency for fewer eggs to be produced per day with diets containing 8mm particle sizes. The whole wheat plus balancer ration significantly reduced feed intake, increased average egg weight and reduced feed cost per 100 eggs (£2.35 vs. £3.18). There were no significant differences in egg production or quality as a result of mash, crumbs or pellets but it was found that the crumbed ration reduced feed intake and hence feed cost per 100 eggs.. ...
In this study, sol-gel titania implants used in the controlled rate of drug release of valproic acid to the temporal lobe of the brain were optimized to insure that the correct drug dose is delivered. In previous studies we have reported that the rate of drug release to the temporal lobe of Wistar rats is dependent on (a) porosity and, (b) chemical linteractions between valproic acid and the surface hydroxyl groups of titania. When the sol-gel process is used in the synthesis, the concentration of water used in the hydrolysis reaction is an important variable in the degree of hydroxylation, porosity and structural defects in the framework of the nanostructured titanium oxide resevoir. The alcoxide /water ratio was systematically varied during the synthesis of the reservoir. Water was added in a dropwise manner during the hydrolysis of titanium n-butoxide. The valproic acid was incorporated into the framework during the synthesis. The resultant gels were dried under mild conditions over a 3 week period
At Stand 5-413, FRITSCH is displaying laboratory mills for grinding and mixing different materials and mixtures, as well as instruments for particle size analyses according to laser diffraction, dynamic light scattering, dynamic image analysis and sieving. Instruments on display include: Millsfor crushing, micro-milling, mixing and homogenizing hard, brittle, fibrous, elastic and soft materials (dry or in suspension); Instruments for particle size determinationby means of static and dynamic light scattering, dynamic image analysis and sieving; Laboratory instruments for dividingof dry and wet samples, controlled sample feeding . . .
The "bad" cholesterol, LDL, comes in large and small particles. Large LDL particles are relatively benign, but small LDL particles can more easily oxidize and stick to artery linings, forming hardened plaques. Doctors wanted to explore a link between nutrients such as B vitamins and LDL particle size. In one study, researchers measured blood fats and folate levels in 255 hospital workers. Scientists found a strong link: as blood levels of folate rose, LDL particle size increased; HDL, the "good" cholesterol, also increased; and triglycerides decreased. Doctors believe folate may help enhance and control LDL particle size, reducing chances of hardening of the arteries. Reference: Journal of Atherosclerosis and Thrombosis; 2010 Dec 26, Vol. 17, No. 12 ...
D6913 - 04e1 Standard Test Methods for Particle-Size Distribution (Gradation) of Soils Using Sieve Analysis , gradation, grain size, particle size, particle-size distribution, sieve analysis, sieving,
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ROSA-GOMEZ, Isaías De la; OLGUIN, María Teresa e ALCANTARA, David. Silver-Modified Mexican Clinoptilolite-Rich Tuffs With Various Particle Sizes as Antimicrobial Agents Against Escherichia coli. J. Mex. Chem. Soc [online]. 2010, vol.54, n.3, pp.139-142. ISSN 1870-249X.. Water disinfection was performed using Mexican clinoptilolite-rich tuffs from Oaxaca and Sonora with different particle sizes exchanged with silver ions. Samples of Escherichia coli (ATCC 8739) suspended in distilled water (wastewater-like) and municipal waste-water containing coliforms (E. coli as a representative microorganisms from the coliform consortium), were treated in this investigation. E. coli is considered an indicator of microbiological contamination of water, so levels of this microorganism after zeolite treatment indicate how well the disinfection process worked. It was found that particle size, the amount of silver in the modified zeolitic rocks, the origin of the zeolitic material and the type of aqueous media ...
[116 Pages Report] Check for Discount on Global Particle-Size Analyzers Market Professional Survey Report 2017 report by QYResearch Group. This report studies Particle-Size Analyzers in Global market, especially...
There are many factors that affect the quality of wooden fuel pellets, from raw materials to pellet production process. Among the factors, raw materials compositions, mechanical durability, moisture contents, and particle size distribution were studied. Experimental raw materials of different percent weights were introduced to industrial fuel pellet production, micro-chips in part-1 experiment and peat in part-2 experiment. Pellets made from these experimental raw material mixtures were tested for their mechanical strength (also known as durability) according to Swedish standards SS 187180 in Part 1 experiment, and European Technical Specification CEN/TS 15210-1 in Part 2 Experiment. Moisture contents of these pellets were also determined. In part-1 experiment, particle size distributions of raw materials and final micro- chips pellets were analyzed. Mapping of pellet production process, bio-energy combine power and heating plant integrated with pellet production were illustrated along with ...
Several cross-sectional studies have reported differences in LDL particle size, density, and composition between patients with CHD and healthy controls. Prospective, nested case-control studies have since confirmed that the presence of small, dense LDL particles is associated with a more than 3-fold increase in CHD risk.. In the Québec Cardiovascular Study, men with an LDL particle size ,25.6 nm had a significant 2.2-fold increase in the 5-year rate of ischemic heart disease (IHD) compared with men having an LDL particle size ,25.6 nm.9 Multivariate and subgroup analyses indicated that small, dense LDL particles predicted the rate of IHD independently of LDL cholesterol, triglycerides, HDL cholesterol, apo B, and the total cholesterol-HDL cholesterol ratio. The magnitude of the increase in IHD risk attributed to lipid risk factors was modulated to a significant extent by variations in LDL particle size. This study suggests that information on LDL diameter may improve the ability to predict IHD ...
The particle-size distribution (PSD) of a powder, or granular material, or particles dispersed in fluid, is a list of values or a mathematical function that defines the relative amount, typically by mass, of particles present according to size. Significant energy is usually required to disintegrate soil, etc. particles into the PSD that is then called a grain size distribution. The PSD of a material can be important in understanding its physical and chemical properties. It affects the strength and load-bearing properties of rocks and soils. It affects the reactivity of solids participating in chemical reactions, and needs to be tightly controlled in many industrial products such as the manufacture of printer toner, cosmetics, and pharmaceutical products. Particle size distribution can greatly affect the efficiency of any collection device. Settling chambers will normally only collect very large particles, those that can be separated using sieve trays. Centrifugal collectors will normally collect ...
The production and use of engineering nanomaterials (ENMs) leads to the release of manufactured or engineered nanoparticles into environment. The quantification and characterization of ENMs are crucial for the assessment of their environmental fate, transport behavior and health risks to humans. To analyze the size distribution and particle number concentration of AgNPs and AuNPs in environmental water and track their stability at low number concentration, a systematic study on SP-ICPMS was presented. The Poisson statistics was used to discuss the effect of dwell time and particle number concentration theoretically on the detection of NPs in solution by SP-ICPMS. The dynamic range of SP-ICPMS is approximately two orders of magnitude. The size detection limits for silver and gold nanoparticle in ultrapure water are 20 and 19nm respectively. The detection limit of nanoparticle number concentration is 8×104particlesL−1. Size distribution of commercial silver and gold nanoparticle dispersions is ...
In one general aspect, an instrument for measuring characteristics of particles suspended in a fluid is disclosed. It includes a closed wall surface defining a fractionation channel having a input opening, an output opening, and a flow axis that spans downstream from the input opening for the channel to the output opening. A force application subsystem has a force application output oriented perpendicular to at least part of the flow axis of the fractionation channel. A particle characteristic measurement subsystem is located hydraulically downstream from at least a portion of the closed wall surface defining the fractionation channel, and includes a sensor positioned to sense a property of the suspended particles in the potential measurement subsystem as well as a signal output responsive to the sensor. A result processor has a signal input responsive to the signal output of the particle characteristic measurement subsystem, zeta potential processing logic responsive to the particle characteristic
A photographic color diffusion transfer element is disclosed wherein said element comprises a single dimensionally stable support, wherein said support comprises an opaque and light reflecting layer, and coated thereon in reactive association and in sequence (1) a mordant layer for binding diffusible dyes, (2) a stripping layer, (3) one or more layers comprising radiation sensitive silver halide, a solid particle dispersion of a diffusible-dye forming compound, or radiation sensitive silver halide and a solid particle dispersion of a diffusible-dye forming compound, and (4) a barrier layer comprising a polymer that (a) allows the passage of solutions for processing said element when said element is contacted with an external processing bath and (b) blocks the diffusion out of said element of the diffusible dye formed from said solid particle dispersion of a diffusible-dye forming compound when said element is contacted with an external processing bath. A further embodiment of a photographic color
Disclosed are a particle size measuring device and a particle size measuring method that are capable of measuring particle sizes without making contact with the target particles, and which allow for measuring a greater range of particle sizes. A plurality of laser beams of different wavelengths is constantly emitted by a light source (2), striking the particle to be measured in suspension. From among the scattered light that is scattered by the particle being measured, and with the laser beam wavelengths being varied, first scattered light, having a first plane of polarization, and second scattered light, having a second plane of polarization that is perpendicular to the first plane of polarization, are detected by a scattered light detection device (5). The luminosities of the first scattered light and the second scattered light that are detected by the scattered light detection device (5) are expressed numerically, and the polarization ratio is found therefrom. The size of the particle being measured
Die Erfindung betrifft die Erkennung von Teilchengrößen, insbesondere eine Erkennung von Teilchengrößen unter Ver wendung von Lichtstreuung. The invention relates to the detection of particle sizes, in particular a detection of particle sizes below Ver application of light scattering. Einrichtungen zum Bestimmen von Teilchengrößen sind jetzt allgemein bekannt und ebenso, daß Laserstrahlen dafür eingesetzt werden können und bisher eingesetzt worden sind, um Teilchengrößenmessungen durchzuführen. Means for determining particle sizes are now well known and also that laser beams can be used for this and have been previously used to particle size measurements carried out. Siehe beispiels weise die US-PS 34 06 289. Außerdem zeigt und beschreibt die US-PS 45 71 079 eine Teilchengrößenmessung mit einem Laser mit offenem Hohlraum (aktiv) und die US-PS 45 94 751 eine Messung mit passivem Hohlraum; See example, US-PS 34 06 289. In addition, shows and the US-PS 45 71 079 describes a particle ...
beneficiation of indian high alumina iron ore fines particle size measurement of the iron ore fines was performed using the standard laboratory sieve shaker and the results are presented in figure 1. from the figure it is revealed that average particle size (i.e d 50) the ore fines is 127 microns and 80% of the materials (by weight) have size More Info > Live Chat ...
Home Decorating Style 2016 for Dividing Positive and Negative Fractions Luxury Particle Size Distribution for Sand Used Subsequently Divided Into, you can see Dividing Positive And Negative Fractions Luxury Particle Size Distribution For Sand Used Subsequentl and more pictures for Home Interior Designing 2016 14604 at newartwestmidlands.org.
In this work, the influences of ethanol and iso-butanol blended with gasoline on engine-out and post three-way catalyst (TWC) particle size distribution and number concentration were studied using a General Motors (GM) 2.0L turbocharged spark ignition direct injection (SIDI) engine. The engine was operated using the production engine control unit (ECU) with a dynamometer controlling the engine speed and the accelerator pedal position controlling the engine load. A TSI Fast Mobility Particle Sizer (FMPS) spectrometer was used to measure the particle size distribution in the range from 5.6 to 560 nm with a sampling rate of 1 Hz. U.S. federal certification gasoline (E0), two ethanol-blended fuels (E10 and E20), and 11.7% iso-butanol blended fuel (BU12) were tested. Measurements were conducted at 10 selected steady-state engine operation conditions. Bi-modal particle size distributions were observed for all operating conditions with peak values at particle sizes of 10 nm and 70 nm ...
The influence of metal particle size of monometallic and bimetallic supported catalysts (Au, Pd, Au-Pd)/C was studied using as a model reaction the liquid phase oxidation of glycerol. By tuning the metal particle size from 2 to 16 nm a progressive decrease of activity and simultaneously an increase in the selectivity to sodium glycerate was observed. Moreover, the influence of the temperature was studied and it was found that by increasing the temperature, only with a large particle size the formed glycerate was retained and not over-oxidized to tartronate.. ...
Particle Size Instruments - Group - There are numerous techniques by which to determine the quantity vs. equivalent size distribution of a collection of particles. Selecting the right technique is critical in obtaining reliable data. No single technique is appropriate for all materials or applications. For this reason, Micromeritics offers you six different particle size analyzer choices, each employing different analytical techniques, to fit your application.
Particle properties such as size, shape and density play significant roles on particle flow and flame propagation in pulverized fuel combustion and gasification. A drop tube furnace allows for experiments at high heating rates similar to those found in large-scale appliances, and was used in this study to carry out experiments on pulverized biomass devolatilization, i.e. detailing the first stage of fuel conversion. The objective of this study was to develop a particle conversion model based on optical information on particle size and shape transformation. Pine stem wood and wheat straw were milled and sieved to three narrow size ranges, rapidly heated in a drop tube setup, and solid residues were characterized using optical methods. Different shape descriptors were evaluated and a shape descriptor based on particle perimeter was found to give significant information for accurate estimation of particle volume. The optical conversion model developed was proven useful and showed good agreement ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - The effect of loading and particle size on the oxygen reaction in CGO impregnated Pt electrodes. AU - Lund,Anders. AU - Hansen,Karin Vels. AU - Jacobsen,Torben. AU - Mogensen,Mogens Bjerg. PY - 2012. Y1 - 2012. N2 - Porous platinum electrodes impregnated with Gd x Ce1−x O2−δ (CGO) are investigated to characterise how nano-sized CGO grains affect the oxygen reaction. Impedance measurements were performed at temperatures between 450 and 750 °C and at oxygen partial pressures of 0.2 and 5 × 10−5 bar for electrodes with various CGO loadings and electrodes annealed at various temperatures. The morphology was characterised by scanning electron microscopy and the CGO grain size was determined from X-ray diffraction peak broadening. The results showed that the polarisation resistance decreased with increasing CGO loading and increasing annealing temperature. CGO facilitates transport of oxygen ions thereby increasing the effective triple-phase boundary.. AB - Porous platinum ...
There is a need to evaluate nanoparticle (< 100 nm) exposures in occupational settings. However, portable instruments do not size segregate particles in that size range. A proxy method for determining nanoparticle count concentrations involves subtracting counts made with a condensation particle counter (CPC) from those of an optical particle counter/sizer (OPC), resulting in an estimation of ver
We have recently developed vetted methods for obtaining quantitative infrared directional-hemispherical reflectance spectra using a commercial integrating sphere. In this paper, the effects of particle size on the spectral properties are analyzed for several samples such as ammonium sulfate, calcium carbonate, and sodium sulfate as well as one organic compound, lactose. We prepared multiple size fractions for each sample and confirmed the mean sizes using optical microscopy. Most species displayed a wide range of spectral behavior depending on the mean particle size. General trends of reflectance versus particle size are observed such as increased albedo for smaller particles: for most wavelengths, the reflectivity drops with increased size, sometimes displaying a factor of 4 or more drop in reflectivity along with a loss of spectral contrast. In the longwave infrared, several species with symmetric anions or cations exhibited reststrahlen features whose amplitude was nearly invariant with ...
Particle size analysis, characterization and reduction are a key process used within the pharmaceutical manufacturing industry, they are carried out by...
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The benefits of sizing aerosolized submicrometer particles using an electrical mobility sizing technique have been well documented. This type of analytical tool has been found to be able to measure particle diameter with an uncertainty of only 0.1%. The National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) has been using electrical mobility to measure its 0.1µm Standard Reference Material (SRM) Particles for well over a decade due to its superior accuracy and speed over surface measurement techniques. In this study an Electrospray Aerosol Generator has been used to generate polydisperse and monodisperse particles in the nanometer size range. A Scanning Mobility Particle Sizer™ (SMPS) Spectrometer with a Nano Differential Mobility Analyzer (NDMA) and Condensation Particle Counter (CPC) has been used to size the particles. The significance of controlling measurement parameters (flow accuracy, voltage accuracy, aerosol charge distributions, carrier gas properties, diffusion losses, etc.) will be
Determination of particle size distribution - Single particle light interaction methods - Part 4: Light scattering airborne particle counter for clean spaces
bauxite mill particle size mensennetwerk. bauxite particle size bauxite mining,Crusher South Africa bauxite particle size,Bauxite Crusher is widely used in bauxite crushing plant_SKDm_ Chat; particle size ore crush gamixeu bauxite crushing particle size,can be used to crush items from large,Size reduction in impact crushers,to break the ore down to a smaller size mine. More ...
The absolute efficiency of a phosphor screen is the ratio of the light energy per unit area at the screen surface to the incident x-ray energy fluence. Particle size is a critical factor in determining the absolute efficiency, but in most models its influence is not accounted for. To allow derivation of the particle size dependence, a model is proposed that describes the optical properties of the screen by means of a single parameter, the light extinction factor, xi, and assumes that the intrinsic efficiency (light energy/energy imparted to the phosphor material) is independent of particle size. The value of xi depends on the type of screen (phosphor, reflective backing, coating and binder) and has to be determined from measurements on at least two screens with known particle size and thickness. The absolute efficiency can then be calculated for an extended range of particle sizes and/or screen thicknesses. To test the model, experimental data from the literature were used to derive values of xi ...
Abstract. This study presents an evaluation and modeling exercise of the size fractionated aerosol particle number concentrations measured nearby a major road in Helsinki during 23 August-19 September 2003 and 14 January-11 February 2004. The available information also included electronic traffic counts, on-site meteorological measurements, and urban background particle number size distribution measurement. The ultrafine particle (UFP, diameter,100 nm) number concentrations at the roadside site were approximately an order of magnitude higher than those at the urban background site during daytime and downwind conditions. Both the modal structure analysis of the particle number size distributions and the statistical correlation between the traffic density and the UFP number concentrations indicate that the UFP were evidently from traffic related emissions. The modeling exercise included the evolution of the particle number size distribution nearby the road during downwind conditions. The model ...
A method of controlling the particle size and particle size distribution of an aqueous emulsion having a non-aqueous disperse phase during the production thereof, in which the production of the emulsion is carried out in the presence of a dispersion of a templating agent, such as a polymer latex, and surfactant Particle size and particle size distribution of the dispersion is controlled by selecting the templating agent and surfactant such as to cause deposition of the disperse phase on particles of the dispersed templating agent, such that the particle size distribution of the templating agent provides a template for the particle size distribution of the final emulsion.
The influence of Mo particle size on the catalytic activity and product selectivity of alkalized MoS2 nanocatalysts has been investigated. Nanocatalysts are prepared using a microemulsion technique with water-to-surfactant ratios of 1-12. Three different techniques, including XRD, TEM, and hydrogen chemisorption were used to determine the molybdenum average particle size and their activity and selectivity in higher alcohols synthesis (HAS) carried out in a fixed bed microreactor at 330 °C and 70 bar. To fix the percentage of CO conversion, the GHSV is changed from 3.6 to 2.57 (nl/(hr.g catalyst)). The average MoS2 particle sizes are changed from 4.5 to 11.9 nm. The experimental results showed that changing particle size from 11.9 to 4.5 nm decreased the methanol formation rate from 0.00634 to 0.00534 (mol/(hr.g catalyst)) but increased ethanol formation rate from 0.00581 to 0.00787 (mol/(hr.g catalyst)) and higher alcohols formation rate from 0.00473 to 0.00657 (mol/(hr.g catalyst)). A size-dependent
HORIBA Scientific particle size analyzers provide accurate, reliable particle size distribution measurements from 0.3 nanometers to 30 millimeters.
The purpose of this study is to understand the effect of ground conditions on microbial cementation in cohesionless soils. Since the method of microbial cementation is still at the experimental stage, for its practical use in the field, a number of laboratory experiments are required for the quantification of microbial cementation under various ground conditions, such as relative densities, relative compactions and particle size distributions. In this study, in order to evaluate the effectiveness of microbial cementation in treated sands and silts, an experiment was performed for different relative densities of silica sands, for different relative compactions of silts and for different particle size distributions of weathered soils sampled from the field. Scanning electron microscope (SEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), energy dispersive X-ray (EDX) spectroscopy and mapping analyses were implemented for the quantification of the levels of microbial cementations for sand, silt and weathered soil specimens.
Track changes to particle size distribution, shape and count in real-time ✔ Control particle size, count, and shape ✔ Reveal hidden mechanisms ✔ Consistent particles in both Lab and Plant with probe-based technology
Recent focus of studies on health effects of ambient particulate matter (PM) have suggested particle chemical composition in addition to particle size, shape and number concentration responsible for the observed health outcomes. However, chemical composition and size distribution of the atmospheric particles can be strongly affected by the differences in ambient temperature, relative humidity, photochemical activity and source contributions. This thesis is intended to demonstrate the importance of characterizing predominant PM sources from an exposure perspective and develop methods of assessing their impact on air quality in Southern California. A study of particle number concentration and size distribution showed seasonal and spatial variability in Southern California. While contribution of local vehicular emissions was most evident in winter, effects of long-range transport of particles and photochemical particle formation were enhanced during warmer periods. Ship emissions are found to be ...
Particle size effect on the performance of Active Pharmaceutical Ingredient,Technical Articles,Technology,Jinan Winner Particle Instruments Joint Stock Co. Ltd.,1) API market conditionoverview:the pharmaceutical industry is divided into the pharmaceu
Powder compacts manufactured by the pharmaceutical industry are usually produced by uniaxial compression of powders or granules. This process results in compacts that are anisotropic in their mechanical strength, but this hypothesis has received little attention in the past. In this work, compacts were produced from sorbitol granules using two distinctively different particle size fractions, two compaction speeds and a range of different tablet porosities. The compact tensile strength was assessed by diametral and biaxial compression and by flexural bending. Fracture mechanics, i.e. the critical stress intensity factors in mode I and II loading, and the construction of the fracture envelope were used to investigate failure mechanisms and strength anisotropy. The strength results were also analyzed statistically employing Weibull analysis and analysis of variance. Granule size and compaction speed were identified as major influence factors on tensile strength. The magnitude of the effects found, however,
Nickel ferrite nanoparticles of very small size were prepared by sol-gel combustion and co-precipitation techniques. At the same annealing temperature sol-gel derived particles had bigger crystallite size. In both methods, crystallite size of the particles increased with annealing temperature. Sol-gel derived nickel ferrite particles were found to be of almost spherical shape and moderate particle size with a narrow size distribution; while co-precipitation derived particles had irregular shape and very small particle size with a wide size distribution. Nickel ferrite particles produced by sol-gel method exhibited more purity. Sol-gel synthesized nanoparticles were found to be of high saturation magnetization and hysteresis. Co-precipitation derived nickel ferrite particles, annealed at 400°C exhibited superparamagnetic nature with small saturation magnetization. Saturation magnetization increased with annealing temperature in both the methods. At the annealing temperature of 600°C, ...
How does concentration effect on results of particle size distribution test?,Industry News,News,Jinan Winner Particle Instruments Joint Stock Co. Ltd.,Generally, the particle size distribution measurement is performed by the system to identify and re
TY - GEN. T1 - Toughening mechanism of PP with bimodal distributed SEBS particle size. AU - Mae, Hiroyuki. AU - Omiya, Masaki. AU - Kishimoto, Kikuo. PY - 2008. Y1 - 2008. N2 - The objective is to summarize the material ductility and the toughening mechanisms of the thermoplastic polypropylene blended with two different styrene-ethylene-butadiene-styrene tri-block copolymer (SEBS) at the intermediate and high strain rates. PP and two types of SEBS were blended so that the total rubber amounts were 10, 20 and 30 wt % against PP by the two-step blending procedure. Tensile tests are conducted at the nominal strain rates from 3 × 10-1 to 102 s-1. Phase morphology is investigated to estimate the bi-modal rubber particle size distribution. In addition, the fracture surfaces were observed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) in order to understand the difference of the toughening mechanism for PP toughened with the bimodal rubber particle size distribution in PP and SEBS blends at various total ...
For BSA the most prominent effect of the micronization process was the formation of an insoluble fraction of the protein. Experiments revealed that all the three investigated milling parameters affected this result. With higher pressure and more milling cycles the insoluble fraction increased to 14 %. By applying cryogenic conditions the amount had been decreased to 6-9 %. This indicates that heat creation on the particle surface may play a role in this process, inducing changes within the particles. Different possible reasons for this phenomenon were investigated. Covalent protein aggregates due to thiol-disulfide interchange could be excluded as a reason as well as oxidation processes of this free thiol group. Increased surface hydrophobicity by rearrangement of fatty acids present at the molecule surface could be neglected by micronizing fatty acid free BSA. However, changes in relative surface hydrophobicity were detected by fluorescence analysis. The micronization process resulted in a ...
Our family of Condensation Particle Counters detects particles in the range from 2.5 to >3000 nm. Condensation Particle Counters use a condensation technique to enlarge submicrometer particles to a size that can be easily detected. Three of our condensation particle counting devices use water as the condensing fluid; the remaining CPCs use alcohol.
Laser Diffraction uses Mie Scattering Theory to power the worlds most advanced particle size analyzer from 10 nanometers to 3 millimeters.
Beckman Coulter Life Sciences presents a video on particle size and associated sedimentary processes on wetland gain and loss in the Mississippi River Delta. This webinar is presented by Alexander S Kolker at Louisiana Unviersities Marine Consortium.
Union Process is a trusted provider of particle size reduction equipment and supplies, including grinding balls, Attritors, product and laboratory mills, and bead mills.
lime slaking and wet limestone ball mill grinding process lime slaking and wet limestone ball mill grinding process overflow with a new approach for particle size reduction abstrac being an integral part of the typical fgd system, the design and performance of the reagent preparation More Info > Live Chat ...
The predictive performance scaling method for hydrodynamic separators (HDS) using the Peclet number is used to size HDS for different particle sizes.
The quality of a powder compact depends on the uniformity of the particle size distribution throughout its volume and the retaining of a refined microstructure during the final consolidation process. This paper deals with the creation of uniform green compacts from powders and the dynamic consolidation process. An overview of basic issues and problems concerning the behaviour and handling of granular materials is presented, emphasising recent results on particle size segregation induced through vibrations and occurring in granular flows. The implications of segregation on the production of green compacts are introduced followed by a discussion of their formation via ultrasonic vibrations. The dynamic (shock) consolidation process to form dense compacts with metastable or refined microstructures from green compacts is described. A critical review and discussion of the kinetics and energetics in the shock consolidation process, including particle bonding and shock energy distribution, is presented. ...
This data set contains the cloud particle size distributions (PSDs) and bulk properties data from the SPEC 2D-S probe that was flown on-board the NSF/NCAR HIAPER GV aircraft during the 15 flights for the SOCRATES (Southern Ocean Clouds, Radiation, Aerosol Transport Experimental Study) project over the Southern Ocean region from 15 January to 24 February 2018. The bulk properties include total number concentration, liquid water content, and ice water content. The data are in NetCDF4 format. ...
We statement the seeded synthesis of gold nanoparticles (GNPs) via the reduction of HAuCl4 by (L31 and F68) triblock copolymer (TBP) mixtures. centers for GNP development and; (2) huge GNPs are shaped from the aggregation of GNP seed products within an autocatalytic development procedure. as ~ can be a proportionality continuous.20 For DLCA the strength scales while ~ can be an arbitrary worth. This power dependence gets the same practical form as response managed Ostwald ripening (OR) rendering it impossible to tell apart between them. Nevertheless aggregative development can be easily recognized from OR systems from the immediate observation of polycrystallinity in the nanostructures.20 Outcomes Seeding Results on Particle Morphology Shape 1 shows the consequences of GNP seeding on particle size in (8 mM/4 mM) L31/F68 solutions after incubation for seven days at space temperature. DLS outcomes show how the GNP size distributions are bimodal (Shape 1A; Shape S2). Without seeding the GNPs shaped ...
Tzitzinou, A, Keddie, JL, Geurts, JM, Peters, ACIA and Satguru, R (2000) Film formation of latex blends with bimodal particle size distributions: Consideration of particle deformability and continuity of the dispersed phase ...
The fluid - particle interaction inside a 41.7 mg s−1 fluidised bed reactor is modelled. Three char particles of sizes 500 μm, 250 μm, and 100 μm are injected into the fluidised bed and the momentum transport from the fluidising gas and fluidised sand is modelled. Due to the fluidising conditions and reactor design the char particles will either be entrained from the reactor or remain inside the bubbling bed. The particle size is the factor that differentiates the particle motion inside the reactor and their efficient entrainment out of it. A 3-Dimensional simulation has been performed with a completele revised momentum transport model for bubble three-phase flow according to the literature as an extension to the commercial finite volume code FLUENT 6.2.. ...
A process for the preparation of random propylene copolymers contairing copolymerized Cz-C1o-alk-l-enes by polymerization of propylene and Cz-C1o-alk-l- enes in the presence of a Ziegler-Natta catalyst system comprising a titanium- containing solid component a) comprising a compound of magnesium, a halogen, silica gel as support and a carboxylic ester as electron donor compound, and also, as cocatalysts, an aluminum compound b) and a further electron donor compound c), where propylene and the Cz-C1o-alk-l-enes are polymerized with one another at from 50 to 100°C at pressures in the range from 15 to 40 bar and mean residence times of from 0.5 to 5 hours and the support used in the titanium-containing solid component is a silica gel which has a mean particle diameter of from 5 to 200 J.tm, a mean particle diameter of the primary particles of from 1 to 10 J.tm and voids or channels having a mean diameter of from 1 to 10 J.tffi, which voids or channels have a macroscopic proportion by volume based ...
An image-based method has been developed for rapidly determining the size distribution of coarse sand and gravel. The system utilizes a back-lit tilting "translucent segregation table" (TST) to segregate the particles by size prior to photographing the specimen from above. Most significantly, the soil particles need not to be detached from each other; they only need to rest on the translucent plate in a single layer. An image-processing method called "watershed segmentation" digitally separates the soil particles so that each one is individually accounted for in the resulting size distribution. A sieve-equivalent particle size, which considers the passage of ellipsoids through square sieve openings, is obtained for every particle in the specimen. Twenty soil specimens were tested by the TST and by sieving. Slight differences between sieve and TST results were observed and explanations for the minor discrepancies were explored. Considering that the TST uses a single camera and just one ...
S. Kühn, P. Measor, E. J. Lunt, B. S. Phillips, D. W. Deamer, A. R. Hawkins, and H. Schmidt, "Active Trapping of Individual Particles on an Optofluidic Analysis Platform," in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics/International Quantum Electronics Conference, OSA Technical Digest (CD) (Optical Society of America, 2009), paper CTuM4 ...
Superficially porous particle technologies (solid-core or core-shell) have gained acceptance in general high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and ultra-high pressure liquid chromatography (UHPLC) practice over the past several years due to improved efficiency relative to comparably sized fully porous particles. The solid-core option has also proven to be a superior approach for improving column efficiency as compared to smaller porous particle (sub-2-µm, UHPLC) technologies owing to the lessened backpressure penalties that are paid for the efficiency gains. The application of solid-core particles has exploded in popularity as an alternative to sub-2 µm porous particles because UHPLC performance (>200,000 plates per meter) can be achieved at much lower backpressures ...
Micron-sized, monodisperse, cross-linked, hollow polymer particles having transformable shapes were produced by seeded polymerization of (divinylbenzene/vinylbiphenyl/xylene)-swollen polystyrene...
All, I have a product which requires a Particle Size Distribution determination. I currently use Laser Diffraction to get this information. I am looking for ano
This article demonstrates differences in performance of fully and superficially porous particle columns for the routine analysis of drug compounds. At high pH, XBridge columns demonstrated a 10-fold increase in column efficiency over that at low pH at the same mass loads. This hybrid particle technology advantage is most important for increasing throughput in preparative HPLC and increasing capacity when developing superior stability indicating methods for detection in APIs.
TSI/MSP provides tools to accurately, consistently, and efficiently collect pharmaceutical inhaler medications to analyze their chemical characteristics and ensure the particles are sized as designed.
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Garcia-Contreras, L., Sung, J., Elbert, K., Hawi, A., Robinson, M., Edwards, D., & Hickey, A. (2006). Pharmacokinetics of aerosolized rifampicin large porous particles in the guinea pig. In Respiratory Drug Delivery X (pp. 873 - 876). Boca Raton, FL: Davis Healthcare International Publishing, LLC ...
In Using semidefinite programming to calculate bounds on particle size distributions, Garrett R. Dowdy and Paul I. Barton have described a method for computing bounds on various industrially-relevant descriptions of a particle size distribution - CDF, D10, and so forth - using only finitely many moments of the distribution as input. The paper is now available through Chemical Engineering Science here.. Abstract:. Many chemical engineering processes involve a population of particles with a distribution of sizes that changes over time. Because calculating the time evolution of the full particle size distribution (PSD) is computationally expensive, it is common to instead calculate the time evolution of only finitely many moments of the distribution. The problem with moments is that they provide only a summary description of the PSD. In particular, they do not contain enough information to answer industrially relevant questions such as: How many particles are there in the size range [a,b]? What is ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Analysis of chitin particle size on maximum power generation, power longevity, and Coulombic efficiency in solid-substrate microbial fuel cells. AU - Rezaei, Farzaneh. AU - Richard, Tom L.. AU - Logan, Bruce E.. PY - 2009/7/15. Y1 - 2009/7/15. N2 - Microbial fuel cells (MFCs) produce bioelectricity from a wide variety of organic and inorganic substrates. Chitin can be used as a slowly degrading substrate in MFCs and thus as a long-term fuel to sustain power by these devices in remote locations. However, little is known about the effects of particle size on power density and length of the power cycle (longevity). We therefore examined power generation from chitin particles sieved to produce three average particle sizes (0.28, 0.46 and 0.78 mm). The longevity increased from 9 to 33 days with an increase in the particle diameter from 0.28 to 0.78 mm. Coulombic efficiency also increased with particle size from 18% to 56%. The maximum power density was lower for the largest (0.78 mm) ...
The rise of antimicrobial resistance demands the development of more rapid screening methods for the detection of antimicrobial resistance in clinical samples to both give the patient the proper treatment and expedite the treatment of patients. Cerium oxide nanoparticles may serve a useful role in diagnostics due to their ability to exist in a mixed valence state and act as either oxidizing agents or reducing agents. Considering that cerium oxide nanoparticles have been shown to shift in absorbance upon oxidation, a useful method of antimicrobial resistance detection could be based on the oxidation of cerium oxide nanoparticles. Herein, an assay is described whereby cerium oxide nanoparticle oxidation is a function of glucose metabolism of bacterial samples in the presence of an antimicrobial agent. Cerium oxide nanoparticles were shown to have an absorbance in the range of 395nm upon oxidation by hydrogen peroxide whereas mixed valence cerium oxide nanoparticles lacked an absorbance around 395nm. In
A one-step method to prepare core-shell nanoparticles and thus hollow nanospheres is reported. The process for the formation of core and shell took place during reaction. Once the core formed, it was covered with the shell substance produced in situ, and thus, the shell hindered the continued growth of the core. Based on this method, we readily obtained core-shell nanoparticles by choosing AgCl, CuS, or Fe(III) diethyldithiocarbamate (FeDEC)3 as model core substances and the cogel from gelatin and gum arabic as the shell substance. High-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM) directly revealed the core-shell structure. TEM results showed the average particle sizes were under 100 nm, depending on the core substance and the concentration of substances producing cores. After removal of the core materials, hollow nanospheres resulted, which were directly observed by TEM. The observation further verified the core-shell structure. UV spectrophotometry also gave signals of coated structure ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Ultrafine carbon black particles inhibit human lung fibroblast-mediated collagen gel contraction. AU - Kim, Huijung. AU - Liu, Xiang-de. AU - Kobayashi, Tetsu. AU - Kohyama, Tadashi. AU - Wen, Fu Qiang. AU - Romberger, Debra. AU - Conner, Heather. AU - Gilmour, Peter S.. AU - Donaldson, Kenneth. AU - MacNee, William. AU - Rennard, Stephen I.. PY - 2003/1/1. Y1 - 2003/1/1. N2 - Both acute and chronic exposure to particulates have been associated with increased mortality and morbidity from a number of causes, including chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and other chronic lung diseases. The current study evaluated the hypothesis that ultrafine carbon particles, a component of ambient particulates, could affect tissue repair. To assess this, the three-dimensional collagen gel contraction model was used. Ultrafine carbon black particles, but not fine carbon black, inhibited fibroblast-mediated collagen gel contraction. Although previous research has indicated that inflammatory ...
The latest market report published by Credence Research, Inc. "Global Pulmonary Drug Delivery Devices Market - Growth, Share, Opportunities, Competitive Analysis, and Forecast, 2017 - 2025," the Pulmonary Drug Delivery Devices market was valued at USD 134.6 Bn in 2016, and is expected to reach USD 218.6 Bn by 2025, expanding at a CAGR of 5.4% from 2017 to 2025.. Browse the full report Pulmonary Drug Delivery Devices Market - Growth, Share, Opportunities, Competitive Analysis, and Forecast, 2017 - 2025 at http://www.credenceresearch.com/report/pulmonary-drug-delivery-devices-market. Market Insights. Increasing demand for noninvasive drug administration for respiratory diseases through pulmonary route is expected to boost the market of such devices. According to market experts the efficiency of pulmonary drug delivery devices is high because lungs possess ability to provide large absorptive surface area (up to 100 m2 ) but extremely thin (0.1 µm - 0.2 µm) absorptive mucosal membrane and ample ...
The Phase I.B Report of the Particle Epidemiology Evaluation Project. The Health Effects Institute began the Particle Epidemiology Evaluation Project in 1994 to evaluate the emerging epidemiologic evidence of a relation between particulate air pollution and daily mortality. In Phase I.B, Drs. Jonathan M. Samet and Scott L. Zeger and their colleagues at the Johns Hopkins University School of Hygiene and Public Health (1) compared approaches for controlling the effects of weather variables when analyzing the connection between air pollution and daily mortality, primarily focusing on Synoptic Weather Categories, an approach newly proposed by Dr. Laurence S. Kalkstein of the University of Delaware; and (2) evaluated the association between particulate air pollution and daily mortality in the Philadelphia metropolitan area using statistical models that included data for five pollutants regulated under the Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990 (referred to as criteria pollutants).
In this study, magnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (Fe3O4) with the size range of 20-30 nm were prepared by the modified controlled chemical co-precipitation method from the solution of ferrous/ferric mixed salt-solution in alkaline medium. In this process polyethylene glycol was used as a surfactant to prevent the solution from agglomeration. The prepared magnetic nanoparticles were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and vibrating-sample magnetometer (VSM). XRD image indicates the sole existence of inverse cubic spinel phase of magnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (Fe3O4). SEM image show that the dimension of magnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (Fe3O4) is about 24 nm. VSM patterns demonstrate superparamagnetic properties of magnetic nanoparticles.
In recent years, essential oil has been the subject matter of many investigations due to its eco-friendly and bio-degradable nature. Geranium oil is one of the various essential oils that are used as mosquito repellent. However, stability is one of the issues related to essential oil fonnulations. Incorporation of essential oil in a control-release formulation could solve the problem and it also offers several advantages. In this work, a new delivery system for mosquito repellent based on the incorporation of geranium oil into solid lipid nanoparticles (SLNs) has been studied. The following has been employed for the production of geranium oil loaded solid lipid nanoparticles (GO-SLNs): 5-15% (w/w) stearic acid as the lipid, 0.5-3% (w/w) soy lecithin as the emulsifier, 0.5-3% (w/w) Tween 80 as the co-emulsifier, 5-20% (w/w) dichloromethane also as the co-emulsifier and 8% (w/w) geranium oil as the active ingredient. GO-SLNs were prepared using ultrasonicsolvent emulsification technique. GO-SLNS ...

Particle Size MeasurementParticle Size Measurement

The importance of particle size measurement including the amount of coarse oversize particles is evident. In this book it is ... and the dispersed phase of latexes-depends in large measure on the size and shape of the particles composing the particulate ...
more infohttps://www.astm.org/DIGITAL_LIBRARY/STP/PAGES/STP37155S.htm

Particle Size AnalyzerParticle Size Analyzer

The instrument offers particle sizing, with high sensitivity, utilizing three light scattering measurement angles for truly ... The NanoBrook Omni instrument offers a single powerful and accurate solution for particle sizing and zeta potential analysis. ... diameter of iron oxide nanoparticles and an autotitrator can help automate the process of detecting changes in particle size as ...
more infohttps://www.genengnews.com/resources/new-products/particle-size-analyzer-2/

Particle sizing | SpringerLinkParticle sizing | SpringerLink

... it is hardly surprising that the study of particle size distribution has been important to the food... ... Particle Size Distribution Brownian Motion Zeta Potential Single Scattering Irregular Particle These keywords were added by ... grain and particle size are considered. The direct sales of apples and eggs are classified by size and priced accordingly. This ... Wedd M. (1993) Particle sizing. In: Pinder A.C., Godfrey G. (eds) Food Process Monitoring Systems. Springer, Boston, MA. * DOI ...
more infohttps://link.springer.com/chapter/10.1007/978-1-4615-2139-6_5

CDC - Mining - Characterizing Particle Size - NIOSHCDC - Mining - Characterizing Particle Size - NIOSH

Mining Publication: Characterizing Particle Size Distributions of Crystalline Silica in Gold Mine Dust. Keywords: Particle size ... Results indicate that silica does not comprise a uniform proportion of total dust across all particle sizes and that the size ... Little has been done with regard to the characterization of the crystalline silica content of specific particle sizes of mine- ... Particle size-specific samples were collected for gravimetric analysis and for quantification of silica using the Microorifice ...
more infohttps://www.cdc.gov/niosh/mining/works/coversheet1974.html

19.120 - Particle size analysis. Sieving19.120 - Particle size analysis. Sieving

Representation of results of particle size analysis -- Part 5: Methods of calculation relating to particle size analyses using ... Representation of results of particle size analysis -- Part 2: Calculation of average particle sizes/diameters and moments from ... Representation of results of particle size analysis -- Part 2: Calculation of average particle sizes/diameters and moments from ... Determination of particle size distribution -- Single particle light interaction methods -- Part 1: Light scattering aerosol ...
more infohttps://www.iso.org/ics/19.120/x/

Particle Size Variation in Diesel Car ExhaustParticle Size Variation in Diesel Car Exhaust

... has been used to measure the particle size-distribution of the exhaust aerosol produced by five diesel cars under a variety of ... Particle Size Variation in Diesel Car Exhaust 790421. The Electrical Aerosol Analyzer (EAA) has been used to measure the ... There was no consistent effect of speed on particle size in this group of cars, but there was a slight tendency toward larger ... Citation: Groblicki, P. and Begeman, C., "Particle Size Variation in Diesel Car Exhaust," SAE Technical Paper 790421, 1979, ...
more infohttps://www.sae.org/publications/technical-papers/content/790421/

Articles, tagged with particle sizeArticles, tagged with "particle size"

... as clay soils are made up of very small particles and sandy soils have larger particles. Particle size makes a huge difference ... Color - Dark brown to blackTexture or particle size - Fine texture, particles smaller than 1/2 inch for incorporation, smaller ... It is a study on the differential deposition of aerosols in the maxillary sinus of human cadavers by particle size. It ...
more infohttp://www.articlealley.com/tags-358119.html

Particle Size Analysis - HORIBAParticle Size Analysis - HORIBA

... reliable particle size distribution measurements from 0.3 nanometers to 30 millimeters. ... to measure particle size quickly and easily. The speed and ease of this technique makes it popular for most particle sizing ... Determines size, high resolution size distributions, and particle concentration. Unique optics can analyze polydisperse ... The CAMSIZER X2 features dynamic image analysis to provide rapid and precise particle size and particle shape distributions for ...
more infohttps://www.horiba.com/scientific/products/particle-characterization/particle-size-analysis/?L=768

Laser Diffraction Measurement of Particle Size | USPLaser Diffraction Measurement of Particle Size | USP

USPs revision of the standard for Laser Diffraction Measurement of Particle Size has been approved by the Pharmacopeial ... A harmonized standard for Laser Diffraction Measurement of Particle Size has been approved by the Pharmacopeial Discussion ... Download the Laser Diffraction Measurement of Particle Size PDG Sign-Off Cover Page: *11-Nov-2008 ...
more infohttp://www.usp.org/harmonization-standards/pdg/general-chapters/laser-diffraction-measurement-particle-size

Particle Size | MicromeriticsParticle Size | Micromeritics

equivalent size distribution of a collection of particles. Selecting the right technique is critical in obtaining reliable data ... For this reason, Micromeritics offers you six different particle size analyzer choices, each employing different analytical ... Particle Size Instruments - Group - There are numerous techniques by which to determine the quantity vs. ... Higher size resolution reveals information about the material that goes undetected with other laser particle sizing systems, ...
more infohttp://www.micromeritics.com/Product-Showcase/Particle-Size.aspx

CDC - NIOSH Docket: 0174 - Coal Dust Particle Size SurveysCDC - NIOSH Docket: 0174 - Coal Dust Particle Size Surveys

Draft NIOSH document, "Recent Coal Dust Particle Size Surveys and the Implications for Mine Explosions;" 10/1/09pdf icon [PDF ... Given the results of the recent coal dust particle size survey and large-scale explosion tests, NIOSH recommends a new standard ... and MSHA conducted a joint survey to determine the range of coal particle sizes found in dust samples collected from intake and ...
more infohttps://www.cdc.gov/niosh/docket/archive/docket174.html

particleSize - SKEmitterNode | Apple Developer DocumentationparticleSize - SKEmitterNode | Apple Developer Documentation

particle. Texture. property is used to determine the size of a particle. If a texture has not been assigned, you must set this ... var particleSize: CGSize { get set } Discussion. The default value is CGSize. Zero. . If set to the default, the size of the ... var particle. Texture: SKTexture?. The texture to use to render a particle. ... Changing a Particles Source Image and Size. ...
more infohttps://developer.apple.com/documentation/spritekit/skemitternode/1398063-particlesize

particleSize - SCNParticleSystem | Apple Developer DocumentationparticleSize - SCNParticleSystem | Apple Developer Documentation

var particle. Size. Variation: CGFloat. The range of randomized particle sizes. Animatable. ... You can randomize the sizes of newly spawned particles with the particle. Size. Variation. property. ... property to stretch particles in their direction of motion, the particle. Size. value determines the width and height before ... var particleSize: CGFloat { get set } Discussion. SceneKit uses this value for both the width and height of the particle. Image ...
more infohttps://developer.apple.com/documentation/scenekit/scnparticlesystem/1523508-particlesize

Beckman Coulter Particle Size AnalyzerBeckman Coulter Particle Size Analyzer

13 320 MW is one of the most versatile and sophisticated laser diffraction particle size analyzers available today. The LS 13 ... The LS™ 13 320 MW is one of the most versatile and sophisticated laser diffraction particle size analyzers available today. The ... The LS™ 13 320 MW is one of the most versatile and sophisticated laser diffraction particle size analyzers available today. The ... Benefits of selecting the Beckman Coulter LS 13 320 MW Particle Size Analyzer. The LS 13 320 MW Delivers Excellent Data ...
more infohttps://www.pharmaceuticalonline.com/doc/beckman-coulter-particle-size-analyzer-0001

Electrodynamic particle size analyzer - SCOFIELD DILLON F.Electrodynamic particle size analyzer - SCOFIELD DILLON F.

... the apparatus comprising a particle charging chamber for charging the particles in propo ... An apparatus and method for determining the particle size distribution of a plurality of particles in a sample, ... Particle size distribution measuring apparatus.. EP0562630. 1993-09-29. Method and apparatus for measuring size of particle or ... Thus, for decreasing particle sizes, the accuracy of the particle size determination can be enhanced through the use of ...
more infohttp://www.freepatentsonline.com/6553849.html

Particle size - WCP OnlineParticle size - WCP Online

The sizes of a particle, determined by the smallest dimension, for instance a diameter. It is usually expressed in micron ...
more infohttp://www.wcponline.com/glossary/particle-size/

Particle Size of River SedimentsParticle Size of River Sediments

The results of a study carried out to determine the variation of both bed material and suspended sediment particle size for ... A significant finding is presented which shows that the particle size of suspended and bed sediments remains relatively ... p>The relationships between particle size of river sediments and the variation in stream discharge are studied. ... Particle Size of River Sediments by George Fleming, (A.M.ASCE), Engrg. Hydro; Hydrocomp Intl., Palo Alto, CA; formerly, Dept. ...
more infohttp://cedb.asce.org/CEDBsearch/record.jsp?dockey=0016767

Selecting In-Process Particle-Size Analyzers | AIChESelecting In-Process Particle-Size Analyzers | AIChE

... one must determine what attribute of the particle system impacts the process or product parameter of concern. ... Once the size region is identified, it can be tracked in-process, opening up the realm of realtime process control and ... To select the proper instrument for process monitoring, one must determine what attribute of the particle system impacts the ...
more infohttps://www.aiche.org/resources/publications/cep/2003/august/selecting-process-particle-size-analyzers

Dendrimer Particle Size Analysis - HORIBADendrimer Particle Size Analysis - HORIBA

Measure dendrimer size using the dynamic light scattering technique. ... The particle size of dendrimers is an important metric affecting material performance. ... Particle Size Analysis of Dendrimers using Dynamic Light Scattering. Dendrimers are repetitively branched molecules typically ... The SZ-100 Nanoparticle Size Analyzer can measure the size of dendrimers quickly and easily. ...
more infohttps://www.horiba.com/pl/scientific/products/particle-characterization/applications/pharmaceuticals/dendrimers/

Particle Size Monitoring  News  on Environmental XPRTParticle Size Monitoring News on Environmental XPRT

Get the latest particle size monitoring news on Environmental XPRT, the worlds largest environmental industry marketplace and ... New Software From METTLER TOLEDO Allows Scientists to Study Particle Size, Shape and Concentration In Real Time The new iC PVM ... METTLER TOLEDO Announces New Technology That Tracks Changing Particle Size and Count in Real Time The new ParticleTrack G600B ... This test method is useful to both suppliers and users of powders, as outlined in 1.1 and 1.2, in determining particle size ...
more infohttps://www.environmental-expert.com/news/keyword-particle-size-monitoring-22097

Uppsatser.se: FORAGE PARTICLE SIZEUppsatser.se: FORAGE PARTICLE SIZE

Uppsatser om FORAGE PARTICLE SIZE. Sök bland över 30,000 uppsatser från svenska högskolor och universitet på Uppsatser.se - ... Sökning: forage particle size. Visar resultat 1 - 5 av 14 uppsatser innehållade orden forage particle size. . ... Nyckelord :CTMR; ; forage particle size; feed ration dry matter; DMI; milk production; rumen health; AIA; feed spoilage; ... 3. Chewing behaviour and particle size distribution in faeces in sheep fed silages of whole-crop barley and grass. Master- ...
more infohttps://www.uppsatser.se/om/forage+particle+size/

Particle size - WikipediaParticle size - Wikipedia

... or gaseous particles (bubbles). The notion of particle size applies to colloidal particles, particles in ecology, particles ... There is often a need for a certain average particle size for the ensemble of particles. The particle size of a spherical ... particle size Weight-based particle size equals the diameter of the sphere that has the same weight as a given particle. Useful ... volume of particle Area-based particle size Area-based particle size equals the diameter of the sphere that has the same ...
more infohttps://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Particle_size

Particle Size AnalyzersParticle Size Analyzers

500 measures nanoparticle and microparticle size, zeta potential, molecular mass and transmittance in dispersions and solutions ... Particle Size Analyzers. Particle analysis at the touch of a button. Particle systems can be complex, but measuring them ... Particle size analysis over an extensive range. The Litesizer and PSA series together cover the measurement of particle sizes ... Besides the determination of particle size, the Litesizer™ particle analyzers also offer other analysis options such as the ...
more infohttps://www.anton-paar.com/corp-en/products/group/particle-size-analyzers/

particle sizeparticle size

... particle size, peripheral, pharmaceuticals, pneumonia, precipitated silica, pulmonary function, pulmonary inflammation, ...
more infohttp://www.ecetoc.org/tags/particle-size/

Particle Sizing - Lab Supplies - Grainger Industrial SupplyParticle Sizing - Lab Supplies - Grainger Industrial Supply

Get durable particle sizing from Grainger to help you gather, sift and sort aggregates for testing the quality and consistency ... Particle Sizing 940 products found. Durable particle sizing equipment helps gather, sift, and sort aggregates for testing ...
more infohttps://www.grainger.com/category/lab-supplies/particle-sizing
  • The scattering of light by colloidal particles is known as Tyndall effect. (wikipedia.org)
  • For particles much larger or much smaller than the wavelength of the scattered light there are simple and excellent approximations that suffice to describe the behaviour of the system. (wikipedia.org)
  • Watch a two minute video detailing how HORIBA Scientific has partnered with Particle Sciences to provide world-class technology and support for their CDMO business. (horiba.com)
  • Commit: c70a45027dda14d4a41698c2abc7220c75d255b9 Author: Dalai Felinto Date: Fri Dec 29 13:03:26 2017 -0200 Branches: blender-v2.79a-release https://developer.blender.org/rBc70a45027dda14d4a41698c2abc7220c75d255b9 Fix T53513: Particle size showing in multiple places Technically this was introduced in 01b547f9931970050e when exposing size and randomness for particles. (blender.org)
  • North America would be dominant region in the global embolization particle market in 2017. (coherentmarketinsights.com)
  • The laser diffraction technique is capable of covering almost all of the abrasive size ranges and is quicker and easier than either sieves or sedimentation. (horiba.com)
  • Various techniques are now capable of measuring particle size in the nanometer, micrometer, and millimeter size ranges. (horiba.com)
  • The link between particle size and product performance is well documented with regards to dissolution, absorption rates and content uniformity. (horiba.com)
  • It would have been possible to insert another preposition ('of') in your 'comma spot' instead of 'that are': 'particles of the size of bacteria', and that then eliminates 'size', and you now have only one candidate left ('particles') that can be your object. (wordreference.com)
  • Here, a direct comparison between experiment and simulation on a particle level offers a proper approach for model validation. (epj-conferences.org)
  • Typically, the smaller the particle, the further down the respiratory system it travels, and the faster it is absorbed. (tsi.com)
  • This technique provides a wide variety of information about the sample, from a general size measurement, to shape parameters that can be closely correlated to specific performance characteristics. (horiba.com)
  • Larger particles generate higher impact force removing the material surface quicker and producing a heavier texture. (horiba.com)
  • Particles with points and edges remove surface material on impact, while round particles without cutting edges are used to pound or "peen" a surface. (horiba.com)
  • Among them are examples of identifying unwanted contaminants, comparing different formulations for particle size and bioavailability, and increasing solubility of a material via particle size reduction and the resultant increase in specific surface area. (horiba.com)
  • and high temp resistant hepa air filters h11 h12 h13 h14 Quick Detail: 1.air filter manufacturer 2.competitive price 3.can be accepted custom size Material and Performance Frame Material Stainless steel Filter medium Glass fiber paper. (fazendomedia.com)
  • Particle shape also plays a role. (horiba.com)
  • Depending on therapeutic intent and desired deposition location in the respiratory tract, the correct aerodynamic particle size plays a big role. (tsi.com)
  • M release/scripts/startup/bl_ui/properties_particle.py =================================================================== diff --git a/release/scripts/startup/bl_ui/properties_particle.py b/release/scripts/startup/bl_ui/properties_particle.py index 23e7c0a6787. (blender.org)
  • MSP's Impactors separate the particles into different sizes to be analyzed above and beyond USP guidelines. (tsi.com)
  • If there are particles of different sizes and you want to identify only those the size of bacteria in the air, then ' the size of bacteria in the air ' is required and no comma is used. (wordreference.com)
  • This processing is becoming more common in the pharmaceutical industry for applications where particle shape, high resolution, and images of the particles are important. (horiba.com)
  • Proper matching of active ingredient and excipient particle size is important for several process steps. (horiba.com)
  • The projected particle shadows are recorded at a rate of more than 60 images per second and analyzed. (horiba.com)
  • A study has been conducted to investigate the effect of loading rates on membrane fouling in a moving bed biofilm membrane reactor process for municipal wastewater treatment, especially analysing the fate of submicron colloidal particles and their influence on membrane fouling. (iwaponline.com)
  • A number of general words like 'size', 'shape', 'colour', 'length' can be used like this, directly without a comma: clouds the colour of mushrooms, a path the length of a football field, a dinosaur the height of a horse. (wordreference.com)