Relating to the size of solids.
Colloids with a gaseous dispersing phase and either liquid (fog) or solid (smoke) dispersed phase; used in fumigation or in inhalation therapy; may contain propellant agents.
Substances made up of an aggregation of small particles, as that obtained by grinding or trituration of a solid drug. In pharmacy it is a form in which substances are administered. (From Dorland, 28th ed)
Nanometer-sized particles that are nanoscale in three dimensions. They include nanocrystaline materials; NANOCAPSULES; METAL NANOPARTICLES; DENDRIMERS, and QUANTUM DOTS. The uses of nanoparticles include DRUG DELIVERY SYSTEMS and cancer targeting and imaging.
Chemistry dealing with the composition and preparation of agents having PHARMACOLOGIC ACTIONS or diagnostic use.
The preparation, mixing, and assembling of a drug. (From Remington, The Science and Practice of Pharmacy, 19th ed, p1814)
The application of scientific knowledge or technology to pharmacy and the pharmaceutical industry. It includes methods, techniques, and instrumentation in the manufacture, preparation, compounding, dispensing, packaging, and storing of drugs and other preparations used in diagnostic and determinative procedures, and in the treatment of patients.
Forms to which substances are incorporated to improve the delivery and the effectiveness of drugs. Drug carriers are used in drug-delivery systems such as the controlled-release technology to prolong in vivo drug actions, decrease drug metabolism, and reduce drug toxicity. Carriers are also used in designs to increase the effectiveness of drug delivery to the target sites of pharmacological actions. Liposomes, albumin microspheres, soluble synthetic polymers, DNA complexes, protein-drug conjugates, and carrier erythrocytes among others have been employed as biodegradable drug carriers.
Small uniformly-sized spherical particles, of micrometer dimensions, frequently labeled with radioisotopes or various reagents acting as tags or markers.
Colloids with liquid continuous phase and solid dispersed phase; the term is used loosely also for solid-in-gas (AEROSOLS) and other colloidal systems; water-insoluble drugs may be given as suspensions.
Usually inert substances added to a prescription in order to provide suitable consistency to the dosage form. These include binders, matrix, base or diluent in pills, tablets, creams, salves, etc.
Colloids formed by the combination of two immiscible liquids such as oil and water. Lipid-in-water emulsions are usually liquid, like milk or lotion. Water-in-lipid emulsions tend to be creams. The formation of emulsions may be aided by amphiphatic molecules that surround one component of the system to form MICELLES.
A class of lipoproteins of small size (4-13 nm) and dense (greater than 1.063 g/ml) particles. HDL lipoproteins, synthesized in the liver without a lipid core, accumulate cholesterol esters from peripheral tissues and transport them to the liver for re-utilization or elimination from the body (the reverse cholesterol transport). Their major protein component is APOLIPOPROTEIN A-I. HDL also shuttle APOLIPOPROTEINS C and APOLIPOPROTEINS E to and from triglyceride-rich lipoproteins during their catabolism. HDL plasma level has been inversely correlated with the risk of cardiovascular diseases.
Two-phase systems in which one is uniformly dispersed in another as particles small enough so they cannot be filtered or will not settle out. The dispersing or continuous phase or medium envelops the particles of the discontinuous phase. All three states of matter can form colloids among each other.
A class of lipoproteins of small size (18-25 nm) and light (1.019-1.063 g/ml) particles with a core composed mainly of CHOLESTEROL ESTERS and smaller amounts of TRIGLYCERIDES. The surface monolayer consists mostly of PHOSPHOLIPIDS, a single copy of APOLIPOPROTEIN B-100, and free cholesterol molecules. The main LDL function is to transport cholesterol and cholesterol esters to extrahepatic tissues.
Deacetylated CHITIN, a linear polysaccharide of deacetylated beta-1,4-D-glucosamine. It is used in HYDROGEL and to treat WOUNDS.
The exposure to potentially harmful chemical, physical, or biological agents by inhaling them.
Microscopy in which the object is examined directly by an electron beam scanning the specimen point-by-point. The image is constructed by detecting the products of specimen interactions that are projected above the plane of the sample, such as backscattered electrons. Although SCANNING TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY also scans the specimen point by point with the electron beam, the image is constructed by detecting the electrons, or their interaction products that are transmitted through the sample plane, so that is a form of TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY.
The infective system of a virus, composed of the viral genome, a protein core, and a protein coat called a capsid, which may be naked or enclosed in a lipoprotein envelope called the peplos.
Transparent, tasteless crystals found in nature as agate, amethyst, chalcedony, cristobalite, flint, sand, QUARTZ, and tridymite. The compound is insoluble in water or acids except hydrofluoric acid.
A biocompatible polymer used as a surgical suture material.
Systems for the delivery of drugs to target sites of pharmacological actions. Technologies employed include those concerning drug preparation, route of administration, site targeting, metabolism, and toxicity.
The ability of a substance to be dissolved, i.e. to form a solution with another substance. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
Nanoparticles produced from metals whose uses include biosensors, optics, and catalysts. In biomedical applications the particles frequently involve the noble metals, especially gold and silver.
Nanometer-sized, hollow, spherically-shaped objects that can be utilized to encapsulate small amounts of pharmaceuticals, enzymes, or other catalysts (Glossary of Biotechnology and Nanobiotechnology, 4th ed).
Characteristics or attributes of the outer boundaries of objects, including molecules.
The chemical and physical integrity of a pharmaceutical product.
Microscopy using an electron beam, instead of light, to visualize the sample, thereby allowing much greater magnification. The interactions of ELECTRONS with specimens are used to provide information about the fine structure of that specimen. In TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY the reactions of the electrons that are transmitted through the specimen are imaged. In SCANNING ELECTRON MICROSCOPY an electron beam falls at a non-normal angle on the specimen and the image is derived from the reactions occurring above the plane of the specimen.
Electron microscopy in which the ELECTRONS or their reaction products that pass down through the specimen are imaged below the plane of the specimen.
Method of using a polycrystalline powder and Rietveld refinement (LEAST SQUARES ANALYSIS) of X-RAY DIFFRACTION or NEUTRON DIFFRACTION. It circumvents the difficulties of producing single large crystals.
Devices that cause a liquid or solid to be converted into an aerosol (spray) or a vapor. It is used in drug administration by inhalation, humidification of ambient air, and in certain analytical instruments.
The testing of materials and devices, especially those used for PROSTHESES AND IMPLANTS; SUTURES; TISSUE ADHESIVES; etc., for hardness, strength, durability, safety, efficacy, and biocompatibility.
Poly-2-methylpropenoic acids. Used in the manufacture of methacrylate resins and plastics in the form of pellets and granules, as absorbent for biological materials and as filters; also as biological membranes and as hydrogens. Synonyms: methylacrylate polymer; poly(methylacrylate); acrylic acid methyl ester polymer.
The quality or state of being wettable or the degree to which something can be wet. This is also the ability of any solid surface to be wetted when in contact with a liquid whose surface tension is reduced so that the liquid spreads over the surface of the solid.
Lipid-protein complexes involved in the transportation and metabolism of lipids in the body. They are spherical particles consisting of a hydrophobic core of TRIGLYCERIDES and CHOLESTEROL ESTERS surrounded by a layer of hydrophilic free CHOLESTEROL; PHOSPHOLIPIDS; and APOLIPOPROTEINS. Lipoproteins are classified by their varying buoyant density and sizes.
Particles of any solid substance, generally under 30 microns in size, often noted as PM30. There is special concern with PM1 which can get down to PULMONARY ALVEOLI and induce MACROPHAGE ACTIVATION and PHAGOCYTOSIS leading to FOREIGN BODY REACTION and LUNG DISEASES.
Dosage forms of a drug that act over a period of time by controlled-release processes or technology.
Materials which have structured components with at least one dimension in the range of 1 to 100 nanometers. These include NANOCOMPOSITES; NANOPARTICLES; NANOTUBES; and NANOWIRES.
Quartz (SiO2). A glassy or crystalline form of silicon dioxide. Many colored varieties are semiprecious stones. (From Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
Method of tissue preparation in which the tissue specimen is frozen and then dehydrated at low temperature in a high vacuum. This method is also used for dehydrating pharmaceutical and food products.
The process of breakdown of food for metabolism and use by the body.
The most abundant protein component of HIGH DENSITY LIPOPROTEINS or HDL. This protein serves as an acceptor for CHOLESTEROL released from cells thus promoting efflux of cholesterol to HDL then to the LIVER for excretion from the body (reverse cholesterol transport). It also acts as a cofactor for LECITHIN CHOLESTEROL ACYLTRANSFERASE that forms CHOLESTEROL ESTERS on the HDL particles. Mutations of this gene APOA1 cause HDL deficiency, such as in FAMILIAL ALPHA LIPOPROTEIN DEFICIENCY DISEASE and in some patients with TANGIER DISEASE.
Foodstuff used especially for domestic and laboratory animals, or livestock.
Air pollutants found in the work area. They are usually produced by the specific nature of the occupation.
Condition of having pores or open spaces. This often refers to bones, bone implants, or bone cements, but can refer to the porous state of any solid substance.
Compounds formed by the joining of smaller, usually repeating, units linked by covalent bonds. These compounds often form large macromolecules (e.g., BIOPOLYMERS; PLASTICS).
Polymerized forms of styrene used as a biocompatible material, especially in dentistry. They are thermoplastic and are used as insulators, for injection molding and casting, as sheets, plates, rods, rigid forms and beads.
Differential thermal analysis in which the sample compartment of the apparatus is a differential calorimeter, allowing an exact measure of the heat of transition independent of the specific heat, thermal conductivity, and other variables of the sample.
The branch of medicine concerned with the application of NANOTECHNOLOGY to the prevention and treatment of disease. It involves the monitoring, repair, construction, and control of human biological systems at the molecular level, using engineered nanodevices and NANOSTRUCTURES. (From Freitas Jr., Nanomedicine, vol 1, 1999).
Polymers of ETHYLENE OXIDE and water, and their ethers. They vary in consistency from liquid to solid depending on the molecular weight indicated by a number following the name. They are used as SURFACTANTS, dispersing agents, solvents, ointment and suppository bases, vehicles, and tablet excipients. Some specific groups are NONOXYNOLS, OCTOXYNOLS, and POLOXAMERS.
A cytosolic ribonucleoprotein complex that acts to induce elongation arrest of nascent presecretory and membrane proteins until the ribosome becomes associated with the rough endoplasmic reticulum. It consists of a 7S RNA and at least six polypeptide subunits (relative molecular masses 9, 14, 19, 54, 68, and 72K).
A generic term for fats and lipoids, the alcohol-ether-soluble constituents of protoplasm, which are insoluble in water. They comprise the fats, fatty oils, essential oils, waxes, phospholipids, glycolipids, sulfolipids, aminolipids, chromolipids (lipochromes), and fatty acids. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
A process of separating particulate matter from a fluid, such as air or a liquid, by passing the fluid carrier through a medium that will not pass the particulates. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
A nonionic polyoxyethylene-polyoxypropylene block co-polymer with the general formula HO(C2H4O)a(-C3H6O)b(C2H4O)aH. It is available in different grades which vary from liquids to solids. It is used as an emulsifying agent, solubilizing agent, surfactant, and wetting agent for antibiotics. Poloxamer is also used in ointment and suppository bases and as a tablet binder or coater. (Martindale The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 31st ed)
Spherical particles of nanometer dimensions.
Protein components on the surface of LIPOPROTEINS. They form a layer surrounding the hydrophobic lipid core. There are several classes of apolipoproteins with each playing a different role in lipid transport and LIPID METABOLISM. These proteins are synthesized mainly in the LIVER and the INTESTINES.
Silver. An element with the atomic symbol Ag, atomic number 47, and atomic weight 107.87. It is a soft metal that is used medically in surgical instruments, dental prostheses, and alloys. Long-continued use of silver salts can lead to a form of poisoning known as ARGYRIA.
Earth or other matter in fine, dry particles. (Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed)
The development and use of techniques to study physical phenomena and construct structures in the nanoscale size range or smaller.
The administration of drugs by the respiratory route. It includes insufflation into the respiratory tract.
The monitoring of the level of toxins, chemical pollutants, microbial contaminants, or other harmful substances in the environment (soil, air, and water), workplace, or in the bodies of people and animals present in that environment.
Solid dosage forms, of varying weight, size, and shape, which may be molded or compressed, and which contain a medicinal substance in pure or diluted form. (Dorland, 28th ed)
Completed forms of the pharmaceutical preparation in which prescribed doses of medication are included. They are designed to resist action by gastric fluids, prevent vomiting and nausea, reduce or alleviate the undesirable taste and smells associated with oral administration, achieve a high concentration of drug at target site, or produce a delayed or long-acting drug effect.
Any substance in the air which could, if present in high enough concentration, harm humans, animals, vegetation or material. Substances include GASES; PARTICULATE MATTER; and volatile ORGANIC CHEMICALS.
Artificial, single or multilaminar vesicles (made from lecithins or other lipids) that are used for the delivery of a variety of biological molecules or molecular complexes to cells, for example, drug delivery and gene transfer. They are also used to study membranes and membrane proteins.
A polyvinyl polymer of variable molecular weight; used as suspending and dispersing agent and vehicle for pharmaceuticals; also used as blood volume expander.
A milky, product excreted from the latex canals of a variety of plant species that contain cauotchouc. Latex is composed of 25-35% caoutchouc, 60-75% water, 2% protein, 2% resin, 1.5% sugar & 1% ash. RUBBER is made by the removal of water from latex.(From Concise Encyclopedia Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 3rd ed). Hevein proteins are responsible for LATEX HYPERSENSITIVITY. Latexes are used as inert vehicles to carry antibodies or antigens in LATEX FIXATION TESTS.
A dark-gray, metallic element of widespread distribution but occurring in small amounts; atomic number, 22; atomic weight, 47.90; symbol, Ti; specific gravity, 4.5; used for fixation of fractures. (Dorland, 28th ed)
Cholesterol which is contained in or bound to high-density lipoproteins (HDL), including CHOLESTEROL ESTERS and free cholesterol.
The scattering of x-rays by matter, especially crystals, with accompanying variation in intensity due to interference effects. Analysis of the crystal structure of materials is performed by passing x-rays through them and registering the diffraction image of the rays (CRYSTALLOGRAPHY, X-RAY). (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
The act and process of chewing and grinding food in the mouth.
The assembly of VIRAL STRUCTURAL PROTEINS and nucleic acid (VIRAL DNA or VIRAL RNA) to form a VIRUS PARTICLE.
A large family of narrow-leaved herbaceous grasses of the order Cyperales, subclass Commelinidae, class Liliopsida (monocotyledons). Food grains (EDIBLE GRAIN) come from members of this family. RHINITIS, ALLERGIC, SEASONAL can be induced by POLLEN of many of the grasses.
A small aerosol canister used to release a calibrated amount of medication for inhalation.
Preparation for electron microscopy of minute replicas of exposed surfaces of the cell which have been ruptured in the frozen state. The specimen is frozen, then cleaved under high vacuum at the same temperature. The exposed surface is shadowed with carbon and platinum and coated with carbon to obtain a carbon replica.
Methylester of cellulose. Methylcellulose is used as an emulsifying and suspending agent in cosmetics, pharmaceutics and the chemical industry. It is used therapeutically as a bulk laxative.
The motion of air currents.
A class of lipoproteins of very light (0.93-1.006 g/ml) large size (30-80 nm) particles with a core composed mainly of TRIGLYCERIDES and a surface monolayer of PHOSPHOLIPIDS and CHOLESTEROL into which are imbedded the apolipoproteins B, E, and C. VLDL facilitates the transport of endogenously made triglycerides to extrahepatic tissues. As triglycerides and Apo C are removed, VLDL is converted to INTERMEDIATE-DENSITY LIPOPROTEINS, then to LOW-DENSITY LIPOPROTEINS from which cholesterol is delivered to the extrahepatic tissues.
Separation of particles according to density by employing a gradient of varying densities. At equilibrium each particle settles in the gradient at a point equal to its density. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
A polysaccharide with glucose units linked as in CELLOBIOSE. It is the chief constituent of plant fibers, cotton being the purest natural form of the substance. As a raw material, it forms the basis for many derivatives used in chromatography, ion exchange materials, explosives manufacturing, and pharmaceutical preparations.
Application of pharmaceutically active agents on the tissues of the EYE.
Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.
Respirators to protect individuals from breathing air contaminated with harmful dusts, fogs, fumes, mists, gases, smokes, sprays, or vapors.
A clear, odorless, tasteless liquid that is essential for most animal and plant life and is an excellent solvent for many substances. The chemical formula is hydrogen oxide (H2O). (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
Agents that modify interfacial tension of water; usually substances that have one lipophilic and one hydrophilic group in the molecule; includes soaps, detergents, emulsifiers, dispersing and wetting agents, and several groups of antiseptics.
The tendency of a gas or solute to pass from a point of higher pressure or concentration to a point of lower pressure or concentration and to distribute itself throughout the available space. Diffusion, especially FACILITATED DIFFUSION, is a major mechanism of BIOLOGICAL TRANSPORT.
The presence of bacteria, viruses, and fungi in the air. This term is not restricted to pathogenic organisms.
Vaccines using supra-molecular structures composed of multiple copies of recombinantly expressed viral structural proteins. They are often antigentically indistinguishable from the virus from which they were derived.
Methods of creating machines and devices.
A spectroscopic technique in which a range of wavelengths is presented simultaneously with an interferometer and the spectrum is mathematically derived from the pattern thus obtained.
The extent to which the active ingredient of a drug dosage form becomes available at the site of drug action or in a biological medium believed to reflect accessibility to a site of action.
SURFACE-ACTIVE AGENTS that induce a dispersion of undissolved material throughout a liquid.
A polymer prepared from polyvinyl acetates by replacement of the acetate groups with hydroxyl groups. It is used as a pharmaceutic aid and ophthalmic lubricant as well as in the manufacture of surface coatings artificial sponges, cosmetics, and other products.
A CHROMATOGRAPHY method using supercritical fluid, usually carbon dioxide under very high pressure (around 73 atmospheres or 1070 psi at room temperature) as the mobile phase. Other solvents are sometimes added as modifiers. This is used both for analytical (SFC) and extraction (SFE) purposes.
Major structural proteins of triacylglycerol-rich LIPOPROTEINS. There are two forms, apolipoprotein B-100 and apolipoprotein B-48, both derived from a single gene. ApoB-100 expressed in the liver is found in low-density lipoproteins (LIPOPROTEINS, LDL; LIPOPROTEINS, VLDL). ApoB-48 expressed in the intestine is found in CHYLOMICRONS. They are important in the biosynthesis, transport, and metabolism of triacylglycerol-rich lipoproteins. Plasma Apo-B levels are high in atherosclerotic patients but non-detectable in ABETALIPOPROTEINEMIA.
Any aspect of the operations in the preparation, processing, transport, storage, packaging, wrapping, exposure for sale, service, or delivery of food.
The various filaments, granules, tubules or other inclusions within mitochondria.
Compounds that provide LUBRICATION between surfaces in order to reduce FRICTION.
A device that delivers medication to the lungs in the form of a dry powder.
The second most abundant protein component of HIGH DENSITY LIPOPROTEINS or HDL. It has a high lipid affinity and is known to displace APOLIPOPROTEIN A-I from HDL particles and generates a stable HDL complex. ApoA-II can modulate the activation of LECITHIN CHOLESTEROL ACYLTRANSFERASE in the presence of APOLIPOPROTEIN A-I, thus affecting HDL metabolism.
Calcium salts of phosphoric acid. These compounds are frequently used as calcium supplements.
The principal sterol of all higher animals, distributed in body tissues, especially the brain and spinal cord, and in animal fats and oils.
Cholesterol which is contained in or bound to low density lipoproteins (LDL), including CHOLESTEROL ESTERS and free cholesterol.
Synthesized magnetic particles under 100 nanometers possessing many biomedical applications including DRUG DELIVERY SYSTEMS and CONTRAST AGENTS. The particles are usually coated with a variety of polymeric compounds.
A normal intermediate in the fermentation (oxidation, metabolism) of sugar. The concentrated form is used internally to prevent gastrointestinal fermentation. (From Stedman, 26th ed)
A yellow metallic element with the atomic symbol Au, atomic number 79, and atomic weight 197. It is used in jewelry, goldplating of other metals, as currency, and in dental restoration. Many of its clinical applications, such as ANTIRHEUMATIC AGENTS, are in the form of its salts.
The resistance that a gaseous or liquid system offers to flow when it is subjected to shear stress. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
A type of familial lipid metabolism disorder characterized by a variable pattern of elevated plasma CHOLESTEROL and/or TRIGLYCERIDES. Multiple genes on different chromosomes may be involved, such as the major late transcription factor (UPSTREAM STIMULATORY FACTORS) on CHROMOSOME 1.
The property of objects that determines the direction of heat flow when they are placed in direct thermal contact. The temperature is the energy of microscopic motions (vibrational and translational) of the particles of atoms.
Gases, fumes, vapors, and odors escaping from the cylinders of a gasoline or diesel internal-combustion engine. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed & Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed)
The diversion of RADIATION (thermal, electromagnetic, or nuclear) from its original path as a result of interactions or collisions with atoms, molecules, or larger particles in the atmosphere or other media. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
Nanometer-scale composite structures composed of organic molecules intimately incorporated with inorganic molecules. (Glossary of Biotechnology and Nanobiotechology Terms, 4th ed)
A mixture of very-low-density lipoproteins (VLDL), particularly the triglyceride-poor VLDL, with slow diffuse electrophoretic mobilities in the beta and alpha2 regions which are similar to that of beta-lipoproteins (LDL) or alpha-lipoproteins (HDL). They can be intermediate (remnant) lipoproteins in the de-lipidation process, or remnants of mutant CHYLOMICRONS and VERY-LOW-DENSITY LIPOPROTEINS which cannot be metabolized completely as seen in FAMILIAL DYSBETALIPOPROTEINEMIA.
Particles consisting of aggregates of molecules held loosely together by secondary bonds. The surface of micelles are usually comprised of amphiphatic compounds that are oriented in a way that minimizes the energy of interaction between the micelle and its environment. Liquids that contain large numbers of suspended micelles are referred to as EMULSIONS.
Compressed gases or vapors in a container which, upon release of pressure and expansion through a valve, carry another substance from the container. They are used for cosmetics, household cleaners, and so on. Examples are BUTANES; CARBON DIOXIDE; FLUOROCARBONS; NITROGEN; and PROPANE. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
Structural proteins of the alpha-lipoproteins (HIGH DENSITY LIPOPROTEINS), including APOLIPOPROTEIN A-I and APOLIPOPROTEIN A-II. They can modulate the activity of LECITHIN CHOLESTEROL ACYLTRANSFERASE. These apolipoproteins are low in atherosclerotic patients. They are either absent or present in extremely low plasma concentration in TANGIER DISEASE.
Centrifugation with a centrifuge that develops centrifugal fields of more than 100,000 times gravity. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
The normality of a solution with respect to HYDROGEN ions; H+. It is related to acidity measurements in most cases by pH = log 1/2[1/(H+)], where (H+) is the hydrogen ion concentration in gram equivalents per liter of solution. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
The study of the deformation and flow of matter, usually liquids or fluids, and of the plastic flow of solids. The concept covers consistency, dilatancy, liquefaction, resistance to flow, shearing, thixotrophy, and VISCOSITY.
Tailored macromolecules harboring covalently-bound biologically active modules that target specific tissues and cells. The active modules or functional groups can include drugs, prodrugs, antibodies, and oligonucleotides, which can act synergistically and be multitargeting.
The adhesion of gases, liquids, or dissolved solids onto a surface. It includes adsorptive phenomena of bacteria and viruses onto surfaces as well. ABSORPTION into the substance may follow but not necessarily.
The outer protein protective shell of a virus, which protects the viral nucleic acid.
The physical phenomena describing the structure and properties of atoms and molecules, and their reaction and interaction processes.
Hard or soft soluble containers used for the oral administration of medicine.
A mild astringent and topical protectant with some antiseptic action. It is also used in bandages, pastes, ointments, dental cements, and as a sunblock.
Inorganic compounds that contain chromium as an integral part of the molecule.
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
Inorganic or organic compounds containing trivalent iron.
Positively charged particles composed of two protons and two NEUTRONS, i.e. equivalent to HELIUM nuclei, which are emitted during disintegration of heavy ISOTOPES. Alpha rays have very strong ionizing power, but weak penetrability.
An oxide of aluminum, occurring in nature as various minerals such as bauxite, corundum, etc. It is used as an adsorbent, desiccating agent, and catalyst, and in the manufacture of dental cements and refractories.
The formation of crystalline substances from solutions or melts. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
Polymers of organic acids and alcohols, with ester linkages--usually polyethylene terephthalate; can be cured into hard plastic, films or tapes, or fibers which can be woven into fabrics, meshes or velours.
The quality or state of being able to be bent or creased repeatedly. (From Webster, 3d ed)
The contamination of indoor air.
The study of CHEMICAL PHENOMENA and processes in terms of the underlying PHYSICAL PHENOMENA and processes.
Pharmacologic agents delivered into the nostrils in the form of a mist or spray.
Drugs intended for human or veterinary use, presented in their finished dosage form. Included here are materials used in the preparation and/or formulation of the finished dosage form.
Electrophoresis in which a polyacrylamide gel is used as the diffusion medium.
Natural or synthetic dyes used as coloring agents in processed foods.
Proteins that form the CAPSID of VIRUSES.
Uptake of substances through the SKIN.
A disaccharide of GLUCOSE and GALACTOSE in human and cow milk. It is used in pharmacy for tablets, in medicine as a nutrient, and in industry.
Electron microscopy involving rapid freezing of the samples. The imaging of frozen-hydrated molecules and organelles permits the best possible resolution closest to the living state, free of chemical fixatives or stains.
Liquids that dissolve other substances (solutes), generally solids, without any change in chemical composition, as, water containing sugar. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
Viruses which lack a complete genome so that they cannot completely replicate or cannot form a protein coat. Some are host-dependent defectives, meaning they can replicate only in cell systems which provide the particular genetic function which they lack. Others, called SATELLITE VIRUSES, are able to replicate only when their genetic defect is complemented by a helper virus.
Any of a group of polysaccharides of the general formula (C6-H10-O5)n, composed of a long-chain polymer of glucose in the form of amylose and amylopectin. It is the chief storage form of energy reserve (carbohydrates) in plants.
An area showing altered staining behavior in the nucleus or cytoplasm of a virus-infected cell. Some inclusion bodies represent "virus factories" in which viral nucleic acid or protein is being synthesized; others are merely artifacts of fixation and staining. One example, Negri bodies, are found in the cytoplasm or processes of nerve cells in animals that have died from rabies.
A measure of the amount of WATER VAPOR in the air.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
Domesticated bovine animals of the genus Bos, usually kept on a farm or ranch and used for the production of meat or dairy products or for heavy labor.
Liquid chromatographic techniques which feature high inlet pressures, high sensitivity, and high speed.
Accumulation of a drug or chemical substance in various organs (including those not relevant to its pharmacologic or therapeutic action). This distribution depends on the blood flow or perfusion rate of the organ, the ability of the drug to penetrate organ membranes, tissue specificity, protein binding. The distribution is usually expressed as tissue to plasma ratios.
Synthetic or natural materials, other than DRUGS, that are used to replace or repair any body TISSUES or bodily function.
The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.
Either of the pair of organs occupying the cavity of the thorax that effect the aeration of the blood.
The first stomach of ruminants. It lies on the left side of the body, occupying the whole of the left side of the abdomen and even stretching across the median plane of the body to the right side. It is capacious, divided into an upper and a lower sac, each of which has a blind sac at its posterior extremity. The rumen is lined by mucous membrane containing no digestive glands, but mucus-secreting glands are present in large numbers. Coarse, partially chewed food is stored and churned in the rumen until the animal finds circumstances convenient for rumination. When this occurs, little balls of food are regurgitated through the esophagus into the mouth, and are subjected to a second more thorough mastication, swallowed, and passed on into other parts of the compound stomach. (From Black's Veterinary Dictionary, 17th ed)
Technique whereby the weight of a sample can be followed over a period of time while its temperature is being changed (usually increased at a constant rate).
Fatty acid esters of cholesterol which constitute about two-thirds of the cholesterol in the plasma. The accumulation of cholesterol esters in the arterial intima is a characteristic feature of atherosclerosis.
The sum of the weight of all the atoms in a molecule.
An anti-inflammatory, synthetic glucocorticoid. It is used topically as an anti-inflammatory agent and in aerosol form for the treatment of ASTHMA.
A property of the surface of an object that makes it stick to another surface.
A muscarinic antagonist used as an antispasmodic, in rhinitis, in urinary incontinence, and in the treatment of ulcers. At high doses it has nicotinic effects resulting in neuromuscular blocking.
Drugs used for their effects on the respiratory system.
Complexes of RNA-binding proteins with ribonucleic acids (RNA).
Unctuous combustible substances that are liquid or easily liquefiable on warming, and are soluble in ether but insoluble in water. Such substances, depending on their origin, are classified as animal, mineral, or vegetable oils. Depending on their behavior on heating, they are volatile or fixed. (Dorland, 28th ed)
The ratio of the density of a material to the density of some standard material, such as water or air, at a specified temperature.
Intermediate-density subclass of the high-density lipoproteins, with particle sizes between 7 to 8 nm. As the larger lighter HDL2 lipoprotein, HDL3 lipoprotein is lipid-rich.
A series of hydrocarbons containing both chlorine and fluorine. These have been used as refrigerants, blowing agents, cleaning fluids, solvents, and as fire extinguishing agents. They have been shown to cause stratospheric ozone depletion and have been banned for many uses.
Lipids containing one or more phosphate groups, particularly those derived from either glycerol (phosphoglycerides see GLYCEROPHOSPHOLIPIDS) or sphingosine (SPHINGOLIPIDS). They are polar lipids that are of great importance for the structure and function of cell membranes and are the most abundant of membrane lipids, although not stored in large amounts in the system.
An enzyme secreted from the liver into the plasma of many mammalian species. It catalyzes the esterification of the hydroxyl group of lipoprotein cholesterol by the transfer of a fatty acid from the C-2 position of lecithin. In familial lecithin:cholesterol acyltransferase deficiency disease, the absence of the enzyme results in an excess of unesterified cholesterol in plasma. EC
Synthetic thermoplastics that are tough, flexible, inert, and resistant to chemicals and electrical current. They are often used as biocompatible materials for prostheses and implants.
A plant species of the family POACEAE. It is a tall grass grown for its EDIBLE GRAIN, corn, used as food and animal FODDER.
The process of intracellular viral multiplication, consisting of the synthesis of PROTEINS; NUCLEIC ACIDS; and sometimes LIPIDS, and their assembly into a new infectious particle.
Cholesterol which is contained in or bound to very low density lipoproteins (VLDL). High circulating levels of VLDL cholesterol are found in HYPERLIPOPROTEINEMIA TYPE IIB. The cholesterol on the VLDL is eventually delivered by LOW-DENSITY LIPOPROTEINS to the tissues after the catabolism of VLDL to INTERMEDIATE-DENSITY LIPOPROTEINS, then to LDL.
The application of high intensity ultrasound to liquids.
A group of compounds that are derivatives of octadecanoic acid which is one of the most abundant fatty acids found in animal lipids. (Stedman, 25th ed)
The process of keeping pharmaceutical products in an appropriate location.
The engulfing and degradation of microorganisms; other cells that are dead, dying, or pathogenic; and foreign particles by phagocytic cells (PHAGOCYTES).
Semi-synthetic complex derived from nucleic-acid free viral particles. They are essentially reconstituted viral coats, where the infectious nucleocapsid is replaced by a compound of choice. Virosomes retain their fusogenic activity and thus deliver the incorporated compound (antigens, drugs, genes) inside the target cell. They can be used for vaccines (VACCINES, VIROSOME), drug delivery, or gene transfer.
Sorbitan mono-9-octadecanoate poly(oxy-1,2-ethanediyl) derivatives; complex mixtures of polyoxyethylene ethers used as emulsifiers or dispersing agents in pharmaceuticals.
Proteins found in any species of virus.
A nonmetallic element with atomic symbol C, atomic number 6, and atomic weight [12.0096; 12.0116]. It may occur as several different allotropes including DIAMOND; CHARCOAL; and GRAPHITE; and as SOOT from incompletely burned fuel.
Conditions with excess LIPIDS in the blood.
Strongly cationic polymer that binds to certain proteins; used as a marker in immunology, to precipitate and purify enzymes and lipids. Synonyms: aziridine polymer; Epamine; Epomine; ethylenimine polymer; Montrek; PEI; Polymin(e).
Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.
Any of various animals that constitute the family Suidae and comprise stout-bodied, short-legged omnivorous mammals with thick skin, usually covered with coarse bristles, a rather long mobile snout, and small tail. Included are the genera Babyrousa, Phacochoerus (wart hogs), and Sus, the latter containing the domestic pig (see SUS SCROFA).
Removal of moisture from a substance (chemical, food, tissue, etc.).
Supplying a building or house, their rooms and corridors, with fresh air. The controlling of the environment thus may be in public or domestic sites and in medical or non-medical locales. (From Dorland, 28th ed)
Pollution prevention through the design of effective chemical products that have low or no toxicity and use of chemical processes that reduce or eliminate the use and generation of hazardous substances.
An optical source that emits photons in a coherent beam. Light Amplification by Stimulated Emission of Radiation (LASER) is brought about using devices that transform light of varying frequencies into a single intense, nearly nondivergent beam of monochromatic radiation. Lasers operate in the infrared, visible, ultraviolet, or X-ray regions of the spectrum.
A phenomenon in which infection by a first virus results in resistance of cells or tissues to infection by a second, unrelated virus.
A condition of elevated levels of TRIGLYCERIDES in the blood.
Seeds from grasses (POACEAE) which are important in the diet.
Ribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of viruses.
The species Oryctolagus cuniculus, in the family Leporidae, order LAGOMORPHA. Rabbits are born in burrows, furless, and with eyes and ears closed. In contrast with HARES, rabbits have 22 chromosome pairs.
Zirconium. A rather rare metallic element, atomic number 40, atomic weight 91.22, symbol Zr. (From Dorland, 28th ed)
Electrophoresis applied to BLOOD PROTEINS.

Glomerular size-selective dysfunction in NIDDM is not ameliorated by ACE inhibition or by calcium channel blockade. (1/6488)

BACKGROUND: In patients with insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (IDDM) and overt nephropathy glomerular barrier size-selectivity progressively deteriorates with time and is effectively improved by angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) inhibition. Whether similar glomerular functional changes develop in proteinuric patients with non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (NIDDM), and whether antihypertensive agents can favorably affect glomerular filtration of macromolecules in these patients, has not been documented yet. METHODS: We investigated renal hemodynamics and fractional clearance of neutral dextrans of graded sizes, in nine proteinuric patients with NIDDM and renal biopsy findings of typical diabetic glomerulopathy. Six healthy volunteers served as controls. We also investigated the effects of an ACE inhibitor and of a calcium channel blocker, both given in doses targeted to achieve a comparable level of systemic blood pressure control, on glomerular hemodynamics and sieving function. Theoretical analysis of glomerular macromolecule transport was adopted to evaluate intrinsic glomerular membrane permeability properties. RESULTS: Fractional clearance of large macromolecules (42 to 66 A in radius) was significantly higher in diabetic patients than in controls, and the distribution of membrane pore radii was calculated to be shifted towards larger pore sizes in diabetics (mean radius increased from 55 to 60 A). Despite effective blood pressure control, neither antihypertensive affected glomerular hemodynamics to any significant extent. Fractional clearance of dextrans, as well as of albumin and IgG, and total urinary proteins were not modified by either treatments. CONCLUSIONS: These data indicate that patients with NIDDM and overt nephropathy develop abnormalities in size-selective function of the glomerular barrier and, at variance to IDDM, such changes were not ameliorated either by ACE inhibition or calcium channel blockade.  (+info)

Dynamics of plaque formation in Alzheimer's disease. (2/6488)

Plaques that form in the brains of Alzheimer patients are made of deposits of the amyloid-beta peptide. We analyze the time evolution of amyloid-beta deposition in immunostained brain slices from transgenic mice. We find that amyloid-beta deposits appear in clusters whose characteristic size increases from 14 microm in 8-month-old mice to 22 microm in 12-month-old mice. We show that the clustering has implications for the biological growth of amyloid-beta by presenting a growth model that accounts for the experimentally observed structure of individual deposits and predicts the formation of clusters of deposits and their time evolution.  (+info)

Cryoelectron microscopy of a nucleating model bile in vitreous ice: formation of primordial vesicles. (3/6488)

Because gallstones form so frequently in human bile, pathophysiologically relevant supersaturated model biles are commonly employed to study cholesterol crystal formation. We used cryo-transmission electron microscopy, complemented by polarizing light microscopy, to investigate early stages of cholesterol nucleation in model bile. In the system studied, the proposed microscopic sequence involves the evolution of small unilamellar to multilamellar vesicles to lamellar liquid crystals and finally to cholesterol crystals. Small aliquots of a concentrated (total lipid concentration = 29.2 g/dl) model bile containing 8.5% cholesterol, 22.9% egg yolk lecithin, and 68.6% taurocholate (all mole %) were vitrified at 2 min to 20 days after fourfold dilution to induce supersaturation. Mixed micelles together with a category of vesicles denoted primordial, small unilamellar vesicles of two distinct morphologies (sphere/ellipsoid and cylinder/arachoid), large unilamellar vesicles, multilamellar vesicles, and cholesterol monohydrate crystals were imaged. No evidence of aggregation/fusion of small unilamellar vesicles to form multilamellar vesicles was detected. Low numbers of multilamellar vesicles were present, some of which were sufficiently large to be identified as liquid crystals by polarizing light microscopy. Dimensions, surface areas, and volumes of spherical/ellipsoidal and cylindrical/arachoidal vesicles were quantified. Early stages in the separation of vesicles from micelles, referred to as primordial vesicles, were imaged 23-31 min after dilution. Observed structures such as enlarged micelles in primordial vesicle interiors, segments of bilayer, and faceted edges at primordial vesicle peripheries are probably early stages of small unilamellar vesicle assembly. A decrease in the mean surface area of spherical/ellipsoidal vesicles was correlated with the increased production of cholesterol crystals at 10-20 days after supersaturation by dilution, supporting the role of small unilamellar vesicles as key players in cholesterol nucleation and as cholesterol donors to crystals. This is the first visualization of an intermediate structure that has been temporally linked to the development of small unilamellar vesicles in the separation of vesicles from micelles in a model bile and suggests a time-resolved system for further investigation.  (+info)

Sodium ion uptake into isolated plasma membrane vesicles: indirect effects of other ions. (4/6488)

Vesicles derived from plasma membrane of corneal endothelium were agitated to their minimum size distribution. When isotonic salt solutions surrounding the vesicles were changed there were alterations to the vesicle size distribution: the modal point of the logarithmic distribution did not change but the log variance did, indicating that substantial fission and fusion of vesicles occurred depending upon the nature of the surrounding solute. Orientation and total membrane area was conserved in the transformed population of vesicles. Although the ions added to the external isotonic salt solutions in the present series of experiments have no direct effect upon sodium membrane transporters in these membranes, kinetics of sodium accumulation into the vesicles were affected in a way that correlated with changes to the vesicle size distribution. Early-saturating (<1 min) intravesicular concentrations of sodium corresponded with apparently stable populations. Late-saturating (>1 min) intravesicular concentrations of sodium corresponded with significant vesicle distribution shifts and included a few seconds of delay. During the linear accumulation phase, both populations showed similar magnitudes of sodium transport. The significance of these data is discussed.  (+info)

Morphological behavior of acidic and neutral liposomes induced by basic amphiphilic alpha-helical peptides with systematically varied hydrophobic-hydrophilic balance. (5/6488)

Lipid-peptide interaction has been investigated using cationic amphiphilic alpha-helical peptides and systematically varying their hydrophobic-hydrophilic balance (HHB). The influence of the peptides on neutral and acidic liposomes was examined by 1) Trp fluorescence quenched by brominated phospholipid, 2) membrane-clearing ability, 3) size determination of liposomes by dynamic light scattering, 4) morphological observation by electron microscopy, and 5) ability to form planar lipid bilayers from channels. The peptides examined consist of hydrophobic Leu and hydrophilic Lys residues with ratios 13:5, 11:7, 9:9, 7:11, and 5:13 (abbreviated as Hels 13-5, 11-7, 9-9, 7-11, and 5-13, respectively; Kiyota, T., S. Lee, and G. Sugihara. 1996. Biochemistry. 35:13196-13204). The most hydrophobic peptide (Hel 13-5) induced a twisted ribbon-like fibril structure for egg PC liposomes. In a 3/1 (egg PC/egg PG) lipid mixture, Hel 13-5 addition caused fusion of the liposomes. Hel 13-5 formed ion channels in neutral lipid bilayer (egg PE/egg PC = 7/3) at low peptide concentrations, but not in an acidic bilayer (egg PE/brain PS = 7/3). The peptides with hydrophobicity less than Hel 13-5 (Hels 11-7 and Hel 9-9) were able to partially immerse their hydrophobic part of the amphiphilic helix in lipid bilayers and fragment liposome to small bicelles or micelles, and then the bicelles aggregated to form a larger assembly. Peptides Hel 11-7 and Hel 9-9 each formed strong ion channels. Peptides (Hel 7-11 and Hel 5-13) with a more hydrophilic HHB interacted with an acidic lipid bilayer by charge interaction, in which the former immerses the hydrophobic part in lipid bilayer, and the latter did not immerse, and formed large assemblies by aggregation of original liposomes. The present study clearly showed that hydrophobic-hydrophilic balance of a peptide is a crucial factor in understanding lipid-peptide interactions.  (+info)

Concatemerization of tRNA molecules in the presence of trivaline derivative. (6/6488)

The interaction of tRNA with trivaline dansyl hydrazide trifluoroacetate (DHTV) has been studied. The shape of curves of fluorimetric titration of tRNA with DHTV and vice versa can be explained only by formation of DHTV dimers on tRNA molecules, and subsequent association of DHTV-saturated tRNA molecules with each other. The ability of tRNA molecules to form concatemers in solution in the presence of DHTV has been demonstrated by electron microscopy. Electron microscopy of the tRNA-DHTV complexes stained with uranyl acetate revealed flexible rods 6-7 nm thick and up to several micrometers long.  (+info)

Hexavalent chromium responsible for lung lesions induced by intratracheal instillation of chromium fumes in rats. (7/6488)

Lung toxicity of chromium fumes (Cr fumes) was examined by a single intratracheal instillation into rats of 10.6 mg and 21.3 mg Cr fumes/kg body weight and by repeated (3 times) instillations of 10.8 mg and 21.7 mg Cr fumes/kg. The pathological changes were compared with those induced by single administrations of 3.2 mg and 19.2 mg Na2CO3 solution-insoluble fraction of Cr fumes (Cr-Fr)/kg and 20.8 mg commercially available chromium (III) oxide powder (Cr (III) oxide)/kg. Single and repeated administrations of Cr fumes suppressed growth rate in a dose-dependent manner, but administrations of Cr-Fr and Cr (III) oxide did not. A single administration of Cr fumes produced granulomas in the entire airways and alveoli with progressive fibrotic changes, as well as severe mobilization and destruction of macrophages and foamy cells. Those histopathological changes were aggravated by the repeated administration of Cr fumes. On the other hand, single administrations of Cr-Fr and Cr (III) oxide produced no remarkable histopathological changes. Cr fumes were found to be composed of 73.5% chromium (III) oxide and 26.5% chromium (VI) oxide. The primary particles of Cr fumes and Cr-Fr were similar, 0.02 micron in size (sigma g: 1.25), and Cr (III) oxide particles were 0.30 micron in size (sigma g: 1.53), measured by analytical electron microscopy (ATEM). Diffuse clusters of the primary particles in Cr fumes were identified as Cr (VI) oxide. The present results suggested that the lung toxicity of Cr fumes was mainly caused by these Cr (VI) oxide (CrO3) particles in Cr fumes.  (+info)

A new model rat with acute bronchiolitis and its application to research on the toxicology of inhaled particulate matter. (8/6488)

The aim of the present study was to establish a useful animal model that simulates humans sensitive to inhaled particulate matter (PM). We have developed a new rat model of acute bronchiolitis (Br) by exposing animals to NiCl2 (Ni) aerosols for five days. Three days following the Ni exposure, the animals developed signs of tachypnea, mucous hypersecretion, and bronchiolar inflammation which seemed to progress quickly during the fourth to fifth day. They recovered from lesions after four weeks in clean air. To assess the sensitivity of the Br rats to inhaled particles, two kinds of PM of respirable size were tested with doses similar to or a little higher to the recommended threshold limit values (TLVs) for the working environment in Japan. Titanium dioxide (TiO2 = Ti) was chosen as an inert and insoluble particles and vanadium pentoxide (V2O5 = V), as a representative soluble and toxic airborne material. The Br rats exposed to either Ti or V were compared the pathological changes in the lungs and the clearance of particles to those in normal control or Br rats kept in clean air. The following significant differences were observed in Br rats: 1. delayed recovery from pre-existing lesions or exacerbated inflammation, 2. reductions in deposition and clearance rate of inhaled particles with the progress of lesions. The present results suggest that Br rats are more susceptible to inhaled particles than control rats. Therefore, concentrations of particulate matter lower than the TLVs for Japan, which have no harmful effects on normal lungs, may not always be safe in the case of pre-existing lung inflammation.  (+info)

Data & statistics on Particle size distributions of two different particle size fuels: Particle size distributions of two different particle size fuels., Particle size distribution (PSD) for different fuels at 7.0 MPa (a) and 10.2 MPa (b) injection pressure. Averaged over run times and time span when particle is detectable., Relative effects of a thermodenuder and different temperature conditions on the size-number 12 distribution (ELPI - greased sintered plates - sample from the CVS - secondary dilution ( x 10 ) with N2) of Diesel exhaust particles as measured over an hot NEDC test cycle ( Euro 3 - Common Rail Turbocharged Diesel car - Fuel : 270 ppm S ). The total particle numbers are drastically affected by the 13 presence ......
Particle size distribution of powders plays a very important role in determining the critical chemical and physical properties of the particulate systems. Precise determination of particle size distribution depends on effective sampling of the powders, which is more pronounced for the particulate systems with a wide particle size distribution. Predominantly, the significant increase in the total surface area of the powders at nanometer scale particle sizes may lead to improper characterization of the bulk if the sampling technique fails to collect and represent them in the analyses. In this study, effects of sampling on the precision of particle size analysis are studied on a clay sample with a wide particle size distribution (particles ranging from nanometer to micrometer sizes) using light scattering technique in aqueous media. Three different sampling methods are applied to systematically analyze the effect of sampling on particle size measurements including; riffling the original sample into ...
TY - GEN. T1 - Effect of particle size on densification of copper powder during electric-field activated sintering for micro-scale forming. AU - Huang, Kunlan. AU - Qin, Yi. AU - Yang, Yi. PY - 2014/9/9. Y1 - 2014/9/9. N2 - A novel Micro-forming technology, called electric-field activated sintering for micro-scale forming (Micro-FAST), was introduced for the forming of micro-components. The effect of particle size on densification is revealed for copper powder being sintered under the influence from electrical field and force-field during forming of micro-components. Three kinds of copper powders of different particle sizes ((i) average particle size of 0.5μm; (ii) average particle size of 30μm and (iii) the mixture powders with 20% weight of 30μm and 80% weight of 0.5μm) with no binder were used for the experiments. The results show that the density of the compact sintered with mixed copper powders is the largest due to more volume of liquid phase was formed in the particles contacts. The ...
A novel Micro-forming technology, called electric-field activated sintering for micro-scale forming (Micro-FAST), was introduced for the forming of micro-components. The effect of particle size on densification is revealed for copper powder being sintered under the influence from electrical field and force-field during forming of micro-components. Three kinds of copper powders of different particle sizes ((i) average particle size of 0.5μm; (ii) average particle size of 30μm and (iii) the mixture powders with 20% weight of 30μm and 80% weight of 0.5μm) with no binder were used for the experiments. The results show that the density of the compact sintered with mixed copper powders is the largest due to more volume of liquid phase was formed in the particles contacts. The result being in correspondence with the analytical results of computer simulation. The new understanding developed would help to better quality control during the sintering of micro-components.. ...
CONTE, Juliana Denise; ALMEIDA, Mariana Mandelli de; BOU-CHACRA, Nadia Araci. Nanostructured lipid carries containing ursolic acid: influence of surfactants on particle size, polydispersity index and zeta potential. Fármacos & Medicamentos[S.l: s.n.], 2011 ...
AB Jet mill - Powder Processing - Weifang Jinghua Powder Can be combined with multistage air classifier to get different particle size at one time, the particle size distributed region is very narrow and centralized Feature 1Superfine and uniform p
Physical activity (PA) and high aerobic fitness protects against cardiovascular disease and early death possibly among others because of an anti-atherogenic impact on lipoprotein particle concentrations. The objective of this study was to determine the impact of PA and diet on lipoprotein particle concentrations. Thirty-one severely obese women (age 43.6 ± 10.2 years; body mass index 43.0 ± 6.3 kg m−2) participated in a 1-year lifestyle intervention with repeated measurements of lipoprotein particle subclass concentrations and size of very low density lipoprotein (VLDL), low density lipoprotein (LDL) and high density lipoprotein (HDL), as well as fat mass, PA and diet. Multiple regression was used to determine associations with change (Δ) in two principal components (PCs) describing lipoprotein distributions: ΔPC 1 LIPO (dominated by VLDL and LDL) and ΔPC 2 LIPO (dominated by large HDL and mean HDL particle size). ΔPA duration was the only variable that was significantly related to ΔPC ...
TY - GEN. T1 - Simulation of particle size measurement with LIBS. AU - Wakamatsu, Muneaki. AU - Andreev, Alexander. AU - Ueda, Toshitsugu. PY - 2006. Y1 - 2006. N2 - The problem of small solid particle size and material detection is important for industrial and environmental applications. Previous investigations have shown the possibility of using the laser breakdown method to address the first issue; the sensitivity of this method is a thousand times higher than that of conventional methods. However, for small particle sizes, the damage threshold of the solid target in this case is very close to the breakdown point of pure gas. After breakdown, there is a small volume of dense hot plasma that emits radiation. We analyzed this radiation especially at the late stage using an analytical model and simulation code, and found that the emission intensity varied depending on the laser type and plasma parameters including initial particle size.. AB - The problem of small solid particle size and material ...
The effect of the Active Pharmaceutical Ingredient (API) particle size on the dissolution rate in the polymer excipient during hot melt extrusion is investigated using a co-rotating twin-screw extruder with three different screw configurations. Acetaminophen (APAP) and amphiphilic polyvinyl caprolactam-polyvinyl acetate-polyethylene glycol graft copolymer (PVCap-PVAc-PEG) (Soluplus) are chosen as the model API and water- soluble polymer excipient, respectively. APAP is milled using a fluid energy mill (FEM) into two different particle sizes. The thermal properties of processed samples are characterized by TGA and DSC. SEM and optical microscopy are also used in the morphological studies. Under quiescent conditions, API particles with small particle size dissolve faster than the large ones. During the extrusion process using a co-rotating twin- screw extruder, fully-filled kneading blocks perform well in dissolving the API into the polymeric excipient matrices for both of APIs particle sizes. However,
TSIs Scanning Mobility Particle Sizer Spectrometer 3936 spectrometer is a high resolution nanoparticle sizer that has long been hailed as the researchers choice for nanoparticle size characterization for nano applications including nano research and development.. TSIs SMPS™ Spectrometer is widely used as the standard method to measure airborne particle size distributions. These particle sizers are also routinely used to make accurate nanoparticle size measurements of particles suspended in liquids. The National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) uses a TSI DMA to size 60 nm and 100 nm standard reference materials suspended in liquid (polystyrene latex spheres or PSL.. SMPS™ spectrometer sizing is a discreet technique in which number concentrations are measured directly without assuming the shape of the particle size distribution. The method is independent of the refractive index of the particle or fluid, and has a high degree of absolute sizing accuracy and measurement ...
Hepatic steatosis (HS), the most frequent liver disorder, was reported to be an independent predictor of cardiovascular disease. HS, if combined with the metabolic syndrome (MetS), might have a synergistic effect on low-density lipoprotein (LDL) particle size. Carotid intima-media thickness (IMT) and plaque formation, and HS were diagnosed ultrasonographically, and the MetS was diagnosed using the ATP III criteria in 274 healthy workers (mean age ± SD, 43.5 ± 7.1 yrs). LDL particle size was measured with density gradient ultracentrifugation, and subfractions were classified as large, buoyant LDL I (27.2~28.5 nm) and small, dense LDL III (24.2~25.5). All participants were grouped into three categories: control, subjects with HS alone and those with both HS and the MetS. The subjects with HS alone were 84 (30.7%), whereas those with HS and the MetS were 46 (16.8%). LDL peak particle sizes showed significant negative correlations with carotid mean IMTs. LDL peak particle size and LDL I (%) decreased
Pdfeffectofmillingtimeon particle sizeand surfacepdfeffectofmillingtimeon particle sizeand surfaceAfter 2 h of wetball milling the medians of theparticle sizedistribution curves by volume and by number could be reduced from about 6 and 2 m to about 1 m and 70 nm respectively, effect of ball milling on particle size hindi
[Papers from the 2nd Symposium on Liquid Particle Size Measurement Techniques, held at Atlanta, Ga., 9-11 Nov. 1988, Sponsored by ASTM Committee E-29 on Particle Size Measurement and ASTM Subcommittee E29.04 on Liquid Particle Measurement]
This paper investigated the performance of ZTA cutting tool with the addition of different particle size of MgO additive. Therefore, the objective of this research is to compare the effects of machining parameters on tool wears of ZTA cutting tools added with micro and nanoparticle of MgO. The experiments were conducted using BridgePort-Romi Powerpath CNC machine using a tool holder Sandvik Coromant (CoroTurn CCLNR 164D-4) to hold the cutting tools properly. The parameters are set up as cutting speeds used between range 354 to 472 m/min, feed rate from 0.1 to 0.5 mm/rev with a constant depth of cut of 0.2 mm. Three types of wear were analyzed which are flank wear, crater wear and tool chipping. Flank wear and crater wear images captured using measuring microscope (NIKON MM-400/L) and the crater wear areas are analyzed using MatLab programming software. Tool chipping is observed via SEM (JEOL JSM-5600). The experimental result shows that flank wear and crater wear increase when cutting speed and ...
Particle size analysis is not a topic that many people master, but it does have an undisputable role in the products they consume or use daily. It practically refers to collecting particles with the purpose of characterizing their size distribution. Particle size analysis represents a crucial process for numerous industries, from pharmaceuticals and building materials, food and beverages to cosmetics. Selecting the right method for completing this process is very important for obtaining optimal results. The most common particle size analysis and characterization methods include laser diffraction, dynamic light scattering and automated imaging.. Laser diffraction is the favorite method used by manufacturers because it works for a multitude of products and provides accurate results. They use light intensity to determine particle size. Dynamic light scattering is more adequate for macromolecules offering information about the size, weight and zeta potential or charge of the particle. The process ...
TY - CONF. T1 - Sodium silicate-based grouting material performance on various soil particle size fractions under acidic conditions. AU - Wahyudi, Sugeng. AU - Shimada, Hideki. AU - Putranto, Rizky Satria. AU - Sasaoka, Takashi. AU - Kanemasu, Yoshihito. AU - Toshida, Yasuharu. PY - 2016/1/1. Y1 - 2016/1/1. N2 - Sodium silicate is admitted as the first kind of chemical grouting material. It has been well know that its performance depends on the concentration of components which mixed in a grouting material. In this study, sodium silicate is reacted with weak acid salts reactant type combined with organic compounds reactant type to generate five types of grouting material. This project aims to find out a proper grouting material based on sodium silicate to be applied to dam construction purposes in Indonesia which mostly its dryland is covered by acid soil. The grouting material is tested on various soil particle size fraction which reflecting Indonesia soil particles such as poorly graded sand, ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Effect of alginate size, mannuronic/guluronic acid content and pH on particle size, thermodynamics and composition of complexes with beta-lactoglobulin. AU - Stender, Emil G. P.. AU - Khan, Sanaullah. AU - Ipsen, Richard. AU - Madsen, Finn. AU - Hägglund, Per. AU - Abou Hachem, Maher. AU - Almdal, Kristoffer. AU - Westh, Peter. AU - Svensson, Birte. PY - 2018/1. Y1 - 2018/1. U2 - 10.1016/j.foodhyd.2017.09.001. DO - 10.1016/j.foodhyd.2017.09.001. M3 - Journal article. VL - 75. SP - 157. EP - 163. JO - Food Hydrocolloids. JF - Food Hydrocolloids. SN - 0268-005X. ER - ...
Dependence of Equilibrium, Kinetics and Thermodynamics of Zn (II) Ions Sorption from Water on Particle Size of Natural Hydroxyapatite Extracted from Bone Ash
Advanced Textile Materials: Effects of Addition Amount, Particle Size Distribution and Average Particle Size of NaCl Porogen on the Pore Connectivity of Silk Fibroin (|i|SF|/i|) /Hydroxyapatite (|i|HA|/i|) Porous Composites
Biomass Pretreatment and Enzymatic Hydrolysis Dynamics Analysis Based on Particle Size Imaging - Volume 24 Issue 5 - Dimitrios Kapsokalyvas, Arnold Wilbers, Ilco A.L.A. Boogers, Maaike M. Appeldoorn, Mirjam A. Kabel, Joachim Loos, Marc A.M.J. Van Zandvoort
Particle Size Reduction Pharmaceutics, Particle Size Reduction Pharmaceutics, Particle size reduction, There are several strategies and delivery technologies that use particle size reduction as a route to successful dosage formulation, Quay Pharma have working partnerships with a number of companies who specialise in reducing particle size in APIs.
Nano particles have been sized based on their electrical mobility. This is not efficient because most of the nano particles are electrically neutral. Measuring the particle size distribution typically consist of detecting size selected particles with an aerosol particle detector such as Condensation Particle Counter (CPC). This is also the working principle of Scanning Mobility Particle Sizer. The particles are first neutralized to a known charge distribution, then they are selected according to their electrical mobility after which they are counted with a CPC. From the electrical mobility one can calculate so called mobility diameter of the particle.. Measuring the sub 5 nm particle size distribution is really challenging. In the resent years the CPC technology has been developed really intensively and thus the detection of particles as small as 1 nm in diameter is now possible (Iida et al. 2009, Vanhanen et al. 2011, Jiang et al. 2011). The most challenging part of the size distributions ...
AIM: To determine distribution, size, and phenotype of low density lipoprotein (LDL) subclasses and examine the influence of plasma lipid concentrations on lipoprotein particle size in both healthy population and patients with myocardial infarction.
Particle size Distribution D10 is also written as X10, D(0,1) or X(0,1). It represents the particle diameter corresponding to 10% cumulative (from 0 to ) undersize particle size distribution. In other words, if particle size D10 is 7.8um, we can say 10% of the particles in the tested sample are smaller than 7.8 micrometer, or the percentage of particles smaller than 7.8 micrometer is 10% ...A basic guide to particle characterizationsize. Particle size measurement is routinely carried out across a wide range of industries and is often a critical parameter in the manufacture of many products. Particle size has a direct influence on .Crushingreducing Powder Particle SizeParticle Size Analysis - Powder Technology Inc. Particle Size Analysis utilizing a COULTER MULTISIZER IIe or III. The Coulter Principle, also known as ESZ (Electrical Sensing Zone Method), the Multisizer IIe and 3 Coulter Counter provides number, volume, mass and surface area size distributions in one measurement, with an overall ...
Data & statistics on Particle size distribution of sediments from South West Spit: Particle size distribution of sediments from South West Spit, Particle Size Distribution (psd) of sediment particles, Sieve sizes used for sediment particle distribution and the Wentworth sediment size categories (Buchanan 1984) Sieve Number...
FAVERO, André et al. Influence of feed form and corn particle size on nutrient digestibility and energy utilization by young turkeys. R. Bras. Zootec. [online]. 2012, vol.41, n.1, pp.86-90. ISSN 1806-9290. A digestibility trial with 16 to 21-day-old turkeys was conducted to study the effects of feed form and corn particle size on the coefficient of total intestinal tract apparent digestibility of dry matter (DM), nitrogen (N), ether extract (EE), aparent metabolizable energy (AME) and aparent metabolizable energy corrected by nitrogen balance (AMEn). A completely randomized experimental design in a 2 × 3 factorial arrangement - two feed forms (crumble and micropellet) and three average particle sizes of the corn (380, 606, 806 µm) - was applied. Three hundred and sixty 1-d-old B.U.T 9 male turkey poults were distributed into 36 cages, 6 replications of 10 birds, each one per treatment. Overall care of birds complied with welfare directive from ...
In civil engineering, there are situations where matters of the soil is of utmost importance. Nickzom Calculator solves calculation problems in soil mechanics.. Under Soil Mechanics, there is Soil Test and Particle Size Analysis section.. Today, I would love to introduce you all to Drag Force under Particle Size Analysis.. One can access Nickzom Calculator+ (Professional Version) - The Calculator Encyclopedia via any of these channels:. Web - Android (Paid) - Apple (Paid) - Parameters to get solution for Drag Force in Particle Size Analysis. ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Factors governing emulsion droplet and solid particle size measurements performed using the focused beam reflectance technique. AU - Dowding, PJ. AU - Goodwin, JW. AU - Vincent, B. N1 - Publisher: Elsevier. PY - 2001. Y1 - 2001. M3 - Article (Academic Journal). VL - 192. SP - 5. EP - 13. JO - Colloids and Surfaces A. Physicochemical and Engineering Aspects. JF - Colloids and Surfaces A. Physicochemical and Engineering Aspects. SN - 0927-7757. ER - ...
What is the growth potential of the particle size analyzers market?. What are the growth opportunities that may emerge in the particle size analyzers industry in the years to come?. To Understand How COVID-19 Pandemic Will Impact on Particle Size Analyzers Economy or Business - What are the key challenges that the global particle size analyzers market may face in the future?. Which are the leading companies in the global particle size analyzers market?. Complete Review of particle size analyzers market brings customers and organizations to make out procedures? What will be market growth till 2029?. Effective variables that are growing interest and constraints in the particle size analyzers market?. What is the current market revenue? What is the projected revenue of particle size analyzers market 2020-2029?. What are the key sustainable strategies used by market players? A complete analysis of these strategies and their effect on ...
The particle size is one of the most important characteristics of particulate materials. It directly affects several properties, from the accessibility of minerals during processing to the mouthfeel of many foods. In industry, the aim of particle size measurement is to first find a correlation between the particle size and the property of interest (e.g. mouthfeel, reactivity, sintering behavior).This information can then be used to modify the properties of the substances via the particle size and also use the particle size as a parameter for quality insurance purposes. Today, measuring the particle size distribution of a substance is an easy and straightforward task thanks to the modern instrumentation available which often enables measurement in less than one minute. To determine particle size there is a large variety of techniques available, which deliver a similarly large selection of results in the form of means, averages, modes, and other parameters. The key to understanding the results is ...
The particle size is one of the most important characteristics of particulate materials. It directly affects several properties, from the accessibility of minerals during processing to the mouthfeel of many foods. In industry, the aim of particle size measurement is to first find a correlation between the particle size and the property of interest (e.g. mouthfeel, reactivity, sintering behavior).This information can then be used to modify the properties of the substances via the particle size and also use the particle size as a parameter for quality insurance purposes. Today, measuring the particle size distribution of a substance is an easy and straightforward task thanks to the modern instrumentation available which often enables measurement in less than one minute. To determine particle size there is a large variety of techniques available, which deliver a similarly large selection of results in the form of means, averages, modes, and other parameters. The key to understanding the results is ...
Determining which method of particle size analysis that provides the most accurate representation of your product can often be a difficult process. Many times, there isnt one correct answer and a combination of tools are required to determine the accurate result. Identifying the particle size is an integral part of determining if the milling or sieving process being performed is yielding good results. There are three most common forms of particle size analysis used on powdered materials.PSD or Particle Size Distribution, has been used extensively in countless applications in various industries to monitor, control, and investigate material properties.
Particle size analysis, zeta potential measurement, rheology, molecular weight and size measurement, size exclusion / gel permeation chromatography sec/gpc
Utilizing the sand deck, a Table can concentrate ore in the 20 mesh to +200 mesh particle size range. With the slime deck, it will concentrate ore in the 100 mesh to +325 mesh particle size range. The capacity for a lab size Table (13A) is between 30 and 50 pounds of feed per hour, with lower capacities when using the slimes deck.. Get Price And Support Online ...
Professional Particle Size Measurement Systems - Precision Particle Size Measurement for Laboratory & Research - Your Number 1 Partner for Research & Quality Management
Laser diffraction (LD) and next generation impactor (NGI) were recommended for measurement of particle size for pressurized metered dose inhaler (pMDI..
Small Mining Equipment for Gold, Silver, Copper, Zinc, Lead & all Metals. Contact Us. Login; Cart ... well distributed of the particle size, small over degree of ...copper concentrate particle size - BINQ Miningparticle size of copper concentrate - particle size of copper concentrate. Jul 18, 2012 - Gulin crushing, screening, grinding and washing plant play a great role ...Particle Size Distribution Effects that Should be ...Performing Flotation Geometallurgical Testing ... change with a change in grinding technology, the size and operating ... PARTICLE SIZE DISTRIBUTION EFFECTS THAT ...copper crushing plant with particle size pdf - Grinding ...What is the particle size? What is the grain size? What is. Stone crushing plant. Particle size refers to the size of the ore particle size, 250 t/h Copper crushing ...Grinding Size Of Copper Ore - hwt. grinding size of copper ore ... Patent WOA1 Hydrolyzed starches as grinding .. resulting in a mean particle . Read more; the grinding size of copper ...
Poly(methacrylic acid)(PMAA) coated magnetite (Fe3O4) nanoparticles were synthesized via co-precipitation in aqueous solution with the use of conventional magnetic stirring and ultrasonic agitation. It has been shown that the ultrasonic agitation during the synthesis of magnetite particles decreased the size of PMAA-coated magnetic agglomerates significantly. The primary particle size of iron oxide particles was determined as approximately 10 nm by X-ray diffraction method (Scherers equation). The volume weighted mean size (D [4,3]) of PMAA coated magnetite particles was determined as about 80 nm using laser diffraction technique ...
Copper and copper compounds are commonly used as biocides against biofouling on surfaces exposed to seawater. Copper oxide, one of the most commonly used forms of copper biocide, can provide an efficient mechanism for fouling-free surfaces, resulting in substantial fuel savings and reduction of Greenhouse Gases (GHG) emissions. However, copper oxide is commercially formulated with different particle sizes, which can consequently lead to surfaces with different roughness conditions. The roughness effect of various sizes of copper oxide particles on the drag performance of antifouling coatings, and hence on the ship hull drag, has not been systematically studied in the past. Therefore, to investigate the effect of particle sizes on antifouling roughness and hydrodynamic characteristics, a number of different sized cuprous oxide pigments (with median size ranging from 2µm to 250µm) were applied on Newcastle Universitys (UNEW) standard acrylic flat test panels. Roughness characteristics were ...
Dry deposition of atmospheric particles is critically dependent on particle size and plays a key role in dictating the mass and number distributions of atmospheric particles. However, modeling dry deposition is constrained by a lack of understanding of controlling dependencies and accurate size-resolved observations. We present size-resolved particle number fluxes for sub-100-nm particle diameters (Dp) over a deciduous forest derived using eddy covariance applied to data from a fast mobility particle sizer. The size-resolved particle number fluxes in 18 diameters between 8 and 100 nm were collected during leaf-on and are statistically robust. Particle deposition velocities normalized by friction velocity (v d +) are approximately four times smaller than comparable values for coniferous forests reported elsewhere. Comparison of the data with output from a new one-dimensional mechanistic particle deposition model designed for broadleaf forest exhibits greater accord with the measurements than two ...
A scanning mobility particle sizer (SMPS) is an analytical instrument that measures the size and number concentration of aerosol particles with diameters from 2.5 nm to 1000 nm. They employ a continuous, fast-scanning technique to provide high-resolution measurements. The particles that are investigated can be of biological or chemical nature. The instrument can be used for air quality measurement indoors, vehicle exhaust, research in bioaerosols, atmospheric studies, and toxicology testing. Lev Solomonovich Ruzer; Naomi H. Harley (2013). Aerosols Handbook: Measurement, Dosimetry, and Health Effects (Second ed.). CRC Press. pp. 234-. ISBN 978-1-4398-5519-5. Retrieved 28 April 2013. Burtscher, H. (2005). Physical characterization of particulate emissions from diesel engines: a review. Journal of Aerosol Science. 36 (7): 896-932. doi:10.1016/j.jaerosci.2004.12.001. ISSN 0021-8502 ...
Apr 09 2018 A number of compressive tests were conducted on iron ore pellets obtained from the Samarco pelletizing plant located at Ponta Ubu Brazil These pellets are formed by disk pelletizing of a mixture consisting of hematite iron ore (particle size less than 50 m) water and lime they are hardened in a traveling grate furnace and the nominal diameter varies between 9 and 16 mm.Feb 18 2021 Initially pellets with a bulk density of 2130 kg m angle of repose of 28 degrees and an average size of 12 mm were considered Due to the high computational cost of simulating a digital twin of the hold with particles in real size it was necessary to use scaled particle sizes without any need to scale the volume or mass of the cargo.The reduction of iron ore coal composite pellets wa s c rried out in the temperature range of 500 ~1200 C by thermogravimetry This study aims to investigate th e effect of particle size of iron ore on reduction behavior Three samples of different particle size were selected 2 ...
Particle Size and Standard Deviation - CPMProduct 15 - 40 . . to particle size reduction. Increasing energy costs, increasing customer awareness of . choice for particle size reduction (grinding) applications. . For certain special applications such as high moisture grain, some form of a raked tooth with different . In many cases, this reduction in noise means a grinding particle size customer case,Particle Grinding & Milling Services- Woodbury, MinnesotaAVEKAs particle grinding and milling services are useful for a variety of industries . Using Multiple Processes To Solve a Customers Needs · Milling and size . In each case, media, typically larger than the material to be ground, is added to a.Particle Size Reduction Solutions - PraterMany decades and 6,000 customers later, Praters products are some of the most versatile and . Prater Particle Size Reduction Application Case Studies.. ...
0091] As mentioned above, once formed, the abrasive aggregates may be classified, or separated into various size ranges as desired before being applied to a substrate or otherwise utilized in a polishing operation. In addition to the abrasive aggregates, a resultant powder may include an amount of material smaller than the desired aggregate size. The particulate material composed of the thus formed aggregates generally has an average particle size within a range of about 10 to about 2500 microns. Typically, the aggregate has an average particle size not less than about 10 microns, not less than about 20 microns, not less than about 30 microns, or not less than about 50 microns, not less than 100 microns, not less than 200 microns. Upper limits for average particle size are driven by particular end use applications and generally the abrasive aggregate average particle size is not greater than about 2500 microns, not greater than about 1500 microns, not greater than about 1000 microns, not greater ...
Particle Size AnalysisAcross most sectors, the particle size of products and materials is a critical parameter in their manufacture. Changing the particle size distribution of a material has a massive impact on its characteristics and its behaviour either during its manufacture, within the final product or on its effects within the environment.For example, the particle size distribution of a product like coffee greatly impacts its taste and quality. As discussed in Malvern Panlyticals Application Note : MRK781-01.The key factors which need to be considered include:• Dissolution rate• Flowability / Pump rates• Stability• Appearance• Safety• Environmental ImpactA current hot topic both nationally and worldwide is surrounding how a materials particle size distribution effects the safety of that material. For example, if the material has a high fraction of particles within the respirable range - PM1, PM2.5 or PM10, how does this impact on the health of either the workers in the factories and
The average particle size of Bio-Oss (1?mm) was much smaller compared to Cerabone (2. in nanometer, is the wavelength of X-ray beam in nanometer (= 0.15406?nm for standard detectors), and FWHM is the full width at half maximum for the diffraction angle (2= 25.9 peak was selected related to (002) Millers plane family). Solubility of graft material in demineralized water was evaluated using atomic absorption spectrophotometer (WFX-210, RayLeigh, BRAIC, China). Calcium and phosphorous detectors were calibrated in standard solution before each reading. 0.25?gram of each material was immersed in buy Rhoifolin 100?mL of double purified water and the amount of calcium dissolution was measured every week for a period of six months. Patients received detailed explanations of the difficulties and Rabbit Polyclonal to SHIP1 complications that could take place during the medical procedures and all patients agreed before the surgery. All of the 22 consenting patients were examined and medically compromised ...
Particle size: Particle size of the nanoparticles is presented as z-average diameter, which is basically mean hydrodynamic diameter of the particles. Particle size measurement was required to confirm the production of the particles in nano-rang. The result indicates that particle size was significantly influenced by most of the formulation and process variables. Starting with lipids the tristearin amount was kept constant in all formulations with varying amount of Egg lecithin among all these formulations the F2 with same amount of tristearin and soya lecithin was consider the ideal formulation.. Poloxamer 188 and tween 80 both of them were used as surfactant with varying concentrations. F2 containing surfactant Poloxamer 188 (1%) and Tween 80 (0.5%) with small particle size of 122±3.42 nm in comparison with other formulations. Particles size decreased as follows: F2 , F3 , F1 , F4. All the formulation within the 250 nm range is given in table 2.. Polydispersity index: Polydispersity index (PI) ...
May 04 2018 Medium sand its fineness modulus is 3 0-2 3 the average particle size is 0 5-0 35 mm Fine sand its fineness modulus is 2 2-1 6 the average particle size is 0 35-0 25 mm Super fine sand its fineness modulus is 1 5一0 7 the average particle size is below 0 25 mm. View All ...
sintered bauxite raymond mills are the most versatile line of mills available today for fast, low-cost particle size reduction to sub-micron range. sintered bauxite raymond mill action achieves higher output per input horsepower precise control of size and distribution. Product contamination from media and lining wear is virtually eliminated.. bauxite mill particle size Grinding Mill 31 Dec 2014 bauxite mill has high output among the other milling stages to a, ball diameter bauxite mill AP-42, Appendix B2 Generalized Particle Size, Particle size distributions for many processes are contained in, Oil fired a Roller mill 4, Bauxite grinding 4 1214 Secondary processing 8.. Bauxite Pulverizer Machine Features. 1. High Efficiency. Under the same finished final size and the same motor power, the capacity of micro powder grinding mill is twice as much as jet mill, mixing grinder and ball mill, and energy consumption decreased 30.. particle size distribution mills bayer. Type particle size distribution ...
Cd and Pb were the main pollution elements in Pb-Zn mining areas. Several studies have focused on heavy metal pollution and risk assessment in the Huize Pb-Zn mining area. In the present study, the soil aggregate composition, chemical properties, contents and chemical fractions of Cd and Pb were analysed in soils at depths of 0-60 cm in the Huize Pb-Zn mining area. Agricultural soils were sampled at depths of 0-20, 20-40 and 40-60 cm surrounding the Pb-Zn mine. The particle size fractions were determined by the aggregate composition of macro-aggregates (0.25-2 mm), micro-aggregates (0.053-0.25 mm), silt (0.002-0.053 mm) and colloid (| 0.002 mm). There was a large proportion of the macro-aggregate (52.4%) and less of the colloid (1.8%). With a decrease in particle size, the pH, organic matter contents, cation exchange capacity, and free iron oxide increased in the soil aggregates. Although the total and available Cd and Pb contents were highest in the colloid, the macro-aggregate maximally contributed to
Particle size distribution[edit]. The finer the particle size of an activated carbon, the better the access to the surface area ... the particle size should be in the range of 3.35-1.4 millimetres (0.132-0.055 in). Activated carbon with particle size less ... A 20×40 carbon is made of particles that will pass through a U.S. Standard Mesh Size No. 20 sieve (0.84 mm) (generally ... Careful consideration of particle size distribution can provide significant operating benefits. However, in the case of using ...
Reduction of particle size[edit]. Nanoparticles have been explored as a delivery system for various drugs, such as improving ... US 6197349, Westesen, K. & B. Siekmann, "Particles with modified physicochemical properties, their preparation and uses", ...
Influence of particle size on vapor pressure[edit]. See also: Gibbs-Thomson effect ... The table shows some calculated values of this effect for water at different drop sizes: P/P0 for water drops of different ... but the pressure difference becomes enormous when the drop sizes approach the molecular size. (In the limit of a single ... The effect becomes clear for very small drop sizes, as a drop of 1 nm radius has about 100 molecules inside, which is a ...
Particle size[edit]. The propellant particle size distribution has a profound impact on APCP rocket motor performance. Smaller ... The combustion time of the aluminum particles in the hot combustion gas varies depending on aluminum particle size and shape. ... Therefore, a particle's rate of temperature rise is maximized when the particle size is minimized. ... The burn rate is heavily dependent on mean AP particle size as the AP absorbs heat to decompose into a gas before it can ...
Particle size effect[edit]. An example of a particle-size effect: the number of reaction sites of different kinds depends on ... to understand the particle-size effect several more phenomena need to be taken into account:[8] ... reactions enhanced by defects as reaction sites get slowed down as the particle size decreases ... the size of the particle. In this four FCC nanoparticles model, the kink site between (111) and (100) planes (coordination ...
Particle size , 1 nm. 1 nm - 1 μm. , 1 μm Physically stable Yes. Yes. Needs stabilizing agents ... th particle of the population, the mass concentration of the property of interest in the i. {\displaystyle i}. th particle of ... the first-order inclusion probability of the ith particle), m i is the mass of the ith particle of the population and a i is ... th particle in the population, and the average mass of a particle in the population. ...
"Apparatus and method for particle analysis".. *^ reserved, Mettler-Toledo International Inc. all rights. "Particle Size ... In 1989, Fritz Karl Preikschat, with son Ekhard Preikschat, invented the scanning laser diode microscope for particle-size ... Here, the size of the scanning volume is determined by the spot size (close to diffraction limit) of the optical system because ... The size of this diffraction pattern and the focal volume it defines is controlled by the numerical aperture of the system's ...
As the film thickness is reduced, the film becomes more and more orange peeled in texture due to the particle size and glass ... Most powder coatings have a particle size in the range of 2 to 50 μ (Microns), a softening temperature Tg around 80 °C, a ... The most important properties to consider are chemical composition and density; particle shape and size; and impact resistance ... "Powder Coatings Market Size To Reach $16.55 Billion By 2024". Grand View Research. August 2016. Archived from the original on ...
Particle Analysis Particle analyzer Size distribution, particle density Viscometry Viscometer, quartz-crystal oscillator ... These devices detect particles of radiation by creating a supersaturated layer of vapor that condenses into cloud tracks when ... In a state of saturation, the water particles will not form ice under tropospheric conditions. It is not enough for molecules ... Takiyama, Hiroshi (May 2012). "Supersaturation operation for quality control of crystalline particles in solution ...
The particle size of the ground cereal is very important in the animal feed production; smaller particle sizes increase the ... The correlation between particle size and energy consumed is although not positive but, to obtain very fine particle sizes ... Particle size influences feed digestibility. The particle sizes of fish pellet feed are influenced by both grain properties and ... 2006), evaluating different corn particle sizes in the broiler feed found that the largest particle size (2.242 mm) gave better ...
particle-size-distribution curves of soil. The following are examples of commonly used logarithmic scales, where a larger ... since the use of the logarithms of the values rather than the actual values reduces a wide range to a more manageable size; ...
... increases with decreasing particle size. This is known as the Hall-Petch relationship. However, below a critical grain ... size, hardness decreases with decreasing grain size. This is known as the inverse Hall-Petch effect. ...
Primary particle size is 5-50 nm. The particles are non-porous and have a surface area of 50-600 m2/g. The density is 160-190 ... three-dimensional secondary particles which then agglomerate into tertiary particles. The resulting powder has an extremely low ...
These sizes are based on the Krumbein phi scale, where size in Φ = -log2D; D being the particle size in mm. On this scale, for ... An individual particle in this range size is termed a sand grain. Sand grains are between gravel (with particles ranging from 2 ... By another definition, in terms of particle size as used by geologists, sand particles range in diameter from 0.0625 mm (or ​1⁄ ... Sand is a granular material composed of finely divided rock and mineral particles. It is defined by size, being finer than ...
Mestranol 1.0-1.2 mg + norethisterone 10-12 mg in a microcrystalline aqueous suspension of defined particle sizes (125-177 μm)[ ... Aqueous suspension with defined particle size range. Chinese Injectable No. 2, Mego-E. Approved in China ... Aqueous suspension with defined particle size range. Ciclofem, Ciclofemina, Cyclofem, Cyclofemina, Cyclogeston, Femelin, ...
Moreover, the size of the grain boundaries scales directly with particle size. Thus a reduction of the original particle size ... the size of the crystalline grains is determined largely by the size of the crystalline particles present in the raw material ... This is basically a particle size effect. Opacity results from the incoherent scattering of light at surfaces and interfaces. ... When the size of the scattering center (or grain boundary) is reduced below the size of the wavelength of the light being ...
Particle size < 5 μm. droplet transmission - small and usually wet particles that stay in the air for a short period of time. ... The size of the particles for droplet infections are > 5 μm. Organisms spread by droplet transmission include respiratory ... They infect others via the upper and lower respiratory tracts." The size of the particles for airborne infections need to be < ... Particle size > 5 μm. direct physical contact - touching an infected individual, including sexual contact indirect physical ...
... is the reduction of solid materials from one average particle size to a smaller average particle size, by crushing ... Kick's law, which related the energy to the sizes of the feed particles and the product particles;[5] ... For comminution of finer particle size ranges (20mm , P80 , 30 μm) machines like the ball mill, vertical roller mill, hammer ... Primary jaw crusher product in intermediate feed particle size ranges (100mm , P80 , 20mm) can be ground in Autogenous or Semi- ...
The glow intensity depends on the particle size; generally, the bigger the particles, the better the glow. ... Non-agglomerated particles are needed for this purpose; they are difficult to prepare conventionally but can be made by ... manufacturers frequently coat the particles with a suitable lubricant when adding them to a plastic. ... "Influence of Calcining Temperature on Photoluminescence and Triboluminescence of Europium-Doped Strontium Aluminate Particles ...
Particle size distribution. Distribution of silicate and aluminate phases. Reactivity of hydrating phases. Gypsum/hemihydrates ... Emulsion polymers are supplied as suspensions of polymer particles. They contain about 50% solids. Such particles can ... usually below 40 μm in average particle size, enable hydraulic cement slurries as low as 8 PpG (960 Kg/m^3) Gaseous extenders ... The smaller size of the Cl− ions causes a greater tendency to diffuse into the C-S-H membrane. Eventually the C-S-H membrane ...
Particle size: ≤20mm. Note: These indexes are the lowest requirements for the coal, the better coal will be better at practice ...
doi:10.1111/j.1475-4762.2007.00730.x. "Particle Size (618.43)". National Soil Survey Handbook Part 618 (42-55) Soil Properties ... their size ranges overlap. Clays are formed from thin plate-shaped particles held together by electrostatic forces, so present ... the sand-silt distinction is made at the 0.05 mm particle size. The USDA system has been adopted by the Food and Agriculture ... the sand-silt distinction is made at the 0.075 mm particle size (i.e., material passing the #200 sieve). Silts and clays are ...
The particle size may vary from millimeters to nanometers.[3] This process may occur by contact with other metals, nonmetallic ... For a given particle morphology, the erosion rate, E. {\displaystyle E}. , can be fit with a power law dependence on velocity:[ ... Erosive wear is caused by the impact of particles of solid or liquid against the surface of an object.[9][15] The impacting ... Due to the nature of the conveying process, piping systems are prone to wear when abrasive particles have to be transported.[17 ...
... this means that smaller particle sizes produce a faster-burning composition. The shape also matters. Spherical particles, like ... Particle size selected according to the required burn rate. Magnesium - more sensitive and violent than aluminium, increases ... When metallic fuels are used, the metal particle size is important. A larger surface area to volume ratio leads to a faster ... The particles can be grains or flakes. Generally, the higher the surface area of the particles, the higher the reaction rate ...
... size and shear resistance of particles. Depending on the size and density of particles, and physical properties of the solids, ... This includes particles 10 μm and greater. Colloids are particles of a size between 1 nm (0.001 µm) and 1 µm depending on the ... Removal of suspended particles by sedimentation depends upon the size, zeta potential and specific gravity of those particles. ... TSS concentrations of off-line settling basin effluent are less than 100 mg/L net.[12] The particles keep their size and shape ...
... s can be designed to output particles below a certain size, while continue milling particles above that size, resulting ... Starting particle size: 800 microns or less, or as limited by the size of the inlet of the feed venturi ... Particle sizeEdit. A jet mill consists of a short cylinder, meaning the cylinder's height is less than its diameter. Compressed ... Solid particles in the mill are subject to two competing forces: *Centrifugal force created by the particles traveling in ...
Particle size and formulation. Physicochemical factors. Drugs given by enteral administration may be subjected to significant ...
There is an upper size-limit for the diameter of colloidal particles because particles larger than 1 μm tend to sediment, and ... it backscattered by the colloidal particles. The backscattering intensity is directly proportional to the average particle size ... Therefore, local changes in concentration caused by sedimentation or creaming, and changes in particle size caused by ... Particle settling is hindered by the stiffness of the polymeric matrix where particles are trapped, and the long polymeric ...
Particle size distribution range from 10 nanometers right up to 100 microns. NanoBrook Omni-- Particle Size Analyzer and Zeta ... Brookhaven has an extensive range of products for particle characterization. 90Plus-Particle Size Analyzer. Based on the ... Improved Techniques for Particle Size Determination by Quasi-Elastic Light Scattering by I. D. Morrison, E. G. Grabowski, and C ... particle size, zeta potential, molecular mass and absolute molar mass analysis. Product designs started when their founders ...
Autotrophs and heterotrophs come in all sizes, from microscopic to many tonnes - from cyanobacteria to giant redwoods, and from ... "the continued movement of the particles of earth". Even earlier, in 1768 John Bruckner described nature as "one continued web ... Charles Elton pioneered the concept of food cycles, food chains, and food size in his classical 1927 book "Animal Ecology"; ... Charles Elton subsequently pioneered the concept of food cycles, food chains, and food size in his classical 1927 book "Animal ...
These sand-size particles are often quartz but there are a few common categories and a wide variety of classification schemes ... The gravel sized particles that make up conglomerates are well rounded while in breccias they are angular. Conglomerates are ... They generally make up most of the gravel size particles in conglomerates but contribute only a very small amount to the ... Conglomerates are coarse grained rocks dominantly composed of gravel sized particles that are typically held together by a ...
There is a correlation between the size and density of a particle and the rate that the particle separates from a heterogeneous ... The larger the size and the larger the density of the particles, the faster they separate from the mixture. By applying a ... The particles' settling velocity in centrifugation is a function of their size and shape, centrifugal acceleration, the volume ... has particles in order of density based on height. The object or particle of interest will reside in the position within the ...
Small size parameter approximation[edit]. The size of a scattering particle is often parameterized by the ratio ... Rayleigh scattering applies to the case when the scattering particle is very small (x ≪ 1, with a particle size , 1 /10 ... In this case, the Rayleigh scattering intensity for a single particle is given in CGS-units by[16] I. =. I. 0. 8. π. 4. α. 2. λ ... The fraction of light scattered by a group of scattering particles is the number of particles per unit volume N times the cross ...
SizeEdit. Main article: Leaf size. The terms megaphyll, macrophyll, mesophyll, notophyll, microphyll, nanophyll and leptophyll ... Covered with tiny, broad scalelike particles.. Tuberculate. Covered with tubercles; covered with warty prominences.. Verrucose ... For the term Mesophyll in the size classification of leaves, see Leaf size. ... But large leaf size favors efficiency in photosynthesis and water conservation, involving further trade offs. On the other hand ...
The mature progeny particles then infect other cells to repeat the cycle. The genetics of the Ebola virus are difficult to ... about the size of a laptop and solar-powered, allows testing to be done in remote areas.[260] ... As with all filoviruses, ebolavirus virions are filamentous particles that may appear in the shape of a shepherd's crook, of a ... Airborne transmission among humans is theoretically possible due to the presence of Ebola virus particles in saliva, which can ...
Larger dust particles are left along the comet's orbital path while smaller particles are pushed away from the Sun into the ... A hydrogen gas halo three times the size of the Sun was detected by Skylab around Comet Kohoutek in the 1970s.[19] SOHO ... Comas typically grow in size as comets approach the Sun, and they can be as large as the diameter of Jupiter, even though the ... With basic Earth-surface based telescope and some technique, the size of the coma can be calculated.[12] Called the drift ...
Particles that release nitric oxide into the skin to decrease skin inflammation caused by C. acnes and the immune system have ... Boxcar scars are round or ovoid indented scars with sharp borders and vary in size from 1.5-4 mm across.[32] Ice-pick scars are ... are thought to kill bacteria and decrease the size and activity of the glands that produce sebum.[141] Disadvantages of light ...
Sussman, Robert W.; Hall, Roberta L. (April 1972). "Child Transport, Family Size, and Increase in Human Population During the ... such as a space station or particle accelerator. Tools and machines need not be material; virtual technology, such as computer ...
Isn't that a sure way to get a lot of viral particles into the air? Why don't more people get sick from that? Imagine Reason ( ... but I tried to curate a reasonable sized shortlist here to address several different aspects of the empirical question of post- ... That does not mean there are some separate physical particles of a substance called "electricity" which are flowing opposite ...
The pupil can be adjusted in size and a retinal pigment screens incident light in bright conditions.[22] ... a caecum where the now sludgy food is sorted into fluids and particles and which plays an important role in absorption, the ... Much larger sizes have been claimed for the giant Pacific octopus:[17] one specimen was recorded as 272 kg (600 lb) with an arm ...
Leaf size varies from 2 mm in many scale-leaved species, up to 400 mm long in the needles of some pines (e.g. Apache Pine, ... Lott, John N. A; Liu, Jessica C; Pennell, Kelly A; Lesage, Aude; West, M Marcia (2002). "Iron-rich particles and globoids in ... The size of mature conifers varies from less than one meter, to over 100 meters.[8] The world's tallest, thickest, largest, and ... The tracheids of earlywood formed at the beginning of a growing season have large radial sizes and smaller, thinner cell walls ...
Tick bites often go unnoticed because of the small size of the tick in its nymphal stage, as well as tick secretions that ... The use of nanotrap particles for their detection is being looked at and the OspA has been linked to active symptoms of Lyme.[ ... In Europe, known reservoirs of Borrelia burgdorferi were 9 small mammals, 7 medium-sized mammals and 16 species of birds ( ... Nymphal ticks are generally the size of a poppy seed and sometimes with a dark head and a translucent body.[55] Or, the nymphal ...
Sharpness of a radiographic image is strongly determined by the size of the X-ray source. This is determined by the area of the ... Anwar K (2013). "Nuclear Radiation Detectors". Particle Physics. Graduate Texts in Physics. Berlin: Springer-Verlag. pp. 1-78. ...
The energy required to lift a medium-sized tomato up 1 metre (3 ft 3 in) (assume the tomato has a mass of approximately 100 ... The Large Hadron Collider (LHC) produces collisions of the microjoule order (7 TeV) per particle.. Millijoule. The millijoule ( ...
Megalocnus were the largest genus at up to 90 kilograms (200 lb), Acratocnus were medium-sized relatives of modern two-toed ... smaller particles that can affect a larger array of species. Microplastics make up the bulk of the Great Pacific Garbage Patch ... Over the past 125,000 years, the average body size of wildlife has fallen by 14% as human actions eradicated megafauna on all ... All of these are related to human population size and growth, which increases consumption (especially among the rich), and ...
Unit cell ball-and-stick model of lithium nitride.[118] On the basis of size a tetrahedral structure would be expected, but ... However, Perey noticed decay particles with an energy level below 80 keV. Perey thought this decay activity might have been ... The radius of the H− anion also does not fit the trend of increasing size going down the halogens: indeed, H− is very diffuse ... The high lattice enthalpy of lithium fluoride is due to the small sizes of the Li+ and F− ions, causing the electrostatic ...
This is due to the increased particle mixing and lattice defects that result from decreased particle sizes of ZnO2 and B after ... and nanoscale particles have been obtained by reacting attrition milled Zr and B precursor crystallites (10 nm in size).[39] ... and particle sizes of 25-40 nm at 800 °C. After metallothermic reduction and DSHS reactions, MgO can be separated from ZrB2 by ... 2009). "Preparation of nano-size ZrB 2 powder by self-propagating high-temperature synthesis". Journal of the European Ceramic ...
Tor Nørretranders (1998). "Preface". The user illusion: Cutting consciousness down to size (Jonathan Sydenham translation of ... Some non-causal explanations involve invoking panpsychism, the theory that a quality of mind is associated with all particles, ... such as probabilistic subatomic particle behavior - theory unknown to many of the early writers on free will. Incompatibilist ... "On Indeterminism, Chaos, and Small Number Particle Systems in the Brain" (PDF). Journal of Integrative Neuroscience. 5 (2): ...
The removal efficiency is about 96%. Then, the ultra filter (UF) is introduced to remove particles whose minimum size ... July 2013), "Neutrino oscillations", Progress in Particle and Nuclear Physics, 71: 150-161, arXiv:1303.2272, Bibcode:2013PrPNP ... From the sharpness of the edge of the ring the type of particle can be inferred. The multiple scattering of electrons is large ... A neutrino interaction with the electrons or nuclei of water can produce a charged particle that moves faster than the speed of ...
... semolina particles are irregularly shaped and present in different sizes.[45][56] Semolina particles become hydrated during ... The size and shape of the dies in the extruder through which the pasta is pushed determine the shape that results. The pasta is ... Fresh pastas do not expand in size after cooking; therefore, 1.5 pounds (0.68 kg) of pasta are needed to serve four people ... the dried pasta will usually grow to twice its original size. Therefore, approximately 1 pound (0.45 kg) of dried pasta serves ...
From 1896, they were encouraged to submit typed papers on foolscap-folio-sized paper to lighten the work of getting papers ... introduced the idea of metal particles that were smaller than the wavelength of light - colloidal sols or what would now be ...
As a young professor at UC Davis, Deamer continued to work with electron microscopy, revealing for the first time particles ... Hayden, Antonio; Quick, J.; Simpson, J.T. (2015). "Pint-sized DNA sequencer impresses first users". Nature. 521 (7550): 15-16. ...
Effective population size. *Intraspecific competition. *Logistic function. *Malthusian growth model. *Maximum sustainable yield ...
The phase moiré effect is the basis for a type of broadband interferometer in x-ray and particle wave applications. It also ... Strong moiré visible in this photo of a parrot's feathers (more pronounced in the full-size image) ...
Self-propelled particles (Vicsek et al. 1995)[edit]. Main article: Self-propelled particles ... Brain size. *Brain-to-body mass ratio. *Encephalization quotient. *Neuroscience and intelligence ... Particle swarm optimization (Kennedy, Eberhart & Shi 1995)[edit]. Main article: Particle swarm optimization ... Over time, particles are accelerated towards those particles within their communication grouping which have better fitness ...
Natural units may be used in more theoretical and abstract fields of physics, particularly particle physics and string theory. ... This result is independent of the size, shape, and charge of the capacitor, and therefore this example illuminates the ...
Finally, spherical nanoparticles have three dimensions on the nanoscale, i.e., the particle is between 0.1 and 100 nm in each ... Nanomaterials describe, in principle, materials of which a single unit is sized (in at least one dimension) between 1 and 1000 ... Cermets are ceramic particles containing some metals. The wear resistance of tools is derived from cemented carbides with the ... The terms nanoparticles and ultrafine particles (UFP) often are used synonymously although UFP can reach into the micrometre ...
However, the particle bann (from bande) is often placed before a plural. French un/une corresponds to Mauritian enn but its use ... However, the small size of the native French population on the island, their aloofness from most of their slaves, and the lack ... Instead, the accompanying noun or pronoun determines who is engaging in the action, and several preverbal particles are used ...
Representation of results of particle size analysis -- Part 5: Methods of calculation relating to particle size analyses using ... Representation of results of particle size analysis -- Part 2: Calculation of average particle sizes/diameters and moments from ... Representation of results of particle size analysis -- Part 2: Calculation of average particle sizes/diameters and moments from ... Determination of particle size distribution -- Single particle light interaction methods -- Part 1: Light scattering aerosol ...
The instrument offers particle sizing, with high sensitivity, utilizing three light scattering measurement angles for truly ... The NanoBrook Omni instrument offers a single powerful and accurate solution for particle sizing and zeta potential analysis. ... diameter of iron oxide nanoparticles and an autotitrator can help automate the process of detecting changes in particle size as ...
... it is hardly surprising that the study of particle size distribution has been important to the food... ... Particle Size Distribution Brownian Motion Zeta Potential Single Scattering Irregular Particle These keywords were added by ... grain and particle size are considered. The direct sales of apples and eggs are classified by size and priced accordingly. This ... Wedd M. (1993) Particle sizing. In: Pinder A.C., Godfrey G. (eds) Food Process Monitoring Systems. Springer, Boston, MA. * DOI ...
... has been used to measure the particle size-distribution of the exhaust aerosol produced by five diesel cars under a variety of ... Particle Size Variation in Diesel Car Exhaust 790421. The Electrical Aerosol Analyzer (EAA) has been used to measure the ... There was no consistent effect of speed on particle size in this group of cars, but there was a slight tendency toward larger ... Citation: Groblicki, P. and Begeman, C., "Particle Size Variation in Diesel Car Exhaust," SAE Technical Paper 790421, 1979, ...
particle. Texture. property is used to determine the size of a particle. If a texture has not been assigned, you must set this ... var particleSize: CGSize { get set } Discussion. The default value is CGSize. Zero. . If set to the default, the size of the ... var particle. Texture: SKTexture?. The texture to use to render a particle. ... Changing a Particles Source Image and Size. ...
var particle. Size. Variation: CGFloat. The range of randomized particle sizes. Animatable. ... You can randomize the sizes of newly spawned particles with the particle. Size. Variation. property. ... property to stretch particles in their direction of motion, the particle. Size. value determines the width and height before ... var particleSize: CGFloat { get set } Discussion. SceneKit uses this value for both the width and height of the particle. Image ...
... the apparatus comprising a particle charging chamber for charging the particles in propo ... An apparatus and method for determining the particle size distribution of a plurality of particles in a sample, ... Particle size distribution measuring apparatus.. EP0562630. 1993-09-29. Method and apparatus for measuring size of particle or ... Thus, for decreasing particle sizes, the accuracy of the particle size determination can be enhanced through the use of ...
... one must determine what attribute of the particle system impacts the process or product parameter of concern. ... Once the size region is identified, it can be tracked in-process, opening up the realm of realtime process control and ... To select the proper instrument for process monitoring, one must determine what attribute of the particle system impacts the ...
... particle size) products. View information & documentation regarding Quartz (particle size), including CAS, MSDS & more. ... Quartz (particle size), BCR® certified Reference Material, 0.35-3.50 μm particle size, ... Quartz (particle size), BCR® certified Reference Material, 2.40-32.00 μm particle size, ... Quartz (particle size), BCR® certified Reference Material, 1.20-20.00 μm particle size, ...
... as clay soils are made up of very small particles and sandy soils have larger particles. Particle size makes a huge difference ... Color - Dark brown to blackTexture or particle size - Fine texture, particles smaller than 1/2 inch for incorporation, smaller ... It is a study on the differential deposition of aerosols in the maxillary sinus of human cadavers by particle size. It ...
HORIBA analyzers cover a particle size range is from below 1 nanometer to 30 millimeters, at concentrations ranging from 1 ppm ... Particle size has a profound effect on many product properties, from the impact of flavorings on food to the behavior of ... HORIBA analyzers cover a particle size range is from below 1 nanometer to 30 millimeters, at concentrations ranging from 1 ppm ...
A Rice University laboratory tested calcium-silicate particles to see how they hold up under pressure and found that size ... Porous particles of calcium and silicate show potential as building blocks for a host of applications. ... influenced the toughness of individual particles but not assemblies. ... "In this work, we found there is a brittle-to-ductile transition when increasing the particle size while keeping the pore size ...
This Guide provides best practice guidance for fatigue loading of composite materials and the use of traditional static defect tolerance test methods under long-term fatigue loading.
... optical particle counter-multichannel analyzer system that could be used to determine the size distribution and concentration ... This research evaluated methods and techniques by which the size distribution and concentration of mining-related dusts could ... if the dust particles were in a size range from about 0.7 to 10 um aerodynamic diameter. ... optical particle counter-multichannel analyzer system that could be used to determine the size distribution and concentration ...
The choice of particle size analysis technique can be based on the size distribution of the input, output, or both. Laser ... The size reduction unit operation is performed under set conditions or for a required time frame until a specified size is ... Many particle size measurements are made to track size reduction operations such as milling, mixing, homogenizing, etc. ... diffraction is the most common analysis technique for monitoring size reduction operations due to its very broad dynamic range. ...
Particle size distribution is important for the development of both shaped and unshaped refractories. But it is more critical ... Continuous particle size distribution of ordered particle sizing systems is employed primarily in advanced castables due to the ... Dinger, D.R., Funk, J.E.: Particle packing III - Discrete vs continuous particle sizes. Interceram 41 (1992) [5] 332-335Google ... Particle size distribution is important for the development of both shaped and unshaped refractories. But it is more critical ...
Get the latest particle size monitoring news on Environmental XPRT, the worlds largest environmental industry marketplace and ... New Software From METTLER TOLEDO Allows Scientists to Study Particle Size, Shape and Concentration In Real Time The new iC PVM ... METTLER TOLEDO Announces New Technology That Tracks Changing Particle Size and Count in Real Time The new ParticleTrack G600B ... This test method is useful to both suppliers and users of powders, as outlined in 1.1 and 1.2, in determining particle size ...
The Particle Size Selector (PSS) Model 376060 allows you to control the lower detection limit of a ... ... particle sizing condensation particle counter particle counter nanoparticle particle detection nanoparticle detection particle ... By attaching a particle size selector to the CPC inlet, the lower counting efficiency (D50%) can be moved to larger particle ... The Particle Size Selector (PSS) Model 376060 allows you to control the lower detection limit of a TSI Condensation Particle ...
UPS stands for Uniform Particle Size. UPS is defined as Uniform Particle Size frequently. ... which produce irregular particle sizes, but laboratory spray drying produces more uniform particle sizes and better consistency ... Special attention should be paid to the cutting angle of the knives and the screen used to ensure uniform particle size similar ... The Model 141 hammer mill reduces friable and fibrous materials into uniform particle sizes ranging from 20 to 300 mesh. ...
13 320 MW is one of the most versatile and sophisticated laser diffraction particle size analyzers available today. The LS 13 ... The LS™ 13 320 MW is one of the most versatile and sophisticated laser diffraction particle size analyzers available today. The ... The LS™ 13 320 MW is one of the most versatile and sophisticated laser diffraction particle size analyzers available today. The ... Benefits of selecting the Beckman Coulter LS 13 320 MW Particle Size Analyzer. The LS 13 320 MW Delivers Excellent Data ...
... particle collection by this species was size dependent. C. grandis preferred smaller particles in the 16- to 32-m size range ... grandis and to predict the vertical profiles of tracer particles of assorted sizes in the field. The model was tested by ... It is also much more likely to be size dependent than other sediment-mixing mechanisms, such as conveyor-belt feeding, and may ... This kind of downward particle transport is difficult to observe in the laboratory or in the field but it has important ...
The particles are then entered into the second stage where particles are driven towards the off-center pressure nodes for size ... Consequently, different-size particles are separated into multiple collection outlets. The prominent feature of the present ... In this paper, we demonstrated two different particle size-resolution separations; (1) 3 µm and 10 µm and (2) 3 µm and 5 µm. ... Flow-based methods have been used to sort particles and cells. However, the main challenge with flow based particle separation ...
a) Particle size and distribution. The particle size and distribution was determined by laser diffraction (Malvern Mastersizer ... salmeterol xinafoate products composed of particles with different particle sizes and size distributions were produced. ... Control of Particle Size and Size Distribution. A solution of salmeterol xinafoate in acetone (0.6% w/v) was co-introduced with ... A suitable particle size range for this use is 1 to 10 microns, preferably 1 to 5 microns. Particles generally have a uniform ...
... or gaseous particles (bubbles). The notion of particle size applies to colloidal particles, particles in ecology, particles ... There is often a need for a certain average particle size for the ensemble of particles. The particle size of a spherical ... particle size Weight-based particle size equals the diameter of the sphere that has the same weight as a given particle. Useful ... volume of particle Area-based particle size Area-based particle size equals the diameter of the sphere that has the same ...
Researchers have developed a microscope that can chemically identify individual micron-sized particles, which could be used to ... New Microscope Chemically Identifies Micron-Sized Particles Low-cost spectroscopy technique could allow detection of ... Researchers have developed a microscope that can chemically identify individual micron-sized particles, which could be used to ... individual micron-sized particles. The new approach could one day be used in airports or other high-security venues as a highly ...
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equivalent size distribution of a collection of particles. Selecting the right technique is critical in obtaining reliable data ... For this reason, Micromeritics offers you six different particle size analyzer choices, each employing different analytical ... Particle Size Instruments - Group - There are numerous techniques by which to determine the quantity vs. ... Higher size resolution reveals information about the material that goes undetected with other laser particle sizing systems, ...
  • The Electrical Aerosol Analyzer (EAA) has been used to measure the particle size-distribution of the exhaust aerosol produced by five diesel cars under a variety of steady-state operating conditions. (
  • The LA-960 Particle Size Analyzer is uniquely capable of measuring from several millimeters down to the nanometer scale, making it the instrument of choice for many size reduction operations. (
  • The particle size analysis was performed using a HORIBA LA-910 laser diffraction analyzer. (
  • For this reason, Micromeritics offers you six different particle size analyzer choices, each employing different analytical techniques, to fit your application. (
  • The DLS Particle Size and Zeta Potential Analyzer is a user-friendly system for colloidal, nanoparticulate and macromoleculer characterization. (
  • The world's first laser diffraction particle size analyzer - the first-ever PSA - was invented in 1967. (
  • A particle size analyzer is an analytical instrument that measures, visualizes, and reports a particle size distribution for a given particle or droplet population. (
  • However, common sampling challenges, increasing pressure to expedite process development, and a higher demand for 'right first time' processes required the development of in situ particle size analyzer. (
  • ParticleTrack is an in situ particle size analyzer that uses Focus Beam Reflectance Measurement (FBRM) to determine particle size. (
  • The Mastersizer 3000 laser diffraction particle size analyzer delivers rapid, accurate particle size distributions for both wet and dry dispersions with the minimum of effort. (
  • Like the LS 13 320 , the XR particle size analyzer provides fast, accurate results, and helps you streamline workflows to optimize efficiency. (
  • The LS 13 320 XR is a particle sizing laser diffraction analyzer that distributes particles between 10 nm - 3,500 µm. (
  • February 14, 2012 - Cement producer Sacci is using an Insitec on-line laser diffraction particle size analyzer from Malvern Instruments at its site in Tavernola, Italy, for process control of the cement mill, to enhance product quality and reduce the time that operators spend on process control. (
  • In the past this control loop was driven by data measured in the laboratory using a Mastersizer 2000 laser diffraction particle size analyzer (Malvern Instruments). (
  • HORIBA analyzers cover a particle size range is from below 1 nanometer to 30 millimeters, at concentrations ranging from 1 ppm to 50 vol% with shape determination available starting at 1 micrometer. (
  • Laser diffraction analyzers by HORIBA are often the best choice of instruments to track size reduction operations, in particular when the processed material may be below 100nm. (
  • The HORIBA laser diffraction analyzers are uniquely capable of measuring from several millimeters down to the nanometer scale, making it the instrument of choice for many size reduction operations. (
  • The LS™ 13 320 MW is one of the most versatile and sophisticated laser diffraction particle size analyzers available today. (
  • Besides the determination of particle size, the Litesizer™ particle analyzers also offer other analysis options such as the determination of zeta potential, molecular mass, transmittance, and refractive index. (
  • PSA instruments are the only particle size analyzers that can be configured with fully integrated liquid and dry dispersion modes in one instrument. (
  • Engineered to withstand the rigors of the process environment, Insitec Wet particle size analyzers use laser diffraction technology to measure particles in the size range 0.1 to 2500 µm in emulsions, suspensions and slurries. (
  • Insitec Wet particle size analyzers deliver fully automated real-time - or manual at-line - size measurement of particulates in batch or continuous wet processes. (
  • This technology has been used by companies who supply the market with standards for calibrating laser particle analyzers and by law-enforcement agencies for use in fingerprint, hair and fiber analysis. (
  • This report studies the global Particle Size Analyzers Market over the forecast period of 2013 to 2018. (
  • Furthermore, based on the type of dispersion, the global Particle Size Analysis Market is segmented into wet particle size analyzers, dry particle size analyzers, and spray particle size analyzers. (
  • Based on the type of end users in the healthcare industry, the global Particle Size Analyzers Market is classified into pharmaceutical and biotechnology companies, clinical research organizations and referral laboratories, and academic institutions. (
  • A number of factors such as the increasing application of nanotechnology, geographic expansion of market players across the globe, and the presence of stringent regulatory guidelines to comply with good manufacturing practices for traditional industries (such as healthcare, chemicals, mining, and petroleum) are driving the growth of the global particle size analyzers market. (
  • On the other hand, factors such as high import duties on particle size analyzers in developing countries, high cost of analyzers, and lack of customer awareness are restricting the growth of the Particle Size Analyzers Market . (
  • A number of factors such as the gradual migration of pharmaceutical R&D and manufacturing activities from developed countries to Asian countries, and increasing industry standards in developing economies are stimulating the growth of the particle size analyzers market in the Asia-Pacific region. (
  • Anton Paar's particle size analyzers are fully ISO 13320 compliant to meet the requirements for traceable, accurate, and repeatable results. (
  • Particle size analyzers play an important role during process development and quality control of particle systems in order to develop efficient processes and achieve high final product quality. (
  • Traditionally, sampling and offline particle size analyzers (laser diffraction, dynamic light scattering, sedimentation, or sieve rest analysis) were used for product quality control. (
  • METTLER TOLEDO offers two different types of particles size analyzers. (
  • For this reason, Micromeritics offers six types of particle size analyzers, each employing different analytical techniques to accurately characterize particles across a variety of application types. (
  • However, the heavy import duties on particle size analyzers in developing countries and limitations in particle characterization range are the major factors that are expected to restrain the growth of this market during the forecast period. (
  • The significant growth of this segment is attributed to the advanced applications of these particle size analyzers and growing research activities in the field of nanotechnology. (
  • Moreover, government support for drug development, increasing number of biotechnology companies, continuous technological advancements by key players to provide novel particle size analysis technologies, a growing number of company initiatives to increase customer awareness about new analytical solutions available for particle characterization, and the rising number of conferences and events are further propelling the demand for particle size analyzers in the biopharmaceutical and drug discovery industries. (
  • The particle size measurement is typically achieved by means of devices called Particle Size Analyzers (PSA) which are based on different technologies, such as high definition image processing, analysis of Brownian motion, gravitational settling of the particle and light scattering (Rayleigh and Mie scattering) of the particles. (
  • While the above-mentioned techniques are best suited for measuring particles typically in the submicron region, particle size analyzers (PSAs) based on static light scattering or laser diffraction (LD) have become the most popular and widely used instruments for measuring particles from hundreds of nanometres to several millimeters. (
  • The instrument offers particle sizing, with high sensitivity, utilizing three light scattering measurement angles for truly unbiased measurement results. (
  • Allen, T. (1990) Particle Size Measurement . (
  • The size reduction unit operation is performed under set conditions or for a required time frame until a specified size is achieved, as determined by the measurement. (
  • This effect can be used to selectively exclude certain size fractions from measurement devices. (
  • Requiring only a small volume of sample for analysis, it provides the highest particle size measurement resolution of the techniques presented here. (
  • Unlike other measurement techniques, the electrical sensing zone method can size samples that have assorted optical properties, densities, colors, and shapes. (
  • The SediGraph III directly measures mass by x-ray absorption and determines particle size by direct measurement of settling velocity. (
  • The Litesizer and PSA series together cover the measurement of particle sizes from the lower nanometer to the millimeter range using different techniques. (
  • This test provides a measurement for Apolipoprotein B which helps carry and deliver LDL particles to the cells. (
  • While PSA 1090 has been designed with two lasers to resolve particles as small as 40 nanometers, PSA 1190 contains an additional third laser to cover the full measurement range of up to 2.5 millimeters. (
  • This paper will cover the importance of particle size measurements in various processes, different types of measurement methods, and the application of light scattering technology to size determinations in wet slurries and dry powders. (
  • Measurement of light scattering at 0 degrees by small particle. (
  • Probe-based instrument inserted directly into a process to study how particle size and count change over time with Focused Beam Reflectance Measurement (FBRM) technology. (
  • The method and the apparatus are especially useful for the measurement of the size distribution of small particles in optically opaque liquids. (
  • Pinhole is first proposed to replace standard particles and calibrate the measurement system, which can eliminate the influence of particle concentration. (
  • TSI serves fluid mechanics and particle diagnostics researchers with state of the art transducers, controls, software and complete measurement systems. (
  • An entry level system for the measurement of particle and molecular size at a 90 degree scattering angle using Dynamic Light Scattering, and molecular weight using Static Light Scattering. (
  • Size measurement from 0.3nm (diameter) to 5 microns using 90 degree scattering optics. (
  • Optical measurement procedures often are adapted to known compositions of particular matter or well suited for particle counting. (
  • Machine learning algorithms are used to increase the performance of particle size measurement. (
  • Our technologies enable the measurement of parameters such as particle size, shape and zeta potential, biomolecular interactions and stability, rheological properties, elemental concentrations and crystallographic structure. (
  • Archimedes uses the technique of resonant mass measurement to detect and accurately count and reliably measure their buoyant mass, dry mass and size. (
  • Particle size analysis, particle size measurement, or simply particle sizing is the collective name of the technical procedures, or laboratory techniques which determines the size range, and/or the average, or mean size of the particles in a powder or liquid sample. (
  • For submicron particle measurement, dynamic light scattering (DLS) has now become an industry standard technique. (
  • Using this series you can produce a practical measurement of the distribution of particle sizes in ceramic materials and bodies used in traditional ceramics (structural products industries, like brick, measure coarser particles than this, starting at perhaps 10 mesh and ending at 70). (
  • Little has been done with regard to the characterization of the crystalline silica content of specific particle sizes of mine-generated dust. (
  • Side by side they open up a wide range of possibilities for comprehensive particle characterization. (
  • The high frame rate and high resolution of the camera combined with a high-speed host computer enables the characterization of thousands of particles per second in real-time. (
  • Light scattering for particle characterization. (
  • Particle size analysis based on light scattering has widespread application in many fields, as it allows relatively easy optical characterization of samples enabling improved quality control of products in many industries including pharmaceutical, food, cosmetic, polymer production. (
  • Recent years have seen many advancements in light scattering technologies for particle characterization. (
  • Dust size distributions were characterized via aerodynamic and scanning mobility particle sizers (APS, SMPS) and gravimetrically via the MOUDI. (
  • Results indicate that silica does not comprise a uniform proportion of total dust across all particle sizes and that the size distributions of a given dust and its silica component are similar but not equivalent. (
  • The size distributions found for radon daughters were log normal. (
  • A study of particle size distributions. (
  • This flyer explains the many reasons why your next dynamic light scattering (DLS) system should be a Nicomp® DLS system, such as the nano-sized particle measurements from 0.3 nm to 10 μm, and the proprietary high resolution multimodal deconvolution algorithm that can resolve close bimodal distributions. (
  • Tyler Carson , Tyler Carson, Charles M. Bachmann , Charles M. Bachmann, Carl Salvaggio , Carl Salvaggio, } "Soil signature simulation of complex mixtures and particle size distributions," Optical Engineering 54(9), 094103 (10 September 2015). (
  • In order to improve estimates of the contribution of primary sources to the particle number and mass concentrations, we performed source apportionment analyses using both chemical fingerprints and particle size distributions measured at the same site in urban Beijing from April to July 2018. (
  • Experimental investigation on optical constants of aerosol particles. (
  • Aerosol neutralizers are an essential piece of many aerosol research studies because aerosol particles dispersed by nebulization, combustion, or powder dispersion are usually electrostatically charged. (
  • production of primary aerosol particles in the high Arctic region during summers 2. (
  • With porous building blocks, controlling the link between porosity, particle size and mechanical properties is essential to the integrity of the system for any application," Shahsavari said. (
  • Continuous particle size distribution of ordered particle sizing systems is employed primarily in advanced castables due to the many advantage such as reducing the water demand, imparting desired rheological characteristics (such as vibratory/thixotropic flow or free flow/self-leveling behavior), minimizing porosity, and maximizing particle contact for enhanced bonding and optimum strength development. (
  • By varying the sample height, and hence the "porosity" of the bed, average surface area and particle size can be determined as a function of pressure rop and flow rate in accordance with the Carmen equation. (
  • Using these tools, the geometry, radiometry, and chemistry of quartz and magnetite were exploited to model the presence of particle size and porosity effects in the visible and the shortwave infrared spectrum. (
  • With the particle model, the real changes to particle porosity, surface area, and pore size are accounted for, which influence the role of transport resistance on the performance. (
  • Many particle size measurements are made to track size reduction operations such as milling, mixing, homogenizing, etc. (
  • Besides particle sizing, the 90Plus is also upgradeable to perform zeta potential measurements to enable you to better understand colloidal behavior. (
  • Retrieved on February 27, 2021 from (
  • There are several blood tests available which will provide information on LDL particle size as well as more traditional cholesterol measurements. (
  • Simultaneously, measurements were made of uncombined fractions of radon daughters, radon concentration, working level and particle concentration. (
  • Measuring over the nanometer to millimeter particle size ranges, it packs exceptional performance into the smallest of footprints, bringing operator-independent measurements that every user can rely on. (
  • The study demonstrated that by combining realistic target geometry and spectral measurements of pure quartz and magnetite, effects of soil particle size and density could be modeled without functional data fitting or rigorous analysis of material dynamics. (
  • The LS 13 320 XR offers best-in-class particle size distribution data from advanced PIDS technology ,* which enables high-resolution measurements and an expanded dynamic range. (
  • Dynamic light Scattering offers a quick and easy way of determining the effective diameter of iron oxide nanoparticles and an autotitrator can help automate the process of detecting changes in particle size as a function of pH. (
  • Magnetic particle imaging (MPI) is a powerful new research and diagnostic imaging platform that is designed to image the amount and location of superparamagnetic nanoparticles in biological tissue. (
  • Rice University materials scientists tested structures made of calcium-silicate nanoparticles and found that particles go from brittle to ductile as they increase in size. (
  • This application note describes the properties of gold nanoparticles and the most popular analytical techniques available for particle size and zeta potential analysis. (
  • In collaboration with the FDA and University of Maryland scientists, the biocompatibility of photoluminescent silicon nanoparticles (3.0 ± 0.1 nm) and silicon microparticles (100~3000 nm) was tested with murine macrophage cell line RAW 264.7 using standard protocols for micron sized particles to measure cytotoxicity and inflammatory responses. (
  • Technology is now available to produce nanoparticles of uniform size and shape which may allow their use in a wide range of applications from drug delivery to water purification. (
  • The size and surface charge of nanoparticles enable them to access cellular membranes, where larger particles may be blocked. (
  • Production and use of nanoparticles less than 100 nm in diameter may result in unknown risks since the exposure of biological systems to novel materials of this size has not been adequately studied. (
  • ASTM has developed the first standard test method for biological responses specific to nanoparticles to particles in vitro, using murine macrophages, cells important in the inflammatory process. (
  • Since the use of 1-100 nm nanoparticles may result in unknown biological risks and no clear confirmation exists to show that established standard test protocols for larger particles are appropriate, it is important to develop reliable methods to study the potential cytotoxicity and inflammatory response of nano sized particles in vitro and in vivo. (
  • Determine the biocompatibility of photoluminescent silicon nanoparticles using standard protocols to measure cytotoxicity and inflammatory responses for micron sized particles with murine macrophage cell line RAW 264.7. (
  • The present invention provides compositions comprising particles or agglomerates of one or more phosphorus oxide telomer or cotelomer ((co)telomer) of one or more unsaturated carboxylic acids or anhydrides having a mean average particle size of from 2 μm to 1 mm, preferably from 5 to 500 μm, preferably, comprising at least one carboxylic acid anhydride group. (
  • 1. A composition comprising particles or agglomerates of one or more phosphorus oxide telomer or cotelomer ((co)telomer) of one or more unsaturated carboxylic acids or anhydrides having a mean average particle size of from 2 μm to 1 mm. (
  • 2. The composition as claimed in claim 1, wherein the average particle size ranges from 5 μm up to 700 μm. (
  • There is often a need for a certain average particle size for the ensemble of particles. (
  • 1. A composition comprising a material having an average particle size of less than about 100 nm wherein the material, when heated to 700 C. for at least about 10 min, retains an average surface area of at least about 100 m 2 /g, the material comprising barium hexaaluminate. (
  • Lips, A., Hart, P.M. and Evans, I.D. (1992) Use of low angle laser light scattering in characterisation of non-spherical particles and swelling of microgel particles. (
  • The researchers plan to test their microscope on additional materials, including particles that are not spherical in shape. (
  • The particles are considered to be spherical and a particle diameter can be determined from volume. (
  • Stokes' law relates these velocities to particle diameters for spherical particles. (
  • Non-spherical particles are measured in terms of the diameter of a sphere of the same material that settles at the same velocity in the same suspension liquid. (
  • The particle size of a spherical object can be unambiguously and quantitatively defined by its diameter. (
  • The above quantitative definition of particle size cannot be applied to non-spherical particles. (
  • There are several ways of extending the above quantitative definition to apply to non-spherical particles. (
  • The discontinuous phase constitutes a substantially spherical regime which can potentially serve to control particle size. (
  • WASHINGTON--( BUSINESS WIRE )--Researchers have developed a microscope that can chemically identify individual micron-sized particles. (
  • Researchers at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) have built a portable yet powerful microscope capable of chemically identifying individual micron-sized particles. (
  • In all methods the size is an indirect measure, obtained by a model that transforms, in abstract way, the real particle shape into a simple and standardized shape, like a sphere (the most usual) or a cuboid (when minimum bounding box is used), where the size parameter (ex. (
  • Ormantine now offers Air Particle Counters for real time and logged monitoring of PM 0.5, PM 1.0, PM 2.5, and PM 5.0. (
  • This size selector was designed to be used with instruments such as Condensation Particle Counters (CPCs) to measure differences between defined particle size ranges. (
  • Whether testing for particle size, count, or composition, it is imperative to use reliable particle suspensions to calibrate your surface scanning equipment or particle counters. (
  • Come see TSI airborne particle counters and software. (
  • Depending on the size of particles and whether you are measuring your sample in liquid or dry dispersion, either laser diffraction (LD) or dynamic light scattering (DLS) is the technique of choice. (
  • The zeta potential indicates the degree of repulsion between adjacent, similarly charged particles (e.g., the vitamins) in a dispersion. (
  • For molecules and particles that are small enough, a high zeta potential will confer stability, i.e., the solution or dispersion will resist aggregation. (
  • Dry Jet Dispersion (DJD) technology is Anton Paar's patented technique (FR2933314) for efficiently dispersing and precisely analyzing powder particles. (
  • 1.2 The procedure described in this test method may be applied successfully to other ceramic powders in this general size range, provided that appropriate dispersion procedures are developed. (
  • In particular, the relatively recently developed solution-enhanced dispersion by supercritical fluids (SEDS) technology has been employed in the preparation of particles/powders. (
  • However, the more grinding that takes place, the more fine particles are produced and, depending on the requirements of the process, it is usually necessary to separate these out to ensure a uniform particle size . (
  • The term colloid (KOL' OID) refers to a substance that consists of ultra-fine particles that are suspended in a medium of different matter (i,e. a non-soluble mineral suspended in water). (
  • Air Products' cryogenic grinding solutions can help you achieve the highest yield of very fine particles and most uniform particle distribution while maximising production rates and minimising overall operational costs. (
  • Cryogenic grinding uses the extremely cold temperature of liquid nitrogen to embrittle materials before grinding them to deliver fine particles. (
  • Particle size -specific samples were collected for gravimetric analysis and for quantification of silica using the Microorifice Uniform Deposit Impactor (MOUDI). (
  • Particle size analysis. (
  • The NanoBrook Omni instrument offers a single powerful and accurate solution for particle sizing and zeta potential analysis. (
  • The choice of particle size analysis technique can be based on the size distribution of the input, output, or both. (
  • Laser diffraction is the most common analysis technique for monitoring size reduction operations due to its very broad dynamic range. (
  • Its state-of-the-art, laser-based technology permits analysis of particles without the risk of missing either the largest or the smallest particles in a sample. (
  • Reproducibility is one of the most important factors in laser diffraction particle size analysis. (
  • The slight heating of the particles doesn't impart any permanent changes to the material, making the technique ideal for non-destructive analysis. (
  • Traditionally, the PSD curve was generated by hand from limited data of particle size analysis, which is subjective and may lead to significant uncertainty in the freehand PSD curve and graphically estimated cumulative particle percentages. (
  • The proposed log-cubic method provides an objective and reliable way to generate a PSD curve from limited soil particle analysis data. (
  • What is more, these textural fractions are more readily available from particle size analysis or existing soil database, so they are usually taken as main inputs to estimate other soil properties difficult to obtain, such as hydraulic properties [ 3 - 5 ] and soil erodibility factor [ 6 , 7 ]. (
  • In the practice of particle size analysis, only limited data of cumulative particle percentage versus particle size are available. (
  • EasyViewer is an in situ video microscope that uses advanced image analysis to determine particles size. (
  • The particle number and size distribution are crucial metrics for toxicological analysis and aerosol-cloud interactions. (
  • It is followed by market introduction, market dynamics, and an overview of the global linear particle accelerators market, which includes TMR's analysis of market drivers, restraints, and trends pertaining to the market. (
  • Furthermore, the Y-o-Y growth analysis with elaborate insights has been provided in order to understand the Y-o-Y growth trends of the global linear particle accelerators market. (
  • 156 Pages Report] The global particle size analysis market size is projected to grow from an estimated USD 356 million in 2020 to USD 465 million by 2025, at a CAGR of 5.5% during the forecast period. (
  • The healthcare industry segment accounted for the largest share of the particle size analysis market, by end user, in 2019. (
  • The Asia Pacific is a major revenue-generating region in the particle size analysis industry. (
  • Factors such as increasing awareness of nanotechnology, the presence of key nanotechnology market players, implementation of government reforms & regulations to improve product quality, high quality in industry standards, and the gradual movement of manufacturing activities and pharmaceutical R&D from developed markets to Asian markets are propelling the growth of the APAC particle size analysis market. (
  • An analysis of the market developments between 2017 and 2020 revealed that several growth strategies such as product launches & enhancements, partnerships, and strategic acquisitions were adopted by market players to strengthen their product portfolios and maintain a competitive position in the particle size analysis market. (
  • Malvern Panalytical (UK) held the leading position in the global particle size analysis market in 2019. (
  • The company offers a wide portfolio of particle size analysis technologies that cater to the demands of various industries, including pharmaceuticals, biopharmaceuticals, cement, plastics & polymers, energy & environment, and chemicals. (
  • Malvern Insitec systems deliver the online continuous particle size analysis needed for efficient, cost-effective monitoring and control of industrial processes. (
  • Technology such as dynamic image analysis (DIA) can make particle size distribution analyses much easier. (
  • This line of research can yield low-cost and real time particle size analysis. (
  • Typically used in sieve analysis, as shape hypothesis (sieve's mesh size as the sphere diameter). (
  • There is an international standard on presenting various characteristic particle sizes, the ISO 9276 (Representation of results of particle size analysis). (
  • Some big improvements help you reliably spot small differences that can have a huge impact on your particle analysis data. (
  • Particle Size and Shape Analysis, Zeta Potential and NIR-Chemical Imaging. (
  • This large collection of reports assists organizations in decision-making on aspects such as market entry strategies, market sizing, market share analysis, competitive analysis, product portfolio analysis and opportunity analysis among others. (
  • Particle size analysis is part of particle science, and its determination is carried out generally in particle technology laboratories. (
  • Other scattering techniques have emerged, such as nanoparticle tracking analysis (NTA), which tracks individual particle movement through scattering using image recording. (
  • Experience has shown that this test method is satisfactory for the analysis of silicon carbide, silicon nitride, and zirconium oxide in the size range of 0.1 up to 50 µm. (
  • Particle size distribution analysis for particles settling with a larger Reynolds number may be incorrect due to turbulent flow. (
  • Particles of 100 mesh or finer do not generally have a noticeable texture (they feel smooth) but are easily detected by a sieve analysis. (
  • Following previous work on self-healing materials using porous building blocks, Rice materials scientist Rouzbeh Shahsavari and graduate student Sung Hoon Hwang made a wide range of porous particles between 150 and 550 nanometers in diameter -- thousands of times smaller than the thickness of a sheet of paper -- with pores about the width of a strand of DNA. (
  • This, Shahsavari said, was clear evidence of an intrinsic size effect where particles between 300 and 500 nanometers went from brittle to ductile, or pliable, even though they all had the same small pores that were 2 to 4 nanometers. (
  • They found films made of larger particles approaching 500 nanometers were much tougher and the films and pellets less prone to cracking under pressure. (
  • A large portion of the diverse realm of nanotechnology is the manipulation of matter on the atomic scale, with at least one dimension sized from 1 to 100 nanometers (nm). (
  • This means that larger submicron calcium-silicate particles are tougher and more flexible compared with smaller ones, making them more damage-tolerant," he said. (
  • Sung Hoon Hwang et al, Intrinsic size-effect in scaffolded porous calcium silicate particles and mechanical behavior of their self-assembled ensembles, ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces (2017). (
  • Anton Paar offers two different technologies to characterize particles from the nanometer to the millimeter range. (
  • The PSA series uses laser diffraction technology to measure the size of particles in both liquid dispersions and dry powders in the micro and millimeter range. (
  • LD and the PSA instruments are used for analyzing particles ranging up to the millimeter sizes in liquid or dry dispersions. (
  • With the laser diffraction technology of the PSA series you can determine the particle size and particle size distribution of both - liquid dispersions and dry powders from the nanometer up to the millimeter range. (
  • Picturing obtained by one of the Sentinel-1A's onboard cameras, showing the solar array before and after the impact of a millimeter-size particle on the second panel. (
  • Such hits, caused by particles of millimeter size, are not unexpected. (
  • The Particle Size Selector (PSS) Model 376060 allows you to control the lower detection limit of a TSI Condensation Particle Counter (CPC). (
  • In this work, we found there is a brittle-to-ductile transition when increasing the particle size while keeping the pore size constant. (
  • For all test fuels, the particle number and size distribution show unimodal or bimodal log-normal distribution, with a nucleation mode peak value in 6.04nm to 10.8nm particle diameter, and with an accumulation mode peak value in 39.2nm to 60.4nm particle diameter. (
  • The sizes of a particle, determined by the smallest dimension, for instance a diameter. (
  • Processing steps as diverse as crystallization, grinding, emulsification, and atomization, produce particles in the size range .1 to 1000 micrometers in diameter. (
  • The global aviation emitted BC particles follow a lognormal distribution with a geometric mean diameter (GMD) of 31.99 ± 0.8 nm and a geometric standard deviation (GSD) of 1.85 ± 0.016. (
  • Volume-based particle size Volume-based particle size equals the diameter of the sphere that has the same volume as a given particle. (
  • D = 2 3 V 4 π 3 {\displaystyle D=2{\sqrt[{3}]{\frac {3V}{4\pi }}}} where D {\displaystyle D} : diameter of representative sphere V {\displaystyle V} : volume of particle Area-based particle size Area-based particle size equals the diameter of the sphere that has the same surface area as a given particle. (
  • D = 4 A π 2 {\displaystyle D={\sqrt[{2}]{\frac {4A}{\pi }}}} where D {\displaystyle D} : diameter of representative sphere A {\displaystyle A} : surface area of particle In some measures the size (a length dimension in the expression) can't be obtained, only calculated as a function of another dimensions and parameters. (
  • Weight-based (spheroidal) particle size Weight-based particle size equals the diameter of the sphere that has the same weight as a given particle. (
  • D = 2 3 W 4 π d g 3 {\displaystyle D=2{\sqrt[{3}]{\frac {3W}{4\pi dg}}}} where D {\displaystyle D} : diameter of representative sphere W {\displaystyle W} : weight of particle d {\displaystyle d} : density of particle g {\displaystyle g} : gravitational constant Aerodynamic particle size Hydrodynamic or aerodynamic particle size equals the diameter of the sphere that has the same drag coefficient as a given particle. (
  • This process is the only known method to create a truly homogeneous (evenly distributed) solution, containing super-fine silver particles in the range of 0.005 - 0.015 microns in diameter, suspended in water, without the need of any chemical, stabilizer, dye, or other ingredient. (
  • The particles in a colloid are typically 0.01 to 0.001 of a micron in diameter, or about four hundred thousandths to four millionths of an inch. (
  • The proper electrical process allows silver particles to be drawn off the ingot that are much smaller than four one-thousandths of an inch diameter. (
  • If the silver particles are within the range of four one-hundred-thousands to four one-millionths of an inch in diameter, and are uniformly charged, a stabilizer is not required to keep the particles suspended. (
  • This paper describes a pilot study of chloride, nitrate, and sulphate content in thoracic and highrisk respirable fractions of airborne particles. (
  • The mineral component of a soil is composed of different sized fractions. (
  • Particles possessing diameters of 2-3 microm exhibited maximal phagocytosis and attachment. (
  • The notion of particle size applies to colloidal particles, particles in ecology, particles present in granular material (whether airborne or not), and particles that form a granular material (see also grain size). (
  • Color - Dark brown to blackTexture or particle size - Fine texture, particles smaller than 1/2 inch for incorporation, smaller than 1/8 for topdres. (
  • Smaller particle sizes and hence less mass were observed by a gas turbine equipped ship compared to diesel engine equipped ships. (
  • C. grandis preferred smaller particles in the 16- to 32-m size range relative to larger particles. (
  • With the biodiesel blend ratios increasing, the number of nucleation mode particles increases and the particle size at peak value also gets larger, and the number of accumulation mode particles decreases and the particle size at peak value gets smaller, and the total particle number ascend at most engine operating conditions. (
  • Smaller denser LDL particles are more likely to stick to the walls of arteries and form plaque. (
  • Smaller particles enable the compost to heat more evenly, and to withstand excessive drying at the surface. (
  • Grain particle sizes in meal diets greater than 600 microns will reduce the digestibility of nutrients and grain particle sizes smaller than 500 microns will decrease feed intake (4) . (
  • Typically, the smaller the particle, the further down the respiratory system it travels, and the faster it is absorbed. (
  • Char in larger particle sizes (250 to 2000 µm) will be more physically and chemically stable than char in smaller particle sizes (63 to 250 µm) because of the decrease in surface area. (
  • For large orders, please be aware that if you require a smaller 7.5 tonne lorry, the maximum weight for pallets is 750 kg - otherwise the standard pallet size limit of 1000 kg applies. (
  • The smaller the particle is, the larger the scattering angle of the laser beam is. (
  • 1.4 In cases where the gradation of particles smaller than No. 200 (75-m) sieve is required, Test Method D 422 may be used. (
  • The present invention relates to a method of producing particles having a particle size of less than 100 nm and surface areas of at least 20 m2/g where the particles are free from agglomeration. (
  • As experimental conditions vary, particles, particle structures and droplets can be monitored continuously, providing the evidence required to deliver consistent particles with the required attributes. (
  • Probe-based imaging tool that captures high-resolution images of crystals, particles and droplets as they exist in process. (
  • Particle size is a notion introduced for comparing dimensions of solid particles (flecks), liquid particles (droplets), or gaseous particles (bubbles). (
  • The world's first purpose-designed-and-built ultrafine particle monitoring system, the UFP Monitor is providing a continuous record of number concentration and particle size of these potentially toxic ultrafine particles before and during the Olympic Games. (
  • Other drying technologies require further sample processing like grinding and filtering, which produce irregular particle sizes, but laboratory spray drying produces more uniform particle sizes and better consistency. (
  • This kind of downward particle transport is difficult to observe in the laboratory or in the field but it has important consequences for bioturbation rates and sediment geochemistry. (
  • Laboratory observations indicated that a large cirratulid polychaete, Cirriformia grandis , collected particles (glass beads) near the sediment surface and deposited them at depth. (
  • TRB's National Cooperative Highway Research Program (NCHRP) Research Results Digest 382: Measuring Cement Particle Size and Surface Area by Laser Diffraction evaluates the practicality and effectiveness of the laser diffraction method to measure the particle size distribution and total surface area of cement powder. (
  • HOUSTON -- (Dec. 18, 2017) -- Porous particles of calcium and silicate show potential as building blocks for a host of applications like self-healing materials, bone-tissue engineering, drug delivery, insulation, ceramics and construction materials, according to Rice University engineers who decided to see how well they perform at the nanoscale. (
  • CONTAINED IN VOL. 15.01, 2017 Defines the determination of particle size distribution of advanced ceramic powders. (
  • Insitec systems measure particles in the size range 0.1 micron to 2.5 mm. (
  • Before we installed the Insitec we relied on off-line particle size data to control the milling circuit," observed Alessandro Mazzucċo, Plant Quality Manager. (
  • Zementwerk Berlin is using Malvern Instruments‚Äô Insitec on-line particle sizing systems to efficiently manufacture high performance, ‚Äòenvironmentally friendly‚Äô slag cements. (
  • This test method is useful to both suppliers and users of powders, as outlined in 1.1 and 1.2, in determining particle size distribution for product specifications, manufacturing control, development, and research. (
  • The specific surface area of particles has a significant impact on the physical properties of powders and has been the focus of much attention from pharmaceutical, paint, toner, and geological applications. (
  • The size distribution of dry powders is often difficult to measure because the particles tend to agglomerate, which falsifies the results. (
  • 1.1 This test method covers the determination of particle size distribution of advanced ceramic powders. (
  • These systems range from proteins and polymers in solution, particle and nanoparticle suspensions and emulsions, through to sprays and aerosols, industrial bulk powders and high concentration slurries. (
  • The production of metal powders by water atomisation is a well established process, which can be used to produce a wide range of particle sizes. (
  • A careful control of the particle size distribution is necessary, to atomise powders with a high quality and at a low production cost. (
  • At center and right, large particles did not crack under pressure. (
  • For example, DLS is a low-resolution method that is not suitable for measuring polydisperse samples, while the presence of large particles can affect the size accuracy. (
  • Some materials covered by this test method may settle in water with a Reynolds number greater than 0.3 if large particles are present. (
  • A method for measuring particle size using the apparatus described herein is also disclosed. (
  • Since many foods, spices and flavourings are prepared or used in a finely divided powder form, it is hardly surprising that the study of particle size distribution has been important to the food processing industry. (
  • The specification indicates the allowed proportion of particles of various sizes in the powder. (
  • Understanding the theory behind sieve selection, how to properly sample a powder and how to carry out a particle size distribution test can give you valuable information about a material. (
  • A conversion device, such as a computer, may receive the output from the charge-measuring device and convert measured individual particle charge data to a particle surface area distribution. (
  • Each individual particle is counted and classified according to volume, thus producing a volume frequency distribution. (
  • Each individual particle is counted and classified according to volume to define the sample's volume frequency distribution of particles. (
  • This technology is also commonly used to reduce the droplet size distribution of emulsions. (
  • Typical techniques to synthesize these particles include sol-gel processing and emulsions. (
  • Emulsions present a unique method to prepare nanometer-sized particles. (
  • The report provides the revenue of the global linear particle accelerators market for the period from 2018 to 2030, considering 2019 as the base year and 2030 as the forecast year. (
  • The Global Embolization Particle Market report 2018 contains an entire item review and its degree in the market to characterize the key terms and give the customers an all-encompassing thought of the market and its propensities. (
  • The new ParticleTrack G600B with FBRM technology allows scientists to track changing particle size and count in real time at full process concentrations. (
  • Although secondary particulate matter is reported to be the main contributor of PM 2.5 during haze in Chinese megacities, primary particle emissions also affect particle concentrations. (
  • One method for particle size reduction is the use of Microfluidizers ® which expose the material to consistent shear levels using a unique fixed-geometry interaction chamber (see ). (
  • One common use of a Microfluidizer ® is particle size reduction of an active pharmaceutical ingredient (API). (
  • Research has shown that for every 100 micron reduction in grain particle size, feed efficiency improves 1.0 to 1.2 per cent. (
  • The results show that gamma-ray attenuation coefficient is inversely proportional with the size of Pb particle size due to the reduction of the spaces between the lead particles. (
  • Particle size reduction is an important part of pharmaceutical production. (
  • To put us on your bid list for nitrogen supply or speak with a specialist regarding your size reduction needs, contact us at the office nearest your location. (
  • It is also worth to explore the change in particle morphology over many reduction and oxygen cycles in CLC and CLR. (
  • A kinetic scheme that combines the simultaneous reduction of NiO and NiAl 2 O 4 is used in the particle model. (
  • Dynamic Light Scattering (DLS) principle can be used to determine the size distribution profile of small particles in suspension or polymers in solution. (
  • Dynamic Light Scattering is used to measure particle and molecule size. (
  • Our Nicomp® DLS (dynamic light scattering) system is well suited for making the mean size and zeta potential measure-ments of submicron abrasives. (
  • Video introduction of our Nicomp® DLS systems that use dynamic light scattering (DLS) technology to provide high sensitivity, high resolution size, and zeta potential of sub-micron particles. (
  • Nanometer-sized particles have a wide variety of applications including the areas of magnetic materials, heterogeneous catalysts, toner compositions, and ceramics. (
  • We recommend the new Silvonic Pro automatic shut-off Colloidal Silver Generator, the most advanced on the market for making nano-sized Ionic Colloidal Silver. (
  • The new technique works by illuminating particles with both an infrared laser and a green laser. (
  • The infrared laser deposits energy into the particles, causing them to heat up and expand. (
  • The green laser light is then scattered by these heated particles. (
  • The instrument can be used to identify the material composition of individual particles by tuning the infrared laser to different wavelengths and collecting the visible scattered light at each wavelength. (
  • A more powerful infrared laser enables us to interrogate larger areas in the same amount of time, allowing more particles to be probed simultaneously. (
  • Researchers at Northwestern University have developed a laser the size of a virus particle that can operate at room temperature. (
  • The multi-laser technology provides an extensive range of measurable particle sizes. (
  • These instruments employ laser illumination of a flowing stream of particles, producing Fraunhofer diffraction patterns which are processed both optically and electronically with unique, proprietary techniques. (
  • There are several methods to determine Aerodynamic Particle Size Distribution (APSD), such as laser diffraction and time of flight, but the most common industry-accepted practice is using cascade impactors. (
  • This method analyzes the fluctuations of scattered light by particles in suspension when illuminated with a laser to determine the velocity of the Brownian motion, which can then be used to obtain the hydrodynamic size of particles using the Stokes-Einstein relationship. (
  • In LD PSAs, a laser beam is used to irradiate a dilute suspension of particles. (
  • Absorption of the pump laser by the particles results in direct modulation of the scatter field of the probe laser. (
  • Typically, the grain particle size recommended for the nursery phase is 500 to 600 microns for mash diets and, approximately, 400 microns for pelleted diets. (
  • 1.5 Typically, if the maximum particle size is equal to or less than the 4.75 mm (No. 4 sieve), then single-set sieving is applicable. (
  • 1.9 This test method typically requires two or three days to complete, depending on the type and size of the sample and soil type. (
  • Here, we present mathematical modeling results that show how MPI sensitivity and spatial resolution both depend on the size of the nanoparticle core and its other physical properties, and how imaging performance can be effectively optimized through rational core design. (
  • To determine concentration and proper synthesis for effective lipid nanoparticle delivery, quantitation and sizing are required. (
  • Particle separation is of great interest in many biological and biomedical applications. (
  • However, the main challenge with flow based particle separation systems is the need for a sheath flow for successful operation. (
  • In this paper, we present a microfluidic platform for sheathless particle separation using standing surface acoustic waves. (
  • The particles are then entered into the second stage where particles are driven towards the off-center pressure nodes for size based separation. (
  • Also, the effects of the input power, the flow rate, and particle concentration on the separation efficiency were investigated. (
  • Bohren, C.F. and Huffman, D.R. (1983) Absorption and Scattering of Light by Small Particles . (
  • Van de Hulst, H.C. (1957) Light Scattering By Small Particles . (
  • That would stand to reason, as clay soils are made up of very small particles and sandy soils have larger particles. (
  • Size‐resolved EFPN were peaking at small particle sizes ∼35 nm. (
  • For example, an early project looked at an electronic means of detecting when an unshreddable object has been fed into their Dragon Shredder, which is used to reduce a variety of waste residues to a small and uniform particle size . (
  • This increased resolution allows the new technique to distinguish and identify individual particles that are extremely small and close together. (
  • With engine load increasing, the total particle number has small change using the biodiesel blend ratios less than 10% v/v, and has continuous ascend using the biodiesel blend ratios more than 20% v/v. (
  • Studies on LDL particle size suggest that people with predominantly small dense LDL particles are three times more likely to suffer from heart disease than those whose LDL particles are larger and more buoyant. (
  • Results for this test break down a person's LDL particle density to determine whether they have more LDL particles which are small and dense or large and buoyant. (
  • They also indicated that the object's small size prevented them from advanced warning. (
  • In the small-angle forward scattering technique, an inversion method of particle size distribution (PSD) using artificial fish swarm algorithm (AFSA) is proposed, which can acquire optimal characteristic parameters of the PSD. (
  • Absorption and scattering of light by small particles. (
  • On the other hand, particles that are too small may be exhaled without impacting at all. (
  • At right, small particles are deformed after nanoindentation. (
  • When a particle becomes that small, the thickness of the interface layer becomes comparable with the particle size. (
  • The use of real-time particle size data to automate the milling circuit that produces finished cement has liberated operators to focus on higher value work. (
  • These benefits include lower noise, more uniform particle size , design flexibility and higher capacity. (
  • The Division's goal has been to put the yard waste and food scraps through a composting process that starts with achieving a uniform particle size thanks to the Vecoplan Hurricane 250 and VNZ 210 shredders. (
  • Special attention should be paid to the cutting angle of the knives and the screen used to ensure uniform particle size similar to that of virgin pellets. (
  • Cryogenic grinding with liquid nitrogen is an effective means of obtaining ultra-fine and uniform particle size, while improving product quality and stability as well as production rates. (
  • There was no consistent effect of speed on particle size in this group of cars, but there was a slight tendency toward larger particle sizes as the load increased. (
  • But they were surprised to find that when the same big particles were stacked, the size effect didn't carry over entirely to the larger structures. (
  • By attaching a particle size selector to the CPC inlet, the lower counting efficiency (D50%) can be moved to larger particle sizes, depending on the instrument's inlet flow and the number of diffusion screens used in the size selector. (
  • The larger particles are exposed to more lateral displacement in the channel due to the acoustic force differences. (
  • If you have excited states this size becomes somewhat larger. (
  • The best sized particles for composting are less than 2 inches in the largest dimension, but larger particles can be composted satisfactorily. (
  • Larger particles can be analyzed in dispersing media with viscosities greater than that for water. (
  • The researchers anticipate that further improvement in high-power wavelength-tunable quantum cascade lasers will allow them to image and analyze larger quantities of material and particles in the same amount of time. (
  • 1.3 In cases where the gradation of particles larger than 3 in. (
  • If you have polymers or proteins, nanodots or new adhesives, latexes or liposomes, cosmetics or colloids, the Testa Analytical NanoBrook 90Plus is a perfect tool to characterize your particles. (
  • They also want to test the new microscope using samples with interferents - substances whose presence interferes with an analytical procedure and generates incorrect results - to prove that the device indeed can distinguish between different particles. (
  • The thesis presents the results of studies of aerosol particle formation using ion and electron beam analytical techniques. (
  • A final goal of the project is to investigate the influence of the size and shape of particles on the bulk rheology of suspensions. (