Particle Size: Relating to the size of solids.Plasma: The residual portion of BLOOD that is left after removal of BLOOD CELLS by CENTRIFUGATION without prior BLOOD COAGULATION.Plasma Cells: Specialized forms of antibody-producing B-LYMPHOCYTES. They synthesize and secrete immunoglobulin. They are found only in lymphoid organs and at sites of immune responses and normally do not circulate in the blood or lymph. (Rosen et al., Dictionary of Immunology, 1989, p169 & Abbas et al., Cellular and Molecular Immunology, 2d ed, p20)Virion: The infective system of a virus, composed of the viral genome, a protein core, and a protein coat called a capsid, which may be naked or enclosed in a lipoprotein envelope called the peplos.Cell Membrane: The lipid- and protein-containing, selectively permeable membrane that surrounds the cytoplasm in prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells.Microscopy, Electron: Microscopy using an electron beam, instead of light, to visualize the sample, thereby allowing much greater magnification. The interactions of ELECTRONS with specimens are used to provide information about the fine structure of that specimen. In TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY the reactions of the electrons that are transmitted through the specimen are imaged. In SCANNING ELECTRON MICROSCOPY an electron beam falls at a non-normal angle on the specimen and the image is derived from the reactions occurring above the plane of the specimen.Plasma Gases: Ionized gases, consisting of free electrons and ionized atoms or molecules which collectively behave differently than gas, solid, or liquid. Plasma gases are used in biomedical fields in surface modification; biological decontamination; dentistry (e.g., PLASMA ARC DENTAL CURING LIGHTS); and in other treatments (e.g., ARGON PLASMA COAGULATION).Signal Recognition Particle: A cytosolic ribonucleoprotein complex that acts to induce elongation arrest of nascent presecretory and membrane proteins until the ribosome becomes associated with the rough endoplasmic reticulum. It consists of a 7S RNA and at least six polypeptide subunits (relative molecular masses 9, 14, 19, 54, 68, and 72K).Cell Line: Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.Nanoparticles: Nanometer-sized particles that are nanoscale in three dimensions. They include nanocrystaline materials; NANOCAPSULES; METAL NANOPARTICLES; DENDRIMERS, and QUANTUM DOTS. The uses of nanoparticles include DRUG DELIVERY SYSTEMS and cancer targeting and imaging.Virus Assembly: The assembly of VIRAL STRUCTURAL PROTEINS and nucleic acid (VIRAL DNA or VIRAL RNA) to form a VIRUS PARTICLE.Lipoproteins: Lipid-protein complexes involved in the transportation and metabolism of lipids in the body. They are spherical particles consisting of a hydrophobic core of TRIGLYCERIDES and CHOLESTEROL ESTERS surrounded by a layer of hydrophilic free CHOLESTEROL; PHOSPHOLIPIDS; and APOLIPOPROTEINS. Lipoproteins are classified by their varying buoyant density and sizes.Plasma Volume: Volume of PLASMA in the circulation. It is usually measured by INDICATOR DILUTION TECHNIQUES.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Lipoproteins, HDL: A class of lipoproteins of small size (4-13 nm) and dense (greater than 1.063 g/ml) particles. HDL lipoproteins, synthesized in the liver without a lipid core, accumulate cholesterol esters from peripheral tissues and transport them to the liver for re-utilization or elimination from the body (the reverse cholesterol transport). Their major protein component is APOLIPOPROTEIN A-I. HDL also shuttle APOLIPOPROTEINS C and APOLIPOPROTEINS E to and from triglyceride-rich lipoproteins during their catabolism. HDL plasma level has been inversely correlated with the risk of cardiovascular diseases.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Aerosols: Colloids with a gaseous dispersing phase and either liquid (fog) or solid (smoke) dispersed phase; used in fumigation or in inhalation therapy; may contain propellant agents.Cholesterol: The principal sterol of all higher animals, distributed in body tissues, especially the brain and spinal cord, and in animal fats and oils.Vaccines, Virus-Like Particle: Vaccines using supra-molecular structures composed of multiple copies of recombinantly expressed viral structural proteins. They are often antigentically indistinguishable from the virus from which they were derived.TriglyceridesLiver: A large lobed glandular organ in the abdomen of vertebrates that is responsible for detoxification, metabolism, synthesis and storage of various substances.Submitochondrial Particles: The various filaments, granules, tubules or other inclusions within mitochondria.Plasma Exchange: Removal of plasma and replacement with various fluids, e.g., fresh frozen plasma, plasma protein fractions (PPF), albumin preparations, dextran solutions, saline. Used in treatment of autoimmune diseases, immune complex diseases, diseases of excess plasma factors, and other conditions.Lipids: A generic term for fats and lipoids, the alcohol-ether-soluble constituents of protoplasm, which are insoluble in water. They comprise the fats, fatty oils, essential oils, waxes, phospholipids, glycolipids, sulfolipids, aminolipids, chromolipids (lipochromes), and fatty acids. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Centrifugation, Density Gradient: Separation of particles according to density by employing a gradient of varying densities. At equilibrium each particle settles in the gradient at a point equal to its density. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Apolipoprotein A-I: The most abundant protein component of HIGH DENSITY LIPOPROTEINS or HDL. This protein serves as an acceptor for CHOLESTEROL released from cells thus promoting efflux of cholesterol to HDL then to the LIVER for excretion from the body (reverse cholesterol transport). It also acts as a cofactor for LECITHIN CHOLESTEROL ACYLTRANSFERASE that forms CHOLESTEROL ESTERS on the HDL particles. Mutations of this gene APOA1 cause HDL deficiency, such as in FAMILIAL ALPHA LIPOPROTEIN DEFICIENCY DISEASE and in some patients with TANGIER DISEASE.Microspheres: Small uniformly-sized spherical particles, of micrometer dimensions, frequently labeled with radioisotopes or various reagents acting as tags or markers.Particulate Matter: Particles of any solid substance, generally under 30 microns in size, often noted as PM30. There is special concern with PM1 which can get down to PULMONARY ALVEOLI and induce MACROPHAGE ACTIVATION and PHAGOCYTOSIS leading to FOREIGN BODY REACTION and LUNG DISEASES.Amino Acid Sequence: The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.Lipoproteins, LDL: A class of lipoproteins of small size (18-25 nm) and light (1.019-1.063 g/ml) particles with a core composed mainly of CHOLESTEROL ESTERS and smaller amounts of TRIGLYCERIDES. The surface monolayer consists mostly of PHOSPHOLIPIDS, a single copy of APOLIPOPROTEIN B-100, and free cholesterol molecules. The main LDL function is to transport cholesterol and cholesterol esters to extrahepatic tissues.Freeze Fracturing: Preparation for electron microscopy of minute replicas of exposed surfaces of the cell which have been ruptured in the frozen state. The specimen is frozen, then cleaved under high vacuum at the same temperature. The exposed surface is shadowed with carbon and platinum and coated with carbon to obtain a carbon replica.Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid: Liquid chromatographic techniques which feature high inlet pressures, high sensitivity, and high speed.Capsid: The outer protein protective shell of a virus, which protects the viral nucleic acid.Colloids: Two-phase systems in which one is uniformly dispersed in another as particles small enough so they cannot be filtered or will not settle out. The dispersing or continuous phase or medium envelops the particles of the discontinuous phase. All three states of matter can form colloids among each other.Latex: A milky, product excreted from the latex canals of a variety of plant species that contain cauotchouc. Latex is composed of 25-35% caoutchouc, 60-75% water, 2% protein, 2% resin, 1.5% sugar & 1% ash. RUBBER is made by the removal of water from latex.(From Concise Encyclopedia Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 3rd ed). Hevein proteins are responsible for LATEX HYPERSENSITIVITY. Latexes are used as inert vehicles to carry antibodies or antigens in LATEX FIXATION TESTS.Alpha Particles: Positively charged particles composed of two protons and two NEUTRONS, i.e. equivalent to HELIUM nuclei, which are emitted during disintegration of heavy ISOTOPES. Alpha rays have very strong ionizing power, but weak penetrability.Apolipoproteins: Protein components on the surface of LIPOPROTEINS. They form a layer surrounding the hydrophobic lipid core. There are several classes of apolipoproteins with each playing a different role in lipid transport and LIPID METABOLISM. These proteins are synthesized mainly in the LIVER and the INTESTINES.Protein Binding: The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.Biological Transport: The movement of materials (including biochemical substances and drugs) through a biological system at the cellular level. The transport can be across cell membranes and epithelial layers. It also can occur within intracellular compartments and extracellular compartments.Capsid Proteins: Proteins that form the CAPSID of VIRUSES.Biological Markers: Measurable and quantifiable biological parameters (e.g., specific enzyme concentration, specific hormone concentration, specific gene phenotype distribution in a population, presence of biological substances) which serve as indices for health- and physiology-related assessments, such as disease risk, psychiatric disorders, environmental exposure and its effects, disease diagnosis, metabolic processes, substance abuse, pregnancy, cell line development, epidemiologic studies, etc.Silicon Dioxide: Transparent, tasteless crystals found in nature as agate, amethyst, chalcedony, cristobalite, flint, sand, QUARTZ, and tridymite. The compound is insoluble in water or acids except hydrofluoric acid.RNA, Viral: Ribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of viruses.Electrophoresis, Polyacrylamide Gel: Electrophoresis in which a polyacrylamide gel is used as the diffusion medium.Cells, Cultured: Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.Lipoproteins, VLDL: A class of lipoproteins of very light (0.93-1.006 g/ml) large size (30-80 nm) particles with a core composed mainly of TRIGLYCERIDES and a surface monolayer of PHOSPHOLIPIDS and CHOLESTEROL into which are imbedded the apolipoproteins B, E, and C. VLDL facilitates the transport of endogenously made triglycerides to extrahepatic tissues. As triglycerides and Apo C are removed, VLDL is converted to INTERMEDIATE-DENSITY LIPOPROTEINS, then to LOW-DENSITY LIPOPROTEINS from which cholesterol is delivered to the extrahepatic tissues.Microscopy, Electron, Scanning: Microscopy in which the object is examined directly by an electron beam scanning the specimen point-by-point. The image is constructed by detecting the products of specimen interactions that are projected above the plane of the sample, such as backscattered electrons. Although SCANNING TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY also scans the specimen point by point with the electron beam, the image is constructed by detecting the electrons, or their interaction products that are transmitted through the sample plane, so that is a form of TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY.Defective Viruses: Viruses which lack a complete genome so that they cannot completely replicate or cannot form a protein coat. Some are host-dependent defectives, meaning they can replicate only in cell systems which provide the particular genetic function which they lack. Others, called SATELLITE VIRUSES, are able to replicate only when their genetic defect is complemented by a helper virus.Polystyrenes: Polymerized forms of styrene used as a biocompatible material, especially in dentistry. They are thermoplastic and are used as insulators, for injection molding and casting, as sheets, plates, rods, rigid forms and beads.Inclusion Bodies, Viral: An area showing altered staining behavior in the nucleus or cytoplasm of a virus-infected cell. Some inclusion bodies represent "virus factories" in which viral nucleic acid or protein is being synthesized; others are merely artifacts of fixation and staining. One example, Negri bodies, are found in the cytoplasm or processes of nerve cells in animals that have died from rabies.Apolipoproteins B: Major structural proteins of triacylglycerol-rich LIPOPROTEINS. There are two forms, apolipoprotein B-100 and apolipoprotein B-48, both derived from a single gene. ApoB-100 expressed in the liver is found in low-density lipoproteins (LIPOPROTEINS, LDL; LIPOPROTEINS, VLDL). ApoB-48 expressed in the intestine is found in CHYLOMICRONS. They are important in the biosynthesis, transport, and metabolism of triacylglycerol-rich lipoproteins. Plasma Apo-B levels are high in atherosclerotic patients but non-detectable in ABETALIPOPROTEINEMIA.Models, Biological: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Air Pollutants: Any substance in the air which could, if present in high enough concentration, harm humans, animals, vegetation or material. Substances include GASES; PARTICULATE MATTER; and volatile ORGANIC CHEMICALS.Powders: Substances made up of an aggregation of small particles, as that obtained by grinding or trituration of a solid drug. In pharmacy it is a form in which substances are administered. (From Dorland, 28th ed)Virus Replication: The process of intracellular viral multiplication, consisting of the synthesis of PROTEINS; NUCLEIC ACIDS; and sometimes LIPIDS, and their assembly into a new infectious particle.Cattle: Domesticated bovine animals of the genus Bos, usually kept on a farm or ranch and used for the production of meat or dairy products or for heavy labor.Base Sequence: The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.Inhalation Exposure: The exposure to potentially harmful chemical, physical, or biological agents by inhaling them.Molecular Weight: The sum of the weight of all the atoms in a molecule.Membrane Proteins: Proteins which are found in membranes including cellular and intracellular membranes. They consist of two types, peripheral and integral proteins. They include most membrane-associated enzymes, antigenic proteins, transport proteins, and drug, hormone, and lectin receptors.Microscopy, Electron, Transmission: Electron microscopy in which the ELECTRONS or their reaction products that pass down through the specimen are imaged below the plane of the specimen.Blood Glucose: Glucose in blood.Vehicle Emissions: Gases, fumes, vapors, and odors escaping from the cylinders of a gasoline or diesel internal-combustion engine. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed & Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed)Surface Properties: Characteristics or attributes of the outer boundaries of objects, including molecules.Viral Proteins: Proteins found in any species of virus.Ribonucleoproteins: Complexes of RNA-binding proteins with ribonucleic acids (RNA).Rabbits: The species Oryctolagus cuniculus, in the family Leporidae, order LAGOMORPHA. Rabbits are born in burrows, furless, and with eyes and ears closed. In contrast with HARES, rabbits have 22 chromosome pairs.Dose-Response Relationship, Drug: The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.Radioimmunoassay: Classic quantitative assay for detection of antigen-antibody reactions using a radioactively labeled substance (radioligand) either directly or indirectly to measure the binding of the unlabeled substance to a specific antibody or other receptor system. Non-immunogenic substances (e.g., haptens) can be measured if coupled to larger carrier proteins (e.g., bovine gamma-globulin or human serum albumin) capable of inducing antibody formation.Mutation: Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.Phospholipids: Lipids containing one or more phosphate groups, particularly those derived from either glycerol (phosphoglycerides see GLYCEROPHOSPHOLIPIDS) or sphingosine (SPHINGOLIPIDS). They are polar lipids that are of great importance for the structure and function of cell membranes and are the most abundant of membrane lipids, although not stored in large amounts in the system.Virosomes: Semi-synthetic complex derived from nucleic-acid free viral particles. They are essentially reconstituted viral coats, where the infectious nucleocapsid is replaced by a compound of choice. Virosomes retain their fusogenic activity and thus deliver the incorporated compound (antigens, drugs, genes) inside the target cell. They can be used for vaccines (VACCINES, VIROSOME), drug delivery, or gene transfer.Platelet-Rich Plasma: A preparation consisting of PLATELETS concentrated in a limited volume of PLASMA. This is used in various surgical tissue regeneration procedures where the GROWTH FACTORS in the platelets enhance wound healing and regeneration.Kidney: Body organ that filters blood for the secretion of URINE and that regulates ion concentrations.Insulin: A 51-amino acid pancreatic hormone that plays a major role in the regulation of glucose metabolism, directly by suppressing endogenous glucose production (GLYCOGENOLYSIS; GLUCONEOGENESIS) and indirectly by suppressing GLUCAGON secretion and LIPOLYSIS. Native insulin is a globular protein comprised of a zinc-coordinated hexamer. Each insulin monomer containing two chains, A (21 residues) and B (30 residues), linked by two disulfide bonds. Insulin is used as a drug to control insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (DIABETES MELLITUS, TYPE 1).Cricetinae: A subfamily in the family MURIDAE, comprising the hamsters. Four of the more common genera are Cricetus, CRICETULUS; MESOCRICETUS; and PHODOPUS.Dogs: The domestic dog, Canis familiaris, comprising about 400 breeds, of the carnivore family CANIDAE. They are worldwide in distribution and live in association with people. (Walker's Mammals of the World, 5th ed, p1065)Carrier Proteins: Transport proteins that carry specific substances in the blood or across cell membranes.Gene Products, gag: Proteins coded by the retroviral gag gene. The products are usually synthesized as protein precursors or POLYPROTEINS, which are then cleaved by viral proteases to yield the final products. Many of the final products are associated with the nucleoprotein core of the virion. gag is short for group-specific antigen.HIV-1: The type species of LENTIVIRUS and the etiologic agent of AIDS. It is characterized by its cytopathic effect and affinity for the T4-lymphocyte.Hydrogen-Ion Concentration: The normality of a solution with respect to HYDROGEN ions; H+. It is related to acidity measurements in most cases by pH = log 1/2[1/(H+)], where (H+) is the hydrogen ion concentration in gram equivalents per liter of solution. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Erythrocytes: Red blood cells. Mature erythrocytes are non-nucleated, biconcave disks containing HEMOGLOBIN whose function is to transport OXYGEN.Cryoelectron Microscopy: Electron microscopy involving rapid freezing of the samples. The imaging of frozen-hydrated molecules and organelles permits the best possible resolution closest to the living state, free of chemical fixatives or stains.Reference Values: The range or frequency distribution of a measurement in a population (of organisms, organs or things) that has not been selected for the presence of disease or abnormality.Drug Carriers: Forms to which substances are incorporated to improve the delivery and the effectiveness of drugs. Drug carriers are used in drug-delivery systems such as the controlled-release technology to prolong in vivo drug actions, decrease drug metabolism, and reduce drug toxicity. Carriers are also used in designs to increase the effectiveness of drug delivery to the target sites of pharmacological actions. Liposomes, albumin microspheres, soluble synthetic polymers, DNA complexes, protein-drug conjugates, and carrier erythrocytes among others have been employed as biodegradable drug carriers.Viral Interference: A phenomenon in which infection by a first virus results in resistance of cells or tissues to infection by a second, unrelated virus.Temperature: The property of objects that determines the direction of heat flow when they are placed in direct thermal contact. The temperature is the energy of microscopic motions (vibrational and translational) of the particles of atoms.Apolipoproteins A: Structural proteins of the alpha-lipoproteins (HIGH DENSITY LIPOPROTEINS), including APOLIPOPROTEIN A-I and APOLIPOPROTEIN A-II. They can modulate the activity of LECITHIN CHOLESTEROL ACYLTRANSFERASE. These apolipoproteins are low in atherosclerotic patients. They are either absent or present in extremely low plasma concentration in TANGIER DISEASE.Freeze Etching: A replica technique in which cells are frozen to a very low temperature and cracked with a knife blade to expose the interior surfaces of the cells or cell membranes. The cracked cell surfaces are then freeze-dried to expose their constituents. The surfaces are now ready for shadowing to be viewed using an electron microscope. This method differs from freeze-fracturing in that no cryoprotectant is used and, thus, allows for the sublimation of water during the freeze-drying process to etch the surfaces.Phagocytosis: The engulfing and degradation of microorganisms; other cells that are dead, dying, or pathogenic; and foreign particles by phagocytic cells (PHAGOCYTES).Cholesterol, HDL: Cholesterol which is contained in or bound to high-density lipoproteins (HDL), including CHOLESTEROL ESTERS and free cholesterol.Cytoplasm: The part of a cell that contains the CYTOSOL and small structures excluding the CELL NUCLEUS; MITOCHONDRIA; and large VACUOLES. (Glick, Glossary of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 1990)Solubility: The ability of a substance to be dissolved, i.e. to form a solution with another substance. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Emulsions: Colloids formed by the combination of two immiscible liquids such as oil and water. Lipid-in-water emulsions are usually liquid, like milk or lotion. Water-in-lipid emulsions tend to be creams. The formation of emulsions may be aided by amphiphatic molecules that surround one component of the system to form MICELLES.Glycoproteins: Conjugated protein-carbohydrate compounds including mucins, mucoid, and amyloid glycoproteins.Microscopy, Fluorescence: Microscopy of specimens stained with fluorescent dye (usually fluorescein isothiocyanate) or of naturally fluorescent materials, which emit light when exposed to ultraviolet or blue light. Immunofluorescence microscopy utilizes antibodies that are labeled with fluorescent dye.DNA, Viral: Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of viruses.Recombinant Proteins: Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.Protein Transport: The process of moving proteins from one cellular compartment (including extracellular) to another by various sorting and transport mechanisms such as gated transport, protein translocation, and vesicular transport.Titanium: A dark-gray, metallic element of widespread distribution but occurring in small amounts; atomic number, 22; atomic weight, 47.90; symbol, Ti; specific gravity, 4.5; used for fixation of fractures. (Dorland, 28th ed)Cell Fractionation: Techniques to partition various components of the cell into SUBCELLULAR FRACTIONS.Metabolic Clearance Rate: Volume of biological fluid completely cleared of drug metabolites as measured in unit time. Elimination occurs as a result of metabolic processes in the kidney, liver, saliva, sweat, intestine, heart, brain, or other site.Microscopy, Immunoelectron: Microscopy in which the samples are first stained immunocytochemically and then examined using an electron microscope. Immunoelectron microscopy is used extensively in diagnostic virology as part of very sensitive immunoassays.Cholesterol Esters: Fatty acid esters of cholesterol which constitute about two-thirds of the cholesterol in the plasma. The accumulation of cholesterol esters in the arterial intima is a characteristic feature of atherosclerosis.Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay: An immunoassay utilizing an antibody labeled with an enzyme marker such as horseradish peroxidase. While either the enzyme or the antibody is bound to an immunosorbent substrate, they both retain their biologic activity; the change in enzyme activity as a result of the enzyme-antibody-antigen reaction is proportional to the concentration of the antigen and can be measured spectrophotometrically or with the naked eye. Many variations of the method have been developed.Ultracentrifugation: Centrifugation with a centrifuge that develops centrifugal fields of more than 100,000 times gravity. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Tissue Distribution: Accumulation of a drug or chemical substance in various organs (including those not relevant to its pharmacologic or therapeutic action). This distribution depends on the blood flow or perfusion rate of the organ, the ability of the drug to penetrate organ membranes, tissue specificity, protein binding. The distribution is usually expressed as tissue to plasma ratios.Endocytosis: Cellular uptake of extracellular materials within membrane-limited vacuoles or microvesicles. ENDOSOMES play a central role in endocytosis.Metal Nanoparticles: Nanoparticles produced from metals whose uses include biosensors, optics, and catalysts. In biomedical applications the particles frequently involve the noble metals, especially gold and silver.HeLa Cells: The first continuously cultured human malignant CELL LINE, derived from the cervical carcinoma of Henrietta Lacks. These cells are used for VIRUS CULTIVATION and antitumor drug screening assays.Swine: Any of various animals that constitute the family Suidae and comprise stout-bodied, short-legged omnivorous mammals with thick skin, usually covered with coarse bristles, a rather long mobile snout, and small tail. Included are the genera Babyrousa, Phacochoerus (wart hogs), and Sus, the latter containing the domestic pig (see SUS SCROFA).Apolipoprotein A-II: The second most abundant protein component of HIGH DENSITY LIPOPROTEINS or HDL. It has a high lipid affinity and is known to displace APOLIPOPROTEIN A-I from HDL particles and generates a stable HDL complex. ApoA-II can modulate the activation of LECITHIN CHOLESTEROL ACYLTRANSFERASE in the presence of APOLIPOPROTEIN A-I, thus affecting HDL metabolism.RNA, Messenger: RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.Rats, Sprague-Dawley: A strain of albino rat used widely for experimental purposes because of its calmness and ease of handling. It was developed by the Sprague-Dawley Animal Company.Fasting: Abstaining from all food.Osmolar Concentration: The concentration of osmotically active particles in solution expressed in terms of osmoles of solute per liter of solution. Osmolality is expressed in terms of osmoles of solute per kilogram of solvent.Area Under Curve: A statistical means of summarizing information from a series of measurements on one individual. It is frequently used in clinical pharmacology where the AUC from serum levels can be interpreted as the total uptake of whatever has been administered. As a plot of the concentration of a drug against time, after a single dose of medicine, producing a standard shape curve, it is a means of comparing the bioavailability of the same drug made by different companies. (From Winslade, Dictionary of Clinical Research, 1992)Chemistry, Pharmaceutical: Chemistry dealing with the composition and preparation of agents having PHARMACOLOGIC ACTIONS or diagnostic use.Recombinant Fusion Proteins: Recombinant proteins produced by the GENETIC TRANSLATION of fused genes formed by the combination of NUCLEIC ACID REGULATORY SEQUENCES of one or more genes with the protein coding sequences of one or more genes.Adsorption: The adhesion of gases, liquids, or dissolved solids onto a surface. It includes adsorptive phenomena of bacteria and viruses onto surfaces as well. ABSORPTION into the substance may follow but not necessarily.Leukemia, Plasma Cell: A rare, aggressive variant of MULTIPLE MYELOMA characterized by the circulation of excessive PLASMA CELLS in the peripheral blood. It can be a primary manifestation of multiple myeloma or develop as a terminal complication during the disease.Semen: The thick, yellowish-white, viscid fluid secretion of male reproductive organs discharged upon ejaculation. In addition to reproductive organ secretions, it contains SPERMATOZOA and their nutrient plasma.Homocysteine: A thiol-containing amino acid formed by a demethylation of METHIONINE.Apolipoproteins E: A class of protein components which can be found in several lipoproteins including HIGH-DENSITY LIPOPROTEINS; VERY-LOW-DENSITY LIPOPROTEINS; and CHYLOMICRONS. Synthesized in most organs, Apo E is important in the global transport of lipids and cholesterol throughout the body. Apo E is also a ligand for LDL receptors (RECEPTORS, LDL) that mediates the binding, internalization, and catabolism of lipoprotein particles in cells. There are several allelic isoforms (such as E2, E3, and E4). Deficiency or defects in Apo E are causes of HYPERLIPOPROTEINEMIA TYPE III.Cross-Over Studies: Studies comparing two or more treatments or interventions in which the subjects or patients, upon completion of the course of one treatment, are switched to another. In the case of two treatments, A and B, half the subjects are randomly allocated to receive these in the order A, B and half to receive them in the order B, A. A criticism of this design is that effects of the first treatment may carry over into the period when the second is given. (Last, A Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)Genetic Vectors: DNA molecules capable of autonomous replication within a host cell and into which other DNA sequences can be inserted and thus amplified. Many are derived from PLASMIDS; BACTERIOPHAGES; or VIRUSES. They are used for transporting foreign genes into recipient cells. Genetic vectors possess a functional replicator site and contain GENETIC MARKERS to facilitate their selective recognition.Lung: Either of the pair of organs occupying the cavity of the thorax that effect the aeration of the blood.Cercopithecus aethiops: A species of CERCOPITHECUS containing three subspecies: C. tantalus, C. pygerythrus, and C. sabeus. They are found in the forests and savannah of Africa. The African green monkey (C. pygerythrus) is the natural host of SIMIAN IMMUNODEFICIENCY VIRUS and is used in AIDS research.Rats, Inbred Strains: Genetically identical individuals developed from brother and sister matings which have been carried out for twenty or more generations or by parent x offspring matings carried out with certain restrictions. This also includes animals with a long history of closed colony breeding.Viral Envelope Proteins: Layers of protein which surround the capsid in animal viruses with tubular nucleocapsids. The envelope consists of an inner layer of lipids and virus specified proteins also called membrane or matrix proteins. The outer layer consists of one or more types of morphological subunits called peplomers which project from the viral envelope; this layer always consists of glycoproteins.Elementary Particles: Individual components of atoms, usually subatomic; subnuclear particles are usually detected only when the atomic nucleus decays and then only transiently, as most of them are unstable, often yielding pure energy without substance, i.e., radiation.Cholesterol, LDL: Cholesterol which is contained in or bound to low density lipoproteins (LDL), including CHOLESTEROL ESTERS and free cholesterol.Body Weight: The mass or quantity of heaviness of an individual. It is expressed by units of pounds or kilograms.Renin: A highly specific (Leu-Leu) endopeptidase that generates ANGIOTENSIN I from its precursor ANGIOTENSINOGEN, leading to a cascade of reactions which elevate BLOOD PRESSURE and increase sodium retention by the kidney in the RENIN-ANGIOTENSIN SYSTEM. The enzyme was formerly listed as EC 3.4.99.19.Pregnancy: The status during which female mammals carry their developing young (EMBRYOS or FETUSES) in utero before birth, beginning from FERTILIZATION to BIRTH.Serum Albumin: A major protein in the BLOOD. It is important in maintaining the colloidal osmotic pressure and transporting large organic molecules.Transfection: The uptake of naked or purified DNA by CELLS, usually meaning the process as it occurs in eukaryotic cells. It is analogous to bacterial transformation (TRANSFORMATION, BACTERIAL) and both are routinely employed in GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUES.Mice, Inbred C57BLInjections, Intravenous: Injections made into a vein for therapeutic or experimental purposes.Fatty Acids, Nonesterified: FATTY ACIDS found in the plasma that are complexed with SERUM ALBUMIN for transport. These fatty acids are not in glycerol ester form.Virus Release: Release of a virus from the host cell following VIRUS ASSEMBLY and maturation. Egress can occur by host cell lysis, EXOCYTOSIS, or budding through the plasma membrane.Amino Acids: Organic compounds that generally contain an amino (-NH2) and a carboxyl (-COOH) group. Twenty alpha-amino acids are the subunits which are polymerized to form proteins.Drug Compounding: The preparation, mixing, and assembling of a drug. (From Remington, The Science and Practice of Pharmacy, 19th ed, p1814)Rats, Wistar: A strain of albino rat developed at the Wistar Institute that has spread widely at other institutions. This has markedly diluted the original strain.Subcellular Fractions: Components of a cell produced by various separation techniques which, though they disrupt the delicate anatomy of a cell, preserve the structure and physiology of its functioning constituents for biochemical and ultrastructural analysis. (From Alberts et al., Molecular Biology of the Cell, 2d ed, p163)Polyethylene Glycols: Polymers of ETHYLENE OXIDE and water, and their ethers. They vary in consistency from liquid to solid depending on the molecular weight indicated by a number following the name. They are used as SURFACTANTS, dispersing agents, solvents, ointment and suppository bases, vehicles, and tablet excipients. Some specific groups are NONOXYNOLS, OCTOXYNOLS, and POLOXAMERS.Gold: A yellow metallic element with the atomic symbol Au, atomic number 79, and atomic weight 197. It is used in jewelry, goldplating of other metals, as currency, and in dental restoration. Many of its clinical applications, such as ANTIRHEUMATIC AGENTS, are in the form of its salts.Diffusion: The tendency of a gas or solute to pass from a point of higher pressure or concentration to a point of lower pressure or concentration and to distribute itself throughout the available space. Diffusion, especially FACILITATED DIFFUSION, is a major mechanism of BIOLOGICAL TRANSPORT.Microscopy, Confocal: A light microscopic technique in which only a small spot is illuminated and observed at a time. An image is constructed through point-by-point scanning of the field in this manner. Light sources may be conventional or laser, and fluorescence or transmitted observations are possible.Suspensions: Colloids with liquid continuous phase and solid dispersed phase; the term is used loosely also for solid-in-gas (AEROSOLS) and other colloidal systems; water-insoluble drugs may be given as suspensions.Phosphatidylcholine-Sterol O-Acyltransferase: An enzyme secreted from the liver into the plasma of many mammalian species. It catalyzes the esterification of the hydroxyl group of lipoprotein cholesterol by the transfer of a fatty acid from the C-2 position of lecithin. In familial lecithin:cholesterol acyltransferase deficiency disease, the absence of the enzyme results in an excess of unesterified cholesterol in plasma. EC 2.3.1.43.Calcium: A basic element found in nearly all organized tissues. It is a member of the alkaline earth family of metals with the atomic symbol Ca, atomic number 20, and atomic weight 40. Calcium is the most abundant mineral in the body and combines with phosphorus to form calcium phosphate in the bones and teeth. It is essential for the normal functioning of nerves and muscles and plays a role in blood coagulation (as factor IV) and in many enzymatic processes.Blood Pressure: PRESSURE of the BLOOD on the ARTERIES and other BLOOD VESSELS.Chylomicrons: A class of lipoproteins that carry dietary CHOLESTEROL and TRIGLYCERIDES from the SMALL INTESTINE to the tissues. Their density (0.93-1.006 g/ml) is the same as that of VERY-LOW-DENSITY LIPOPROTEINS.Protein PrecursorsChromatography, Gel: Chromatography on non-ionic gels without regard to the mechanism of solute discrimination.Macrophages: The relatively long-lived phagocytic cell of mammalian tissues that are derived from blood MONOCYTES. Main types are PERITONEAL MACROPHAGES; ALVEOLAR MACROPHAGES; HISTIOCYTES; KUPFFER CELLS of the liver; and OSTEOCLASTS. They may further differentiate within chronic inflammatory lesions to EPITHELIOID CELLS or may fuse to form FOREIGN BODY GIANT CELLS or LANGHANS GIANT CELLS. (from The Dictionary of Cell Biology, Lackie and Dow, 3rd ed.)Peptides: Members of the class of compounds composed of AMINO ACIDS joined together by peptide bonds between adjacent amino acids into linear, branched or cyclical structures. OLIGOPEPTIDES are composed of approximately 2-12 amino acids. Polypeptides are composed of approximately 13 or more amino acids. PROTEINS are linear polypeptides that are normally synthesized on RIBOSOMES.Drug Delivery Systems: Systems for the delivery of drugs to target sites of pharmacological actions. Technologies employed include those concerning drug preparation, route of administration, site targeting, metabolism, and toxicity.Polymers: Compounds formed by the joining of smaller, usually repeating, units linked by covalent bonds. These compounds often form large macromolecules (e.g., BIOPOLYMERS; PLASTICS).Sheep: Any of the ruminant mammals with curved horns in the genus Ovis, family Bovidae. They possess lachrymal grooves and interdigital glands, which are absent in GOATS.Blotting, Western: Identification of proteins or peptides that have been electrophoretically separated by blot transferring from the electrophoresis gel to strips of nitrocellulose paper, followed by labeling with antibody probes.Proteins: Linear POLYPEPTIDES that are synthesized on RIBOSOMES and may be further modified, crosslinked, cleaved, or assembled into complex proteins with several subunits. The specific sequence of AMINO ACIDS determines the shape the polypeptide will take, during PROTEIN FOLDING, and the function of the protein.Hydrocortisone: The main glucocorticoid secreted by the ADRENAL CORTEX. Its synthetic counterpart is used, either as an injection or topically, in the treatment of inflammation, allergy, collagen diseases, asthma, adrenocortical deficiency, shock, and some neoplastic conditions.Nanostructures: Materials which have structured components with at least one dimension in the range of 1 to 100 nanometers. These include NANOCOMPOSITES; NANOPARTICLES; NANOTUBES; and NANOWIRES.Fluorescent Antibody Technique: Test for tissue antigen using either a direct method, by conjugation of antibody with fluorescent dye (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, DIRECT) or an indirect method, by formation of antigen-antibody complex which is then labeled with fluorescein-conjugated anti-immunoglobulin antibody (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, INDIRECT). The tissue is then examined by fluorescence microscopy.Fibrinogen: Plasma glycoprotein clotted by thrombin, composed of a dimer of three non-identical pairs of polypeptide chains (alpha, beta, gamma) held together by disulfide bonds. Fibrinogen clotting is a sol-gel change involving complex molecular arrangements: whereas fibrinogen is cleaved by thrombin to form polypeptides A and B, the proteolytic action of other enzymes yields different fibrinogen degradation products.Dietary Fats: Fats present in food, especially in animal products such as meat, meat products, butter, ghee. They are present in lower amounts in nuts, seeds, and avocados.Nucleoproteins: Proteins conjugated with nucleic acids.Drug Stability: The chemical and physical integrity of a pharmaceutical product.Magnetics: The study of MAGNETIC PHENOMENA.Antibodies, Monoclonal: Antibodies produced by a single clone of cells.Sensitivity and Specificity: Binary classification measures to assess test results. Sensitivity or recall rate is the proportion of true positives. Specificity is the probability of correctly determining the absence of a condition. (From Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)Oxidation-Reduction: A chemical reaction in which an electron is transferred from one molecule to another. The electron-donating molecule is the reducing agent or reductant; the electron-accepting molecule is the oxidizing agent or oxidant. Reducing and oxidizing agents function as conjugate reductant-oxidant pairs or redox pairs (Lehninger, Principles of Biochemistry, 1982, p471).Filtration: A process of separating particulate matter from a fluid, such as air or a liquid, by passing the fluid carrier through a medium that will not pass the particulates. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Ferric Compounds: Inorganic or organic compounds containing trivalent iron.Carbon: A nonmetallic element with atomic symbol C, atomic number 6, and atomic weight [12.0096; 12.0116]. It may occur as several different allotropes including DIAMOND; CHARCOAL; and GRAPHITE; and as SOOT from incompletely burned fuel.Technology, Pharmaceutical: The application of scientific knowledge or technology to pharmacy and the pharmaceutical industry. It includes methods, techniques, and instrumentation in the manufacture, preparation, compounding, dispensing, packaging, and storing of drugs and other preparations used in diagnostic and determinative procedures, and in the treatment of patients.Nanotechnology: The development and use of techniques to study physical phenomena and construct structures in the nanoscale size range or smaller.Air Pollutants, Occupational: Air pollutants found in the work area. They are usually produced by the specific nature of the occupation.Binding Sites: The parts of a macromolecule that directly participate in its specific combination with another molecule.Environmental Monitoring: The monitoring of the level of toxins, chemical pollutants, microbial contaminants, or other harmful substances in the environment (soil, air, and water), workplace, or in the bodies of people and animals present in that environment.Vaccines, Virosome: Vaccines using VIROSOMES as the antigen delivery system that stimulates the desired immune response.Apolipoprotein B-100: A 513-kDa protein synthesized in the LIVER. It serves as the major structural protein of low-density lipoproteins (LIPOPROTEINS, LDL; LIPOPROTEINS, VLDL). It is the ligand for the LDL receptor (RECEPTORS, LDL) that promotes cellular binding and internalization of LDL particles.Kinetics: The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.Liposomes: Artificial, single or multilaminar vesicles (made from lecithins or other lipids) that are used for the delivery of a variety of biological molecules or molecular complexes to cells, for example, drug delivery and gene transfer. They are also used to study membranes and membrane proteins.Materials Testing: The testing of materials and devices, especially those used for PROSTHESES AND IMPLANTS; SUTURES; TISSUE ADHESIVES; etc., for hardness, strength, durability, safety, efficacy, and biocompatibility.Phosphotungstic Acid: Tungsten hydroxide oxide phosphate. A white or slightly yellowish-green, slightly efflorescent crystal or crystalline powder. It is used as a reagent for alkaloids and many other nitrogen bases, for phenols, albumin, peptone, amino acids, uric acid, urea, blood, and carbohydrates. (From Merck Index, 11th ed)Fatty Acids: Organic, monobasic acids derived from hydrocarbons by the equivalent of oxidation of a methyl group to an alcohol, aldehyde, and then acid. Fatty acids are saturated and unsaturated (FATTY ACIDS, UNSATURATED). (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Mass Spectrometry: An analytical method used in determining the identity of a chemical based on its mass using mass analyzers/mass spectrometers.Immunoglobulin G: The major immunoglobulin isotype class in normal human serum. There are several isotype subclasses of IgG, for example, IgG1, IgG2A, and IgG2B.Methods: A series of steps taken in order to conduct research.TritiumPeptide Fragments: Partial proteins formed by partial hydrolysis of complete proteins or generated through PROTEIN ENGINEERING techniques.Reproducibility of Results: The statistical reproducibility of measurements (often in a clinical context), including the testing of instrumentation or techniques to obtain reproducible results. The concept includes reproducibility of physiological measurements, which may be used to develop rules to assess probability or prognosis, or response to a stimulus; reproducibility of occurrence of a condition; and reproducibility of experimental results.Escherichia coli: A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria (GRAM-NEGATIVE FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC RODS) commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. It is usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce DIARRHEA and pyogenic infections. Pathogenic strains (virotypes) are classified by their specific pathogenic mechanisms such as toxins (ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI), etc.Dust: Earth or other matter in fine, dry particles. (Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed)Case-Control Studies: Studies which start with the identification of persons with a disease of interest and a control (comparison, referent) group without the disease. The relationship of an attribute to the disease is examined by comparing diseased and non-diseased persons with regard to the frequency or levels of the attribute in each group.Analysis of Variance: A statistical technique that isolates and assesses the contributions of categorical independent variables to variation in the mean of a continuous dependent variable.Staining and Labeling: The marking of biological material with a dye or other reagent for the purpose of identifying and quantitating components of tissues, cells or their extracts.Antibodies, Viral: Immunoglobulins produced in response to VIRAL ANTIGENS.
  • Cold atmospheric plasma (CAP), is a non-thermal plasma that has been shown to be highly effective in germicidal irradiation and sterilization, wound healing, blood coagulation, material surface modifications and crosslinking, as well as in the treatment of various diseases, including cancer ( 9 - 11 ). (spandidos-publications.com)
  • In contrast to thermal plasma, CAP can reach high electron temperatures but very low gas temperatures associated with weak ionization rates ( 7 ). (spandidos-publications.com)
  • Thus, physicists could bring about particle collisions with significantly more energy than has been possible so far. (mpg.de)
  • Particle collisions are determined using an MCC statistical technique. (ohiolink.edu)
  • It connects more than 2,500 researchers around the world with the data generated by millions of particle collisions taking place each second at Brookhaven Lab's Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC, a DOE Office of Science User Facility for nuclear physics research), and the ATLAS experiment at the Large Hadron Collider in Europe. (bnl.gov)
  • He then describes his analysis of data from particle collisions at the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider and the Large Hadron Collider to test his hypothesis. (bnl.gov)
  • During the 2014 Sambamurti Lecture, physicist Anne Sickles discussed how correlations between particles created during collisions at the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC) are being used to determine the properties of matter itself. (bnl.gov)
  • During the 493rd Brookhaven Lecture, Anne Sickles discussed how physicists determine what happens before, during, and after individual particle collisions among billions at the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC). (bnl.gov)
  • She then explained how collisions at RHIC enable physicists to probe deeper into the mysteries of quark-gluon plasma and the strong force. (bnl.gov)
  • Plasma crystal experiments are a flagship European-Russian project as they are among the most successful research efforts having taken place on the International Space Station (ISS). (dlr.de)
  • Definitive knowledge of the nature, composition, and physical processes of cosmic dust grains, however, can only be inferred from astronomical observations through laboratory experiments on the analogs of hypothesized dust particles and with modeling calculations. (nasa.gov)
  • In this paper, we discuss two general classes of experiments under planning stages that may be simultaneously carried out on this facility for cosmic dust investigations (i) Infrared optical characteristics (extinction coefficients and scattering phase functions) of the analogs of hypothesized of cosmic dust particles, such as natural and synthetic amorphous silicates with varying compositions, amorphous carbon grains, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), and icy core-mantle particles etc. (nasa.gov)
  • The study uses the Robiniapseudoacacia/ wastepaper composite particle board and research the technological parameter in order to discovering the feasibility of the experiments. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Does the process of miniaturization benefit physics experiments like CERN, or will they always have to be gigantic? (reddit.com)
  • He also explained how this theory and data from experiments at the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider and the Large Hadron Collider are being used to determine properties of quark-gluon plasma. (bnl.gov)
  • The research began five years ago when undergraduate student Matt Chu-Cheong and Samuel Cohen, principal investigator of the Laboratory's FRC experiments, started thinking about how the ash particles created in hypothetical future FRC reactors could be removed. (pppl.gov)
  • Non-thermal modification effects of plasmas on the shock wave structures have been evidenced in a number of shock-tube experiments. (scirp.org)
  • Samples prepared on polycarbonate filters were analyzed by scanning electron microscopy, x-ray spectrometry, and plasma emission spectrometry. (cdc.gov)
  • The processed powder has been characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) for particle size and morphology. (ias.ac.in)
  • The technique uses a low-density reactive neon-oxygen plasma at room-temperature to improve the surface work function, to help remove adsorbed gases on the RF surface and to reduce its secondary emission yield. (osti.gov)
  • Plasma is a state of matter that is often thought of as a subset of gases, but the two states behave very differently. (livescience.com)
  • Like gases, plasmas have no fixed shape or volume, and are less dense than solids or liquids . (livescience.com)
  • Being made of charged particles, plasmas can do things gases cannot, like conduct electricity. (livescience.com)
  • Plasma and ionized gases have properties and display behaviours unlike those of the other states, and the transition between them is mostly a matter of nomenclature and subject to interpretation. (wikipedia.org)
  • The initial spectral range under consideration is 1-25 micrometers, to be extended to the far infrared region in the future (ii) Condensation of volatile gases on nucleus dust particles to be investigated for planetary and astrophysical environments. (nasa.gov)
  • The effects of the flow ratio of the carbon precursor, discharge current, and plasma gases (including argon, nitrogen, and hydrogen) on the morphology and structure of carbon black were investigated by a series of physical characterizations. (hindawi.com)
  • Thermal plasmas are partially ionized gases at atmospheric pressures, characterized by temperatures in the range of 2000-20,000 K and charged particle number densities in the range of 10 19 -10 21 per m 3 . (ias.ac.in)
  • The processing environment can be inert as in the case of argon or nitrogen plasmas or can be made reactive by introducing suitable gases. (ias.ac.in)
  • An IEEE Fellow, Dr. Petersen was the recipient of the IEEE Nuclear and Plasma Sciences Society Radiation Effects Award. (wiley.com)
  • Introduction to Quantum Mechanics including the wave-particle duality of radiation and matter, the Uncertainty Principle and the Schrodinger equation in one spatial dimension. (dartmouth.edu)
  • As the twenty-first century progresses, plasma technology will play an increasing role in our lives, providing new sources of energy, ion-plasma processing of materials, wave electromagnetic radiation sources, space plasma thrusters, and more. (routledge.com)
  • An experimental facility based on suspension of dust particles in electrodynamic balance in a pressure/temperature controlled environment in a cavity has been operational at the NASA Marshall Space Flight Center, and is currently being employed for studies of dust particle charging mechanisms using electron beams and with UV radiation. (nasa.gov)
  • Starting with the basic equations of number and energy balance along with charge neutrality it is shown that the charge on the particle versus irradiance of incident radiation plot in a complex plasma, illuminated by radiation with periodic irradiance displays hysteresis. (ebscohost.com)
  • Application of semiconductor sensors in investigation of radiation and plasma chemical processes. (elsevier.com)
  • The main objective is to describe the dynamic properties of magnetically trapped particles in planetary radiation belts and plasmas and explain the physical processes involved from the theoretical point of view. (springer.com)
  • The ultimate aim is to help both graduate students and interested scientists to successfully face the theoretical and experimental challenges lying ahead in space physics in view of recent and upcoming satellite missions and an expected wealth of data on radiation belts and plasmas. (springer.com)
  • Plasma windows can separate vacuum and atmosphere, or regions of high and low vacuums, in a way which facilitates transmission of various particle beams and/or radiation from low- to high-pressure regions. (techbriefs.com)
  • Understanding the death of massive stars in supernovae requires understanding gravitational collapse and radiation transfer in a plasma. (princeton.edu)
  • Investigation of effect of UV space radiation on behavior of macro-particles charged by photoemission. (energia.ru)
  • Investigation of plasma-dust structures in space environment exposed to UV Sun radiation, plasma flows and ionizing radiation. (energia.ru)
  • The particles behave in a way similar to atoms in a solid or a liquid, with the advantage that in the plasma each microparticle can be observed individually, as though in slow motion. (dlr.de)
  • ITER will use a different process, fusion, which involves heating very lightweight atoms to around 150 million degrees Celsius - or 10 times the temperature of the sun. (nytimes.com)
  • During the fusion process proposed for an FRC, the nuclei of deuterium and helium-3, hydrogen and helium atoms with one neutron each, combine and in the process release large amounts of energy. (pppl.gov)
  • Many violent processes in astrophysics are thought to be powered by reconnection, for example on the sun reconnection produces solar flares. (princeton.edu)
  • Similarly, scientists will work together to develop and test the next generation of computer codes that can be used to model plasma dynamics in both fusion reactors and astrophysics. (princeton.edu)
  • Spherical 2 and orbicular particles in the form of two soldered hemispheres 3 represent, according to data of the analysis, the most low-melting (~1000 [degrees]C) component--NiCrBSi alloy, precipitating from the composite particle volume. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Results show that, in contrast to the irregular shapes of the particles of the raw material, majority of the processed powder particles bear spherical or near-spherical morphology. (ias.ac.in)
  • Researchers designed the algorithm for the National Spherical Torus Experiment-Upgrade (NSTX-U), which has an enhanced neutral beam system that affects the plasma rotation by colliding with the plasma's charged particles and transferring momentum. (brightsurf.com)
  • The members of the genus Flavivirus are small (∼50 nm), spherical enveloped particles and include many arthropod-transmitted human pathogens: West Nile virus (WNV), yellow fever virus, dengue virus, Japanese encephalitis virus, and tick-borne encephalitis virus ( 49 ). (asm.org)
  • Bottom left: A plasma globe , illustrating some of the more complex plasma phenomena, including filamentation . (wikipedia.org)
  • Studies of the plasma state of matter not only accelerate technological developments but also improve the understanding of natural phenomena. (routledge.com)
  • Beginning with an introduction to the characteristics and types of plasmas, Introduction to Plasma Dynamics covers the basic models of classical diffuse plasmas used to describe such phenomena as linear and shock waves, stationary flows, elements of plasma chemistry, and principles of plasma lasers. (routledge.com)
  • Presenting a well-rounded introduction to plasma dynamics, the book takes into consideration the models of plasma phenomena and their relationships to one another as well as their applications. (routledge.com)
  • Emphasis is not on the "what " but on the "why " of particle phenomena in near-earth space, providing a solid and clear understanding of the principal basic physical mechanisms and dynamic processes involved. (springer.com)
  • It may be used as a guide for novices to distinguish flares from other plasma physical phenomena in the solar atmosphere also associated with brightenings, such as the expulsion of magnetic flux or dissipation of shock waves. (springer.com)
  • The most important property of such a system is that investigations of physical phenomena can be performed on the individual (micro-) particle level allowing new insights into fluid and solid-state physics. (brightsurf.com)
  • Study of physical phenomena in plasma-dust crystals at different pressure levels of inert gas and power of HF generator in microgravity environment. (energia.ru)
  • Powder particles were sprayed onto water-cooled moveable steel cylinder which was used as anode. (begellhouse.com)
  • No. 5,340,618 discloses a method of treating a powder with an atmospheric pressure plasma by dispersing the powder within the reaction chamber using what appears to be a fluidized bed arrangement without addressing the problem of deagglomeration. (freepatentsonline.com)
  • A process for the preparation of plasma sprayable yttria stabilized zirconia and yttria stabilized zirconia powder produced thereof, Singanahalli Thippareddy Aruna, Narayanaswamy Balaji, Karaikudi, Sankaranarayana Rajam, Patent Nos. (nal.res.in)
  • Our contact with the remote regions of the universe is dominated by the photons and high-energy particles produced there long ago, with light often the result of physical processes that involve particles accelerated to high energy. (nhbs.com)
  • Moreover, the graphene was generated when using argon as the plasma gas mixed with a small amount of hydrogen. (hindawi.com)
  • The theoretical analysis and experimental results confirmed that HCN is the inevitable byproduct in the tail gas from the nitrogen plasma process, indicating that nitrogen is inappropriate as the carrier gas for the preparation of carbon black. (hindawi.com)
  • Laboratory investigations of the nature, composition, and optical characteristics of cosmic dust particles are being, carried out at many institutions with a variety of experimental techniques. (nasa.gov)
  • In this paper, we present the experimental results of in-situ EUV dry etching process technique for ARC and ABS, which reduces the defect level significantly. (spie.org)
  • By bringing together fusion scientists and astrophysicists to share expertise, computational tools, and experimental facilities, it is hoped that new discoveries in plasma physics will be accelerated. (princeton.edu)
  • This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves. (springer.com)
  • A lot of people are researching ways to miniaturize experimental particle physics for the next big project, even though we're not sure what the next big project will be. (reddit.com)
  • Under microgravity conditions, the particles can spread out freely in space and form ordered, three-dimensional crystal structures. (dlr.de)
  • Plasmas, being made of charged particles, may have a net charge of zero over their whole volume but not at the level of individual particles. (livescience.com)
  • So if you have gas in a container and let it cool to room temperature, all the molecules inside will, on average, be moving at the same speed, and if you were to measure the speed of lots of individual particles you'd get a distribution curve with lots of them moving near the average and only a few either especially slowly or quickly. (livescience.com)
  • Goumiri was a Princeton University doctoral graduate student who conducted research at the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory (PPPL) and now is a physicist at the University of Wisconsin-Madison. (brightsurf.com)
  • This is the first time these two actuators have been used together to control the plasma rotation profile," said Steven Sabbagh, a senior research scientist and adjunct professor of applied physics at Columbia University who has collaborated with PPPL for 27 years and was one of the paper's co-authors. (brightsurf.com)
  • Now, scientists at the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory (PPPL) have found evidence suggesting that a process could remove the unwanted material and make the fusion processes more efficient within a type of fusion facility known as a field-reversed configuration (FRC) device. (pppl.gov)
  • Recently, however, new research at PPPL has hinted that, with the right design, FRCs could produce stable plasmas. (pppl.gov)
  • By confining the hot plasma with powerful magnets, scientists aim to keep the process going in much the same way that the sun, confined by gravity, continues to burn in the shape of a ball. (nytimes.com)
  • Such reactors will have more than one algorithm to control plasma rotation, electric current, and the shape of the plasma. (brightsurf.com)
  • It's possible that Alfvén waves are the reason the temperature of the solar corona- also a plasma - is millions of degrees, while on the surface, it is only thousands. (livescience.com)
  • Based on the surrounding environmental temperature and density , partially ionized or fully ionized forms of plasma may be produced. (wikipedia.org)
  • No. 4,478,643 discloses a pigment treated with a low temperature plasma wherein the pigment is maintained in a commercially available plasma asher for a time that is excessive and will cause pigment degradation. (freepatentsonline.com)
  • Consequently gas flow through a hot plasma-filled channel is substantially reduced compared to a room-temperature gas-filled channel. (techbriefs.com)
  • High temperature ashing, or stripping, is performed to remove as much photo resist as possible, while the "descum" process is used to remove residual photo resist in trenches. (wikipedia.org)
  • The main difference between the two processes is the temperature the wafer is exposed to while in an ashing chamber. (wikipedia.org)
  • To some extent, these longer process times can be mitigated by increasing the temperature of the reaction area. (wikipedia.org)
  • Information about the optical characteristics and physical processes involving cosmic dust particles is vital for interpretation of astronomical observations and an understanding of the formation and processing of dust in the evolutionary cycle of matter in the interstellar medium. (nasa.gov)
  • Space is dominated by plasma and a myriad of physical processes through which it has been evolving for billions of years. (nhbs.com)
  • An improved plasma vessel (i.e., plasma applicator) that provides effective cooling includes a plurality of generally linear tubes having a dielectric interior fluidly connected together by dielectric connectors. (google.es)
  • 2. The plasma apparatus of claim 1 , wherein the plurality of generally linear tubes are formed of dielectric material. (google.es)
  • 3. The plasma apparatus of claim 2 , wherein the dielectric material is selected from the group consisting of sapphire tubes, quartz tubes, yttrium oxide tubes, magnesium fluoride tubes, alumina tubes, or a combination thereof. (google.es)
  • 8. The plasma apparatus of claim 1 , wherein the plurality of connectors are formed of a metal that is coated with a dielectric material. (google.es)
  • 9. The plasma apparatus of claim 1 , wherein the plurality of connectors are formed of a dielectric material. (google.es)