Relating to the size of solids.
An autolytic enzyme bound to the surface of bacterial cell walls. It catalyzes the hydrolysis of the link between N-acetylmuramoyl residues and L-amino acid residues in certain cell wall glycopeptides, particularly peptidoglycan. EC
A cell-separation technique where magnetizable microspheres or beads are first coated with monoclonal antibody, allowed to search and bind to target cells, and are then selectively removed when passed through a magnetic field. Among other applications, the technique is commonly used to remove tumor cells from the marrow (BONE MARROW PURGING) of patients who are to undergo autologous bone marrow transplantation.
The outermost layer of a cell in most PLANTS; BACTERIA; FUNGI; and ALGAE. The cell wall is usually a rigid structure that lies external to the CELL MEMBRANE, and provides a protective barrier against physical or chemical agents.
An endocellulase with specificity for the hydrolysis of 1,3-beta-D-glucosidic linkages in 1,3-beta-D-glucans including laminarin, paramylon, and pachyman.
The process by which the CYTOPLASM of a cell is divided.
A cell wall-degrading enzyme found in microorganisms and higher plants. It catalyzes the random hydrolysis of 1,4-alpha-D-galactosiduronic linkages in pectate and other galacturonans. EC
The fission of a CELL. It includes CYTOKINESIS, when the CYTOPLASM of a cell is divided, and CELL NUCLEUS DIVISION.
A genus of ascomycetous fungi of the family Schizosaccharomycetaceae, order Schizosaccharomycetales.
Proteins obtained from the species Schizosaccharomyces pombe. The function of specific proteins from this organism are the subject of intense scientific interest and have been used to derive basic understanding of the functioning similar proteins in higher eukaryotes.
Rupture of bacterial cells due to mechanical force, chemical action, or the lytic growth of BACTERIOPHAGES.
Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.
Microscopy using an electron beam, instead of light, to visualize the sample, thereby allowing much greater magnification. The interactions of ELECTRONS with specimens are used to provide information about the fine structure of that specimen. In TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY the reactions of the electrons that are transmitted through the specimen are imaged. In SCANNING ELECTRON MICROSCOPY an electron beam falls at a non-normal angle on the specimen and the image is derived from the reactions occurring above the plane of the specimen.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in fungi.
Methods utilizing the principles of MICROFLUIDICS for sample handling, reagent mixing, and separation and detection of specific components in fluids.
Microscopic threadlike filaments in FUNGI that are filled with a layer of protoplasm. Collectively, the hyphae make up the MYCELIUM.
Proteins found in any species of fungus.
A genetic rearrangement through loss of segments of DNA or RNA, bringing sequences which are normally separated into close proximity. This deletion may be detected using cytogenetic techniques and can also be inferred from the phenotype, indicating a deletion at one specific locus.
A species of the genus SACCHAROMYCES, family Saccharomycetaceae, order Saccharomycetales, known as "baker's" or "brewer's" yeast. The dried form is used as a dietary supplement.
The functional hereditary units of FUNGI.
Separation of particles according to density by employing a gradient of varying densities. At equilibrium each particle settles in the gradient at a point equal to its density. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.
Proteins obtained from the species SACCHAROMYCES CEREVISIAE. The function of specific proteins from this organism are the subject of intense scientific interest and have been used to derive basic understanding of the functioning similar proteins in higher eukaryotes.
A protein complex of actin and MYOSINS occurring in muscle. It is the essential contractile substance of muscle.
Electron microscopy in which the ELECTRONS or their reaction products that pass down through the specimen are imaged below the plane of the specimen.
A polyvinyl polymer of variable molecular weight; used as suspending and dispersing agent and vehicle for pharmaceuticals; also used as blood volume expander.
The study of fluid channels and chambers of tiny dimensions of tens to hundreds of micrometers and volumes of nanoliters or picoliters. This is of interest in biological MICROCIRCULATION and used in MICROCHEMISTRY and INVESTIGATIVE TECHNIQUES.
The property of objects that determines the direction of heat flow when they are placed in direct thermal contact. The temperature is the energy of microscopic motions (vibrational and translational) of the particles of atoms.
A genus of basidiomycetous smut fungi comprising the loose smuts.
The infective system of a virus, composed of the viral genome, a protein core, and a protein coat called a capsid, which may be naked or enclosed in a lipoprotein envelope called the peplos.
The reproductive organs of plants.
A linear polysaccharide of beta-1->4 linked units of ACETYLGLUCOSAMINE. It is the second most abundant biopolymer on earth, found especially in INSECTS and FUNGI. When deacetylated it is called CHITOSAN.
Derivatives of ethylene, a simple organic gas of biological origin with many industrial and biological use.
Anxiety experienced by an individual upon separation from a person or object of particular significance to the individual.
Proteins found in any species of bacterium.
The outward appearance of the individual. It is the product of interactions between genes, and between the GENOTYPE and the environment.
A form of interference microscopy in which variations of the refracting index in the object are converted into variations of intensity in the image. This is achieved by the action of a phase plate.
A beta-N-Acetylhexosaminidase that catalyzes the hydrolysis of terminal, non-reducing 2-acetamido-2-deoxy-beta-glucose residues in chitobiose and higher analogs as well as in glycoproteins. Has been used widely in structural studies on bacterial cell walls and in the study of diseases such as MUCOLIPIDOSIS and various inflammatory disorders of muscle and connective tissue.
Technique using an instrument system for making, processing, and displaying one or more measurements on individual cells obtained from a cell suspension. Cells are usually stained with one or more fluorescent dyes specific to cell components of interest, e.g., DNA, and fluorescence of each cell is measured as it rapidly transverses the excitation beam (laser or mercury arc lamp). Fluorescence provides a quantitative measure of various biochemical and biophysical properties of the cell, as well as a basis for cell sorting. Other measurable optical parameters include light absorption and light scattering, the latter being applicable to the measurement of cell size, shape, density, granularity, and stain uptake.
Microscopy of specimens stained with fluorescent dye (usually fluorescein isothiocyanate) or of naturally fluorescent materials, which emit light when exposed to ultraviolet or blue light. Immunofluorescence microscopy utilizes antibodies that are labeled with fluorescent dye.
Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
The complex series of phenomena, occurring between the end of one CELL DIVISION and the end of the next, by which cellular material is duplicated and then divided between two daughter cells. The cell cycle includes INTERPHASE, which includes G0 PHASE; G1 PHASE; S PHASE; and G2 PHASE, and CELL DIVISION PHASE.
The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.
Proteins that control the CELL DIVISION CYCLE. This family of proteins includes a wide variety of classes, including CYCLIN-DEPENDENT KINASES, mitogen-activated kinases, CYCLINS, and PHOSPHOPROTEIN PHOSPHATASES as well as their putative substrates such as chromatin-associated proteins, CYTOSKELETAL PROTEINS, and TRANSCRIPTION FACTORS.
A type of CELL NUCLEUS division by means of which the two daughter nuclei normally receive identical complements of the number of CHROMOSOMES of the somatic cells of the species.
The development of anatomical structures to create the form of a single- or multi-cell organism. Morphogenesis provides form changes of a part, parts, or the whole organism.
A basic enzyme that is present in saliva, tears, egg white, and many animal fluids. It functions as an antibacterial agent. The enzyme catalyzes the hydrolysis of 1,4-beta-linkages between N-acetylmuramic acid and N-acetyl-D-glucosamine residues in peptidoglycan and between N-acetyl-D-glucosamine residues in chitodextrin. EC
Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of fungi.
Orientation of intracellular structures especially with respect to the apical and basolateral domains of the plasma membrane. Polarized cells must direct proteins from the Golgi apparatus to the appropriate domain since tight junctions prevent proteins from diffusing between the two domains.
A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria (GRAM-NEGATIVE FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC RODS) commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. It is usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce DIARRHEA and pyogenic infections. Pathogenic strains (virotypes) are classified by their specific pathogenic mechanisms such as toxins (ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI), etc.
A cytosolic ribonucleoprotein complex that acts to induce elongation arrest of nascent presecretory and membrane proteins until the ribosome becomes associated with the rough endoplasmic reticulum. It consists of a 7S RNA and at least six polypeptide subunits (relative molecular masses 9, 14, 19, 54, 68, and 72K).
Recombinant proteins produced by the GENETIC TRANSLATION of fused genes formed by the combination of NUCLEIC ACID REGULATORY SEQUENCES of one or more genes with the protein coding sequences of one or more genes.
The degree of similarity between sequences of amino acids. This information is useful for the analyzing genetic relatedness of proteins and species.
A species of gram-positive bacteria that is a common soil and water saprophyte.
The lipid- and protein-containing, selectively permeable membrane that surrounds the cytoplasm in prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells.
Protein analogs and derivatives of the Aequorea victoria green fluorescent protein that emit light (FLUORESCENCE) when excited with ULTRAVIOLET RAYS. They are used in REPORTER GENES in doing GENETIC TECHNIQUES. Numerous mutants have been made to emit other colors or be sensitive to pH.
Proteins that originate from plants species belonging to the genus ARABIDOPSIS. The most intensely studied species of Arabidopsis, Arabidopsis thaliana, is commonly used in laboratory experiments.
Endogenous substances, usually proteins, which are effective in the initiation, stimulation, or termination of the genetic transcription process.
Nanometer-sized particles that are nanoscale in three dimensions. They include nanocrystaline materials; NANOCAPSULES; METAL NANOPARTICLES; DENDRIMERS, and QUANTUM DOTS. The uses of nanoparticles include DRUG DELIVERY SYSTEMS and cancer targeting and imaging.
A unicellular budding fungus which is the principal pathogenic species causing CANDIDIASIS (moniliasis).
The process of cleaving a chemical compound by the addition of a molecule of water.
Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.
Red blood cells. Mature erythrocytes are non-nucleated, biconcave disks containing HEMOGLOBIN whose function is to transport OXYGEN.
Liquid chromatographic techniques which feature high inlet pressures, high sensitivity, and high speed.
The assembly of VIRAL STRUCTURAL PROTEINS and nucleic acid (VIRAL DNA or VIRAL RNA) to form a VIRUS PARTICLE.
Transparent, tasteless crystals found in nature as agate, amethyst, chalcedony, cristobalite, flint, sand, QUARTZ, and tridymite. The compound is insoluble in water or acids except hydrofluoric acid.
A plant genus of the family BRASSICACEAE that contains ARABIDOPSIS PROTEINS and MADS DOMAIN PROTEINS. The species A. thaliana is used for experiments in classical plant genetics as well as molecular genetic studies in plant physiology, biochemistry, and development.
The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.
Colloids with a gaseous dispersing phase and either liquid (fog) or solid (smoke) dispersed phase; used in fumigation or in inhalation therapy; may contain propellant agents.
A highly-sensitive (in the picomolar range, which is 10,000-fold more sensitive than conventional electrophoresis) and efficient technique that allows separation of PROTEINS; NUCLEIC ACIDS; and CARBOHYDRATES. (Segen, Dictionary of Modern Medicine, 1992)
A group of enzymes that catalyzes the phosphorylation of serine or threonine residues in proteins, with ATP or other nucleotides as phosphate donors.
Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.
Vaccines using supra-molecular structures composed of multiple copies of recombinantly expressed viral structural proteins. They are often antigentically indistinguishable from the virus from which they were derived.
Glycoproteins found on immature hematopoietic cells and endothelial cells. They are the only molecules to date whose expression within the blood system is restricted to a small number of progenitor cells in the bone marrow.
The various filaments, granules, tubules or other inclusions within mitochondria.
White blood cells formed in the body's lymphoid tissue. The nucleus is round or ovoid with coarse, irregularly clumped chromatin while the cytoplasm is typically pale blue with azurophilic (if any) granules. Most lymphocytes can be classified as either T or B (with subpopulations of each), or NATURAL KILLER CELLS.
Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in plants.
Small uniformly-sized spherical particles, of micrometer dimensions, frequently labeled with radioisotopes or various reagents acting as tags or markers.
Progenitor cells from which all blood cells derive.
Prolonged separation of the offspring from the mother.
The level of protein structure in which combinations of secondary protein structures (alpha helices, beta sheets, loop regions, and motifs) pack together to form folded shapes called domains. Disulfide bridges between cysteines in two different parts of the polypeptide chain along with other interactions between the chains play a role in the formation and stabilization of tertiary structure. Small proteins usually consist of only one domain but larger proteins may contain a number of domains connected by segments of polypeptide chain which lack regular secondary structure.
A highly miniaturized version of ELECTROPHORESIS performed in a microfluidic device.
Preparation for electron microscopy of minute replicas of exposed surfaces of the cell which have been ruptured in the frozen state. The specimen is frozen, then cleaved under high vacuum at the same temperature. The exposed surface is shadowed with carbon and platinum and coated with carbon to obtain a carbon replica.
Filamentous proteins that are the main constituent of the thin filaments of muscle fibers. The filaments (known also as filamentous or F-actin) can be dissociated into their globular subunits; each subunit is composed of a single polypeptide 375 amino acids long. This is known as globular or G-actin. In conjunction with MYOSINS, actin is responsible for the contraction and relaxation of muscle.
Potentially pathogenic bacteria found in nasal membranes, skin, hair follicles, and perineum of warm-blooded animals. They may cause a wide range of infections and intoxications.
Proteins and peptides that are involved in SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION within the cell. Included here are peptides and proteins that regulate the activity of TRANSCRIPTION FACTORS and cellular processes in response to signals from CELL SURFACE RECEPTORS. Intracellular signaling peptide and proteins may be part of an enzymatic signaling cascade or act through binding to and modifying the action of other signaling factors.
Transport proteins that carry specific substances in the blood or across cell membranes.
Particles of any solid substance, generally under 30 microns in size, often noted as PM30. There is special concern with PM1 which can get down to PULMONARY ALVEOLI and induce MACROPHAGE ACTIVATION and PHAGOCYTOSIS leading to FOREIGN BODY REACTION and LUNG DISEASES.
The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.
Polymerized forms of styrene used as a biocompatible material, especially in dentistry. They are thermoplastic and are used as insulators, for injection molding and casting, as sheets, plates, rods, rigid forms and beads.
Proteins which bind to DNA. The family includes proteins which bind to both double- and single-stranded DNA and also includes specific DNA binding proteins in serum which can be used as markers for malignant diseases.
The outer protein protective shell of a virus, which protects the viral nucleic acid.
Two-phase systems in which one is uniformly dispersed in another as particles small enough so they cannot be filtered or will not settle out. The dispersing or continuous phase or medium envelops the particles of the discontinuous phase. All three states of matter can form colloids among each other.
Mature LYMPHOCYTES and MONOCYTES transported by the blood to the body's extravascular space. They are morphologically distinguishable from mature granulocytic leukocytes by their large, non-lobed nuclei and lack of coarse, heavily stained cytoplasmic granules.
The determination of the pattern of genes expressed at the level of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION, under specific circumstances or in a specific cell.
Adherence of cells to surfaces or to other cells.
Microscopy in which the object is examined directly by an electron beam scanning the specimen point-by-point. The image is constructed by detecting the products of specimen interactions that are projected above the plane of the sample, such as backscattered electrons. Although SCANNING TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY also scans the specimen point by point with the electron beam, the image is constructed by detecting the electrons, or their interaction products that are transmitted through the sample plane, so that is a form of TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY.
An encapsulated lymphatic organ through which venous blood filters.
Characteristics or attributes of the outer boundaries of objects, including molecules.
Electrophoresis in which a polyacrylamide gel is used as the diffusion medium.
The biosynthesis of RNA carried out on a template of DNA. The biosynthesis of DNA from an RNA template is called REVERSE TRANSCRIPTION.
Positively charged particles composed of two protons and two NEUTRONS, i.e. equivalent to HELIUM nuclei, which are emitted during disintegration of heavy ISOTOPES. Alpha rays have very strong ionizing power, but weak penetrability.
RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.
Proteins that form the CAPSID of VIRUSES.
A milky, product excreted from the latex canals of a variety of plant species that contain cauotchouc. Latex is composed of 25-35% caoutchouc, 60-75% water, 2% protein, 2% resin, 1.5% sugar & 1% ash. RUBBER is made by the removal of water from latex.(From Concise Encyclopedia Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 3rd ed). Hevein proteins are responsible for LATEX HYPERSENSITIVITY. Latexes are used as inert vehicles to carry antibodies or antigens in LATEX FIXATION TESTS.
Viruses which lack a complete genome so that they cannot completely replicate or cannot form a protein coat. Some are host-dependent defectives, meaning they can replicate only in cell systems which provide the particular genetic function which they lack. Others, called SATELLITE VIRUSES, are able to replicate only when their genetic defect is complemented by a helper virus.
The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.
An area showing altered staining behavior in the nucleus or cytoplasm of a virus-infected cell. Some inclusion bodies represent "virus factories" in which viral nucleic acid or protein is being synthesized; others are merely artifacts of fixation and staining. One example, Negri bodies, are found in the cytoplasm or processes of nerve cells in animals that have died from rabies.
Cells contained in the bone marrow including fat cells (see ADIPOCYTES); STROMAL CELLS; MEGAKARYOCYTES; and the immediate precursors of most blood cells.
A class of lipoproteins of small size (4-13 nm) and dense (greater than 1.063 g/ml) particles. HDL lipoproteins, synthesized in the liver without a lipid core, accumulate cholesterol esters from peripheral tissues and transport them to the liver for re-utilization or elimination from the body (the reverse cholesterol transport). Their major protein component is APOLIPOPROTEIN A-I. HDL also shuttle APOLIPOPROTEINS C and APOLIPOPROTEINS E to and from triglyceride-rich lipoproteins during their catabolism. HDL plasma level has been inversely correlated with the risk of cardiovascular diseases.
The sum of the weight of all the atoms in a molecule.
Substances made up of an aggregation of small particles, as that obtained by grinding or trituration of a solid drug. In pharmacy it is a form in which substances are administered. (From Dorland, 28th ed)
Any substance in the air which could, if present in high enough concentration, harm humans, animals, vegetation or material. Substances include GASES; PARTICULATE MATTER; and volatile ORGANIC CHEMICALS.
Proteins found in any species of virus.
Complexes of RNA-binding proteins with ribonucleic acids (RNA).
The exposure to potentially harmful chemical, physical, or biological agents by inhaling them.
An electrochemical process in which macromolecules or colloidal particles with a net electric charge migrate in a solution under the influence of an electric current.
Lymphocytes responsible for cell-mediated immunity. Two types have been identified - cytotoxic (T-LYMPHOCYTES, CYTOTOXIC) and helper T-lymphocytes (T-LYMPHOCYTES, HELPER-INDUCER). They are formed when lymphocytes circulate through the THYMUS GLAND and differentiate to thymocytes. When exposed to an antigen, they divide rapidly and produce large numbers of new T cells sensitized to that antigen.
The process of intracellular viral multiplication, consisting of the synthesis of PROTEINS; NUCLEIC ACIDS; and sometimes LIPIDS, and their assembly into a new infectious particle.
Gases, fumes, vapors, and odors escaping from the cylinders of a gasoline or diesel internal-combustion engine. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed & Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed)
Any of the processes by which cytoplasmic or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in bacteria.
The normality of a solution with respect to HYDROGEN ions; H+. It is related to acidity measurements in most cases by pH = log 1/2[1/(H+)], where (H+) is the hydrogen ion concentration in gram equivalents per liter of solution. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
A method of separation of two or more substances by repeated distribution between two immiscible liquid phases that move past each other in opposite directions. It is a form of liquid-liquid chromatography. (Stedman, 25th ed)
The adhesion of gases, liquids, or dissolved solids onto a surface. It includes adsorptive phenomena of bacteria and viruses onto surfaces as well. ABSORPTION into the substance may follow but not necessarily.
The functional hereditary units of BACTERIA.
Separation of a mixture in successive stages, each stage removing from the mixture some proportion of one of the substances, for example by differential solubility in water-solvent mixtures. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
Chromatographic techniques in which the mobile phase is a liquid.
Domesticated bovine animals of the genus Bos, usually kept on a farm or ranch and used for the production of meat or dairy products or for heavy labor.
Semi-synthetic complex derived from nucleic-acid free viral particles. They are essentially reconstituted viral coats, where the infectious nucleocapsid is replaced by a compound of choice. Virosomes retain their fusogenic activity and thus deliver the incorporated compound (antigens, drugs, genes) inside the target cell. They can be used for vaccines (VACCINES, VIROSOME), drug delivery, or gene transfer.
Ribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of viruses.
Compounds formed by the joining of smaller, usually repeating, units linked by covalent bonds. These compounds often form large macromolecules (e.g., BIOPOLYMERS; PLASTICS).
Electron microscopy involving rapid freezing of the samples. The imaging of frozen-hydrated molecules and organelles permits the best possible resolution closest to the living state, free of chemical fixatives or stains.
Lipid-protein complexes involved in the transportation and metabolism of lipids in the body. They are spherical particles consisting of a hydrophobic core of TRIGLYCERIDES and CHOLESTEROL ESTERS surrounded by a layer of hydrophilic free CHOLESTEROL; PHOSPHOLIPIDS; and APOLIPOPROTEINS. Lipoproteins are classified by their varying buoyant density and sizes.
The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.
The development and use of techniques to study physical phenomena and construct structures in the nanoscale size range or smaller.
A phenomenon in which infection by a first virus results in resistance of cells or tissues to infection by a second, unrelated virus.
The most abundant protein component of HIGH DENSITY LIPOPROTEINS or HDL. This protein serves as an acceptor for CHOLESTEROL released from cells thus promoting efflux of cholesterol to HDL then to the LIVER for excretion from the body (reverse cholesterol transport). It also acts as a cofactor for LECITHIN CHOLESTEROL ACYLTRANSFERASE that forms CHOLESTEROL ESTERS on the HDL particles. Mutations of this gene APOA1 cause HDL deficiency, such as in FAMILIAL ALPHA LIPOPROTEIN DEFICIENCY DISEASE and in some patients with TANGIER DISEASE.
Nanoparticles produced from metals whose uses include biosensors, optics, and catalysts. In biomedical applications the particles frequently involve the noble metals, especially gold and silver.
An analytical method used in determining the identity of a chemical based on its mass using mass analyzers/mass spectrometers.
A dark-gray, metallic element of widespread distribution but occurring in small amounts; atomic number, 22; atomic weight, 47.90; symbol, Ti; specific gravity, 4.5; used for fixation of fractures. (Dorland, 28th ed)
Proteins coded by the retroviral gag gene. The products are usually synthesized as protein precursors or POLYPROTEINS, which are then cleaved by viral proteases to yield the final products. Many of the final products are associated with the nucleoprotein core of the virion. gag is short for group-specific antigen.
Forms to which substances are incorporated to improve the delivery and the effectiveness of drugs. Drug carriers are used in drug-delivery systems such as the controlled-release technology to prolong in vivo drug actions, decrease drug metabolism, and reduce drug toxicity. Carriers are also used in designs to increase the effectiveness of drug delivery to the target sites of pharmacological actions. Liposomes, albumin microspheres, soluble synthetic polymers, DNA complexes, protein-drug conjugates, and carrier erythrocytes among others have been employed as biodegradable drug carriers.
The statistical reproducibility of measurements (often in a clinical context), including the testing of instrumentation or techniques to obtain reproducible results. The concept includes reproducibility of physiological measurements, which may be used to develop rules to assess probability or prognosis, or response to a stimulus; reproducibility of occurrence of a condition; and reproducibility of experimental results.
Centrifugation with a centrifuge that develops centrifugal fields of more than 100,000 times gravity. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
Process of using a rotating machine to generate centrifugal force to separate substances of different densities, remove moisture, or simulate gravitational effects. It employs a large motor-driven apparatus with a long arm, at the end of which human and animal subjects, biological specimens, or equipment can be revolved and rotated at various speeds to study gravitational effects. (From Websters, 10th ed; McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
A series of steps taken in order to conduct research.
Materials which have structured components with at least one dimension in the range of 1 to 100 nanometers. These include NANOCOMPOSITES; NANOPARTICLES; NANOTUBES; and NANOWIRES.
Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of viruses.
Condition of having pores or open spaces. This often refers to bones, bone implants, or bone cements, but can refer to the porous state of any solid substance.
A process of separating particulate matter from a fluid, such as air or a liquid, by passing the fluid carrier through a medium that will not pass the particulates. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
A replica technique in which cells are frozen to a very low temperature and cracked with a knife blade to expose the interior surfaces of the cells or cell membranes. The cracked cell surfaces are then freeze-dried to expose their constituents. The surfaces are now ready for shadowing to be viewed using an electron microscope. This method differs from freeze-fracturing in that no cryoprotectant is used and, thus, allows for the sublimation of water during the freeze-drying process to etch the surfaces.
Chemistry dealing with the composition and preparation of agents having PHARMACOLOGIC ACTIONS or diagnostic use.
A class of lipoproteins of small size (18-25 nm) and light (1.019-1.063 g/ml) particles with a core composed mainly of CHOLESTEROL ESTERS and smaller amounts of TRIGLYCERIDES. The surface monolayer consists mostly of PHOSPHOLIPIDS, a single copy of APOLIPOPROTEIN B-100, and free cholesterol molecules. The main LDL function is to transport cholesterol and cholesterol esters to extrahepatic tissues.
Techniques used to separate mixtures of substances based on differences in the relative affinities of the substances for mobile and stationary phases. A mobile phase (fluid or gas) passes through a column containing a stationary phase of porous solid or liquid coated on a solid support. Usage is both analytical for small amounts and preparative for bulk amounts.
The first continuously cultured human malignant CELL LINE, derived from the cervical carcinoma of Henrietta Lacks. These cells are used for VIRUS CULTIVATION and antitumor drug screening assays.
A clear, odorless, tasteless liquid that is essential for most animal and plant life and is an excellent solvent for many substances. The chemical formula is hydrogen oxide (H2O). (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
Chromatography on non-ionic gels without regard to the mechanism of solute discrimination.
The ability of a substance to be dissolved, i.e. to form a solution with another substance. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
The engulfing and degradation of microorganisms; other cells that are dead, dying, or pathogenic; and foreign particles by phagocytic cells (PHAGOCYTES).
Separation technique in which the stationary phase consists of ion exchange resins. The resins contain loosely held small ions that easily exchange places with other small ions of like charge present in solutions washed over the resins.
A deoxyribonucleotide polymer that is the primary genetic material of all cells. Eukaryotic and prokaryotic organisms normally contain DNA in a double-stranded state, yet several important biological processes transiently involve single-stranded regions. DNA, which consists of a polysugar-phosphate backbone possessing projections of purines (adenine and guanine) and pyrimidines (thymine and cytosine), forms a double helix that is held together by hydrogen bonds between these purines and pyrimidines (adenine to thymine and guanine to cytosine).
The species Oryctolagus cuniculus, in the family Leporidae, order LAGOMORPHA. Rabbits are born in burrows, furless, and with eyes and ears closed. In contrast with HARES, rabbits have 22 chromosome pairs.
Colloids with liquid continuous phase and solid dispersed phase; the term is used loosely also for solid-in-gas (AEROSOLS) and other colloidal systems; water-insoluble drugs may be given as suspensions.
Colloids formed by the combination of two immiscible liquids such as oil and water. Lipid-in-water emulsions are usually liquid, like milk or lotion. Water-in-lipid emulsions tend to be creams. The formation of emulsions may be aided by amphiphatic molecules that surround one component of the system to form MICELLES.
A hybrid separation technique combining both chromatographic and electrophoretic separation principles. While the method was invented to separate neutral species, it can also be applied to charged molecules such as small peptides.
Methods of creating machines and devices.
Models used experimentally or theoretically to study molecular shape, electronic properties, or interactions; includes analogous molecules, computer-generated graphics, and mechanical structures.
The part of a cell that contains the CYTOSOL and small structures excluding the CELL NUCLEUS; MITOCHONDRIA; and large VACUOLES. (Glick, Glossary of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 1990)
The application of scientific knowledge or technology to pharmacy and the pharmaceutical industry. It includes methods, techniques, and instrumentation in the manufacture, preparation, compounding, dispensing, packaging, and storing of drugs and other preparations used in diagnostic and determinative procedures, and in the treatment of patients.
Polymers of ETHYLENE OXIDE and water, and their ethers. They vary in consistency from liquid to solid depending on the molecular weight indicated by a number following the name. They are used as SURFACTANTS, dispersing agents, solvents, ointment and suppository bases, vehicles, and tablet excipients. Some specific groups are NONOXYNOLS, OCTOXYNOLS, and POLOXAMERS.
A yellow metallic element with the atomic symbol Au, atomic number 79, and atomic weight 197. It is used in jewelry, goldplating of other metals, as currency, and in dental restoration. Many of its clinical applications, such as ANTIRHEUMATIC AGENTS, are in the form of its salts.
Determination of the spectra of ultraviolet absorption by specific molecules in gases or liquids, for example Cl2, SO2, NO2, CS2, ozone, mercury vapor, and various unsaturated compounds. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
Techniques to partition various components of the cell into SUBCELLULAR FRACTIONS.
Individual components of atoms, usually subatomic; subnuclear particles are usually detected only when the atomic nucleus decays and then only transiently, as most of them are unstable, often yielding pure energy without substance, i.e., radiation.
Chromatography on thin layers of adsorbents rather than in columns. The adsorbent can be alumina, silica gel, silicates, charcoals, or cellulose. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
Linear POLYPEPTIDES that are synthesized on RIBOSOMES and may be further modified, crosslinked, cleaved, or assembled into complex proteins with several subunits. The specific sequence of AMINO ACIDS determines the shape the polypeptide will take, during PROTEIN FOLDING, and the function of the protein.
Proteins conjugated with nucleic acids.
A technique used to separate particles according to their densities in a continuous density gradient. The sample is usually mixed with a solution of known gradient materials and subjected to centrifugation. Each particle sediments to the position at which the gradient density is equal to its own. The range of the density gradient is usually greater than that of the sample particles. It is used in purifying biological materials such as proteins, nucleic acids, organelles, and cell types.
Lipids containing one or more phosphate groups, particularly those derived from either glycerol (phosphoglycerides see GLYCEROPHOSPHOLIPIDS) or sphingosine (SPHINGOLIPIDS). They are polar lipids that are of great importance for the structure and function of cell membranes and are the most abundant of membrane lipids, although not stored in large amounts in the system.
A generic term for fats and lipoids, the alcohol-ether-soluble constituents of protoplasm, which are insoluble in water. They comprise the fats, fatty oils, essential oils, waxes, phospholipids, glycolipids, sulfolipids, aminolipids, chromolipids (lipochromes), and fatty acids. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
A mass spectrometry technique used for analysis of nonvolatile compounds such as proteins and macromolecules. The technique involves preparing electrically charged droplets from analyte molecules dissolved in solvent. The electrically charged droplets enter a vacuum chamber where the solvent is evaporated. Evaporation of solvent reduces the droplet size, thereby increasing the coulombic repulsion within the droplet. As the charged droplets get smaller, the excess charge within them causes them to disintegrate and release analyte molecules. The volatilized analyte molecules are then analyzed by mass spectrometry.
The study of the deformation and flow of matter, usually liquids or fluids, and of the plastic flow of solids. The concept covers consistency, dilatancy, liquefaction, resistance to flow, shearing, thixotrophy, and VISCOSITY.
The principal sterol of all higher animals, distributed in body tissues, especially the brain and spinal cord, and in animal fats and oils.
Binary classification measures to assess test results. Sensitivity or recall rate is the proportion of true positives. Specificity is the probability of correctly determining the absence of a condition. (From Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)
A chromatography technique in which the stationary phase is composed of a non-polar substance with a polar mobile phase, in contrast to normal-phase chromatography in which the stationary phase is a polar substance with a non-polar mobile phase.
The preparation, mixing, and assembling of a drug. (From Remington, The Science and Practice of Pharmacy, 19th ed, p1814)
Members of the class of compounds composed of AMINO ACIDS joined together by peptide bonds between adjacent amino acids into linear, branched or cyclical structures. OLIGOPEPTIDES are composed of approximately 2-12 amino acids. Polypeptides are composed of approximately 13 or more amino acids. PROTEINS are linear polypeptides that are normally synthesized on RIBOSOMES.
A nonmetallic element with atomic symbol C, atomic number 6, and atomic weight [12.0096; 12.0116]. It may occur as several different allotropes including DIAMOND; CHARCOAL; and GRAPHITE; and as SOOT from incompletely burned fuel.
A separation technique which combines LIQUID CHROMATOGRAPHY and CAPILLARY ELECTROPHORESIS.
A subfamily in the family MURIDAE, comprising the hamsters. Four of the more common genera are Cricetus, CRICETULUS; MESOCRICETUS; and PHODOPUS.
A large lobed glandular organ in the abdomen of vertebrates that is responsible for detoxification, metabolism, synthesis and storage of various substances.
Concentration or quantity that is derived from the smallest measure that can be detected with reasonable certainty for a given analytical procedure.
The physical phenomena describing the structure and properties of atoms and molecules, and their reaction and interaction processes.
DNA molecules capable of autonomous replication within a host cell and into which other DNA sequences can be inserted and thus amplified. Many are derived from PLASMIDS; BACTERIOPHAGES; or VIRUSES. They are used for transporting foreign genes into recipient cells. Genetic vectors possess a functional replicator site and contain GENETIC MARKERS to facilitate their selective recognition.
Substances used for the detection, identification, analysis, etc. of chemical, biological, or pathologic processes or conditions. Indicators are substances that change in physical appearance, e.g., color, at or approaching the endpoint of a chemical titration, e.g., on the passage between acidity and alkalinity. Reagents are substances used for the detection or determination of another substance by chemical or microscopical means, especially analysis. Types of reagents are precipitants, solvents, oxidizers, reducers, fluxes, and colorimetric reagents. (From Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed, p301, p499)
... objective and quantitative recording of fluorescent signals from individual cells as well as physical separation of cells of ... US 3380584, Mack Fulwyler, "Particle Separator", issued 1965-06-01 *^ Fulwyler MJ (1965). "Electronic separation of biological ... Cell Cycle 5:1940-1945, PMID 16940754. *^ MacPhail SH, Banáth JP, Yu Y, Chu E, Olive PL.Cell cycle-dependent expression of ... automated quantification of specified optical parameters on a cell-by-cell basis. To analyze solid tissues, a single-cell ...
Another effect is deformability of a particle. This can lead to deformability-selective cell separation. This technique is ... "Hydrodynamic Mechanisms Of Cell And Particle Trapping In Microfluidics." Biomicrofluidics 7.2 (2013): 021501-021501-23. Peter ... situations and situations where there is a large difference between the target cells or particles and the other particles in a ... Upon analyzing a fluid with beads, DNA, or other very small particles under a microscope, the trajectories of the particles and ...
Magnetic micro particles are proven research instruments for the separation of cells and proteins from complex media. The ... It is difficult to track a small group of cells throughout the body, so scientists used to dye the cells. These dyes needed to ... Complex drug delivery mechanisms are being developed, including the ability to get drugs through cell membranes and into cell ... K. Eric Drexler, one of the founders of nanotechnology, postulated cell repair machines, including ones operating within cells ...
The Jameson Cell uses bubbles to separate super fine particles during mineral processing. It is based on the froth flotation ... He is notable for being the inventor of the Jameson Cell mineral separation device, which he devised in the 1980s. ... In the coal industry alone, Jameson's cell has retrieved A$36 billion worth of export coal particles. It is being used ... In 2015 he won a Prime Minister's Prize for Science for his cell, and the Prime Minister's Prize for Innovation. In 2018 he was ...
Particles have been applied for use outside of magnetic separation, with hydrodynamic forces to separate particles from the ... The hydrogels are an improvement over 2D cell culture because 3D cell culture have increased cell-cell interactions and cel- ... For magnetic particle separations a droplet of solution containing the analyte of interest is placed on a digital microfluidics ... It follows the same principles as the magnetic particles for separation, but includes pumping of the droplet to cycle a larger ...
DEP has been applied for the separation of live and dead cells, with the remaining live cells still viable after separation [24 ... Thus, this technique is good for characterising single particles and is mainly used for larger particles such as cells;[32] ... stem cells, neurons, pancreatic β cells, DNA, chromosomes, proteins and viruses. DEP can be used to separate particles with ... Where the particle consists of nested spheres - the most common example of which is the approximation of a spherical cell ...
... resulting in particles at varying stages of assembly at the time of release. Viral particles are released, facilitated by cell ... Bunches can re-form after mechanical separation as long as host cells are living. Replication factories are formed as early as ... Viral particles attach directly to the host cell surface. The attachment process occurs very rapidly. Virions can be visibly ... Infected cells were found to aggregate with non-infected cells, a mechanism suggested to be mediated by mannose binding protein ...
Spirals perform a simple, low cost and reasonably efficient separation of finer sized material, based on particle density and ... Denver cells and Jameson Cells are two flotation methods used. ... The lighter particles are caught in an upward stream and pass ... ROM coal can have a large variability of moisture and maximum particle size. Coal needs to be stored at various stages of the ... Jigs are a gravity separation method for coarse coal. Different types of wet jig include: Baum Jig Side pulsated Jig Batac Jig ...
... of hydrophobic particles and hydrophilic particles is then introduced to tanks known as flotation cells that are aerated to ... invented his cell as a means to avoid paying royalties to Minerals Separation, which firms using his cell eventually were ... The attachment of the particle to the bubble is controlled by the induction time of the particle and bubble. The particle and ... several cells in series are required to increase the particle residence time, thus increasing the probability of particle- ...
Lenshof, Andreas; Laurell, Thomas (2010). "Continuous separation of cells and particles in microfluidic systems". Chemical ... the particles will be attracted to the pressure nodes. For a negative value of ϕ {\displaystyle \phi } , the particles will be ... The direction of its movement is governed by the physical properties of the particle and the surrounding medium, expressed in ... In an ultrasonic standing wave field, a small spherical particle ( a ≪ λ {\displaystyle a\ll \lambda } , where a {\displaystyle ...
Furthermore, different materials can be encapsulated within fibers including particles, growth factors, and even cells. ... When hydrogels are physically cross-linked they must rely on phase separation for gelation; the phase separation is temperature ... Schwann cells, astrocytes, and olfactory ensheathing cells. In addition to glial cells, stem cells also have potential benefit ... Pluripotent stem cells can become cells derived from any of the three embryonic germ layers. Stem cells have the advantage over ...
Whittaker VP, Michaelson IA, Kirkland RJ (February 1964). "The separation of synaptic vesicles from nerve-ending particles (' ... Cell. 127 (4): 831-46. doi:10.1016/j.cell.2006.10.030. hdl:11858/00-001M-0000-0012-E357-D. PMID 17110340. S2CID 6703431.. ... Particles containing acetylcholine and its synthesizing enzyme choline acetyltransferase were originally isolated by Hebb and ... Liquid shear detaches the nerve terminals from the axon and the plasma membrane surrounding the nerve terminal particle reseals ...
"Microfluidic Characterization and Continuous Separation of Cells and Particles Using Conducting Poly(dimethyl siloxane) ... cell separation, in particular, blood cell separation, protein analysis, cell manipulation and analysis including cell ... they are dispersed in a cell mixture where they bind to only the cells of interest. The resulting cell/particle mixture can ... Other research has also shown that the label-free separation of cells may be possible by suspending cells in a paramagnetic ...
Isoelectric focusing is the separation of proteins, organelles, and cells with different isoelectric points. Isoelectric ... Dielectrophoresis can be used in bio-MEMS for dielectrophoresis traps, concentrating specific particles at specific points on ... Cell fate is regulated by both interactions between stem cells and interactions between stem cells and membrane proteins. ... Manipulating cell seeding density is a common biological technique in controlling cell-cell interactions, but controlling local ...
Some Problems of Sub-Micron Particle Transfer near the Filter Element at High-Gradient Magnetic Separation. Int. J. Heat and ... Magnetic Properties and Para-and Diamagnetic Phoresis of Blood Cells at High-Gradient magnetic Separation. Magnetohydrodynamics ... Thermal Diffusion of Magnetic Nanoparticles in Ferrocolloids: Experiments on Particle Separation in Vertical Columns. J. Magn. ... Dynamics of thermodiffusive separation of ferrofluids in vertical columns: the effect of solute buoyancy. Magnetohydrodynamics ...
... the separation of the particles is accelerated. This is ideal in industrial and lab settings because particles that would ... In a liquid suspension, many particles or cells will gradually fall to the bottom of the container due to gravity; however, the ... dense particle initially sediments less readily than a large, low density particle. The large particles reach their equilibrium ... This process also plays a role in cyclonic separation, where particles are separated from an air-flow without the use of ...
"Chip integrated strategies for acoustic separation and manipulation of cells and particles". Chemical Society Reviews. Royal ... cell separation, cell trapping, single-cell manipulation, and nanomaterial manipulation. The use of one-dimensional standing ... Fluorescence-activated cell sorters (FACS) can sort cells by focusing a fluid stream containing the cells, detecting ... cells/particles can also be focused in the vertical direction. After SSAW is on, the randomly distributed particles are focused ...
"Dynamical clustering and phase separation in suspensions of self-propelled colloidal particles". Physical Review Letters. 110 ( ... Bacteria collective motion Collective animal behavior Collective cell migration Palacci, Jeremie; Sacanna, Stefano; Steinberg, ... It also appears at the microscopic level: in colonies of bacteria, motility assays and artificial self-propelled particles. The ... One interesting use of enzyme nanomotor chemotaxis is the separation of active and inactive enzymes in microfluidic channels. ...
In the life sciences, a special technique called density gradient separation is used for isolating and purifying cells, viruses ... and subcellular particles. Variations of this include Isopycnic centrifugation, Differential centrifugation, and Sucrose ... A blood donation technique called Pheresis involves density gradient separation. The understanding of what is at the centre of ... ". "GE Healthcare Density Gradient Separation". Archived from the original on 2006-10-09. Retrieved 2006-12-09. Herndon, J.M. " ...
Battery packs for all electric drive EVs can contain several hundred individual cells. Each cell has a nominal voltage of 3-4 ... Physical materials separation recovered materials by mechanical crushing and exploiting physical properties of different ... components such as particle size, density, ferromagnetism and hydrophobicity. Copper, aluminum and steel casing can be ... Then after filling the electrolytes and sealing the cells, the battery cells are cycled carefully to form SEI protecting the ...
This separation depends on chemical isolation, which can originate from spatial localization or from chemical specificity. A ... From molecular to modular cell biology. Nature. 1999 Dec 2;402(6761 Suppl):C47-52. ... concentrates the reactions involved in making a polypeptide into a single particle, thus spatially isolating its function. A ... and of the interactions between signalling proteins within the cell."[1]. ...
... is a tool for more efficient density separation in biochemistry that was first formulated by Pertoft and colleagues. It ... Percoll consists of colloidal silica particles of 15-30 nm diameter (23% w/w in water) which have been coated with ... The latter concern also applies to the use of Percoll with any other cells that might be injected back into a patient, since ... Pertoft, H.; Laurent, T.C.; Laas, T.; Kagedal, L. (1978). "Density gradients prepared from colloidal silica particles coated by ...
The fluorescence intensity is fluctuating due to Brownian motion of the particles. In other words, the number of the particles ... This technique is used in Biology to study the plasma membrane organization on living cells. ω x y 2 = 4 D τ D + t 0 {\ ... FCS has no physical separation process; instead, it achieves its spatial resolution through its optics. Furthermore, FCS ... The analysis gives the average number of fluorescent particles and average diffusion time, when the particle is passing through ...
This allows for the separation of particles with only a 5% difference in size. Centrifugal FFF has the advantage that particles ... Split flow thin-cell fractionation (SPLITT) is a special preparative FFF technique, using gravity for separation of µm-sized ... In all cases, the separation mechanism is produced by differences in particle mobility under the forces of the field, in a ... Consider two particle populations within the FFF channel. The cross field drives both particle clouds towards the bottom " ...
Whittaker, V. P.; Michaelson, I. A.; Kirkland, R. J. (1964). "The separation of synaptic vesicles from nerve-ending particles ... Gray, E. G.; Whittaker, V. P. (1962). "The isolation of nerve endings from brain: an electron-microscopic study of cell ... He later pioneered the application of cell biological techniques to the nervous system. In 1960 he discovered that the ... Aidley, David J. (1998). The Physiology of Excitable Cells. Cambridge, New York: Cambridge University Press. pp. 178. ISBN ...
Kemshead, JT, Ugelstad, J (1985). "Magnetic separation techniques:their application to medicine", Mol Cell Biochem, 67(1):11-8 ... Ugelstad-particles Ball Grid Array and Chip Scale Packaging". ResearchGate. Rangnes 1997:4-5 In 1977: The Norwegian Institute ... Microbeads are used for cell isolation and cell expansion. Proteins and protein complexes can be separated, e.g. in ... Microbeads and magnetic separation technology have enabled a range of innovative methods to benefit research on disease ...
Prior to the invention of particle accelerators, the only way to create polonium was to extract it over several months from ... It can also damage hair follicles and white blood cells. Polonium-210 is only dangerous if ingested or inhaled because its ... Oxygen is generally obtained by separation of air into nitrogen and oxygen. Sulfur is extracted from oil and natural gas. ... Polonium is dangerous as an alpha particle emitter. If ingested, polonium-210 is a million times as toxic as hydrogen cyanide ...
"Coral cell separation and isolation by fluorescence-activated cell sorting (FACS)". BMC Cell Biology. 18 (1): 30. doi:10.1186/ ... In curved microfluidic channels, vortices are formed due to the Dean force which locate different sized particles in different ... SEP system provides a column-free cell separation technique in which a tube of labeled cells is placed inside a magnetic field ... Shields CW, Reyes CD, López GP (March 2015). "Microfluidic cell sorting: a review of the advances in the separation of cells ...
... the separation of the particles is accelerated. This is ideal in industrial and lab settings because particles that would ... Cells are homogenised in a blender and filtered to remove debris. *The homogenised sample is placed in an ultracentrifuge and ... There is a correlation between the size and density of a particle and the rate that the particle separates from a heterogeneous ... the density difference between the particle and the liquid, and the viscosity. The most common application is the separation of ...
"Separation of Rare Earth Elements by Charles James". National Historic Chemical Landmarks. American Chemical Society. Retrieved ... The element is known to damage cell membranes of water animals, causing several negative influences on reproduction and on the ... the inventor of cyclotron particle accelerator) and the symbol "Lw",[33] for the new element, but "Lw" was not adopted, and "Lr ... An obvious problem with this decision was that Urbain was one of the four members of the commission.[22] The separation of ...
... with the chloroplasts close to the walls of the cell, can take optimal advantage of light. The slight separation of the cells ... Covered with tiny, broad scalelike particles.. Tuberculate. Covered with tubercles; covered with warty prominences.. Verrucose ... epidermal hair cells (trichomes), cells in the stomatal complex; guard cells and subsidiary cells. The epidermal cells are the ... Cells that bring water and minerals from the roots into the leaf.. Phloem. Cells that usually move sap, with dissolved sucrose( ...
The mature progeny particles then infect other cells to repeat the cycle. The genetics of the Ebola virus are difficult to ... and providing such barrier-separation supplies has been a priority of Doctors Without Borders.[114] ... dendritic cells and other cells including liver cells, fibroblasts, and adrenal gland cells.[93] Viral replication triggers ... doi:10.1016/j.cell.2014.10.006. PMC 4243531. PMID 25417101.. *^ a b c d e f g h Kühl A, Pöhlmann S (September 2012). "How Ebola ...
Particle size distribution[edit]. The finer the particle size of an activated carbon, the better the access to the surface area ... Activated carbon, in 50% w/w combination with celite, is used as stationary phase in low-pressure chromatographic separation of ... to higher temperatures and either combusted to do work or in the case of hydrogen gas extracted for use in a hydrogen fuel cell ... Notice the fractal-like shape of the particles hinting at their enormous surface area. Each particle in this image, despite ...
Electrolysis cells can be either open cell or closed cell. In open cell systems, the electrolysis products, which are gaseous, ... However, the reduction in separation is not enough by a factor of ten to create the fusion rates claimed in the original ... Known instances of nuclear reactions, aside from producing energy, also produce nucleons and particles on readily observable ... the power input to the cell was equal to the calculated power leaving the cell within measurement accuracy, and the cell ...
Self-propelled particles (Vicsek et al. 1995)[edit]. Main article: Self-propelled particles ... separation: steer to avoid crowding local flockmates. *alignment: steer towards the average heading of local flockmates ... Particle swarm optimization (Kennedy, Eberhart & Shi 1995)[edit]. Main article: Particle swarm optimization ... Over time, particles are accelerated towards those particles within their communication grouping which have better fitness ...
The particles that make up matter have rest mass as well - not all particles have rest mass, such as the photon. Matter can be ... Instead, these substances are discussed in terms of formula units or unit cells as the smallest repeating structure within the ... In chemistry, matter is defined as anything that has rest mass and volume (it takes up space) and is made up of particles. ... Top: Expected results: alpha particles passing through the plum pudding model of the atom undisturbed.. Bottom: Observed ...
ISO 12647-2: Graphic technology - Process control for the production of halftone colour separations, proof and production ... Where aqueous solutions are to be measured, insoluble silver chloride is used to construct the cell. ... Neutral particle detector. Interplanetary. *ADRON-RM (Rosalind Franklin rover). *ASPERA-3 (on Mars Express) ... One experiment that can demonstrate the various uses that visible spectrophotometry can have is the separation of β- ...
... efficiency may be broken down into reflectance efficiency, thermodynamic efficiency, charge carrier separation ... QD's size quantization allows for the band gap to be tuned by simply changing particle size. They also have high extinction ... Perovskite solar cells[edit]. Main article: Perovskite solar cell. Perovskite solar cells are solar cells that include a ... Main articles: Organic solar cell and Polymer solar cell. Organic solar cells and polymer solar cells are built from thin films ...
PDF)You've got the power: the evolution of batteries and the future of fuel cells. Toshiba. Hentet 17. maj 2009.. ... En proces kendt som Atomic vapor laser isotope separation (forkortet "ALVIS") kan bruges til at separere lithiumisotoper, især ... Splitting the Atom': Cockcroft and Walton, 1932: 9. Rays or Particles?" Department of Physics,University of Cambridge ... Battery Anodes , Batteries & Fuel Cells , Research , The Energy Materials Center at Cornell. Hentet 10. ...
Charged particles such as protons and boron, carbon, and neon ions can cause direct damage to cancer cell DNA through high-LET ... Particle therapy[edit]. Main article: Particle therapy. In particle therapy (proton therapy being one example), energetic ... Targeting double-stranded breaks increases the probability that cells will undergo cell death. Cancer cells are generally less ... In contrast, IMRT's use of uncharged particles causes its energy to damage healthy cells when it exits the body. This exiting ...
... assemble these components into new viral particles, and, last, exit the host cell.[63] ... The separation of the genome into eight separate segments of vRNA allows mixing or reassortment of vRNAs if more than one type ... "Cell. 136 (3): 402-10. doi:10.1016/j.cell.2009.01.029. PMC 2971533. PMID 19203576.. ... HA is a lectin that mediates binding of the virus to target cells and entry of the viral genome into the target cell, while NA ...
Envelope fusion with the plasma membrane of the host cell causes separation of the nucleocapsid from viral DNA and proteins. ... Virus particles can be shed by the latent host in shared water or through direct contact (horizontal transmission), ... gB, gD, gH, and gL proteins allow for fusion of the cell and envelope, and are necessary for survival. Entrance to host cells ... DNA and proteins enter the host cell nucleus and turn-off host cell synthesis of nucleic acids, proteins, and other macro ...
... and cells that contained a magnetic particle could be seen with a high power microscope. As the magnetic particle was moved ... This can be interpreted as the separation of the two strands which corresponds to the denaturation of the molecule. In the high ... Magnetic particles[edit]. Magnetic particles for the operation in magnetic tweezers come with a wide range of properties and ... "In Wang, Yu-li; Discher, Dennis E. (eds.). Cell Mechanics. Methods in Cell Biology. 83. Elsevier Inc. pp. 473-493. ISBN 978-0- ...
... "settlement cells" were linked by familial or clan relationships. Settlement cells were the basis of the simplest form of ... Seventh-century Slavic cultures (the Prague-Penkov-Kolochin complex). The Prague and Mogilla cultures reflect the separation of ... which would later result in the separation of the South Slavs, associated with the Antes people of Byzantine historiography). ... Particles. Other. *Proto-Anatolian. *Proto-Armenian. *Proto-Germanic (Proto-Norse). *Proto-Celtic ...
Other proteins are important in cell signaling, immune responses, cell adhesion, and the cell cycle. In animals, proteins are ... Key experimental techniques in proteomics include 2D electrophoresis,[53] which allows the separation of a large number of ... "Towards atomic resolution structural determination by single-particle cryo-electron microscopy". Current Opinion in Structural ... Abundance in cells. It has been estimated that average-sized bacteria contain about 2 million proteins per cell (e.g. E. coli ...
"Improved genome recovery and integrated cell-size analyses of individual uncultured microbial cells and viral particles". ... "On-chip separation and analysis of RNA and DNA from single cells". Analytical Chemistry. 86 (4): 1953-7. doi:10.1021/ac4040218 ... "Pathogen Cell-to-Cell Variability Drives Heterogeneity in Host Immune Responses". Cell. 162 (6): 1309-21. doi:10.1016/j.cell. ... Single-cell genome (DNA) sequencing[edit]. Single-cell DNA genome sequencing involves isolating a single cell, amplifying the ...
... s have specialised light-sensing cells deep in their brains[permanent dead link] that respond to light without input from ... Birkhead, T.R.; Møller, P. (1993). "Sexual selection and the temporal separation of reproductive events: sperm storage data ... The bill is used to brush away foreign particles and to apply waxy secretions from the uropygial gland; these secretions ... Birds are tetrachromatic, possessing ultraviolet (UV) sensitive cone cells in the eye as well as green, red and blue ones.[88] ...
Pasteur advocated separation of science and religion: "In each one of us there are two men, the scientist and the man of faith ... Air was allowed to enter the flask via a long curving tube that made dust particles stick to it. Nothing grew in the broths ... Hans Buchner discovered that zymase catalyzed fermentation, showing that fermentation was catalyzed by enzymes within cells.[ ... Louis Pasteur's pasteurization experiment illustrates the fact that the spoilage of liquid was caused by particles in the air ...
A special class of closed-cell foams, known as syntactic foam, contains hollow particles embedded in a matrix material. The ... One of the theories for determining the separation time is shown below; however, while this theory produces the theoretical ... Solid foams can be closed-cell or open-cell. In closed-cell foam, the gas forms discrete pockets, each completely surrounded by ... In open-cell foam, gas pockets connect to each other. A bath sponge is an example of an open-cell foam: water easily flows ...
Red blood cells are thus much more common than the other blood particles: there are about 4,000-11,000 white blood cells and ... Separation and blood doping. Red blood cells can be obtained from whole blood by centrifugation, which separates the cells from ... Red blood cells, also known as RBCs, red cells,[1] red blood corpuscles, haematids, erythroid cells or erythrocytes (from Greek ... Red blood cells in mammals anucleate when mature, meaning that they lack a cell nucleus. In comparison, the red blood cells of ...
2 diffuses through membranes in the lungs and into red blood cells. Hemoglobin binds O. 2, changing color from bluish red to ... See also: Air separation, Oxygen evolution, and Fractional distillation. One hundred million tonnes of O. 2 are extracted from ... An orbital is a concept from quantum mechanics that models an electron as a wave-like particle that has a spatial distribution ... Another air separation method is forcing air to dissolve through ceramic membranes based on zirconium dioxide by either high ...
Iodine and T4 (over stimulate the spectacular apoptosis [programmed cell death] of the cells of the larval gills, tail and fins ... They scrape and bite food of many kinds as well as stirring up the bottom sediment, filtering out larger particles with the ... The tail often continues to twitch after separation which may distract the attacker and allow the salamander to escape. Both ... The skin colour of amphibians is produced by three layers of pigment cells called chromatophores. These three cell layers ...
Ce, La and Nd are important in alloy making, and in the production of fuel cells and Nickel-metal hydride batteries. Ce, Ga and ... Before the time that ion-exchange methods and elution were available, the separation of the rare earths was primarily achieved ... Acting much like metals they can speciate depending on the soil condition being either motile or adsorbed to soil particles ... Due to the difficulty in separating the metals (and determining the separation is complete), the total number of false ...
of each plate, and inversely proportional to their separation y. {\displaystyle y}. : F. =. μ. A. u. y. .. {\displaystyle F=\mu ... In a suspension of solid particles (e.g. micron-size spheres suspended in oil), an effective viscosity μ. eff. {\displaystyle \ ... "Nanoscale Viscosity of Cytoplasm Is Conserved in Human Cell Lines". doi:10.1021/acs.jpclett.0c01748.. Cite journal requires , ... can be derived directly from the particle dynamics. In a very dilute system, with volume fraction ϕ. ≲. 0.02. {\displaystyle \ ...
Stem cell transplants are a recent research target, because stem cells are easy to manipulate and stem cells transplanted into ... In 1912 Frederic Lewy described microscopic particles in affected brains, later named "Lewy bodies".[16] In 1919 Konstantin ... Brain cell death. There is speculation of several mechanisms by which the brain cells could be lost.[56] One mechanism consists ... "Stem Cell Research Aims to Tackle Parkinson's Disease". Archived from the original on 17 April 2010. Retrieved 16 April 2010.. ...
Charged particles of powder move upward and form a cloud of charged powder above the fluid bed. When a grounded part is passed ... The differentiating factor of this process from others is the separation of the melt stage before the cure stage. UV-cured ... cell phones, and electronic components will propel industry expansion.[11] ... As the film thickness is reduced, the film becomes more and more orange peeled in texture due to the particle size and glass ...
For some applications, the separation is preceded by wafer backgrinding in order to reduce the wafer thickness. Wafer dicing ... Since neutral particles attack the wafer from all angles, this process is isotropic. ... Accelerometers in consumer electronics devices such as game controllers (Nintendo Wii), personal media players / cell phones ( ...
A particle/cell separation device is described which is particularly adapted for neutrophil depletion from a preparation of ... to a particle or cell separation device that separates specific cell types such as neutrophils or stem cells or particles from ... Particle/cell separation device and compositions. US20060235306. Apr 14, 2006. Oct 19, 2006. Integra Lifesciences (Ireland). ... A particle/cell separation device is described which is particularly adapted for neutrophil depletion from a preparation of ...
A particle/cell separation device is described which is particularly adapted for neutrophil depletion from a preparation of ... to a particle or cell separation device that separates specific cell types such as neutrophils or stem cells or particles from ... Particle/cell separation device and compositions. US7608258. 22 Mar 2005. 27 Oct 2009. Allan Mishra. Method for treatment of ... Particle/cell separation device and compositions. US20100092444 *. 8 Oct 2009. 15 Abr 2010. Bioparadox, Llc. Platelet rich ...
The invention has particular utility in the immobilisation and isolation of cells. ... wherein said particle is bound to said support by means of a specific binding partner, characterised in that the linkage ... The present invention provides a method of linking a target particle to an insoluble support, ... Immobilisation and separation of cells and other particles - Google Patents. Immobilisation and separation of cells and other ...
... charge separation and carrier transport. We trying to address the limitations associated with photo absorption, through the ... Influence of particle irradiation on photo-absorption and charge separation kinetics in Organic Solar Cells ... The major issues associated with Organic Photovoltaic (OPV) cells are photo absorption, charge separation and carrier transport ... We are also modifying the microstructure of the active layer to understand its influence on the charge separation and carrier ...
Image‐based sorting and negative dielectrophoresis for high purity cell and particle separation ... Image‐based sorting and negative dielectrophoresis for high purity cell and particle separation ... Image‐based sorting and negative dielectrophoresis for high purity cell and particle separation ... based sorting and negative dielectrophoresis for high purity cell and particle separation. Electrophoresis. (doi:10.1002/elps. ...
A simple method is described that allows a rapid separation of a cell-sap fraction from the large-particle fraction of rat ... A filtration method for the separation of cell sap from the large-particle fraction of rat liver suspensions, enabling the ... A filtration method for the separation of cell sap from the large-particle fraction of rat liver suspensions, enabling the ... A filtration method for the separation of cell sap from the large-particle fraction of rat liver suspensions, enabling the ...
Continuous separation of cells and particles in microfluidic systems. Forskningsoutput: Tidskriftsbidrag › Översiktsartikel ... title = "Continuous separation of cells and particles in microfluidic systems",. abstract = "The progress in microfabrication ... In line with this, microfluidic separation of cells and particles is currently developing rapidly where key areas of interest ... This critical review outlines the most recent developments in microfluidic technology for cell and particle separation in ...
You can use particle tracing software to compute particle trajectories in a fluid or electromagnetic field. Learn more on ... Red Blood Cell Separation. Dielectrophoresis (DEP) occurs when a force is exerted on a dielectric particle as it is subjected ... Particle Tracing Module. Analyze the Behavior of Particles with the Particle Tracing Module. Particles are injected from a ... particle-field interaction), as well as the interaction of particles between each other (particle-particle interaction). ...
The preferred microspheres are prepared from a mixture of albumin, Protein A, and magnetic particles, the microspheres being ... and the microspheres are then used in a magnetic separation procedure. ... microspheres having Protein A associated with the outer surfaces thereof are reacted with antibodies selective to the cells, ... Magnetic particles for use in separations. US4695393 *. Jun 13, 1985. Sep 22, 1987. Advanced Magnetics Inc.. Magnetic particles ...
Separation of serum proteins with uncoupled microsphere particles in a stirred cell. / Yoon, Jeong Yeol; Lee, Jung Hun; Kim, ... Separation of serum proteins with uncoupled microsphere particles in a stirred cell. In: Colloids and Surfaces B: Biointerfaces ... Separation of serum proteins with uncoupled microsphere particles in a stirred cell. Colloids and Surfaces B: Biointerfaces. ... Yoon, JY, Lee, JH, Kim, JH & Kim, WS 1998, Separation of serum proteins with uncoupled microsphere particles in a stirred cell ...
Pneumatic flotation cells. Contactor/separator machines. Froth separation. References. 9. Particle Size Enlargement. ... Effect of coal particle size distribution on rheology of CWS.. Effect of coal surface properties on rheology of CWS.. Additives ...
... charge separation, dielectric constant, and derivatives thereof. The method includes generating a region of space having a ... The particle physical characteristics include particle size, shape, magnetic susceptibility, magnetic label density, ... determining the velocity of at least one particle within the region by identifying and locating the particle and its ... A device for determining one or more particle physical characteristics is described which has a force field device for ...
Acoustic separation of oil droplets, colloidal particles and their mixtures in a microfluidic cell. In: Colloids and Surfaces A ... Acoustic separation of oil droplets, colloidal particles and their mixtures in a microfluidic cell. Colloids and Surfaces A: ... The separation process of both oil droplets and colloidal particles inside the cell was recorded using a high-speed video ... The separation process of both oil droplets and colloidal particles inside the cell was recorded using a high-speed video ...
The Big Easy EasySep™ Magnet is designed to process 1 x 10^9 cells using EasySep or RoboSep reagents without the use of ... magnetic particle affect the cells? is the function of positively selected cells altered by the bound particles? Hundreds of ... How does the separation work? Magnetic particles are crosslinked to cells using Tetrameric Antibody Complexes (TAC). When ... We recommend a cell concentration of 2x108 cells/mL and a minimum working volume of 100 µL. Samples containing 2x107 cells or ...
Bureau of Mines used an electrochemical technique to measure the velocity profile within a laboratory flotation cell. A small ... Fluid/particle Separation J., V. 3, No. 2, June 1990, PP. 71-75 ... profile was mapped throughout the laboratory flotation cell at ... The U.S. Bureau of Mines used an electrochemical technique to measure the velocity profile within a laboratory flotation cell. ...
Purchase Centrifugal Separations in Molecular and Cell Biology - 1st Edition. Print Book & E-Book. ISBN 9780408708036, ... including the separation and fractionation of biological particles by centrifugation on the preparative and analytical scales. ... Separations of Different Cell Types Separation of Cells According to Position in The Cell Cycle Nuclei and Nuclear Membranes ... Centrifugal Separations in Molecular and Cell Biology 1st Edition. 0 star rating Write a review ...
of the cell is approximately equal to the droplet diameter (A, ), while these lines are stable when the separation is a few ... Flow-induced phase separation of active particles is controlled by boundary conditions.. Thutupalli S1,2,3,4, Geyer D3, Singh R ... Flow-induced phase separation of active particles is controlled by boundary conditions ... Flow-induced phase separation of active particles is controlled by boundary conditions ... Hydrodynamic (Passive) Cell Separation 13. Nonhydrodynamic (Active) Particle Separation 18 ... Automated Cell Selection and Positioning 292. 11.3 Biomechanical and Morphological Characterization of Living Cells ... 18.3 In situ Quantification of Living Cell Adhesion Forces: Single-Cell Force Spectroscopy with a Nanotweezer 459 ... 17 Investigating the Molecular Specific Interactions on Cell Surface Using Atomic Force Microscopy 417. Mi Li, Lianqing Liu, ...
... objective and quantitative recording of fluorescent signals from individual cells as well as physical separation of cells of ... US 3380584, Mack Fulwyler, "Particle Separator", issued 1965-06-01 *^ Fulwyler MJ (1965). "Electronic separation of biological ... Cell Cycle 5:1940-1945, PMID 16940754. *^ MacPhail SH, Banáth JP, Yu Y, Chu E, Olive PL.Cell cycle-dependent expression of ... automated quantification of specified optical parameters on a cell-by-cell basis. To analyze solid tissues, a single-cell ...
This separation requires leakproof junctions between .... * Hyperon (subatomic particle) Hyperon, quasi-stable member of a ... from the article Cell Sheets of cells separate fluids within the organs from fluids outside, as in the epithelial layer lining ... Current research in particle physics. from the article Subatomic Particle The Higgs boson is the particle associated with the ... Baryon (subatomic particle) Baryon, any member of one of two classes of hadrons (particles built from quarks and thus ...
An apparatus and method provide automated collection and transfer of particles from a liquid suspension to a glass slide for ... In one particular magnetic separation assay, the MACS Cell Sorter, High Gradient Magnetic Cell Separation with MACS, Miltenyi ... The cells 24 that bind to the micro-particles 28 are thus tagged with a magnetically activatable bead that imbues to the cells ... The term biological particles is used herein to encompass cells, mycoplasma, viruses and particles in general that can be bound ...
Magnetic Dipole Hydroxyethyl Methacrylate Cell Separation Magnetite Particle Magnetic Microsphere These keywords were added by ... Magnetic Microspheres in Cell Separation. In: Catsimpoolas N. (eds) Methods of Cell Separation. Biological Separations. ... Milgrom, F., and Goldstein, R., 1962, Agglutination of sensitized red blood cells by latex particles, Vox Sang. 7: 86.PubMed ... Melville, D., Paul, F., and Roath, S., 1975, Direct magnetic separation of red cells from whole blood, Nature (London) 255: 706 ...
Sometimes called "The God Particle", this very special particle generates the differences between the fundamental particles and ... OPPENHEIMER LECTURE: The Higgs Particle: Pivot Of Symmetry And Mass. Gerardus t Hooft Professor of Theoretical Physics, ... Our theoretical understanding of the sub-atomic world would not be complete without the Higgs particle. ...
Magnetic Cell Separation(16 of 16) results found BD IMag™ Anti-CD11b Magnetic Particles - DM Clone: M1/70 Size:10 mL Status:RUO ... BD IMag™ Mouse NK Cell Separation Set - DM Clone: Size: Status:RUO Cat No.:558004 ... BD IMag™ Anti-Mouse Ly-6G and Ly-6C Particles - DM Clone: RB6-8C5 Size:10 mL Status:RUO Cat No.:558111 ... BD IMag™ Anti-Mouse CD45R/B220 Magnetic Particles - DM Clone: RA3-6B2 Size:10 mL Status:RUO Cat No.:551513 ...
Single-step separation of multiple-size particles. This movie corresponds to the data presented in Fig. 3A of the main text. ... Separation of human cancer cell from blood cells. The movie demonstrates the separation process of MCF-7 (human breast cancer ... Cell separation using tilted-angle acoustic waves. Xiaoyun Ding, Zhangli Peng, Sz-Chin Steven Lin, Michela Geri, Sixing Li, ... Cell separation using tilted-angle acoustic waves. Xiaoyun Ding, Zhangli Peng, Sz-Chin Steven Lin, Michela Geri, Sixing Li, ...
... optical sorting equipment manufacturer MSS has introduced a new high-resolution colour camera sorting system for small particle ... The system is designed to provide a separation accuracy of up to 98% and is available with a proprietary shape identification ... The L-VIS allows us to sort smaller and smaller particles, explains MSS Sales Director Felix Hottenstein. An all-metal ... According to MSS, the system can accurately identify even the smallest particles and sort using a corresponding high-resolution ...
Download the Red Blood Cell Separation app here. ... how a dielectrophoresis device filters red blood cells when you ... This allows DEP to be used to separate different kinds of particles, such as various kinds of cells from a mixture. The Red ... Blood Cell Separation application shows how red blood cells can be selectively filtered from a blood sample in order to isolate ... The two outlets are arranged so that the top outlet catches undeflected particles and only particles that have been deflected ...
A high dynamic range apparatus for separation and detection of polynucleotide fragments has a housing adapted to receive an ... Particle Technology Inc. Method and apparatus for classifying biological cells. US4329591 *. 2 Jun 1980. 11 May 1982. Olympus ... 1. An electrophoresis separation and real-time detection apparatus comprising:. (a) a housing adapted to receive an ... As shown, the apparatus has a housing 10 within which the means for electrophoretic separation and detection of the sample are ...
Such polymer dispersions are prepared by in a first step preparing a dispersion of smaller monodisperse polymer particles ... then in a second step adding a partly water-soluble monomer which diffuses into the particles from the first step, and then ... said particles having a diameter of preferably 5 μm or more. ... Immobilization and separation of cells and other particles. ... The invention provides monodisperse polymer particles and dispersions thereof, ...
2000) Microdevice for cell and particle separation using dielectrophoretic field-flow fractionation. J Liq Chrom Relat Tech 23: ... human cancer cells/red blood cells; and rodent fibroblasts/red blood cells. A single-pass protocol can enrich cells with cell ... and cell loss (the number of cells which are unaccounted for at the end of the separation). The number of missing cells was ... 106 cell sort (20 million cells per milliliter, 15 mL total volume) represents the maximum effective cell separation where the ...
  • The Particle Tracing Module extends the functionality of the COMSOL environment for computing the trajectory of particles in a fluid or electromagnetic field, including particle-particle, fluid-particle, and particle-field interactions. (
  • The model uses the Laminar Flow and Particle Tracing for Fluid Flow interfaces. (
  • The Rotating Machinery interface is used to model the fluid flow, and the Particle Tracing for Fluid Flow interface computes the particle trajectories. (
  • Solid particles are carried by a fluid through a 90° pipe elbow. (
  • Active particles, including swimming microorganisms, autophoretic colloids, and droplets, are known to self-organize into ordered structures at fluid-solid boundaries. (
  • In biotechnology , flow cytometry is a laser - or impedance -based, biophysical technology employed in cell counting , cell sorting , biomarker detection and protein engineering , by suspending cells in a stream of fluid and passing them through an electronic detection apparatus. (
  • The flow cell has a liquid stream (sheath fluid), which carries and aligns the cells so that they pass single file through the light beam for sensing. (
  • Upon analyzing a fluid with beads, DNA, or other very small particles under a microscope, the trajectories of the particles and the stagnation point can be determined. (
  • Progress will require coupling atomistic simulation techniques, such as density functional theory and molecular dynamics simulations, with aggregate interactions (coarse-grained molecular dynamics), lattice-Boltzmann methods, and computational fluid dynamics to provide predictive materials requirements that span the multiple scales of the interactions that drive many separation processes. (
  • The present invention relates to a fluidic sorting device for the separation of two or more different materials or particles which are suspended in a fluid. (
  • An apparatus and method are provided for separating components of a fluid or particles. (
  • A separation vessel having a barrier dam is provided to initially separate an intermediate density components of a fluid, and a fluid chamber is provided to further separate these intermediate density components by. (
  • The separation vessel includes a shield for limiting flow into the fluid chamber of relatively high density substances, such as red blood cells. (
  • 2. Single Particles in a Fluid. (
  • 2.1 Motion Of Solid Particles In A Fluid. (
  • 2.2 Particles Falling Under Gravity Through A Fluid. (
  • 6. Fluid Flow Through a Packed Bed of Particles. (
  • In this process, a sample containing cells or particles is suspended in a fluid and injected into the flow cytometer instrument. (
  • The dispersion of inertial particles in turbulent convection has direct relevance for many industrial and environmental applications, where the fluid heat transfer can be modified by the presence and the deposition of particles at the walls (e.g. nuclear power plants, petrochemical multiphase reactors, cooling systems for electronic devices, pollutant dispersion in the atmospheric boundary layer, aerosol deposition etc. (
  • Mean and higher order statistics on particle and fluid velocity and temperature fields are also presented. (
  • This simulation method introduces ballistic and collision steps of coarse-grained fluid particles and recovers the Navier-Stokes equations on length scales larger than the particle distance. (
  • abstract = "The progress in microfabrication and lab-on-a-chip technologies has been a major area of development for new approaches to bioanalytics and integrated concepts for cell biology. (
  • abstract = "Here we report direct macroscopic and microscopic observations of acoustic driven separation of dodecane oil droplets in water in the presence and absence of colloidal silica particles suspended in the water phase. (
  • Lysosomes are membrane-bound structures containing a variety of enzymes that can break down the large molecular constituents of the cell. (
  • The strategy behind selective cell lysis takes advantage of the differences between the blood-cell membrane and the bacterial cell-wall. (
  • Analysis of membrane fractions of the mutant, SR-21, and wild-type cells indicated that MtrB is located on the outer membrane of S. putrefaciens . (
  • The N-terminal sequence of MtrA contains a potential signal sequence for secretion across the cell membrane. (
  • Diesel exhaust particles were entrapped by membrane protrusions developed by IOBA-NHC. (
  • Cleavages distal to the membrane-spanning regions of C and the two envelope glycoproteins prM and E by host signalase in the lumen of the rough ER and a cleavage proximal to the membrane-spanning region of C by viral protease in the cytoplasm are important to the assembly of viral particles ( 32 ). (
  • A simple method is described that allows a rapid separation of a cell-sap fraction from the large-particle fraction of rat liver suspensions. (
  • The method is based on the filtration under suction of liver suspensions through Millipore filters that retain nuclei, mitochondria and some of the endoplasmic-reticulum fraction, but allow quantitative passage of cell sap into a collecting tube. (
  • Our work elucidates the mechanism of flow-induced phase separation in active fluids, particularly active colloidal suspensions, and demonstrates its control by boundaries, suggesting routes to geometric and topological phenomena in an active matter. (
  • The MACSiMAG™ Separator is designed for the removal of MACSiBead™ Particles from cell suspensions. (
  • Radial particle displacements in Poiseuille flow of suspensions. (
  • therapeutics [3] for isolation and sorting of target cells from heterogeneous suspensions. (
  • High-throughput flow cytometry of adherent cells is difficult because the creation of single cell suspensions can damage cells and yield artificial results. (
  • The separation is achieved on the basis of the difference in sedimentation-rate of the cells. (
  • By using a centrifuge to generate an RCF of 1500 x g , we can speed up this sedimentation process and separate the cells from the plasma in approximately 10 minutes. (
  • Thus, one kind of cell can be separated from another if there is a sufficient difference in size and sedimentation rate. (
  • This method is often used to separate lymphocytes, a type of white blood cell, which are so similar in size to many other blood cells that they can't be separated by ordinary sedimentation methods. (
  • 5.5 Influences of Particle Size and Surface Forces on Solid/Liquid Separation by Sedimentation. (
  • The authors took advantage of the fastest sedimentation speed of cell aggregates of increasing size as a shortcut for selecting for more complex cell assemblies and potential mutations favouring them. (
  • Inertial microfluidics can focus size-dependent particle at high flow-rates. (
  • A high resolution numerical technique coupled with Lagrangian particle tracking is employed, in this work, to investigate the behaviour of inertial particles in a periodic turbulent Rayleigh-Benard convection cell. (
  • Particles smaller than a given size are removed from the exhaust by diffusional deposition, while removal of particles above a given size is achieved by low pressure inertial impaction. (
  • Inertial microfluidics studies the motion of particles in microchannels at intermediate Reynolds numbers. (
  • Devices utilizing this inertial focusing for particle separation have recently been demonstrated [2, 3]. (
  • Sheathless inertial cell ordering for extreme throughput flow cytometry. (
  • Continuous inertial focusing, ordering, and separation of particles in microchannels. (
  • The contraction-expansion array (CEA) channel device utilizes hydrodynamic effects, which include inertial lift forces and Dean drag forces, to manipulate particles at a very high throughput and without external forces. (
  • Asmolov ES (1999) The inertial lift on a spherical particle in a plane Poiseuille flow at large channel Reynolds number. (
  • Dinler A, Okumus I (2018) Inertial particle separation in curved networks: a numerical study. (
  • Hansson J, Karlsson JM, Haraldsson T, Wijngaart WVD, Russom A (2011) Inertial particle focusing in parallel microfluidic channels for high-throughput filtration. (
  • Hydrodynamic trapping in microfluidics can be used to trap very small particles in an aqueous solution for a long period of time in order to isolate particles and observe their behavior. (
  • Hydrodynamic trapping allows isolation of a target cell from an aqueous mixture. (
  • 13. The improved process according to claim 1, further comprising resuspending the magnetic coated particles in water or an aqueous buffer solution. (
  • Several studies for aqueous suspension of particles have been reported in the past. (
  • This is demonstrated by sorting particles into two microfluidic outlets, controlled by an automated system that interprets video data from a color camera and makes complex sorting decisions based on color, intensity, size, and shape. (
  • 9. Particle Size Enlargement. (
  • Effect of coal particle size distribution on rheology of CWS. (
  • Yes, the EasySep™ particles are flow cytometry-compatible, as they are very uniform in size and about 5000X smaller than other commercially available magnetic beads used with column-free systems. (
  • No, but due to the small size of these particles, they will not interfere with downstream applications. (
  • Single-step separation of multiple-size particles. (
  • The DEP force is sensitive to the size, shape, and dielectric properties of the particles. (
  • This system is capable of capturing micro as well as macro images of metallurgical specimens,analyzing and quantifying the information contained in the image such as grain size, graphite nodule size and count, phase distribution, particle size. (
  • Within a few minutes, the MACSiBead Particles, 3.5 μm in size, together with the labeled material (e.g. certain cells, endotoxin) adhere to the tube wall. (
  • In this paper, we will focus on label free CTCs isolation methods, in which the biophysical and biomechanical properties of cells (e.g., size, deformability, and electricity) are exploited for CTCs detection. (
  • Besides differing in charge, proteins also differ in size, and this latter property can be used as the basis of separation . (
  • Many technical processes using finely divided materials require that the particle size be as uniform as possible. (
  • The particles are then entered into the second stage where particles are driven towards the off-center pressure nodes for size based separation. (
  • Consequently, different-size particles are separated into multiple collection outlets. (
  • EVs are lipid bilayer vesicles secreted by cells, and generally, the size ranges between hundreds of nanometers. (
  • Here, we report noninvasive size-based EV separation on a chip and analyze separation patterns of micro- and nano-vesicles/particles. (
  • Poly (caprolactone) (PCL) particles with the size distribution from 1 to 100 μm were prepared through solvent-induced phase separation, in which polyvinyl-alcohol (PVA) was used as the matrix-forming polymer to stabilize PCL particles. (
  • The size distribution of PCL particles was investigated by a particle size analyzer. (
  • By centrifuging at various speeds and times, different size particles can be separated and collected from a mixture. (
  • Particle size dispersion specific to your requirements. (
  • In this study, we demonstrate that a simple lattice-shaped microfluidic pattern can work as a virtual sieve for size-dependent continuous particle sorting. (
  • We successfully sorted microparticles based on size with high accuracy, and clearly showed that geometric parameters, including the channel density and the slant angle, critically affect the sorting behaviors of particles. (
  • The work in this thesis is based on three ways to isolate bacteria: immune-based isolation, selective cell lysis, size-based separation. (
  • Difference in size is another well-used characteristic for sample- separation. (
  • In such a device particles of 2µm diameter (size of bacteria) would not be focused and thereby present at every outlet. (
  • 1. Particle Size Analysis. (
  • 1.2 Describing The Size Of A Single Particle. (
  • 1.8 Methods Of Particle Size Measurement. (
  • 12. Particle Size Reduction. (
  • Results show that the resolution increases as a direct function of the number of trap-and-release steps, and that a difference in size will have a larger influence on the separation than a difference in other dielectrophoretic properties. (
  • The enhanced separation power of dielectrophoresis with multiple steps could be of great importance, not only for fractionation of particles with small differences in size, but also for measuring changes in surface conductivity, or for separations based on combinations of difference in size and dielectric properties. (
  • Based on a simplified version of the particle dynamic model, two numerical simulations are carried out to predict the efficiency of dielectrophoretic separation of micro size particles. (
  • Particles can experience different optical forces depending on their size and/or optical properties, such as refractive index. (
  • The miniscule forces that light exerts on micron-size particles have empowered scientists, particularly those in biomedicine, enabling them to perform important studies on single molecules, cells, and colloids, without inflicting damage (see Fig. 1). (
  • Cells are passed though an optical gradient that acts as a sieve, allowing separation by size, shape, or refractive index. (
  • What is the size of your magnetic particles? (
  • Apart from their differences in size and E dimer arrangements, small and large particles are distinguishable by other structural and functional properties, including the N-glycosylation pattern of the E protein ( 2 ) and the ability to agglutinate red blood cells ( 20 , 25 ). (
  • The objective of this study is the design, construction and evaluation of a Selective Particle Size (SPS) sampler able to provide continuous delivery of diesel soot particles of specific size ranges. (
  • By applying the SPS sampler to diesel exhaust it is demonstrated that it is possible to obtain two aerosol streams with widely separated particle size distributions (of nanometric dimensions), suitable for biological exposure studies. (
  • The lift force, which drives the particle to its preferred position within the channel, depends on the Reynolds number, the particle size, and particle speed relative to the Poiseuille flow. (
  • Here, we show, using a simple model of cell-cell interactions and evolving adhesion rates, that the observed patterns in cluster size and localized mortality can be easily interpreted in terms of waste accumulation and toxicity-driven apoptosis. (
  • BioMag®Plus Protein A Particles are superparamagnetic particles approximately 1µm in size with Protein A covalently attached. (
  • BioMag®Plus Protein G Particles are superparamagnetic particles approximately 1µm in size that have Protein G covalently attached. (
  • The equilibrium position for the particles in a CEA channel can be affected by both the particle size and the flow streamlines. (
  • Chao L, Xue C, Chen X, Lei S, Yu T, Hu G (2015) Size-based separation of particles and cells utilizing viscoelastic effects in straight microchannels. (
  • Hu G, Liu C, Sun J, Jiang X (2012) Size-dependent cell separation and enrichment using double spiral microchannels. (
  • Submicron microspheres were used directly without ligand coupling for the batch and continuous separations of proteins. (
  • The separation of mixtures of proteins is often difficult because of the similarity of the properties of such molecules. (
  • When proteins are dissolved in water, they ionize (form electrically charged particles). (
  • Extracellular vesicles (EVs) are the cell-secreted nano- and micro-sized particles consisted of lipid bilayer containing nucleic acids and proteins for diagnosis and therapeutic applications. (
  • The complexity of a biological system can be resolved by using its physicochemical properties to isolate and separate its specific constituent bio-organisms and -molecules, such as cells, bacteria, proteins, and DNA. (
  • Wouldn't that cause damage to the cells and particles in the culture which have proteins on their surfaces, including the so called spike protein? (
  • These tools use biochemical labeling to identify and/or sort cells which express specific surface markers (usually proteins). (
  • Centrifugal Separations in Molecular and Cell Biology focuses on the application of modern centrifugation technology in molecular and cell biology, including the separation and fractionation of biological particles by centrifugation on the preparative and analytical scales. (
  • The selection first covers the principles and practices of centrifugation and the bases of centrifugal separations. (
  • Schachner, M., and Sharrow, S. W., 1977, Isolation of glial cell enriched and depleted populations from mouse cerebellum by density gradient centrifugation and electronic cell sorting, Brain Res . (
  • In particular, the present invention relates to the use of a cell-trap centrifugation tube containing a specific density gradient solution adjusted to the specific density of a desired cell population to enrich for the desired cell from a cell source. (
  • The tube allows the desired cell population to be collected by decantation after centrifugation to minimize cell loss and maximize efficiency. (
  • Here, we demonstrate how monocytes are isolated by magnetic bead separation from peripheral blood mononuclear cells after density gradient centrifugation of human anti-coagulated blood. (
  • Thus far, three major techniques have been used for cell separation: centrifugation-based methods, fluorescence-activated cell sorting (FACS), and magnetic cell sorting. (
  • The chemical synthesis methods are a tool for producing small spherical particles. (
  • 2.3 Non-Spherical Particles. (
  • Here, we present numerical studies of spherical particles embedded in a pressure driven flow in microchannels at intermediate Reynolds numbers. (
  • Choi YS, Seo KW, Lee SJ (2011) Lateral and cross-lateral focusing of spherical particles in a square microchannel. (
  • A centrifugal field can be used to separate particles in a solution. (
  • How can a centrifugal field be used to separate particles from a mixture-blood, for instance? (
  • By applying centrifugal force, we can separate particles with small difference in density. (
  • This invention relates to the fractionation of heterogeneous populations of cells or the like to isolate a relatively homogeneous sub-population of a specific cell type. (
  • Cell fractionation studies of S. putrefaciens MR-1 revealed the presence of ferric reductase activity in the outer membranes of anaerobically grown cells ( 25 ). (
  • To analyze solid tissues , a single-cell suspension must first be prepared. (
  • An apparatus and method provide automated collection and transfer of particles from a liquid suspension to a glass slide for visual examination. (
  • The apparatus includes a device for dispersing the liquid suspension of particles prior to the collection process and for collecting particles against the collection surface with a spatial distribution advantageous for visual examination. (
  • PCL-acetone and PVA-water solutions, PCL-PVA gel, and PCL particles suspension were recorded by a digital camera. (
  • The morphology of PCL-PVA suspension and PCL particles were observed by optical microscopy and scanning electron microscopy, respectively. (
  • The cell suspension is fed to a chamber the walls of which diverge over a certain length thereof and which converge again toward the exit from the chamber. (
  • Blood consists of plasma (which is a solution of water and many other compounds) and several kinds of particles in suspension, namely: red cells, white cells, and platelets. (
  • STUDY: "…We added [ not isolated ] 100 μL of cell suspension directly to the clinical specimen dilutions and mixed gently by pipetting. (
  • 3.1 Settling Of A Suspension Of Particles. (
  • We describe a protocol to increase the single cell suspension yield of adherent human cells without injury. (
  • single magnetic microsphere to form a so-called particle probe [4]. (
  • The invention has particular utility in the immobilisation and isolation of cells. (
  • Isolation Of Expoliated Colonic Epithelial Cells, A Novel, Non-Invasive Approach To The Study Of Cellular Markers," International Journal of Cancer, vol. 52, pp. 347-350 (1992). (
  • To assess the present state of various isolation methods, key performance metrics such as capture efficiency, cell viability, and throughput will be reported. (
  • Isolation means separation from everything else. (
  • MojoSort™ is BioLegend's magnetic cell separation system for the isolation and purification of cells from heterogeneous populations. (
  • MojoSort™ Isolation Kits typically contain a biotin-antibody cocktail and Streptavidin Nanobeads, intended to isolate an untouched cell population. (
  • The isolation of a specific cell population from a complex sample has become a common lab procedure. (
  • FACS and magnetic cell sorting offer the advantage of a more specific isolation, as they use antibodies to select the target population. (
  • Isolation of immunoglobulins using BioMag®Plus Protein A Particles allows isolation from small samples (50 microliters or less), as well as the option to easily scale up to larger samples. (
  • Start Forskningsoutput Continuous separation of cells and particles in microfluidic. (
  • This critical review outlines the most recent developments in microfluidic technology for cell and particle separation in continuous flow based systems. (
  • For the continuous experiments, the utilization of a stirred cell was successful, where the microspheres were in the form of latex with good dispersion of particles. (
  • At a no-slip wall, the crystallites are characterized by a continuous out-of-plane flux of particles that circulate and re-enter at the crystallite edges, thereby stabilizing them. (
  • Smaller particles flow along the streamline, whereas larger particles are filtered and gradually separated from the stream, resulting in continuous particle sorting. (
  • The particles' inertia and turbulent dispersion in the flow can cause them to impinge on the pipe walls. (
  • Such polymer dispersions are prepared by in a first step preparing a dispersion of smaller monodisperse polymer particles containing one or more materials having. (
  • Such polymer dispersions are prepared by in a first step preparing a dispersion of smaller monodisperse polymer particles containing one or more materials having a very low solubility in water, and a relatively low molecular weight, then in a second step adding a partly water-soluble monomer which diffuses into the particles from the first step, and then effecting polymerization. (
  • In particular, we focus on the effects of different flow regimes, obtained varying the Rayleigh number, on particle dispersion/resuspension. (
  • We also studied the dependency of pair dispersion properties on the initial pair separation. (
  • The invention provides monodisperse polymer particles and dispersions thereof, said particles having a diameter of preferably 5 μm or more. (
  • In one aspect of the invention, a particle comprising a multitude of submicron polymer bead aggregates covalently cross-linked to each other to form larger diameter particles is presented. (
  • Thus, particles of 10 µm diameter were positioned in precise streamlines within a curved channel. (
  • Theoretical predictions were corroborated with measurements using polystyrene latex particles of 20 micron diameter. (
  • Subviral particles are only about 32 nm in diameter ( 11 ). (
  • Theoretical calculations are used to simulate particle trajectories and to determine the net deflection: a measure of the ability to separate. (
  • Instead, hydrodynamic trapping is universal and can be used on any particles. (
  • This is because the hydrodynamic trapping force is closely related to radius of a particle, whereas alternate trapping methods are more closely related to volume of a particle. (
  • Several advantages exist for the use of hydrodynamic trapping as a separation technique, including: higher processing rates, less use of samples, better spatial resolution, and cost efficiency. (
  • Hydrodynamic Mechanisms Of Cell And Particle Trapping In Microfluidics. (
  • Hydrodynamic microfluidic platforms have been proven to be useful and versatile for precisely sorting particles/cells based on their physicochemical properties. (
  • The hydrodynamic force between the particles and the particle-particle electrostatic interactions are considered as well. (
  • Complex drug delivery mechanisms are being developed, including the ability to get drugs through cell membranes and into cell cytoplasm . (
  • Histological examination showed acute focal tubular necrosis, the renal corpuscles showed thickened membranes, changes in Bowman's capsule parietal cells and effacement of podocyte foot processes and the interstitium showed mononuclear cellular infiltration. (
  • Reduction is not observed upon separation of cells from the oxide particles by dialysis membranes ( 4 ). (
  • Particle separations are performed for one of two purposes: (1) to remove particles from gases or liquids, or (2) to separate particles of different sizes or properties. (
  • In recent years, researchers have been interested in separating micro particles using microfluidic chips because of its great advantages in relation to various applications such as in biotechnology, medical examination, and cell studies. (
  • Based on the effective dipole moment method, the particle dynamic model focuses on the translational motions of micro particles. (
  • The machine vision apparatus captures an image of a particle or material, interprets the image, then makes subsequent value judgements, and decides as to whether the particle is to be separated out. (
  • The decision of the machine vision apparatus controls a fluidic logic element which facilitates the separation of the particles or materials. (
  • This invention enables one to program the apparatus to identify certain characteristics of particles. (
  • The presented system for particle/cell sorting would become a simple but versatile unit operation in microfluidic apparatus for chemical/biological experiments and manipulations. (
  • In both cases we constructed an apparatus to view cells under a microscope. (
  • During the export of immature particles through the secretory pathway, cleavage of prM by the trans-Golgi apparatus resident furin allows reorganization of the receptor-binding E protein that is required for the acquisition of infectivity ( 9 , 43 ). (
  • A cell-in-droplet encapsulation using Dean flow in a spiral microfluidic device was applied to separate microalgae. (
  • Lee M-L, Yao D-J. The Separation of Microalgae Using Dean Flow in a Spiral Microfluidic Device. (
  • Instead, the sheathless flow focusing and separation are integrated within a single microfluidic device and accomplished simultaneously. (
  • We used a microfluidic device to perform EV separation based on heterogeneous sizes with diameters between 0.1 and 5 μm. (
  • The method advances usability and throughput of DEP separation by orders of magnitude in throughput, efficiency, purity, recovery (cells arriving in the correct output fraction), cell losses (those which are unaccounted for at the end of the separation), and cost. (
  • Existence of the sheath liquid dilutes the analyte, necessitates precise flow control between sample and sheath flow, requires a complicated design to create sheath flow and separation efficiency depends on the sheath liquid composition. (
  • Also, the effects of the input power, the flow rate, and particle concentration on the separation efficiency were investigated. (
  • 9.3 Efficiency Of Separation. (
  • Finally, the microfluidic system was applied for the separation of plasma, RBCs and NCI-H1299 cancer cells from blood with high efficiency and purity. (
  • The invention relates to an improved method for the manufacture of magnetically responsive particles, also called ferrofluids. (
  • The improved method involves a heat treatment step, which may occur at various times during the preparation of the materials, including during subdivision of the magnetic starting material, during the addion of a coating material, after formation of a magnetically responsive particle, or some combination thereof. (
  • The workhorses in most research and commercial labs are fluorescently-activated cell sorters (FACS) [1] and magnetically-labeled cell sorters (MACS) [2]. (
  • Permanent magnets can then be used to separate magnetically-tagged cells from untagged cells. (
  • User-defined wall conditions may also be specified, where the post collision particle velocity is typically a function of the incoming particle velocity and the wall normal vector. (
  • The number of secondary particles and their velocity distribution function can be functions of the primary particle velocity and the wall geometry. (
  • The method includes generating a region of space having a substantially constant force field, determining the velocity of at least one particle within the region by identifying and locating the particle and its coordinates in at least two temporally defined digital images, and determining the particle physical characteristics from the determined velocity and a predetermined force field magnitude and direction. (
  • Velocity Profile Measurements Within a Laboratory Flotation Cell. (
  • The U.S. Bureau of Mines used an electrochemical technique to measure the velocity profile within a laboratory flotation cell. (
  • Using a computer for automated data acquisition, the velocity profile was mapped throughout the laboratory flotation cell at different impeller rotation speeds. (
  • Rate separation processes are based on differences in the kinetic properties of the components of a mixture, such as the velocity of migration in a medium or of diffusion through semipermeable barriers. (
  • This example demonstrates the separation of charged species on the basis of differences in migration velocity in an electric field . (
  • Detailed properties of the particle velocity, acceleration and dispersions along different directions have been investigated. (
  • Moreover, affinity-based EV separation catches only specific targets, thus missing unknown biological nanoparticles of potential value. (
  • The phosphorescent nanoparticles display no cytotoxicity and hemolytic activity in the tested range of concentrations and easily internalize into living cells that makes possible in vivo cell visualization, including prospective application in time resolved imaging and drug delivery monitoring. (
  • The growing attention to the latter approach can be explained by well known practice of application of the nanoparticles to construct advanced drug delivery systems, which also make possible easy visualization of drug distribution in cells and tissues. (
  • Nanotechnology has provided the possibility of delivering drugs to specific cells using nanoparticles. (
  • Preliminary tests with cell cultures indicate some differences in the biological impact of smaller vs. larger diesel nanoparticles. (
  • logical cells tagged with magnetic nanoparticles [3]. (
  • Effect of functionalised fluorescence-labelled nanoparticles on mesenchymal stem cell differentiation. (
  • The combined use of nanoparticles and mesenchymal stem cells (MSC) in regenerative medicine requires the incorporation of the particles and, at the same time, undisturbed cell viability and maintenance of the multi-lineage potential of MSC. (
  • The particles may additionally differ in their visual reaction to an externally applied force, for example an electrostatic or magnetic field. (
  • Charge separation takes place, charge accumulates and electrostatic attraction pulls the cantilever toward the 63 Ni film. (
  • The present invention provides methods and apparatuses for determining at least one of a plurality of particle physical characteristics. (
  • Currently, cell separation occurs almost exclusively by density gradient methods and by fluorescence- and magnetic-activated cell sorting (FACS/MACS). (
  • Numerous methods have been employed and discussed in the literature for CTCs separation. (
  • Another major category of rate separation methods is based on the diffusion of molecules through semipermeable barriers . (
  • Table 2 lists the various barrier separation methods discussed in this article. (
  • The present invention relates to methods of enriching for desired cell population from cell sources, such as body fluids, dispersed tissue specimens and cultured cells. (
  • Flow-based methods have been used to sort particles and cells. (
  • Historically, the first magnetic carriers employed for biological studies were magnetic powders and particles synthesized by wet chemistry methods. (
  • Separation of Cells and Subcellular Elements presents the chemical engineering approaches in bio-separation methods. (
  • Green beads are isolated from an excess of red beads with 100% purity at a rate of up to 0.9 particles per second, in addition application to the sorting of osteosarcoma and human bone marrow cells is evidenced. (
  • A magnet is positioned adjacent to a solution which contains particles tagged with magnetic beads, for example cells, so that the magnetic particles flow toward the magnet and collect against a collection surface positioned between the particles and the magnet. (
  • Depletion of unwanted material using Anti-Biotin MACSiBead Particles, CD15 MACSiBead Particles, or Endotoxin Removal Beads. (
  • MACS uses magnetic beads that attach to cell markers. (
  • Specifically, the beads consist of anti-Mouse IgG that is covalently coupled to a 1 μm nonporous superparamagnetic particle. (
  • The amount of antibody required for optimal coating of the beads will vary with the mAB affinity and the antigen density on the cell surface. (
  • Are downstream applications affected by the magnetic beads bound to the cells? (
  • In one embodiment, the invention relates to a particle or cell separation device that separates specific cell types such as neutrophils or stem cells or particles from bodily fluids such as platelets and other blood products such as red cells and plasma. (
  • The present invention relates to the immobilisation and separation of cells and other particles, and in particular to an immobilisation system based on a hydroxyboryl/cis-diol linkage. (
  • More specifically, the improvement of this invention relates to magnetic sorting of cells, bacteria, or viruses. (
  • This short course will cover both the fundamentals of nanoparticle detection with Single Particle (SP) ICP-MS and the metal content of individual cells via Single Cell (SC) ICP-MS. (
  • Microelectrode arrays are used to sort single fluorescently labeled cells and particles as they flow through a microfluidic channel using dielectrophoresis. (
  • A device for determining one or more particle physical characteristics is described which has a force field device for subjecting at least one particle to at least one force field, a substantially transparent flow channel, and a computer system for gathering and analyzing data associated with the at least one particle. (
  • Flow-induced phase separation of active particles is controlled by boundary conditions. (
  • Thus, for flow in Hele-Shaw cells, metastable lines or stable traveling bands can be obtained by varying the cell height. (
  • A flow cytometer allows simultaneous multiparametric analysis of the physical and chemical characteristics of up to thousands of particles per second. (
  • A common variation involves linking the analytical capability of the flow cytometer to a sorting device, to physically separate and thereby purify particles of interest based on their optical properties. (
  • Mack Fulwyler was the inventor of the forerunner to today's flow cytometers - particularly the cell sorter. (
  • [4] Soon after, flow cytometry instruments were developed, including the Cytofluorograph (1971) from Bio/Physics Systems Inc. (later: Ortho Diagnostics), the PAS 8000 (1973) from Partec, the first FACS (fluorescence-activated cell sorting) instrument from Becton Dickinson (1974), the ICP 22 (1975) from Partec/Phywe and the Epics from Coulter (1977/78). (
  • Modern flow cytometers are able to analyze many thousand particles per second, in "real time," and, if configured as cell sorters, can actively separate and isolate particles at similar rates having specified optical properties. (
  • A flow cytometer is similar to a microscope , except that, instead of producing an image of the cell, flow cytometry offers high-throughput, large-scale, automated quantification of specified optical parameters on a cell-by-cell basis. (
  • A flow cytometer has five main components: a flow cell, a measuring system, a detector, an amplification system, and a computer for analysis of the signals. (
  • However, the main challenge with flow based particle separation systems is the need for a sheath flow for successful operation. (
  • In this platform, particles are first lined up at the center of the channel without introducing any external sheath flow. (
  • The prominent feature of the present microfluidic platform is that the device does not require the use of the sheath flow for positioning and aligning of particles. (
  • The inertia in laminar flow can cause cross streamline migration of particles in solution. (
  • Desired cells are poured off into a new tube and are ready for serology or flow cytometry crossmatch assays. (
  • The separation of cells with the aid of an elutriator, that is to say a contra-flow centrifuge, is described in 'Cell Biophysics' I (1979) pages 195 to 210 for example. (
  • A laminar liquid flow carries the suspended particles through the measurement area. (
  • In this paper, we describe the microfabrication and characterisation of an on-chip flow-cytometer as the first building block of a complete cell-sorting device. (
  • A new concept for separation of particles based on repetitive dielectrophoretic trapping and release in a flow system is proposed. (
  • Flow cytometry (FC) is a technique used to detect and measure physical and chemical characteristics of a population of cells or particles. (
  • The sample is focused to ideally flow one cell at a time through a laser beam, where the light scattered is characteristic to the cells and their components. (
  • Uses for flow cytometry include: Cell counting Cell sorting Determining cell characteristics and function Detecting microorganisms Biomarker detection Protein engineering detection Diagnosis of health disorders such as blood cancers A flow cytometry analyzer is an instrument that provides quantifiable data from a sample. (
  • Other instruments using flow cytometry include cell sorters which physically separate and thereby purify cells of interest based on their optical properties. (
  • We used a loosely focused Gaussian 1064 nm laser to simultaneously hold and deflect particles entrained in flow perpendicular to their direction of travel. (
  • We invented a novel method for aerosol generation and delivery to the flow cell. (
  • When placed in a flow stream with other cells, the tagged cells can be easily pushed with ultrasound. (
  • Our Flow Cytometry Facility offers equipment and expertise for cell and particle analysis and sorting. (
  • Insulin-exposed rat mammary cancer cells were flow sorted based on a c-myc reporter plasmid encoding a destabilized green fluorescent protein. (
  • In this chapter, we use the term solvent engineering in the sense of design, production and use of a solvent (or solvent system) to give enhanced control, performance, yield and/or selectivity in physical, chemical or biochemical reactions, processes and separations. (
  • Particle recovery and purification processes are examined as the early stages in the separation of biological materials. (
  • Tissue engineering, referring to the technologies that use physical, chemical, biological and engineering processes to control and direct the aggregate behaviour of cells, has become a field of increasing commercial interest. (
  • These studies show that cell-cell communication and adhesion genes were co-opted from ancestral functions unrelated to multicellular phenotypes into robust developmental processes. (
  • The aim of this study was to evaluate oxidative stress markers in human conjunctival epithelial cells (IOBA-NHC) exposed to diesel exhaust particles (DEP). (
  • Diesel exhaust particles (DEP) are one of main components of urban air pollution as they are the most common combustion-derived particles presented in traffic emissions. (
  • The main application of the developed sampler is the exposure of biological samples such as cell and tissue cultures to selected sizes of diesel exhaust particles. (
  • You can seamlessly combine any application-specific module with the Particle Tracing Module for computing the fields that drive particle motion. (
  • This model requires both the Particle Tracing Module and the AC/DC Module . (
  • Calculations using the finite element method have been performed to envision the particle behavior and the separation effectiveness of the proposed method. (
  • Magneticaly-responsive microspheres having Protein A associated with the outer surfaces thereof are reacted with antibodies selective to the cells, bacteria, or viruses to be separated from a mixed population to attach the antibodies in oriented relation with their Fab arms extending outwardly, and the. (
  • Removal Of Neuroblastoma Cells From Bone Marrow With Monoclonal Antibodies Conjugated To Magnetic Microspheres," The Lancet, pp. 70-73 (1984). (
  • In addition, the method can be further simplified by density-adjusted cell sorting which uses cell type-specific binding agents such as antibodies and lectins linked to carrier particles to impart a different density to the undesired populations in a more convenient manner. (
  • MojoSort™ Nanobeads are magnetic particles directly conjugated to antibodies (positive selection) or Streptavidin. (
  • The availability of highly specific antibodies and the demand for targeted applications keeps on pushing the limits of the cell separation field. (
  • Basically, specific antibodies that are conjugated to magnetic particles will bind to the cells expressing the target antigen. (
  • The percentage of total liver ATP in the cell sap was found to be 46% by the filtration method and more than 70% by the centrifuging procedure. (
  • DEP has many applications in the field of biomedical devices used for biosensors, diagnostics, particle manipulation and filtration (sorting), particle assembly, and more. (
  • The preferred microspheres are prepared from a mixture of albumin, Protein A, and magnetic particles, the microspheres being prepared so that the Protein A is present in the exterior surfaces for antibody binding. (
  • It relates to monodisperse polymer particles, dispersions thereof and a process for preparing such particles and dispersions. (
  • The device is based on a glass-polyimide microfluidic chip with integrated channels and electrodes microfabricated at the length scale of the particles to be investigated (1-20 [small mu ]m). (
  • When the length scale of particles is comparable to that of the electrodes, the calculation of dielectrophoretic force by the effective dipole moment is considered not to be accurate since only the electric field in the center point is taken into account. (
  • We recommend a cell concentration of 2x10 8 cells/mL and a minimum working volume of 100 µL. (
  • However, in a commercial setting, one wants to sort with a much higher concentration of cells. (
  • The Red Blood Cell Separation application shows how red blood cells can be selectively filtered from a blood sample in order to isolate red blood cells from platelets. (
  • An affinity matrix for the small-scale immunomagnetic separation and purification of mouse IgGs. (
  • For instance, the deficiencies of resolution in imaging modalities have precluded them to image small numbers of cancer cells before angiogenic switch, which in turn limit the detection sensitivity [ 2 , 3 ]. (
  • The detection of a specific fluorescence wavelength tells the system to sort those cells. (
  • Highly sensitive rare cell detection based on quantum dot probe fluorescence analysis. (
  • This thesis presents models and simulations of dielectrophoretic separation of micro and nano particles. (
  • In this paper, we present extensive analysis for optical forces on non-absorbing aerosol particles. (
  • The design of the sampler combines principles of aerosol transport phenomena and separation technologies. (
  • This enables the rejection of particle aggregates and other impurities, and the system is optimized to isolate high purity populations from a heterogeneous sample. (
  • There is a great need for the separation of inhomogeneous cell populations for both clinical and scientific purposes. (
  • 1.3 Description Of Populations Of Particles. (
  • A recent set of experiments involving yeast cell populations have shown that selection for faster sedimenting cells leads to the appearance of stable aggregates of cells that are able to split into smaller clusters. (
  • The larger particles are exposed to more lateral displacement in the channel due to the acoustic force differences. (
  • The EasySep™ HLA B Cell Enrichment Kit is designed to isolate B cells from fresh or previously frozen peripheral blood mononuclear cells by negative selection. (
  • The measurement performed on the cells is achieved in a non-destructive manner and not by initially colour-staining the concerned cells. (
  • Even the measurement of complete particles or single cells is possible. (
  • For example, red blood cells (erythrocytes) scatter and absorb light and could adversely affect a measurement of either reflected or transmitted light of a diagnostic test relying on either of these measurement techniques. (
  • These cells are fairly large for biological particles-large enough, in fact, to settle out of the plasma if clotting is prevented and the blood is left standing in the 1- g field of the earth's gravity overnight. (
  • We present a technique that can sort cells at a rate equivalent to or faster than gold-standard techniques such as fluorescence- and magnetic-activated cell sorting, but can do it label-free and with very low cell loss. (
  • However, GFP fluorescence does not increase with cell density in direct proportion because of its fluorescence quenching. (
  • The app allows you to vary characteristics of the red blood cells and platelets, as well as the electric field. (
  • Since it does not utilize acoustic, electric, magnetic, or optical fields, the particles being studied do not need to possess chemical or physical characteristics that cater to these fields. (
  • The materials or particles to be separated may differ based on shape, texture, color, or any other visually distinctive characteristics. (
  • The filter is selected from glass microfiber filters of specified characteristics, which can operate in the absence of agglutinins, and filters capable of separating agglutinated red cells from a plasma, which require the use of an agglutinin. (
  • Single and two particle statistics are used to estimate the level of mixing and the role of turbulent structures in particle transport. (
  • The cells appear unaffected as assessed by migration, differentiation and stimulation assays. (
  • Can the EasySep™ magnetic particles be removed after enrichment? (
  • The rapid cell enrichment method described herein has a wide range of diagnostic and therapeutic applications. (
  • Jimenez M, Miller B, Bridle HL (2017) Efficient separation of small microparticles at high flowrates using spiral channels: application to waterborne pathogens. (
  • Magnetic particles are crosslinked to cells using Tetrameric Antibody Complexes (TAC). (
  • Unwanted cells are targeted for removal with Tetrameric Antibody Complexes recognizing non-B cells and dextran-coated magnetic particles. (
  • Topics include separation by isopycnic banding, large-scale preparative procedures, and density-gradient solutes. (
  • Density, another physical property of particles or cells, can also be exploited for the purpose of making separations. (
  • It's only necessary to adjust the density of the liquid in which they will be sedimenting so that particles of one density will float, and particles which are more dense will sink. (
  • However, their density is lower than the other cells. (
  • If a blood sample is layered over a liquid which has a density of 1.077 g /mL and then centrifuged, the lymphocytes will form a floating band, well separated from most other white and red cells which, being denser than 1.077 g /mL, sediment to the bottom of the tube. (
  • The image shows a density separation of lymphocytes. (
  • According to MSS, the system can accurately identify even the smallest particles and sort using a corresponding high-resolution air-jet array. (
  • As you can see from Figure 1, it is possible to collect a fairly pure fraction of the smallest particles from the supernatant. (
  • RoboSep™, the fully automated cell separator, automates all EasySep™ labeling and cell separation steps. (