The pressure that would be exerted by one component of a mixture of gases if it were present alone in a container. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
A type of stress exerted uniformly in all directions. Its measure is the force exerted per unit area. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
An element with atomic symbol O, atomic number 8, and atomic weight [15.99903; 15.99977]. It is the most abundant element on earth and essential for respiration.
A colorless, odorless gas that can be formed by the body and is necessary for the respiration cycle of plants and animals.
Measurement of oxygen and carbon dioxide in the blood.
The pressure due to the weight of fluid.
The exchange of OXYGEN and CARBON DIOXIDE between alveolar air and pulmonary capillary blood that occurs across the BLOOD-AIR BARRIER.
The pressure at any point in an atmosphere due solely to the weight of the atmospheric gases above the point concerned.
The noninvasive measurement or determination of the partial pressure (tension) of oxygen and/or carbon dioxide locally in the capillaries of a tissue by the application to the skin of a special set of electrodes. These electrodes contain photoelectric sensors capable of picking up the specific wavelengths of radiation emitted by oxygenated versus reduced hemoglobin.
Clinical manifestation consisting of a deficiency of carbon dioxide in arterial blood.
Helium. A noble gas with the atomic symbol He, atomic number 2, and atomic weight 4.003. It is a colorless, odorless, tasteless gas that is not combustible and does not support combustion. It was first detected in the sun and is now obtained from natural gas. Medically it is used as a diluent for other gases, being especially useful with oxygen in the treatment of certain cases of respiratory obstruction, and as a vehicle for general anesthetics. (Dorland, 27th ed)
Relatively complete absence of oxygen in one or more tissues.
The rate at which oxygen is used by a tissue; microliters of oxygen STPD used per milligram of tissue per hour; the rate at which oxygen enters the blood from alveolar gas, equal in the steady state to the consumption of oxygen by tissue metabolism throughout the body. (Stedman, 25th ed, p346)
The volume of air inspired or expired during each normal, quiet respiratory cycle. Common abbreviations are TV or V with subscript T.
Techniques for measuring blood pressure.
The act of breathing with the LUNGS, consisting of INHALATION, or the taking into the lungs of the ambient air, and of EXHALATION, or the expelling of the modified air which contains more CARBON DIOXIDE than the air taken in (Blakiston's Gould Medical Dictionary, 4th ed.). This does not include tissue respiration (= OXYGEN CONSUMPTION) or cell respiration (= CELL RESPIRATION).
Continuous recording of the carbon dioxide content of expired air.
A clinical manifestation of abnormal increase in the amount of carbon dioxide in arterial blood.
The force per unit area that the air exerts on any surface in contact with it. Primarily used for articles pertaining to air pressure within a closed environment.
Elements that constitute group 18 (formerly the zero group) of the periodic table. They are gases that generally do not react chemically.
The processes of diffusion across the BLOOD-AIR BARRIER, and the chemical reactions coupled with diffusion that effect the rate of PULMONARY GAS EXCHANGE, generally at the alveolar level.
The balance between acids and bases in the BODY FLUIDS. The pH (HYDROGEN-ION CONCENTRATION) of the arterial BLOOD provides an index for the total body acid-base balance.
The movement and the forces involved in the movement of the blood through the CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM.
Transducers that are activated by pressure changes, e.g., blood pressure.
Persistently high systemic arterial BLOOD PRESSURE. Based on multiple readings (BLOOD PRESSURE DETERMINATION), hypertension is currently defined as when SYSTOLIC PRESSURE is consistently greater than 140 mm Hg or when DIASTOLIC PRESSURE is consistently 90 mm Hg or more.
The number of times the HEART VENTRICLES contract per unit of time, usually per minute.
Pressure within the cranial cavity. It is influenced by brain mass, the circulatory system, CSF dynamics, and skull rigidity.
A pulmonary ventilation rate faster than is metabolically necessary for the exchange of gases. It is the result of an increased frequency of breathing, an increased tidal volume, or a combination of both. It causes an excess intake of oxygen and the blowing off of carbon dioxide.
A noble gas that is found in the atmosphere. It has the atomic symbol Kr, atomic number 36, atomic weight 83.80, and has been used in electric bulbs.
The pressure of the fluids in the eye.
Method in which repeated blood pressure readings are made while the patient undergoes normal daily activities. It allows quantitative analysis of the high blood pressure load over time, can help distinguish between types of HYPERTENSION, and can assess the effectiveness of antihypertensive therapy.
Argon. A noble gas with the atomic symbol Ar, atomic number 18, and atomic weight 39.948. It is used in fluorescent tubes and wherever an inert atmosphere is desired and nitrogen cannot be used.
The physical or mechanical action of the LUNGS; DIAPHRAGM; RIBS; and CHEST WALL during respiration. It includes airflow, lung volume, neural and reflex controls, mechanoreceptors, breathing patterns, etc.
Any method of artificial breathing that employs mechanical or non-mechanical means to force the air into and out of the lungs. Artificial respiration or ventilation is used in individuals who have stopped breathing or have RESPIRATORY INSUFFICIENCY to increase their intake of oxygen (O2) and excretion of carbon dioxide (CO2).
A syndrome characterized by progressive life-threatening RESPIRATORY INSUFFICIENCY in the absence of known LUNG DISEASES, usually following a systemic insult such as surgery or major TRAUMA.
A method of mechanical ventilation in which pressure is maintained to increase the volume of gas remaining in the lungs at the end of expiration, thus reducing the shunting of blood through the lungs and improving gas exchange.
That part of the RESPIRATORY TRACT or the air within the respiratory tract that does not exchange OXYGEN and CARBON DIOXIDE with pulmonary capillary blood.
The therapeutic intermittent administration of oxygen in a chamber at greater than sea-level atmospheric pressures (three atmospheres). It is considered effective treatment for air and gas embolisms, smoke inhalation, acute carbon monoxide poisoning, caisson disease, clostridial gangrene, etc. (From Segen, Dictionary of Modern Medicine, 1992). The list of treatment modalities includes stroke.
The blood pressure in the VEINS. It is usually measured to assess the filling PRESSURE to the HEART VENTRICLE.
The determination of oxygen-hemoglobin saturation of blood either by withdrawing a sample and passing it through a classical photoelectric oximeter or by electrodes attached to some translucent part of the body like finger, earlobe, or skin fold. It includes non-invasive oxygen monitoring by pulse oximetry.
A state due to excess loss of carbon dioxide from the body. (Dorland, 27th ed)
Failure to adequately provide oxygen to cells of the body and to remove excess carbon dioxide from them. (Stedman, 25th ed)
A stable, non-explosive inhalation anesthetic, relatively free from significant side effects.
A compound formed by the combination of hemoglobin and oxygen. It is a complex in which the oxygen is bound directly to the iron without causing a change from the ferrous to the ferric state.
An activity in which the organism plunges into water. It includes scuba and bell diving. Diving as natural behavior of animals goes here, as well as diving in decompression experiments with humans or animals.
Neon. A noble gas with the atomic symbol Ne, atomic number 10, and atomic weight 20.18. It is found in the earth's crust and atmosphere as an inert, odorless gas and is used in vacuum tubes and incandescent lamps.
The flow of BLOOD through or around an organ or region of the body.
The circulation of blood through the BLOOD VESSELS of the BRAIN.
The normality of a solution with respect to HYDROGEN ions; H+. It is related to acidity measurements in most cases by pH = log 1/2[1/(H+)], where (H+) is the hydrogen ion concentration in gram equivalents per liter of solution. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
A vertical distance measured from a known level on the surface of a planet or other celestial body.
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
The force that opposes the flow of BLOOD through a vascular bed. It is equal to the difference in BLOOD PRESSURE across the vascular bed divided by the CARDIAC OUTPUT.
The blood pressure in the ARTERIES. It is commonly measured with a SPHYGMOMANOMETER on the upper arm which represents the arterial pressure in the BRACHIAL ARTERY.
The pressure within a CARDIAC VENTRICLE. Ventricular pressure waveforms can be measured in the beating heart by catheterization or estimated using imaging techniques (e.g., DOPPLER ECHOCARDIOGRAPHY). The information is useful in evaluating the function of the MYOCARDIUM; CARDIAC VALVES; and PERICARDIUM, particularly with simultaneous measurement of other (e.g., aortic or atrial) pressures.
A noble gas with the atomic symbol Xe, atomic number 54, and atomic weight 131.30. It is found in the earth's atmosphere and has been used as an anesthetic.
The mixture of gases present in the earth's atmosphere consisting of oxygen, nitrogen, carbon dioxide, and small amounts of other gases.
Gases or volatile liquids that vary in the rate at which they induce anesthesia; potency; the degree of circulation, respiratory, or neuromuscular depression they produce; and analgesic effects. Inhalation anesthetics have advantages over intravenous agents in that the depth of anesthesia can be changed rapidly by altering the inhaled concentration. Because of their rapid elimination, any postoperative respiratory depression is of relatively short duration. (From AMA Drug Evaluations Annual, 1994, p173)
The total volume of gas inspired or expired per unit of time, usually measured in liters per minute.
The vapor state of matter; nonelastic fluids in which the molecules are in free movement and their mean positions far apart. Gases tend to expand indefinitely, to diffuse and mix readily with other gases, to have definite relations of volume, temperature, and pressure, and to condense or liquefy at low temperatures or under sufficient pressure. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
A value equal to the total volume flow divided by the cross-sectional area of the vascular bed.
The act of BREATHING in.
Inhalation of oxygen aimed at restoring toward normal any pathophysiologic alterations of gas exchange in the cardiopulmonary system, as by the use of a respirator, nasal catheter, tent, chamber, or mask. (From Dorland, 27th ed & Stedman, 25th ed)
A plant genus of the family POACEAE that contains Hol l 1 and Hol l 5 allergens.
The ratio of alveolar ventilation to simultaneous alveolar capillary blood flow in any part of the lung. (Stedman, 25th ed)
The oxygen-carrying proteins of ERYTHROCYTES. They are found in all vertebrates and some invertebrates. The number of globin subunits in the hemoglobin quaternary structure differs between species. Structures range from monomeric to a variety of multimeric arrangements.
Nitrogen oxide (N2O). A colorless, odorless gas that is used as an anesthetic and analgesic. High concentrations cause a narcotic effect and may replace oxygen, causing death by asphyxia. It is also used as a food aerosol in the preparation of whipping cream.
The domestic dog, Canis familiaris, comprising about 400 breeds, of the carnivore family CANIDAE. They are worldwide in distribution and live in association with people. (Walker's Mammals of the World, 5th ed, p1065)
Either of the pair of organs occupying the cavity of the thorax that effect the aeration of the blood.
A nonflammable, halogenated, hydrocarbon anesthetic that provides relatively rapid induction with little or no excitement. Analgesia may not be adequate. NITROUS OXIDE is often given concomitantly. Because halothane may not produce sufficient muscle relaxation, supplemental neuromuscular blocking agents may be required. (From AMA Drug Evaluations Annual, 1994, p178)
An abnormal increase in the amount of oxygen in the tissues and organs.
The volume of BLOOD passing through the HEART per unit of time. It is usually expressed as liters (volume) per minute so as not to be confused with STROKE VOLUME (volume per beat).
A group of compounds that contain the general formula R-OCH3.
The blood pressure in the central large VEINS of the body. It is distinguished from peripheral venous pressure which occurs in an extremity.
A transient absence of spontaneous respiration.
Cells specialized to detect chemical substances and relay that information centrally in the nervous system. Chemoreceptor cells may monitor external stimuli, as in TASTE and OLFACTION, or internal stimuli, such as the concentrations of OXYGEN and CARBON DIOXIDE in the blood.
The blood pressure as recorded after wedging a CATHETER in a small PULMONARY ARTERY; believed to reflect the PRESSURE in the pulmonary CAPILLARIES.
The first chemical element in the periodic table. It has the atomic symbol H, atomic number 1, and atomic weight [1.00784; 1.00811]. It exists, under normal conditions, as a colorless, odorless, tasteless, diatomic gas. Hydrogen ions are PROTONS. Besides the common H1 isotope, hydrogen exists as the stable isotope DEUTERIUM and the unstable, radioactive isotope TRITIUM.
Anesthesia caused by the breathing of anesthetic gases or vapors or by insufflating anesthetic gases or vapors into the respiratory tract.
Adaptation to a new environment or to a change in the old.
The act of blowing a powder, vapor, or gas into any body cavity for experimental, diagnostic, or therapeutic purposes.
Observation of a population for a sufficient number of persons over a sufficient number of years to generate incidence or mortality rates subsequent to the selection of the study group.
A state characterized by loss of feeling or sensation. This depression of nerve function is usually the result of pharmacologic action and is induced to allow performance of surgery or other painful procedures.
Physiological processes and properties of the RESPIRATORY SYSTEM as a whole or of any of its parts.
The continuous measurement of physiological processes, blood pressure, heart rate, renal output, reflexes, respiration, etc., in a patient or experimental animal; includes pharmacologic monitoring, the measurement of administered drugs or their metabolites in the blood, tissues, or urine.
The gaseous envelope surrounding a planet or similar body. (From Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed)
The vessels carrying blood away from the heart.
A condition with trapped gas or air in the PERITONEAL CAVITY, usually secondary to perforation of the internal organs such as the LUNG and the GASTROINTESTINAL TRACT, or to recent surgery. Pneumoperitoneum may be purposely introduced to aid radiological examination.
Carbon monoxide (CO). A poisonous colorless, odorless, tasteless gas. It combines with hemoglobin to form carboxyhemoglobin, which has no oxygen carrying capacity. The resultant oxygen deprivation causes headache, dizziness, decreased pulse and respiratory rates, unconsciousness, and death. (From Merck Index, 11th ed)
An element with the atomic symbol N, atomic number 7, and atomic weight [14.00643; 14.00728]. Nitrogen exists as a diatomic gas and makes up about 78% of the earth's atmosphere by volume. It is a constituent of proteins and nucleic acids and found in all living cells.
A pathological condition caused by lack of oxygen, manifested in impending or actual cessation of life.
The constant checking on the state or condition of a patient during the course of a surgical operation (e.g., checking of vital signs).
Any of various animals that constitute the family Suidae and comprise stout-bodied, short-legged omnivorous mammals with thick skin, usually covered with coarse bristles, a rather long mobile snout, and small tail. Included are the genera Babyrousa, Phacochoerus (wart hogs), and Sus, the latter containing the domestic pig (see SUS SCROFA).
Absence of air in the entire or part of a lung, such as an incompletely inflated neonate lung or a collapsed adult lung. Pulmonary atelectasis can be caused by airway obstruction, lung compression, fibrotic contraction, or other factors.
The pressure required to prevent the passage of solvent through a semipermeable membrane that separates a pure solvent from a solution of the solvent and solute or that separates different concentrations of a solution. It is proportional to the osmolality of the solution.
A pathologic condition of acid accumulation or depletion of base in the body. The two main types are RESPIRATORY ACIDOSIS and metabolic acidosis, due to metabolic acid build up.
Period of contraction of the HEART, especially of the HEART VENTRICLES.
A procedure involving placement of a tube into the trachea through the mouth or nose in order to provide a patient with oxygen and anesthesia.
The posture of an individual lying face down.
A statistical technique that isolates and assesses the contributions of categorical independent variables to variation in the mean of a continuous dependent variable.
Procedure in which patients are induced into an unconscious state through use of various medications so that they do not feel pain during surgery.
Small polyhedral outpouchings along the walls of the alveolar sacs, alveolar ducts and terminal bronchioles through the walls of which gas exchange between alveolar air and pulmonary capillary blood takes place.
A method of non-invasive, continuous measurement of MICROCIRCULATION. The technique is based on the values of the DOPPLER EFFECT of low-power laser light scattered randomly by static structures and moving tissue particulates.
An order of insects, restricted mostly to the tropics, containing at least eight families. A few species occur in temperate regions of North America.
Experimental devices used in inhalation studies in which a person or animal is either partially or completely immersed in a chemically controlled atmosphere.
Inorganic salts that contain the -HCO3 radical. They are an important factor in determining the pH of the blood and the concentration of bicarbonate ions is regulated by the kidney. Levels in the blood are an index of the alkali reserve or buffering capacity.
Treatment process involving the injection of fluid into an organ or tissue.
The act of BREATHING out.
A strain of albino rat used widely for experimental purposes because of its calmness and ease of handling. It was developed by the Sprague-Dawley Animal Company.
Pulmonary injury following the breathing in of toxic smoke from burning materials such as plastics, synthetics, building materials, etc. This injury is the most frequent cause of death in burn patients.
Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.
Artificial respiration (RESPIRATION, ARTIFICIAL) using an oxygenated fluid.
The largest of the cerebral arteries. It trifurcates into temporal, frontal, and parietal branches supplying blood to most of the parenchyma of these lobes in the CEREBRAL CORTEX. These are the areas involved in motor, sensory, and speech activities.
Respiratory retention of carbon dioxide. It may be chronic or acute.
A family of anaerobic, coccoid to rod-shaped METHANOBACTERIALES. Cell membranes are composed mainly of polyisoprenoid hydrocarbons ether-linked to glycerol. Its organisms are found in anaerobic habitats throughout nature.
A condition of decreased oxygen content at the cellular level.
An electrochemical technique for measuring the current that flows in solution as a function of an applied voltage. The observed polarographic wave, resulting from the electrochemical response, depends on the way voltage is applied (linear sweep or differential pulse) and the type of electrode used. Usually a mercury drop electrode is used.
Processes and properties of the CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM as a whole or of any of its parts.
The short wide vessel arising from the conus arteriosus of the right ventricle and conveying unaerated blood to the lungs.
Blocking of a blood vessel by air bubbles that enter the circulatory system, usually after TRAUMA; surgical procedures, or changes in atmospheric pressure.
The family of true toads belonging to the order Anura. The genera include Bufo, Ansonia, Nectophrynoides, and Atelopus.
Reduction of blood viscosity usually by the addition of cell free solutions. Used clinically (1) in states of impaired microcirculation, (2) for replacement of intraoperative blood loss without homologous blood transfusion, and (3) in cardiopulmonary bypass and hypothermia.
Multiple symptoms associated with reduced oxygen at high ALTITUDE.
The circulation of the BLOOD through the MICROVASCULAR NETWORK.
Any of the ruminant mammals with curved horns in the genus Ovis, family Bovidae. They possess lachrymal grooves and interdigital glands, which are absent in GOATS.
Measurement of the various processes involved in the act of respiration: inspiration, expiration, oxygen and carbon dioxide exchange, lung volume and compliance, etc.
The rhythmical expansion and contraction of an ARTERY produced by waves of pressure caused by the ejection of BLOOD from the left ventricle of the HEART as it contracts.
An adrenergic alpha-2 agonist used as a sedative, analgesic and centrally acting muscle relaxant in VETERINARY MEDICINE.
An extremely stable inhalation anesthetic that allows rapid adjustments of anesthesia depth with little change in pulse or respiratory rate.
Post-systolic relaxation of the HEART, especially the HEART VENTRICLES.
The amount of a gas taken up, by the pulmonary capillary blood from the alveolar gas, per minute per unit of average pressure of the gradient of the gas across the BLOOD-AIR BARRIER.
Deficient oxygenation of FETAL BLOOD.
A process involving chance used in therapeutic trials or other research endeavor for allocating experimental subjects, human or animal, between treatment and control groups, or among treatment groups. It may also apply to experiments on inanimate objects.
The tendency of a gas or solute to pass from a point of higher pressure or concentration to a point of lower pressure or concentration and to distribute itself throughout the available space. Diffusion, especially FACILITATED DIFFUSION, is a major mechanism of BIOLOGICAL TRANSPORT.
Substances that are used in place of blood, for example, as an alternative to BLOOD TRANSFUSIONS after blood loss to restore BLOOD VOLUME and oxygen-carrying capacity to the blood circulation, or to perfuse isolated organs.
The volume of packed RED BLOOD CELLS in a blood specimen. The volume is measured by centrifugation in a tube with graduated markings, or with automated blood cell counters. It is an indicator of erythrocyte status in disease. For example, ANEMIA shows a low value; POLYCYTHEMIA, a high value.
The synthesis by organisms of organic chemical compounds, especially carbohydrates, from carbon dioxide using energy obtained from light rather than from the oxidation of chemical compounds. Photosynthesis comprises two separate processes: the light reactions and the dark reactions. In higher plants; GREEN ALGAE; and CYANOBACTERIA; NADPH and ATP formed by the light reactions drive the dark reactions which result in the fixation of carbon dioxide. (from Oxford Dictionary of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 2001)
Measurement of the pressure or tension of liquids or gases with a manometer.
A normal intermediate in the fermentation (oxidation, metabolism) of sugar. The concentrated form is used internally to prevent gastrointestinal fermentation. (From Stedman, 26th ed)
The measure of the level of heat of a human or animal.
A great expanse of continuous bodies of salt water which together cover more than 70 percent of the earth's surface. Seas may be partially or entirely enclosed by land, and are smaller than the five oceans (Atlantic, Pacific, Indian, Arctic, and Antarctic).
A strain of albino rat developed at the Wistar Institute that has spread widely at other institutions. This has markedly diluted the original strain.
A free radical gas produced endogenously by a variety of mammalian cells, synthesized from ARGININE by NITRIC OXIDE SYNTHASE. Nitric oxide is one of the ENDOTHELIUM-DEPENDENT RELAXING FACTORS released by the vascular endothelium and mediates VASODILATION. It also inhibits platelet aggregation, induces disaggregation of aggregated platelets, and inhibits platelet adhesion to the vascular endothelium. Nitric oxide activates cytosolic GUANYLATE CYCLASE and thus elevates intracellular levels of CYCLIC GMP.
Naturally occurring or experimentally induced animal diseases with pathological processes sufficiently similar to those of human diseases. They are used as study models for human diseases.
Manometric pressure of the CEREBROSPINAL FLUID as measured by lumbar, cerebroventricular, or cisternal puncture. Within the cranial cavity it is called INTRACRANIAL PRESSURE.
A measure of the amount of WATER VAPOR in the air.
The property of objects that determines the direction of heat flow when they are placed in direct thermal contact. The temperature is the energy of microscopic motions (vibrational and translational) of the particles of atoms.
The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.
Paired respiratory organs of fishes and some amphibians that are analogous to lungs. They are richly supplied with blood vessels by which oxygen and carbon dioxide are exchanged directly with the environment.
Evaluation undertaken to assess the results or consequences of management and procedures used in combating disease in order to determine the efficacy, effectiveness, safety, and practicability of these interventions in individual cases or series.
The non-genetic biological changes of an organism in response to challenges in its ENVIRONMENT.
A condition of lung damage that is characterized by bilateral pulmonary infiltrates (PULMONARY EDEMA) rich in NEUTROPHILS, and in the absence of clinical HEART FAILURE. This can represent a spectrum of pulmonary lesions, endothelial and epithelial, due to numerous factors (physical, chemical, or biological).
Water content outside of the lung vasculature. About 80% of a normal lung is made up of water, including intracellular, interstitial, and blood water. Failure to maintain the normal homeostatic fluid exchange between the vascular space and the interstitium of the lungs can result in PULMONARY EDEMA and flooding of the alveolar space.
A technique of respiratory therapy, in either spontaneously breathing or mechanically ventilated patients, in which airway pressure is maintained above atmospheric pressure throughout the respiratory cycle by pressurization of the ventilatory circuit. (On-Line Medical Dictionary [Internet]. Newcastle upon Tyne(UK): The University Dept. of Medical Oncology: The CancerWEB Project; c1997-2003 [cited 2003 Apr 17]. Available from:
The statistical reproducibility of measurements (often in a clinical context), including the testing of instrumentation or techniques to obtain reproducible results. The concept includes reproducibility of physiological measurements, which may be used to develop rules to assess probability or prognosis, or response to a stimulus; reproducibility of occurrence of a condition; and reproducibility of experimental results.
Physical activity which is usually regular and done with the intention of improving or maintaining PHYSICAL FITNESS or HEALTH. Contrast with PHYSICAL EXERTION which is concerned largely with the physiologic and metabolic response to energy expenditure.
The range or frequency distribution of a measurement in a population (of organisms, organs or things) that has not been selected for the presence of disease or abnormality.
The venous pressure measured in the PORTAL VEIN.
The simplest saturated hydrocarbon. It is a colorless, flammable gas, slightly soluble in water. It is one of the chief constituents of natural gas and is formed in the decomposition of organic matter. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
The part of CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM that is contained within the skull (CRANIUM). Arising from the NEURAL TUBE, the embryonic brain is comprised of three major parts including PROSENCEPHALON (the forebrain); MESENCEPHALON (the midbrain); and RHOMBENCEPHALON (the hindbrain). The developed brain consists of CEREBRUM; CEREBELLUM; and other structures in the BRAIN STEM.
The circulation of the BLOOD through the LUNGS.
Abnormally low BLOOD PRESSURE that can result in inadequate blood flow to the brain and other vital organs. Common symptom is DIZZINESS but greater negative impacts on the body occur when there is prolonged depravation of oxygen and nutrients.
Carbonic acid calcium salt (CaCO3). An odorless, tasteless powder or crystal that occurs in nature. It is used therapeutically as a phosphate buffer in hemodialysis patients and as a calcium supplement.
Procedures for finding the mathematical function which best describes the relationship between a dependent variable and one or more independent variables. In linear regression (see LINEAR MODELS) the relationship is constrained to be a straight line and LEAST-SQUARES ANALYSIS is used to determine the best fit. In logistic regression (see LOGISTIC MODELS) the dependent variable is qualitative rather than continuously variable and LIKELIHOOD FUNCTIONS are used to find the best relationship. In multiple regression, the dependent variable is considered to depend on more than a single independent variable.
A clear, odorless, tasteless liquid that is essential for most animal and plant life and is an excellent solvent for many substances. The chemical formula is hydrogen oxide (H2O). (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
Studies comparing two or more treatments or interventions in which the subjects or patients, upon completion of the course of one treatment, are switched to another. In the case of two treatments, A and B, half the subjects are randomly allocated to receive these in the order A, B and half to receive them in the order B, A. A criticism of this design is that effects of the first treatment may carry over into the period when the second is given. (Last, A Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)
In screening and diagnostic tests, the probability that a person with a positive test is a true positive (i.e., has the disease), is referred to as the predictive value of a positive test; whereas, the predictive value of a negative test is the probability that the person with a negative test does not have the disease. Predictive value is related to the sensitivity and specificity of the test.
Cessation of heart beat or MYOCARDIAL CONTRACTION. If it is treated within a few minutes, heart arrest can be reversed in most cases to normal cardiac rhythm and effective circulation.
A non-invasive technique using ultrasound for the measurement of cerebrovascular hemodynamics, particularly cerebral blood flow velocity and cerebral collateral flow. With a high-intensity, low-frequency pulse probe, the intracranial arteries may be studied transtemporally, transorbitally, or from below the foramen magnum.
The thoracolumbar division of the autonomic nervous system. Sympathetic preganglionic fibers originate in neurons of the intermediolateral column of the spinal cord and project to the paravertebral and prevertebral ganglia, which in turn project to target organs. The sympathetic nervous system mediates the body's response to stressful situations, i.e., the fight or flight reactions. It often acts reciprocally to the parasympathetic system.
Salts or esters of LACTIC ACID containing the general formula CH3CHOHCOOR.
Disease having a short and relatively severe course.
The artificial substitution of heart and lung action as indicated for HEART ARREST resulting from electric shock, DROWNING, respiratory arrest, or other causes. The two major components of cardiopulmonary resuscitation are artificial ventilation (RESPIRATION, ARTIFICIAL) and closed-chest CARDIAC MASSAGE.
The species Oryctolagus cuniculus, in the family Leporidae, order LAGOMORPHA. Rabbits are born in burrows, furless, and with eyes and ears closed. In contrast with HARES, rabbits have 22 chromosome pairs.
Receptors in the vascular system, particularly the aorta and carotid sinus, which are sensitive to stretch of the vessel walls.
Any disorder marked by obstruction of conducting airways of the lung. AIRWAY OBSTRUCTION may be acute, chronic, intermittent, or persistent.
A highly specific (Leu-Leu) endopeptidase that generates ANGIOTENSIN I from its precursor ANGIOTENSINOGEN, leading to a cascade of reactions which elevate BLOOD PRESSURE and increase sodium retention by the kidney in the RENIN-ANGIOTENSIN SYSTEM. The enzyme was formerly listed as EC
The salinated water of OCEANS AND SEAS that provides habitat for marine organisms.
A small cluster of chemoreceptive and supporting cells located near the bifurcation of the internal carotid artery. The carotid body, which is richly supplied with fenestrated capillaries, senses the pH, carbon dioxide, and oxygen concentrations in the blood and plays a crucial role in their homeostatic control.
A strain of Rattus norvegicus with elevated blood pressure used as a model for studying hypertension and stroke.
Studies used to test etiologic hypotheses in which inferences about an exposure to putative causal factors are derived from data relating to characteristics of persons under study or to events or experiences in their past. The essential feature is that some of the persons under study have the disease or outcome of interest and their characteristics are compared with those of unaffected persons.
The minute vessels that connect the arterioles and venules.
A chemical reaction in which an electron is transferred from one molecule to another. The electron-donating molecule is the reducing agent or reductant; the electron-accepting molecule is the oxidizing agent or oxidant. Reducing and oxidizing agents function as conjugate reductant-oxidant pairs or redox pairs (Lehninger, Principles of Biochemistry, 1982, p471).
A sarcoma derived from deep fibrous tissue, characterized by bundles of immature proliferating fibroblasts with variable collagen formation, which tends to invade locally and metastasize by the bloodstream. (Stedman, 25th ed)
Liquid perfluorinated carbon compounds which may or may not contain a hetero atom such as nitrogen, oxygen or sulfur, but do not contain another halogen or hydrogen atom. This concept includes fluorocarbon emulsions and fluorocarbon blood substitutes.
One of the CARBONIC ANHYDRASE INHIBITORS that is sometimes effective against absence seizures. It is sometimes useful also as an adjunct in the treatment of tonic-clonic, myoclonic, and atonic seizures, particularly in women whose seizures occur or are exacerbated at specific times in the menstrual cycle. However, its usefulness is transient often because of rapid development of tolerance. Its antiepileptic effect may be due to its inhibitory effect on brain carbonic anhydrase, which leads to an increased transneuronal chloride gradient, increased chloride current, and increased inhibition. (From Smith and Reynard, Textbook of Pharmacology, 1991, p337)
Any tests done on exhaled air.
The administration of drugs by the respiratory route. It includes insufflation into the respiratory tract.
A technique applicable to the wide variety of substances which exhibit paramagnetism because of the magnetic moments of unpaired electrons. The spectra are useful for detection and identification, for determination of electron structure, for study of interactions between molecules, and for measurement of nuclear spins and moments. (From McGraw-Hill Encyclopedia of Science and Technology, 7th edition) Electron nuclear double resonance (ENDOR) spectroscopy is a variant of the technique which can give enhanced resolution. Electron spin resonance analysis can now be used in vivo, including imaging applications such as MAGNETIC RESONANCE IMAGING.
External decompression applied to the lower body. It is used to study orthostatic intolerance and the effects of gravitation and acceleration, to produce simulated hemorrhage in physiologic research, to assess cardiovascular function, and to reduce abdominal stress during childbirth.
A nonmetallic element with atomic symbol C, atomic number 6, and atomic weight [12.0096; 12.0116]. It may occur as several different allotropes including DIAMOND; CHARCOAL; and GRAPHITE; and as SOOT from incompletely burned fuel.
A subtype of striated muscle, attached by TENDONS to the SKELETON. Skeletal muscles are innervated and their movement can be consciously controlled. They are also called voluntary muscles.
A conjugated protein which is the oxygen-transporting pigment of muscle. It is made up of one globin polypeptide chain and one heme group.
The processes whereby the internal environment of an organism tends to remain balanced and stable.
Controlled physical activity which is performed in order to allow assessment of physiological functions, particularly cardiovascular and pulmonary, but also aerobic capacity. Maximal (most intense) exercise is usually required but submaximal exercise is also used.
Body organ that filters blood for the secretion of URINE and that regulates ion concentrations.
Electrodes with an extremely small tip, used in a voltage clamp or other apparatus to stimulate or record bioelectric potentials of single cells intracellularly or extracellularly. (Dorland, 28th ed)
A response by the BARORECEPTORS to increased BLOOD PRESSURE. Increased pressure stretches BLOOD VESSELS which activates the baroreceptors in the vessel walls. The net response of the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM is a reduction of central sympathetic outflow. This reduces blood pressure both by decreasing peripheral VASCULAR RESISTANCE and by lowering CARDIAC OUTPUT. Because the baroreceptors are tonically active, the baroreflex can compensate rapidly for both increases and decreases in blood pressure.
Ultrashort-acting anesthetics that are used for induction. Loss of consciousness is rapid and induction is pleasant, but there is no muscle relaxation and reflexes frequently are not reduced adequately. Repeated administration results in accumulation and prolongs the recovery time. Since these agents have little if any analgesic activity, they are seldom used alone except in brief minor procedures. (From AMA Drug Evaluations Annual, 1994, p174)
The position or attitude of the body.
Hospital units providing continuous surveillance and care to acutely ill patients.

Nonlinear indicial response of complex nonstationary oscillations as pulmonary hypertension responding to step hypoxia. (1/1781)

This paper is devoted to the quantization of the degree of nonlinearity of the relationship between two biological variables when one of the variables is a complex nonstationary oscillatory signal. An example of the situation is the indicial responses of pulmonary blood pressure (P) to step changes of oxygen tension (DeltapO2) in the breathing gas. For a step change of DeltapO2 beginning at time t1, the pulmonary blood pressure is a nonlinear function of time and DeltapO2, which can be written as P(t-t1 | DeltapO2). An effective method does not exist to examine the nonlinear function P(t-t1 | DeltapO2). A systematic approach is proposed here. The definitions of mean trends and oscillations about the means are the keys. With these keys a practical method of calculation is devised. We fit the mean trends of blood pressure with analytic functions of time, whose nonlinearity with respect to the oxygen level is clarified here. The associated oscillations about the mean can be transformed into Hilbert spectrum. An integration of the square of the Hilbert spectrum over frequency yields a measure of oscillatory energy, which is also a function of time, whose mean trends can be expressed by analytic functions. The degree of nonlinearity of the oscillatory energy with respect to the oxygen level also is clarified here. Theoretical extension of the experimental nonlinear indicial functions to arbitrary history of hypoxia is proposed. Application of the results to tissue remodeling and tissue engineering of blood vessels is discussed.  (+info)

NADPH oxidase inhibition does not interfere with low PO2 transduction in rat and rabbit CB chemoreceptor cells. (2/1781)

The aim of the present work was to elucidate the role of NADPH oxidase in hypoxia sensing and transduction in the carotid body (CB) chemoreceptor cells. We have studied the effects of several inhibitors of NADPH oxidase on the normoxic and hypoxia-induced release of [3H]catecholamines (CA) in an in vitro preparation of intact CB of the rat and rabbit whose CA deposits have been labeled by prior incubation with the natural precursor [3H]tyrosine. It was found that diphenyleneiodonium (DPI; 0.2-25 microM), an inhibitor of NADPH oxidase, caused a dose-dependent release of [3H]CA from normoxic CB chemoreceptor cells. Contrary to hypoxia, DPI-evoked release was only partially Ca2+ dependent. Concentrations of DPI reported to produce full inhibition of NADPH oxidase in the rat CB did not prevent the hypoxic release response in the rat and rabbit CB chemoreceptor cells, as stimulation with hypoxia in the presence of DPI elicited a response equaling the sum of that produced by DPI and hypoxia applied separately. Neopterin (3-300 microM) and phenylarsine oxide (0.5-2 microM), other inhibitors of NADPH oxidase, did not promote release of [3H]CA in normoxic conditions or affect the response elicited by hypoxia. On the basis of effects of neopterin and phenylarsine oxide, it is concluded that NADPH oxidase does not appear to play a role in oxygen sensing or transduction in the rat and rabbit CB chemoreceptor cells in vitro and, in the context of the present study, that DPI effects are not related to NADPH oxidase inhibition.  (+info)

Continuous arterial P(O2) and P(CO2) measurements in swine during nitrous oxide and xenon elimination: prevention of diffusion hypoxia. (3/1781)

BACKGROUND: During nitrous oxide (N2O) elimination, arterial oxygen tension (PaO2) decreases because of the phenomenon commonly called diffusive hypoxia. The authors questioned whether similar effects occur during xenon elimination. METHODS: Nineteen anesthetized and paralyzed pigs were mechanically ventilated randomly for 30 min using inspiratory gas mixtures of 30% oxygen and either 70% N2O or xenon. The inspiratory gas was replaced by a mixture of 70% nitrogen and 30% oxygen. PaO2 and carbon dioxide tensions were recorded continuously using an indwelling arterial sensor. RESULTS: The PaO2 decreased from 119+/-10 mm Hg to 102+/-12 mm Hg (mean+/-SD) during N2O washout (P<0.01) and from 116+/-9 mm Hg to 110+/-8 mm Hg during xenon elimination (P<0.01), with a significant difference (P<0.01) between baseline and minimum PaO2 values (deltaPaO2, 17+/-6 mm Hg during N2O washout and 6+/-3 mm Hg during xenon washout). The PaCO2 value also decreased (from 39.3+/-6.3 mm Hg to 37.6+/-5.8 mm Hg) during N2O washout (P<0.01) and during xenon elimination (from 35.4+/-1.6 mm Hg to 34.9+/-1.6 mm Hg; P< 0.01). The deltaPaCO2 was 1.7+/-0.9 mm Hg in the N2O group and 0.5+/-0.3 mm Hg in the xenon group (P<0.01). CONCLUSION: Diffusive hypoxia is unlikely to occur during recovery from xenon anesthesia, probably because of the low blood solubility of this gas.  (+info)

Breathing patterns during slow and fast ramp exercise in man. (4/1781)

Breathing frequency (fb), tidal volume (VT), and respiratory timing during slow (SR, 8 W min-1) and fast (FR, 65 W min-1) ramp exercise to exhaustion on a cycle ergometer was examined in seven healthy male subjects. Expiratory ventilation (VE), pulmonary gas exchange (VO2 and VCO2) and end-tidal gas tensions (PET,O2 and PET,CO2) were determined using breath-by-breath techniques. Arterialized venous blood was sampled from a dorsal hand vein at 2 min intervals during SR and 30 s intervals during FR and analysed for arterial plasma PCO2 (PaCO2). PET,CO2 increased with increasing work rates (WRs) below the ventilatory threshold (VT); at WRs > or = 90% VO2,max, PET,CO2 was reduced (P < 0.05) below 0 W values in SR but not in FR.fb and VT were similar for SR and FR at all submaximal WRs, resulting in a similar VE. At exhaustion VE was similar but fb was higher (P < 0.05) and VT was lower (P < 0.05) in SR (fb, 51 +/- 10 breaths min-1; VT, 2590 +/- 590 ml) than in FR (fb, 42 +/- 8 breaths min-1; VT, 3050 +/- 470 ml). The time of expiration (TE) decreased with increasing WR, but there was no difference between SR and FR. The time of inspiration (TI) decreased at exercise intensities > or = VT; at exhaustion, TI was shorter (P < 0.05) during SR (0.512 +/- 0.097 s) than during FR (0.753 +/- 0.100 s). The TI to total breath duration (TI/TTot) and the inspiratory flow (VT/TI) were similar during SR and FR at all submaximal exercise intensities; at VO2,max, TI/TTot was lower (P < 0.05) and VT/TI was higher (P < 0.05) during SR (TI/TTot, 0.473 +/- 0.030; VT/TI, 5.092 +/- 0.377 l s-1) than during FR (TI/TTot, 0.567 +/- 0.050; VT/TI, 4.117 +/- 0.635 l s-1). These results suggest that during progressive exercise, breathing pattern and respiratory timing may be determined, at least at submaximal work rates, independently of alveolar and arterial PCO2.  (+info)

Electrocardiographic signs of chronic cor pulmonale: A negative prognostic finding in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. (5/1781)

BACKGROUND: Chronic cor pulmonale (CCP) is a strong predictor of death in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). The aims of this study were to assess the prognostic role of individual ECG signs of CCP and of the interaction between these signs and abnormal arterial blood gases. METHODS AND RESULTS: Two hundred sixty-three patients (217 men) with COPD, mean age 67+/-9 years, were grouped according to whether they had no ECG signs (group 1, n=100) or >/=1 ECG signs (group 2, n=163) of CCP and were followed up for 13 years after an exacerbation of respiratory failure. The median survival was significantly shorter in group 2 than in group 1 (2.58 versus 3. 45 years, respectively; Mantel-Cox test, 9.58; P=0.002). The Cox regression analysis identified S1S2S3 pattern, right atrial overload (RAO), and alveolar-arterial oxygen gradient (PAO2-PaO2) >48 mm Hg during oxygen therapy as the strongest predictors of death, with hazard rate (HR)=1.81 (95% CI, 1.22 to 2.69), HR=1.58 (95% CI, 1.15 to 2.18), and HR=1.96 (95% CI, 1.19 to 3.25), respectively. The median survivals of patients having both S1S2S3 pattern and RAO (n=14) and of patients having either S1S2S3 pattern or RAO (n=77) were 1.33 and 2.70 years, respectively (P=0.022). Group 2 patients had a 3-year survival of 18% or 53%, depending on whether their PAO2-PaO2 during oxygen therapy was or was not >48 mm Hg. CONCLUSIONS: Some ECG signs of CCP and PAO2-PaO2 >48 mm Hg during oxygen therapy qualified as a simple and inexpensive tool for targeting subsets of COPD patients with severe or very severe short-term prognosis.  (+info)

Spin-lattice relaxation of laser-polarized xenon in human blood. (6/1781)

The nuclear spin polarization of 129Xe can be enhanced by several orders of magnitude by using optical pumping techniques. The increased sensitivity of xenon NMR has allowed imaging of lungs as well as other in vivo applications. The most critical parameter for efficient delivery of laser-polarized xenon to blood and tissues is the spin-lattice relaxation time (T1) of xenon in blood. In this work, the relaxation of laser-polarized xenon in human blood is measured in vitro as a function of blood oxygenation. Interactions with dissolved oxygen and with deoxyhemoglobin are found to contribute to the spin-lattice relaxation time of 129Xe in blood, the latter interaction having greater effect. Consequently, relaxation times of 129Xe in deoxygenated blood are shorter than in oxygenated blood. In samples with oxygenation equivalent to arterial and venous blood, the 129Xe T1s at 37 degrees C and a magnetic field of 1.5 T were 6.4 s +/- 0.5 s and 4.0 s +/- 0.4 s, respectively. The 129Xe spin-lattice relaxation time in blood decreases at lower temperatures, but the ratio of T1 in oxygenated blood to that in deoxygenated blood is the same at 37 degrees C and 25 degrees C. A competing ligand has been used to show that xenon binding to albumin contributes to the 129Xe spin-lattice relaxation in blood plasma. This technique is promising for the study of xenon interactions with macromolecules.  (+info)

Randomised controlled trial of aminophylline for severe acute asthma. (7/1781)

OBJECTIVES: To determine whether children with severe acute asthma treated with large doses of inhaled salbutamol, inhaled ipratropium, and intravenous steroids are conferred any further benefits by the addition of aminophylline given intravenously. STUDY DESIGN: Randomised, double blind, placebo controlled trial of 163 children admitted to hospital with asthma who were unresponsive to nebulised salbutamol. RESULTS: The placebo and treatment groups of children were similar at baseline. The 48 children in the aminophylline group had a greater improvement in spirometry at six hours and a higher oxygen saturation in the first 30 hours. Five subjects in the placebo group were intubated and ventilated after enrollment compared with none in the aminophylline group. CONCLUSIONS: Aminophylline continues to have a place in the management of severe acute asthma in children unresponsive to initial treatment.  (+info)

Randomised trial of three doses of inhaled nitric oxide in acute respiratory distress syndrome. (8/1781)

BACKGROUND: Inhaled nitric oxide (iNO) is a potential therapeutic agent for the management of acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). Concerns remain, however, regarding the potential toxicity from iNO and/or its oxidative derivatives and methaemoglobinaemia. AIMS: To determine the risk of toxicity from iNO, which includes worsening of lung injury, a prospective study evaluating the acute effects of three concentrations of iNO on gas exchange and haemodynamics in 12 children with ARDS was performed in a tertiary paediatric intensive care unit. INTERVENTION: iNO was administered for one hour at three concentrations (1, 10, and 20 parts per million (ppm)) in a random order of possible dosing schedules to avoid dose accumulation bias. Arterial blood gas, methaemoglobin concentrations, and haemodynamic parameters were obtained at baseline before commencement of iNO, at the end of each study hour, and after iNO was discontinued. Nitric oxide and nitrogen dioxide concentrations were continuously monitored during the study. RESULTS: iNO significantly improved the oxygenation ratio (Pao2/Fio2) from a mean (SEM) baseline of 11.9 (1.7) kPa to 20 (3.9) kPa, 24 (4.5) kPa, and 21.6 (3.9) kPa at 1, 10, and 20 ppm iNO, respectively. There was no significant difference in the improvement in oxygenation achieved between the three concentrations. Correspondingly, there was a significant improvement in oxygenation index (pre-iNO 28.3 (5) v post-iNO 18 (3) (1 ppm), 15 (3) (10 ppm), 16 (3) (20 ppm)). No toxicity from methaemoglobinaemia or nitrogen dioxide was seen during iNO administration. CONCLUSION: The results show that a low concentration of iNO (1 ppm) is as effective as higher concentrations (10 and 20 ppm) in improving oxygenation in children with ARDS and may be important in minimising toxicity during iNO use.  (+info)

When the body's CO2 levels are too low, it can cause a range of symptoms including:

1. Dizziness and lightheadedness
2. Headaches
3. Fatigue and weakness
4. Confusion and disorientation
5. Numbness or tingling in the hands and feet
6. Muscle twitching
7. Irritability and anxiety
8. Increased heart rate and blood pressure
9. Sleep disturbances
10. Decreased mental performance and concentration

Hypocapnia can be diagnosed through a series of tests, including blood gas analysis, electroencephalography (EEG), and imaging studies such as computed tomography (CT) or magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Treatment options vary depending on the underlying cause of hypocapnia, but may include breathing exercises, oxygen therapy, medication, and addressing any underlying conditions.

In severe cases, hypocapnia can lead to seizures, coma, and even death. Therefore, it is important to seek medical attention if symptoms persist or worsen over time.

There are different types of anoxia, including:

1. Cerebral anoxia: This occurs when the brain does not receive enough oxygen, leading to cognitive impairment, confusion, and loss of consciousness.
2. Pulmonary anoxia: This occurs when the lungs do not receive enough oxygen, leading to shortness of breath, coughing, and chest pain.
3. Cardiac anoxia: This occurs when the heart does not receive enough oxygen, leading to cardiac arrest and potentially death.
4. Global anoxia: This is a complete lack of oxygen to the entire body, leading to widespread tissue damage and death.

Treatment for anoxia depends on the underlying cause and the severity of the condition. In some cases, hospitalization may be necessary to provide oxygen therapy, pain management, and other supportive care. In severe cases, anoxia can lead to long-term disability or death.

Prevention of anoxia is important, and this includes managing underlying medical conditions such as heart disease, diabetes, and respiratory problems. It also involves avoiding activities that can lead to oxygen deprivation, such as scuba diving or high-altitude climbing, without proper training and equipment.

In summary, anoxia is a serious medical condition that occurs when there is a lack of oxygen in the body or specific tissues or organs. It can cause cell death and tissue damage, leading to serious health complications and even death if left untreated. Early diagnosis and treatment are crucial to prevent long-term disability or death.

Hypercapnia is a medical condition where there is an excessive amount of carbon dioxide (CO2) in the bloodstream. This can occur due to various reasons such as:

1. Respiratory failure: When the lungs are unable to remove enough CO2 from the body, leading to an accumulation of CO2 in the bloodstream.
2. Lung disease: Certain lung diseases such as chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) or pneumonia can cause hypercapnia by reducing the ability of the lungs to exchange gases.
3. Medication use: Certain medications, such as anesthetics and sedatives, can slow down breathing and lead to hypercapnia.

The symptoms of hypercapnia can vary depending on the severity of the condition, but may include:

1. Headaches
2. Dizziness
3. Confusion
4. Shortness of breath
5. Fatigue
6. Sleep disturbances

If left untreated, hypercapnia can lead to more severe complications such as:

1. Respiratory acidosis: When the body produces too much acid, leading to a drop in blood pH.
2. Cardiac arrhythmias: Abnormal heart rhythms can occur due to the increased CO2 levels in the bloodstream.
3. Seizures: In severe cases of hypercapnia, seizures can occur due to the changes in brain chemistry caused by the excessive CO2.

Treatment for hypercapnia typically involves addressing the underlying cause and managing symptoms through respiratory support and other therapies as needed. This may include:

1. Oxygen therapy: Administering oxygen through a mask or nasal tubes to help increase oxygen levels in the bloodstream and reduce CO2 levels.
2. Ventilation assistance: Using a machine to assist with breathing, such as a ventilator, to help remove excess CO2 from the lungs.
3. Carbon dioxide removal: Using a device to remove CO2 from the bloodstream, such as a dialysis machine.
4. Medication management: Adjusting medications that may be contributing to hypercapnia, such as anesthetics or sedatives.
5. Respiratory therapy: Providing breathing exercises and other techniques to help improve lung function and reduce symptoms.

It is important to seek medical attention if you suspect you or someone else may have hypercapnia, as early diagnosis and treatment can help prevent complications and improve outcomes.

There are two types of hypertension:

1. Primary Hypertension: This type of hypertension has no identifiable cause and is also known as essential hypertension. It accounts for about 90% of all cases of hypertension.
2. Secondary Hypertension: This type of hypertension is caused by an underlying medical condition or medication. It accounts for about 10% of all cases of hypertension.

Some common causes of secondary hypertension include:

* Kidney disease
* Adrenal gland disorders
* Hormonal imbalances
* Certain medications
* Sleep apnea
* Cocaine use

There are also several risk factors for hypertension, including:

* Age (the risk increases with age)
* Family history of hypertension
* Obesity
* Lack of exercise
* High sodium intake
* Low potassium intake
* Stress

Hypertension is often asymptomatic, and it can cause damage to the blood vessels and organs over time. Some potential complications of hypertension include:

* Heart disease (e.g., heart attacks, heart failure)
* Stroke
* Kidney disease (e.g., chronic kidney disease, end-stage renal disease)
* Vision loss (e.g., retinopathy)
* Peripheral artery disease

Hypertension is typically diagnosed through blood pressure readings taken over a period of time. Treatment for hypertension may include lifestyle changes (e.g., diet, exercise, stress management), medications, or a combination of both. The goal of treatment is to reduce the risk of complications and improve quality of life.

There are several potential causes of hyperventilation, including anxiety, panic attacks, and certain medical conditions such as asthma or chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Treatment for hyperventilation typically involves slowing down the breathing rate and restoring the body's natural balance of oxygen and carbon dioxide levels.

Some common signs and symptoms of hyperventilation include:

* Rapid breathing
* Deep breathing
* Dizziness or lightheadedness
* Chest pain or tightness
* Shortness of breath
* Confusion or disorientation
* Nausea or vomiting

If you suspect that someone is experiencing hyperventilation, it is important to seek medical attention immediately. Treatment may involve the following:

1. Oxygen therapy: Providing extra oxygen to help restore normal oxygen levels in the body.
2. Breathing exercises: Teaching the individual deep, slow breathing exercises to help regulate their breathing pattern.
3. Relaxation techniques: Encouraging the individual to relax and reduce stress, which can help slow down their breathing rate.
4. Medications: In severe cases, medications such as sedatives or anti-anxiety drugs may be prescribed to help calm the individual and regulate their breathing.
5. Ventilation support: In severe cases of hyperventilation, mechanical ventilation may be necessary to support the individual's breathing.

It is important to seek medical attention if you or someone you know is experiencing symptoms of hyperventilation, as it can lead to more serious complications such as respiratory failure or cardiac arrest if left untreated.

In adults, RDS is less common than in newborns but can still occur in certain situations. These include:

* Sepsis (a severe infection that can cause inflammation throughout the body)
* Pneumonia or other respiratory infections
* Injury to the lung tissue, such as from a car accident or smoke inhalation
* Burns that cover a large portion of the body
* Certain medications, such as those used to treat cancer or autoimmune disorders.

Symptoms of RDS in adults can include:

* Shortness of breath
* Rapid breathing
* Chest tightness or pain
* Low oxygen levels in the blood
* Blue-tinged skin (cyanosis)
* Confusion or disorientation

Diagnosis of RDS in adults is typically made based on a combination of physical examination, medical history, and diagnostic tests such as chest X-rays or blood gas analysis. Treatment may involve oxygen therapy, mechanical ventilation (a machine that helps the patient breathe), and medications to help increase surfactant production or reduce inflammation in the lungs. In severe cases, a lung transplant may be necessary.

Prevention of RDS in adults includes avoiding exposure to risk factors such as smoking and other pollutants, maintaining good overall health, and seeking prompt medical attention if any respiratory symptoms develop.

Respiratory alkalosis can occur due to various causes such as hypoventilation (breathing too slowly), hypercapnia (excessive carbon dioxide in the blood), bicarbonate therapy, or drinking excessive amounts of antacids. Symptoms may include vomiting, abdominal pain, headache, and muscle weakness.

Treatment typically involves addressing the underlying cause, such as correcting hypoventilation or removing excess carbon dioxide from the bloodstream. In severe cases, medications or mechanical ventilation may be necessary.

There are several types of respiratory insufficiency, including:

1. Hypoxemic respiratory failure: This occurs when the lungs do not take in enough oxygen, resulting in low levels of oxygen in the bloodstream.
2. Hypercapnic respiratory failure: This occurs when the lungs are unable to remove enough carbon dioxide from the bloodstream, leading to high levels of carbon dioxide in the bloodstream.
3. Mixed respiratory failure: This occurs when both hypoxemic and hypercapnic respiratory failure occur simultaneously.

Treatment for respiratory insufficiency depends on the underlying cause and may include medications, oxygen therapy, mechanical ventilation, and other supportive care measures. In severe cases, lung transplantation may be necessary. It is important to seek medical attention if symptoms of respiratory insufficiency are present, as early intervention can improve outcomes and prevent complications.

Hyperoxia can cause damage to the body's tissues and organs, particularly the lungs and brain. In severe cases, hyperoxia can lead to respiratory failure, seizures, and even death.

There are several ways to diagnose hyperoxia, including:

1. Blood tests: These can measure the levels of oxygen in the blood.
2. Arterial blood gas (ABG) analysis: This is a test that measures the amounts of oxygen and carbon dioxide in the blood.
3. Pulse oximetry: This is a non-invasive test that measures the amount of oxygen in the blood by shining a light through the skin.

Treatment for hyperoxia depends on the underlying cause, but may include:

1. Oxygen therapy: This involves administering oxygen to the patient through a mask or nasal tubes.
2. Medications: These may be used to treat any underlying conditions that are causing hyperoxia.
3. Mechanical ventilation: In severe cases, this may be necessary to support the patient's breathing.

In summary, hyperoxia is a condition where there is too much oxygen in the body, and it can cause damage to the body's tissues and organs. Diagnosis is typically made through blood tests or other tests, and treatment may involve oxygen therapy, medications, or mechanical ventilation.

There are several types of apnea that can occur during sleep, including:

1. Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA): This is the most common type of apnea and occurs when the airway is physically blocked by the tongue or other soft tissue in the throat, causing breathing to stop for short periods.
2. Central sleep apnea (CSA): This type of apnea occurs when the brain fails to send the proper signals to the muscles that control breathing, resulting in a pause in breathing.
3. Mixed sleep apnea (MSA): This type of apnea is a combination of OSA and CSA, where both central and obstructive factors contribute to the pauses in breathing.
4. Hypopneic apnea: This type of apnea is characterized by a decrease in breathing, but not a complete stop.
5. Hypercapnic apnea: This type of apnea is caused by an excessive buildup of carbon dioxide in the blood, which can lead to pauses in breathing.

The symptoms of apnea can vary depending on the type and severity of the condition, but may include:

* Pauses in breathing during sleep
* Waking up with a dry mouth or sore throat
* Morning headaches
* Difficulty concentrating or feeling tired during the day
* High blood pressure
* Heart disease

Treatment options for apnea depend on the underlying cause, but may include:

* Lifestyle changes, such as losing weight, avoiding alcohol and sedatives before bedtime, and sleeping on your side
* Oral appliances or devices that advance the position of the lower jaw and tongue
* Continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) therapy, which involves wearing a mask during sleep to deliver a constant flow of air pressure into the airways
* Bi-level positive airway pressure (BiPAP) therapy, which involves two levels of air pressure: one for inhalation and another for exhalation
* Surgery to remove excess tissue in the throat or correct physical abnormalities that are contributing to the apnea.

Pneumoperitoneum can be caused by several factors, including:

1. Trauma: Blunt force trauma to the abdomen can cause air to enter the peritoneal cavity. This can occur due to car accidents, falls, or other types of injuries.
2. Surgery: During certain types of surgical procedures, such as laparoscopic surgery, gas may enter the peritoneal cavity.
3. Gastrointestinal perforation: A gastrointestinal perforation is a tear or hole in the lining of the digestive tract that can allow air to enter the peritoneal cavity. This can occur due to conditions such as ulcers, appendicitis, or diverticulitis.
4. Inflammatory bowel disease: Inflammatory bowel diseases such as Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis can cause air to enter the peritoneal cavity.
5. Intestinal obstruction: An intestinal obstruction can prevent the normal flow of food and gas through the digestive system, leading to a buildup of air in the peritoneal cavity.

The symptoms of pneumoperitoneum can vary depending on the severity of the condition and the location of the air in the abdomen. Common symptoms include:

1. Abdominal pain: Pain in the abdomen is the most common symptom of pneumoperitoneum. The pain may be sharp, dull, or colicky and may be accompanied by tenderness to the touch.
2. Distension: The abdomen may become distended due to the accumulation of air, which can cause discomfort and difficulty breathing.
3. Nausea and vomiting: Patients with pneumoperitoneum may experience nausea and vomiting due to the irritation of the peritoneum and the presence of air in the digestive system.
4. Diarrhea or constipation: Depending on the location of the air, patients may experience diarrhea or constipation due to the disruption of normal bowel function.
5. Fever: Pneumoperitoneum can cause a fever due to the inflammation and infection of the peritoneal cavity.

If you suspect that you or someone else may have pneumoperitoneum, it is important to seek medical attention immediately. A healthcare provider will perform a physical examination and order imaging tests such as a CT scan or X-ray to confirm the diagnosis. Treatment will depend on the underlying cause of the condition, but may include antibiotics for infection, drainage of the air from the peritoneal cavity, and surgery if necessary.

There are several types of asphyxia, including:

1. Respiratory asphyxia: This occurs when the individual's respiratory system is unable to provide enough oxygen to the body due to obstruction or paralysis of the respiratory muscles.
2. Cardiac asphyxia: This occurs when the heart is unable to pump enough blood to the body, leading to a lack of oxygen and nutrients.
3. Cerebral asphyxia: This occurs when the brain does not receive enough oxygen, leading to impaired consciousness, confusion, seizures, and even death.
4. Hypoxic-ischemic asphyxia: This occurs when there is a lack of oxygen and blood flow to the body's tissues, leading to tissue damage and cell death.

Asphyxia can cause a range of symptoms depending on its severity and duration, including:

1. Difficulty breathing or shortness of breath
2. Confusion, disorientation, or loss of consciousness
3. Slurred speech or inability to speak
4. Seizures or convulsions
5. Pale or blue-tinged skin
6. Low blood pressure
7. Slow heart rate
8. Decreased level of consciousness

Treatment for asphyxia depends on the underlying cause and the severity of the condition. In mild cases, treatment may involve providing oxygen therapy, administering medications to stimulate breathing, or performing other respiratory support measures. In severe cases, hospitalization may be necessary, and treatment may involve mechanical ventilation or other life-saving interventions.

Prevention of asphyxia is essential, and it can be achieved by avoiding situations that can lead to respiratory distress, such as smoking, alcohol consumption, and exposure to toxic substances. It is also important to ensure proper ventilation in enclosed spaces and to use appropriate safety equipment when working with hazardous materials or in confined areas.

In conclusion, asphyxia is a serious condition that can lead to tissue damage and cell death due to a lack of oxygen and blood flow. Prompt recognition and treatment are essential to prevent long-term brain damage and death. Prevention measures include avoiding situations that can lead to respiratory distress and ensuring proper ventilation in enclosed spaces.

Symptoms of pulmonary atelectasis may include chest pain, coughing up bloody mucus, difficulty breathing, fever, and chills. Treatment typically involves antibiotics for bacterial infections, and in severe cases, mechanical ventilation may be necessary. In some cases, surgery may be required to remove the blockage or repair the damage to the lung.
Pulmonary atelectasis is a serious condition that requires prompt medical attention to prevent complications such as respiratory failure or sepsis. It can be diagnosed through chest X-rays, computed tomography (CT) scans, and pulmonary function tests.

There are several types of acidosis, including:

1. Respiratory acidosis: This occurs when the lung's ability to remove carbon dioxide from the blood is impaired, leading to an increase in blood acidity.
2. Metabolic acidosis: This type of acidosis occurs when there is an excessive production of acid in the body due to factors such as diabetes, starvation, or kidney disease.
3. Mixed acidosis: This type of acidosis is a combination of respiratory and metabolic acidosis.
4. Severe acute respiratory acidosis (SARA): This is a life-threatening condition that occurs suddenly, usually due to a severe lung injury or aspiration of a corrosive substance.

The symptoms of acidosis can vary depending on the type and severity of the condition. Common symptoms include:

1. Fatigue
2. Weakness
3. Confusion
4. Headaches
5. Nausea and vomiting
6. Abdominal pain
7. Difficulty breathing
8. Rapid heart rate
9. Muscle twitching

If left untreated, acidosis can lead to complications such as:

1. Kidney damage
2. Seizures
3. Coma
4. Heart arrhythmias
5. Respiratory failure

Treatment of acidosis depends on the underlying cause and the severity of the condition. Some common treatments include:

1. Oxygen therapy
2. Medications to help regulate breathing and heart rate
3. Fluid and electrolyte replacement
4. Dietary changes
5. Surgery, in severe cases.

In conclusion, acidosis is a serious medical condition that can have severe consequences if left untreated. It is important to seek medical attention immediately if you suspect that you or someone else may have acidosis. With prompt and appropriate treatment, it is possible to effectively manage the condition and prevent complications.

The severity of smoke inhalation injury can vary depending on factors such as the amount and type of smoke inhaled, the duration of exposure, and the individual's overall health. In mild cases, symptoms may include coughing, sneezing, and shortness of breath, while more severe cases can lead to respiratory failure, burns, and even death.

Treatment for smoke inhalation injury typically involves supportive care such as oxygen therapy, hydration, and pain management, as well as medications to help reduce inflammation and open up airways. In severe cases, hospitalization and mechanical ventilation may be necessary.

Long-term effects of smoke inhalation injury can include chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), bronchiectasis, and pulmonary fibrosis, among others. These conditions can significantly impact an individual's quality of life and may require ongoing medical care and monitoring.

Prevention of smoke inhalation injury involves taking steps to avoid exposure to smoke, such as evacuating a building during a fire or wearing protective equipment when working with flammable materials. In cases where exposure has already occurred, prompt medical attention can help reduce the risk of long-term health effects and improve outcomes for those affected.

Some common symptoms of respiratory acidosis include:

* Rapid breathing rate
* Shallow breathing
* Fatigue
* Confusion or disorientation
* Headaches
* Muscle weakness
* Numbness or tingling in the hands and feet

If left untreated, respiratory acidosis can lead to serious complications such as seizures, coma, and even death. Treatment typically involves addressing the underlying cause of the condition, such as surgery for a weakened diaphragm or other breathing muscles, or using mechanical ventilation if necessary.

It is important to seek medical attention if you experience any symptoms of respiratory acidosis, as early diagnosis and treatment can help prevent complications and improve outcomes.

A blockage caused by air bubbles in the bloodstream, which can occur after a sudden change in atmospheric pressure (e.g., during an airplane flight or scuba diving). Air embolism can cause a variety of symptoms, including shortness of breath, chest pain, and stroke. It is a potentially life-threatening condition that requires prompt medical attention.

Note: Air embolism can also occur in the venous system, causing a pulmonary embolism (blockage of an artery in the lungs). This is a more common condition and is discussed separately.

The symptoms of altitude sickness can vary in severity and may include:

* Headache
* Dizziness and lightheadedness
* Nausea and vomiting
* Fatigue and weakness
* Shortness of breath
* Coughing and chest tightness
* Swelling of the hands, feet, and face

In severe cases, altitude sickness can lead to more serious complications such as:

* High-altitude pulmonary edema (HAPE): fluid buildup in the lungs that can be life-threatening
* High-altitude cerebral edema (HACE): fluid buildup in the brain that can be life-threatening

To prevent altitude sickness, it is recommended to ascend gradually and give your body time to acclimate to the higher altitude. This can be done by spending a few days at a lower altitude before ascending to a higher altitude. It is also important to stay hydrated by drinking plenty of water and avoid alcohol and sedatives, which can increase the risk of altitude sickness.

If you experience any symptoms of altitude sickness, it is important to descend to a lower altitude as soon as possible. Medications such as acetazolamide (Diamox) can also be used to help prevent and treat altitude sickness. In severe cases, hospitalization may be necessary to receive oxygen therapy and other medical treatment.

The signs and symptoms of fetal hypoxia may include:

1. Decreased fetal movement
2. Abnormal fetal heart rate
3. Meconium staining of the amniotic fluid
4. Premature contractions
5. Preterm labor

If left untreated, fetal hypoxia can lead to serious complications such as:

1. Intracranial hemorrhage
2. Cerebral palsy
3. Developmental delays
4. Learning disabilities
5. Memory and cognitive impairments
6. Behavioral problems
7. Autism
8. Seizures
9. Hearing and vision loss

Treatment of fetal hypoxia depends on the underlying cause, but may include:

1. Bed rest or hospitalization
2. Corticosteroids to promote fetal growth and maturity
3. Oxygen supplementation
4. Antibiotics for infections
5. Planned delivery, if necessary

In some cases, fetal hypoxia may be detected through ultrasound examination, which can show a decrease in fetal movement or abnormal heart rate. However, not all cases of fetal hypoxia can be detected by ultrasound, and regular prenatal check-ups are essential to monitor the health of the developing fetus.

Prevention of fetal hypoxia includes proper prenatal care, avoiding harmful substances such as tobacco and alcohol, maintaining a healthy diet, and managing any underlying medical conditions. Early detection and treatment of fetal hypoxia can significantly improve outcomes for both the mother and the baby.

1) They share similarities with humans: Many animal species share similar biological and physiological characteristics with humans, making them useful for studying human diseases. For example, mice and rats are often used to study diseases such as diabetes, heart disease, and cancer because they have similar metabolic and cardiovascular systems to humans.

2) They can be genetically manipulated: Animal disease models can be genetically engineered to develop specific diseases or to model human genetic disorders. This allows researchers to study the progression of the disease and test potential treatments in a controlled environment.

3) They can be used to test drugs and therapies: Before new drugs or therapies are tested in humans, they are often first tested in animal models of disease. This allows researchers to assess the safety and efficacy of the treatment before moving on to human clinical trials.

4) They can provide insights into disease mechanisms: Studying disease models in animals can provide valuable insights into the underlying mechanisms of a particular disease. This information can then be used to develop new treatments or improve existing ones.

5) Reduces the need for human testing: Using animal disease models reduces the need for human testing, which can be time-consuming, expensive, and ethically challenging. However, it is important to note that animal models are not perfect substitutes for human subjects, and results obtained from animal studies may not always translate to humans.

6) They can be used to study infectious diseases: Animal disease models can be used to study infectious diseases such as HIV, TB, and malaria. These models allow researchers to understand how the disease is transmitted, how it progresses, and how it responds to treatment.

7) They can be used to study complex diseases: Animal disease models can be used to study complex diseases such as cancer, diabetes, and heart disease. These models allow researchers to understand the underlying mechanisms of the disease and test potential treatments.

8) They are cost-effective: Animal disease models are often less expensive than human clinical trials, making them a cost-effective way to conduct research.

9) They can be used to study drug delivery: Animal disease models can be used to study drug delivery and pharmacokinetics, which is important for developing new drugs and drug delivery systems.

10) They can be used to study aging: Animal disease models can be used to study the aging process and age-related diseases such as Alzheimer's and Parkinson's. This allows researchers to understand how aging contributes to disease and develop potential treatments.

The symptoms of ALI can vary depending on the severity of the condition, but may include:

* Shortness of breath (dyspnea)
* Chest pain or tightness (pleurisy)
* Cough, which may produce mucus or pus
* Fatigue, confusion, or disorientation
* Low oxygen levels in the blood (hypoxia)

If left untreated, ALI can progress to a more severe condition called acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS), which can be fatal. Treatment for ALI typically involves supportive care, such as mechanical ventilation, medications to manage inflammation and fluid buildup in the lungs, and management of underlying causes. In severe cases, extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) or lung transplantation may be necessary.

It's important to note that ALI can occur in people of all ages and can be caused by a variety of factors, so it's important to seek medical attention right away if you or someone you know is experiencing symptoms of the condition.

There are several causes of hypotension, including:

1. Dehydration: Loss of fluids and electrolytes can cause a drop in blood pressure.
2. Blood loss: Losing too much blood can lead to hypotension.
3. Medications: Certain medications, such as diuretics and beta-blockers, can lower blood pressure.
4. Heart conditions: Heart failure, cardiac tamponade, and arrhythmias can all cause hypotension.
5. Endocrine disorders: Hypothyroidism (underactive thyroid) and adrenal insufficiency can cause low blood pressure.
6. Vasodilation: A condition where the blood vessels are dilated, leading to low blood pressure.
7. Sepsis: Severe infection can cause hypotension.

Symptoms of hypotension can include:

1. Dizziness and lightheadedness
2. Fainting or passing out
3. Weakness and fatigue
4. Confusion and disorientation
5. Pale, cool, or clammy skin
6. Fast or weak pulse
7. Shortness of breath
8. Nausea and vomiting

If you suspect that you or someone else is experiencing hypotension, it is important to seek medical attention immediately. Treatment will depend on the underlying cause of the condition, but may include fluids, electrolytes, and medication to raise blood pressure. In severe cases, hospitalization may be necessary.

There are two types of heart arrest:

1. Asystole - This is when the heart stops functioning completely and there is no electrical activity in the heart.
2. Pulseless ventricular tachycardia or fibrillation - This is when the heart is still functioning but there is no pulse and the rhythm is abnormal.

Heart arrest can be diagnosed through various tests such as electrocardiogram (ECG), blood tests, and echocardiography. Treatment options for heart arrest include cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR), defibrillation, and medications to restore a normal heart rhythm.

In severe cases of heart arrest, the patient may require advanced life support measures such as mechanical ventilation and cardiac support devices. The prognosis for heart arrest is generally poor, especially if it is not treated promptly and effectively. However, with proper treatment and support, some patients can recover and regain normal heart function.

Examples of acute diseases include:

1. Common cold and flu
2. Pneumonia and bronchitis
3. Appendicitis and other abdominal emergencies
4. Heart attacks and strokes
5. Asthma attacks and allergic reactions
6. Skin infections and cellulitis
7. Urinary tract infections
8. Sinusitis and meningitis
9. Gastroenteritis and food poisoning
10. Sprains, strains, and fractures.

Acute diseases can be treated effectively with antibiotics, medications, or other therapies. However, if left untreated, they can lead to chronic conditions or complications that may require long-term care. Therefore, it is important to seek medical attention promptly if symptoms persist or worsen over time.

There are several types of lung diseases that are classified as obstructive, including:

1. Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD): This is a progressive condition that makes it hard to breathe and can cause long-term disability and even death. COPD is caused by damage to the lungs, usually from smoking or exposure to other forms of pollution.
2. Emphysema: This is a condition where the air sacs in the lungs are damaged and cannot properly expand and contract. This can cause shortness of breath and can lead to respiratory failure.
3. Chronic bronchitis: This is a condition where the airways in the lungs become inflamed and narrowed, making it harder to breathe.
4. Asthma: This is a condition where the airways in the lungs become inflamed and narrowed, causing wheezing, coughing, and shortness of breath.
5. Bronchiectasis: This is a condition where the airways in the lungs become damaged and widened, leading to thickening of the walls of the airways and chronic infection.
6. Pulmonary fibrosis: This is a condition where the lung tissue becomes scarred and stiff, making it harder to breathe.
7. Lung cancer: This is a malignant tumor that can occur in the lungs and can cause breathing difficulties and other symptoms.

These diseases can be caused by a variety of factors, including smoking, exposure to air pollution, genetics, and certain occupations or environments. Treatment for obstructive lung diseases may include medications, such as bronchodilators and corticosteroids, and lifestyle changes, such as quitting smoking and avoiding exposure to pollutants. In severe cases, surgery or lung transplantation may be necessary.

It's important to note that these diseases can have similar symptoms, so it's important to see a doctor if you experience any persistent breathing difficulties or other symptoms. A proper diagnosis and treatment plan can help manage the condition and improve quality of life.

The exact cause of fibrosarcoma is not known, but it is believed to be linked to genetic mutations that occur during a person's lifetime. Some risk factors for developing fibrosarcoma include previous radiation exposure, chronic inflammation, and certain inherited conditions such as neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1).

The symptoms of fibrosarcoma can vary depending on the location and size of the tumor. In some cases, there may be no symptoms until the tumor has grown to a significant size. Common symptoms include pain, swelling, and limited mobility in the affected limb. If the tumor is near a nerve, it can also cause numbness or tingling sensations in the affected area.

Diagnosis of fibrosarcoma typically involves a combination of imaging tests such as X-rays, CT scans, and MRI scans, as well as a biopsy to confirm the presence of cancer cells. Treatment options for fibrosarcoma may include surgery, radiation therapy, and chemotherapy, depending on the size and location of the tumor, as well as the patient's overall health.

Prognosis for fibrosarcoma is generally good if the tumor is caught early and treated aggressively. However, if the cancer has spread to other parts of the body (metastasized), the prognosis is generally poorer. In some cases, the cancer can recur after treatment, so it is important for patients to follow their doctor's recommendations for regular check-ups and follow-up testing.

Overall, fibrosarcoma is a rare and aggressive form of cancer that can be challenging to diagnose and treat. However, with early detection and appropriate treatment, many people with this condition can achieve long-term survival and a good quality of life.

Symptoms of hydrocephalus, normal pressure can include headaches, nausea and vomiting, double vision, and difficulty with balance and coordination. However, unlike hydrocephalus, elevated pressure, which is caused by an excessive accumulation of CSF, the symptoms of hydrocephalus, normal pressure are usually milder and may not be as severe.

Treatment options for hydrocephalus, normal pressure can include medications to relieve symptoms, such as headaches and nausea, as well as surgery to drain excess CSF or to repair any blockages or abnormalities in the flow of CSF. In some cases, a shunt may be inserted to drain excess CSF into another part of the body, such as the abdomen.

Some common types of lung diseases include:

1. Asthma: A chronic condition characterized by inflammation and narrowing of the airways, leading to wheezing, coughing, and shortness of breath.
2. Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD): A progressive condition that causes chronic inflammation and damage to the airways and lungs, making it difficult to breathe.
3. Pneumonia: An infection of the lungs that can be caused by bacteria, viruses, or fungi, leading to fever, chills, coughing, and difficulty breathing.
4. Bronchiectasis: A condition where the airways are damaged and widened, leading to chronic infections and inflammation.
5. Pulmonary Fibrosis: A condition where the lungs become scarred and stiff, making it difficult to breathe.
6. Lung Cancer: A malignant tumor that develops in the lungs, often caused by smoking or exposure to carcinogens.
7. Cystic Fibrosis: A genetic disorder that affects the respiratory and digestive systems, leading to chronic infections and inflammation in the lungs.
8. Tuberculosis (TB): An infectious disease caused by Mycobacterium Tuberculosis, which primarily affects the lungs but can also affect other parts of the body.
9. Pulmonary Embolism: A blockage in one of the arteries in the lungs, often caused by a blood clot that has traveled from another part of the body.
10. Sarcoidosis: An inflammatory disease that affects various organs in the body, including the lungs, leading to the formation of granulomas and scarring.

These are just a few examples of conditions that can affect the lungs and respiratory system. It's important to note that many of these conditions can be treated with medication, therapy, or surgery, but early detection is key to successful treatment outcomes.

A type of hypertension that is caused by a problem with the kidneys. It can be acute or chronic and may be associated with other conditions such as glomerulonephritis, pyelonephritis, or polycystic kidney disease. Symptoms include proteinuria, hematuria, and elevated blood pressure. Treatment options include diuretics, ACE inhibitors, and angiotensin II receptor blockers.

Note: Renal hypertension is also known as renal artery hypertension.

Symptoms of intracranial hypertension can include headache, nausea and vomiting, confusion, seizures, and loss of consciousness. Treatment options depend on the underlying cause, but may include medications to reduce pressure, draining excess CSF, or surgery to relieve obstruction.

Intracranial hypertension can be life-threatening if left untreated, as it can lead to permanent brain damage and even death. Therefore, prompt medical attention is essential for proper diagnosis and management of this condition.

1. Chronic bronchitis: This condition causes inflammation of the bronchial tubes (the airways that lead to the lungs), which can cause coughing and excessive mucus production.
2. Emphysema: This condition damages the air sacs in the lungs, making it difficult for the body to take in oxygen and release carbon dioxide.

The main causes of COPD are smoking and long-term exposure to air pollution, although genetics can also play a role. Symptoms of COPD can include shortness of breath, wheezing, and coughing, particularly during exercise or exertion. The disease can be diagnosed through pulmonary function tests, chest X-rays, and blood tests.

There is no cure for COPD, but there are several treatment options available to manage the symptoms and slow the progression of the disease. These include medications such as bronchodilators and corticosteroids, pulmonary rehabilitation programs, and lifestyle changes such as quitting smoking and increasing physical activity. In severe cases, oxygen therapy may be necessary to help the patient breathe.

Prevention is key in avoiding the development of COPD, and this includes not smoking and avoiding exposure to air pollution. Early detection and treatment can also help manage the symptoms and slow the progression of the disease. With proper management, many people with COPD are able to lead active and productive lives.

Body weight is an important health indicator, as it can affect an individual's risk for certain medical conditions, such as obesity, diabetes, and cardiovascular disease. Maintaining a healthy body weight is essential for overall health and well-being, and there are many ways to do so, including a balanced diet, regular exercise, and other lifestyle changes.

There are several ways to measure body weight, including:

1. Scale: This is the most common method of measuring body weight, and it involves standing on a scale that displays the individual's weight in kg or lb.
2. Body fat calipers: These are used to measure body fat percentage by pinching the skin at specific points on the body.
3. Skinfold measurements: This method involves measuring the thickness of the skin folds at specific points on the body to estimate body fat percentage.
4. Bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA): This is a non-invasive method that uses electrical impulses to measure body fat percentage.
5. Dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA): This is a more accurate method of measuring body composition, including bone density and body fat percentage.

It's important to note that body weight can fluctuate throughout the day due to factors such as water retention, so it's best to measure body weight at the same time each day for the most accurate results. Additionally, it's important to use a reliable scale or measuring tool to ensure accurate measurements.

1. Coronary artery disease: The narrowing or blockage of the coronary arteries, which supply blood to the heart.
2. Heart failure: A condition in which the heart is unable to pump enough blood to meet the body's needs.
3. Arrhythmias: Abnormal heart rhythms that can be too fast, too slow, or irregular.
4. Heart valve disease: Problems with the heart valves that control blood flow through the heart.
5. Heart muscle disease (cardiomyopathy): Disease of the heart muscle that can lead to heart failure.
6. Congenital heart disease: Defects in the heart's structure and function that are present at birth.
7. Peripheral artery disease: The narrowing or blockage of blood vessels that supply oxygen and nutrients to the arms, legs, and other organs.
8. Deep vein thrombosis (DVT): A blood clot that forms in a deep vein, usually in the leg.
9. Pulmonary embolism: A blockage in one of the arteries in the lungs, which can be caused by a blood clot or other debris.
10. Stroke: A condition in which there is a lack of oxygen to the brain due to a blockage or rupture of blood vessels.

Example Sentence: The patient was diagnosed with pulmonary hypertension and began treatment with medication to lower her blood pressure and improve her symptoms.

Word class: Noun phrase / medical condition

LVH can lead to a number of complications, including:

1. Heart failure: The enlarged left ventricle can become less efficient at pumping blood throughout the body, leading to heart failure.
2. Arrhythmias: The abnormal electrical activity in the heart can lead to irregular heart rhythms.
3. Sudden cardiac death: In some cases, LVH can increase the risk of sudden cardiac death.
4. Atrial fibrillation: The enlarged left atrium can lead to atrial fibrillation, a common type of arrhythmia.
5. Mitral regurgitation: The enlargement of the left ventricle can cause the mitral valve to become incompetent, leading to mitral regurgitation.
6. Heart valve problems: The enlarged left ventricle can lead to heart valve problems, such as mitral regurgitation or aortic stenosis.
7. Coronary artery disease: LVH can increase the risk of coronary artery disease, which can lead to a heart attack.
8. Pulmonary hypertension: The enlarged left ventricle can lead to pulmonary hypertension, which can further strain the heart and increase the risk of complications.

Evaluation of LVH typically involves a physical examination, medical history, electrocardiogram (ECG), echocardiography, and other diagnostic tests such as stress test or cardiac MRI. Treatment options for LVH depend on the underlying cause and may include medications, lifestyle changes, and in some cases, surgery or other interventions.

Medical Term: Cardiomegaly

Definition: An abnormal enlargement of the heart.

Symptoms: Difficulty breathing, shortness of breath, fatigue, swelling of legs and feet, chest pain, and palpitations.

Causes: Hypertension, cardiac valve disease, myocardial infarction (heart attack), congenital heart defects, and other conditions that affect the heart muscle or cardiovascular system.

Diagnosis: Physical examination, electrocardiogram (ECG), chest x-ray, echocardiography, and other diagnostic tests as necessary.

Treatment: Medications such as diuretics, vasodilators, and beta blockers, lifestyle changes such as exercise and diet modifications, surgery or other interventions in severe cases.

Note: Cardiomegaly is a serious medical condition that requires prompt diagnosis and treatment to prevent complications such as heart failure and death. If you suspect you or someone else may have cardiomegaly, seek medical attention immediately.

Using diving terms, partial pressure is calculated as: partial pressure = (total absolute pressure) × (volume fraction of gas ... Oxygen toxicity becomes a risk when these oxygen partial pressures and exposures are exceeded. The partial pressure of oxygen ... partial pressure of ammonia (NH3) Ideally the ratio of partial pressures equals the ratio of the number of molecules. That is, ... partial pressure of nitrogen (N2) p H 2 {\displaystyle p_{{\ce {H2}}}} = partial pressure of hydrogen (H2) p NH 3 {\ ...
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Decrease in partial pressure of alveolar CO2. Decrease in partial pressure of arterial CO2. Increase in blood pH, (respiratory ... that pressure on the vagus nerve causes changes to pulse rate and blood pressure and is dangerous in cases of carotid sinus ... In some versions the bear-hug is replaced by pressure on the neck in which case blackout is a hybrid of strangulation and self- ... This alone is enough to cause a blackout, but it is widely believed that the effect is enhanced if lung air pressure is ...
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Kc varies with ionic strength, temperature and pressure (or volume). Likewise Kp for gases depends on partial pressure. These ... Fugacity, f, is the product of partial pressure and fugacity coefficient. The chemical potential of a species in the real gas ... For reactions in the gas phase partial pressure is used in place of concentration and fugacity coefficient in place of activity ... partial {\mathcal {G}}}{\partial N_{j}}}=\mu _{j}+\sum _{i=1}^{k}\lambda _{i}a_{ij}} 0 = ∂ G ∂ λ i = ∑ j = 1 m a i j N j − b i ...
Dumville JC, Munson C, Christie J (December 2014). "Negative pressure wound therapy for partial-thickness burns". The Cochrane ... Partial-thickness burns may require cleaning with soap and water, followed by dressings. It is not clear how to manage blisters ... When the injury extends into some of the underlying skin layer, it is a partial-thickness or second-degree burn. Blisters are ... 30 mL/h in adults or >1mL/kg in children and mean arterial pressure greater than 60 mmHg. While lactated Ringer's solution is ...
... with estimated partial pressure as large as 1,000 kPa (10 bar), because there was no bacterial photosynthesis to reduce the gas ... "Elevated Partial Pressure of CO2 and Plant Growth". Oecologia. 44 (1): 68-74. Bibcode:1979Oecol..44...68W. doi:10.1007/ ... At current atmospheric pressures photosynthesis shuts down when atmospheric CO2 concentrations fall below 150 ppm and 200 ppm ... Li, K.-F. (30 May 2009). "Atmospheric pressure as a natural climate regulator for a terrestrial planet with a biosphere". ...
The partial pressure of A changes by dPA over the distance dx. Similarly, the partial pressure of B changes dPB. As there is no ... For example, in the alveoli of mammalian lungs, due to differences in partial pressures across the alveolar-capillary membrane ... If the partial pressure of A at x1 is PA1 and x2 is PA2, integration of above equation, N A = − D R T ( P A 2 − P A 1 ) x 2 − x ... For an ideal gas the partial pressure is related to the molar concentration by the relation P A V = n A R T {\displaystyle P_{A ...
6-7. Ernst, W. G. (June 1999). "Metamorphism, partial preservation, and exhumation of ultrahigh‐pressure belts". Island Arc. 8 ... During subduction, a series of minerals in these slabs such as serpentine can be stable at different pressures within the slab ... Subduction zones host a unique variety of rock types created by the high-pressure, low-temperature conditions a subducting slab ... A metamorphic facies is characterized by a stable mineral assemblage specific to a pressure-temperature range and specific ...
They have a significant partial pressure of sulfur dioxide. Related compounds are selenate selenites and tellurate tellurites ...
Ernst, W. G. (June 1999). "Metamorphism, partial preservation, and exhumation of ultrahigh‐pressure belts". Island Arc. 8 (2): ...
This process is driven by differences in partial pressure. The production of carbon dioxide and use of oxygen by the spider ...
... and pressure and gas monitoring. The depth is sufficient to allow divers to maintain an oxygen partial pressure of 1.3 bar on ... Thalmann, E. D. (1985). "Development of a Decompression Algorithm for Constant Oxygen Partial Pressure in Helium Diving". US ... and developed new constant oxygen partial pressure decompression tables to use with the it, as standard open circuit tables ... "Repeated Six-Hour Dives 1.35 ATM Oxygen Partial Pressure". US Navy Experimental Diving Unit Technical Report. NEDU-05-20. ...
The partial pressure of oxygen drops across each barrier. Table 1 gives the example of a typical oxygen cascade for a skeletal ... Oxygen flows from areas with high partial pressure of oxygen (PO2, also known as oxygen tension) to areas of lower PO2. Air is ... "Skeletal muscle interstitial O2 pressures: bridging the gap between the capillary and myocyte". Microcirculation. 26 (5): ... muscle of healthy, adult male at rest who is breathing air at atmospheric pressure. Actual values in a person may vary widely ...
At greater pressures, treatment gas mixtures using Nitrogen or Helium as a diluent to limit partial pressure of oxygen to 3 ata ... Heliox or Nitrox with partial pressure not exceeding 3 ata may be used as treatment gas at pressures less than 165 fsw 100% ... Oxygen is not available or the patient cannot tolerate high partial pressures of oxygen Maximum pressure 50 msw (164 fsw) Run ... Oxygen is not available or the patient cannot tolerate high partial pressures of oxygen Maximum pressure 50 msw (164 fsw) Run ...
Pressure differential between the atmosphere above the piston and the partial vacuum below then drove the piston down making ... One was for a steam-powered pump to supply water to fountains; the device alternately used a partial vacuum and steam pressure ... thereby creating a partial vacuum which allowed the atmospheric pressure to push the piston into the cylinder. It was the first ... As the low pressure steam from the boiler flowed into the cylinder, the weight of the pump and gear returned the beam to its ...
There is also no reliable evidence that epileptics are differently sensitive to raised partial pressures of oxygen. It is now ... Reported side effects include anxiety and panic, thought to be caused by interaction with high partial pressure of nitrogen and ... Side effects at increased partial pressure of nitrogen are unclear. In combination with some other medications they can cause ... Time-pressure stress related to matching gas supply to dive duration can increase when the dive plan is compromised and gas ...
Such suits may be either full-pressure (e.g., a space suit) or partial-pressure (as used by aircrew). Partial-pressure suits ... The RAF never issued a partial-pressure suit, preferring instead to use anti-g trousers in conjunction with pressure jerkins ( ... Partial pressure suits only pressurize certain parts of the body. They can only provide protection up to a certain altitude. ... A pressure suit is a protective suit worn by high-altitude pilots who may fly at altitudes where the air pressure is too low ...
It is equivalent to partial pressure for most environmental purposes. It is the absconding propensity of a material. BCF can be ... Fugacity is another predictive criterion for equilibrium among phases that has units of pressure. ...
This pressure is always below 20% of the total barometric pressure. At sea level, alveolar partial pressure of oxygen is 104 ... the barometric pressure is 87 mmHg. As the barometric pressure decreases, atmospheric partial pressure decreases also. ... Carbon dioxide partial pressure reduces and corporal fluids pH increase. These actions inhibit the respiratory center of the ... The kidneys respond to low carbon dioxide partial pressure by decreasing the secretion of hydrogen ions, and increasing the ...
As the chlorine reacted, hydrogen was released, increasing the partial pressure. The net result was the same as adding hydrogen ... attributed to increase in hydrogen partial pressure in the gas mixture caused by slow reaction of chlorine with various metals ... the xenon vapor pressure was lower than the required operating pressure in the laser gas mixture. HCl was frozen out in the ... Definitive evidence of a xenon excimer laser action at 173 nm using a high pressure gas at 12 atmospheres, also pumped by an ...
The computer uses the pressure and time input in a decompression algorithm to estimate the partial pressure of inert gases that ... ambient pressure transducer pressure sensor Component that converts ambient pressure to an electrical signal Piezoresistive ... Oxygen partial pressure at current depth, based on selected gas mixture. Cumulative oxygen toxicity exposure (CNS), computed ... Some computers can provide a real time display of the oxygen partial pressure in the rebreather. This requires an input from an ...
Behnke refers to early work by Momsen on "partial pressure vacancy" (PPV) where he used partial pressures of oxygen and helium ... In other words, the larger oxygen window due to a higher oxygen partial pressure can allow the diver to decompress faster at a ... In diving and decompression, the oxygen window is the difference between the partial pressure of oxygen (PO2) in arterial blood ... Van Liew, HD (1976). "Variability of the inert gas partial pressure in bubbles and tissues". Undersea Biomedical Research. 3 ( ...
Oxygen service implies use in contact with high partial pressures of oxygen. Generally this is taken to mean a higher partial ... Both partial pressure and concentration of oxygen affect the fire hazard. The issues of cleaning and design are closely related ... In an oxygen system the presence of oxygen is implied, and in a sufficiently high partial pressure of oxygen, most materials ... Oxygen cleaning is a necessary, but not always a sufficient condition for high partial pressure or high concentration oxygen ...
... the partial pressure of oxygen in a gas mixture oxygen cell Electro-galvanic oxygen sensor for measuring partial pressure of ... low pressure 1. Also: "intermediate pressure" In diving, low pressure usually refers to the gas pressure provided from the ... HP High pressure, generally gas pressures in excess of 30 bar. In most of the world a high pressure diving cylinder is a 300 ... OPV Over-pressure valve. A pressure relief valve which automatically opens at a set pressure to allow excess gas to escape. O- ...
Scuba divers cannot accept a high risk of oxygen toxicity convulsions and would usually consider an oxygen partial pressure of ... In closed bell diving an unusually high oxygen partial pressure of 2.8 bar as used in therapeutic decompression was recommended ... Retrieved 30 January 2016.[permanent dead link] Partial Pressure of O2 in Bail-Out Bottles. DMAC 04 (Report). Diving Medical ... made a more conservative recommendation of an oxygen partial pressure for open circuit bailout for saturation divers of between ...
... or a higher partial pressure of oxygen. Thus, any point in the curve will shift rightwards (due to increased partial pressure ... Although binding of oxygen to hemoglobin continues to some extent for pressures about 50 mmHg, as oxygen partial pressures ... The partial pressure of oxygen in the blood at which the hemoglobin is 50% saturated, typically about 26.6 mmHg (3.5 kPa) for a ... The amount of oxygen bound to the hemoglobin at any time is related, in large part, to the partial pressure of oxygen to which ...
... (also called Dalton's law of partial pressures) states that in a mixture of non-reacting gases, the total pressure ... SI unit of amount of substance Partial pressure - Pressure attributed to a component gas in a mixture Raoult's law - Law of ... pn represent the partial pressures of each component. p i = p total x i {\displaystyle p_{i}=p_{\text{total}}x_{i}} where xi is ... thermodynamics for vapour pressure of a mixture Vapor pressure - Pressure exerted by a vapor in thermodynamic equilibrium ...
C the partial pressure of ammonia is 0.05 mm Hg. A solution of stoichometric monoammonium phosphate is acidic (pH 4.7 at 0.1% ...
PCO2 is the partial pressure of carbon dioxide in the blood plasma. The pH of the extracellular fluids can thus be controlled ... The partial pressure of carbon dioxide in the arterial blood is monitored by the central chemoreceptors of the medulla ... Normal breathing is resumed when the partial pressure of carbon dioxide has returned to 5.3 kPa. The converse happens if the ... However, since the carbonic acid concentration is directly proportional to the partial pressure of carbon dioxide ( P C O 2 {\ ...
This raises the pressure in the exhaust system, forcing the engine to work harder on the exhaust stroke of its cylinders, so ... The engine braking generated by creating partial vacuum with a closed throttle at each intake stroke in petrol/gasoline engines ... Turbocharger retarders that restrict the flow of exhaust gas can also help in increasing the exhaust pressure to achieve the ... and since in those vehicles the brakes are air-actuated helps to conserve air pressure too. Friction-based braking systems are ...
Partial verdict reached in Bundy ranch standoff trial in Nevada, Oregon Live (AP), April 24, 2017. Retrieved May 28, 2017. ... Levin, Sam (January 11, 2016). "Pressure grows on Oregon militia as former Bundy backers call for retreat". The Guardian. ...
... low-pressure belt corresponds to the volcanic arc. In a subduction zone, loss of water from the subducted slab induces partial ... The heat and pressure break down the hydrous minerals in the plate, releasing water into the overlying mantle. Volatiles such ... Paired metamorphic belts, in which a belt of high-temperature, low-pressure metamorphism is located parallel to a belt of low- ... Water is lost from the subducted plate when the temperature and pressure become sufficient to break down these minerals and ...
Studio management pressured staff to sell their remaining shares and options to Fox on the promise of continued employment on ... later winning a partial summary judgment from the Trademark Trial and Appeal Board in a reverse suit, Fox Entertainment Group ...
A few days earlier, senior EU officials had intimated that a proposal for "partial" membership of the European Single Market ... Sabbagh, Dan (23 October 2018). "Stormy cabinet meeting increases pressure on May over backstop". The Guardian. Duggan, Joe (24 ...
The common method of blending nitrox by partial pressure requires that the cylinder is in "oxygen service", which means that ... to a lower pressure, generally between about 9 and 11 bar above the ambient pressure. A low-pressure hose links this with the ... Modern regulators typically feature high-pressure ports for pressure sensors of dive-computers and submersible pressure gauges ... By accurately measuring the partial pressure of oxygen, it became possible to maintain and accurately monitor a breathable gas ...
Extremely low blood pressure can also result from drug overdose and reactions to drugs. Therefore, brain ischemia can result ... Partial cerebral cortex infarction from global brain ischemia typically manifests as watershed stroke. Use of biomarker is one ... Systemic blood pressure (or slightly above) should be maintained so that cerebral blood flow is restored. Also, hypoxaemia and ... Extremely low blood pressure usually represents the inadequate oxygenation of tissues. Untreated heart attacks may slow blood ...
In 1986 partial diplomatic relations with Israel were restored, and full relations were restored in 1990 as soon as communism ... Pressure for government action reached the point where U.S. President Woodrow Wilson sent an official commission to investigate ... ISBN 0-8078-2620-0. Britain exerted pressure on the governments of Poland. "îéãò ðåñó òì äôøéè". 30 May 2008. Archived from the ... Thus between 1827 and 1857 over 30,000 children were placed in the so-called Cantonist schools, where they were pressured to ...
Midday on July 20 Koni began to develop a partial eye. This indicated an increase in intensity, and as such Koni reached a peak ... and a minimum barometric pressure of 975 mbar (hPa; 28.79 inHg), making it a severe tropical storm. However, atmospheric ... in strength at 1800 UTC that day with maximum sustained winds of 110 km/h (70 mph) and a minimum barometric pressure of 975 ...
Partial crop failure in Bengal and Bihar was experienced in 1768, while by September 1769 'the fields of rice [became] like ... Other factors adding to the pressure were: grain merchants ceased offering grain advances to peasants, but the market mechanism ... A failure of monsoon in Bengal and Bihar had led to partial shortfall of produce in 1768; market prices were higher than usual ...
... the ratio of the partial pressure of water vapor to the equilibrium vapor pressure of water at a given temperature Releasing ...
Wilson continually pressured the Senate to vote for the amendment, telling senators that its ratification was vital to winning ... On October 2, 1919, Wilson suffered a serious stroke, leaving him paralyzed on his left side, and with only partial vision in ... Wilson endorsed the bill at the last minute under pressure from party leaders who stressed how popular the idea was, especially ... The purchase of bonds, along with other war-time pressures, resulted in rising inflation, though this inflation was partly ...
Reduced air pressure in an airborne aircraft's interior is a major reason for the increased inflammation, as is overuse of 100 ... Roth, Andrew, and Liz Sly, "Russia declares partial victory in bombing campaign in Syria,", 3 October 2015. ... 22 January President of Yemen Abd Rabbuh Mansur Hadi and his entire cabinet resign under pressure from Houthi militia, who take ... and instead to increase pressure against the Islamic State by, among other things, conducting more airstrikes in Iraq west of ...
Partial imprinting occurs when alleles from both parents are differently expressed rather than complete expression and complete ... This would come about through selective pressure from parent-infant coadaptation to improve infant survival. Paternally ...
... partial \mathbf {A} }{\partial t}}} B = ∇ × A . {\displaystyle \mathbf {B} ={\boldsymbol {\nabla }}\times \mathbf {A} .} At the ... pressure, humidity, etc. In particle physics, the color symmetry of the interaction of quarks is an example of an internal ... density and pressure fields for the wave equation and fluid dynamics; temperature/concentration fields for the heat/diffusion ... potential theory and partial differential equations (PDEs). For example, scalar PDEs might consider quantities such as ...
They suggest that a partial basic income could be a good start, or perhaps a once-in-a-lifetime payout for all young adults. " ... aiming at simplifying the hundreds of pension schemes in a country being hurt by the debt crisis and pressured by the troika to ... The Alaska Permanent Fund pays a partial basic income to all its residents since 1982. According to the Basic Income Earth ... "partial" basic income that would apply only to new cohorts. Lithuania has taken a step in this direction by replacing the ...
... partial V}}\right)_{\!P}} is the derivative of the temperature with respect to the volume while keeping constant the pressure P ... partial A_{z} \over {\partial y}}-{\partial A_{y} \over {\partial z}},{\partial A_{x} \over {\partial z}}-{\partial A_{z} \over ... partial A_{x} \over \partial x}+{\partial A_{y} \over \partial y}+{\partial A_{z} \over \partial z}\\&=\left({\frac {\partial ... partial }{\partial y}}\!\left({\frac {\partial f}{\partial x}}\right)={\frac {\partial ^{2}f}{\partial y\partial x}}.} So- ...
The bonnet features a special opening mechanism and allows only partial opening to give access to the windscreen washer fluid, ... As standard, the car incorporates tyre pressure sensors, seatbelt reminders, four airbags and four head and chest side airbags ...
Sorrells ML, Snyder JL, Reiss MD, Eden C, Milos MF, Wilcox N, Van Howe RS (April 2007). "Fine-touch pressure thresholds in the ... partial) incision of the frenulum and realigning the edges to gain more length. Frenulum divided by frenuloplasty during ...
... "a swindler who had bowed to pressure from the Jewish lobby." Rydzyk suggested the tapes were doctored and called the story " ... conference fashioned an agreement whereby it would assume partial control of a new programme council at Radio Maryja. In ...
Sixty-nine percent of the 55 previously treated participants for MTC experienced complete or partial shrinkage of their tumors ... Selpercatinib can cause serious side effects including liver toxicity, high blood pressure, heart rhythm changes due to ... Out of 39 participants who had never undergone treatment, 84% experienced complete or partial shrinkage of their tumors which ... Out of 88 participants who had never undergone treatment with an approved drug, 73% experienced complete or partial shrinkage ...
The body can tolerate partial pressures of oxygen around 0.5 bars (50 kPa; 7.3 psi) indefinitely, and up to 1.4 bars (140 kPa; ... The lungs and brain are particularly affected by high partial pressures of oxygen, such as are encountered in diving. ... Divers have to breathe a gas which is at the same pressure as their surroundings (ambient pressure), which can be much greater ... but higher partial pressures rapidly increase the chance of the most dangerous effect of oxygen toxicity, a convulsion ...
It originated from a broad area of low pressure that moved off the western coast of Africa on September 6, 2010. Tracking ... Operation Lama also enabled partial repairs of several buildings, and simultaneously, emergency personnel surveyed roughly 500 ... Hurricane Igor was first identified as a broad area of low pressure accompanying a tropical wave over western Africa in early ... and its barometric pressure decreased by 52 mbar (hPa; 1.53 inHg). Near the end of this phase, forecasters at the NHC predicted ...
After his home and lumber business were destroyed by fire, he lived with his more traditionalist in-laws who pressured him to ... No systematic comparison has, as yet, been done, but a partial study of seventy works points to this possibility. (Meryle ...
Pope Clement VII was furious at this defiance, but he could not take decisive action as he was pressured by other monarchs to ... One partial manuscript of the project survived that was annotated with corrections and comments by Cranmer and Martyr. When the ... Imprisoned for over two years and under pressure from Church authorities, he made several recantations and apparently ...
For example, the partial pressure (fugacity) of water in silicate melts can be of prime importance, as in near-solidus ... but at different pressure, may crystallize different minerals. Pressure determines the maximum water content of a magma of ... but the water content and pressure are also important. In some compositions, at high pressures without water crystallization of ... is complex compared to crystallization in chemical systems at constant pressure and composition, because changes in pressure ...
These spots turn pale when pressure is applied and eventually become raised on the skin. The characteristic red, spotted ( ... Long-term health problems following acute Rocky Mountain spotted fever infection include partial paralysis of the lower ...
ϕ B ∂ t = 0 {\displaystyle {\frac {\partial \phi _{B}}{\partial t}}=0} The change of the charge in time inside conducting ... "Target Flow-Pressure Operating Range for Designing a Failing Fontan Cavopulmonary Support Device" IEEE Transactions on ... q ∂ t = 0 {\displaystyle {\frac {\partial q}{\partial t}}=0} Signal timescales of interest are much larger than propagation ... Lumped-element models can be used to describe fluid systems by using voltage to represent pressure and current to represent ...
Air Midwest publicly apologized for the incident after the family of one crash victim pressured the airline to do so. Air ... "AIR MIDWEST FLIGHT 5481 CREW AND PARTIAL PASSENGER NAME LIST NOTIFICATION #4" (Press release). US Airways. Archived from the ...
The elections resulted in a partial victory for the Iraqi National Movement, led by former Interim Prime Minister Ayad Allawi, ... however said they would not allow Hill to go beyond his diplomatic mission and that Iraq would not bow to any US-pressure. He ...
... the sum of partial pressure of dry gas and that of water vapors. The partial pressure exerted by water vapors is called aqueous ... oxygen moves into the lungs as partial pressure of oxygen in air is 159 torr while the partial pressure of oxygen in lungs is ... 2-The process of respiration depends upon difference in partial pressures. When animals inhale air, ... carbon dioxide moves out of lungs as its partial pressure is more in the lungs than in air. ...
... and the serum lactate concentration in patients undergoing partial hepatectomy. One hundred forty patients undergoing partial ... Ephedrine was administered if the systolic blood pressure (SBP) decreased to <90 mmHg for 1 min. When the urine output was & ... low central venous pressure (CVP) on hepatic surgical field bleeding, intraoperative blood loss, ... The effect of low central venous pressure on hepatic surgical field bleeding and serum lactate in patients undergoing partial ...
Mean maximal decrease in arterial oxygen partial pressure (PaO2) … ... Mean maximal decrease in arterial oxygen partial pressure (PaO2) (plus or minus SD) was 13.5 plus or minus 3.9 mm Hg for ... Changes in pH during sleep were of the magnitude expected with acute changes in arterial carbon dioxide partial pressure (PaCO2 ...
Abbreviations: ALT = alanine transaminase; AST = aspartate transaminase; PaO2 = arterial partial pressure of oxygen; WBC = ... Abbreviations: aPTT = activated partial thromboplastin time; INR = international normalized ratio; MAP = mean arterial pressure ... fluid drainage might improve lung function by preventing segmental lung collapse induced by hydrostatic pressure within the ... SBP = systolic blood pressure; SD = standard deviation; WBC = white blood cell. ...
... partial pressure exerted on three gases respectively. PA = xA pTotal Similarly, pB = xB pTotal PC = xC pTotal Problem: A ... mixture of dihydrogen and dioxygen at one bar pressure contains 20% by weight of dihydrogen. Calculate the partial ... Partial pressure in terms of mole fraction Let three gases be enclosed at T = temperature three gases,V = volume,p1, p2 and p3 ... Daltons Law of Partial Pressure ,, Partial pressure in terms of mole fraction ,, Kinetic molecular theory of gases ,, ...
Arterial blood gases should be analysed as soon as possible to assess the degree of hypoxaemia, partial pressure of carbon ... In these circumstances mixed venous oxygen partial pressure (Pvo2), which is measured in pulmonary artery blood, approximates ... Hyperventilation due to carotid chemoreceptor stimulation becomes pronounced when the arterial partial pressure of oxygen (Pao2 ... Hyperbaric oxygenation-At a pressure of 300 kPa the small quantity of oxygen in solution in the blood can be increased by up to ...
Arterial carbon dioxide partial pressure. †Arterial oxygen partial pressure. Main Article. Page created: February 16, 2018 ...
Portal pressure (PP) and mean arterial pressure (MAP) were measured. Results:. For PP in the MCD model, MAP increased while PP ... OCE-205, a Selective V1a Partial Agonist, Reduces Portal Pressure in Rat Models of Portal Hypertension. ... OCE-205, a Selective V1a Partial Agonist, Reduces Portal Pressure in Rat Models of Portal ... OCE-205 was designed as a highly selective V1a receptor partial agonist, intended to have a wider therapeutic window than full ...
... arterial oxygen partial pressure in mmHg; PASC: post-acute sequelae of SARS-CoV2 infection; PCS: prospective, controlled study ...
Partial pressure of oxygen (PaO2). 70-100 millimeters of mercury (mm Hg). ...
Partial pressure of carbon dioxide (PaCO2 , 50 mm Hg and/or partial pressure of oxygen (PaO2) , 60 mm Hg ... elevated mean pulmonary arterial pressure and decreased cardiac index, and reduced diffusion. Mean pulmonary arterial pressure ... In patients who have developed severe right heart failure, the right heart pressures and functions return to near normal values ... The indicators of poor survival are NYHA functional class III or IV, elevated mean right atrial pressure, ...
Background: Non-invasive ventilation (NIV) with bi-level positive airway pressure (BiPAP) is commonly used to treat patients ... AHRF was defined by a mean admission pH , 7.35 and mean partial pressure of carbon dioxide (PaCO2) , 45 mmHg (6 kPa). Primary ... and in partial pressure of oxygen (PaO2) (MD 7.47 mmHg, 95% CI 0.78 to 14.16 mmHg; N = 8 studies) at one hour. A trend towards ... Background: Non-invasive ventilation (NIV) with bi-level positive airway pressure (BiPAP) is commonly used to treat patients ...
... partial pressure of oxygen (PaO2) at room air , 70 mmHg, clinically meaningful increase of oxygen supplementation compared to ...
Properties of Gases - Conceptual Exercise 8.12 - Pondering Partial Pressures * Properties of Gases - Exercise 8.13 - Partial ... Properties of Gases - Exercise 8.2 - Atmospheric Pressure and Water Wells * Properties of Gases - Conceptual Exercise 8.3 - ... Properties of Gases - Exercise 8.1 - Atmospheric Pressure and Weather * ... Pressure $P= \frac{nRT}{V}$ $=\frac{(0.0555\,mol)(0.0821\,L\,atm\,mol^{-1}K^{-1})(423\,K)}{10.0\,L}$ $=0.193\,atm$ ...
Partial pressure of oxygen (PaO2). This measures the pressure of oxygen thats dissolved in your blood. It helps show how well ... Partial pressure of carbon dioxide (PaCO2). This measures the amount of carbon dioxide in your blood. It also shows how easily ... The provider will hold your wrist and apply pressure to the arteries to cut off blood flow to your hand for several seconds. ... Pressure will be applied to the site for at least 5 minutes to stop the bleeding. ...
Partial pressure of arterial oxygen to fraction of inspired oxygen ratio ,300 ... Changes in partial thromboplastin time (PTT) in patients after receiving convalescent plasma [ Time Frame: 0 and 7 days ]. ...
G7th Newport Partial #3 Capo (C31010) 3 String Pressure Touch Guitar Capo, Silver. $44.99 ... G7th Newport Partial #5 Capo, 5 String Pressure Touch Capo, Silver. $44.99 ...
That partial pressure is important? That you would eventually die at 45,000 feet even with a 21% oxygen atmosphere? Because... ... 3 PSI ppO2 for sea level oxygen partial pressure. ~1.5 PSI ppO2 to stay alive. What is the air pressure at 26000 feet? ... Because, again, it is the partial pressure of oxygen, not the percentage of oxygen in what you are breathing, that matters.. Of ... Because, again, it is the partial pressure of oxygen, not the percentage of oxygen in what you are breathing, that matters.. ...
Dalton s Law of Partial Pressures The total pressure exerted by a gas mixture is equal to the sum of the partial pressures of ... It s the partial pressure of oxygen (PO2) that is most critical, not the percentage of oxygen in a mix. ... Put simply, as your depth increases, there is a corresponding increase in the partial pressure of oxygen. At the surface we are ... Because so many divers use Nitrox these days and therefore are exposed to higher oxygen partial pressures than they would be ...
... mean arterial pressure; PaO2 = partial pressure of oxygen; PEEP = positive end-expiratory pressure; PT = prothrombin time; SBP ... mean arterial pressure; PaO2 = partial pressure of oxygen; PEEP = positive end-expiratory pressure; PT = prothrombin time; SBP ... Patients with this type of shock have high cardiac output, hypotension, a large pulse pressure, a low diastolic pressure, and ... High versus low blood-pressure target in patients with septic shock. N Engl J Med. 2014 Apr 24. 370(17):1583-93. [QxMD MEDLINE ...
... oxygen while under increased atmospheric pressure. HBOT is a treatment that can be traced back to the 1600s. ... Henry law states that the amount of gas dissolved in a liquid is equal to the partial pressure of the gas exerted on the ... and multiplied by the pressure. The pressure is expressed in feet of seawater (fsw), which is the pressure experienced if one ... 115] HBOT increases the partial pressure of oxygen (pO2) in the inner ear. A Cochrane Review concluded a significant mean ...
... and varying hydrogen partial pressures. Doping was accomplished by introducing diborane (B_2H_6) in the plasma. Hydrogen ... and varying hydrogen partial pressures. Doping was accomplished by introducing diborane (B_2H_6) in the plasma. Hydrogen ...
"Impact of RBC Transfusion on Peripheral Capillary Oxygen Saturation and Partial Pressure of Arterial Oxygen." American journal ... Chapter Title: Partial plasma exchange: diseases in which it is of reported efficacy. A Technical Workshop. Book Title: ...
The move appears to be a partial concession in light of pressures from the United States. In March of 2012, ZTE attracted ...
This was indicative of partial brake pressure remaining during the take-off run. The partial brake pressure was possibly due to ... Heat in the brakes due to partial pressure during the take-off run may have reduced their effectiveness when the captain ... Furthermore, the nose-down moment generated by the partial brake pressure probably prevented the aircraft rotating sufficiently ... There was probably residual braking pressure in the wheel brakes during the take-off run.. - The aircrafts parking brake was ...
Partial pressure of carbon dioxide, mmHg (max) 46.6 (11.1) 49.8 (13.6) 1.29 (1.13-1.47, p<0.001) 1.08 (0.88-1.32, p=0.444) 1.09 ... Partial pressure of carbon dioxide, mmHg (max) 45.3 [39.0;52.0] 45.0 [39.4;51.0] 45.7 [38.9;52.0] 46.0 [40.0;53.0] 0.494 1254 ... Partial pressure of carbon dioxide, daily, mmHg 37.6 [33.0;44.0] 37.0 [33.0;44.0] 37.9 [33.0;44.0] 38.0 [32.8;44.8] 0.963 1136 ... Partial pressure of oxygen, mmHg (min) 64.0 [54.1;73.4] 64.0 [54.5;73.3] 64.0 [54.6;73.2] 64.0 [54.0;74.0] 0.839 1257 ...
Changes in the carbon dioxide partial pressure. In: Lumb, AB (ed.) Nunns Applied Respiratory Physiology, Seventh Edition, ... Since atmospheric pressure is 14.7 psi (pounds per square inch), a 1% negative pressure would be 0.15 psi and would require ( ... The amount of negative pressure required for a negative-pressure operating room is actually negligible with respect to oxygen ... The negative pressure test commonly used by HVAC engineers is to see the direction the flow deflects a small strip of tissue ...
  • Regulation is performed through inputs from sensors, amongst which sensors to oxygen and carbon dioxide partial pressure in blood play a crucial role. (
  • The control of ventilation is based on the regulation of the volume of air that is internalized (ventilation amplitude) and the frequency at which this volume of air is renewed (ventilation frequency) with the aim to keep oxygen and carbon dioxide partial pressure constant in blood. (
  • Changes in pH during sleep were of the magnitude expected with acute changes in arterial carbon dioxide partial pressure (PaCO2) in patients with chronic hypercapnia. (
  • 20. Transcutaneous measurements of carbon dioxide partial pressure in sick neonates. (
  • Mean maximal decrease in arterial oxygen partial pressure (PaO2) (plus or minus SD) was 13.5 plus or minus 3.9 mm Hg for sleeping patients (p less than 0.005) and 5.5 plus or minus 1.7 mm Hg for controls (p less than 0.1), respectively. (
  • In these circumstances mixed venous oxygen partial pressure (Pvo 2 ), which is measured in pulmonary artery blood, approximates to mean tissue Po 2 and is a better index of tissue oxygenation. (
  • We performed measurements during different levels of carbon dioxide pressure (PaCO2) during hyper- and hypoventilation and different levels of arterial oxygen saturation (SaO2) induced by variation of the inspiratory fraction of oxygen (FiO2). (
  • Components of the carbonate system--including pH, pCO2 (partial pressure of carbon dioxide), and aragonite saturation state--are calculated from DIC, TA, temperature, salinity and pressure. (
  • It actually is the end tidal partial pressure of co2: Pco2). (
  • John Dalton stated that "the total pressure of a mixture of non-reacting gases is the sum of partial pressures of the gases present in the mixture" where the partial pressure of a component gas is the pressure that it would exert if it were present alone in the same volume and temperature. (
  • 1. An unknown gas diffuses at a rate of 0.5 time that of nitrogen at the same temperature and pressure. (
  • Diel suites were deployed on the reef for at least 24 hours to measure in-situ salinity, temperature, pressure, pH, and current direction and magnitude. (
  • The patient's initial vital signs in the ED include a temperature of 98.6 °F, heart rate of 102 beats/minute with sinus tachycardia, blood pressure of 116/50 mm Hg, and respiration rate of 18 breaths/minute. (
  • Her temperature is 98.2 °F, heart rate is 52 beats/minute, blood pressure is 92/52 mm Hg, and respiration rate is 28 breaths/minute. (
  • In the case of a gas mixture of water vapor and air in contact with liquid water, the partial pressure of the water vapor in the gas phase will be equal to the equilibrium vapor pressure. (
  • However, if you have a gas mixture of water vapor and air, and the partial pressure of the water vapor in the gas phase is less than the equilibrium vapor pressure, you can't have any liquid water present. (
  • For a gaseous mixture, it is important to know, how the pressure of individual component contributes to the total pressure of the mixture. (
  • Tests were carried out in a fixed-bed tube reactor at 900°C under 2 MPa total pressure using an N2H2OCO2 gas mixture. (
  • It was revealed that small amount of water vapor in Ar-5 vol% H 2 mixture (water vapor pressure below 0.03 MPa) does not affect the reduction of the nickel phase in the YSZ-NiO ceramics, but causes some changes in the YSZ-Ni cermet structure. (
  • At higher concentration of water vapor in the mixture (water vapor pressure above 0.03-0.05 MPa), converse changes in the kinetics of reduction occur. (
  • Exposition in Ar-5 vol% H 2 mixture for 4 h at 600 °C causes partial reduction of the NiO particles forming thin edgings of metallic Ni (0.1-0.3 μm thick) around them [ 2 ]. (
  • A series of specimens of 1 × 5 × 25 mm in size were subjected (see Table 1 ) to one-time reduction in hydrogenous atmosphere (Ar-5 vol% H 2 mixture) for 4 h at 600 °C under the pressure of 0.15 MPa (Fig. 1a ) or to 'reduction in mixture-oxidation in air' (redox) cycling at 600 °C (Fig. 1b ) [ 5 , 8 ]. (
  • The preconditioned and the as-received specimens were then held for 4 h in 'water vapor in Ar-5 vol% H 2 mixture' atmosphere at 600 °C under the pressure of 0.15 MPa. (
  • In order to reach the pressure of 0.15 MPa, the test chamber was degassed and filled with water vapor of certain pressure (0.03 or 0.148 MPa) and then filled up to the pressure of 0.15 MPa with Ar-5 vol% H 2 mixture. (
  • This prospective randomized controlled study was designed to evaluate the effect of fluid restriction alone versus fluid restriction + low central venous pressure (CVP) on hepatic surgical field bleeding, intraoperative blood loss, and the serum lactate concentration in patients undergoing partial hepatectomy. (
  • Septic shock is defined by persisting hypotension requiring vasopressors to maintain a mean arterial pressure of 65 mm Hg or higher and a serum lactate level greater than 2 mmol/L (18 mg/dL) despite adequate volume resuscitation. (
  • Calculate the partial pressure of gases, if the total pressure is 2 atm . (
  • However, when both vapor and liquid are present and the system is in the phase equilibrium, the partial pressure of the vapor must be equal to the vapor pressure and system is said to be saturated. (
  • The vapor pressure is the partial pressure at equilibrium of a substance in the gas phase when the conditions (T,P) are such that the substance should normally be in the liquid phase (as per the phase diagram). (
  • This has to be true at equilibrium, because if the partial pressure is greater than the vapor pressure, the system is metastable and will relax to liquid + vapor phases, until the equilibrium (partial pressure = vapor pressure) is reached. (
  • I'm sure you are aware that if you have liquid water and pure water vapor present in equilibrium, the water vapor is at the equilibrium vapor pressure. (
  • Or, if the total pressure were higher than 1 atmosphere, the system could be in equilibrium with air present. (
  • This decline of activity took place as soon as the CO2 partial pressure exceeded the equilibrium decomposition pressure of CaCO3. (
  • Why we consider only partial vapor pressure instead of actual atmospheric pressure comparing with vapor pressure? (
  • Hyperbaric oxygen therapy (HBOT) is breathing 100% oxygen while under increased atmospheric pressure. (
  • The transfer of these two species between lung and blood are driven by the amount of blood flow in pulmonary capillaries, the gradient of the partial pressure between alveoli and capillaries, the blood/alveoli membrane characteristics and the properties of the ventilation cycle. (
  • Background: Non-invasive ventilation (NIV) with bi-level positive airway pressure (BiPAP) is commonly used to treat patients admitted to hospital with acute hypercapnic respiratory failure (AHRF) secondary to an acute exacerbation of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (AECOPD). (
  • This section provides data for three consecutive blood pressure (BP) measurements and other methodological measurements to obtain an accurate blood pressure. (
  • Low pressure in the inferior vena cava also decreases pressure in the hepatic veins and hepatic sinus, which helps reduce blood loss during partial hepatectomy. (
  • A comparison of the NeurOs® and the INVOS 5100C® cerebral oximeter during variations of the partial pressure of carbon dioxide and fractional inspiratory concentration of oxygen. (
  • The partial pressure exerted by water vapors is called aqueous tension. (
  • In a reaction involving the collection of gas by downward displacement of water, the pressure of dry vapor collected can be calculated using Dalton's law. (
  • The actual value is the ratio of the current partial pressure of water vapor to the maximum partial pressure of water vapor in the air. (
  • What happens at the maximum partial pressure of water vapor? (
  • Exposure times to oxygen at different depths of water (and, hence, different levels of pressure) were quantified and tested based on time to convulsions. (
  • Here we propose using a Diffusion (D) - Transverse Relaxation (T2) 2D corre- distributed within the sample, thus giving a rapid response to changes in oxygen lation NMR method to characterize the multi-component water dynamics in the partial pressure. (
  • While solving the numericals the aqueous tension is subtracted from total pressure(Pmoist). (
  • One hundred forty patients undergoing partial hepatectomy with intraoperative portal triad clamping were randomized into a fluid restriction group (Group F) or fluid restriction + low CVP group (Group L). Both groups received limited fluid infusion before the liver lesions were removed. (
  • Cardiac monitoring, noninvasive blood pressure monitoring, and pulse oximetry are indicated in patients with septic shock. (
  • The idea of treating patients under increased pressure was continued by the French surgeon Fontaine, who built a pressurized, mobile operating room in 1879. (
  • and blood pressure (BP) is measured on all examinees 8 years and older. (
  • After resting quietly in a sitting position for 5 minutes and determining the maximum inflation level (MIL), three consecutive blood pressure readings are obtained. (
  • If a blood pressure measurement is interrupted or incomplete, a fourth attempt may be made. (
  • The BP examiners are certified for blood pressure measurement through a training program from Shared Care Research and Education Consulting . (
  • Ostchega Y, Prineas RJ, Paulose-Ram R, Grim CM, Willard C, Collins C. National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) 1999-2000: Effect of observer training and protocol standardization on reducing blood pressure measurement error. (
  • The hospital could reach 3 atmospheres of pressure. (
  • Partial pressure must be less than or equal to the vapor pressure if there is no liquid present. (
  • Partial pressure is pressure if there is only one component present in the vapour. (
  • If it were, and the pressure were 1 atm, there would have to be no air present. (
  • 1. Partial Pressure of Oxygen? (
  • The physiologic and toxic effects of oxygen at increased pressures during diving and decompression operations are reviewed. (
  • The physiologic effects include effects on arterial blood oxygen content that increases with oxygen pressure. (
  • The carbon-dioxide carrying capacity of hemoglobin decreases with increasing oxygen pressure causing increased quantities of carbon-dioxide dissolved in the tissues and higher tissue acidity. (
  • Increased oxygen pressure causes vasoconstriction and reduces cardiac output, which can reduce removal of dissolved gas from the tissues during decompression. (
  • Increased oxygen pressure has transitory effects on ventilation rates, causes an increased capacity for heavy exercise, decreases blood hemoglobin concentration, increases production of electron transport chain components, peroxides, and other oxidation products, and increases the diffusion gradient for elimination of inert gas from body tissues, thus shortening decompression times. (
  • Toxic effects of high oxygen pressures depend on duration and partial pressure. (
  • Repeated exposure to toxic oxygen pressure can produce cumulative effects in animal models. (
  • The authors recommend research on the mechanisms of oxygen toxicity, toxic effects on organ systems and functions other than on lungs and brain, detailed analysis of pulmonary oxygen poisoning, establishing optimal intermittency schedules at different oxygen pressures to reduce acute oxygen poisoning in humans, and development of oxygen therapy in decompression accidents. (
  • Therefore, the partial pressure of oxygen influence the EPR spectrum of among components are still poorly understood. (
  • Here we propose using a Diffusion (D) - Transverse Relaxation (T2) 2D corre- distributed within the sample, thus giving a rapid response to changes in oxygen lation NMR method to characterize the multi-component water dynamics in the partial pressure. (
  • Renal function in man at reduced partial pressures of oxygen. (
  • Pressure ulcers commonly occur not only in older people and individuals with spinal cord injuries, but also in patients hospitalized in acute care settings. (
  • A comprehensive review of the ultrasonographic and thermographic assessments of the pressure ulcers found that the combination of unclear layered structure and increased temperature was beneficial for predicting wound healing. (
  • When a pressure ulcer presented with an unclear layered structure and increased temperature in the wound bed, the risk of delayed wound healing or wound deterioration was 6.85 times higher compared with a pressure ulcer that did not have these manifestations. (
  • The provider will hold your wrist and apply pressure to the arteries to cut off blood flow to your hand for several seconds. (
  • This section provides data for three consecutive blood pressure (BP) measurements and other methodological measurements to obtain an accurate blood pressure. (
  • and blood pressure (BP) is measured on all examinees 8 years and older. (
  • After resting quietly in a sitting position for 5 minutes and determining the maximum inflation level (MIL), three consecutive blood pressure readings are obtained. (
  • If a blood pressure measurement is interrupted or incomplete, a fourth attempt may be made. (
  • The BP examiners are certified for blood pressure measurement through a training program from Shared Care Research and Education Consulting . (
  • Ostchega Y, Prineas RJ, Paulose-Ram R, Grim CM, Willard C, Collins C. National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) 1999-2000: Effect of observer training and protocol standardization on reducing blood pressure measurement error. (
  • Establishing an appropriate care strategy is required based on wound assessment in situations where many patients with pressure ulcers are discharged with unhealed wounds because of shortened lengths of hospitalization. (
  • [ 8 ] There are several wound assessment tools for evaluating the severity of pressure ulcers from multi-dimensional aspects. (
  • It has been reported that these assessment scales can be used to predict pressure ulcer healing. (
  • [ 12 ] The authors were able to predict the future progression of pressure ulcers by using these signs. (
  • The ability to predict the prognosis of a pressure ulcer is required to establish appropriate management in the early phase. (