The pressure that would be exerted by one component of a mixture of gases if it were present alone in a container. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
A type of stress exerted uniformly in all directions. Its measure is the force exerted per unit area. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
An element with atomic symbol O, atomic number 8, and atomic weight [15.99903; 15.99977]. It is the most abundant element on earth and essential for respiration.
A colorless, odorless gas that can be formed by the body and is necessary for the respiration cycle of plants and animals.
Measurement of oxygen and carbon dioxide in the blood.
The pressure due to the weight of fluid.
The exchange of OXYGEN and CARBON DIOXIDE between alveolar air and pulmonary capillary blood that occurs across the BLOOD-AIR BARRIER.
The pressure at any point in an atmosphere due solely to the weight of the atmospheric gases above the point concerned.
The noninvasive measurement or determination of the partial pressure (tension) of oxygen and/or carbon dioxide locally in the capillaries of a tissue by the application to the skin of a special set of electrodes. These electrodes contain photoelectric sensors capable of picking up the specific wavelengths of radiation emitted by oxygenated versus reduced hemoglobin.
Clinical manifestation consisting of a deficiency of carbon dioxide in arterial blood.
Helium. A noble gas with the atomic symbol He, atomic number 2, and atomic weight 4.003. It is a colorless, odorless, tasteless gas that is not combustible and does not support combustion. It was first detected in the sun and is now obtained from natural gas. Medically it is used as a diluent for other gases, being especially useful with oxygen in the treatment of certain cases of respiratory obstruction, and as a vehicle for general anesthetics. (Dorland, 27th ed)
Relatively complete absence of oxygen in one or more tissues.
The rate at which oxygen is used by a tissue; microliters of oxygen STPD used per milligram of tissue per hour; the rate at which oxygen enters the blood from alveolar gas, equal in the steady state to the consumption of oxygen by tissue metabolism throughout the body. (Stedman, 25th ed, p346)
The volume of air inspired or expired during each normal, quiet respiratory cycle. Common abbreviations are TV or V with subscript T.
Techniques for measuring blood pressure.
The act of breathing with the LUNGS, consisting of INHALATION, or the taking into the lungs of the ambient air, and of EXHALATION, or the expelling of the modified air which contains more CARBON DIOXIDE than the air taken in (Blakiston's Gould Medical Dictionary, 4th ed.). This does not include tissue respiration (= OXYGEN CONSUMPTION) or cell respiration (= CELL RESPIRATION).
Continuous recording of the carbon dioxide content of expired air.
A clinical manifestation of abnormal increase in the amount of carbon dioxide in arterial blood.
The force per unit area that the air exerts on any surface in contact with it. Primarily used for articles pertaining to air pressure within a closed environment.
Elements that constitute group 18 (formerly the zero group) of the periodic table. They are gases that generally do not react chemically.
The processes of diffusion across the BLOOD-AIR BARRIER, and the chemical reactions coupled with diffusion that effect the rate of PULMONARY GAS EXCHANGE, generally at the alveolar level.
The balance between acids and bases in the BODY FLUIDS. The pH (HYDROGEN-ION CONCENTRATION) of the arterial BLOOD provides an index for the total body acid-base balance.
The movement and the forces involved in the movement of the blood through the CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM.
Transducers that are activated by pressure changes, e.g., blood pressure.
Persistently high systemic arterial BLOOD PRESSURE. Based on multiple readings (BLOOD PRESSURE DETERMINATION), hypertension is currently defined as when SYSTOLIC PRESSURE is consistently greater than 140 mm Hg or when DIASTOLIC PRESSURE is consistently 90 mm Hg or more.
The number of times the HEART VENTRICLES contract per unit of time, usually per minute.
Pressure within the cranial cavity. It is influenced by brain mass, the circulatory system, CSF dynamics, and skull rigidity.
A pulmonary ventilation rate faster than is metabolically necessary for the exchange of gases. It is the result of an increased frequency of breathing, an increased tidal volume, or a combination of both. It causes an excess intake of oxygen and the blowing off of carbon dioxide.
A noble gas that is found in the atmosphere. It has the atomic symbol Kr, atomic number 36, atomic weight 83.80, and has been used in electric bulbs.
The pressure of the fluids in the eye.
Method in which repeated blood pressure readings are made while the patient undergoes normal daily activities. It allows quantitative analysis of the high blood pressure load over time, can help distinguish between types of HYPERTENSION, and can assess the effectiveness of antihypertensive therapy.
Argon. A noble gas with the atomic symbol Ar, atomic number 18, and atomic weight 39.948. It is used in fluorescent tubes and wherever an inert atmosphere is desired and nitrogen cannot be used.
The physical or mechanical action of the LUNGS; DIAPHRAGM; RIBS; and CHEST WALL during respiration. It includes airflow, lung volume, neural and reflex controls, mechanoreceptors, breathing patterns, etc.
Any method of artificial breathing that employs mechanical or non-mechanical means to force the air into and out of the lungs. Artificial respiration or ventilation is used in individuals who have stopped breathing or have RESPIRATORY INSUFFICIENCY to increase their intake of oxygen (O2) and excretion of carbon dioxide (CO2).
A syndrome characterized by progressive life-threatening RESPIRATORY INSUFFICIENCY in the absence of known LUNG DISEASES, usually following a systemic insult such as surgery or major TRAUMA.
A method of mechanical ventilation in which pressure is maintained to increase the volume of gas remaining in the lungs at the end of expiration, thus reducing the shunting of blood through the lungs and improving gas exchange.
That part of the RESPIRATORY TRACT or the air within the respiratory tract that does not exchange OXYGEN and CARBON DIOXIDE with pulmonary capillary blood.
The therapeutic intermittent administration of oxygen in a chamber at greater than sea-level atmospheric pressures (three atmospheres). It is considered effective treatment for air and gas embolisms, smoke inhalation, acute carbon monoxide poisoning, caisson disease, clostridial gangrene, etc. (From Segen, Dictionary of Modern Medicine, 1992). The list of treatment modalities includes stroke.
The blood pressure in the VEINS. It is usually measured to assess the filling PRESSURE to the HEART VENTRICLE.
The determination of oxygen-hemoglobin saturation of blood either by withdrawing a sample and passing it through a classical photoelectric oximeter or by electrodes attached to some translucent part of the body like finger, earlobe, or skin fold. It includes non-invasive oxygen monitoring by pulse oximetry.
A state due to excess loss of carbon dioxide from the body. (Dorland, 27th ed)
Failure to adequately provide oxygen to cells of the body and to remove excess carbon dioxide from them. (Stedman, 25th ed)
A stable, non-explosive inhalation anesthetic, relatively free from significant side effects.
A compound formed by the combination of hemoglobin and oxygen. It is a complex in which the oxygen is bound directly to the iron without causing a change from the ferrous to the ferric state.
An activity in which the organism plunges into water. It includes scuba and bell diving. Diving as natural behavior of animals goes here, as well as diving in decompression experiments with humans or animals.
Neon. A noble gas with the atomic symbol Ne, atomic number 10, and atomic weight 20.18. It is found in the earth's crust and atmosphere as an inert, odorless gas and is used in vacuum tubes and incandescent lamps.
The flow of BLOOD through or around an organ or region of the body.
The circulation of blood through the BLOOD VESSELS of the BRAIN.
The normality of a solution with respect to HYDROGEN ions; H+. It is related to acidity measurements in most cases by pH = log 1/2[1/(H+)], where (H+) is the hydrogen ion concentration in gram equivalents per liter of solution. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
A vertical distance measured from a known level on the surface of a planet or other celestial body.
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
The force that opposes the flow of BLOOD through a vascular bed. It is equal to the difference in BLOOD PRESSURE across the vascular bed divided by the CARDIAC OUTPUT.
The blood pressure in the ARTERIES. It is commonly measured with a SPHYGMOMANOMETER on the upper arm which represents the arterial pressure in the BRACHIAL ARTERY.
The pressure within a CARDIAC VENTRICLE. Ventricular pressure waveforms can be measured in the beating heart by catheterization or estimated using imaging techniques (e.g., DOPPLER ECHOCARDIOGRAPHY). The information is useful in evaluating the function of the MYOCARDIUM; CARDIAC VALVES; and PERICARDIUM, particularly with simultaneous measurement of other (e.g., aortic or atrial) pressures.
A noble gas with the atomic symbol Xe, atomic number 54, and atomic weight 131.30. It is found in the earth's atmosphere and has been used as an anesthetic.
The mixture of gases present in the earth's atmosphere consisting of oxygen, nitrogen, carbon dioxide, and small amounts of other gases.
Gases or volatile liquids that vary in the rate at which they induce anesthesia; potency; the degree of circulation, respiratory, or neuromuscular depression they produce; and analgesic effects. Inhalation anesthetics have advantages over intravenous agents in that the depth of anesthesia can be changed rapidly by altering the inhaled concentration. Because of their rapid elimination, any postoperative respiratory depression is of relatively short duration. (From AMA Drug Evaluations Annual, 1994, p173)
The total volume of gas inspired or expired per unit of time, usually measured in liters per minute.
The vapor state of matter; nonelastic fluids in which the molecules are in free movement and their mean positions far apart. Gases tend to expand indefinitely, to diffuse and mix readily with other gases, to have definite relations of volume, temperature, and pressure, and to condense or liquefy at low temperatures or under sufficient pressure. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
A value equal to the total volume flow divided by the cross-sectional area of the vascular bed.
The act of BREATHING in.
Inhalation of oxygen aimed at restoring toward normal any pathophysiologic alterations of gas exchange in the cardiopulmonary system, as by the use of a respirator, nasal catheter, tent, chamber, or mask. (From Dorland, 27th ed & Stedman, 25th ed)
A plant genus of the family POACEAE that contains Hol l 1 and Hol l 5 allergens.
The ratio of alveolar ventilation to simultaneous alveolar capillary blood flow in any part of the lung. (Stedman, 25th ed)
The oxygen-carrying proteins of ERYTHROCYTES. They are found in all vertebrates and some invertebrates. The number of globin subunits in the hemoglobin quaternary structure differs between species. Structures range from monomeric to a variety of multimeric arrangements.
Nitrogen oxide (N2O). A colorless, odorless gas that is used as an anesthetic and analgesic. High concentrations cause a narcotic effect and may replace oxygen, causing death by asphyxia. It is also used as a food aerosol in the preparation of whipping cream.
The domestic dog, Canis familiaris, comprising about 400 breeds, of the carnivore family CANIDAE. They are worldwide in distribution and live in association with people. (Walker's Mammals of the World, 5th ed, p1065)
Either of the pair of organs occupying the cavity of the thorax that effect the aeration of the blood.
A nonflammable, halogenated, hydrocarbon anesthetic that provides relatively rapid induction with little or no excitement. Analgesia may not be adequate. NITROUS OXIDE is often given concomitantly. Because halothane may not produce sufficient muscle relaxation, supplemental neuromuscular blocking agents may be required. (From AMA Drug Evaluations Annual, 1994, p178)
An abnormal increase in the amount of oxygen in the tissues and organs.
The volume of BLOOD passing through the HEART per unit of time. It is usually expressed as liters (volume) per minute so as not to be confused with STROKE VOLUME (volume per beat).
A group of compounds that contain the general formula R-OCH3.
The blood pressure in the central large VEINS of the body. It is distinguished from peripheral venous pressure which occurs in an extremity.
A transient absence of spontaneous respiration.
Cells specialized to detect chemical substances and relay that information centrally in the nervous system. Chemoreceptor cells may monitor external stimuli, as in TASTE and OLFACTION, or internal stimuli, such as the concentrations of OXYGEN and CARBON DIOXIDE in the blood.
The blood pressure as recorded after wedging a CATHETER in a small PULMONARY ARTERY; believed to reflect the PRESSURE in the pulmonary CAPILLARIES.
The first chemical element in the periodic table. It has the atomic symbol H, atomic number 1, and atomic weight [1.00784; 1.00811]. It exists, under normal conditions, as a colorless, odorless, tasteless, diatomic gas. Hydrogen ions are PROTONS. Besides the common H1 isotope, hydrogen exists as the stable isotope DEUTERIUM and the unstable, radioactive isotope TRITIUM.
Anesthesia caused by the breathing of anesthetic gases or vapors or by insufflating anesthetic gases or vapors into the respiratory tract.
Adaptation to a new environment or to a change in the old.
The act of blowing a powder, vapor, or gas into any body cavity for experimental, diagnostic, or therapeutic purposes.
Observation of a population for a sufficient number of persons over a sufficient number of years to generate incidence or mortality rates subsequent to the selection of the study group.
A state characterized by loss of feeling or sensation. This depression of nerve function is usually the result of pharmacologic action and is induced to allow performance of surgery or other painful procedures.
Physiological processes and properties of the RESPIRATORY SYSTEM as a whole or of any of its parts.
The continuous measurement of physiological processes, blood pressure, heart rate, renal output, reflexes, respiration, etc., in a patient or experimental animal; includes pharmacologic monitoring, the measurement of administered drugs or their metabolites in the blood, tissues, or urine.
The gaseous envelope surrounding a planet or similar body. (From Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed)
The vessels carrying blood away from the heart.
A condition with trapped gas or air in the PERITONEAL CAVITY, usually secondary to perforation of the internal organs such as the LUNG and the GASTROINTESTINAL TRACT, or to recent surgery. Pneumoperitoneum may be purposely introduced to aid radiological examination.
Carbon monoxide (CO). A poisonous colorless, odorless, tasteless gas. It combines with hemoglobin to form carboxyhemoglobin, which has no oxygen carrying capacity. The resultant oxygen deprivation causes headache, dizziness, decreased pulse and respiratory rates, unconsciousness, and death. (From Merck Index, 11th ed)
An element with the atomic symbol N, atomic number 7, and atomic weight [14.00643; 14.00728]. Nitrogen exists as a diatomic gas and makes up about 78% of the earth's atmosphere by volume. It is a constituent of proteins and nucleic acids and found in all living cells.
A pathological condition caused by lack of oxygen, manifested in impending or actual cessation of life.
The constant checking on the state or condition of a patient during the course of a surgical operation (e.g., checking of vital signs).
Any of various animals that constitute the family Suidae and comprise stout-bodied, short-legged omnivorous mammals with thick skin, usually covered with coarse bristles, a rather long mobile snout, and small tail. Included are the genera Babyrousa, Phacochoerus (wart hogs), and Sus, the latter containing the domestic pig (see SUS SCROFA).
Absence of air in the entire or part of a lung, such as an incompletely inflated neonate lung or a collapsed adult lung. Pulmonary atelectasis can be caused by airway obstruction, lung compression, fibrotic contraction, or other factors.
The pressure required to prevent the passage of solvent through a semipermeable membrane that separates a pure solvent from a solution of the solvent and solute or that separates different concentrations of a solution. It is proportional to the osmolality of the solution.
A pathologic condition of acid accumulation or depletion of base in the body. The two main types are RESPIRATORY ACIDOSIS and metabolic acidosis, due to metabolic acid build up.
Period of contraction of the HEART, especially of the HEART VENTRICLES.
A procedure involving placement of a tube into the trachea through the mouth or nose in order to provide a patient with oxygen and anesthesia.
The posture of an individual lying face down.
A statistical technique that isolates and assesses the contributions of categorical independent variables to variation in the mean of a continuous dependent variable.
Procedure in which patients are induced into an unconscious state through use of various medications so that they do not feel pain during surgery.
Small polyhedral outpouchings along the walls of the alveolar sacs, alveolar ducts and terminal bronchioles through the walls of which gas exchange between alveolar air and pulmonary capillary blood takes place.
A method of non-invasive, continuous measurement of MICROCIRCULATION. The technique is based on the values of the DOPPLER EFFECT of low-power laser light scattered randomly by static structures and moving tissue particulates.
An order of insects, restricted mostly to the tropics, containing at least eight families. A few species occur in temperate regions of North America.
Experimental devices used in inhalation studies in which a person or animal is either partially or completely immersed in a chemically controlled atmosphere.
Inorganic salts that contain the -HCO3 radical. They are an important factor in determining the pH of the blood and the concentration of bicarbonate ions is regulated by the kidney. Levels in the blood are an index of the alkali reserve or buffering capacity.
Treatment process involving the injection of fluid into an organ or tissue.
The act of BREATHING out.
A strain of albino rat used widely for experimental purposes because of its calmness and ease of handling. It was developed by the Sprague-Dawley Animal Company.
Pulmonary injury following the breathing in of toxic smoke from burning materials such as plastics, synthetics, building materials, etc. This injury is the most frequent cause of death in burn patients.
Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.
Artificial respiration (RESPIRATION, ARTIFICIAL) using an oxygenated fluid.
The largest of the cerebral arteries. It trifurcates into temporal, frontal, and parietal branches supplying blood to most of the parenchyma of these lobes in the CEREBRAL CORTEX. These are the areas involved in motor, sensory, and speech activities.
Respiratory retention of carbon dioxide. It may be chronic or acute.
A family of anaerobic, coccoid to rod-shaped METHANOBACTERIALES. Cell membranes are composed mainly of polyisoprenoid hydrocarbons ether-linked to glycerol. Its organisms are found in anaerobic habitats throughout nature.
A condition of decreased oxygen content at the cellular level.
An electrochemical technique for measuring the current that flows in solution as a function of an applied voltage. The observed polarographic wave, resulting from the electrochemical response, depends on the way voltage is applied (linear sweep or differential pulse) and the type of electrode used. Usually a mercury drop electrode is used.
Processes and properties of the CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM as a whole or of any of its parts.
The short wide vessel arising from the conus arteriosus of the right ventricle and conveying unaerated blood to the lungs.
Blocking of a blood vessel by air bubbles that enter the circulatory system, usually after TRAUMA; surgical procedures, or changes in atmospheric pressure.
The family of true toads belonging to the order Anura. The genera include Bufo, Ansonia, Nectophrynoides, and Atelopus.
Reduction of blood viscosity usually by the addition of cell free solutions. Used clinically (1) in states of impaired microcirculation, (2) for replacement of intraoperative blood loss without homologous blood transfusion, and (3) in cardiopulmonary bypass and hypothermia.
Multiple symptoms associated with reduced oxygen at high ALTITUDE.
The circulation of the BLOOD through the MICROVASCULAR NETWORK.
Any of the ruminant mammals with curved horns in the genus Ovis, family Bovidae. They possess lachrymal grooves and interdigital glands, which are absent in GOATS.
Measurement of the various processes involved in the act of respiration: inspiration, expiration, oxygen and carbon dioxide exchange, lung volume and compliance, etc.
The rhythmical expansion and contraction of an ARTERY produced by waves of pressure caused by the ejection of BLOOD from the left ventricle of the HEART as it contracts.
An adrenergic alpha-2 agonist used as a sedative, analgesic and centrally acting muscle relaxant in VETERINARY MEDICINE.
An extremely stable inhalation anesthetic that allows rapid adjustments of anesthesia depth with little change in pulse or respiratory rate.
Post-systolic relaxation of the HEART, especially the HEART VENTRICLES.
The amount of a gas taken up, by the pulmonary capillary blood from the alveolar gas, per minute per unit of average pressure of the gradient of the gas across the BLOOD-AIR BARRIER.
Deficient oxygenation of FETAL BLOOD.
A process involving chance used in therapeutic trials or other research endeavor for allocating experimental subjects, human or animal, between treatment and control groups, or among treatment groups. It may also apply to experiments on inanimate objects.
The tendency of a gas or solute to pass from a point of higher pressure or concentration to a point of lower pressure or concentration and to distribute itself throughout the available space. Diffusion, especially FACILITATED DIFFUSION, is a major mechanism of BIOLOGICAL TRANSPORT.
Substances that are used in place of blood, for example, as an alternative to BLOOD TRANSFUSIONS after blood loss to restore BLOOD VOLUME and oxygen-carrying capacity to the blood circulation, or to perfuse isolated organs.
The volume of packed RED BLOOD CELLS in a blood specimen. The volume is measured by centrifugation in a tube with graduated markings, or with automated blood cell counters. It is an indicator of erythrocyte status in disease. For example, ANEMIA shows a low value; POLYCYTHEMIA, a high value.
The synthesis by organisms of organic chemical compounds, especially carbohydrates, from carbon dioxide using energy obtained from light rather than from the oxidation of chemical compounds. Photosynthesis comprises two separate processes: the light reactions and the dark reactions. In higher plants; GREEN ALGAE; and CYANOBACTERIA; NADPH and ATP formed by the light reactions drive the dark reactions which result in the fixation of carbon dioxide. (from Oxford Dictionary of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 2001)
Measurement of the pressure or tension of liquids or gases with a manometer.
A normal intermediate in the fermentation (oxidation, metabolism) of sugar. The concentrated form is used internally to prevent gastrointestinal fermentation. (From Stedman, 26th ed)
The measure of the level of heat of a human or animal.
A great expanse of continuous bodies of salt water which together cover more than 70 percent of the earth's surface. Seas may be partially or entirely enclosed by land, and are smaller than the five oceans (Atlantic, Pacific, Indian, Arctic, and Antarctic).
A strain of albino rat developed at the Wistar Institute that has spread widely at other institutions. This has markedly diluted the original strain.
A free radical gas produced endogenously by a variety of mammalian cells, synthesized from ARGININE by NITRIC OXIDE SYNTHASE. Nitric oxide is one of the ENDOTHELIUM-DEPENDENT RELAXING FACTORS released by the vascular endothelium and mediates VASODILATION. It also inhibits platelet aggregation, induces disaggregation of aggregated platelets, and inhibits platelet adhesion to the vascular endothelium. Nitric oxide activates cytosolic GUANYLATE CYCLASE and thus elevates intracellular levels of CYCLIC GMP.
Naturally occurring or experimentally induced animal diseases with pathological processes sufficiently similar to those of human diseases. They are used as study models for human diseases.
Manometric pressure of the CEREBROSPINAL FLUID as measured by lumbar, cerebroventricular, or cisternal puncture. Within the cranial cavity it is called INTRACRANIAL PRESSURE.
A measure of the amount of WATER VAPOR in the air.
The property of objects that determines the direction of heat flow when they are placed in direct thermal contact. The temperature is the energy of microscopic motions (vibrational and translational) of the particles of atoms.
The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.
Paired respiratory organs of fishes and some amphibians that are analogous to lungs. They are richly supplied with blood vessels by which oxygen and carbon dioxide are exchanged directly with the environment.
Evaluation undertaken to assess the results or consequences of management and procedures used in combating disease in order to determine the efficacy, effectiveness, safety, and practicability of these interventions in individual cases or series.
The non-genetic biological changes of an organism in response to challenges in its ENVIRONMENT.
A condition of lung damage that is characterized by bilateral pulmonary infiltrates (PULMONARY EDEMA) rich in NEUTROPHILS, and in the absence of clinical HEART FAILURE. This can represent a spectrum of pulmonary lesions, endothelial and epithelial, due to numerous factors (physical, chemical, or biological).
Water content outside of the lung vasculature. About 80% of a normal lung is made up of water, including intracellular, interstitial, and blood water. Failure to maintain the normal homeostatic fluid exchange between the vascular space and the interstitium of the lungs can result in PULMONARY EDEMA and flooding of the alveolar space.
A technique of respiratory therapy, in either spontaneously breathing or mechanically ventilated patients, in which airway pressure is maintained above atmospheric pressure throughout the respiratory cycle by pressurization of the ventilatory circuit. (On-Line Medical Dictionary [Internet]. Newcastle upon Tyne(UK): The University Dept. of Medical Oncology: The CancerWEB Project; c1997-2003 [cited 2003 Apr 17]. Available from:
The statistical reproducibility of measurements (often in a clinical context), including the testing of instrumentation or techniques to obtain reproducible results. The concept includes reproducibility of physiological measurements, which may be used to develop rules to assess probability or prognosis, or response to a stimulus; reproducibility of occurrence of a condition; and reproducibility of experimental results.
Physical activity which is usually regular and done with the intention of improving or maintaining PHYSICAL FITNESS or HEALTH. Contrast with PHYSICAL EXERTION which is concerned largely with the physiologic and metabolic response to energy expenditure.
The range or frequency distribution of a measurement in a population (of organisms, organs or things) that has not been selected for the presence of disease or abnormality.
The venous pressure measured in the PORTAL VEIN.
The simplest saturated hydrocarbon. It is a colorless, flammable gas, slightly soluble in water. It is one of the chief constituents of natural gas and is formed in the decomposition of organic matter. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
The part of CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM that is contained within the skull (CRANIUM). Arising from the NEURAL TUBE, the embryonic brain is comprised of three major parts including PROSENCEPHALON (the forebrain); MESENCEPHALON (the midbrain); and RHOMBENCEPHALON (the hindbrain). The developed brain consists of CEREBRUM; CEREBELLUM; and other structures in the BRAIN STEM.
The circulation of the BLOOD through the LUNGS.
Abnormally low BLOOD PRESSURE that can result in inadequate blood flow to the brain and other vital organs. Common symptom is DIZZINESS but greater negative impacts on the body occur when there is prolonged depravation of oxygen and nutrients.
Carbonic acid calcium salt (CaCO3). An odorless, tasteless powder or crystal that occurs in nature. It is used therapeutically as a phosphate buffer in hemodialysis patients and as a calcium supplement.
Procedures for finding the mathematical function which best describes the relationship between a dependent variable and one or more independent variables. In linear regression (see LINEAR MODELS) the relationship is constrained to be a straight line and LEAST-SQUARES ANALYSIS is used to determine the best fit. In logistic regression (see LOGISTIC MODELS) the dependent variable is qualitative rather than continuously variable and LIKELIHOOD FUNCTIONS are used to find the best relationship. In multiple regression, the dependent variable is considered to depend on more than a single independent variable.
A clear, odorless, tasteless liquid that is essential for most animal and plant life and is an excellent solvent for many substances. The chemical formula is hydrogen oxide (H2O). (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
Studies comparing two or more treatments or interventions in which the subjects or patients, upon completion of the course of one treatment, are switched to another. In the case of two treatments, A and B, half the subjects are randomly allocated to receive these in the order A, B and half to receive them in the order B, A. A criticism of this design is that effects of the first treatment may carry over into the period when the second is given. (Last, A Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)
In screening and diagnostic tests, the probability that a person with a positive test is a true positive (i.e., has the disease), is referred to as the predictive value of a positive test; whereas, the predictive value of a negative test is the probability that the person with a negative test does not have the disease. Predictive value is related to the sensitivity and specificity of the test.
Cessation of heart beat or MYOCARDIAL CONTRACTION. If it is treated within a few minutes, heart arrest can be reversed in most cases to normal cardiac rhythm and effective circulation.
A non-invasive technique using ultrasound for the measurement of cerebrovascular hemodynamics, particularly cerebral blood flow velocity and cerebral collateral flow. With a high-intensity, low-frequency pulse probe, the intracranial arteries may be studied transtemporally, transorbitally, or from below the foramen magnum.
The thoracolumbar division of the autonomic nervous system. Sympathetic preganglionic fibers originate in neurons of the intermediolateral column of the spinal cord and project to the paravertebral and prevertebral ganglia, which in turn project to target organs. The sympathetic nervous system mediates the body's response to stressful situations, i.e., the fight or flight reactions. It often acts reciprocally to the parasympathetic system.
Salts or esters of LACTIC ACID containing the general formula CH3CHOHCOOR.
Disease having a short and relatively severe course.
The artificial substitution of heart and lung action as indicated for HEART ARREST resulting from electric shock, DROWNING, respiratory arrest, or other causes. The two major components of cardiopulmonary resuscitation are artificial ventilation (RESPIRATION, ARTIFICIAL) and closed-chest CARDIAC MASSAGE.
The species Oryctolagus cuniculus, in the family Leporidae, order LAGOMORPHA. Rabbits are born in burrows, furless, and with eyes and ears closed. In contrast with HARES, rabbits have 22 chromosome pairs.
Receptors in the vascular system, particularly the aorta and carotid sinus, which are sensitive to stretch of the vessel walls.
Any disorder marked by obstruction of conducting airways of the lung. AIRWAY OBSTRUCTION may be acute, chronic, intermittent, or persistent.
A highly specific (Leu-Leu) endopeptidase that generates ANGIOTENSIN I from its precursor ANGIOTENSINOGEN, leading to a cascade of reactions which elevate BLOOD PRESSURE and increase sodium retention by the kidney in the RENIN-ANGIOTENSIN SYSTEM. The enzyme was formerly listed as EC
The salinated water of OCEANS AND SEAS that provides habitat for marine organisms.
A small cluster of chemoreceptive and supporting cells located near the bifurcation of the internal carotid artery. The carotid body, which is richly supplied with fenestrated capillaries, senses the pH, carbon dioxide, and oxygen concentrations in the blood and plays a crucial role in their homeostatic control.
A strain of Rattus norvegicus with elevated blood pressure used as a model for studying hypertension and stroke.
Studies used to test etiologic hypotheses in which inferences about an exposure to putative causal factors are derived from data relating to characteristics of persons under study or to events or experiences in their past. The essential feature is that some of the persons under study have the disease or outcome of interest and their characteristics are compared with those of unaffected persons.
The minute vessels that connect the arterioles and venules.
A chemical reaction in which an electron is transferred from one molecule to another. The electron-donating molecule is the reducing agent or reductant; the electron-accepting molecule is the oxidizing agent or oxidant. Reducing and oxidizing agents function as conjugate reductant-oxidant pairs or redox pairs (Lehninger, Principles of Biochemistry, 1982, p471).
A sarcoma derived from deep fibrous tissue, characterized by bundles of immature proliferating fibroblasts with variable collagen formation, which tends to invade locally and metastasize by the bloodstream. (Stedman, 25th ed)
Liquid perfluorinated carbon compounds which may or may not contain a hetero atom such as nitrogen, oxygen or sulfur, but do not contain another halogen or hydrogen atom. This concept includes fluorocarbon emulsions and fluorocarbon blood substitutes.
One of the CARBONIC ANHYDRASE INHIBITORS that is sometimes effective against absence seizures. It is sometimes useful also as an adjunct in the treatment of tonic-clonic, myoclonic, and atonic seizures, particularly in women whose seizures occur or are exacerbated at specific times in the menstrual cycle. However, its usefulness is transient often because of rapid development of tolerance. Its antiepileptic effect may be due to its inhibitory effect on brain carbonic anhydrase, which leads to an increased transneuronal chloride gradient, increased chloride current, and increased inhibition. (From Smith and Reynard, Textbook of Pharmacology, 1991, p337)
Any tests done on exhaled air.
The administration of drugs by the respiratory route. It includes insufflation into the respiratory tract.
A technique applicable to the wide variety of substances which exhibit paramagnetism because of the magnetic moments of unpaired electrons. The spectra are useful for detection and identification, for determination of electron structure, for study of interactions between molecules, and for measurement of nuclear spins and moments. (From McGraw-Hill Encyclopedia of Science and Technology, 7th edition) Electron nuclear double resonance (ENDOR) spectroscopy is a variant of the technique which can give enhanced resolution. Electron spin resonance analysis can now be used in vivo, including imaging applications such as MAGNETIC RESONANCE IMAGING.
External decompression applied to the lower body. It is used to study orthostatic intolerance and the effects of gravitation and acceleration, to produce simulated hemorrhage in physiologic research, to assess cardiovascular function, and to reduce abdominal stress during childbirth.
A nonmetallic element with atomic symbol C, atomic number 6, and atomic weight [12.0096; 12.0116]. It may occur as several different allotropes including DIAMOND; CHARCOAL; and GRAPHITE; and as SOOT from incompletely burned fuel.
A subtype of striated muscle, attached by TENDONS to the SKELETON. Skeletal muscles are innervated and their movement can be consciously controlled. They are also called voluntary muscles.
A conjugated protein which is the oxygen-transporting pigment of muscle. It is made up of one globin polypeptide chain and one heme group.
The processes whereby the internal environment of an organism tends to remain balanced and stable.
Controlled physical activity which is performed in order to allow assessment of physiological functions, particularly cardiovascular and pulmonary, but also aerobic capacity. Maximal (most intense) exercise is usually required but submaximal exercise is also used.
Body organ that filters blood for the secretion of URINE and that regulates ion concentrations.
Electrodes with an extremely small tip, used in a voltage clamp or other apparatus to stimulate or record bioelectric potentials of single cells intracellularly or extracellularly. (Dorland, 28th ed)
A response by the BARORECEPTORS to increased BLOOD PRESSURE. Increased pressure stretches BLOOD VESSELS which activates the baroreceptors in the vessel walls. The net response of the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM is a reduction of central sympathetic outflow. This reduces blood pressure both by decreasing peripheral VASCULAR RESISTANCE and by lowering CARDIAC OUTPUT. Because the baroreceptors are tonically active, the baroreflex can compensate rapidly for both increases and decreases in blood pressure.
Ultrashort-acting anesthetics that are used for induction. Loss of consciousness is rapid and induction is pleasant, but there is no muscle relaxation and reflexes frequently are not reduced adequately. Repeated administration results in accumulation and prolongs the recovery time. Since these agents have little if any analgesic activity, they are seldom used alone except in brief minor procedures. (From AMA Drug Evaluations Annual, 1994, p174)
The position or attitude of the body.
Hospital units providing continuous surveillance and care to acutely ill patients.

Nonlinear indicial response of complex nonstationary oscillations as pulmonary hypertension responding to step hypoxia. (1/1781)

This paper is devoted to the quantization of the degree of nonlinearity of the relationship between two biological variables when one of the variables is a complex nonstationary oscillatory signal. An example of the situation is the indicial responses of pulmonary blood pressure (P) to step changes of oxygen tension (DeltapO2) in the breathing gas. For a step change of DeltapO2 beginning at time t1, the pulmonary blood pressure is a nonlinear function of time and DeltapO2, which can be written as P(t-t1 | DeltapO2). An effective method does not exist to examine the nonlinear function P(t-t1 | DeltapO2). A systematic approach is proposed here. The definitions of mean trends and oscillations about the means are the keys. With these keys a practical method of calculation is devised. We fit the mean trends of blood pressure with analytic functions of time, whose nonlinearity with respect to the oxygen level is clarified here. The associated oscillations about the mean can be transformed into Hilbert spectrum. An integration of the square of the Hilbert spectrum over frequency yields a measure of oscillatory energy, which is also a function of time, whose mean trends can be expressed by analytic functions. The degree of nonlinearity of the oscillatory energy with respect to the oxygen level also is clarified here. Theoretical extension of the experimental nonlinear indicial functions to arbitrary history of hypoxia is proposed. Application of the results to tissue remodeling and tissue engineering of blood vessels is discussed.  (+info)

NADPH oxidase inhibition does not interfere with low PO2 transduction in rat and rabbit CB chemoreceptor cells. (2/1781)

The aim of the present work was to elucidate the role of NADPH oxidase in hypoxia sensing and transduction in the carotid body (CB) chemoreceptor cells. We have studied the effects of several inhibitors of NADPH oxidase on the normoxic and hypoxia-induced release of [3H]catecholamines (CA) in an in vitro preparation of intact CB of the rat and rabbit whose CA deposits have been labeled by prior incubation with the natural precursor [3H]tyrosine. It was found that diphenyleneiodonium (DPI; 0.2-25 microM), an inhibitor of NADPH oxidase, caused a dose-dependent release of [3H]CA from normoxic CB chemoreceptor cells. Contrary to hypoxia, DPI-evoked release was only partially Ca2+ dependent. Concentrations of DPI reported to produce full inhibition of NADPH oxidase in the rat CB did not prevent the hypoxic release response in the rat and rabbit CB chemoreceptor cells, as stimulation with hypoxia in the presence of DPI elicited a response equaling the sum of that produced by DPI and hypoxia applied separately. Neopterin (3-300 microM) and phenylarsine oxide (0.5-2 microM), other inhibitors of NADPH oxidase, did not promote release of [3H]CA in normoxic conditions or affect the response elicited by hypoxia. On the basis of effects of neopterin and phenylarsine oxide, it is concluded that NADPH oxidase does not appear to play a role in oxygen sensing or transduction in the rat and rabbit CB chemoreceptor cells in vitro and, in the context of the present study, that DPI effects are not related to NADPH oxidase inhibition.  (+info)

Continuous arterial P(O2) and P(CO2) measurements in swine during nitrous oxide and xenon elimination: prevention of diffusion hypoxia. (3/1781)

BACKGROUND: During nitrous oxide (N2O) elimination, arterial oxygen tension (PaO2) decreases because of the phenomenon commonly called diffusive hypoxia. The authors questioned whether similar effects occur during xenon elimination. METHODS: Nineteen anesthetized and paralyzed pigs were mechanically ventilated randomly for 30 min using inspiratory gas mixtures of 30% oxygen and either 70% N2O or xenon. The inspiratory gas was replaced by a mixture of 70% nitrogen and 30% oxygen. PaO2 and carbon dioxide tensions were recorded continuously using an indwelling arterial sensor. RESULTS: The PaO2 decreased from 119+/-10 mm Hg to 102+/-12 mm Hg (mean+/-SD) during N2O washout (P<0.01) and from 116+/-9 mm Hg to 110+/-8 mm Hg during xenon elimination (P<0.01), with a significant difference (P<0.01) between baseline and minimum PaO2 values (deltaPaO2, 17+/-6 mm Hg during N2O washout and 6+/-3 mm Hg during xenon washout). The PaCO2 value also decreased (from 39.3+/-6.3 mm Hg to 37.6+/-5.8 mm Hg) during N2O washout (P<0.01) and during xenon elimination (from 35.4+/-1.6 mm Hg to 34.9+/-1.6 mm Hg; P< 0.01). The deltaPaCO2 was 1.7+/-0.9 mm Hg in the N2O group and 0.5+/-0.3 mm Hg in the xenon group (P<0.01). CONCLUSION: Diffusive hypoxia is unlikely to occur during recovery from xenon anesthesia, probably because of the low blood solubility of this gas.  (+info)

Breathing patterns during slow and fast ramp exercise in man. (4/1781)

Breathing frequency (fb), tidal volume (VT), and respiratory timing during slow (SR, 8 W min-1) and fast (FR, 65 W min-1) ramp exercise to exhaustion on a cycle ergometer was examined in seven healthy male subjects. Expiratory ventilation (VE), pulmonary gas exchange (VO2 and VCO2) and end-tidal gas tensions (PET,O2 and PET,CO2) were determined using breath-by-breath techniques. Arterialized venous blood was sampled from a dorsal hand vein at 2 min intervals during SR and 30 s intervals during FR and analysed for arterial plasma PCO2 (PaCO2). PET,CO2 increased with increasing work rates (WRs) below the ventilatory threshold (VT); at WRs > or = 90% VO2,max, PET,CO2 was reduced (P < 0.05) below 0 W values in SR but not in FR.fb and VT were similar for SR and FR at all submaximal WRs, resulting in a similar VE. At exhaustion VE was similar but fb was higher (P < 0.05) and VT was lower (P < 0.05) in SR (fb, 51 +/- 10 breaths min-1; VT, 2590 +/- 590 ml) than in FR (fb, 42 +/- 8 breaths min-1; VT, 3050 +/- 470 ml). The time of expiration (TE) decreased with increasing WR, but there was no difference between SR and FR. The time of inspiration (TI) decreased at exercise intensities > or = VT; at exhaustion, TI was shorter (P < 0.05) during SR (0.512 +/- 0.097 s) than during FR (0.753 +/- 0.100 s). The TI to total breath duration (TI/TTot) and the inspiratory flow (VT/TI) were similar during SR and FR at all submaximal exercise intensities; at VO2,max, TI/TTot was lower (P < 0.05) and VT/TI was higher (P < 0.05) during SR (TI/TTot, 0.473 +/- 0.030; VT/TI, 5.092 +/- 0.377 l s-1) than during FR (TI/TTot, 0.567 +/- 0.050; VT/TI, 4.117 +/- 0.635 l s-1). These results suggest that during progressive exercise, breathing pattern and respiratory timing may be determined, at least at submaximal work rates, independently of alveolar and arterial PCO2.  (+info)

Electrocardiographic signs of chronic cor pulmonale: A negative prognostic finding in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. (5/1781)

BACKGROUND: Chronic cor pulmonale (CCP) is a strong predictor of death in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). The aims of this study were to assess the prognostic role of individual ECG signs of CCP and of the interaction between these signs and abnormal arterial blood gases. METHODS AND RESULTS: Two hundred sixty-three patients (217 men) with COPD, mean age 67+/-9 years, were grouped according to whether they had no ECG signs (group 1, n=100) or >/=1 ECG signs (group 2, n=163) of CCP and were followed up for 13 years after an exacerbation of respiratory failure. The median survival was significantly shorter in group 2 than in group 1 (2.58 versus 3. 45 years, respectively; Mantel-Cox test, 9.58; P=0.002). The Cox regression analysis identified S1S2S3 pattern, right atrial overload (RAO), and alveolar-arterial oxygen gradient (PAO2-PaO2) >48 mm Hg during oxygen therapy as the strongest predictors of death, with hazard rate (HR)=1.81 (95% CI, 1.22 to 2.69), HR=1.58 (95% CI, 1.15 to 2.18), and HR=1.96 (95% CI, 1.19 to 3.25), respectively. The median survivals of patients having both S1S2S3 pattern and RAO (n=14) and of patients having either S1S2S3 pattern or RAO (n=77) were 1.33 and 2.70 years, respectively (P=0.022). Group 2 patients had a 3-year survival of 18% or 53%, depending on whether their PAO2-PaO2 during oxygen therapy was or was not >48 mm Hg. CONCLUSIONS: Some ECG signs of CCP and PAO2-PaO2 >48 mm Hg during oxygen therapy qualified as a simple and inexpensive tool for targeting subsets of COPD patients with severe or very severe short-term prognosis.  (+info)

Spin-lattice relaxation of laser-polarized xenon in human blood. (6/1781)

The nuclear spin polarization of 129Xe can be enhanced by several orders of magnitude by using optical pumping techniques. The increased sensitivity of xenon NMR has allowed imaging of lungs as well as other in vivo applications. The most critical parameter for efficient delivery of laser-polarized xenon to blood and tissues is the spin-lattice relaxation time (T1) of xenon in blood. In this work, the relaxation of laser-polarized xenon in human blood is measured in vitro as a function of blood oxygenation. Interactions with dissolved oxygen and with deoxyhemoglobin are found to contribute to the spin-lattice relaxation time of 129Xe in blood, the latter interaction having greater effect. Consequently, relaxation times of 129Xe in deoxygenated blood are shorter than in oxygenated blood. In samples with oxygenation equivalent to arterial and venous blood, the 129Xe T1s at 37 degrees C and a magnetic field of 1.5 T were 6.4 s +/- 0.5 s and 4.0 s +/- 0.4 s, respectively. The 129Xe spin-lattice relaxation time in blood decreases at lower temperatures, but the ratio of T1 in oxygenated blood to that in deoxygenated blood is the same at 37 degrees C and 25 degrees C. A competing ligand has been used to show that xenon binding to albumin contributes to the 129Xe spin-lattice relaxation in blood plasma. This technique is promising for the study of xenon interactions with macromolecules.  (+info)

Randomised controlled trial of aminophylline for severe acute asthma. (7/1781)

OBJECTIVES: To determine whether children with severe acute asthma treated with large doses of inhaled salbutamol, inhaled ipratropium, and intravenous steroids are conferred any further benefits by the addition of aminophylline given intravenously. STUDY DESIGN: Randomised, double blind, placebo controlled trial of 163 children admitted to hospital with asthma who were unresponsive to nebulised salbutamol. RESULTS: The placebo and treatment groups of children were similar at baseline. The 48 children in the aminophylline group had a greater improvement in spirometry at six hours and a higher oxygen saturation in the first 30 hours. Five subjects in the placebo group were intubated and ventilated after enrollment compared with none in the aminophylline group. CONCLUSIONS: Aminophylline continues to have a place in the management of severe acute asthma in children unresponsive to initial treatment.  (+info)

Randomised trial of three doses of inhaled nitric oxide in acute respiratory distress syndrome. (8/1781)

BACKGROUND: Inhaled nitric oxide (iNO) is a potential therapeutic agent for the management of acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). Concerns remain, however, regarding the potential toxicity from iNO and/or its oxidative derivatives and methaemoglobinaemia. AIMS: To determine the risk of toxicity from iNO, which includes worsening of lung injury, a prospective study evaluating the acute effects of three concentrations of iNO on gas exchange and haemodynamics in 12 children with ARDS was performed in a tertiary paediatric intensive care unit. INTERVENTION: iNO was administered for one hour at three concentrations (1, 10, and 20 parts per million (ppm)) in a random order of possible dosing schedules to avoid dose accumulation bias. Arterial blood gas, methaemoglobin concentrations, and haemodynamic parameters were obtained at baseline before commencement of iNO, at the end of each study hour, and after iNO was discontinued. Nitric oxide and nitrogen dioxide concentrations were continuously monitored during the study. RESULTS: iNO significantly improved the oxygenation ratio (Pao2/Fio2) from a mean (SEM) baseline of 11.9 (1.7) kPa to 20 (3.9) kPa, 24 (4.5) kPa, and 21.6 (3.9) kPa at 1, 10, and 20 ppm iNO, respectively. There was no significant difference in the improvement in oxygenation achieved between the three concentrations. Correspondingly, there was a significant improvement in oxygenation index (pre-iNO 28.3 (5) v post-iNO 18 (3) (1 ppm), 15 (3) (10 ppm), 16 (3) (20 ppm)). No toxicity from methaemoglobinaemia or nitrogen dioxide was seen during iNO administration. CONCLUSION: The results show that a low concentration of iNO (1 ppm) is as effective as higher concentrations (10 and 20 ppm) in improving oxygenation in children with ARDS and may be important in minimising toxicity during iNO use.  (+info)

Timely regulated changes in oxygen partial pressure are important for placental formation. Disturbances could be responsible for pregnancy-related diseases like preeclampsia and intrauterine growth restriction. We aimed to (i) determine the effect of oxygen partial pressure on cytotrophoblast differentiation; (ii) measure mRNA expression and protein secretion from genes associated with placental angiogenesis; and (iii) determine the reversibility of these effects at different oxygen partial pressures. Term cytotrophoblasts were incubated at 21% and 2.5% O2 for 96 hr, or were switched between the two oxygen concentrations after 48 hr. Real-time PCR and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISAs) were used to evaluate cell fusion and differentiation, measuring transcript levels for those genes involved in cell fusion and placental angiogenesis, including VEGF, PlGF, VEGFR1, sVEGFR1, sENG, INHA, and GCM1. Cytotrophoblasts underwent fusion and differentiation in 2.5% O2 . PlGF expression was ...
Oxygen partial pressure and temperature are measured in living tissue by inserting a thin probe into living tissue. The probe includes a plurality of spatially separated thermal sensors secured to the probe substrate. A plurality of oxygen sensors is positioned along the length of the probe substrate and each oxygen sensor is associated with and positioned adjacent to or is an integral part of one of the thermal sensors. Electrical parameters of the sensors located on the probe are measured and used to determine oxygen partial pressure and to determine temperature at each of a plurality of sites along the probe.
abstractNote = {The dynamics of animal`s mortality after acute gamma radiation at doses of 800, 960, and 1140 cGy was investigated. Mortality was compared with the initial partial oxygen pressure in subdermal space. A positive correlation between the animal radiosensitivity and oxygen pressure was found ...
Oxygen concentration in tissues is a key factor for cell and organ survival. In normal conditions, partial oxygen pressure (pO2) results in the balance between oxygen delivery and its consumption. Oxygen is transported, in mammals, by circulating red blood cells. Partial oxygen pressure in tissues varies widely, depending on their respective metabolic requirements and their functional status. In normal physiological conditions, partial oxygen pressure is called physioxia. Any alteration of tissue environment leading to a decrease in partial oxygen pressure is called hypoxia ...
We studied photosensitization reaction progress in a cell culture well by oxygen partial pressure distribution measurement along the well depth direction with a high concentration of talaporfin sodium solution. The talaporfin sodium solution of 20 μg/ml in concentration with 2.8 mm thickness in the well was irradiated from the well bottom by 663 nm excitation laser with 0.29 W/cm2. A small Clark-type oxygen electrode was used to measure oxygen partial pressure during the photosensitization reaction with approximately 200 μm resolution. Corrections against solution temperature change and direct light irradiation were applied to the electrode output. The oxygen partial pressures at various depths were decreased uniformly from the atmospheric oxygen partial pressure with the photosensitization reaction progress up to the irradiation of 1.0 J/cm2 in radiant exposure. In the case of photosensitization reaction over 1.0 J/cm2 in radiant exposure, the oxygen partial pressure distribution along the ...
Forgive the title readers...its all to do with dive physiology. Im doing some courses at the be able to teach more stuff to student divers. By Monday I will be a qualified Deep Diving Instructor, a qualified Underwater Navigation Instructor, and a qualified EANx Instructor (thats Enriched Air...or Nitrox....for those of you who dont know...) as well as a qualified Dry Suit Instructor and Open Water Instructor - which I am already. For the Eanx qualification I have to understand Oxygen partial pressures and how this is affected by depth...did you know that Oxygen can be toxic at depth? Can cause convulsions and then death? Oooo how dramatic! I kind of understand it - but have to be able to teach it...its all about partial pressures and that kind of Einstein stuff. (Sighs Deeply). Tissue saturation and rates of recovery...blah blah blah....I will know enough to pass the exams by Sunday afternoon...I will..I will..I will ...
1. The intramuscular oxygen partial pressure (pO2) in human gastrocnemius muscle was monitored during exercise and compared with metabolite concentrations reflecting the energy and the redox state in the tissue. Ten normal subjects and ten patients with peripheral vascular occlusive disease were investigated. 2. In normal subjects the pO2 at the end of exercise was related to the intensity of the exercise, expressed as effect (J/s) per contraction. 3. In both patients and normal subject the pO2 was related to the [ATP]/[ADP] ratio, the [lactate/[pyruvate] ratio and the phosphocreatine concentration in the muscle tissue at rest and during exercise. 4. At each pO2 value, a lower [lactate/[pyruvate] ratio was found in the muscle tissue of the patients compared with that of normal subjects. This was interpreted as a beneficial effect of the higher oxidative-enzyme capacity in the muscle of the patients. 5. The results show the importance of pO2 for the regulation of the energy and the redox state of ...
The partial pressures of Te2 in equilibrium with Ga(1-x)Te(x) samples were measured by optical absorption technique from 450 to 1100 C for compositions, x, between 0.333 and 0.612. To establish the relationship between the partial pressure of Te, and the measured optical absorbance, the calibration runs of a pure Te sample were also conducted to determine the Beers Law constants. The partial pressures of Te2 in equilibrium with the GaTe(s) and Ga2Te3(s)compounds, or the so-called three-phase curves, were established. These partial pressure data imply the existence of the Ga3Te4(s) compound. From the partial pressures of Te2 over the Ga-Te melts, partial molar enthalpy and entropy of mixing for Te were derived and they agree reasonable well with the published data. The activities of Te in the Ga-Te melts were also derived from the measured partial pressures of Te2. These data agree well with most of the previous results. The possible reason for the high activity of Te measured for x less than 0.60 is
Methods and apparatus for determining the difference between a regional CO2 partial pressure of a selected body organ of a mammalian subject, such as the gut, and a systemic CO2 partial pressure of the subject. The regional CO2 partial pressure value is tonometrically obtained at body temperature using a gaseous sampling medium. A systemic CO2 partial pressure value is obtained from the blood. The systemic CO2 partial pressure value can be that for the body temperature or for a standard temperature. If the systemic CO2 partial pressure value is that for the body temperature, the regional CO2 partial pressure value is compared to the systemic CO2 partial pressure value and the difference therebetween is provided as a CO2 partial pressure gap measurement. If the systemic CO2 partial pressure value is that for a standard temperature, one of the regional CO2 partial pressure value or the systemic CO2 partial pressure value is corrected for the difference between the body temperature and the standard
In what circumstance? In a gaseous mixture, the partial pressure of a gaseous component is the same as the pressure it would exert if that gas alone occupied the container. We are currently breathing air at 1 atm pressure. Given the normal composition of air, 78% dinitrogen, 21% dioxygen, 1% other gases, we can say quite categorically that the partial pressure of dioxygen in the atmosphere is approx. 0.2*atm, and the partial pressure of dinitrogen is approx. 0.8*atm. The total pressure is of course the sum of the individual partial pressures.
In the search for new materials potentially useful as SOFC components perovskite-like oxides of the Sr2EuNb1−xTixO6−δ series have been obtained, the solubility limit being ca. x = 0.15. Rietveld refinements of XRD data and SAED and HRTEM have demonstrated that these compounds are monoclinic with cell parameters a ≈ b = ap√2 ≈ 5.88 Å, c = 2ap ≈ 8.28 Å, and S.G. P21/n. As required for SOFC materials, these oxides are stable under a wide range of oxygen partial pressures from the ambient condition to pO2 ≈ 10−30 atm. Aliovalent substitution of Nb5+ by Ti4+ improves the electrical conductivity in air by two orders of magnitude for the end-member of the series (x = 0.15) compared with the parent material. Magnetic measurements, pO2 dependence of conductivity and ion-blocking measurements demonstrate that the predominant conduction mechanism depends on the oxygen partial pressure. In the high pO2 region (from 10−5 to 0.21 atm) p-type conduction is dominant due to the presence of ...
Author: Florian, A. et al.; Genre: Journal Article; Published in Print: 2014; Title: Analysis of metabolic alterations in Arabidopsis following changes in|br/| the carbon dioxide and oxygen partial pressures
To determine the oxygen partial pressure distribution in at least one tissue surface section, a fluorescent dye is applied to the tissue surface section which, to generate fluorescence, is impinged by excitation light. In the rise phase of fluorescence, by means of a camera system at least one first fluorescence picture is taken, and in the fall phase of the fluorescence, at least one second fluorescence picture is taken. Subsequently, the fluorescence intensities in the rise phase and fall phase are determined on the basis of the first and second fluorescence pictures taken and by forming a ratio of the fluorescence intensities determined, the oxygen partial pressure distribution in the at least one tissue surface section is determined.
In a mixture of ideal gases, each gas behaves independently of the other gases. As a result, we can use the ideal gas law to calculate the partial pressure of each gas in the mixture. Once we know the partial pressures of all of the gases, we can sum them using Daltons law to find the total pressure of the mixture.
Chemistry-Physical chemistry: At a constant temperature, the amount of a given gas that dissolves in a given type and volume of liquid is directly proportional to the partial pressure of that gas in equilibrium with that liquid. Partial pressure of solute in Henrys law (given molar concentration of solute,Henrys law constant),
A partial pressure equation can be solved in more than one way. The total pressure is the sum of the partial pressures as shown in the following equation: Ptot = P1 + P2 + P3. If the components of a...
I believe in the last lecture Professor Lavelle said we can give an answer in partial pressure or concentration if the question does not specify, but if the question wants the Kc we need to give it in concentration, but we can use partial pressure to find the concentration with P=(conc) RT. Hope this helped ...
Daltons Law of Partial Pressures, the law of partial pressure, Statement, Expression, Explanation, Limitation, Examples, Pmix =P1+P2+P3+⋯+Pk
1. Identify the partial pressures of oxygen and carbon dioxide in the systemic circulation, pulmonary arteries, and the alveoli. 2. Identify the main volumes measured and their purpose in a spirometry.
Two gases are contained in gas bulbs connected by a valve. Gas A is present in a 56 L bulb at a pressure of 213 torr. Gas B exerts a pressure of 683 torr in a 74 L bulb. What is the partial pressure of gas B after they equilibrate ...
Might be a silly question, but will there ever be an instance where partial pressure is given for one part of a chemical equation then the concentration is given for another part? If so how would you solve for one or the other ...
The partial pressure formula is the product of the number of moles of a component of a substance divided by the total number of moles of the substance, multiplied by the barometric pressure. The...
Physiology Test Question - A higher numerical value of oxygen (O2) P50 indicates a higher hemoglobin affinity for O2. Note: O2 P50 is the oxygen partial pressure (PO2) at which 50% of hemoglobin molecules are saturated with O2.
Oxygen The oxygen partial pressure above sup-ported, coordinatively unsaturated Cr 11 , V 111 , Mo 11 and Mn 11 species was measured with a Zr02 cell. Within this series the pressure ranges from 10~ 6 to 10 -11 ppm 02, with the Mn n /Si02 systems exhibiting the lowest values of 10~ 10 -8 and 10 11 -3 . Other pertinent properties like chemiluminescence with 02 and catalytic activity in ethylene polymerisa-tion are also indicated. The manganese(II) absorption masses are thus particularly suitable for removal of traces of oxygen from liquids and gases in general but especially from polymerizable olefins ...
Many reactive sputter deposition applications require high deposition rates. The primary limiting parameters in magnetron sputtering are the target power dissipation and sputtering yields of the target elements. In reactive deposition of oxides, the deposition rate is of particular interest due to the low sputtering yield of most commonly used oxides. Traditional high rate techniques rely on a feedback control of the oxygen partial pressure to prevent formation of oxide on the target and hence enable operation in the transition area. An alternative approach, based on target doping, is presented in this paper.By doping the sputtering target with heavy elements, it is possible to substantially enhance the sputtering yield and hence the deposition rate. Simulations of the partial sputtering yield values for aluminium from doped targets sputtered in reactive atmosphere have been carried out. The Monte Carlo based TRIDYN computer code has been used for simulations. The program has been used to find ...
across a greater parameter space. Furthermore, no single function fit the data best such that comparisons among studies could be problematic. The retention of an estimate of Pc in the context of our approach provides a means of comparing equivalent slopes among studies that have fit very different functions.. We chose a point (where dV/dP=m=0.065) on our function that best approximated the Pc estimated by the BSR approach. We chose this point so that future studies can provide estimates of oxygen tolerance that are comparable with traditional measures of Pc. In practice, we recommend that future studies that utilise the NLR approach present estimates of not only Pc, but also estimates of function parameters (i.e. estimates of a, b, c and d, as appropriate), as well as their associated error, as these values will allow comparisons across the entire range of oxygen partial pressures. Standardised estimates of parameters in selection in evolutionary biology have facilitated important insights from ...
Solution for A mixture of helium, nitrogen and oxygen has a total pressure of 0.872 atm. The partial pressure of helium is 0.204 atm, and the partial pressure…
Abstract] , [Full text] (PDF 152 KB). Variation of the Partial Pressure of CO2 in Surface Water from Kuroshio to Oyashio and the Relation between Environmental Factors and the Partial Pressure at 144°E off Sanriku, Northwestern North Pacific in May, 1997 ...
alveolar P O 2 P O 2 partial pressure of oxygen in the alveoli (usually around 100 mmHg) alveol
PreSens optical CO2 sensors measure the partial pressure of CO2 in liquids. Optimized for culture media and physiological solutions. Find your CO2 sensor!
This article describes Gaseous State, general characteristics of gases, gives a brief view of various gas laws like Boyles, Charles, Avogadro, Daltons law of partial pressure etc.
Solution for The equilibirum constant for the reaction PCl3(g) + Cl2(g)⇋ PCl5(g) is K= 3.5 x 104 at 760 degrees Celsius. At equilibrium, the partial pressure of…
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Mizumura, K.; Sato, J.; Kumazawa, T., 1986: Continuous recording of arterial pressure and carbon dioxide partial pressure and pressure carbon dioxide partial pressure and ph of the cerebrospinal fluid during acute exposure to low oxygen and high carbon dioxide partial pressure environment in dogs
TY - JOUR. T1 - Development of a Patch-Type Flexible Oxygen Partial Pressure Sensor. AU - Katayama, Yuta. AU - Fujioka, Yuta. AU - Tsukada, Kosuke. N1 - Funding Information: This work was supported in part by the JSPS KAKENHI under Grant 16K01372. Publisher Copyright: © 2013 IEEE.. PY - 2020. Y1 - 2020. N2 - Oxygen concentration in living organisms is one of the important vital indicators in emergency care and bedside medical settings. However, the oximetry method has limitations: the measurement site is limited to the tissue containing blood and the absolute value of oxygen concentration cannot be measured. To overcome these limitations, in this work, we develop a new oxygen sensor that can directly measure the oxygen particle pressure ( $p\text{O}_{2}$ ) on the surface of the body and organs. A light emitting diode (LED) and a photodiode (PD) were embedded in a dimethylpolysiloxane substrate mixed with carbon nanotubes. The effectiveness of the device was evaluated using calibration, bending ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Distributions of Sn, Sb, and Bi between Ag-Pb alloy and PbO based melt at 1273 K. AU - Ueda, Shigeru. AU - Katsube, Ryo. AU - Yamaguchi, Katsunori. PY - 2009/7/1. Y1 - 2009/7/1. N2 - Distributions of Sn, Sb, and Bi between Ag-Pb alloy and PbO based melt were investigated at 1273 K. A chemical equilibrium technique was used in order to measure the distributions. The oxygen partial pressure equilibrated with the melts was measured by an EMF method. The distribution ratios were defined as the weight ratios of Sn, Sb, and Bi in PbO divided by those in the Ag-Pb phase. The obtained distribution ratios were plotted against the logarithm of the oxygen partial pressure. The plots showed that the distribution ratios of Sn, Sb, and Bi increased with an increase in the oxygen partial pressure. Taking the slope of these plots, the oxide forms of the minor elements dissolved in the PbO based melt could be estimated. Sn dissolves in PbO based melts as SnO2 in the oxygen partial pressure range, ...
Indirect chemical control of respiratory centre is exercised by peripheral chemoreceptor system. This system detect changes in partial pressure of oxygen as well as partial pressure of carbon dioxide. Groups of chemoreceptors can be found in aorta, carotids and even elsewhere. They collect information about immediate levels of oxygen and carbon dioxide in blood.. Because highest density of chemoreceptors is localized in arcus aortae and carotid bifurcation, we call them aortic corpuscule and carotid corpuscles respectively. Signals from carotid corpuscles are collected by glossopharyngeal nerve and transmitted to solitary tract nuclei. Information from aortic corpuscule is collected by vagal nerve that terminates in solitary tract as well.. When peripheral chemoreceptors detect decrease in oxygen partial pressure they transmit the signal to respiratory centres and hyperventilation occurs. Precise mechanism how do oxygen receptors work is unknown.. Increase in carbon dioxide partial pressure is ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Synthesis of Melted Yttrium Barium Copper Oxide-0.325Ag Superconductors Contained in a Solid Silver Cladding at Reduced Oxygen Partial Pressures. AU - Lee, Haigun. AU - Park, Haiwoong. PY - 2003/11. Y1 - 2003/11. N2 - This paper presents a study on the feasibility of concurrent synthesis and melt-processing of Yttrium Barium Copper Oxide-0.325 Ag (Y123-Ag) superconductor by thermo-mechanical processing of the silver-clad precursor containing BaCuO2.5 at reduced oxygen partial pressures. At 950-955°C the melted Y123-Ag superconductor was contained in a solid silver cladding which melted at 960-965°C. After 15 min at 950-965°C and oxygen partial pressures of 0.28 and 0.55 kPa, melted orthorhombic Y123-Ag formed. On extending the heat-treatment from 15 to 30 min, the orthorhombic Y123-Ag changed to tetragonal Y123-Ag which was supported directly by a series of rapid-heat, soak, and rapid-cool experiments at 950°C (PO2 = 0.28 kPa), and thus direct formation of orthorhombic ...
According to Daltons Law of Partial Pressures P_(Total) = P_1 + P_2 + P_3 … According to Daltons Law, in a mixture of non-reacting gasses, the total pressure exerted is the sum of the partial pressures of the component gasses. In more complicated circumstances, equilibrium states come into effect, but fortunately for us, oxygen is non-reactive with water vapor. This being the case we wold simply add the partial pressure of the gas and the water vapor. P_(Total) = P_(O_2) + P_(H_2O) P_(Total) = 0.41 atm + 0.58 atm P_(Total) = 0.99 atm I hope this was beneficial. SMARTERTEACHER
Lets use the Henrys law equation in an example. 70 mmHg 210 mmHg 280 mmHg 350 mmHg 420 mmHg Each component exerts its own pressure referred to as its partial pressure. the chemical compound will have a ball-and-stick structure. Want to know how to calculate partial pressure? A) 25.6 g B) 204 g C) 22.7 g D) 0.16 g. In aqueous solution the fe 2 ion forms a complex with six cyanide anions. The bulb was then completely evacuated. A mixture of gases contains 1.5 moles of oxygen, 3.0 moles of nitrogen, and 0.5 moles of water vapor. It can also be illustrated with an equation: where p1, p2, and so on, up to pn, represent the partial pressure of each gaseous component. The theory of the o2 sensor working principle is detailed here. Which statement best describes temperature? As the pressure increases during deeper dives, oxygen becomes toxic, potentially causing narcosis. (Use the equation: density = mass/volume.). A homogeneous equilibrium is one in which everything is present at the same time in the ...
Partial Pressures & Vapor Pressure: Crash Course Chemistry #15 - lesson plan ideas from Spiral. Tagged under: crash ,chemistry,gas,hank green,lesson,teacher,john dalton,atoms,behavior,education,element,pressure,law partial pressures,helium,oxygen,ideal gas law,mole fraction,vapor pressure,partial pressure,problems,practice,resource,carbon dioxide,lab assistant,michael aranda,temperature,collect gas water,technique,law multiple proportions,vlogbrothers
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AbstractHypercapnia has been reported to play an active role in protection against organ injury. The aim of this study was to determine whether a higher level of partial pressure of arterial carbon dioxide (PaCO2) within the normal range in pediatric patients undergoing cardiac surgery had a similar organ-protective effect. From May 2017 to May 2018, 83 consecutive infant patients undergoing ventr...
If Pt is the total pressure of a gas mixture and n1, n2, etc. the mole fractions of its components, it follows that: Pt= Pt x (n1+ n2 + …) and Pt= Pt x n1+ Pt x n2 + … where Pt x n1, Pt x n2, etc. are the partial pressures of components 1, 2, etc. The equation above is another form of Daltons law. Water vapor is one of several gases that makes up air. For example if the total pressure of a system such as air at sea level is 1,013 kPa (or 29.9 inches of mercury), and that air is made up of Nitrogen, Oxygen, water vapor and other trace gases, each of those gases contributes to the total pressure of 1,013 kPa. The portion that is water vapor is called the partial pressure of water vapor. The partial pressure of water vapor is a key metric found as a component in the formulas that define all other humidity parameters. According to Daltons law, the total pressure of a gas mixture is equal to the sum of the partial pressures of its components. This means that the partial pressure of a component ...
A gas mixture used for anesthesia contains 2.83 mol oxygen, O₂, and 8.41 mol nitrous oxide, N₂O. The total pressure of the mixture is 192 kPa. a) What are the mole fractions of O₂ and N₂O? b) What are the partial pressures of O₂ and N₂O?
Dive into the research topics of The formation of CaSO,sub,4,/sub, in the CaO-FeOx-Cu,sub,2,/sub,O slags at 1250°C under high partial pressure of SO,sub,2,/sub,. Together they form a unique fingerprint. ...
Goyet, Catherine (2003): Partial pressure of CO2 in water, along ship track of cruise TT043. PANGAEA,
There is a clear rationale for using hyperthermia in cancer treatment. Treatment at temperatures between 40 and 44 C is cytotoxic for cells in an environment with a low pO2(oxygen partial pressure) and low pH, conditions that are found specifically within tumour tissue, due to insufficient blood perfusion. Under such conditions radiotherapy is less effective, and systemically applied cytotoxic agents will reach such areas in lower concentrations than in well perfused areas. Therefore, the addition of hyperthermia to radiotherapy or chemotherapy will result in at least an additive effect. Furthermore, the effects of both radiotherapy and many drugs are enhanced at an increased temperature. Hyperthermia can be applied by several methods: local hyperthermia by external or internal energy sources, regional hyperthermia by perfusion of organs or limbs, or by irrigation of body cavities, and whole body hyperthermia ...
As is not associated in any way with any manufacturers or brand, we hold no responsibility for providing up to date manuals. We are doing our best to keep with the latest revisions. Also for comparing purposes the name of the files has been left to its original file name. Sources could have named the files differently. ...
A partial pressure sensor is disclosed which is suitable for determining the partial pressure of a gas or vapor in a thermally uncontrolled gas atmosphere over a large measurement range and with high measuring accuracy.
Aqueous solubility of CO2 is 24.8 ml of CO2 per liter at 273K and a CO2 partial pressure of 3.6 atm. What is the molarity of a saturated water solution when the CO2 is under its normal partial pressure... ...
Hypoxaemia is the reduction in the values for partial pressure of oxygen dissolved in arterial blood (PaO2) and arterial oxygen saturation (SaO2) (Pruitt).
Accurate pCO2 sensor for mooring, buoys, and profiling applications to measure partial pressure of CO2 in lakes, rivers, and the oceans.
I found out this morning that Vinnys dad, Paco, has gone to Rainbow Bridge. Not only am I sorry to hear that, but the circumstances of his passing are pretty messed up too. Pacos owners broke up awhile ago and Lee recently moved to FL, leaving Paco with Julie. Paco didnt fit in with her life anymore so she put him down. Lee didnt find out until afterward ...
Also known as: WITH PaO2, Pao2., Pao2, Pao-2, PaO2=, PaO2., PaO2+, PaO2, PaO-2, Pa.O2, Pa-o2, Pa-O2, Pa O2, PAo2, PAO2., PAO2, PAO-2, PA O2, P-a O2, P-A-O2 ...
本市場調査資料では、世界のパーム酸油市場について種類別(PAO黄色、PAO茶色)、用途別(石鹸、動物飼料、バイオディーゼル、その他)、地域別(アメリカ、ヨーロッパ、中国、日本、東南アジア、インド)に区分して調査し、纏めました。2016年~2027年までの市場規模と予測(販売量、売上、価格)、主要プレイヤーの競争状況・市場シェア・企業情報、製造コスト分析、販売チャネル・流通業者・顧客情報、市場動向・機会・課題などのマーケットデータが記載されています。市場予測データは新型コロナウイルスの影響を反映させました ...
being partial pressure of water, p. d. {\displaystyle p_{d}}. dry air pressure, and M. v. {\displaystyle M_{v}}. and M. d. {\ ... The total pressure p. {\displaystyle p}. is described by Dalton's law of partial pressures: p. =. p. d. +. e. .. {\displaystyle ... Through expansion upon the definition of vapor pressure in the law of partial pressures as presented above and the definition ... Solving for the densities in each equation and combining with the law of partial pressures yields ...
These changes may include: oxygen partial pressure. carbon dioxide partial pressure. pH (indirectly affected by carbon dioxide ... They are important in measuring partial pressures of oxygen and carbon dioxide in the blood, and blood pH. The aortic bodies ... The aortic bodies measure changes in blood pressure and the composition of arterial blood flowing past it. ... regulates breathing and blood pressure. A paraganglioma, also known as a chemodectoma, is a tumor that may involve an aortic ...
represents the partial pressure of carbon dioxide measured by the capnogram as a function of time t. {\displaystyle t}. since ... 2 partial pressure in the arterial blood. In healthy individuals, the difference between arterial blood and expired gas CO. 2 ... represents the alveolar partial pressure of carbon dioxide.. *. α. {\displaystyle \alpha }. represents the inverse of the dead ... Capnography is the monitoring of the concentration or partial pressure of carbon dioxide (CO. 2) in the respiratory gases. Its ...
arterial partial-pressure of carbon dioxide (PaCO2) , 65 torr (20 mmHg) over baseline PaCO2 (evidence of hypercapnic ... the ratio of the arterial partial-pressure of oxygen to the fraction of oxygen in the gases inspired (PaO2/FiO2) , 300 (the ... hypotension with blood pressure , 5th percentile for age or systolic blood pressure , 2 standard deviations below normal for ... After six hours the blood pressure should be adequate, close monitoring of blood pressure and blood supply to organs should be ...
"Negative pressure wound therapy for partial-thickness burns". The Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews. 12 (12): CD006215. ... Redness with clear blister.[2] Blanches with pressure.[2]. Moist[2]. Very painful[2]. 2-3 weeks[2][14]. Local infection ( ... Pressure and discomfort[14]. 3-8 weeks[2]. Scarring, contractures (may require excision and skin grafting)[14]. ... Deep partial thickness (second-degree). Extends into deep (reticular) dermis[2]. Yellow or white. Less blanching. May be ...
Arterial carbon dioxide partial pressure (PaCO2). 4.7-6.0 kPa. 35-45 mmHg[9]. The carbon dioxide partial pressure (PaCO2) is an ... An ABG test measures the blood-gas tension values of the arterial partial pressure of oxygen, and the arterial partial pressure ... Arterial oxygen partial pressure (PaO2). 10-13 kPa. 75-100 mmHg[9]. A low PaO2 indicates that the patient is not oxygenating ... The machine used for analysis aspirates this blood from the syringe and measures the pH and the partial pressures of oxygen and ...
Decrease in partial pressure of alveolar CO2. Decrease in partial pressure of arterial CO2. Increase in blood pH, (respiratory ... that pressure on the vagus nerve causes changes to pulse rate and blood pressure and is dangerous in cases of carotid sinus ... In some versions the bear-hug is replaced by pressure on the neck in which case blackout is a hybrid of strangulation and self- ... This alone is enough to cause a blackout, but it is widely believed that the effect is enhanced if lung air pressure is ...
Prolonged exposure to above-normal oxygen partial pressures, or shorter exposures to very high partial pressures, can cause ... to partial pressures of oxygen above 1.6 bars (160 kPa)-about eight times normal atmospheric partial pressure-are usually ... while-at the same partial pressure of oxygen-the presence of significant partial pressures of inert gases, typically nitrogen, ... At partial pressures of oxygen of 2 to 3 bar (200 to 300 kPa)-100% oxygen at 2 to 3 times atmospheric pressure-these symptoms ...
pressure gradient The rate of change of partial pressure of dissolved gas through a solvent, which is the driving mechanism for ... gauge pressure Gauge pressure is zero-referenced against ambient air pressure, so it is equal to absolute pressure minus ... low pressure 1. Also: "intermediate pressure" In diving, low pressure usually refers to the gas pressure provided from the ... equivalent air depth Depth at which partial pressure of nitrogen in a nitrox mixture at a given depth is equal to the partial ...
Dalton's Law of Partial Pressures Charles Darwin - naturalist; theory of evolution Donald Davies - one of the three "fathers of ...
... (also called Dalton's law of partial pressures) states that in a mixture of non-reacting gases, the total pressure ... SI unit of amount of substance Partial pressure - Pressure attributed to a component gas in a mixture Raoult's law - A law of ... Henry's law - Relation of equilibrium solubility of a gas in a liquid to its partial pressure in the contacting gas phase Mole ... pn represent the partial pressures of each component. p i = p total x i {\displaystyle p_{i}=p_{\text{total}}x_{i}} where xi is ...
Kc varies with ionic strength, temperature and pressure (or volume). Likewise Kp for gases depends on partial pressure. These ... Fugacity, f, is the product of partial pressure and fugacity coefficient. The chemical potential of a species in the real gas ... For reactions in the gas phase partial pressure is used in place of concentration and fugacity coefficient in place of activity ... partial {\mathcal {G}}}{\partial N_{j}}}=\mu _{j}+\sum _{i=1}^{k}\lambda _{i}a_{ij}} 0 = ∂ G ∂ λ i = ∑ j = 1 m a i j N j − b i ...
... with estimated partial pressure as large as 1,000 kPa (10 bar), because there was no bacterial photosynthesis to reduce the gas ... "Elevated Partial Pressure of CO2 and Plant Growth". Oecologia. 44 (1): 68-74. Bibcode:1979Oecol..44...68W. doi:10.1007/ ... At current atmospheric pressures photosynthesis shuts down when atmospheric CO 2 concentrations fall below 150 ppm and 200 ppm ... February 2016 Current global map of carbon dioxide concentrations in the atmosphere Current global map of the partial pressure ...
The partial pressure of A changes by dPA over the distance dx. Similarly, the partial pressure of B changes dPB. As there is no ... For example, in the alveoli of mammalian lungs, due to differences in partial pressures across the alveolar-capillary membrane ... If the partial pressure of A at x1 is PA1 and x2 is PA2, integration of above equation, N A = − D R T ( P A 2 − P A 1 ) x 2 − x ... For an ideal gas the partial pressure is related to the molar concentration by the relation P A V = n A R T {\displaystyle P_{A ...
This causes increased pressure between grains thus increasing the solubility of grains. As a result, the partial dissolution of ... Replacement can be partial or complete. Complete replacement destroys the identity of the original minerals or rock fragments ... This is called pressure solutions. Chemically speaking, increases in temperature can also cause chemical reaction rates to ... Burial continues and the weight of overlying sediments cause an increase in temperature and pressure. This increase in ...
6-7. Ernst, W. G. (June 1999). "Metamorphism, partial preservation, and exhumation of ultrahigh‐pressure belts". Island Arc. 8 ... Subduction zones host a unique variety of rock types created by the high-pressure, low-temperature conditions a subducting slab ... A metamorphic facies is characterized by a stable mineral assemblage specific to a pressure-temperature range and specific ... Tovish, Aaron; Schubert, Gerald; Luyendyk, Bruce P. (10 December 1978). "Mantle flow pressure and the angle of subduction: Non- ...
They have a significant partial pressure of sulfur dioxide. Europium and cerium rare earth sulfite sulfates are produced when ...
Ernst, W. G. (June 1999). "Metamorphism, partial preservation, and exhumation of ultrahigh‐pressure belts". Island Arc. 8 (2): ...
This process is driven by differences in partial pressure. The production of carbon dioxide and use of oxygen by the spider ...
... and pressure and gas monitoring. The depth is sufficient to allow divers to maintain an oxygen partial pressure of 1.3 bar on ... Thalmann, E. D. (1985). "Development of a Decompression Algorithm for Constant Oxygen Partial Pressure in Helium Diving". US ... Shykoff, BE (2005). "Repeated Six-Hour Dives 1.35 ATM Oxygen Partial Pressure". US Navy Experimental Diving Unit Technical ... Behnke A. R.; Johnson F. S.; Poppen J. R. & Motley E. P. (1935). "The effect of oxygen on man at pressures from 1 to 4 ...
At low partial pressures of oxygen, most hemoglobin is deoxygenated. At around 90% (the value varies according to the clinical ... arterial partial pressure of carbon dioxide (PaCO2) is increased, and 2,3-DPG levels (a byproduct of glucose metabolism also ... at partial oxygen pressures of >11 kPa. A pulse oximeter relies on the light absorption characteristics of saturated hemoglobin ...
At greater pressures, treatment gas mixtures using Nitrogen or Helium as a diluent to limit partial pressure of oxygen to 3 ata ... Heliox or Nitrox with partial pressure not exceeding 3 ata may be used as treatment gas at pressures less than 165 fsw 100% ... Oxygen is not available or the patient cannot tolerate high partial pressures of oxygen Maximum pressure 50 msw (164 fsw) Run ... Oxygen is not available or the patient cannot tolerate high partial pressures of oxygen Maximum pressure 50 msw (164 fsw) Run ...
Pressure differential between the atmosphere above the piston and the partial vacuum below then drove the piston down making ... One was for a steam-powered pump to supply water to fountains; the device alternately used a partial vacuum and steam pressure ... thereby creating a partial vacuum which allowed the atmospheric pressure to push the piston into the cylinder. It was the first ... As the low pressure steam from the boiler flowed into the cylinder, the weight of the pump and gear returned the beam to its ...
There is also no reliable evidence that epileptics are differently sensitive to raised partial pressures of oxygen. It is now ... Reported side effects include anxiety and panic, thought to be caused by interaction with high partial pressure of nitrogen and ... Side effects at increased partial pressure of nitrogen are unclear. In combination with some other medications they can cause ... Time-pressure stress related to matching gas supply to dive duration can increase when the dive plan is compromised and gas ...
It is equivalent to partial pressure for most environmental purposes. It is the absconding propensity of a material. BCF can be ... Fugacity is another predictive criterion for equilibrium among phases that has units of pressure. ...
This pressure is always below 20% of the total barometric pressure. At sea level, alveolar partial pressure of oxygen is 104 ... the barometric pressure is 87 mmHg. As the barometric pressure decreases, atmospheric partial pressure decreases also. ... Carbon dioxide partial pressure reduces and corporal fluids pH increase. These actions inhibit the respiratory center of the ... The kidneys respond to low carbon dioxide partial pressure by decreasing the secretion of hydrogen ions, and increasing the ...
Economic pressures forced Crum to run a partial schedule in 2009. The mixed schedule included Crum's ARCA Racing Series debut, ...
Behnke refers to early work by Momsen on "partial pressure vacancy" (PPV) where he used partial pressures of oxygen and helium ... In other words, the larger oxygen window due to a higher oxygen partial pressure can allow the diver to decompress faster at a ... In diving, the oxygen window is the difference between the partial pressure of oxygen (ppO2) in arterial blood and the ppO2 in ... Van Liew, HD (1976). "Variability of the inert gas partial pressure in bubbles and tissues". Undersea Biomedical Research. 3 ( ...
As the chlorine reacted, hydrogen was released, increasing the partial pressure. The net result was the same as adding hydrogen ... in 1972, using high pressure Xenon gas. Definitive evidences of a xenon excimer laser action at 173 nm using a high pressure ... attributed to increase in hydrogen partial pressure in the gas mixture caused by slow reaction of chlorine with various metals ... the Xenon vapor pressure was lower than the required operating pressure in the laser gas mixture. HCl was frozen out in the ...
This causes increased pressure between grains thus increasing the solubility of grains. As a result, the partial dissolution of ... Replacement can be partial or complete. Complete replacement destroys the identity of the original minerals or rock fragments ... This is called pressure solutions. Chemically speaking, increases in temperature can also cause chemical reaction rates to ... Burial continues and the weight of overlying sediments cause an increase in temperature and pressure. This increase in ...
"AIR MIDWEST FLIGHT 5481 CREW AND PARTIAL PASSENGER NAME LIST NOTIFICATION #4", US Airways ... Air Midwest publicly apologized for the incident after the family of crash victim Christiana Grace Shepherd pressured the ...
According to Agnes Arber's partial-shoot theory of the leaf, leaves are partial shoots,[36] being derived from leaf primordia ... Stomatal opening is controlled by the turgor pressure in a pair of guard cells that surround the stomatal aperture. In any ... This shifts the balance from reliance on hydrostatic pressure to structural support, an obvious advantage where water is ... and their retention or disposition are the subject of elaborate strategies for dealing with pest pressures, seasonal conditions ...
Death, if it occurs, follows typically six to sixteen days after symptoms appear and is often due to low blood pressure from ... partial thromboplastin time, and bleeding time.[96] Filovirions such as EBOV may be identified by their unique filamentous ... follows typically six to sixteen days from first symptoms and is often due to low blood pressure from fluid loss.[2] In general ... This is often due to low blood pressure from fluid loss, and typically follows six to 16 days after symptoms appear.[2] ...
... was that the basophil adenoma Minnie might have harbored underwent partial infarction, leading to symptom regression.[3] The ... high blood pressure[8]. *poor short-term memory. *irritability. *excess hair growth (women)[3] ...
... partial loss of vision may also occur.[30] Cranial neuritis is an inflammation of cranial nerves. When due to Lyme, it most ... "unfounded public fears place pressures on vaccine developers that go beyond reasonable safety considerations."[21] The original ... or partial vision obstruction and having much lower percentage of polymorphonuclear leukocytes in CSF.[30] ...
This negative pressure generates airflow because of the pressure difference between the atmosphere and alveolus. Air enters, ... It may occur in partial obstruction of a large airway, as in e.g. congenital lobar emphysema, bronchial atresia and mucous ... which results in expansion of the intrapleural space and an increase in negative pressure according to Boyle's law. ...
4 ions in a sea of delocalised electrons) at very high pressures (though less than the typical pressure where transitions from ... Partial substitution is quite possible and rather non-toxic: a 70 kg person contains on average 0.36 g of rubidium, and an ... is the point where the vapour pressure of the liquid equals the environmental pressure surrounding the liquid[103][104] and all ... Various phases are known, such as LiB10, NaB6, NaB15, and KB6.[111][112] Under high pressure the boron-boron bonding in the ...
The digital rectal examination is a relatively simple medical procedure. The patient undresses and is then placed in a position where the anus is accessible (lying on the side, squatting on the examination table, bent over it, or lying down with feet in stirrups). If the patient is lying on his/her side, the physician will usually have him/her bring one or both legs up to his/her chest. If the patient bends over the examination table or the back of a chair, the physician will have him place his elbows on the table and squat down slightly. If the patient uses the supine position, the physician will ask the patient to slide down to the end of the examination table until his/her buttocks are positioned just beyond the end and then place his/her feet in the stirrups. The physician spreads the buttocks apart and will usually examine the external area (anus and perineum) for any abnormalities such as hemorrhoids, lumps, or rashes. Then, as the patient relaxes and bears down (as if having a bowel ...
Pressure areas where the brain tissue has been compressed by a tumor also appear hyperintense on T2-weighted scans and might ... Surgery: complete or partial resection of the tumor with the objective of removing as many tumor cells as possible. ... Increased intracranial pressure (ICP) may be attributable to the direct mass effect of the tumor, increased blood volume, or ... Headaches as a result of raised intracranial pressure can be an early symptom of brain cancer.[13] However, isolated headache ...
"An Effective Approach to High Blood Pressure Control: A Science Advisory From the American Heart Association, the American ... and can include partial or complete deafness.[1] ...
Note also that The Statesman was the only major newspaper that had acquiesced to (or been persuaded by) government pressure to ... to a partial shift away from the productive aman rice cultivar to less productive cultivars, and provided a more hospitable ... In the early months of the famine, the government applied pressure on newspapers to "calm public fears about the food supply"[ ... The rails had also been repaired in August and pressure from the Government of India brought substantial supplies into Calcutta ...
Gas storage in activated carbons is an appealing gas storage method because the gas can be stored in a low pressure, low mass, ... The heat treatment stage utilises the exothermic nature of adsorption and results in desorption, partial cracking and ... Similar to EAC, it is also noted for its low pressure drop, high mechanical strength and low dust content, but with a smaller ... Activated carbon, in 50% w/w combination with celite, is used as stationary phase in low-pressure chromatographic separation of ...
displaystyle i\hbar {\frac {\partial }{\partial t}},\psi (t)\rangle ={\hat {H}},\psi (t)\rangle }. Schrödinger equation ... A commonplace example is checking the pressure in an automobile tire; this is difficult to do without letting out some of the ... air, thus changing the pressure. Similarly, it is not possible to see any object without light hitting the object, and causing ...
This creates a high partial pressure, reducing the average separation of hydrogen isotopes. However, the reduction in ... Materials Characterization: D. 'Relevant' Materials Parameters: 2. Confinement Pressure, which has a similar explanation. ... pressured by the University of Utah, which wanted to establish priority on the discovery,[30] broke their apparent agreement, ... pressure and chemical environment only cause small changes to fusion ratios.[140] An early explanation invoked the Oppenheimer- ...
Water aspirators that produce a partial vacuum using the kinetic energy from the faucet water pressure ... the theoretical pressure drop at the constriction is given by: p. 1. −. p. 2. =. ρ. 2. (. v. 2. 2. −. v. 1. 2. ). {\ ... Differential pressure[edit]. Main article: Pressure head. As fluid flows through a venturi, the expansion and compression of ... This type of pressure measurement may be more convenient, for example, to measure fuel or combustion pressures in jet or rocket ...
A partial squatting position (or "hovering") by females while urinating is often done to avoid sitting on a potentially ... Therefore, the pressure increase is slight until the organ is relatively full. The bladder's smooth muscle has some inherent ... During storage, bladder pressure stays low, because of the bladder's highly compliant nature. A plot of bladder (intravesical) ... This phenomenon is a manifestation of the law of Laplace, which states that the pressure in a spherical viscus is equal to ...
If damage is initially only partial, continued rotation of the drive may extend the damage until it is total.[13] ... The air filters on today's drives equalize the atmospheric pressure and moisture between the drive enclosure and its outside ...
Fish have a lateral line system that detects pressure fluctuations in the water. Such pressure is non-detectable in air, but ... The oldest partial fossils of tetrapods date from the Frasnian beginning ≈380 mya. These include Elginerpeton and ... When the muscles are relaxed, the bony scales spring back into position, generating considerable negative pressure within the ... would have been under evolutionary pressure to develop their air-breathing ability.[82][83][84] ...
At first, they sought to pressure ethnic Chinese to adopt Vietnamese citizenship, but only a handful of Hoa cadres complied, ... are Vietnamese people of full or partial Han Chinese ancestry.[3] They are an ethnic minority group in Vietnam and a part of ... trade and immigration began to increase towards the earlier half of the 18th century as population and economic pressures ...
1987). "New partial skeleton of Homo habilis from Olduvai Gorge, Tanzania". Nature. 327 (6119): 205-209. doi:10.1038/327205a0. ... Other selective pressures, including diet, can also dramatically impact dental anatomy.[38] The spatial distribution of tools ... The first recognised remains-OH 7, partial juvenile skull, hand, and foot bones dating to 1.75 million years ago (mya)-were ... The main hypotheses regarding this are: meat is energy- and nutrient-rich and put evolutionary pressure on developing enhanced ...
Adaptation then proceeds to respond to the selective pressures of the new environment. These responses would most likely be due ... Since the 1970s, large scale efforts have been underway to reduce invasive species; partial success has led to re-establishment ... Land clearing and human habitation put significant pressure on local species. Disturbed habitats are prone to invasions that ... "Supply-side invasion ecology: characterizing propagule pressure in coastal ecosystems". Proceedings of the Royal Society B ...
"High Eye Pressure and Glaucoma." Glaucoma Research Foundation. N.p., 5 Sept. 2013. Web.,. "High Eye Pressure and Glaucoma". ... Later versions of Microsoft Windows include an Accessibility Wizard & Magnifier for those with partial vision, and Microsoft ... Glaucoma is a congenital and pediatric eye disease characterized by increased pressure within the eye or intraocular pressure ( ... Increases in atmospheric pressure and humidity increase a person's ability to use sound to their advantage as wind or any form ...
"Partial rejection of UN peace plan" Archived 15 May 2011 at the Wayback Machine, IRIN, 2 November 2006. ... The French responded to Samori Ture's expansion and conquest with military pressure. French campaigns against Samori Ture, ...
displaystyle \partial p}. Thermal expansion α. =. {\displaystyle \alpha =}. 1. {\displaystyle 1}. ∂. V. {\displaystyle \partial ... such as volume or pressure.[1][2][3][4] ... displaystyle \partial S}. N. {\displaystyle N}. ∂. T. {\ ... displaystyle \partial V}. V. {\displaystyle V}. ∂. p. {\ ...
In man, an oral dose of 50 mg produced no effects on blood pressure. Later studies by Lands and Grant on the effects of racemic ... "Halostachine" was thus interpreted as having partial agonist properties at β2 receptors. The pharmacokinetics of N- ... on blood pressure in intact dogs showed similar results to those obtained by Chen et al.: 0.41 mg/kg of the drug, given i.v., ... caused a rise in blood pressure of 38 mm Hg lasting 3-10 minutes. This effect was described as being ~ 1/200 x that produced by ...
... which keeps the air pressure inside the wet porch the same as the water pressure at that depth ('ambient pressure'), about 2.6 ... Ambient pressure. *Atmospheric pressure. *Gauge pressure. *Hydrostatic pressure. *Metre sea water. *Partial pressure ... it can also be pressurized to ambient pressure, and is usually held at a pressure in between. The smallest compartment, the ... Scientists on the Aquarius are often called "Aquanauts" (as they live underwater at depth pressure for a period equal to or ...
It has been proposed that the archaea evolved from gram-positive bacteria in response to antibiotic selection pressure.[67][69] ... and either a complete or partial citric acid cycle.[116] These similarities to other organisms probably reflect both early ... The proposal is that the selective pressure towards resistance generated by the gram-positive antibiotics was eventually ... or any other competitive selective pressure, could also explain their adaptation to extreme environments (such as high ...
Today acetylene is mainly manufactured by the partial combustion of methane or appears as a side product in the ethylene stream ... at 101 kPa pressure and 20 °C (68 °F) temperature). Impurities present in the carbide include phosphide, which produces ...
Syngas, a mixture of carbon monoxide, hydrogen and other hydrocarbons, is produced by partial combustion of biomass, that is, ... Hydrocracking is a refinery method that uses elevated temperatures and pressure in the presence of a catalyst to break down ... Before partial combustion, the biomass is dried, and sometimes pyrolysed. The resulting gas mixture, syngas, is more efficient ...
... the pressure that a gas in a mixture of gases would exert if it occupied the same volume as the mixture at the same temperature ... partial pressure. in Medicine. partial pressure. n.. *The pressure that one component of a mixture of gases would exert if it ... partial pressure. partial pressure. noun. *the pressure that a gas, in a mixture of gases, would exert if it alone occupied the ... Origin of partial pressure. First recorded in 1855-60. Unabridged Based on the Random House Unabridged ...
The Relationship between the Volume of a Gas and its Pressure - Boyles Law ...
The partial pressure formula is the product of the number of moles of a component of a substance divided by the total number of ... moles of the substance, multiplied by the barometric pressure. The... ... The partial pressure formula derives from Daltons law of partial pressures. The law states that the sum of the pressures of ... multiplied by the barometric pressure. The partial pressure can be expressed using the atmosphere unit, abbreviated as atm. ...
Pressure oscillations are predicted by the explicit integration of a Partial Differential Wave Equation (PDWE) similar, in its ... In this work the authors present a model to simulate the in-cylinder pressure oscillations due to knock. ... Pressure oscillations are predicted by the explicit integration of a Partial Differential Wave Equation (PDWE) similar, in its ... Modeling Pressure Oscillations under Knocking Conditions: A Partial Differential Wave Equation Approach 2010-01-2185. ...
The total pressure is the sum of the partial pressures as shown in the following equation: Ptot = P1 + P2 + P3. If the ... A partial pressure equation can be solved in more than one way. ... The total pressure is the sum of the partial pressures as shown ... If you are given a total pressure and one or more partial pressures, you may be able to simply subtract the partial pressures ... Calculate the partial pressure from the given information. Calculate the partial pressure from the information supplied to you ...
Using diving terms, partial pressure is calculated as: partial pressure = (total absolute pressure) × (volume fraction of gas ... Oxygen toxicity becomes a risk when these oxygen partial pressures and exposures are exceeded. The partial pressure of oxygen ... 1 bar of atmospheric pressure + 5 bar of water pressure) and the partial pressures of the main components of air, oxygen 21% by ... The total pressure of an ideal gas mixture is the sum of the partial pressures of the gases in the mixture (Daltons Law). The ...
Partial pressure I understand fully, when we talk of an ideal gas mix. The partial pressure is product of... ... I have a little question regarding partial pressure. ... The partial pressure of gas in a liquid is the pressure at ... So the partial pressure of the gases in the water are whatever the partial pressure of the gases were that were in contact with ... Partial pressure I understand fully, when we talk of an ideal gas mix. The partial pressure is product of the fractional ...
... the component of the total pressure contributed by each ingredient in a mixture of gases or vapors is equal to the pressure ... Medical definition of law of partial pressures: a statement in physics and chemistry: ... Learn More about law of partial pressures. Share law of partial pressures Post the Definition of law of partial pressures to ... Comments on law of partial pressures What made you want to look up law of partial pressures? Please tell us where you read or ...
Definition of partial pressure in the diving glossary, part of the scuba diving community including explanations, ... Partial Pressure. The portion of the total gas pressure exerted by a single gas in a breathing mixture, expressed as Pg for an ...
The total pressure [NOISE] is the sum of the partial pressures,. which here is a pressure of oxygen and the pressure of ... the partial pressure of nitrogen gas at the standard temperature and. pressure, and also to calculate the total pressure in the ... The total pressure is the sum of the partial pressures.. [SOUND] Another way to write that down is if you had two gases, for ... you could say that the total pressure is the pressure of A plus the pressure of B. ...
each containing a gas at the same temperature.Let there partial pressure be 400 torr,500torr,100 torr. Then when alll these ... But will not the temperature increase if pressure increases so considerably. Please do tell me if i am not considring anything ... three gases r transferred to another cylinder with the same 10 dm^3 volume then The pressure will be the sum of the three ie. ...
... Sun-Mi Cho,1 Bo Young Hong,2 ... "Partial Gene Deletions of PMP22 Causing Hereditary Neuropathy with Liability to Pressure Palsies," Case Reports in Genetics, ...
... the partial pressure of a gas or vapor in a thermally uncontrolled gas atmosphere over a large measurement range and with high ... A partial pressure sensor is disclosed which is suitable for determining ... A partial pressure sensor is disclosed which is suitable for determining the partial pressure of a gas or vapor in a thermally ... Specifically, the partial pressure, especially the partial pressure of water vapor, is indicated as a parameter which can be ...
... we can use the ideal gas law to calculate the partial pressure of each gas in the mixture. Once we know the partial pressures ... of all of the gases, we can sum them using Daltons law to find the total pressure of the mixture. ... going to be the sum of the partial pressures so its going to be the partial pressure of the argon plus the partial pressure of ... its partial pressure or total pressure so to solve for pressure here we can just divide both sides by V and you get pressure ...
Daltons Law of Partial Pressures * Daltons Law of Partial Pressures.doc - 45 kB ... Daltons Law of Partial Pressures. Περιγραφή The student confirms that, at constant temperature, the pressure of a mixture of ... gases is the sum of the pressures exerted by the individual gases in the same container.. ...
Anomalous Temperature Dependence for a Partial Vapor Pressure Message Subject. (Your Name) has forwarded a page to you from ...
Partial Pressure in the Blood. Debate and discussion of any biological questions not pertaining to a particular topic. ... and how a lot of this can be boiled down to differences in partial pressure. I am familiar with Henrys Law and how the ... pressure of the gas above a liquid will in turn affect the concentration of the gas in the liquid itself; however, Im ... that the rupture of this equilibrium which happens when divers go back to the surface too quickly is related to gaz pressure at ...
The invention relates to an inexpensive method in which the partial pressure of a gas component in the air exhaled by a patient ... The oxygen partial pressure measured according to the invention or the carbon dioxide partial pressure calculated from this can ... If, for example, the oxygen partial pressure in the inhaled air is 21 kPa and the oxygen partial pressure in the exhaled air ... oxygen partial pressure) or carbon dioxide content (carbon dioxide partial pressure) in the exhaled air is determined, and not ...
Enrich your understanding of diffusion and partial pressure gradients with the help of our fun quiz. The quiz is an interactive ... If the total pressure is 1000 mmHg, then what is the partial pressure of oxygen?. ... Problem solving - use acquired knowledge to solve partial pressure practice problems *Information recall - access the knowledge ... In particular, the quiz will ask you about the various effects of partial pressure in different situations. Some of the ...
Equilibrium partial pressures of gaseous hcl and h2o over aqueous binary and ternary solutions of hcl and alcl3 were calculated ... Equilibrium partial pressures of gaseous hcl and h2o over aqueous binary and ternary solutions of hcl and alcl3 were calculated ... Partial Pressures of Gaseous Hcl and H2o Over Aqueous Solutions of Hcl, Alcl3, and Fecl3.. ...
Model Validation in Case of Partial Occlusion. Partial occlusion of the cannula has been simulated using = 20 cm. The ... The simulations of the pressure profiles as a function of are shown for both pressure sensors (see Figure 4 for the inner ... The effect of partial occlusion on the pressure profiles has been also simulated. Based on this analysis, a new management of ... Partial occlusion has been implemented and tested with success in the simulation tool. The analysis of these simulated pressure ...
The study of dependence of postirradiation rats` mortality on initial values of partial oxygen pressure in hypodermic cellular ... Mortality was compared with the initial partial oxygen pressure in subdermal space. A positive correlation between the animal ... The study of dependence of postirradiation rats` mortality on initial values of partial oxygen pressure in hypodermic cellular ... The study of dependence of postirradiation rats` mortality on initial values of partial oxygen pressure in hypodermic cellular ...
These results indicated that sintering oxygen partial pressure had an effect on the epitaxial growth of the SBO buffer layer ... and the crystallinities of SBO films increased with the sintering oxygen partial pressure. The SEM and AFM images displayed a ... and the effects of sintering oxygen partial pressure on SBO films were studied. The crystalline structures and surface ... sintering oxygen partial pressure; epitaxial growth; chemical solution deposition; SmBiO3 films sintering oxygen partial ...
It is unlikely that the calculated high pressures represent the true pressure of partial crystallization. The compositions of ... Calculated pressures for most segments range between 100 and 300 MPa, and indicate depths of partial crystallization of ~3-9 km ... Published compositional data for glasses collected along the ridge were used to calculate pressures of partial crystallization ... Near the major transform fault at ~85OW, the calculated maximum pressure is 741 MPa and the average pressure is ~300 MPa. ...
Reaction Temperature and Partial Pressure Induced Etching of Methylammonium Lead Iodide Perovskite by Trimethylaluminum. ... Here, the effects of reaction temperature and partial pressure of TMA on the mechanisms of TMA/CHNHPbI reactions are ... depending strongly on the reaction temperature and partial pressure of TMA. The TMA/CHNHPbI reaction probably generates TMA- ...
Keywords: severe traumatic brain injury, hypothermia, brain tissue partial pressure of oxygen, therapy ... PbtO2, intracranial pressure (ICP), jugular venous oxygen saturation (SjvO2), and cerebral perfusion pressure (CPP) were ... The aim of this study was to investigate the clinical significance and changes of brain tissue partial pressure of oxygen ( ... Brain tissue partial pressure of oxygen predicts the outcome of severe traumatic brain injury under mild hypothermia treatment ...
... derived terms and more about the word daltons law of partial pressures. ... Definition of daltons law of partial pressures, with etymology, pronunciation (phonetic and audio), synonyms, antonyms, ... Daltons law of partial pressures. Definitions. 1. (chemistry and physics) law stating that the pressure exerted by a mixture ... the pressure of a gas in a mixture equals the pressure it would exert if it occupied the same volume a » ...
... increases proximal arterial pressure, but may also induce life-threatening distal ischemia. Partial REBOA (P-REBOA) is... ... Blood pressure targeting by partial REBOA is possible in severe hemorrhagic shock in pigs and produces less circulatory, ... Distal pressure monitoring and titration with percent balloon volume: feasible management of partial resuscitative endovascular ... The distal/proximal arterial pressure gradient and the intra-balloon pressures were also recorded. The changes in shape and the ...
Energy metabolism in relation to oxygen partial pressure in human skeletal muscle during exercise A C Bylund-Fellenius A C ... A computer-supported oxystat system maintaining steady-state O 2 partial pressures and simultaneously monitoring O 2 uptake in ... 1. The intramuscular oxygen partial pressure (pO2) in human gastrocnemius muscle was monitored during exercise and compared ... Energy metabolism in relation to oxygen partial pressure in human skeletal muscle during exercise. Biochem J 15 November 1981; ...
... examination time and transcutaneous partial CO2 pressure. ...
  • the pressure that a gas in a mixture of gases would exert if it occupied the same volume as the mixture at the same temperature. (
  • The pressure that one component of a mixture of gases would exert if it were alone in a container. (
  • In a mixture of gases, each constituent gas has a partial pressure which is the notional pressure of that constituent gas if it alone occupied the entire volume of the original mixture at the same temperature. (
  • The total pressure of an ideal gas mixture is the sum of the partial pressures of the gases in the mixture (Dalton's Law). (
  • Gases dissolve, diffuse, and react according to their partial pressures, and not according to their concentrations in gas mixtures or liquids. (
  • clarification needed] The partial pressures of oxygen and carbon dioxide are important parameters in tests of arterial blood gases, but can also be measured in, for example, cerebrospinal fluid. (
  • Whereas the total barometric pressure is the sum of all collisions for all gases. (
  • So the partial pressure of the gases in the water are whatever the partial pressure of the gases were that were in contact with the liquid before it was sealed - lets assume full equilibration. (
  • At the molecular level however, the partial pressure of the dissovled gases, is like the collisions between that gas and the container walls. (
  • is the sum of the pressures that are exerted by the individual gases. (
  • If someone could help me out with this problem with I got myself into i will be very thankfull.Dalton says that If there r three gases in a cylinder of 10 dm^3 each containing a gas at the same temperature.Let there partial pressure be 400 torr,500torr,100 torr. (
  • Then when alll these three gases r transferred to another cylinder with the same 10 dm^3 volume then The pressure will be the sum of the three ie.1000torr. (
  • An absorption/emission equilibrium takes place depending on the pressure of the gas orthe partial pressures of the gases. (
  • The varying degrees to which the different gases are absorbed and the influence of the gases on the optical characteristics of the coating system make it possible to deduce the partial pressure of an individual gascomponent. (
  • The student confirms that, at constant temperature, the pressure of a mixture of gases is the sum of the pressures exerted by the individual gases in the same container. (
  • 5 in 1961 postulated that this would substantially affect the concentration of other alveolar gases, and experimental data in dogs confirmed that arterial oxygen partial pressure (Pao 2 ) was elevated immediately after commencement of nitrous oxide. (
  • What are the partial pressures of the gases after the valve is opened? (
  • we know that for gases with the same volume and temperature, we can read coefficients of the balanced equation as PRESSURE ratios as well as mole ratios. (
  • Four gases were combined in a gas cylinder with these partial pressures: 3.5 atm N2, 2.8 atm O2, 0.25 atm Ar, and 0.15 atm He.What is the mole fraction of N2 in the mixture? (
  • If the gases are allowed to mix together, what is the resulting pressure? (
  • a mixture of 3 gases a, b and c is at a total pressure of 6.11 atm the partial pressure of gas a is 1.68 atm, that of gas b is 3.89 atm. (
  • So for mixtures of ideal gases, the partial pressure of anyone component is equal to its mole fraction multiplied by the total pressure. (
  • Gases respond more dramatically to temperature and pressure than do the other three basic types of matter (liquids, solids and plasma). (
  • For gases, temperature and pressure are closely related to volume, and this allows us to predict their behavior under certain conditions. (
  • Regardless of the units you use, however, gases respond to changes in pressure and temperature in a remarkably different way than do solids or liquids. (
  • however, the reaction of air (a combination of oxygen, nitrogen, and other gases) to changes in pressure and temperature is radically different. (
  • in a mixture of gases, each gas has a partial pressure , which is the pressure the gas would have if it occupied that volume alone. (
  • The law describes the relationship between the total pressure of a mixture of non-reacting ideal gases and the partial pressures of each individual component. (
  • The law states the total pressure exerted by a mixture of non-reacting ideal gases equals the sum of the partial pressure of each individual gas in the mixture. (
  • Consider a mixture of two gases: A and B. Let P mix be the total pressure of gas A and gas B. The partial pressure of gas A and gas B is P A and P B respectively. (
  • As Dalton's law states the total pressure Pmix of the mixture is the addition of partial pressures of individual gases, we have the equation below. (
  • The law holds good for real gases at low pressure, but at high pressure, it deviates significantly. (
  • Given the normal composition of air, 78% dinitrogen, 21% dioxygen, 1% other gases, we can say quite categorically that the partial pressure of dioxygen in the atmosphere is approx. (
  • This Law states that the total pressure exerted by a gas mixture is equal to the sum of the partial pressures of the different gases in the mix. (
  • This week we continue to spend quality time with gases, more deeply investigating some principles regarding pressure - including John Dalton's Law of Partial Pressures, vapor pressure - and demonstrating the method for collecting gas over water. (
  • Direct effects of the alveolar gases on systolic tricuspid pressure gradient greatly exceeded indirect effects arising from concurrent changes in cardiac output. (
  • A liquid's atmospheric pressure boiling point corresponds to the temperature at which its vapor pressure is equal to the surrounding atmospheric pressure and it is often called the normal boiling point. (
  • Note that at higher altitudes, the atmospheric pressure is less than that at sea level, so boiling points of liquids are reduced. (
  • At the top of Mount Everest, the atmospheric pressure is approximately 0.333 atm, so by using the graph, the boiling point of diethyl ether would be approximately 7.5 °C versus 34.6 °C at sea level (1 atm). (
  • atmospheric pressure is usually closer to 101 kilopascal. (
  • Lower atmospheric pressure. (
  • GasExchange_BigIdea&WordList - atmospheric pressure. (
  • atmospheric pressure. (
  • The total pressure of the mixture is 192 kilopascals, which is about 1.9 times atmospheric pressure. (
  • The maximum partial pressure of oxygen we can get into the blood by breathing air at atmospheric pressure is about 12kPa (91.2mmHg), which you'll notice is quite a lot less than the 21kPa contained in the air itself. (
  • What is the value of normal atmospheric pressure? (
  • Barometric' (Atmospheric) pressure was always there in nature but Torrecelli invented the barometer to measure the atmospheric pressure using a barometer using a column of mercury. (
  • If the total pressure is 1000 mmHg, then what is the partial pressure of oxygen? (
  • You are correct, both the SI derived unit of measure for pressure, the Pascal unit and the routinely used (but not SI based) millimeter of mercury (mmHg) measure a gas from a pressure stand point. (
  • A gas mixture contains oxygen and argon at partial pressures of 0.60 atm and 425 mmhg. (
  • A feedback-controlled oxystat system is described maintaining steady-state O2 partial pressures (pO2) between 0.01 mmHg (14 nM-O2) and 150 mmHg (210 microM-O2) and simultaneously monitoring O2 uptake at rates between 0.1 and 120 microM-O2 X min-1 in suspensions of cells, in subcellular fractions and in solutions of enzymes. (
  • Ninety-seven patients who underwent partial hepatectomy for HCC had their CVP controlled at a level of 0 to 5 mmHg during hepatic parenchymal transection. (
  • The systolic blood pressure (SBP) was maintained, if possible, at 90 mmHg or higher. (
  • In consideration of blood loss, SBP, base excess and HCO3-, a CVP of 2.1-3 mmHg was optimal in patients undergoing partial hepatectomy for HCC. (
  • An encyclopedia entry for "A-ratio," which refers to the ratio of arterial oxygen partial pressure to alveolar oxygen partial pressure measuring oxygen transfer across the lung, is presented. (
  • The alveolar-arterial oxygen partial pressure difference (AaDO2) and the arterial/alveolar oxygen partial pressure ratio (a/APO2) were compared for stability when inspired oxygen concentration (FIO2) changed. (
  • How do you solve a partial pressure equation? (
  • A partial pressure equation can be solved in more than one way. (
  • The total pressure is the sum of the partial pressures as shown in the following equation: Ptot = P1 + P2 + P3. (
  • These pressures can be found through the following equation: p = nRT/V. (
  • Calculate the partial pressure from the information supplied to you in the problem and the aforementioned equation. (
  • Using the equation of partial pressures, insert the values and calculate the answer. (
  • Coefficients A and B of the Clausius-Clapeyron equation and the partial molar heats of vaporization are calculated. (
  • Might be a silly question, but will there ever be an instance where partial pressure is given for one part of a chemical equation then the concentration is given for another part? (
  • To convert partial pressure to concentration, you would use the equation (n/V)=P/RT or conc. (
  • The initial reaction rate was found to be solely a function of temperature and CO2 partial pressure and was well described by the Langmuir Hinshelwood rate equation. (
  • The term describing the total amount of active sites in the Langmuir Hinshelwood equation might not be constant at all partial pressures, and the possible impact of that is shown in this work. (
  • The higher the vapor pressure of a liquid at a given temperature, the lower the normal boiling point of the liquid. (
  • For example, at any given temperature, methyl chloride has the highest vapor pressure of any of the liquids in the chart. (
  • STP stands for standard temperature and pressure. (
  • So, standard temperature and pressure. (
  • So the temperature is 273.15 Kelvin and the pressure. (
  • But will not the temperature increase if pressure increases so considerably. (
  • 3. The partial pressure sensor according to claim 1, wherein said temperature gauge is arranged between said substrate and said temperature regulation element. (
  • 4. The partial pressure sensor according to claim 1, wherein said temperature gauge and said temperature-regulation element are integral component parts of said optical coating system. (
  • The optimized growth temperature, the intensity ratios of the SBO (200) peak to the SBO (111) peak, and the crystallinities of SBO films increased with the sintering oxygen partial pressure. (
  • Reaction Temperature and Partial Pressure Induced Etching of Methylammonium Lead Iodide Perovskite by Trimethylaluminum. (
  • Here, the effects of reaction temperature and partial pressure of TMA on the mechanisms of TMA/CHNHPbI reactions are investigated. (
  • Our real time mass gain data and in situ mass spectrometry data show that the TMA/CHNHPbI reaction can either remove mass or accumulate mass onto CHNHPbI substrates, depending strongly on the reaction temperature and partial pressure of TMA. (
  • Reduction of the partial pressure of CO 2 at cool temperature also enhanced the activation state of Rubisco. (
  • At constant temperature CO2 gas is added to the mixture until the total pressure is 3.00 atm. (
  • Losev, V. 2004-10-13 00:00:00 The partial pressure of sodium nitrite in the system NaNO2-KNO3 was measured at 798, 823, and 848 K. The dependence of the logarithm of the NaNO2 pressure on inverse temperature is presented. (
  • These data include AIR-SEA DIFFERENCE - PARTIAL PRESSURE (OR FUGACITY) OF CARBON DIOXIDE, Partial pressure (or fugacity) of carbon dioxide - atmosphere, Partial pressure (or fugacity) of carbon dioxide - water, SALINITY and SEA SURFACE TEMPERATURE. (
  • We report a study of high pressure x-ray absorption (XAS) performed in the partial fluorescence yield mode (PFY) at the U L3 edge (0-28.2 GPa) and single crystal x-ray diffraction (SXD) (0-20 GPa) on the UCd11 heavy fermion compound at room temperature. (
  • Boyle's law holds that in isothermal conditions (that is, a situation in which temperature is kept constant), an inverse relationship exists between the volume and pressure of a gas. (
  • Charles's law also yields a constant, but in this case the temperature and volume are allowed to vary under isobarometric conditions - that is, a situation in which the pressure remains the same. (
  • Note: Partial pressure is a hypothetical pressure which is defined as a pressure exerted by that individual component if it alone occupies the same entire volume as that of the mixture at the same temperature. (
  • The pressure of the ideal gas mixture at temperature T and volume V be P mix ( T , V , n 1 , n 2 , n 3 … n k ). (
  • Volume ( V ) and temperature ( T ) are the same for the pressure of an ideal gas mixture ( P mix ) and partial pressures ( P i ). (
  • Mercury at normal temperature and pressure is a liquid and will not hold a magnetic field - so it cannot be magnetized. (
  • In a gas mixture, the partial pressures are argon 393 mm Hg, neon 73 mm Hg, and nitrogen 119 mm Hg. (
  • This paper has discussed the structure and photoelectric properites of films dependence of sputtering argon partial pressure. (
  • Appropriate argon partial pressure is 0.5 Pa in this condition, the resistivity of the films is as low as 4.6×10 -4 Ω·cm and Hall mobility is 75 cm 2/(V·s). (
  • In visible range, the transmittance of the films is about 80% , in infrared range plasma resonance absorption wavelength is shorter with argon partial pressure decreased. (
  • XRD patterns indicate the X ray diffraction peaks of increase and peaks of decrease with argon partial pressure decreasing, which means the amount of crystal grain growing along increases. (
  • XPS spectra indicate that the density of the oxygen vacancies increases with the argon partial pressure decreased. (
  • The vapor pressure chart displayed has graphs of the vapor pressures versus temperatures for a variety of liquids. (
  • As can be seen in the chart, the liquids with the highest vapor pressures have the lowest normal boiling points. (
  • It also has the lowest normal boiling point (−24.2 °C), which is where the vapor pressure curve of methyl chloride (the blue line) intersects the horizontal pressure line of one atmosphere (atm) of absolute vapor pressure. (
  • Partial pressure is essentially the concentration of different components in the vapor above the liquid. (
  • For example, the acetone vapor above liquid acetone has a higher pressure than the water vapor above liquid water, which has a much higher pressure than the copper vapor above solid copper. (
  • A partial pressure sensor is disclosed which is suitable for determining the partial pressure of a gas or vapor in a thermally uncontrolled gas atmosphere over a large measurement range and with high measuring accuracy. (
  • 9. The optical partial pressure sensor of claim 5 wherein said absorption of gas includes an absorption of water vapor. (
  • Partial Saturated Vapor Pressure of Sodium Nitrite Over the System NaNO2-KNO3 Glazov, V. (
  • Published compositional data for glasses collected along the ridge were used to calculate pressures of partial crystallization and to examine variations in magma chemistry along the ridge. (
  • This particular collection contains nine such videos, which cover topics in heat, pressure and states of matter, and are suitable for a high school or college course in Chemistry. (
  • This video introduces the notion of partial pressure in studying gas mixtures. (
  • Alveolar partial pressures of carbon dioxide and oxygen measured by a helium washout technique. (
  • This was achieved by solving the Bohr equations for mean alveolar carbon dioxide and oxygen tensions (PACO2, PAO2) from known values of the dead-space:tidal volume ratio measured by helium washout, and from the mixed expired partial pressure of carbon dioxide and oxygen. (
  • Variations in alveolar partial pressure for carbon dioxide and oxygen have additive not synergistic acute effects on human pulmonary vasoconstriction. (
  • A partial pressure suit may affect human physiology, especially circulatory physiology. (
  • It's a term that gets bandied around the freediving physiology literature all the time, but Partial Pressure is often poorly understood. (
  • Legeay, A, Houlihan, DFJ & Massabuau, J-C 2003, ' Influence of oxygen partial pressures on protein synthesis in feeding crabs ', American Journal of Physiology-Regulatory Integrative and Comparative Physiology , vol. 284, no. 2, pp. (
  • A gaseous mixture at a total pressure of 1.50 atm contains equal molar amounts of He, Ne, and Ar. (
  • The partial pressure of any gas in a gaseous mixture is the same as the pressure that gas would exert if it alone occupied the container. (
  • The Partial pressure of oxygen PaO2 is one of the parameters measured during the measurement of the Arterial blood Gas Test. (
  • Mean arterial blood pressure, CPP, end-tidal CO2, and arterial oxygen saturation (pulse oximetry) were continuously recorded. (
  • Thus, in healthy people the partial pressures of oxygen and carbon dioxide in systemic arterial blood are the same as those in the alveoli. (
  • Since the partial pressure of oxygen at sea level in normal systemic arterial blood is 100 mm Hg, the amount in solution is equal to 3 ml O2/liter blood. (
  • The partial pressure of oxygen in arterial blood is approximately? (
  • The normal partial pressure of oxygen in arterial blood is 75-100 millimeters of mercury. (
  • The aortic bodies measure changes in blood pressure and the composition of arterial blood flowing past it. (
  • P bt O 2 , intracranial pressure (ICP), jugular venous oxygen saturation (S jv O 2 ), and cerebral perfusion pressure (CPP) were continuously monitored, and clinical outcomes were evaluated using the Glasgow Outcome Scale score. (
  • This excess pressure is known as high intracranial pressure (ICP), and is a frequent cause of death and disability in brain-injured people. (
  • Intracranial pressure was monitored by means of an intraparenchymal catheter. (
  • performed a post hoc analysis of prospectively collected data of patients on multimodal cerebral monitoring by intracranial pressure (ICP) and cerebral perfusion pressure (CPP) measurement as well as ptiO2 . (
  • 1. To examine the effect of varying oxygen partial pressure (PAO2) on nitric oxide (DLNO) and carbon monoxide (DLCO) diffusing capacity (transfer factor), 10 subjects performed combined DLCO/DLNO measurements with the inspired mixture made up with three different oxygen concentrations (25%, 18% and 15%) to give PAO2 values of 12-20 kPa. (
  • It is debatable whether patients with the low preoperative arterial partial pressure of oxygen (PaO2) are more likely to develop AKI after surgery. (
  • The partial pressure of oxygen(PaO2) test is used to measure the pressure at which the oxygen in blood flows, more important to note is that the partial pressure of oxygen in the blood can be altered by very serious illnesses. (
  • So you see why the partial pressure of oxygen test is very important when trying to diagnose the effect of PaO2 on oxygen supply and circulation in the body during breathing difficulties. (
  • The partial pressure formula is the product of the number of moles of a component of a substance divided by the total number of moles of the substance, multiplied by the barometric pressure. (
  • pressure of gas a all of this expression if I know the number of moles of gas a. (
  • Yes, in this case the partial pressures would be different because the moles of gas are different but the volume of the containers that they are in is the same. (
  • only pressures P A , P B , and P mix and the number of moles ( n A , n A , and n mix ) are added. (
  • Since it is the limiting reactant, the partial pressure of CO is zero after the reaction is complete. (
  • Partial breast irradiation using protons appears promising, but practical clinical applications remain largely untested. (
  • Evaluation of a three-dimensional ultrasound localisation system incorporating probe pressure correction for use in partial breast irradiation. (
  • This work evaluates a three-dimensional (3D) freehand ultrasound-based localisation system with new probe pressure correction for use in partial breast irradiation. (
  • From the partial pressures of Te2 over the Ga-Te melts, partial molar enthalpy and entropy of mixing for Te were derived and they agree reasonable well with the published data. (
  • In terms of partial pressures, this is #0.21*atm# #"dioxygen"# , and #0.79*atm# #"dinitrogen"# . (
  • So, at the surface, the partial pressure of oxygen is 0.21 (21% oxygen breathed at 1-atmosphere pressure). (
  • What is the mole fraction of Kr if the partial pressures of XE and Ar are 1.6 atm and 2.8 atm? (
  • In a gas mixture of He, Ne, and Ar with a total pressure of 8.40 atm, the mole fraction of Ar is ________ if the partial pressures of He and Ne are 1.50 and 2.00 atm respectively. (
  • The partial pressure of O₂ is equal to its mole fraction times the total pressure, which is equal to 0.251779 times 192 kilopascals. (
  • The partial pressure of nitrous oxide is equal to the mole fraction of nitrous oxide multiplied by the total pressure. (
  • If the ratios of mole fractions don't translate into the partial pressures for a gas mixture, there's been a mistake. (
  • The partial pressure formula derives from Dalton's law of partial pressures. (
  • And this gives us Dalton's Law or the Law of Partial Pressures. (
  • Dalton's law is also known as the law of partial pressure or Gibbs-Dalton law (rarely). (
  • Calculate the partial pressure of each component present in the air using Dalton's law. (
  • For example, the necessary amount of oxygen for human respiration, and the amount that is toxic, is set by the partial pressure of oxygen alone. (
  • For example, given an ideal gas mixture of nitrogen (N2), hydrogen (H2) and ammonia (NH3): p = p N 2 + p H 2 + p NH 3 {\displaystyle p=p_{{\ce {N2}}}+p_{{\ce {H2}}}+p_{{\ce {NH3}}}} Ideally the ratio of partial pressures equals the ratio of the number of molecules. (
  • Babic, V., Geers, C., Jönsson, B. och Panas, I. (2017) Fates of Hydrogen During Alumina Growth Below Yttria Nodules in FeCrAl(RE) at Low Partial Pressures of Water . (
  • Results from EDX show that with higher sulfur pressures the cracking along the ingot decreases, but at 2 bar these cracks are still present. (
  • because of butadiene gas consumed in reaction that,s why the pressure of htpb reactor decreases. (
  • pressure decreases inside the chest at the onset of inhalation. (
  • As your elevation increases, the air pressure decreases. (
  • The pressure gradient decreases. (
  • the partial pressure of O2 in the tissues decreases, creating a larger pressure graident for the movement of 02 from the blood into the tissues. (
  • Regular exercise typically decreases blood pressure. (
  • High oxygen partial pressure decreases anemia-induced heart rate increase equivalent to transfusion. (
  • If the components of a pressure are given, you may calculate the partial pressures and add them to find the total pressure. (
  • Some of the questions will require you to calculate the partial pressure as well. (
  • Calculate the partial pressure of each gas in the 3L combined chamber. (
  • The partial pressure is product of the fractional concentration and the total barometric pressure. (
  • Who invented the barometric pressure? (
  • The normal atmospheric or barometric pressure at sea level is around 76 cm of mercury. (
  • Andrade E G, Punch L (June 26, 2020) Hybrid Use of Negative Pressure Therapy in the Management of Partial Wound Closure After Girdlestone Procedure. (
  • Katayama, Y, Fujioka, Y & Tsukada, K 2020, ' Development of a Patch-Type Flexible Oxygen Partial Pressure Sensor ', IEEE Journal of Translational Engineering in Health and Medicine , vol. 8, 9127508. (
  • Rodents with O(2)- and.NO-specific microelectrodes implanted adjacent to the abdominal aorta were exposed to O(2) at partial pressures from 0.2 to 2.8 atmospheres absolute (ATA). (
  • The partial pressure of oxygen (PO2) in the mix should never exceed 1.6 ATA (Atmospheres Absolute). (
  • If nitrogen gas added to the sample increases the total pressure to 1250 torr, what is the partial pressure in Torr of the Nitrogen added? (
  • Another whole set of problems is caused by the effect of increasing partial pressure of Nitrogen at depth as well… but that's another story. (
  • A definition of the term "tracheal gas insufflation," which refers to a ventilatory technique to reduce accumulated carbon dioxide in the central airways and improve alveolar ventilation while decreasing ventilatory pressures and tidal volumes, is presented. (
  • Value of measuring end tidal partial pressure of carbon dioxide as an adjunct to treadmill exercise testing. (
  • Examines the value of measuring end tidal partial pressure of carbon dioxide. (
  • We recorded the end-expiratory tidal partial pressure of carbon dioxide (Pet-CO2) as an indirect and continuous way to reflect the PaCO2. (
  • We measured arterial and end-tidal partial pressures of sevoflurane in patients after induction of anesthesia to determine the existence and magnitude of the second gas effect. (
  • Topic / Working Vocabulary List alveoli Bohr effect bronchi carbonic acid diaphragm* diffusion gas exchange gill heme group hemoglobin lung negative pressure breathing partial pressure random walk residual volume* respiratory distress syndrome surfactant tidal breathing trachea ventilation *Covered in assigned reading and homework rather than lecture. (
  • Exposures to 2.0 and 2.8 ATA O(2) stimulated neuronal (type I) NO synthase (nNOS) and significantly increased steady-state.NO concentration, but the mechanism for enzyme activation differed at each partial pressure. (
  • Simultaneously measured CSF pressure (at the lateral ventricle) increased on both exposures, whereas blood pressure decreased during hypercapnia and increased during hypoxia. (
  • Systolic blood pressure, the top reading of the reading, measures the pressure on the arterial walls while the heart undergoes systole. (
  • Hi everyone, So I was thinking about how oxygen and CO2 are exchanged in the blood, and how a lot of this can be boiled down to differences in partial pressure. (
  • The simulation estimated the change of blood flow with the pressure level. (
  • The increasing additional pressure on the abdomen and lower limbs block the blood flow to the lower limbs to avoid hypoxia in the most important tissues [ 10 ]. (
  • At the same time, the peripheral blood pressure increases, the effective blood circulating in the body is reduced, and cardiac output is decreased [ 11 ]. (
  • Using an ABA' design, the authors investigated the effects of Qi-training on blood gas concentrations with a 20 min control rest period (A), 1 h of Qi-training (B), and a 20-min rest period (A'). The blood partial pressures of oxygen (PO2) and carbon dioxide (PCO2), and oxygen content, oxygen saturation, and pH were significantly altered. (
  • Low central venous pressure reduces blood loss in hepatectomy. (
  • The role of central venous pressure and type of vascular control in blood loss during major liver resections. (
  • the portion of total blood gas pressure exerted by carbon dioxide. (
  • For specific analysis, phases of marked deterioration in systemic blood pressure and consecutive reductions in CPP were investigated. (
  • The high partial pressure of oxygen in the lungs is pushing oxygen into the blood. (
  • In order to get more oxygen into the blood in this example, we'd have to increase the partial pressure of oxygen in the air and drive more in to the blood. (
  • That results in an increase in the Partial Pressure of oxygen in the blood too, as you might expect. (
  • Systolic pressure measures the maximum amount of pressure the blood exerts during a heart beat. (
  • Each time the heart contracts a sound is heard, a gauge on the sphygmomanometer measures the pressure that blood exerts during ventricle contraction. (
  • Blood pressure measures the pressure (force per area) on the arterial walls during the contraction and relaxation of the heart. (
  • The diastolic blood pressure - bottom reading - gives us the pressure on the arterial walls during diastole. (
  • While blood pressure would be high during exercise, it strengthens your heart and makes it healthier, therefore bringing your blood pressure closer to an ideal level. (
  • When determining the amount of oxygen in the blood, the first important point to establish is the partial pressure . (
  • But while the partial pressures alone determine the direction a gas will diffuse , additional factors determine the amount of a gas in the blood . (
  • Thus, to determine the amount of oxygen in solution, one only has to multiply the partial pressure times the solubility , which at 37 degrees is equal to 0.03 ml O2/(liter blood x mm Hg). (
  • my son is 4 years old what is a normal blood pressure for him. (
  • Normal human daily Blood Pressure Range can vary widely, so any single blood pressure monitor reading is not reliable. (
  • BP monitor readings must be taken at different times of day, to determine AVERAGE blood pressure levels over time. (
  • What could varying blood pressure readings be a sign of? (
  • It is totally normal for blood pressure readings to fluctuate throughout the day, even in healthy individuals. (
  • What normal blood pressure for 130 pound man? (
  • Do normal blood pressure readings change depending upon the person's age? (
  • A normal blood pressure is between 120 and 150. (
  • Blood pressure readings do change with age, as you normally start to develop heart problems (especially in men). (
  • You will often notice no signs of high blood pressure until your next trip to the doctor. (
  • What numbers represent normal blood pressure? (
  • Normal blood pressure is measured by two numbers that represent how much mercury is in your blood. (
  • A completely normal blood pressure reads: Below 120 / below 80. (
  • What are the names of the upper and lower blood pressure readings? (
  • Blood pressure is read in two parts, diastolic and systolic. (
  • It is documented as diastolic/systolic, example, a normal blood pressure is 120/80. (
  • What is the normal blood pressure for a 21 year old male? (
  • Normal blood pressure for an adult male is below 120 over 80. (
  • Is 110 70 a normal blood pressure? (
  • Is blood pressure 147 over 91 high? (
  • blood pressure at a normal range is 120/80, on average. (
  • Readings above this moves beyond the normal range towards hypertension (high blood pressure). (
  • They are important in measuring partial pressures of oxygen and carbon dioxide in the blood, and blood pH. (
  • The aortic bodies give feedback to the medulla oblongata, specifically to the dorsal respiratory group, via the afferent branches of the vagus nerve (cranial nerve X). The medulla oblongata, in turn, regulates breathing and blood pressure. (
  • abstract = "We review experimental phase equilibria associated with partial melting of mafic lithologies (pyroxenites) at high pressures to reveal systematic relationships between bulk compositions of pyroxenite and their melting relations. (
  • abstract = "Investigations into the gait of persons with partial foot amputation (PFA) suggest that the effective foot length can be restored when the prosthesis incorporates a relatively stiff forefoot, restricts dorsiflexion, and includes a mechanism whereby forces caused by loading the toe lever can be comfortably distributed to the leg (e.g., an anterior tibial shell). (
  • In this experiment, 60% balloon volume was enough inflation to elevate central pressure allowing distal perfusion. (
  • The baseline pelvic pressure, the perfusion pelvic pressure (perfusion rates: 0.2 to 1.0 ml. per minute) and peristaltic waves were recorded after a resting period. (
  • Negative pressure therapy (NPT) in open wounds has been shown to improve healing by augmenting angiogenesis, reducing edema and tension, and increasing tissue perfusion [1-3] . (
  • Low central venous pressure (CVP) affects hemodynamic stability and tissue perfusion. (
  • Te purpose of a study was to compare brain PtiO2 with SjvO2 in severely head injured patients during phases of reduced cerebral perfusion pressure (CPP) to define a threshold in brain PtiO2 monitoring. (
  • In particular, the quiz will ask you about the various effects of partial pressure in different situations. (
  • where P(CO2) is the partial pressure of CO2 and [CO2(aq)] is the concentration of CO2 in solution. (
  • The (n/V) is essentially concentration so you can convert from partial pressure to concentration this way. (
  • To convert between partial pressure and concentration you would use the ideal gas law, PV=nRT. (
  • Usually we'd use the word Concentration to describe the amount of a substance dissolved in a liquid but handily, when we're talking about gasses, we can still use the term Partial Pressure to describe more or less the same thing. (
  • The purpose of this study was to determine the reproducibility of the indirect Fick method for the measurement of mixed venous carbon dioxide partial pressure (PvCO2) and venous carbon dioxide content (CvCO2) for estimation of cardiac output (Qc), using the exponential rise method of carbon. (
  • Stroke volume variation in hepatic resection: a replacement for standard central venous pressure monitoring. (
  • Half clamping of the infrahepatic inferior vena cava reduces bleeding during a hepatectomy by decreasing the central venous pressure. (
  • Randomized clinical trial comparing infrahepatic inferior vena cava clamping with low central venous pressure in complex liver resections involving the Pringle manoeuvre. (
  • Resuscitative endovascular balloon occlusion of the aorta (REBOA) increases proximal arterial pressure, but may also induce life-threatening distal ischemia. (
  • I assume that the rupture of this equilibrium which happens when divers go back to the surface too quickly is related to gaz pressure at the lungs level. (
  • Equilibrium partial pressures of gaseous hcl and h2o over aqueous binary and ternary solutions of hcl and alcl3 were calculated or estimated in the range of 20 deg. (
  • The partial pressures of Te2 in equilibrium with Ga(1-x)Te(x) samples were measured by optical absorption technique from 450 to 1100 C for compositions, x, between 0.333 and 0.612. (
  • The partial pressures of Te2 in equilibrium with the GaTe(s) and Ga2Te3(s)compounds, or the so-called three-phase curves, were established. (
  • The aim of this study was to investigate the clinical significance and changes of brain tissue partial pressure of oxygen (P bt O 2 ) in the course of mild hypothermia treatment (MHT) for treating severe traumatic brain injury (sTBI). (
  • Roosen, Klaus 1998-11-01 00:00:00 AbstractOBJECTIVEWe assessed the technical and diagnostic reliability of partial pressure of oxygen (PO2) of brain tissue (P(ti)O2) monitoring. (
  • Studies investigating multimodal cerebral monitoring including partial brain tissue oxygen monitoring (ptiO2) in neuro-intensive care patients during physiotherapy are completely lacking in the literature. (
  • Yu Wang, Song Hu, Konstantin Maslov, Yu Zhang, Younan Xia, and Lihong V. Wang, " In vivo integrated photoacoustic and confocal microscopy of hemoglobin oxygen saturation and oxygen partial pressure," Opt. (
  • This divide appears at pressures above ∼2 GPa in the natural system where garnet and pyroxenes are the principal residual phases in pyroxenites. (
  • That means that the Partial Pressures in both phases remains the same. (
  • 1. The intramuscular oxygen partial pressure (pO2) in human gastrocnemius muscle was monitored during exercise and compared with metabolite concentrations reflecting the energy and the redox state in the tissue. (
  • The law states that the sum of the pressures of each component in a substance equals the pressure of the entire substance. (
  • A high partial pressure value means that the material is abundant and volatile. (
  • Keeping in mind that K = products/reactants, since K must remain a constant, the partial pressure of the product O2 must be higher to match the higher partial pressure of the reactant O3. (
  • If you are given a total pressure and one or more partial pressures, you may be able to simply subtract the partial pressures from the total pressure to find your solution. (
  • all of those collisions together give us the total pressure. (
  • What is the total pressure inside the cylinder? (
  • A mixture of Xe, Kr, and Ar has a total pressure of 6.7 atm. (
  • What is the total pressure (atm) exerted by the gas mixture? (
  • The total pressure of the mixture is 192 kPa. (
  • The total pressure of the mixture is 192 kilopascals. (
  • It's not the contribution of the component to the total pressure. (
  • This can be written in symbols as 𝑝 of X is equal to 𝑥 of X times the total pressure, 𝑝. (
  • And about 25 percent of the total pressure is because of oxygen. (
  • The total pressure is the sum of the partial pressures. (
  • Each of the component gasses in the mixture of air, or any mixed gas for that matter, contributes to the total pressure by exactly the same amount that it contributes to the volume. (
  • where P mix is the total pressure of the mixture and P 1 , P 2 , P 3 … P k are the partial pressures of individual components. (
  • Figure 1: The total pressure of mixture ( P mix ) is the addition of the partial pressure of A ( P A ) and the partial pressure of B ( P B ). (
  • As we can observe from the above figure, when gas A and gas B are mixed, the total pressure added up. (
  • The total pressure of air, P mix = 101.325 kPa = 101 325 Pa. (
  • Calculate the total pressure of the mixture. (