The largest of the three pairs of SALIVARY GLANDS. They lie on the sides of the FACE immediately below and in front of the EAR.
Tumors or cancer of the PAROTID GLAND.
Parotid diseases refer to a range of medical conditions that affect the structure, function, or health of the parotid glands, which are the largest salivary glands located in the face, near the ears, and responsible for producing saliva.
Glands that secrete SALIVA in the MOUTH. There are three pairs of salivary glands (PAROTID GLAND; SUBLINGUAL GLAND; SUBMANDIBULAR GLAND).
A benign tumor characterized histologically by tall columnar epithelium within a lymphoid tissue stroma. It is usually found in the salivary glands, especially the parotid.
One of two salivary glands in the neck, located in the space bound by the two bellies of the digastric muscle and the angle of the mandible. It discharges through the submandibular duct. The secretory units are predominantly serous although a few mucous alveoli, some with serous demilunes, occur. (Stedman, 25th ed)
A group of amylolytic enzymes that cleave starch, glycogen, and related alpha-1,4-glucans. (Stedman, 25th ed) EC 3.2.1.-.
A salivary gland on each side of the mouth below the TONGUE.
Proteins and peptides found in SALIVA and the SALIVARY GLANDS. Some salivary proteins such as ALPHA-AMYLASES are enzymes, but their composition varies in different individuals.
A benign, slow-growing tumor, most commonly of the salivary gland, occurring as a small, painless, firm nodule, usually of the parotid gland, but also found in any major or accessory salivary gland anywhere in the oral cavity. It is most often seen in women in the fifth decade. Histologically, the tumor presents a variety of cells: cuboidal, columnar, and squamous cells, showing all forms of epithelial growth. (Dorland, 27th ed)
Any of the ducts which transport saliva. Salivary ducts include the parotid duct, the major and minor sublingual ducts, and the submandibular duct.
The discharge of saliva from the SALIVARY GLANDS that keeps the mouth tissues moist and aids in digestion.
INFLAMMATION of the PAROTID GLAND.
Glands of external secretion that release its secretions to the body's cavities, organs, or surface, through a duct.
"Salivary gland diseases refer to a group of medical conditions that affect the function, structure, or health of the salivary glands, leading to symptoms such as dry mouth, swelling, pain, and abnormal secretions."
Decreased salivary flow.
Radiography of the SALIVARY GLANDS or ducts following injection of contrast medium.
Tumors or cancer of the SALIVARY GLANDS.
The clear, viscous fluid secreted by the SALIVARY GLANDS and mucous glands of the mouth. It contains MUCINS, water, organic salts, and ptylin.
MAMMARY GLANDS in the non-human MAMMALS.
Protein domains that are enriched in PROLINE. The cyclical nature of proline causes the peptide bonds it forms to have a limited degree of conformational mobility. Therefore the presence of multiple prolines in close proximity to each other can convey a distinct conformational arrangement to a peptide chain.
Aquaporin 5 is a water-specific channel protein that is expressed primarily in alveolar, tracheal, and upper bronchial EPITHELIUM. It plays an important role in maintaining water HOMEOSTASIS in the LUNGS and may also regulate release of SALIVA and TEARS in the SALIVARY GLANDS and the LACRIMAL GLAND.
Isopropyl analog of EPINEPHRINE; beta-sympathomimetic that acts on the heart, bronchi, skeletal muscle, alimentary tract, etc. It is used mainly as bronchodilator and heart stimulant.
A tumor of both low- and high-grade malignancy. The low-grade grow slowly, appear in any age group, and are readily cured by excision. The high-grade behave aggressively, widely infiltrate the salivary gland and produce lymph node and distant metastases. Mucoepidermoid carcinomas account for about 21% of the malignant tumors of the parotid gland and 10% of the sublingual gland. They are the most common malignant tumor of the parotid. (From DeVita Jr et al., Cancer: Principles & Practice of Oncology, 3d ed, p575; Holland et al., Cancer Medicine, 3d ed, p1240)
A malignant tumor arising from secreting cells of a racemose gland, particularly the salivary glands. Racemose (Latin racemosus, full of clusters) refers, as does acinar (Latin acinus, grape), to small saclike dilatations in various glands. Acinar cell carcinomas are usually well differentiated and account for about 13% of the cancers arising in the parotid gland. Lymph node metastasis occurs in about 16% of cases. Local recurrences and distant metastases many years after treatment are common. This tumor appears in all age groups and is most common in women. (Stedman, 25th ed; Holland et al., Cancer Medicine, 3d ed, p1240; from DeVita Jr et al., Cancer: Principles & Practice of Oncology, 3d ed, p575)
Accessory salivary glands located in the lip, cheek, tongue, floor of mouth, palate and intramaxillary.
A fistula between a salivary duct or gland and the cutaneous surface of the oral cavity.
Chronic inflammatory and autoimmune disease in which the salivary and lacrimal glands undergo progressive destruction by lymphocytes and plasma cells resulting in decreased production of saliva and tears. The primary form, often called sicca syndrome, involves both KERATOCONJUNCTIVITIS SICCA and XEROSTOMIA. The secondary form includes, in addition, the presence of a connective tissue disease, usually rheumatoid arthritis.
A usually benign tumor made up predominantly of myoepithelial cells.
Presence of small calculi in the terminal salivary ducts (salivary sand), or stones (larger calculi) found in the larger ducts.
Sweat-producing structures that are embedded in the DERMIS. Each gland consists of a single tube, a coiled body, and a superficial duct.
A slowly hydrolyzed CHOLINERGIC AGONIST that acts at both MUSCARINIC RECEPTORS and NICOTINIC RECEPTORS.
A slowly hydrolyzed muscarinic agonist with no nicotinic effects. Pilocarpine is used as a miotic and in the treatment of glaucoma.
Submandibular Gland Neoplasms are abnormal growths or tumors, which can be benign or malignant, originating from the glandular tissues of the submandibular salivary gland located beneath the mandible (jawbone).
An autonomic disorder characterized by excessive sweating of the forehead, upper lip, perioral region, or sternum subsequent to gustatory stimuli. The auriculotemporal syndrome features facial flushing or sweating limited to the distribution of the auriculotemporal nerve and may develop after trauma to the parotid gland, in association with PAROTID NEOPLASMS, or following their surgical removal. (From Ann Neurol 1997 Dec;42(6):973-5)
The tear-forming and tear-conducting system which includes the lacrimal glands, eyelid margins, conjunctival sac, and the tear drainage system.
Small, sacculated organs found within the DERMIS. Each gland has a single duct that emerges from a cluster of oval alveoli. Each alveolus consists of a transparent BASEMENT MEMBRANE enclosing epithelial cells. The ducts from most sebaceous glands open into a HAIR FOLLICLE, but some open on the general surface of the SKIN. Sebaceous glands secrete SEBUM.
A sebaceous gland that, in some animals, acts as an accessory to the lacrimal gland. The harderian gland excretes fluid that facilitates movement of the third eyelid.
Submandibular Gland Diseases refer to a group of medical conditions affecting the structure and function of the submandibular glands, leading to symptoms such as swelling, pain, difficulty swallowing, and reduced saliva production.
The craniosacral division of the autonomic nervous system. The cell bodies of the parasympathetic preganglionic fibers are in brain stem nuclei and in the sacral spinal cord. They synapse in cranial autonomic ganglia or in terminal ganglia near target organs. The parasympathetic nervous system generally acts to conserve resources and restore homeostasis, often with effects reciprocal to the sympathetic nervous system.
The 7th cranial nerve. The facial nerve has two parts, the larger motor root which may be called the facial nerve proper, and the smaller intermediate or sensory root. Together they provide efferent innervation to the muscles of facial expression and to the lacrimal and SALIVARY GLANDS, and convey afferent information for TASTE from the anterior two-thirds of the TONGUE and for TOUCH from the EXTERNAL EAR.
Condensed areas of cellular material that may be bounded by a membrane.
A pair of glands located at the cranial pole of each of the two KIDNEYS. Each adrenal gland is composed of two distinct endocrine tissues with separate embryonic origins, the ADRENAL CORTEX producing STEROIDS and the ADRENAL MEDULLA producing NEUROTRANSMITTERS.
Calculi occurring in a salivary gland. Most salivary gland calculi occur in the submandibular gland, but can also occur in the parotid gland and in the sublingual and minor salivary glands.
The removal or interruption of some part of the sympathetic nervous system for therapeutic or research purposes.
Genetically identical individuals developed from brother and sister matings which have been carried out for twenty or more generations or by parent x offspring matings carried out with certain restrictions. This also includes animals with a long history of closed colony breeding.
The region of the face on either side, around the PAROTID GLAND.
Diseases of the trigeminal nerve or its nuclei, which are located in the pons and medulla. The nerve is composed of three divisions: ophthalmic, maxillary, and mandibular, which provide sensory innervation to structures of the face, sinuses, and portions of the cranial vault. The mandibular nerve also innervates muscles of mastication. Clinical features include loss of facial and intra-oral sensation and weakness of jaw closure. Common conditions affecting the nerve include brain stem ischemia, INFRATENTORIAL NEOPLASMS, and TRIGEMINAL NEURALGIA.
CONFORMAL RADIOTHERAPY that combines several intensity-modulated beams to provide improved dose homogeneity and highly conformal dose distributions.
The amount of a substance secreted by cells or by a specific organ or organism over a given period of time; usually applies to those substances which are formed by glandular tissues and are released by them into biological fluids, e.g., secretory rate of corticosteroids by the adrenal cortex, secretory rate of gastric acid by the gastric mucosa.
Techniques, procedures, and therapies carried out on diseased organs in such a way to avoid complete removal of the organ and preserve the remaining organ function.
An eleven-amino acid neurotransmitter that appears in both the central and peripheral nervous systems. It is involved in transmission of PAIN, causes rapid contractions of the gastrointestinal smooth muscle, and modulates inflammatory and immune responses.
Carcinoma characterized by bands or cylinders of hyalinized or mucinous stroma separating or surrounded by nests or cords of small epithelial cells. When the cylinders occur within masses of epithelial cells, they give the tissue a perforated, sievelike, or cribriform appearance. Such tumors occur in the mammary glands, the mucous glands of the upper and lower respiratory tract, and the salivary glands. They are malignant but slow-growing, and tend to spread locally via the nerves. (Dorland, 27th ed)
Vesicles derived from the GOLGI APPARATUS containing material to be released at the cell surface.
A type of lupus erythematosus characterized by deep dermal or subcutaneous nodules, most often on the head, face, or upper arms. It is generally chronic and occurs most often in women between the ages of 20 and 45.
Tuberculosis of the mouth, tongue, and salivary glands.
An anti-infective agent most commonly used in the treatment of urinary tract infections. Its anti-infective action derives from the slow release of formaldehyde by hydrolysis at acidic pH. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p173)
Drugs that bind to and activate muscarinic cholinergic receptors (RECEPTORS, MUSCARINIC). Muscarinic agonists are most commonly used when it is desirable to increase smooth muscle tone, especially in the GI tract, urinary bladder and the eye. They may also be used to reduce heart rate.
Polyphenolic compounds with molecular weights of around 500-3000 daltons and containing enough hydroxyl groups (1-2 per 100 MW) for effective cross linking of other compounds (ASTRINGENTS). The two main types are HYDROLYZABLE TANNINS and CONDENSED TANNINS. Historically, the term has applied to many compounds and plant extracts able to render skin COLLAGEN impervious to degradation. The word tannin derives from the Celtic word for OAK TREE which was used for leather processing.
An alkaloid, originally from Atropa belladonna, but found in other plants, mainly SOLANACEAE. Hyoscyamine is the 3(S)-endo isomer of atropine.
Microscopy using an electron beam, instead of light, to visualize the sample, thereby allowing much greater magnification. The interactions of ELECTRONS with specimens are used to provide information about the fine structure of that specimen. In TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY the reactions of the electrons that are transmitted through the specimen are imaged. In SCANNING ELECTRON MICROSCOPY an electron beam falls at a non-normal angle on the specimen and the image is derived from the reactions occurring above the plane of the specimen.
Sebaceous gland neoplasms are uncommon cutaneous tumors that originate from the sebaceous glands, which can be benign (e.g., seborrheic keratosis, syringoma, trichofolliculoma) or malignant (e.g., sebaceous carcinoma, sebaceomatosis, mucoepidermoid carcinoma).

Fine structure and cytochemistry of the intralobular ducts of the human parotid gland. (1/1132)

An intralobular duct of a human parotid gland has two parts, an intercalated part and a striated part. Intercalated ducts are lined with low cuboidal cells endowed with scanty cytoplasmic organelles. Striated ducts are lined with columnar cells rich in mitochondria and glycogen particles, and are characterized by extensive infoldings of the basal plasma membrane. The apical cytoplasm of the cells of the striated ducts shows a number of membrane-bound granules having a diameter of about 0-15 mum. These granules contain material of varying electron density which does not react with silver or with the histochemical reagents employed in the present study. Thus, on the basis of their small size and histochemical characteristics, they are distinct from the large and dense secretory granules observed in the so-called granular striated ducts of some animals. In addition, cells of striated ducts contain lysosomes, peroxisomes, and large lipoid bodies which give histochemical reactions typical of lipofuscins. Bodies of myoepithelial cells have been observed only in intercalated ducts. Their processes, however, extend into the proximal parts of striated ducts.  (+info)

Origin of acinar cell regeneration after atrophy of the rat parotid induced by duct obstruction. (2/1132)

Acinar cell regeneration in the rat parotid gland after atrophy induced by a one week period of duct obstruction was examined using histology, immunohistochemistry and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). For immunohistochemistry, antibodies to 5-bromo-2'-deoxyuridine (BrdU), injected one hour before tissue collection, and cytokeratin were employed. When clips were removed from the duct, only ductal epithelial cells remained; all acinar cells had been deleted. Some duct cells were BrdU positive. After three days, newly-formed acini comprising immature acinar cells had appeared; many of the cells were BrdU positive and mitotic figures were readily identified. Thereafter progressive acinar cell maturation and proliferation occurred, parotid gland weight returning to control levels by 7 days. Peak BrdU labelling indices for duct and acinar cells were on days 0 and 4, respectively. By TEM, cytoplasmic organelles in epithelial cells of transitional duct-acinar structures seen at 2 days were poorly developed. Immature acinar cells seen on day 3 contained zymogen granules and had increased endoplasmic reticulum and mitochondria. By day 5, maturing acinar cells had abundant endoplasmic reticulum and zymogen granules, resembling acinar cells in control glands. These observations indicated origin of acinar cell precursors from duct cells during regeneration of the acinar cell-free atrophic gland. Subsequent expansion of the acinar cell population was dependent on maturation and proliferation of these newly-formed cells.  (+info)

Secretion of old versus new exportable protein in rat parotid slics. Control by neurotransmitters. (3/1132)

The possibility that old and new secretory granules do not mix and that older exportable protein can be secreted preferentially was tested on parotid gland in vitro. Slices from fasted animals were pulse labeled for 3 min with L-[3H]leucine. Subcellular fractionstion showed that after 1 90-min chase period, the formation of new labeled secretory granules was mostly completed. The ratio of label in secretory granules to label in microsomes increased 250-fold during the period 5--90 min postpulse. After the 90-min chase, a submaximal rate of secretion was initiated by adding a low concentration of isoproterenol to the slices. Preferential secretion of old unlabeled exportable protein was evident from the finding that the percent of total amylase secreted was 3.5-fold greater than the percent of labeled protein secreted. Preferential secretion of old unlabeled exportable amylase was undiminished even when the chase period before addition of isoproterenol was extended to 240 min. Such long chase incubations were still meaningful due to the fact that the spontaneous rat of amylase release and radioactive protein release from the slices was negligibly low. A high isoproterenol concentration added to the slices after a 90-min chase produced the following results. An initial phase of preferential secretion of old unlabeled protein was soon replaced by secretion of a random mixture of new and old exportable protein. Electron micrographs indicated that high rates of secretion involved sequential fusion of secretory granules so that the lumen extended deep into the cell where the new labeled granules were presumably located. At low rates of secretion, the lumen showed no such deep extensions. Experiments were also conducted on slices from glands which had been largely depleted of old granules by prior injection of isoproterenol into the animals. Secretion of labeled protein from such slices stopped with the export of 80% of the labeled protein. This finding indicates that about 20% of the radioactive protein is cellular nonexportable protein and that the slices are capable of exporting the entire amount of secretory protein which was symthesized in vitrol. In addition to the beta-adrenergic receptor which mediates protein secretion, the parotid acinar cell also possesses an alpha-adrenergic and a cholinergic receptor both of which cause K+ release, vacuole formation, and water secretion. Activation of either of the latter two receptors in conjunction with the beta-adrenergic receptor increased randomization of the protein secreted. It is concluded that in the rat parotid acinar cell there is little spontaneous mixing between old granules near the luminal cell membrane and new granules coming up behind from the Golgi complex. The neurotransmitters which induce secretion produce the observed randomization.  (+info)

Ryanodine and inositol trisphosphate receptors are differentially distributed and expressed in rat parotid gland. (4/1132)

The present study examines the cellular distribution of the ryanodine receptor/channel (RyR) and inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate receptor (InsP3R) subtypes in parotid acini. Using fluorescently labelled 4,4-difluoro-4-bora-3a,4a-diaza-s-indacene-3-propionic acid glycyl-ryanodine (BODIPYtrade mark-ryanodine) and confocal microscopy, RyRs were localized primarily to the perinuclear region (basal pole) of the acinar cell. Ryanodine, Ruthenium Red, cAMP and cADP ribose (cADPR) competed with BODIPY-ryanodine, resulting in a reduction in the fluorescence signal. However, inositol 1,4, 5-trisphosphate [Ins(1,4,5)P3] did not alter the binding of BODIPY-ryanodine. Using receptor-subtype-specific antisera, InsP3Rs (types I, II and III) were located predominantly in the apical pole of the parotid cell. The presence of these three subtypes was confirmed using reverse transcriptase PCR with RNA-specific oligonucleotide probes. Binding studies using a parotid cell-membrane fraction identified and characterized RyRs and InsP3Rs in terms of binding affinity (Kd) and maximum binding capacity (Bmax) and confirmed that cADPR displaces ryanodine from its binding sites. Ruthenium Red and 8-Br-cADP-ribose blocked Ca2+ release in permeabilized acinar cells in response to cADPR and cAMP or forskolin, whereas Ins(1,4,5)P3-induced Ca2+ release was unaffected. The localization of the RyRs and InsP3Rs in discrete regions endow broad areas of the parotid cell with ligand-activated Ca2+ channels. The consequences of the dual activation of the RyRs and InsP3Rs by physiologically relevant stimuli such as noradrenaline (norepinephrine) are considered in relation to Ca2+ signalling in the parotid gland.  (+info)

Quantitative description of the spatial arrangement of organelles in a polarised secretory epithelial cell: the salivary gland acinar cell. (5/1132)

Previous quantitative descriptions of cellular ultrastructure have focused on spatial content (volume, surface area and number of organelles and membrane domains). It is possible to complement such descriptions by also quantifying spatial arrangements. Hitherto, applications of stereological methods for achieving this (notably, estimation of covariance and pair correlation functions) have been confined to organ and tissue levels. This study explores 3-dimensional subcellular arrangements of key organelles within acinar cells of rabbit parotid salivary glands, highly polarised epithelial cells specialised for exocrine secretion of alpha-amylase. It focuses on spatial arrangements of secretion product stores (zymogen granules), rough endoplasmic reticulum (RER) and mitochondria. Systematic random samples of electron microscopical fields of view from 3 rabbits were analysed using test grids bearing linear dipole probes of different sizes. Unbiased estimates of organelle volume densities were obtained by point counting and estimates of covariance and pair correlation functions by dipole counting. Plots of pair correlation functions against dipole length identified spatial arrangement differences between organelle types. Volumes within RER and mitochondrial compartments were positively correlated with themselves at distances below 4 microm and 2 microm respectively but were essentially randomly arranged at longer distances. In sharp contrast, zymogen granules were not randomly arranged. They were clustered at distances below 6-7 microm and more widely scattered at greater distances. These findings provide quantitative confirmation of the polarised arrangement of zymogen granules within acinar cells and further support for the relative invariance of biological organisation between subjects.  (+info)

Ultrastructure of the parotid gland in two species of naked-backed bats. (6/1132)

Naked-backed bats of the genus Pteronotus (family Mormoopidae) occur in the Neotropics from Mexico through northern South America. These are relatively small-sized insectivorous species that frequently roost in caves. Eight specimens of naked-backed bats (Pteronotus parnellii) were live-trapped in Suriname and one in Cuba (P. quadridens). Their parotid glands were fixed in an aldehyde mixture designed for field work and postfixed in the laboratory with osmium tetroxide. Tissues were further prepared for electron microscopy by conventional means. The parotid glands of the two species of Pteronotus closely resemble each other except for the substructure of their serous secretory granules. Serous granules in P. parnellii are bizonal, with a moderately dense inner matrix and an outer, denser corona or crescent. The matrix is occupied by laminae, flakes, and filaments in random array. In contrast, serous granules in P. quadridens consist of a uniform matrix that contains dense, usually stacked toroids or tubules either in random array or packed in bundles. A parotid gland from one specimen of P. parnellii contained an endpiece that consisted of cells that contained giant (up to 9 pm in diameter) serous granules. Serous cells in both species contain aggregates of small, uniformly dense, rod-like, membrane-delimited organelles as well as occasional bundles of cytofilaments. The endpieces are separated from intercalated ducts by a ring of granulated cells that contain secretory granules that often have a bull's-eye configuration. Intercalated and striated ducts are typical in appearance, except that many of the cells in the latter contain small, dense secretory granules in their apical cytoplasm. The parotid glands in the two species of naked-baked bats differ slightly in terms of acinar secretory granule ultrastructure, but otherwise are fairly conservative. It is thought that the glands in these particular bats might represent the "basal" condition of the salivary glands of insectivorous bats and thus can serve as a reference point for making comparisons to the highly diversified (in terms of diet) phyllostomid bats.  (+info)

Developmental changes of sugar residues and secretory protein in mucous cells of the early postnatal rat parotid gland. (7/1132)

Mucous cells have been identified in the terminal portions of the early postnatal parotid gland in human and rat, although mature parotid gland acini are composed of serous cells or seromucous cells. Previously, Ikeda et al. demonstrated that mucous cells are present in the rat parotid gland on days 1 to 8 after birth and that the secretory granules within these mucous cells share some histochemical characteristics with mature serous cells. However, it is still not clear whether the mucous cells change into serous cells as the gland develops. The purpose of this study was to determine whether the mucous cells that appear in the early postnatal rat parotid gland change into serous cells. Parotid glands were obtained from male or female Wistar rats (aged 0-14 days and adults). Fixed tissue sections were reacted with soybean agglutinin (SBA) and wheat germ agglutinin (WGA) to detect glycoconjugates, or were stained using an anti-neonatal submandibular gland protein B1 (SMG-B1) antibody to identify serous acinar cells. The sections were observed by transmission electron microscopy. Electron microscopy revealed that cells with characteristics intermediate between those of mucous and serous cells (transitional cells) appeared around day 8 and that the nuclei of these cells did not show chromatin condensation, a characteristic of apoptotic cells. Lectin histochemistry showed that the mucous cells had the same sugar residues as the serous cells, which appeared after day 10. Immunohistochemistry with an anti-SMG-B1 antibody gave a positive reaction not only in the cells with highly electron-dense granules but also in the electron-dense cores of bipartite or tripartite granules in the transitional cells. Cells with morphological characteristics intermediate between those of mucous and serous cells (transitional cells) appearing in the early postnatal rat parotid gland begin to produce B1-immunoreactive protein common to serous acinar cells during development of the gland.  (+info)

Isoproterenol potentiates alpha-adrenergic and muscarinic receptor-mediated Ca2+ response in rat parotid cells. (8/1132)

The effects of the cAMP pathway on the Ca2+ response elicited by phospholipase C-coupled receptor stimulations were studied in rat parotid cells. Although 1 microM isoproterenol (Iso) itself had no effect on the cytosolic Ca2+ concentration, the pretreatment with Iso potentiated Ca2+ responses evoked by phenylephrine. The potentiating effect of Iso was attributed to a shifting of the concentration-response curves of phenylephrine to the left and an increase in the maximal response. Half-maximal potentiation occurred at 3 nM Iso. Iso also potentiated the Ca2+ response elicited by carbachol. The potentiating effect of Iso was mimicked by forskolin (10 microM) and dibutyryl adenosine 3',5'-cyclic monophosphate (2 mM) and was blocked by 10 microM H-89. Iso potentiated the phenylephrine-induced Ca2+ response in the absence of extracellular Ca2+, but Iso did not increase the inositol trisphosphate (IP3) production induced by phenylephrine. These results suggest that the potentiation of the Ca2+ response can be attributed to a sensitization of IP3 receptors by cAMP-dependent protein kinase.  (+info)

The parotid gland is the largest of the major salivary glands. It is a bilobed, accessory digestive organ that secretes serous saliva into the mouth via the parotid duct (Stensen's duct), located near the upper second molar tooth. The parotid gland is primarily responsible for moistening and lubricating food to aid in swallowing and digestion.

Anatomically, the parotid gland is located in the preauricular region, extending from the zygomatic arch superiorly to the angle of the mandible inferiorly, and from the masseter muscle anteriorly to the sternocleidomastoid muscle posteriorly. It is enclosed within a fascial capsule and has a rich blood supply from the external carotid artery and a complex innervation pattern involving both parasympathetic and sympathetic fibers.

Parotid gland disorders can include salivary gland stones (sialolithiasis), infections, inflammatory conditions, benign or malignant tumors, and autoimmune diseases such as Sjögren's syndrome.

Parotid neoplasms refer to abnormal growths or tumors in the parotid gland, which is the largest of the salivary glands and is located in front of the ear and extends down the neck. These neoplasms can be benign (non-cancerous) or malignant (cancerous).

Benign parotid neoplasms are typically slow-growing, painless masses that may cause facial asymmetry or difficulty in chewing or swallowing if they become large enough to compress surrounding structures. The most common type of benign parotid tumor is a pleomorphic adenoma.

Malignant parotid neoplasms, on the other hand, are more aggressive and can invade nearby tissues and spread to other parts of the body. They may present as rapidly growing masses that are firm or fixed to surrounding structures. Common types of malignant parotid tumors include mucoepidermoid carcinoma, adenoid cystic carcinoma, and squamous cell carcinoma.

The diagnosis of parotid neoplasms typically involves a thorough clinical evaluation, imaging studies such as CT or MRI scans, and fine-needle aspiration biopsy (FNAB) to determine the nature of the tumor. Treatment options depend on the type, size, and location of the neoplasm but may include surgical excision, radiation therapy, and chemotherapy.

Parotid diseases refer to conditions that affect the parotid glands, which are the largest of the salivary glands and are located in front of each ear. These glands produce saliva that helps in digestion and keeps the mouth moist. Parotid diseases can cause swelling, pain, dry mouth, or difficulty swallowing, among other symptoms. Some common parotid diseases include:

1. Parotid gland infection (also called parotitis) - an inflammation of the parotid gland due to bacterial or viral infections.
2. Salivary gland stones (also called sialolithiasis) - calcified deposits that form in the salivary ducts and can block the flow of saliva.
3. Salivary gland tumors - abnormal growths that can be benign or malignant, and may require surgical removal.
4. Parotid gland inflammation (also called sialadenitis) - an inflammation of the parotid gland due to autoimmune disorders, radiation therapy, or dehydration.
5. Parotid gland cysts (also called ranula or mucocele) - fluid-filled sacs that form in the salivary gland or duct.

Proper diagnosis and treatment of parotid diseases require a thorough evaluation by a healthcare professional, often involving imaging studies, laboratory tests, and biopsies.

Salivary glands are exocrine glands that produce saliva, which is secreted into the oral cavity to keep the mouth and throat moist, aid in digestion by initiating food breakdown, and help maintain dental health. There are three major pairs of salivary glands: the parotid glands located in the cheeks, the submandibular glands found beneath the jaw, and the sublingual glands situated under the tongue. Additionally, there are numerous minor salivary glands distributed throughout the oral cavity lining. These glands release their secretions through a system of ducts into the mouth.

Adenolymphoma is a rare, benign tumor that arises from the lymphoid tissue found in glandular structures, such as the salivary glands. It is also known as Warthin's tumor or cystic papillary adenolymphoma.

The tumor is composed of multiple cyst-like spaces lined by columnar epithelial cells and surrounded by lymphoid tissue, which may contain lymphocytes, plasma cells, and occasionally, germinal centers. The etiology of adenolymphoma is unclear, but it has been associated with smoking and genetic factors.

Adenolymphomas are typically slow-growing and painless, although they can cause discomfort or facial asymmetry if they become large enough. They are usually diagnosed through imaging studies such as ultrasound, CT scan, or MRI, followed by a biopsy to confirm the diagnosis.

Treatment of adenolymphoma typically involves surgical excision, which is usually curative. Recurrence after surgery is rare, but long-term follow-up is recommended due to the potential for malignant transformation into squamous cell carcinoma or other malignancies.

The submandibular glands are one of the major salivary glands in the human body. They are located beneath the mandible (jawbone) and produce saliva that helps in digestion, lubrication, and protection of the oral cavity. The saliva produced by the submandibular glands contains enzymes like amylase and mucin, which aid in the digestion of carbohydrates and provide moisture to the mouth and throat. Any medical condition or disease that affects the submandibular gland may impact its function and could lead to problems such as dry mouth (xerostomia), swelling, pain, or infection.

Amylases are enzymes that break down complex carbohydrates, such as starch and glycogen, into simpler sugars like maltose, glucose, and maltotriose. There are several types of amylases found in various organisms, including humans.

In humans, amylases are produced by the pancreas and salivary glands. Pancreatic amylase is released into the small intestine where it helps to digest dietary carbohydrates. Salivary amylase, also known as alpha-amylase, is secreted into the mouth and begins breaking down starches in food during chewing.

Deficiency or absence of amylases can lead to difficulties in digesting carbohydrates and may cause symptoms such as bloating, diarrhea, and abdominal pain. Elevated levels of amylase in the blood may indicate conditions such as pancreatitis, pancreatic cancer, or other disorders affecting the pancreas.

The sublingual glands are a pair of salivary glands located in the floor of the mouth, beneath the tongue. They are the smallest of the major salivary glands and produce around 5-10% of the total saliva in the mouth. The sublingual glands secrete saliva containing electrolytes, enzymes (such as amylase), and antibacterial compounds that help in digestion, lubrication, and protection against microorganisms.

The sublingual glands' secretions are released through multiple small ducts called the ducts of Rivinus or minor sublingual ducts, as well as a larger duct called the duct of Wharton, which is a common excretory duct for both sublingual and submandibular glands.

Sublingual gland dysfunction can lead to conditions such as dry mouth (xerostomia), dental caries, or oral infections.

Salivary proteins and peptides refer to the diverse group of molecules that are present in saliva, which is the clear, slightly alkaline fluid produced by the salivary glands in the mouth. These proteins and peptides play a crucial role in maintaining oral health and contributing to various physiological functions.

Some common types of salivary proteins and peptides include:

1. **Mucins**: These are large, heavily glycosylated proteins that give saliva its viscous quality. They help to lubricate the oral cavity, protect the mucosal surfaces, and aid in food bolus formation.
2. **Amylases**: These enzymes break down carbohydrates into simpler sugars, initiating the digestive process even before food reaches the stomach.
3. **Proline-rich proteins (PRPs)**: PRPs contribute to the buffering capacity of saliva and help protect against tooth erosion by forming a protective layer on tooth enamel.
4. **Histatins**: These are small cationic peptides with antimicrobial properties, playing a significant role in maintaining oral microbial homeostasis and preventing dental caries.
5. **Lactoferrin**: An iron-binding protein that exhibits antibacterial, antifungal, and anti-inflammatory activities, contributing to the overall oral health.
6. **Statherin and Cystatins**: These proteins regulate calcium phosphate precipitation, preventing dental calculus formation and maintaining tooth mineral homeostasis.

Salivary proteins and peptides have attracted significant interest in recent years due to their potential diagnostic and therapeutic applications. Alterations in the composition of these molecules can provide valuable insights into various oral and systemic diseases, making them promising biomarkers for disease detection and monitoring.

A pleomorphic adenoma is a type of benign (non-cancerous) tumor that typically develops in the salivary glands, although they can also occur in other areas such as the nasopharynx and skin. "Pleomorphic" refers to the diverse appearance of the cells within the tumor, which can vary in size, shape, and arrangement.

Pleomorphic adenomas are composed of a mixture of epithelial and mesenchymal cells, which can form glandular structures, squamous (scale-like) cells, and areas that resemble cartilage or bone. These tumors tend to grow slowly and usually do not spread to other parts of the body.

While pleomorphic adenomas are generally not dangerous, they can cause problems if they become large enough to press on surrounding tissues or structures. In some cases, these tumors may also undergo malignant transformation, leading to a cancerous growth known as carcinoma ex pleomorphic adenoma. Surgical removal is the standard treatment for pleomorphic adenomas, and the prognosis is generally good with proper management.

Salivary ducts are the excretory tubules that transport saliva from the major and minor salivary glands to the oral cavity. The main function of these ducts is to convey the salivary secretions, which contain enzymes and lubricants, into the mouth to aid in digestion, speech, and swallowing.

There are two pairs of major salivary glands: the parotid glands and the submandibular glands. Each pair has its own set of ducts. The parotid gland's saliva is drained through the parotid duct, also known as Stensen's duct, which opens into the oral cavity opposite the upper second molar tooth. The submandibular gland's saliva is transported through the submandibular duct, or Wharton's duct, which empties into the floor of the mouth near the base of the tongue.

Minor salivary glands are scattered throughout the oral cavity and pharynx, and their secretions are drained via small ducts directly into the oral mucosa.

Salivation is the process of producing and secreting saliva by the salivary glands in the mouth. It is primarily a reflex response to various stimuli such as thinking about or tasting food, chewing, and speaking. Saliva plays a crucial role in digestion by moistening food and helping to create a food bolus that can be swallowed easily. Additionally, saliva contains enzymes like amylase which begin the process of digesting carbohydrates even before food enters the stomach. Excessive salivation is known as hypersalivation or ptyalism, while reduced salivation is called xerostomia.

Parotitis is the medical term for inflammation of the parotid gland, which is one of the major salivary glands located in the face, near the ear. The condition can result from various causes, including bacterial or viral infections, autoimmune disorders, or obstruction of the salivary ducts.

Parotitis can cause symptoms such as pain, swelling, redness, and difficulty swallowing. In some cases, it may also lead to fever, chills, and general malaise. The diagnosis of parotitis typically involves a physical examination, medical history, and sometimes imaging studies or laboratory tests to identify the underlying cause. Treatment depends on the specific cause but may include antibiotics, pain relievers, hydration, and measures to improve salivary flow.

Exocrine glands are a type of gland in the human body that produce and release substances through ducts onto an external or internal surface. These glands are responsible for secreting various substances such as enzymes, hormones, and lubricants that help in digestion, protection, and other bodily functions.

Exocrine glands can be further classified into three types based on their mode of secretion:

1. Merocrine glands: These glands release their secretions by exocytosis, where the secretory product is enclosed in a vesicle that fuses with the cell membrane and releases its contents outside the cell. Examples include sweat glands and mucous glands.
2. Apocrine glands: These glands release their secretions by pinching off a portion of the cytoplasm along with the secretory product. An example is the apocrine sweat gland found in the armpits and genital area.
3. Holocrine glands: These glands release their secretions by disintegrating and releasing the entire cell, including its organelles and secretory products. An example is the sebaceous gland found in the skin, which releases an oily substance called sebum.

Salivary gland diseases refer to a group of conditions that affect the function and structure of the salivary glands. These glands are responsible for producing saliva, which helps in digestion, lubrication, and protection of the mouth and throat. The major salivary glands include the parotid, submandibular, and sublingual glands.

There are several types of salivary gland diseases, including:

1. Salivary Gland Infections: These are usually caused by bacteria or viruses that infect the gland, ducts, or surrounding tissues. The most common infection is called sialadenitis, which can cause pain, swelling, redness, and difficulty swallowing.

2. Salivary Gland Stones (Sialolithiasis): These are small, hard deposits that form in the ducts of the salivary glands, causing blockages and leading to swelling, pain, and infection.

3. Salivary Gland Tumors: Both benign and malignant tumors can develop in the salivary glands. Benign tumors are usually slow-growing and cause localized swelling, while malignant tumors may be more aggressive and spread to other parts of the body.

4. Salivary Gland Dysfunction: This refers to conditions that affect the production or flow of saliva, such as Sjogren's syndrome, radiation therapy, dehydration, or certain medications.

5. Autoimmune Disorders: Conditions like Sjogren's syndrome, lupus, and rheumatoid arthritis can affect the salivary glands and cause inflammation, dry mouth, and other symptoms.

6. Salivary Gland Trauma: Injuries to the face or neck can damage the salivary glands and lead to swelling, bleeding, or decreased function.

Proper diagnosis and treatment of salivary gland diseases require a thorough evaluation by a healthcare professional, often involving imaging studies, laboratory tests, and biopsies. Treatment options may include antibiotics, surgery, radiation therapy, or changes in medication or lifestyle.

Xerostomia is a medical term that describes the subjective feeling of dryness in the mouth due to decreased or absent saliva flow. It's also commonly referred to as "dry mouth." This condition can result from various factors, including medications, dehydration, radiation therapy, Sjögren's syndrome, and other medical disorders. Prolonged xerostomia may lead to oral health issues such as dental caries, oral candidiasis, and difficulty with speaking, chewing, and swallowing.

Sialography is a medical imaging technique used to examine the ducts (salivary glands) that carry saliva from the salivary glands to the mouth. In this procedure, a radiopaque contrast material is injected into the salivary gland, and then X-rays or other forms of imaging are taken to visualize the shape and any abnormalities in the ducts.

The contrast material outlines the ducts on the images, allowing healthcare professionals to identify any blockages, narrowing, dilations, stones, or other abnormalities that may be present in the salivary glands. Sialography is typically used to diagnose and manage conditions such as salivary gland inflammation, obstruction, or infection.

It's worth noting that sialography has been largely replaced by newer imaging techniques, such as ultrasound, CT scans, and MRI, which do not require the injection of a contrast material and are generally considered safer and more comfortable for patients. However, sialography may still be used in certain cases where these other methods are not sufficient to make an accurate diagnosis.

Salivary gland neoplasms refer to abnormal growths or tumors that develop in the salivary glands. These glands are responsible for producing saliva, which helps in digestion, lubrication of food and maintaining oral health. Salivary gland neoplasms can be benign (non-cancerous) or malignant (cancerous).

Benign neoplasms are slow-growing and typically do not spread to other parts of the body. They may cause symptoms such as swelling, painless lumps, or difficulty swallowing if they grow large enough to put pressure on surrounding tissues.

Malignant neoplasms, on the other hand, can be aggressive and have the potential to invade nearby structures and metastasize (spread) to distant organs. Symptoms of malignant salivary gland neoplasms may include rapid growth, pain, numbness, or paralysis of facial nerves.

Salivary gland neoplasms can occur in any of the major salivary glands (parotid, submandibular, and sublingual glands) or in the minor salivary glands located throughout the mouth and throat. The exact cause of these neoplasms is not fully understood, but risk factors may include exposure to radiation, certain viral infections, and genetic predisposition.

Saliva is a complex mixture of primarily water, but also electrolytes, enzymes, antibacterial compounds, and various other substances. It is produced by the salivary glands located in the mouth. Saliva plays an essential role in maintaining oral health by moistening the mouth, helping to digest food, and protecting the teeth from decay by neutralizing acids produced by bacteria.

The medical definition of saliva can be stated as:

"A clear, watery, slightly alkaline fluid secreted by the salivary glands, consisting mainly of water, with small amounts of electrolytes, enzymes (such as amylase), mucus, and antibacterial compounds. Saliva aids in digestion, lubrication of oral tissues, and provides an oral barrier against microorganisms."

Mammary glands are specialized exocrine glands found in mammals, including humans and other animals. These glands are responsible for producing milk, which is used to nurse offspring after birth. The mammary glands are located in the breast region of female mammals and are usually rudimentary or absent in males.

In animals, mammary glands can vary in number and location depending on the species. For example, humans and other primates have two mammary glands, one in each breast. Cows, goats, and sheep, on the other hand, have multiple pairs of mammary glands located in their lower abdominal region.

Mammary glands are made up of several structures, including lobules, ducts, and connective tissue. The lobules contain clusters of milk-secreting cells called alveoli, which produce and store milk. The ducts transport the milk from the lobules to the nipple, where it is released during lactation.

Mammary glands are an essential feature of mammals, as they provide a source of nutrition for newborn offspring. They also play a role in the development and maintenance of the mother-infant bond, as nursing provides opportunities for physical contact and bonding between the mother and her young.

Proline-rich protein domains are segments within proteins that contain an unusually high concentration of the amino acid proline. These domains are often involved in mediating protein-protein interactions and can play a role in various cellular processes, such as signal transduction, gene regulation, and protein folding. They are also commonly found in extracellular matrix proteins and may be involved in cell adhesion and migration. The unique chemical properties of proline, including its ability to form rigid structures and disrupt alpha-helices, contribute to the functional specificity of these domains.

Aquaporin 5 (AQP5) is a type of aquaporin, which is a family of water channel proteins that facilitate the transport of water molecules across cell membranes. Specifically, AQP5 is found in various tissues, including the lungs, salivary and lacrimal glands, sweat glands, and cornea. It plays a crucial role in maintaining water homeostasis and lubrication in these tissues.

In the lungs, AQP5 helps regulate airway surface liquid volume and composition, contributing to proper lung function. In the salivary and lacrimal glands, it aids in fluid secretion, ensuring adequate moisture in the mouth and eyes. In sweat glands, AQP5 facilitates water transport during sweating, helping to regulate body temperature. Lastly, in the cornea, AQP5 helps maintain transparency and hydration, contributing to clear vision.

Defects or dysfunctions in AQP5 can lead to various conditions, such as dry mouth (xerostomia), dry eye (keratoconjunctivitis sicca), and potentially impaired lung function.

Isoproterenol is a medication that belongs to a class of drugs called beta-adrenergic agonists. Medically, it is defined as a synthetic catecholamine with both alpha and beta adrenergic receptor stimulating properties. It is primarily used as a bronchodilator to treat conditions such as asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) by relaxing the smooth muscles in the airways, thereby improving breathing.

Isoproterenol can also be used in the treatment of bradycardia (abnormally slow heart rate), cardiac arrest, and heart blocks by increasing the heart rate and contractility. However, due to its non-selective beta-agonist activity, it may cause various side effects such as tremors, palpitations, and increased blood pressure. Its use is now limited due to the availability of more selective and safer medications.

Mucoepidermoid carcinoma is a type of cancer that develops in the salivary glands or, less commonly, in other areas such as the lungs or skin. It is called "mucoepidermoid" because it contains two types of cells: mucus-secreting cells and squamous (or epidermoid) cells.

Mucoepidermoid carcinomas can vary in their behavior, ranging from low-grade tumors that grow slowly and rarely spread to other parts of the body, to high-grade tumors that are aggressive and can metastasize. The treatment and prognosis for mucoepidermoid carcinoma depend on several factors, including the grade and stage of the tumor, as well as the patient's overall health.

It is important to note that while I strive to provide accurate and up-to-date information, this definition may not capture all the nuances of this medical condition. Therefore, it is always best to consult with a healthcare professional for medical advice.

Carcinoma, acinar cell is a type of pancreatic cancer that originates in the acinar cells of the pancreas. The acinar cells are responsible for producing digestive enzymes. This type of cancer is relatively rare and accounts for less than 5% of all pancreatic cancers. It typically presents with symptoms such as abdominal pain, weight loss, and jaundice. Treatment options may include surgery, chemotherapy, and radiation therapy.

Minor salivary glands are numerous small exocrine glands that produce saliva and are distributed throughout the oral cavity, nasal cavity, pharynx, larynx, and paranasal sinuses. They are classified as "minor" due to their smaller size compared to the three pairs of major salivary glands (parotid, submandibular, and sublingual). The minor salivary glands are primarily mucous glands, although some contain serous cells. They are responsible for producing approximately 5-10% of the total saliva in the mouth. These glands help moisten the oral cavity, protect the mucosal lining, and facilitate speaking, chewing, and swallowing.

A salivary gland fistula is an abnormal connection or duct between a salivary gland and the skin surface or another epithelial-lined structure, such as the mouth or the neck. This condition typically results from trauma, surgery, or infection that causes damage to the salivary gland or its ducts, leading to leakage of saliva into surrounding tissues.

Salivary gland fistulas can cause symptoms such as swelling, pain, redness, and discharge of saliva from the affected area. They may also increase the risk of infection and affect a person's quality of life. Treatment options for salivary gland fistulas include pressure dressings, antibiotics, and surgical intervention to repair the damaged duct or remove the affected salivary gland.

Sjögren's syndrome is a chronic autoimmune disorder in which the body's immune system mistakenly attacks its own moisture-producing glands, particularly the tear and salivary glands. This can lead to symptoms such as dry eyes, dry mouth, and dryness in other areas of the body. In some cases, it may also affect other organs, leading to a variety of complications.

There are two types of Sjögren's syndrome: primary and secondary. Primary Sjögren's syndrome occurs when the condition develops on its own, while secondary Sjögren's syndrome occurs when it develops in conjunction with another autoimmune disease, such as rheumatoid arthritis or lupus.

The exact cause of Sjögren's syndrome is not fully understood, but it is believed to involve a combination of genetic and environmental factors. Treatment typically focuses on relieving symptoms and may include artificial tears, saliva substitutes, medications to stimulate saliva production, and immunosuppressive drugs in more severe cases.

Myoepithelioma is a very rare, benign (non-cancerous) tumor that arises from the myoepithelial cells, which are found in various glands throughout the body, including salivary glands, sweat glands, and mammary glands. These tumors typically appear as slow-growing, painless masses. While they are usually benign, some myoepitheliomas can become malignant (cancerous) and invasive, leading to more serious health concerns. Treatment for myoepithelioma typically involves surgical removal of the tumor.

Salivary duct calculi, also known as salivary gland stones or salivary duct stones, are small, hard deposits that form in the salivary glands or their ducts. These stones typically consist of calcium salts and other minerals, and they can range in size from tiny grains to larger pebbles.

Salivary duct calculi can cause a variety of symptoms, including pain, swelling, and difficulty swallowing. They may also lead to infection or inflammation of the salivary glands. In severe cases, surgery may be necessary to remove the stones and relieve the associated symptoms.

The formation of salivary duct calculi is thought to be related to a variety of factors, including dehydration, decreased saliva production, and changes in the composition of saliva. People who have certain medical conditions, such as gout or hyperparathyroidism, may also be at increased risk for developing these stones.

Sweat glands are specialized tubular structures in the skin that produce and secrete sweat, also known as perspiration. They are part of the body's thermoregulatory system, helping to maintain optimal body temperature by releasing water and heat through evaporation. There are two main types of sweat glands: eccrine and apocrine.

1. Eccrine sweat glands: These are distributed throughout the body, with a higher concentration on areas like the palms, soles, and forehead. They are responsible for producing a watery, odorless sweat that primarily helps to cool down the body through evaporation.

2. Apocrine sweat glands: These are mainly found in the axillary (armpit) region and around the anogenital area. They become active during puberty and produce a thick, milky fluid that does not have a strong odor on its own but can mix with bacteria on the skin's surface, leading to body odor.

Sweat glands are controlled by the autonomic nervous system, meaning they function involuntarily in response to various stimuli such as emotions, physical activity, or changes in environmental temperature.

Carbachol is a cholinergic agonist, which means it stimulates the parasympathetic nervous system by mimicking the action of acetylcholine, a neurotransmitter that is involved in transmitting signals between nerves and muscles. Carbachol binds to both muscarinic and nicotinic receptors, but its effects are more pronounced on muscarinic receptors.

Carbachol is used in medical treatments to produce miosis (pupil constriction), lower intraocular pressure, and stimulate gastrointestinal motility. It can also be used as a diagnostic tool to test for certain conditions such as Hirschsprung's disease.

Like any medication, carbachol can have side effects, including sweating, salivation, nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, bradycardia (slow heart rate), and bronchoconstriction (narrowing of the airways in the lungs). It should be used with caution and under the supervision of a healthcare professional.

Pilocarpine is a cholinergic agonist, which means it stimulates the parasympathetic nervous system by binding to muscarinic receptors. It is primarily used in the treatment of dry mouth (xerostomia) caused by radiation therapy or Sjögren's syndrome, as well as in the management of glaucoma due to its ability to construct the pupils and reduce intraocular pressure. Pilocarpine can also be used to treat certain cardiovascular conditions and chronic bronchitis. It is available in various forms, including tablets, ophthalmic solutions, and topical gels.

Submandibular gland neoplasms refer to abnormal growths or tumors that develop in the submandibular glands. These are one of the three pairs of major salivary glands located beneath the jaw and produce saliva that helps in digestion. Submandibular gland neoplasms can be benign (non-cancerous) or malignant (cancerous).

Benign neoplasms are typically slow-growing, do not invade surrounding tissues, and rarely spread to other parts of the body. Common types of benign submandibular gland neoplasms include pleomorphic adenomas and monomorphic adenomas.

Malignant neoplasms, on the other hand, are aggressive and can invade nearby structures or metastasize (spread) to distant organs. Common types of malignant submandibular gland neoplasms include mucoepidermoid carcinoma, adenoid cystic carcinoma, and acinic cell carcinoma.

Symptoms of submandibular gland neoplasms may include a painless swelling or mass in the neck, difficulty swallowing, speaking, or breathing, numbness or tingling in the tongue or lips, and unexplained weight loss. Treatment options depend on the type, size, location, and stage of the tumor but often involve surgical excision, radiation therapy, and/or chemotherapy. Regular follow-up care is essential to monitor for recurrence or metastasis.

Gustatory sweating, also known as Frey's syndrome, is a condition in which an individual experiences excessive sweating on the face, neck, and scalp while eating, especially spicy or strong-flavored foods. This unusual form of sweating occurs due to an abnormal cross-innervation between the sympathetic and parasympathetic nerves that supply the salivary glands and sweat glands in the skin of the face and neck.

Normally, when we eat, our body activates the parasympathetic nervous system to stimulate saliva production for digestion. In some individuals, this activation can cause an aberrant response where sympathetic nerve fibers are also activated, leading to sweating in the affected areas. This condition is often a result of damage or injury to the nerves in the face, such as after surgery (particularly facial nerve or parotid gland surgeries), trauma, or infection.

The lacrimal apparatus is a complex system in the eye that produces, stores, and drains tears. It consists of several components including:

1. Lacrimal glands: These are located in the upper outer part of the eyelid and produce tears to keep the eye surface moist and protected from external agents.
2. Tear ducts (lacrimal canaliculi): These are small tubes that drain tears from the surface of the eye into the lacrimal sac.
3. Lacrimal sac: This is a small pouch-like structure located in the inner part of the eyelid, which collects tears from the tear ducts and drains them into the nasolacrimal duct.
4. Nasolacrimal duct: This is a tube that runs from the lacrimal sac to the nose and drains tears into the nasal cavity.

The lacrimal apparatus helps maintain the health and comfort of the eye by keeping it lubricated, protecting it from infection, and removing any foreign particles or debris.

Sebaceous glands are microscopic, exocrine glands that are found in the dermis of mammalian skin. They are attached to hair follicles and produce an oily substance called sebum, which is composed of triglycerides, wax esters, squalene, and metabolites of fat-producing cells (fatty acids, cholesterol). Sebum is released through a duct onto the surface of the skin, where it forms a protective barrier that helps to prevent water loss, keeps the skin and hair moisturized, and has antibacterial properties.

Sebaceous glands are distributed throughout the body, but they are most numerous on the face, scalp, and upper trunk. They can also be found in other areas of the body such as the eyelids (where they are known as meibomian glands), the external ear canal, and the genital area.

Abnormalities in sebaceous gland function can lead to various skin conditions, including acne, seborrheic dermatitis, and certain types of skin cancer.

The Harderian gland is a specialized exocrine gland located in many vertebrate species, including birds and mammals. In humans, it is rudimentary and not fully developed. However, in other animals like rodents, lagomorphs (rabbits and hares), and some reptiles, this gland plays a significant role.

The Harderian gland is primarily responsible for producing and secreting lipids, which help to lubricate the eye's surface and the nictitating membrane (third eyelid). This lubrication ensures that the eyes remain moist and protected from dryness and external irritants. Additionally, the secretions of the Harderian gland contain immunoglobulins, which contribute to the animal's immune defense system by providing protection against pathogens.

In some animals, the Harderian gland also has a role in pheromone production and communication. The study and understanding of this gland are particularly important in toxicological research, as it is often used as an indicator of environmental pollutant exposure and their effects on wildlife.

Submandibular gland diseases refer to a group of disorders that affect the function or structure of the submandibular glands, which are salivary glands located beneath the jaw and produce saliva. These diseases can be categorized into inflammatory, infectious, obstructive, neoplastic (benign or malignant), and autoimmune disorders.

Some common submandibular gland diseases include:

1. Submandibular sialadenitis: Inflammation of the submandibular gland due to bacterial or viral infections, stones, or autoimmune conditions.
2. Salivary gland stones (sialolithiasis): Calcified deposits that obstruct the ducts leading from the submandibular gland, causing swelling and pain, especially during meals.
3. Submandibular gland tumors: Abnormal growths in the submandibular gland, which can be benign or malignant (cancerous). Malignant tumors may invade surrounding tissues and spread to other parts of the body.
4. Sjögren's syndrome: An autoimmune disorder that affects the exocrine glands, including the submandibular gland, leading to dry mouth and eyes.
5. IgG4-related disease: A systemic inflammatory condition characterized by the infiltration of IgG4-positive plasma cells into various organs, including the submandibular gland, causing swelling and damage.
6. Mikulicz's disease: A rare benign lymphoepithelial lesion that affects the salivary and lacrimal glands, including the submandibular gland, leading to enlargement and dryness of the affected glands.
7. Salivary gland dysfunction: Reduced or impaired saliva production due to aging, medications, radiation therapy, or systemic diseases, which can affect the submandibular gland.

Proper diagnosis and treatment of submandibular gland diseases require a thorough clinical evaluation, imaging studies, and sometimes biopsy or surgical intervention.

The Parasympathetic Nervous System (PNS) is the part of the autonomic nervous system that primarily controls vegetative functions during rest, relaxation, and digestion. It is responsible for the body's "rest and digest" activities including decreasing heart rate, lowering blood pressure, increasing digestive activity, and stimulating sexual arousal. The PNS utilizes acetylcholine as its primary neurotransmitter and acts in opposition to the Sympathetic Nervous System (SNS), which is responsible for the "fight or flight" response.

The facial nerve, also known as the seventh cranial nerve (CN VII), is a mixed nerve that carries both sensory and motor fibers. Its functions include controlling the muscles involved in facial expressions, taste sensation from the anterior two-thirds of the tongue, and secretomotor function to the lacrimal and salivary glands.

The facial nerve originates from the brainstem and exits the skull through the internal acoustic meatus. It then passes through the facial canal in the temporal bone before branching out to innervate various structures of the face. The main branches of the facial nerve include:

1. Temporal branch: Innervates the frontalis, corrugator supercilii, and orbicularis oculi muscles responsible for eyebrow movements and eyelid closure.
2. Zygomatic branch: Supplies the muscles that elevate the upper lip and wrinkle the nose.
3. Buccal branch: Innervates the muscles of the cheek and lips, allowing for facial expressions such as smiling and puckering.
4. Mandibular branch: Controls the muscles responsible for lower lip movement and depressing the angle of the mouth.
5. Cervical branch: Innervates the platysma muscle in the neck, which helps to depress the lower jaw and wrinkle the skin of the neck.

Damage to the facial nerve can result in various symptoms, such as facial weakness or paralysis, loss of taste sensation, and dry eyes or mouth due to impaired secretion.

Cytoplasmic granules are small, membrane-bound organelles or inclusions found within the cytoplasm of cells. They contain various substances such as proteins, lipids, carbohydrates, and genetic material. Cytoplasmic granules have diverse functions depending on their specific composition and cellular location. Some examples include:

1. Secretory granules: These are found in secretory cells and store hormones, neurotransmitters, or enzymes before they are released by exocytosis.
2. Lysosomes: These are membrane-bound organelles that contain hydrolytic enzymes for intracellular digestion of waste materials, foreign substances, and damaged organelles.
3. Melanosomes: Found in melanocytes, these granules produce and store the pigment melanin, which is responsible for skin, hair, and eye color.
4. Weibel-Palade bodies: These are found in endothelial cells and store von Willebrand factor and P-selectin, which play roles in hemostasis and inflammation.
5. Peroxisomes: These are single-membrane organelles that contain enzymes for various metabolic processes, such as β-oxidation of fatty acids and detoxification of harmful substances.
6. Lipid bodies (also called lipid droplets): These are cytoplasmic granules that store neutral lipids, such as triglycerides and cholesteryl esters. They play a role in energy metabolism and intracellular signaling.
7. Glycogen granules: These are cytoplasmic inclusions that store glycogen, a polysaccharide used for energy storage in animals.
8. Protein bodies: Found in plants, these granules store excess proteins and help regulate protein homeostasis within the cell.
9. Electron-dense granules: These are found in certain immune cells, such as mast cells and basophils, and release mediators like histamine during an allergic response.
10. Granules of unknown composition or function may also be present in various cell types.

The adrenal glands are a pair of endocrine glands that are located on top of the kidneys. Each gland has two parts: the outer cortex and the inner medulla. The adrenal cortex produces hormones such as cortisol, aldosterone, and androgens, which regulate metabolism, blood pressure, and other vital functions. The adrenal medulla produces catecholamines, including epinephrine (adrenaline) and norepinephrine (noradrenaline), which help the body respond to stress by increasing heart rate, blood pressure, and alertness.

Salivary gland calculi, also known as salivary duct stones or sialoliths, are small, hard deposits that form in the salivary glands or their ducts. These calculi typically consist of calcium salts and other minerals, and can vary in size from a few millimeters to over a centimeter in diameter.

Salivary gland calculi can cause a range of symptoms, including pain, swelling, and difficulty swallowing, particularly during meals. The obstruction of the salivary duct by the calculus can lead to infection or inflammation of the salivary gland (sialadenitis).

The most common location for salivary gland calculi is in the submandibular gland and its duct, followed by the parotid gland and then the sublingual gland. Treatment options for salivary gland calculi include conservative management with hydration, massage, and warm compresses, as well as more invasive procedures such as extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy, sialendoscopy, or surgical removal of the calculus.

Sympathectomy is a surgical procedure that involves interrupting the sympathetic nerve pathways. These nerves are part of the autonomic nervous system, which controls involuntary bodily functions such as heart rate, blood pressure, sweating, and digestion. The goal of sympathectomy is to manage conditions like hyperhidrosis (excessive sweating), Raynaud's phenomenon, and certain types of chronic pain.

There are different types of sympathectomy, including thoracic sympathectomy (which targets the sympathetic nerves in the chest), lumbar sympathectomy (which targets the sympathetic nerves in the lower back), and cervical sympathectomy (which targets the sympathetic nerves in the neck). The specific type of procedure depends on the location of the affected nerves and the condition being treated.

Sympathectomy is usually performed using minimally invasive techniques, such as endoscopic surgery, which involves making small incisions and using specialized instruments to access the nerves. While sympathectomy can be effective in managing certain conditions, it carries risks such as nerve damage, bleeding, infection, and chronic pain.

"Inbred strains of rats" are genetically identical rodents that have been produced through many generations of brother-sister mating. This results in a high degree of homozygosity, where the genes at any particular locus in the genome are identical in all members of the strain.

Inbred strains of rats are widely used in biomedical research because they provide a consistent and reproducible genetic background for studying various biological phenomena, including the effects of drugs, environmental factors, and genetic mutations on health and disease. Additionally, inbred strains can be used to create genetically modified models of human diseases by introducing specific mutations into their genomes.

Some commonly used inbred strains of rats include the Wistar Kyoto (WKY), Sprague-Dawley (SD), and Fischer 344 (F344) rat strains. Each strain has its own unique genetic characteristics, making them suitable for different types of research.

The parotid region is the area on either side of the face, anterior to (in front of) the ear, and below the zygomatic arch (cheekbone). It is named after the parotid gland, which is a salivary gland located within this region. The parotid gland produces saliva that helps in digestion, particularly of starches.

The parotid region contains not only the parotid gland but also other important structures such as the facial nerve, external carotid artery, and retromandibular vein. Injuries or diseases affecting this region may cause problems with chewing, speaking, or moving the face.

Trigeminal nerve diseases refer to conditions that affect the trigeminal nerve, which is one of the cranial nerves responsible for sensations in the face and motor functions such as biting and chewing. The trigeminal nerve has three branches: ophthalmic, maxillary, and mandibular, which innervate different parts of the face and head.

Trigeminal nerve diseases can cause various symptoms, including facial pain, numbness, tingling, or weakness. Some common trigeminal nerve diseases include:

1. Trigeminal neuralgia: A chronic pain condition that affects the trigeminal nerve, causing intense, stabbing, or electric shock-like pain in the face.
2. Hemifacial spasm: A neuromuscular disorder that causes involuntary muscle spasms on one side of the face, often affecting the muscles around the eye and mouth.
3. Trigeminal neuropathy: Damage or injury to the trigeminal nerve, which can result in numbness, tingling, or weakness in the face.
4. Herpes zoster oticus (Ramsay Hunt syndrome): A viral infection that affects the facial nerve and geniculate ganglion of the trigeminal nerve, causing facial paralysis, ear pain, and a rash around the ear.
5. Microvascular compression: Compression of the trigeminal nerve by a blood vessel, which can cause symptoms similar to trigeminal neuralgia.

Treatment for trigeminal nerve diseases depends on the specific condition and its severity. Treatment options may include medication, surgery, or radiation therapy.

Intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) is a type of external beam radiation therapy that uses advanced technology to precisely target tumors while minimizing exposure to healthy tissues. In IMRT, the intensity of the radiation beam is modulated or varied during treatment, allowing for more conformal dose distributions and better sparing of normal structures. This is achieved through the use of computer-controlled linear accelerators that shape the radiation beam to match the three-dimensional shape of the tumor. The result is improved treatment accuracy, reduced side effects, and potentially higher cure rates compared to conventional radiotherapy techniques.

Secretory rate refers to the amount or volume of a secretion produced by a gland or an organ over a given period of time. It is a measure of the productivity or activity level of the secreting structure. The secretory rate can be quantified for various bodily fluids, such as saliva, sweat, digestive enzymes, hormones, or milk, depending on the context and the specific gland or organ being studied.

In clinical settings, measuring the secretory rate might involve collecting and analyzing samples over a certain duration to estimate the production rate of the substance in question. This information can be helpful in diagnosing conditions related to impaired secretion, monitoring treatment responses, or understanding the physiological adaptations of the body under different circumstances.

Organ sparing treatments refer to medical interventions that are designed to preserve the structure and function of an organ, while still effectively treating the underlying disease or condition. These treatments can include surgical techniques, radiation therapy, or medications that aim to target specific cells or processes involved in the disease, while minimizing damage to healthy tissues.

Organ sparing treatments may be used in a variety of medical contexts, such as cancer treatment, where the goal is to eliminate malignant cells while preserving as much normal tissue as possible. For example, radiation therapy may be delivered with precise techniques that limit exposure to surrounding organs, or medications may be used to target specific receptors on cancer cells, reducing the need for more extensive surgical interventions.

Similarly, in the context of kidney disease, organ sparing treatments may include medications that help control blood pressure and reduce proteinuria (protein in the urine), which can help slow the progression of kidney damage and potentially delay or prevent the need for dialysis or transplantation.

Overall, organ sparing treatments represent an important area of medical research and practice, as they offer the potential to improve patient outcomes, reduce treatment-related morbidity, and maintain quality of life.

Substance P is an undecapeptide neurotransmitter and neuromodulator, belonging to the tachykinin family of peptides. It is widely distributed in the central and peripheral nervous systems and is primarily found in sensory neurons. Substance P plays a crucial role in pain transmission, inflammation, and various autonomic functions. It exerts its effects by binding to neurokinin 1 (NK-1) receptors, which are expressed on the surface of target cells. Apart from nociception and inflammation, Substance P is also involved in regulating emotional behaviors, smooth muscle contraction, and fluid balance.

Adenoid cystic carcinoma (AdCC) is a rare type of cancer that can occur in various glands and tissues of the body, most commonly in the salivary glands. AdCC is characterized by its slow growth and tendency to spread along nerves. It typically forms solid, cystic, or mixed tumors with distinct histological features, including epithelial cells arranged in tubular, cribriform, or solid patterns.

The term "carcinoma" refers to a malignant tumor originating from the epithelial cells lining various organs and glands. In this case, adenoid cystic carcinoma is a specific type of carcinoma that arises in the salivary glands or other glandular tissues.

The primary treatment options for AdCC include surgical resection, radiation therapy, and sometimes chemotherapy. Despite its slow growth, adenoid cystic carcinoma has a propensity to recur locally and metastasize to distant sites such as the lungs, bones, and liver. Long-term follow-up is essential due to the risk of late recurrences.

Secretory vesicles are membrane-bound organelles found within cells that store and transport secretory proteins and other molecules to the plasma membrane for exocytosis. Exocytosis is the process by which these molecules are released from the cell, allowing them to perform various functions, such as communication with other cells or participation in biochemical reactions. Secretory vesicles can be found in a variety of cell types, including endocrine cells, exocrine cells, and neurons. The proteins and molecules contained within secretory vesicles are synthesized in the rough endoplasmic reticulum and then transported to the Golgi apparatus, where they are processed, modified, and packaged into the vesicles for subsequent release.

Lupus erythematosus panniculitis (LEP), also known as lupus profundus, is a type of cutaneous lupus erythematosus (CLE) that affects the fatty layer under the skin (subcutaneous tissue). It is characterized by deep inflammation of the fatty tissue, leading to nodular or indurated (hardened) plaques and subcutaneous ulcerations. The lesions are typically tender and can be painful. LEP most commonly affects the face, trunk, and proximal extremities.

LEP is associated with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), but it can also occur in isolation without evidence of systemic involvement. It is estimated that approximately 1-10% of patients with SLE develop LEP. The exact pathogenesis of LEP remains unclear, but it is thought to involve an autoimmune response directed against the fatty tissue.

Histologically, LEP is characterized by lobular panniculitis with lymphocytic infiltration and fat necrosis. Direct immunofluorescence may show deposition of immune complexes along the blood vessels in the affected area.

Treatment of LEP can be challenging, and often requires a multidisciplinary approach involving dermatologists, rheumatologists, and other specialists. Systemic therapies such as corticosteroids, antimalarials, immunosuppressive agents, and biologics may be used to control the disease activity. In addition, local treatments such as intralesional steroid injections or surgical excision of lesions may be considered for refractory cases.

Tuberculosis (TB), when referring to "oral" or "oropharyngeal," is a specific form of this infectious disease caused by the bacterium Mycobacterium tuberculosis. In oral TB, the infection primarily affects the tissues in and around the mouth and throat (oropharynx). The most common sites for oral TB are the tongue, palate, tonsils, and buccal mucosa (the lining of the inner cheeks).

Oral TB can present with various symptoms, including:

1. Painless or painful ulcers in the mouth or throat
2. Swelling of the lymph nodes in the neck
3. Difficulty swallowing
4. Persistent cough and hoarseness
5. Fever and fatigue
6. Unintentional weight loss

It is important to note that oral TB is relatively rare compared to pulmonary tuberculosis (TB affecting the lungs). However, it can still be transmitted through respiratory droplets or direct contact with infected sputum or saliva. Diagnosis typically involves a combination of clinical examination, imaging studies, and laboratory tests such as smear microscopy, culture, or molecular techniques like PCR to detect the presence of M. tuberculosis in samples taken from the affected area. Treatment usually consists of a standard anti-TB drug regimen recommended by the World Health Organization (WHO) for at least six months.

Methenamine is a medication that is used as a urinary antiseptic. It's a chemical compound that, when ingested and enters the urine, releases formaldehyde, which helps to kill bacteria in the urinary tract. Methenamine is often combined with other medications, such as sodium phosphate or hydroxyzine, to make it more effective.

It's important to note that methenamine is not typically used as a first-line treatment for urinary tract infections (UTIs) and is usually reserved for preventing recurrent UTIs in people who are prone to them. Additionally, methenamine should be taken in adequate amounts and under the guidance of a healthcare professional, as excessive formaldehyde release can cause adverse effects.

Muscarinic agonists are a type of medication that binds to and activates muscarinic acetylcholine receptors, which are found in various organ systems throughout the body. These receptors are activated naturally by the neurotransmitter acetylcholine, and when muscarinic agonists bind to them, they mimic the effects of acetylcholine.

Muscarinic agonists can have a range of effects on different organ systems, depending on which receptors they activate. For example, they may cause bronchodilation (opening up of the airways) in the respiratory system, decreased heart rate and blood pressure in the cardiovascular system, increased glandular secretions in the gastrointestinal and salivary systems, and relaxation of smooth muscle in the urinary and reproductive systems.

Some examples of muscarinic agonists include pilocarpine, which is used to treat dry mouth and glaucoma, and bethanechol, which is used to treat urinary retention. It's important to note that muscarinic agonists can also have side effects, such as sweating, nausea, vomiting, and diarrhea, due to their activation of receptors in various organ systems.

Tannins, also known as tannic acid or gallotannins, are a type of polyphenolic biomolecule found in plants. They are most commonly known for their ability to bind to proteins and other organic compounds, forming insoluble complexes. This property is what gives tannins their characteristic astringent taste and is also the basis for their use in traditional medicine and industry.

In the context of human health, tannins have been studied for their potential beneficial effects on various physiological processes, such as antioxidant activity, anti-inflammatory effects, and inhibition of enzymes involved in cancer development. However, excessive consumption of tannins can also have negative health effects, including stomach irritation, nausea, and liver damage.

Tannins are found in a wide variety of plants, including fruits, vegetables, grains, nuts, bark, leaves, and roots. They are particularly abundant in certain types of food and beverages, such as red wine, tea, coffee, chocolate, and some herbs and spices. In the medical field, tannins have been used topically for their astringent properties to treat wounds, burns, and skin irritations. However, it is important to note that the evidence supporting the health benefits of tannins is still limited and more research is needed to fully understand their effects on human health.

Atropine is an anticholinergic drug that blocks the action of the neurotransmitter acetylcholine in the central and peripheral nervous system. It is derived from the belladonna alkaloids, which are found in plants such as deadly nightshade (Atropa belladonna), Jimson weed (Datura stramonium), and Duboisia spp.

In clinical medicine, atropine is used to reduce secretions, increase heart rate, and dilate the pupils. It is often used before surgery to dry up secretions in the mouth, throat, and lungs, and to reduce salivation during the procedure. Atropine is also used to treat certain types of nerve agent and pesticide poisoning, as well as to manage bradycardia (slow heart rate) and hypotension (low blood pressure) caused by beta-blockers or calcium channel blockers.

Atropine can have several side effects, including dry mouth, blurred vision, dizziness, confusion, and difficulty urinating. In high doses, it can cause delirium, hallucinations, and seizures. Atropine should be used with caution in patients with glaucoma, prostatic hypertrophy, or other conditions that may be exacerbated by its anticholinergic effects.

Electron microscopy (EM) is a type of microscopy that uses a beam of electrons to create an image of the sample being examined, resulting in much higher magnification and resolution than light microscopy. There are several types of electron microscopy, including transmission electron microscopy (TEM), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and reflection electron microscopy (REM).

In TEM, a beam of electrons is transmitted through a thin slice of the sample, and the electrons that pass through the sample are focused to form an image. This technique can provide detailed information about the internal structure of cells, viruses, and other biological specimens, as well as the composition and structure of materials at the atomic level.

In SEM, a beam of electrons is scanned across the surface of the sample, and the electrons that are scattered back from the surface are detected to create an image. This technique can provide information about the topography and composition of surfaces, as well as the structure of materials at the microscopic level.

REM is a variation of SEM in which the beam of electrons is reflected off the surface of the sample, rather than scattered back from it. This technique can provide information about the surface chemistry and composition of materials.

Electron microscopy has a wide range of applications in biology, medicine, and materials science, including the study of cellular structure and function, disease diagnosis, and the development of new materials and technologies.

Sebaceous gland neoplasms are abnormal growths or tumors that develop in the sebaceous glands, which are small oil-producing glands found in the skin. These glands are responsible for producing sebum, a natural oil that helps keep the skin and hair moisturized. Sebaceous gland neoplasms can be benign (non-cancerous) or malignant (cancerous).

Benign sebaceous gland neoplasms include:

* Seborrheic keratosis: These are common, harmless growths that appear as rough, scaly patches on the skin. They can be tan, brown, or black in color and vary in size from small to large.
* Sebaceous adenoma: This is a benign tumor that arises from the sebaceous glands. It typically appears as a small, yellowish bump on the skin.

Malignant sebaceous gland neoplasms include:

* Sebaceous carcinoma: This is a rare but aggressive form of skin cancer that arises from the sebaceous glands. It often appears as a hard, painless nodule on the eyelid or other areas of the face and can spread to other parts of the body if left untreated.
* Basal cell carcinoma: While not exclusively a sebaceous gland neoplasm, basal cell carcinomas can sometimes arise from the sebaceous glands. These are slow-growing but invasive skin cancers that typically appear as pearly or flesh-colored bumps on the skin.

It is important to have any new or changing growths on the skin evaluated by a healthcare professional to determine whether they are benign or malignant and to develop an appropriate treatment plan if necessary.

The parotid gland is a major salivary gland in many animals. In humans, the two parotid glands are present on either side of ... Sometimes accessory parotid glands are found close to the main parotid glands. The word parotid literally means "beside the ear ... Capsule of parotid gland Capsule of the parotid gland is formed from the investing layer of the deep cervical fascia. It is ... The rounded terminal ends of the cords form the acini of the glands. Secretion by the parotid glands via the parotid duct ...
Parotid gland • Patterson Dental • Paul Beresford • Paul N. Cyr • Pedodontics • Pemphigus • Peninsula College of Medicine and ... Sublingual gland • Submandibular gland • Sulcular epithelium • :Superior alveolar artery • Superior mouth • Supernumerary roots ... Salivary gland • Samir Ghawshah • Samuel Bemis • Samuel Cartwright • Scaling and root planing • Schulich School of Medicine & ...
"Ultrastructure of the binary parotid glands in the Free-tailed bat, Tadarida thersites. II. Accessory parotid gland". The ... One of the unique features of the Molossolid bats such as the railer bat is that they have two sets of parotid glands. This is ... uncommon as most species of bats have two sets of submandibular glands. Monadjem, A.; Fahr, J.; Bergmans, W.; Mickleburgh, S.; ...
The inferior salivatory nucleus is a nucleus of the glossopharyngeal nerve (cranial nerve IX). It innervates the parotid gland ... Parasympathetic input from fibers of the inferior salivatory nucleus stimulates the parotid gland to produce vasodilation and ... component of the glossopharyngeal nerve supplying the parasympathetic input to the parotid gland for salivation. It lies ... which conveys them to the parotid gland. They produce vasodilator and secretomotor effects. ...
... Parotid gland Parotitis Nanci A (2013). Ten Cate's Oral Histology: Development, ... the largest ducts inside the parotid gland, join. It emerges from the parotid gland. It runs forward along the lateral side of ... It is the route that saliva takes from the major salivary gland, the parotid gland, into the mouth. It opens into the mouth ... Dye may be injected to allow for imaging of the parotid duct. The parotid duct is named after Nicolas Steno (1638-1686), also ...
Kini, M. G. (September 1940). "Benign Cyst of the Parotid Gland". British Medical Journal. 2 (4160): 415, 422-4. doi:10.1136/ ... Kini, M. G. (1939). "A case of congenital ranula of the left submaxillary gland". British Journal of Surgery. 26 (104): 947-949 ...
The facial nerve then passes through the parotid gland, which it does not innervate, to form the parotid plexus, which splits ... including the nasal glands, the palatine glands, the lacrimal gland, and the pharyngeal gland. It also provides parasympathetic ... Kochhar A, Larian B, Azizzadeh B (April 2016). "Facial Nerve and Parotid Gland Anatomy". Otolaryngologic Clinics of North ... The facial nerve also supplies parasympathetic fibers to the submandibular gland and sublingual glands via chorda tympani. ...
"Sebaceous lymphadenoma of the parotid gland". Indian J Pathol Microbiol. 54 (1): 131-2. doi:10.4103/0377-4929.77364. PMID ... Sebaceous lymphadenoma is a tissue diagnosis, e.g. salivary gland biopsy.[citation needed] It may be confused with a number of ... The treatment is simple excision and exclusion of a malignant neoplasm.[citation needed] Lymph node Lymphoma Salivary gland ... Sebaceous lymphadenoma is a benign tumour of the salivary gland. ...
"Salivary duct carcinoma of parotid gland". Journal of Oral and Maxillofacial Pathology. 13 (2): 85-88. doi:10.4103/0973-029x. ... Salivary gland Kinnera VS, Mandyam KR, Chowhan AK, Nandyala R, Bobbidi VP, Vutukuru VR (July 2009). " ... Salivary duct carcinoma (SDC) is a rare type of aggressive cancer that arises from the salivary glands. It is predominantly ... Articles with short description, Short description matches Wikidata, Salivary gland neoplasia). ...
... is a rare, low-grade benign salivary gland neoplasm. The most common involved site is the parotid gland, ... González-García, R; Nam-Cha, SH; Muñoz-Guerra, MF; Gamallo-Amat, C (1 March 2006). "Basal cell adenoma of the parotid gland. ... however other possible sites include the submandibular gland, minor salivary glands of upper lip, buccal mucosa, palate and ... Witt RL (1 January 2011). Salivary Gland Diseases: Surgical and Medical Management. Thieme. pp. 126-128. ISBN 978-1-60406-537-4 ...
Minor salivary glands of von Ebner present on the tongue secrete the lipase. The parotid gland produces purely serous saliva. ... Serous fluid may also originate from mixed glands, which contain both mucous and serous cells. A common trait of serous fluids ... The other major salivary glands produce mixed (serous and mucus) saliva. Another type of serous fluid is secreted by the serous ... Serous fluid originates from serous glands, with secretions enriched with proteins and water. ...
It is the most common type of salivary gland tumor and the most common tumor of the parotid gland. It derives its name from the ... Surgical treatment of parotid gland tumors is sometimes difficult, partly because of the anatomical relationship of the facial ... It is usually mobile unless found in the palate and can cause atrophy of the mandibular ramus when located in the parotid gland ... Thus, detection of early stages of a tumor of the parotid gland is extremely important in terms of prognosis after surgery. ...
This division takes place within the parotid gland. Commonly, it divides into the following branches (several variations): The ... The parotid plexus or plexus parotideus is the branch point of the facial nerve (extratemporal) after it leaves the ...
Enlargement of the parotid glands". Special Report Series. 275: 135-9. PMID 14866593. Barrett, AM; Gairdner, D; McFarlan, AM ( ...
Posteriorly, it is covered by the parotid gland. The coronoid head of the masseter's tendon and muscle fibers run ... This extraoral enlargement may be confused with parotid salivary gland disease, dental infections, and maxillofacial neoplasms ... Dissection, showing salivary glands of right side (Masseter visible at center) Left temporal bone, outer surface Left temporal ...
Loh TL, Tomlinson J, Chin R, Eslick GD (2014). "Cutaneous carcinosarcoma with metastasis to the parotid gland". Case Rep. ... salivary glands, lungs, the esophagus, pancreas, colon, uterus and ovaries. Four main hypotheses have been proposed for the ...
Behind the protruding eyes and above the tympanum there is a short small gland. It does not have parotid glands. The underside ...
The parotid and sublingual glands account for the remaining. The gland receives its blood supply from the facial and lingual ... Submandibular gland inflammation as seen on ultrasound Submandibular gland Submandibular gland Submandibular gland lateral view ... The two other types of salivary glands are parotid and sublingual glands. Mandible. Inner surface. Side view. Distribution of ... The paired submandibular glands (historically known as submaxillary glands) are major salivary glands located beneath the floor ...
... the parotid gland is affected. Lacrimal glands are also affected.[citation needed] There is a marked lymphoplasmacytic ... Benign lymphoepithelial lesion or Mikulicz' disease is a type of benign enlargement of the parotid and/or lacrimal glands. This ... Delaney, William E.; Balogh, Károly (1966). "Carcinoma of the parotid gland associated with benign lymphoepithelial lesion ( ... bilateral parotid and lacrimal gland enlargement was characterized by the term Mikulicz's disease if the enlargement appeared ...
The gland most likely affected is the parotid gland. In fact, it is the only tumor virtually restricted to the parotid gland. ... Histopathology of Warthin tumor in the parotid gland. H&E stain. Histopathology of Warthin tumor in the parotid gland. Another ... The tumor is slow growing, painless, and usually appears in the tail of the parotid gland near the angle of the mandible. In 5- ... Histopathology of Warthin tumor in the parotid gland. Higher magnification of a file "Warthin tumor (1).jpg". H&E stain. ...
Swelling of the parotid glands (non-tender). Weil, Edward D. (1978). "Phosphorus-Based Flame Retardants". Flame - Retardant ...
The salivary glands are detailed below: The two parotid glands are major salivary glands wrapped around the mandibular ramus in ... caused by infection in the parotid gland. The submandibular glands (previously known as submaxillary glands) are a pair of ... The sublingual glands are a pair of major salivary glands located inferior to the tongue, anterior to the submandibular glands ... Parasympathetic innervation to the salivary glands is carried via cranial nerves. The parotid gland receives its ...
"Polymorphous low-grade adenocarcinoma of parotid gland: a rare occurrence". Indian Journal of Pathology & Microbiology. 52 (1 ... It forms glands, i.e. it is an adenocarcinoma. It affects the minor salivary glands in the area between the hard and the soft ... Polymorphous low-grade adenocarcinoma (PLGA) is a rare, asymptomatic, slow-growing malignant salivary gland tumor. It is most ... v t e (Articles with short description, Short description matches Wikidata, Salivary gland neoplasia, All stub articles, ...
90% of the time found in the parotid gland, 10% intraorally on buccal mucosa or palate. The disease presents as a slow growing ... Prognosis is good for acinic cell carcinoma of the parotid gland, with five-year survival rates approaching 90%, and 20-year ... Acinic cell carcinomas arise most frequently in the parotid gland. Other sites of primary tumors have included the ... 52 years) than most other salivary gland cancers. Occurrences in children are quite common. Salivary gland cancers seem on the ...
Classically, they are found in the parotid gland or palate. A similar tumor type may be found in the tongue, referred to as ... Myoepithelioma of the head and neck, also myoepithelioma, is a salivary gland tumour of the head and neck that is usually ...
... swelling of the parotid gland on one or both sides of the face). The parotid gland is usually swollen and tender. Parotid ... the major salivary glands located on either side of the face, in humans. The parotid gland is the salivary gland most commonly ... can present as facial swelling in the parotid gland area and may be confused with 'true' parotid gland swelling. The specific ... From Greek παρωτῖτις (νόσος), parōtĩtis (nósos) : (disease of the) parotid gland < παρωτίς (stem παρωτιδ-) : (gland) behind the ...
I. Neoplasms of the parotid and adrenal glands. J Natl Cancer Inst. 1955;15:1391-415. Eddy BE, Stewart SE, Stanton MF, Marcotte ... I. Neoplasms of the parotid and adrenal glands". Journal of the National Cancer Institute. 15 (5): 1391-1415. ISSN 0027-8874. ... it is known that the parotid gland tumors and others of the spectrum produced in mice rarely are found under natural conditions ... The rivalry came to a peak in 1958, when Jacob Furth attributed the discovery of the parotid tumor virus to both Stewart and ...
... it separates the parotid and submandibular salivary glands. It also becomes taut when the mandible is protruded. The ... The stylomandibular ligament separates the infratemporal region (anterior) from the parotid region (posterior), and runs from ...
There are three paired major salivary glands in humans: the parotid glands, the submandibular glands, and the sublingual glands ... The parotid glands are in front of the ears, one on side, and secrete mostly serous saliva, via the parotid ducts (Stenson ... Frey's syndrome Salivary gland neoplasm Relative incidence of parotid tumors. Relative incidence of submandibular tumors. A ... Congenital disorders of the salivary glands are rare. They include: Aplasia Atresia Ectopic salivary gland tissue Stafne defect ...
The major salivary glands consist of the parotid, submandibular, and sublingual glands. The minor salivary glands consist of ... Within the parotid gland 75 - 80% of tumours are benign. Around 50% of the tumours found in the submandibular glands are benign ... also known as mucous gland adenomas or neoplasms, are tumours that form in the tissues of salivary glands. The salivary glands ... Salivary gland tumours usually present as a lump or swelling in the affected gland which may or may not have been present for a ...
The parotid gland is a major salivary gland in many animals. In humans, the two parotid glands are present on either side of ... Sometimes accessory parotid glands are found close to the main parotid glands. The word parotid literally means "beside the ear ... Capsule of parotid gland Capsule of the parotid gland is formed from the investing layer of the deep cervical fascia. It is ... The rounded terminal ends of the cords form the acini of the glands. Secretion by the parotid glands via the parotid duct ...
... parotid, submandibular, and sublingual) is provided below, along with anatomic staging. Table. ... The TNM classification for cancer of the major salivary glands ( ... TNM Classification for Cancer of Major Salivary Glands (Parotid ... TNM Classification for Cancer of Major Salivary Glands (Parotid, Submandibular, and Sublingual). The American Joint Committee ... TNM Classification for Cancer of Major Salivary Glands (Parotid, Submandibular, and Sublingual) ...
... parotid, submandibular, and sublingual) is provided below, along with anatomic staging. Table. ... The TNM classification for cancer of the major salivary glands ( ... TNM Classification for Cancer of Major Salivary Glands (Parotid ... TNM Classification for Cancer of Major Salivary Glands (Parotid, Submandibular, and Sublingual). The American Joint Committee ... TNM Classification for Cancer of Major Salivary Glands (Parotid, Submandibular, and Sublingual) ...
Parotid gland. The parotid gland is a major salivary gland in many animals. In humans, the two parotid glands are present on ... Parotid GlandSalivary GlandsSubmandibular GlandSublingual GlandSalivary DuctsExocrine GlandsSalivaMammary Glands, Animal ... the parotid glands, the submandibular glands, and the sublingual glands ... The parotid glands are in front of the ears, one on ... The parotid gland is the salivary gland most commonly ... can present as facial swelling in the parotid gland area and may be ...
Histological structure of salivary glands, Parotids, Sublingual and Submandibular glands The salivary glands produce saliva ... parotid, submandibular, and sublingual), as well as hundreds of minor salivary glands, In humans, 1200 to 1500... ... through a system of ducts, you have three paired major salivary glands ( ...
March Case Study - An unusual diagnosis in FNA parotid gland. The March Case Study is brought to you by Dr Joey Hamilton ...
Here we are presenting a rare case of spindle cell carcinoma of the parotid gland, elaborating on the diagnosis and the ... Spindle cell carcinoma of the parotid gland - a rare case report. Journal: University Journal of Surgery and Surgical ... the occurrence of this particular histology in the salivary glands is very rare with very few similar cases published in the ...
LEAL FILHO, Walter Borges et al. Effects of cigarette smoke on the morphology of the parotid gland of rats. Rev. Bras. Odontol. ... The aim of this study was to determine the morphological changes in the parotid glands of rats exposed to cigarette smoke by ...
Parotid Gland - Major Salivary Gland The largest salivary gland - the parotid gland - produces a watery saliva that helps with ... Sublingual Gland - Major Salivary Gland The sublingual gland is the smallest of the major salivary glands and is located under ... Tubarial Glands - Major or Minor Salivary Gland? Discovered in 2020-2021! New salivary gland organs called Tubarial glands ... Submandibular Gland - Major Salivary Gland The submandibular glands (previously know as the submaxillary glands) are located ...
A) Parotid glands and whole brain (clinical target volume, CTV). (B) Parotid glands in in 53 patients. ... A) Parotid glands and whole brain (clinical target volume, CTV). (B) Parotid glands in in 53 patients. ... especially in the area of parotid glands with confinement to the brain tissue, allowing for a better sparing of parotid glands ... 2A) and parotid glands of conventional and modified plans in 53 patients (Fig. 2B) are illustrated. Mean parotid volumes were ...
Pituitary gland: congestion and necrosis inanterior lobe. Lung: edema: (M) Virus grows in lung, kidney, liver,and parotid ... Kidney, parotid glands. (M) Lung, kidney and parotid glands (LV). ,,,Click on the PDF icon to the left to view a copy of this ...
... parotid, submandibular, and sublingual) is provided below, along with anatomic staging. Table. ... The TNM classification for cancer of the major salivary glands ( ... TNM Classification for Cancer of Major Salivary Glands (Parotid ... Parotid, Submandibular, and Sublingual). The TNM classification for cancer of the major salivary glands (parotid, submandibular ... TNM Classification for Cancer of Major Salivary Glands (Parotid, Submandibular, and Sublingual) ...
The Value of Inflammatory Parameters in the Differantial Diagnosis of "Benign" and "Malignant" Lesions in Parotid Gland Tumors ...
Salivary gland tumors are abnormal cells growing in the gland or in the tubes (ducts) that drain the salivary glands. ... Salivary gland tumors are abnormal cells growing in the gland or in the tubes (ducts) that drain the salivary glands. ... The parotid glands are the largest. They are located in each cheek in front of the ears. Two submandibular glands are under the ... The most common type of salivary gland tumor is a slow-growing noncancerous (benign) tumor of the parotid gland. The tumor ...
In vivo certain tissues with this receptor are aldosterone selective (eg, kidney and parotid) whereas others with the same ... Parotid Gland / enzymology* * Parotid Gland / immunology * Rabbits * Rats * Rats, Inbred Strains * Receptors, Mineralocorticoid ... In vivo certain tissues with this receptor are aldosterone selective (eg, kidney and parotid) whereas others with the same ...
They have found that long-term, heavy users have rates of malignant parotid gland tumors that are seven to 13 times higher than ...
Mumps is a viral infection that causes telltale swelling and pain in the salivary glands. With the help of the mumps vaccine, ... It can infect many parts of the body, but is best known for causing swelling of the parotid glands. These glands, which make ... Within a couple days, the parotid (peh-RAH-tid) glands can swell and get painful. This makes the cheeks look puffy. The pain ... Kids with mumps should stay home for 5 days from the start of parotid gland swelling. Ask your doctor about when your child can ...
Submandibular gland removal. *Parotid gland removal (parotidectomy). Locations Mr Robert Sudderick works with. ...
The importance of adjuvant radiotherapy in patients with close margin resections for mucoepidermoid carcinoma of the parotid ... Parotid gland-recovery after radiotherapy in the head and neck region-36 months follow-up of a prospective clinical study ... Parotid gland tumors: a comparison of postoperative radiotherapy techniques using three dimensional (3D) dose distributions and ... Osteosarcoma of the mastoid process following radiation therapy of mucoepidermoid carcinoma of the parotid gland-a case report ...
The heart, liver,spleen, salivary glands, muscles,bones, kidneys, and central nervous system also may be involved. Diagnosis is ... Parotid glands (unilateral or bilateral parotitis). , 6. Gastrointestinal (usually stomach, also esophagus, appendix, rectum, ... The heart, liver, spleen, salivary glands, muscles, bones, kidneys, and central nervous system also may be involved. Diagnosis ...
42] These sites can also include the lung, parotid gland, and bone marrow. [49] ... The presence of cervical or preauricular lymphadenopathy, parotid gland swelling, or an abdominal mass can signify systemic ... Lacrimal gland disease may involve both orbital lobes and palpebral lobes. The lesion usually is extraconal but can extend ... The lacrimal gland, lacrimal sac, and extraocular muscles also can be similarly involved. ...
Categories: Parotid Gland Image Types: Photo, Illustrations, Video, Color, Black&White, PublicDomain, CopyrightRestricted 8 ...
Parotid gland. *Rectum. *Stomach cardic area. *Stomach fundic area. *Stomach pyloric area ...
Isolated Adenoma with Neuroendocrine Differentiation Involving Both the Facial Nerve and Parotid Gland (Articles) ...
Solitary Parotid Gland Metastasis from Renal Cell Carcinoma Presenting 16 Years after Nephrectomy. Fernanda Mombrini Pigatti, ...
  • Salivary gland tumors are abnormal cells growing in the gland or in the tubes (ducts) that drain the salivary glands. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Most salivary gland tumors are noncancerous and slow growing. (medlineplus.gov)
  • They have found that long-term, heavy users have rates of malignant parotid gland tumors that are seven to 13 times higher than might otherwise be expected. (microwavenews.com)
  • Hoffman H, Funk G, Endres G. Evaluation and surgical treatment of tumors of the salivary glands. (uiowa.edu)
  • Benign or malignant tumors can develop in these glands and will present as a lump in front of or below the ear. (medstarhealth.org)
  • Most tumors are in the portion of the gland above the facial nerve, so the tumor can be removed without injury to the facial nerve. (medstarhealth.org)
  • The use of radiation in T1 and T2 parotid gland tumors found that 5-year disease-free survival increased from 70% to 92% with postoperative radiation. (medscape.com)
  • Carefully planned and executed surgical excision is the primary treatment for all primary salivary gland tumors. (medscape.com)
  • Surgery is the primary treatment of malignant tumors of the salivary glands. (medscape.com)
  • The salivary glands produce saliva through a system of ducts, you have three paired major salivary glands (parotid, submandibular, and sublingual), as well as hundreds of minor salivary glands, In humans, 1200 to 1500. (online-sciences.com)
  • The salivary glands in our bodies our divided into the major and minor salivary glands . (salivaryglandcancer.uk)
  • The major glands are much larger in size and secrete into a salivary duct, producing much more saliva than the minor salivary glands in the head and neck area. (salivaryglandcancer.uk)
  • There are also many other (600-1000) tiny minor salivary glands throughout the mouth, throat, inside the cheeks and in the lips . (salivaryglandcancer.uk)
  • These are called the minor salivary glands. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Sebaceous lymphadenoma is a benign tumour of the salivary gland . (lookformedical.com)
  • is a rare, low-grade benign salivary gland neoplasm. (lookformedical.com)
  • The most common type of salivary gland tumor is a slow-growing noncancerous (benign) tumor of the parotid gland. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Benign neoplasms of the salivary glands. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Because benign parotid gland tumours may be treated in a very large number of institutions, most centres found it logistically difficult to ensure complete ascertainment, and only Canada-Ottawa, Israel (all histological types) and Sweden included them. (who.int)
  • they are submandibular and sublingual glands. (wikipedia.org)
  • The facial nerve also supplies parasympathetic fibers to the submandibular gland and sublingual glands via chorda tympani. (lookformedical.com)
  • The sublingual glands supply saliva to the floor of the mouth. (salivaryglandcancer.uk)
  • Tumours are very rarely found in the sublingual glands. (salivaryglandcancer.uk)
  • Two sublingual glands are under the floor of the mouth next to the jaw on each side. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Occasionally, the submandibular and sublingual glands also swell and, more rarely, are the only glands affected. (msdmanuals.com)
  • When sublingual glands are involved, the tongue may swell. (msdmanuals.com)
  • The parotid gland is a major salivary gland in many animals. (wikipedia.org)
  • It is the route that saliva takes from the major salivary gland , the parotid gland , into the mouth. (lookformedical.com)
  • Superficial parotidectomy with identification and dissection of the facial nerve is the minimum operation for diagnosis and treatment of parotid masses. (medscape.com)
  • Each parotid is wrapped around the mandibular ramus, and secretes serous saliva through the parotid duct into the mouth, to facilitate mastication and swallowing and to begin the digestion of starches. (wikipedia.org)
  • The parotid glands are a pair of mainly serous salivary glands located below and in front of each ear canal, draining their secretions into the vestibule of the mouth through the parotid duct. (wikipedia.org)
  • The parotid duct, a long excretory duct, emerges from the front of each gland, superficial to the masseter muscle. (wikipedia.org)
  • The parotid papilla is a small elevation of tissue that marks the opening of the parotid duct on the inner surface of the cheek. (wikipedia.org)
  • Branches of facial nerve and parotid duct emerge through this surface. (wikipedia.org)
  • Dye may be injected to allow for imaging of the parotid duct. (lookformedical.com)
  • Salivary duct carcinoma (SDC) is a rare type of aggressive cancer that arises from the salivary glands . (lookformedical.com)
  • The submandibular duct (called Warhitin's duct) carries the saliva from the gland and enters the floor of the mouth under the front of the tongue. (salivaryglandcancer.uk)
  • Wharton's duct originates from the deep portion of the gland and ascends anteriorly to the floor of the mouth, differentiated from the lingual vessels by color Doppler. (uiowa.edu)
  • For some time, the main gland remains connected to its site of origin at the base of the tongue by a narrow thyroglossal duct. (contemporarypediatrics.com)
  • In almost half the population, the distal portion of the thyroglossal duct persists as the pyramidal lobe of the thyroid gland. (contemporarypediatrics.com)
  • The TGDC--a cystic remnant of the duct--may lie at any point along the migratory path of the thyroid gland. (contemporarypediatrics.com)
  • The oral duct openings of the affected glands are edematous and slightly inflamed. (msdmanuals.com)
  • uncommon as most species of bats have two sets of submandibular glands . (lookformedical.com)
  • The submandibular glands (previously know as the submaxillary glands) are located just under and deep in the jaw towards the back of the mouth. (salivaryglandcancer.uk)
  • The submandibular glands produce 70% of the saliva in the mouth although they are much smaller than the parotid gland. (salivaryglandcancer.uk)
  • Only about 10% of tumours start in the submandibular glands. (salivaryglandcancer.uk)
  • Two submandibular glands are under the floor of the mouth on both sides of the back of the jaw. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Parotid gland can be considered as a risk organ in whole brain radiotherapy (WBRT). (e-roj.org)
  • We compared the parotid dose between 2 radiotherapy plans using different lower field margins: conventional field to the lower level of the atlas (CF) and modified field fitted to the brain tissue (MF). (e-roj.org)
  • The importance of adjuvant radiotherapy in patients with close margin resections for mucoepidermoid carcinoma of the parotid gland remains unclear. (karger.com)
  • Human salivary gland organoids have opened tremendous possibilities for regenerative medicine in patients undergoing radiotherapy for the treatment of head and neck cancer. (frontiersin.org)
  • the largest ducts inside the parotid gland , join. (lookformedical.com)
  • The new mucous gland tissue with draining ducts were found over the Torus tuberous hence the name Tubarial glands. (salivaryglandcancer.uk)
  • Salivary glands empty saliva into the mouth through ducts that open at various places in the mouth. (medlineplus.gov)
  • citation needed] Lymphatic drainage The gland is mainly drained into the preauricular or parotid lymph nodes which ultimately drain to the deep cervical chain. (wikipedia.org)
  • The effects of the compounds on secretion of saliva from the parotid salivary gland were measured for up to 3 hours after injection. (cdc.gov)
  • PAM, TMB-4, and toxogonin at doses up to 125mg/kg suppressed secretion of parotid saliva induced by pilocarpine, dimetilan, and dichlorvos within 30 minutes when they were administered simultaneously with the agents. (cdc.gov)
  • These are close to the main glands and consist of ectopic salivary gland tissue. (wikipedia.org)
  • Sebaceous lymphadenoma is a tissue diagnosis, e.g. salivary gland biopsy. (lookformedical.com)
  • Many institutions have already modified the WBRT field margin, especially in the area of parotid glands with confinement to the brain tissue, allowing for a better sparing of parotid glands. (e-roj.org)
  • Therefore, we conducted a comparison study between the WBRT plans using different lower field margins: 1) conventional field to the lower level of the atlas (CF), which has been used conventionally in our institution, and 2) modified field fitted to the brain tissue in the area of parotid glands (MF). (e-roj.org)
  • Herein, we present the differences in the dose-volume statistics of the parotid glands and normal tissue complication probabilities (NTCPs) for xerostomia between 2 WBRT plans. (e-roj.org)
  • The aim of this study was to determine the morphological changes in the parotid glands of rats exposed to cigarette smoke by histomorphometric analysis of serous acini. (bvsalud.org)
  • The rounded terminal ends of the cords form the acini of the glands . (lookformedical.com)
  • Because the migratory path of the thyroid gland lies close to the hyoid bone, the thyroglossal cyst can be encased in the bone or lie anterior or posterior to it. (contemporarypediatrics.com)
  • New salivary gland organs called 'Tubarial glands' were discovered in the nasopharynx by researchers in the Netherlands. (salivaryglandcancer.uk)
  • In defining the conventional WBRT field margin, lenses and the aero-digestive tract have been regarded as risk organs, but the parotid gland has not been a concern. (e-roj.org)
  • Mumps may involve organs other than the salivary glands, particularly in postpubertal patients. (msdmanuals.com)
  • however, cysts with histologic features of branchial cysts have been reported in unusual locations, such as the thymus, oral cavity (1) , parotid gland (2) , pancreas (3, 4) , and thyroid (5-11) . (ajnr.org)
  • The parotid and thyroid glands were within normal limits. (contemporarypediatrics.com)
  • The thyroid gland appears in the ventral midline of the pharynx between the first and second pharyngeal pouches. (contemporarypediatrics.com)
  • During its caudal migration in front of the hyoid bone and laryngeal cartilage, the thyroid gland expands and bifurcates. (contemporarypediatrics.com)
  • From lateral to medial, these are: Facial nerve Retromandibular vein External carotid artery Superficial temporal artery Branches of the great auricular nerve Maxillary artery Sometimes accessory parotid glands are found as an anatomic variation. (wikipedia.org)
  • The facial nerve (CN VII) splits into its branches within the parotid gland, thus forming its parotid plexus. (wikipedia.org)
  • Nerves of this plexus then pass through the parotid gland without innervating the gland itself. (wikipedia.org)
  • Submandibular gland involvement causes neck swelling beneath the jaw, and suprasternal edema may develop, perhaps because of lymphatic obstruction by enlarged salivary glands. (msdmanuals.com)
  • About 85% of salivary gland tumours occur in the parotid gland. (salivaryglandcancer.uk)
  • Interphone was therefore initiated as an international set of case-control studies1 focussing on four types of tumours in tissues that most absorb RF energy emitted by mobile phones: tumours of the brain (glioma and meningioma), acoustic nerve (schwannoma) and parotid gland. (who.int)
  • Interphone was the largest case-control study to date investigating risks related to mobile phone use and to other potential risk factors for the tumours of interest and included 2,765 glioma, 2,425 meningioma, 1,121 acoustic neuroma, 109 malignant parotid gland tumour cases and 7,658 controls. (who.int)
  • Although xerostomia after WBRT is rarely encountered in clinical practice, the potential risk of it should be considered according to the parotid gland dose, especially in patients with long-term expected survival. (e-roj.org)
  • Rarely, a blockage in the parotid gland (from a salivary stone, which is like a kidney stone) can cause painful swelling. (kidshealth.org)
  • Iodine-125 seeds have been found to be an effective treatment for incompletely resected or unfavorable histological salivary gland malignancies of the hard and soft palate. (medscape.com)
  • Salivary gland cancer can occur in the salivary glands but they can also happen in other secretory glands around the body, including the trachea, the vulva and the breast . (salivaryglandcancer.uk)
  • about a day ago 🔬 Help us in our work to improve research and salivary gland cancer treatments. (salivaryglandcancer.uk)
  • Donating your tumour can help scientists better understand salivary gland cancer and develop more effective treatments. (salivaryglandcancer.uk)
  • about 4 days ago 🌟 Thank you to everyone who joined us for our gathering in March, in support of salivary gland cancer awareness and research! (salivaryglandcancer.uk)
  • Your generosity and commitment to our cause inspire us to continue fighting for better treatments and a brighter future for those living with salivary gland cancer. (salivaryglandcancer.uk)
  • The TNM classification for cancer of the major salivary glands (parotid, submandibular, and sublingual) is provided below, along with anatomic staging. (medscape.com)
  • Salivary gland cancer treatment (adult) (PDQ) - health professional version. (medlineplus.gov)
  • RÉSUMÉ Des études en milieu hospitalier ont révélé des fréquences relatives très élevées du cancer oropharyngé au Yémen. (who.int)
  • La présente étude a estimé les fréquences relatives du cancer de la cavité buccale et du pharynx chez des patients yéménites atteints de cancers enregistrés en 2007 et 2008. (who.int)
  • He was diagnosed with cancer in his right parotid gland in 2013, receiving surgery and treatment in Egypt. (who.int)
  • including the nasal glands , the palatine glands , the lacrimal gland , and the pharyngeal gland . (lookformedical.com)
  • Posteromedial relations: The gland is situated anterolaterally to mastoid process of temporal bone with its attached sternocleidomastoid and digastric muscles, styloid process of temporal bone with its three attached muscles (stylohyoid, stylopharyngeus, and styloglossus) and carotid sheath with its contained neurovasculature (internal carotid artery, internal jugular vein, and 9th, 10th, 11th, and 12th cranial nerves). (wikipedia.org)
  • Neither incisional biopsy nor enucleation should be performed for parotid masses. (medscape.com)
  • Kidney, parotid glands. (cdc.gov)
  • M) Lung, kidney and parotid glands (LV). (cdc.gov)
  • In vivo certain tissues with this receptor are aldosterone selective (eg, kidney and parotid) whereas others with the same receptor are not (eg, hippocampus and heart). (nih.gov)
  • citation needed] Superficial or lateral relations: The gland is situated deep to the skin, superficial fascia, superficial lamina of investing layer of deep cervical fascia and great auricular nerve (anterior ramus of C2 and C3). (wikipedia.org)
  • citation needed] The parotid gland receives both sensory and autonomic innervation. (wikipedia.org)
  • The stylomandibular ligament separates parotid gland from the superficial lobe of the submandibular gland. (wikipedia.org)
  • Pituitary gland: congestion and necrosis inanterior lobe. (cdc.gov)
  • Sometimes accessory parotid glands are found close to the main parotid glands. (wikipedia.org)
  • Within a couple days, the parotid (peh-RAH-tid) glands can swell and get painful. (kidshealth.org)
  • One or both parotid glands can swell. (kidshealth.org)
  • The gland has three borders - anterior, medial, and posterior. (wikipedia.org)
  • Location: anterior and caudal to the parotid gland. (uiowa.edu)
  • Arterial supply The external carotid artery and its terminal branches within the gland, namely, the superficial temporal and the maxillary artery, also the posterior auricular artery supply the parotid gland. (wikipedia.org)
  • Surgery is most often done to remove the affected salivary gland. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Capsule of parotid gland Capsule of the parotid gland is formed from the investing layer of the deep cervical fascia. (wikipedia.org)
  • Anteromedial relations: The gland is situated posterolaterally to the mandibular ramus, masseter and medial pterygoid muscles. (wikipedia.org)
  • In 2021 the Tubarial Salivary Glands were found located in the nasopharynx - behind the nose. (salivaryglandcancer.uk)
  • In humans, the two parotid glands are present on either side of the mouth and in front of both ears. (wikipedia.org)
  • Firm, usually painless swelling in one of the salivary glands (in front of the ears, under the chin, or on the floor of the mouth). (medlineplus.gov)
  • The parotid glands lay in front of and below the ears. (medstarhealth.org)
  • However, through computed tomography (CT)-based simulation, we have found that a significant volume of parotid glands is included in the conventional WBRT field margin and have suggested that the parotid gland should be regarded as a risk organ according to the parotid doses used for WBRT [ 4 ]. (e-roj.org)
  • The parotid gland has two ends - superior end in the form of small superior surface and an inferior end (apex). (wikipedia.org)
  • Other viral infections can cause inflamed parotid glands, such as the flu or coxsackievirus , which are much more common than mumps. (kidshealth.org)
  • Mumps is an acute, contagious, systemic viral disease, usually causing painful enlargement of the salivary glands, most commonly the parotids. (msdmanuals.com)
  • The sublingual gland is the smallest of the major salivary glands and is located under the tongue. (salivaryglandcancer.uk)
  • A number of different structures pass through the gland. (wikipedia.org)
  • Katz P, Hartl DM, Guerre A. Clinical ultrasound of the salivary glands. (uiowa.edu)
  • an additional 32 patients from a previously published study that analyzed dose-volume statistics of the parotid gland were enrolled as well [ 4 ]. (e-roj.org)
  • From Greek παρωτίς (stem παρωτιδ-) : (gland) behind the ear (wikipedia.org)
  • We demonstrate that PIC hydrogels decorated with the cell-binding peptide RGD allow SGO formation from salivary gland (SG)-derived stem cells. (frontiersin.org)
  • Sympathetic The cell bodies of the preganglionic sympathetic fibres that supply the gland usually lie in the lateral horns of upper thoracic spinal segments (T1-T3). (wikipedia.org)
  • The gland can be felt on either side, by feeling in front of each ear, along the cheek, and below the angle of the mandible. (wikipedia.org)