Parotid Gland: The largest of the three pairs of SALIVARY GLANDS. They lie on the sides of the FACE immediately below and in front of the EAR.Parotid Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the PAROTID GLAND.Parotid DiseasesSalivary Glands: Glands that secrete SALIVA in the MOUTH. There are three pairs of salivary glands (PAROTID GLAND; SUBLINGUAL GLAND; SUBMANDIBULAR GLAND).Adenolymphoma: A benign tumor characterized histologically by tall columnar epithelium within a lymphoid tissue stroma. It is usually found in the salivary glands, especially the parotid.Submandibular Gland: One of two salivary glands in the neck, located in the space bound by the two bellies of the digastric muscle and the angle of the mandible. It discharges through the submandibular duct. The secretory units are predominantly serous although a few mucous alveoli, some with serous demilunes, occur. (Stedman, 25th ed)Amylases: A group of amylolytic enzymes that cleave starch, glycogen, and related alpha-1,4-glucans. (Stedman, 25th ed) EC 3.2.1.-.Sublingual Gland: A salivary gland on each side of the mouth below the TONGUE.Salivary Proteins and Peptides: Proteins and peptides found in SALIVA and the SALIVARY GLANDS. Some salivary proteins such as ALPHA-AMYLASES are enzymes, but their composition varies in different individuals.Adenoma, Pleomorphic: A benign, slow-growing tumor, most commonly of the salivary gland, occurring as a small, painless, firm nodule, usually of the parotid gland, but also found in any major or accessory salivary gland anywhere in the oral cavity. It is most often seen in women in the fifth decade. Histologically, the tumor presents a variety of cells: cuboidal, columnar, and squamous cells, showing all forms of epithelial growth. (Dorland, 27th ed)Salivary Ducts: Any of the ducts which transport saliva. Salivary ducts include the parotid duct, the major and minor sublingual ducts, and the submandibular duct.Salivation: The discharge of saliva from the SALIVARY GLANDS that keeps the mouth tissues moist and aids in digestion.Parotitis: INFLAMMATION of the PAROTID GLAND.Exocrine Glands: Glands of external secretion that release its secretions to the body's cavities, organs, or surface, through a duct.Salivary Gland DiseasesXerostomia: Decreased salivary flow.Sialography: Radiography of the SALIVARY GLANDS or ducts following injection of contrast medium.Salivary Gland Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the SALIVARY GLANDS.Saliva: The clear, viscous fluid secreted by the SALIVARY GLANDS and mucous glands of the mouth. It contains MUCINS, water, organic salts, and ptylin.Mammary Glands, Animal: MAMMARY GLANDS in the non-human MAMMALS.Proline-Rich Protein Domains: Protein domains that are enriched in PROLINE. The cyclical nature of proline causes the peptide bonds it forms to have a limited degree of conformational mobility. Therefore the presence of multiple prolines in close proximity to each other can convey a distinct conformational arrangement to a peptide chain.Aquaporin 5: Aquaporin 5 is a water-specific channel protein that is expressed primarily in alveolar, tracheal, and upper bronchial EPITHELIUM. It plays an important role in maintaining water HOMEOSTASIS in the LUNGS and may also regulate release of SALIVA and TEARS in the SALIVARY GLANDS and the LACRIMAL GLAND.Isoproterenol: Isopropyl analog of EPINEPHRINE; beta-sympathomimetic that acts on the heart, bronchi, skeletal muscle, alimentary tract, etc. It is used mainly as bronchodilator and heart stimulant.Carcinoma, Mucoepidermoid: A tumor of both low- and high-grade malignancy. The low-grade grow slowly, appear in any age group, and are readily cured by excision. The high-grade behave aggressively, widely infiltrate the salivary gland and produce lymph node and distant metastases. Mucoepidermoid carcinomas account for about 21% of the malignant tumors of the parotid gland and 10% of the sublingual gland. They are the most common malignant tumor of the parotid. (From DeVita Jr et al., Cancer: Principles & Practice of Oncology, 3d ed, p575; Holland et al., Cancer Medicine, 3d ed, p1240)Carcinoma, Acinar Cell: A malignant tumor arising from secreting cells of a racemose gland, particularly the salivary glands. Racemose (Latin racemosus, full of clusters) refers, as does acinar (Latin acinus, grape), to small saclike dilatations in various glands. Acinar cell carcinomas are usually well differentiated and account for about 13% of the cancers arising in the parotid gland. Lymph node metastasis occurs in about 16% of cases. Local recurrences and distant metastases many years after treatment are common. This tumor appears in all age groups and is most common in women. (Stedman, 25th ed; Holland et al., Cancer Medicine, 3d ed, p1240; from DeVita Jr et al., Cancer: Principles & Practice of Oncology, 3d ed, p575)Salivary Glands, Minor: Accessory salivary glands located in the lip, cheek, tongue, floor of mouth, palate and intramaxillary.Salivary Gland Fistula: A fistula between a salivary duct or gland and the cutaneous surface of the oral cavity.Sjogren's Syndrome: Chronic inflammatory and autoimmune disease in which the salivary and lacrimal glands undergo progressive destruction by lymphocytes and plasma cells resulting in decreased production of saliva and tears. The primary form, often called sicca syndrome, involves both KERATOCONJUNCTIVITIS SICCA and XEROSTOMIA. The secondary form includes, in addition, the presence of a connective tissue disease, usually rheumatoid arthritis.Myoepithelioma: A usually benign tumor made up predominantly of myoepithelial cells.Salivary Duct Calculi: Presence of small calculi in the terminal salivary ducts (salivary sand), or stones (larger calculi) found in the larger ducts.Sweat Glands: Sweat-producing structures that are embedded in the DERMIS. Each gland consists of a single tube, a coiled body, and a superficial duct.Carbachol: A slowly hydrolyzed CHOLINERGIC AGONIST that acts at both MUSCARINIC RECEPTORS and NICOTINIC RECEPTORS.Pilocarpine: A slowly hydrolyzed muscarinic agonist with no nicotinic effects. Pilocarpine is used as a miotic and in the treatment of glaucoma.Submandibular Gland NeoplasmsSweating, Gustatory: An autonomic disorder characterized by excessive sweating of the forehead, upper lip, perioral region, or sternum subsequent to gustatory stimuli. The auriculotemporal syndrome features facial flushing or sweating limited to the distribution of the auriculotemporal nerve and may develop after trauma to the parotid gland, in association with PAROTID NEOPLASMS, or following their surgical removal. (From Ann Neurol 1997 Dec;42(6):973-5)Lacrimal Apparatus: The tear-forming and tear-conducting system which includes the lacrimal glands, eyelid margins, conjunctival sac, and the tear drainage system.Sebaceous Glands: Small, sacculated organs found within the DERMIS. Each gland has a single duct that emerges from a cluster of oval alveoli. Each alveolus consists of a transparent BASEMENT MEMBRANE enclosing epithelial cells. The ducts from most sebaceous glands open into a HAIR FOLLICLE, but some open on the general surface of the SKIN. Sebaceous glands secrete SEBUM.Harderian Gland: A sebaceous gland that, in some animals, acts as an accessory to the lacrimal gland. The harderian gland excretes fluid that facilitates movement of the third eyelid.Submandibular Gland DiseasesParasympathetic Nervous System: The craniosacral division of the autonomic nervous system. The cell bodies of the parasympathetic preganglionic fibers are in brain stem nuclei and in the sacral spinal cord. They synapse in cranial autonomic ganglia or in terminal ganglia near target organs. The parasympathetic nervous system generally acts to conserve resources and restore homeostasis, often with effects reciprocal to the sympathetic nervous system.Facial Nerve: The 7th cranial nerve. The facial nerve has two parts, the larger motor root which may be called the facial nerve proper, and the smaller intermediate or sensory root. Together they provide efferent innervation to the muscles of facial expression and to the lacrimal and SALIVARY GLANDS, and convey afferent information for TASTE from the anterior two-thirds of the TONGUE and for TOUCH from the EXTERNAL EAR.Cytoplasmic Granules: Condensed areas of cellular material that may be bounded by a membrane.Adrenal Glands: A pair of glands located at the cranial pole of each of the two KIDNEYS. Each adrenal gland is composed of two distinct endocrine tissues with separate embryonic origins, the ADRENAL CORTEX producing STEROIDS and the ADRENAL MEDULLA producing NEUROTRANSMITTERS.Salivary Gland Calculi: Calculi occurring in a salivary gland. Most salivary gland calculi occur in the submandibular gland, but can also occur in the parotid gland and in the sublingual and minor salivary glands.Sympathectomy: The removal or interruption of some part of the sympathetic nervous system for therapeutic or research purposes.Rats, Inbred Strains: Genetically identical individuals developed from brother and sister matings which have been carried out for twenty or more generations or by parent x offspring matings carried out with certain restrictions. This also includes animals with a long history of closed colony breeding.Parotid Region: The region of the face on either side, around the PAROTID GLAND.Trigeminal Nerve Diseases: Diseases of the trigeminal nerve or its nuclei, which are located in the pons and medulla. The nerve is composed of three divisions: ophthalmic, maxillary, and mandibular, which provide sensory innervation to structures of the face, sinuses, and portions of the cranial vault. The mandibular nerve also innervates muscles of mastication. Clinical features include loss of facial and intra-oral sensation and weakness of jaw closure. Common conditions affecting the nerve include brain stem ischemia, INFRATENTORIAL NEOPLASMS, and TRIGEMINAL NEURALGIA.Radiotherapy, Intensity-Modulated: CONFORMAL RADIOTHERAPY that combines several intensity-modulated beams to provide improved dose homogeneity and highly conformal dose distributions.Secretory Rate: The amount of a substance secreted by cells or by a specific organ or organism over a given period of time; usually applies to those substances which are formed by glandular tissues and are released by them into biological fluids, e.g., secretory rate of corticosteroids by the adrenal cortex, secretory rate of gastric acid by the gastric mucosa.Organ Sparing Treatments: Techniques, procedures, and therapies carried out on diseased organs in such a way to avoid complete removal of the organ and preserve the remaining organ function.Substance P: An eleven-amino acid neurotransmitter that appears in both the central and peripheral nervous systems. It is involved in transmission of PAIN, causes rapid contractions of the gastrointestinal smooth muscle, and modulates inflammatory and immune responses.Carcinoma, Adenoid Cystic: Carcinoma characterized by bands or cylinders of hyalinized or mucinous stroma separating or surrounded by nests or cords of small epithelial cells. When the cylinders occur within masses of epithelial cells, they give the tissue a perforated, sievelike, or cribriform appearance. Such tumors occur in the mammary glands, the mucous glands of the upper and lower respiratory tract, and the salivary glands. They are malignant but slow-growing, and tend to spread locally via the nerves. (Dorland, 27th ed)Secretory Vesicles: Vesicles derived from the GOLGI APPARATUS containing material to be released at the cell surface.Panniculitis, Lupus Erythematosus: A type of lupus erythematosus characterized by deep dermal or subcutaneous nodules, most often on the head, face, or upper arms. It is generally chronic and occurs most often in women between the ages of 20 and 45.Tuberculosis, Oral: Tuberculosis of the mouth, tongue, and salivary glands.Methenamine: An anti-infective agent most commonly used in the treatment of urinary tract infections. Its anti-infective action derives from the slow release of formaldehyde by hydrolysis at acidic pH. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p173)Muscarinic Agonists: Drugs that bind to and activate muscarinic cholinergic receptors (RECEPTORS, MUSCARINIC). Muscarinic agonists are most commonly used when it is desirable to increase smooth muscle tone, especially in the GI tract, urinary bladder and the eye. They may also be used to reduce heart rate.Tannins: Polyphenolic compounds with molecular weights of around 500-3000 daltons and containing enough hydroxyl groups (1-2 per 100 MW) for effective cross linking of other compounds (ASTRINGENTS). The two main types are HYDROLYZABLE TANNINS and CONDENSED TANNINS. Historically, the term has applied to many compounds and plant extracts able to render skin COLLAGEN impervious to degradation. The word tannin derives from the Celtic word for OAK TREE which was used for leather processing.Atropine: An alkaloid, originally from Atropa belladonna, but found in other plants, mainly SOLANACEAE. Hyoscyamine is the 3(S)-endo isomer of atropine.Microscopy, Electron: Microscopy using an electron beam, instead of light, to visualize the sample, thereby allowing much greater magnification. The interactions of ELECTRONS with specimens are used to provide information about the fine structure of that specimen. In TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY the reactions of the electrons that are transmitted through the specimen are imaged. In SCANNING ELECTRON MICROSCOPY an electron beam falls at a non-normal angle on the specimen and the image is derived from the reactions occurring above the plane of the specimen.Sebaceous Gland Neoplasms

Fine structure and cytochemistry of the intralobular ducts of the human parotid gland. (1/1132)

An intralobular duct of a human parotid gland has two parts, an intercalated part and a striated part. Intercalated ducts are lined with low cuboidal cells endowed with scanty cytoplasmic organelles. Striated ducts are lined with columnar cells rich in mitochondria and glycogen particles, and are characterized by extensive infoldings of the basal plasma membrane. The apical cytoplasm of the cells of the striated ducts shows a number of membrane-bound granules having a diameter of about 0-15 mum. These granules contain material of varying electron density which does not react with silver or with the histochemical reagents employed in the present study. Thus, on the basis of their small size and histochemical characteristics, they are distinct from the large and dense secretory granules observed in the so-called granular striated ducts of some animals. In addition, cells of striated ducts contain lysosomes, peroxisomes, and large lipoid bodies which give histochemical reactions typical of lipofuscins. Bodies of myoepithelial cells have been observed only in intercalated ducts. Their processes, however, extend into the proximal parts of striated ducts.  (+info)

Origin of acinar cell regeneration after atrophy of the rat parotid induced by duct obstruction. (2/1132)

Acinar cell regeneration in the rat parotid gland after atrophy induced by a one week period of duct obstruction was examined using histology, immunohistochemistry and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). For immunohistochemistry, antibodies to 5-bromo-2'-deoxyuridine (BrdU), injected one hour before tissue collection, and cytokeratin were employed. When clips were removed from the duct, only ductal epithelial cells remained; all acinar cells had been deleted. Some duct cells were BrdU positive. After three days, newly-formed acini comprising immature acinar cells had appeared; many of the cells were BrdU positive and mitotic figures were readily identified. Thereafter progressive acinar cell maturation and proliferation occurred, parotid gland weight returning to control levels by 7 days. Peak BrdU labelling indices for duct and acinar cells were on days 0 and 4, respectively. By TEM, cytoplasmic organelles in epithelial cells of transitional duct-acinar structures seen at 2 days were poorly developed. Immature acinar cells seen on day 3 contained zymogen granules and had increased endoplasmic reticulum and mitochondria. By day 5, maturing acinar cells had abundant endoplasmic reticulum and zymogen granules, resembling acinar cells in control glands. These observations indicated origin of acinar cell precursors from duct cells during regeneration of the acinar cell-free atrophic gland. Subsequent expansion of the acinar cell population was dependent on maturation and proliferation of these newly-formed cells.  (+info)

Secretion of old versus new exportable protein in rat parotid slics. Control by neurotransmitters. (3/1132)

The possibility that old and new secretory granules do not mix and that older exportable protein can be secreted preferentially was tested on parotid gland in vitro. Slices from fasted animals were pulse labeled for 3 min with L-[3H]leucine. Subcellular fractionstion showed that after 1 90-min chase period, the formation of new labeled secretory granules was mostly completed. The ratio of label in secretory granules to label in microsomes increased 250-fold during the period 5--90 min postpulse. After the 90-min chase, a submaximal rate of secretion was initiated by adding a low concentration of isoproterenol to the slices. Preferential secretion of old unlabeled exportable protein was evident from the finding that the percent of total amylase secreted was 3.5-fold greater than the percent of labeled protein secreted. Preferential secretion of old unlabeled exportable amylase was undiminished even when the chase period before addition of isoproterenol was extended to 240 min. Such long chase incubations were still meaningful due to the fact that the spontaneous rat of amylase release and radioactive protein release from the slices was negligibly low. A high isoproterenol concentration added to the slices after a 90-min chase produced the following results. An initial phase of preferential secretion of old unlabeled protein was soon replaced by secretion of a random mixture of new and old exportable protein. Electron micrographs indicated that high rates of secretion involved sequential fusion of secretory granules so that the lumen extended deep into the cell where the new labeled granules were presumably located. At low rates of secretion, the lumen showed no such deep extensions. Experiments were also conducted on slices from glands which had been largely depleted of old granules by prior injection of isoproterenol into the animals. Secretion of labeled protein from such slices stopped with the export of 80% of the labeled protein. This finding indicates that about 20% of the radioactive protein is cellular nonexportable protein and that the slices are capable of exporting the entire amount of secretory protein which was symthesized in vitrol. In addition to the beta-adrenergic receptor which mediates protein secretion, the parotid acinar cell also possesses an alpha-adrenergic and a cholinergic receptor both of which cause K+ release, vacuole formation, and water secretion. Activation of either of the latter two receptors in conjunction with the beta-adrenergic receptor increased randomization of the protein secreted. It is concluded that in the rat parotid acinar cell there is little spontaneous mixing between old granules near the luminal cell membrane and new granules coming up behind from the Golgi complex. The neurotransmitters which induce secretion produce the observed randomization.  (+info)

Ryanodine and inositol trisphosphate receptors are differentially distributed and expressed in rat parotid gland. (4/1132)

The present study examines the cellular distribution of the ryanodine receptor/channel (RyR) and inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate receptor (InsP3R) subtypes in parotid acini. Using fluorescently labelled 4,4-difluoro-4-bora-3a,4a-diaza-s-indacene-3-propionic acid glycyl-ryanodine (BODIPYtrade mark-ryanodine) and confocal microscopy, RyRs were localized primarily to the perinuclear region (basal pole) of the acinar cell. Ryanodine, Ruthenium Red, cAMP and cADP ribose (cADPR) competed with BODIPY-ryanodine, resulting in a reduction in the fluorescence signal. However, inositol 1,4, 5-trisphosphate [Ins(1,4,5)P3] did not alter the binding of BODIPY-ryanodine. Using receptor-subtype-specific antisera, InsP3Rs (types I, II and III) were located predominantly in the apical pole of the parotid cell. The presence of these three subtypes was confirmed using reverse transcriptase PCR with RNA-specific oligonucleotide probes. Binding studies using a parotid cell-membrane fraction identified and characterized RyRs and InsP3Rs in terms of binding affinity (Kd) and maximum binding capacity (Bmax) and confirmed that cADPR displaces ryanodine from its binding sites. Ruthenium Red and 8-Br-cADP-ribose blocked Ca2+ release in permeabilized acinar cells in response to cADPR and cAMP or forskolin, whereas Ins(1,4,5)P3-induced Ca2+ release was unaffected. The localization of the RyRs and InsP3Rs in discrete regions endow broad areas of the parotid cell with ligand-activated Ca2+ channels. The consequences of the dual activation of the RyRs and InsP3Rs by physiologically relevant stimuli such as noradrenaline (norepinephrine) are considered in relation to Ca2+ signalling in the parotid gland.  (+info)

Quantitative description of the spatial arrangement of organelles in a polarised secretory epithelial cell: the salivary gland acinar cell. (5/1132)

Previous quantitative descriptions of cellular ultrastructure have focused on spatial content (volume, surface area and number of organelles and membrane domains). It is possible to complement such descriptions by also quantifying spatial arrangements. Hitherto, applications of stereological methods for achieving this (notably, estimation of covariance and pair correlation functions) have been confined to organ and tissue levels. This study explores 3-dimensional subcellular arrangements of key organelles within acinar cells of rabbit parotid salivary glands, highly polarised epithelial cells specialised for exocrine secretion of alpha-amylase. It focuses on spatial arrangements of secretion product stores (zymogen granules), rough endoplasmic reticulum (RER) and mitochondria. Systematic random samples of electron microscopical fields of view from 3 rabbits were analysed using test grids bearing linear dipole probes of different sizes. Unbiased estimates of organelle volume densities were obtained by point counting and estimates of covariance and pair correlation functions by dipole counting. Plots of pair correlation functions against dipole length identified spatial arrangement differences between organelle types. Volumes within RER and mitochondrial compartments were positively correlated with themselves at distances below 4 microm and 2 microm respectively but were essentially randomly arranged at longer distances. In sharp contrast, zymogen granules were not randomly arranged. They were clustered at distances below 6-7 microm and more widely scattered at greater distances. These findings provide quantitative confirmation of the polarised arrangement of zymogen granules within acinar cells and further support for the relative invariance of biological organisation between subjects.  (+info)

Ultrastructure of the parotid gland in two species of naked-backed bats. (6/1132)

Naked-backed bats of the genus Pteronotus (family Mormoopidae) occur in the Neotropics from Mexico through northern South America. These are relatively small-sized insectivorous species that frequently roost in caves. Eight specimens of naked-backed bats (Pteronotus parnellii) were live-trapped in Suriname and one in Cuba (P. quadridens). Their parotid glands were fixed in an aldehyde mixture designed for field work and postfixed in the laboratory with osmium tetroxide. Tissues were further prepared for electron microscopy by conventional means. The parotid glands of the two species of Pteronotus closely resemble each other except for the substructure of their serous secretory granules. Serous granules in P. parnellii are bizonal, with a moderately dense inner matrix and an outer, denser corona or crescent. The matrix is occupied by laminae, flakes, and filaments in random array. In contrast, serous granules in P. quadridens consist of a uniform matrix that contains dense, usually stacked toroids or tubules either in random array or packed in bundles. A parotid gland from one specimen of P. parnellii contained an endpiece that consisted of cells that contained giant (up to 9 pm in diameter) serous granules. Serous cells in both species contain aggregates of small, uniformly dense, rod-like, membrane-delimited organelles as well as occasional bundles of cytofilaments. The endpieces are separated from intercalated ducts by a ring of granulated cells that contain secretory granules that often have a bull's-eye configuration. Intercalated and striated ducts are typical in appearance, except that many of the cells in the latter contain small, dense secretory granules in their apical cytoplasm. The parotid glands in the two species of naked-baked bats differ slightly in terms of acinar secretory granule ultrastructure, but otherwise are fairly conservative. It is thought that the glands in these particular bats might represent the "basal" condition of the salivary glands of insectivorous bats and thus can serve as a reference point for making comparisons to the highly diversified (in terms of diet) phyllostomid bats.  (+info)

Developmental changes of sugar residues and secretory protein in mucous cells of the early postnatal rat parotid gland. (7/1132)

Mucous cells have been identified in the terminal portions of the early postnatal parotid gland in human and rat, although mature parotid gland acini are composed of serous cells or seromucous cells. Previously, Ikeda et al. demonstrated that mucous cells are present in the rat parotid gland on days 1 to 8 after birth and that the secretory granules within these mucous cells share some histochemical characteristics with mature serous cells. However, it is still not clear whether the mucous cells change into serous cells as the gland develops. The purpose of this study was to determine whether the mucous cells that appear in the early postnatal rat parotid gland change into serous cells. Parotid glands were obtained from male or female Wistar rats (aged 0-14 days and adults). Fixed tissue sections were reacted with soybean agglutinin (SBA) and wheat germ agglutinin (WGA) to detect glycoconjugates, or were stained using an anti-neonatal submandibular gland protein B1 (SMG-B1) antibody to identify serous acinar cells. The sections were observed by transmission electron microscopy. Electron microscopy revealed that cells with characteristics intermediate between those of mucous and serous cells (transitional cells) appeared around day 8 and that the nuclei of these cells did not show chromatin condensation, a characteristic of apoptotic cells. Lectin histochemistry showed that the mucous cells had the same sugar residues as the serous cells, which appeared after day 10. Immunohistochemistry with an anti-SMG-B1 antibody gave a positive reaction not only in the cells with highly electron-dense granules but also in the electron-dense cores of bipartite or tripartite granules in the transitional cells. Cells with morphological characteristics intermediate between those of mucous and serous cells (transitional cells) appearing in the early postnatal rat parotid gland begin to produce B1-immunoreactive protein common to serous acinar cells during development of the gland.  (+info)

Isoproterenol potentiates alpha-adrenergic and muscarinic receptor-mediated Ca2+ response in rat parotid cells. (8/1132)

The effects of the cAMP pathway on the Ca2+ response elicited by phospholipase C-coupled receptor stimulations were studied in rat parotid cells. Although 1 microM isoproterenol (Iso) itself had no effect on the cytosolic Ca2+ concentration, the pretreatment with Iso potentiated Ca2+ responses evoked by phenylephrine. The potentiating effect of Iso was attributed to a shifting of the concentration-response curves of phenylephrine to the left and an increase in the maximal response. Half-maximal potentiation occurred at 3 nM Iso. Iso also potentiated the Ca2+ response elicited by carbachol. The potentiating effect of Iso was mimicked by forskolin (10 microM) and dibutyryl adenosine 3',5'-cyclic monophosphate (2 mM) and was blocked by 10 microM H-89. Iso potentiated the phenylephrine-induced Ca2+ response in the absence of extracellular Ca2+, but Iso did not increase the inositol trisphosphate (IP3) production induced by phenylephrine. These results suggest that the potentiation of the Ca2+ response can be attributed to a sensitization of IP3 receptors by cAMP-dependent protein kinase.  (+info)

  • From lateral to medial, these are: Facial nerve Retromandibular vein External carotid artery Superficial temporal artery Branches of the great auricular nerve Maxillary artery Superficial or lateral relations: The gland is situated deep to the skin, superficial fascia, superficial lamina of investing layer of deep cervical fascia and great auricular nerve (anterior ramus of C2 and C3). (
  • The external carotid artery and its terminal branches within the gland, namely, the superficial temporal and the posterior auricular arteries, supply the parotid gland. (
  • The fascia at the imaginary line between the angle of mandible and mastoid process splits into the superficial lamina and a deep lamina to enclose the gland. (
  • Inhibition by x-irradiation and antimetabolites of dna synthesis without affecting camp elevation in isoproterenol-stimulated mouse parotid gland. (
  • The molecular and pharmacological characteristics of muscarinic receptor subtypes in the rat parotid acinar cell line, PAR-C5, were determined and compared with native rat parotid glands to evaluate the PAR-C5 cell line as a model to study receptor-mediated secretion. (
  • Each parotid is wrapped around the mandibular ramus, and secretes serous saliva through the parotid duct into the mouth, to facilitate mastication and swallowing and to begin the digestion of starches. (
  • These results show that at the level of mRNA, receptor protein and function, PAR-C5 cells and parotid glands are similar, establishing PAR-C5 cells as an important model for muscarinic receptor-mediated secretion. (
  • Branches of facial nerve and parotid duct emerge through this surface. (
  • This video shows a surgery that is done to remove a growth, the surgery goes further to save the facial nerve during the parotid gland surgery. (
  • Specific [N-methyl- 3 H]scopolamine binding in PAR-C5 and parotid membranes was to a single class of sites with mean K D values of 0.38 and 0.64 nM, respectively. (
  • Each gland lies behind the mandibular ramus and in front of the mastoid process of the temporal bone. (
  • There, they synapse with postganglionic fibers which reach the gland by hitch-hiking via the auriculotemporal nerve, a branch of the mandibular nerve. (
  • Posteromedial relations: The gland is situated anterolaterally to mastoid process of temporal bone with its attached sternocleidomastoid and digastric muscles, styloid process of temporal bone with its three attached muscles (stylohyoid, stylopharyngeus, and styloglossus) and carotid sheath with its contained neurovasculature (internal carotid artery, internal jugular vein, and 9th, 10th, 11th, and 12th cranial nerves). (
  • From lateral to medial, these are: Facial nerve Retromandibular vein External carotid artery Superficial temporal artery Branches of the great auricular nerve Maxillary artery Superficial or lateral relations: The gland is situated deep to the skin, superficial fascia, superficial lamina of investing layer of deep cervical fascia and great auricular nerve (anterior ramus of C2 and C3). (
  • The external carotid artery and its terminal branches within the gland, namely, the superficial temporal and the posterior auricular arteries, supply the parotid gland. (
  • Blood is supplied to the parotid gland by the external carotid artery . (
  • The facial nerve and its branches pass through the parotid gland, as does the external carotid artery and retromandibular vein. (
  • At the neck of the mandible, the external carotid artery divides into the superficial temporal artery and maxillary artery inside the parotid gland . (
  • Kinetics of inositol 1,4,5-triphosphate and inositol cyclic 1:2,4,5-triphosphate metabolism in intact rat parotid acinar cells. (
  • Arreola, Jorge 2008-07-01 00:00:00 We previously reported that mouse parotid acinar cells display anion conductance (I ATPCl) when stimulated by external ATP in Na+-free extracellular solutions. (
  • The results presented here provide direct morphological evidence for the role of raw soy on the density of different neuropeptide-containing nerve fibres inducing proliferation in the acinar cells of parotid glands from rats. (
  • These results reveal characteristic differences of reduction capacity of endomembrane compartments in different parotid glandular cells, as well as between untreated and treated acinar cells. (
  • Lectin-binding pattern in parotid acinar cells. (
  • The gland has a capsule of its own of dense connective tissue, but is also provided with a false capsule by investing layer of deep cervical fascia. (
  • The microscopic examination of the excised surgical specimen demonstrated typical features of oncocytic sialolipoma, characterized by a predominately lipomatous component, sparse normal-appearing salivary gland tissue and multiple oncocytic nodules. (
  • The aim of this study is to determine the feasibility of demonstrating the following physiologically-descriptive quantities ('metrics'): the volume of plasma/volume of tissue (νp), Apparent Diffusion Coefficient (ADC), the volume of extracellular extravascular space per volume of tissue (νe), and the contrast agent transfer coefficients (Ktrans) pre and post parotid stimulation in 10 healthy volunteers. (
  • The parotid gland itself is wrapped in a layer of connective tissue and is shaped like an inverted pyramid. (
  • The parotid tissue at the junction of the superficial and deep lobes also demonstrates an ill-defined mass with feeble enhancement ( large open arrow ). (
  • Histology confirmed normal superficial parotid tissue and an Echinococcus cyst. (
  • Non-contrast studies -- Sagittal SE T1-weighted MR image reveals a well-circumscribed hypointense mass lesion compared with surrounding parotid tissue, within the superficial lobe. (
  • Performing a systematic and comprehensive study covering 13 subtypes of salivary gland cancer, next generation sequencing was done on 84 tissue samples of parotid gland cancer using multiplex PCR for enrichment of cancer related gene loci covering hotspots of 46 cancer genes. (
  • Mucosa associated lymphoid tissue lymphomas are the most common lymphomas of the salivary glands. (
  • In the present case report, we describe one case of benign lymphoepithelial lesion with a subsequent low transformation to grade mucosa associated lymphoid tissue lymphoma appearing as a cystic mass in the parotid gland. (
  • The pathology report was consistent with a low-grade marginal-zone B-cell non-Hodgkin lymphoma (mucosa associated lymphoid tissue lymphoma) following benign lymphoepithelial lesion of the gland. (
  • Benign ectopic thyroid tissue within the parotid salivary gland is very rare. (
  • The possible origin of the ectopic thyroid tissue in the parotid salivary gland could be due to a common evolution of the thyroid and parotid glands, a heteroplasia or a metaplasia. (
  • This is due to normal function of parotid remaining tissue and can find a way out of the wound or collect under the skin forming a cyst around the scar in about 2-5% of the cases. (
  • Zurück zum Zitat Mikaszewski B, Markiet K, Smugała A, Stodulski D, Szurowska E, Stankiewicz C (2018) An algorithm for preoperative differential diagnostics of parotid tumours on the basis of their dynamic and diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance images: a retrospective analysis of 158 cases. (
  • Sep 21, 2018 · # Structure with in parotid gland : 1. (
  • General Sensory innervation to the parotid gland, its sheath, and the overlying skin is provided by the great auricular nerve. (
  • Postganglionic sympathetic fibers from superior cervical sympathetic ganglion reach the gland as periarterial nerve plexuses around the middle meningeal artery and their function is mainly vasoconstriction. (
  • There, they synapse with postganglionic fibers which reach the gland by hitch-hiking via the auriculotemporal nerve, a branch of the mandibular nerve. (
  • A mimic of craniofacial pain symptoms of Ernest Syndrome and stylomandibular ligament injury, ACC in this case presented with ear, jaw and tooth pain, as well as pain on chewing and opening wide-all as a result of a growing mass affecting the trigeminal nerve with perineural invasion, the carotid artery, and the parotid gland. (
  • The morphological structure and the neuropeptide-containing nerve fibers (NPY, GAL, SOM, SP, CGRP, VIP) of the glands were examined by light and electronmicroscopy. (
  • It is suggested that the hypertrophic changes in the glands might be caused by the alterations of nerve fibres. (
  • These nerves grow back, however a nerve that supplied the salivary gland may grow into and supply sweat gland and vice versa. (
  • Therefore when the patient smells or tastes food, the nerve fires but stimulates the sweat gland instead of the salivary gland. (
  • It is caused by injury to a nerve, called the auriculotemporal nerve, typically after surgical trauma to the parotid gland. (
  • The parasympathetic secretomotor fibres to parotid arises from the glossopharyngeal nerve. (
  • The nerve reaches the gland via tympanic branch, the lesser petrosal nerve, the otic ganglion and the auriculotemporal nerve. (
  • From the auriculotemporal nerve, but the parotid fascia is innervated by the sensory fiberes of the great auricular nerve. (
  • This nerve runs within the gland and injury to the nerve may result in partial paralysis of that part of the face. (
  • The tumor involving the deep lobe of the parotid gland demonstrates an inhomogeneous mild degree of enhancement ( large arrow ). (
  • The superficial lobe of the parotid gland contained numerous well-circumscribed masses protruding from its surface and multiple homogeneous 0.5- to 1.0-cm nodules throughout the gland parenchyma ( Fig 2 A ). One of the nodules showed central necrosis, corresponding to the imaging findings. (
  • We report 2 interesting cases of hydatid cysts in unusual sites: in the breast and the deep lobe of the parotid gland. (
  • On excision, the cyst appeared to extend into the deep lobe of the parotid gland. (
  • Synchronous unilateral basal cell adenoma of the parotid gland: A case report. (
  • Primary tuberculosis of the parotid gland is rare and was first reported by Depaoli in 1893. (
  • Tuberculosis of the parotid gland usually presents as a slowly growing, nodular mass with variable degree of fixation to superficial and deep structures. (
  • The authors experienced two cases of primary tuberculosis of the parotid gland, which one case treated by surgical excision and antituberculous medication, the other case treated by only antituberculous medication. (
  • However, if the infection doesn't go away within the next week he wants to operate and remove the parotid gland. (
  • The results indicate that asymptomatic enlargement of the parotid glands is not uncommon in diabetes mellitus and that a search for diabetes should be made in all patients exhibiting enlarged asymptomatic parotid glands. (
  • Physical examination revealed diffuse enlargement of the parotid gland with a soft nontender right retromandibular mass. (
  • A firm mobile mass was present in the left parotid gland. (
  • The patient had undergone ultrasonography-guided fine needle aspiration of the left parotid gland several months before. (
  • Computed tomographic scan revealed a mass in the superficial lobe of the left parotid gland with left-sided cervical lymphadenopathy. (
  • A computed tomographic (CT) scan obtained at that time showed a 4.1 × 2.9 × 3.7-cm mass in the superficial lobe of the left parotid gland with left-sided cervical lymphadenopathy (Figures 1 and 2). (
  • A contrast-enhanced CT of the neck was performed ( Figures A, B ) demonstrating a mass infiltrating the left parotid gland impressing upon the left parapharyngeal space ( arrow in A ). (
  • A 32-year-old woman presented with a slowly-growing, painless mass in the parotid region. (
  • A 49-year-old woman presented with an enlarging parotid mass, diagnosed originally as a primary fibrosarcoma. (
  • 3 Primary myxofibrosarcoma of the parotid gland is rare, with approximately 30 cases reported worldwide. (
  • Primary myxofibrosarcoma of the parotid: case report. (