Parkinson Disease, Secondary
Deep Brain Stimulation
Lewy Body Disease
Multiple System Atrophy
Gait Disorders, Neurologic
Supranuclear Palsy, Progressive
Pedunculopontine Tegmental Nucleus
REM Sleep Behavior Disorder
Genetic Predisposition to Disease
Age of Onset
Severity of Illness Index
Dopamine Plasma Membrane Transport Proteins
Sleep Arousal Disorders
Disease Models, Animal
Pure Autonomic Failure
Genome-Wide Association Study
Nerve Tissue Proteins
Polymorphism, Single Nucleotide
Parkinson Disease, Postencephalitic
Vesicular Monoamine Transport Proteins
Impulse Control Disorders
Mental Status Schedule
Proteasome Endopeptidase Complex
Intracellular Signaling Peptides and Proteins
DNA Repeat Expansion
Reproducibility of Results
Analysis of Variance
Task Performance and Analysis
Electron Transport Complex I
Glial Cell Line-Derived Neurotrophic Factor
Physical Therapy Modalities
Autonomic Nervous System Diseases
Chromosomes, Human, Pair 2
Activities of Daily Living
Psychiatric Status Rating Scales
Dopamine correlates of neurological and psychological status in untreated Parkinsonism. (1/6239)Thirty-seven untreated Parkinsonism patients showed significant positive correlations among decreased excretion of free dopamine, MMPI scores indicative of schizophrenic-like looseness of thinking, and the severity of all Parkinsonism signs except tremor. The data could indicate that abnormalities of dopamine metabolism may underlie both the motor and mental abnormalities of Parkinsonism. (+info)
2,3 diphosphoglycerate in Parkinson's disease. (2/6239)The red cell 2,3 DPG, the most important factor for oxygen delivery in the tissues, was found to be increased in Parkinsonism patients compared with controls. The aging process seems not to be a factor in the increased 2,3 DPG concentration. Other factors relevant to raised 2,3 DPG level such as physical activity, increased oxygen requirements, and metabolic changes are discussed. (+info)
Visual control of locomotion in Parkinson's disease. (3/6239)The effect of placing parallel lines on the walking surface on parkinsonian gait was evaluated. To identify the kind of visual cues (static or dynamic) required for the control of locomotion, we tested two visual conditions: normal lighting and stroboscopic illumination (three flashes/s), the latter acting to suppress dynamic visual cues completely. Sixteen subjects with idiopathic Parkinson's disease (nine males, seven females; mean age 68.8 years) and the same number of age-matched controls (seven males; nine females, mean age 67.5 years) were studied. During the baseline phase, Parkinson's disease patients walked with a short-stepped, slow velocity pattern. The double limb support duration was increased and the step cadence was reduced relative to normal. Under normal lighting, visual cues from the lines on the walking surface induced a significant improvement in gait velocity and stride length in Parkinson's disease patients. With stroboscopic illumination and without lines, both groups reduced their stride length and velocity but the changes were significant only in the Parkinson's disease group, indicating greater dependence on dynamic visual information. When stroboscopic light was used with stripes on the floor, the improvement in gait due to the stripes was suppressed in parkinsonian patients. These results demonstrate that the perceived motion of stripes, induced by the patient's walking, is essential to improve the gait parameters and thus favour the hypothesis of a specific visual-motor pathway which is particularly responsive to rapidly moving targets. Previous studies have proposed a cerebellar circuit, allowing the visual stimuli to by-pass the damaged basal ganglia. (+info)
Object location learning and non-spatial working memory of patients with Parkinson's disease may be preserved in "real life" situations. (4/6239)The presence of a spatial memory deficit in Parkinson's disease (PD) is still a matter of discussion. Nineteen PD patients and 16 controls were given two spatial tests and a non-spatial task. First, the subject was led into a room containing 4 objects and had 10 s to memorize their location. After being led outside, the subject had to place icons representing the objects on a map of the room. Differences between the real and estimated locations were evaluated. Afterwards, the subject had to choose a map showing the correct arrangement of objects from 4 alternatives. Locations of some objects were changed before the second test. The subject had 10 s to detect these changes. One point was given for each change or its absence detected. In the non-spatial working memory task, 8 cards of different shapes were used. The subject had to select a different card each time while the cards were shuffled between choices. Errors consisted of selecting previously chosen cards. The means of the above measures for both groups were compared. Absence of any significant differences suggests that PD patients perform well in "real life" memory tests in contrast to similar computerized tests. (+info)
Impairment in preattentive visual processing in patients with Parkinson's disease. (5/6239)We explored the possibility of whether preattentive visual processing is impaired in Parkinson's disease. With this aim, visual discrimination thresholds for orientation texture stimuli were determined in two separate measurement sessions in 16 patients with idiopathic Parkinson's disease. The results were compared with those of 16 control subjects age-matched and 16 young healthy volunteers. Discrimination thresholds were measured in a four-alternative spatial forced-choice paradigm, in which subjects judged the location of a target embedded in a background of distractors. Four different stimulus configurations were employed: (i) a group of vertical targets among horizontal distractors ('vertical line targets'); (ii) targets with varying levels of orientation difference on a background of spatially filtered vertically oriented noise ('Gaussian filtered noise'); (iii) one 'L' among 43 '+' signs ('texton'), all of which assess preattentive visual processing; and (iv) control condition, of one 'L' among 43 'T' distractors ('non-texton' search target), which reflects attentive visual processing. In two of the preattentive tasks (filtered noise and texton), patients with Parkinson's disease required significantly greater orientation differences and longer stimulus durations, respectively. In contrast, their performance in the vertical line target and non-texton search target was comparable to that of the matched control subjects. These differences were more pronounced in the first compared with the second session. Duration of illness and age within the patient group correlated significantly with test performance. In all conditions tested, the young control subjects performed significantly better than the more elderly control group, further indicating an effect of age on this form of visual processing. The results suggest that, in addition to the well documented impairment in retinal processing, idiopathic Parkinson's disease is associated with a deficit in preattentive cortical visual processing. (+info)
The effects of posteroventral pallidotomy on the preparation and execution of voluntary hand and arm movements in Parkinson's disease. (6/6239)We studied the effect of posteroventral pallidotomy on movement preparation and execution in 27 parkinsonian patients using various motor tasks. Patients were evaluated after overnight withdrawal of medication before and 3 months after unilateral pallidotomy. Surgery had no effect on initiation time in unwarned simple and choice reaction time tasks, whereas movement time measured during the same tasks was improved for the contralesional hand. Movement times also improved for isometric and isotonic ballistic movements. In contrast, repetitive, distal and fine movements measured in finger-tapping and pegboard tasks were not improved after pallidotomy. Preparatory processes were investigated using both behavioural and electrophysiological measures. A precued choice reaction time task suggested an enhancement of motor preparation for the contralesional hand. Similarly, movement-related cortical potentials showed an increase in the slope of the late component (NS2) when the patients performed joystick movements with the contralesional hand. However, no significant change was found for the early component (NS1) or when the patient moved the ipsilesional hand. The amplitude of the long-latency stretch reflex of the contralesional hand decreased after surgery. In summary, the data suggest that pallidotomy improved mainly the later stages of movement preparation and the execution of proximal movements with the contralesional limb. These results provide detailed quantitative data on the impact of posteroventral pallidotomy on previously described measures of upper limb akinesia in Parkinson's disease. (+info)
Low-dose clozapine for the treatment of drug-induced psychosis in Parkinson's disease. The Parkinson Study Group. (7/6239)BACKGROUND: Drug-induced psychosis is a difficult problem to manage in patients with Parkinson's disease. Multiple open-label studies have reported that treatment with clozapine at low doses ameliorates psychosis without worsening parkinsonism. METHODS: We conducted a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial of low doses of clozapine (6.25 to 50 mg per day) in 60 patients at six sites over a period of 14 months. The patients (mean age, 72 years) had idiopathic Parkinson's disease and drug-induced psychosis of at least four weeks' duration. All the patients continued to receive fixed doses of antiparkinsonian drugs during the four weeks of the trial. Blood counts were monitored weekly in all the patients. RESULTS: The mean dose of clozapine was 24.7 mg per day. The patients in the clozapine group had significantly more improvement than those in the placebo group in all three of the measures used to determine the severity of psychosis. The mean (+/-SE) scores on the Clinical Global Impression Scale improved by 1.6+/-0.3 points for the patients receiving clozapine, as compared with 0.5+/-0.2 point for those receiving placebo (P<0.001). The score on the Brief Psychiatric Rating Scale improved by 9.3+/-1.5 points for the patients receiving clozapine, as compared with 2.6+/-1.3 points for those receiving placebo (P=0.002). The score on the Scale for the Assessment of Positive Symptoms improved by 11.8+/-2.0 points for the patients receiving clozapine, as compared with 3.8+/-1.9 points for those receiving placebo (P=0.01). Seven patients treated with clozapine had an improvement of at least three on the seven-point Clinical Global Impression Scale, as compared with only one patient given placebo. Clozapine treatment improved tremor and had no deleterious effect on the severity of parkinsonism. In one patient, clozapine was discontinued because of leukopenia. CONCLUSIONS: Clozapine, at daily doses of 50 mg or less, is safe and significantly improves drug-induced psychosis without worsening parkinsonism. (+info)
A wide variety of mutations in the parkin gene are responsible for autosomal recessive parkinsonism in Europe. French Parkinson's Disease Genetics Study Group and the European Consortium on Genetic Susceptibility in Parkinson's Disease. (8/6239)Autosomal recessive juvenile parkinsonism (AR-JP, PARK2; OMIM 602544), one of the monogenic forms of Parkinson's disease (PD), was initially described in Japan. It is characterized by early onset (before age 40), marked response to levodopa treatment and levodopa-induced dyskinesias. The gene responsible for AR-JP was recently identified and designated parkin. We have analysed the 12 coding exons of the parkin gene in 35 mostly European families with early onset autosomal recessive parkinsonism. In one family, a homozygous deletion of exon 4 could be demonstrated. By direct sequencing of the exons in the index patients of the remaining 34 families, eight previously undescribed point mutations (homozygous or heterozygous) were detected in eight families that included 20 patients. The mutations segregated with the disease in the families and were not detected on 110-166 control chromosomes. Four mutations caused truncation of the parkin protein. Three were frameshifts (202-203delAG, 255delA and 321-322insGT) and one a nonsense mutation (Trp453Stop). The other four were missense mutations (Lys161Asn, Arg256Cys, Arg275Trp and Thr415Asn) that probably affect amino acids that are important for the function of the parkin protein, since they result in the same phenotype as truncating mutations or homozygous exon deletions. Mean age at onset was 38 +/- 12 years, but onset up to age 58 was observed. Mutations in the parkin gene are therefore not invariably associated with early onset parkinsonism. In many patients, the phenotype is indistinguishable from that of idiopathic PD. This study has shown that a wide variety of different mutations in the parkin gene are a common cause of autosomal recessive parkinsonism in Europe and that different types of point mutations seem to be more frequently responsible for the disease phenotype than are deletions. (+info)
Parkinson's disease is a chronic and progressive neurological disorder that affects movement. It is caused by the degeneration of dopamine-producing neurons in the substantia nigra, a region of the brain that plays a crucial role in controlling movement. The symptoms of Parkinson's disease typically develop gradually and may include tremors, stiffness, slow movement, and difficulty with balance and coordination. Other common symptoms may include loss of smell, constipation, sleep disturbances, and cognitive changes. Parkinson's disease is usually diagnosed based on a combination of medical history, physical examination, and neuroimaging tests. There is currently no cure for Parkinson's disease, but medications and other treatments can help manage symptoms and improve quality of life for people with the condition.
Alpha-Synuclein is a protein that is found in nerve cells in the brain and spinal cord. It is involved in the normal functioning of these cells, and it is also a key component of Lewy bodies, which are abnormal protein aggregates that are found in the brains of people with Parkinson's disease and other neurodegenerative disorders. Alpha-Synuclein is thought to play a role in the development of these disorders by disrupting the normal functioning of nerve cells and leading to the formation of Lewy bodies.
Parkinsonian Disorders are a group of neurological conditions characterized by the presence of symptoms similar to those seen in Parkinson's disease, such as tremors, stiffness, slowness of movement, and postural instability. These disorders can be caused by a variety of factors, including genetics, exposure to certain toxins, and brain injury. Parkinsonian Disorders can be further classified into several subtypes, including Parkinson's disease, multiple system atrophy, progressive supranuclear palsy, and corticobasal degeneration. Treatment for Parkinsonian Disorders typically involves medications to manage symptoms and may also include physical therapy, occupational therapy, and surgery in some cases.
Glucosylceramidase is an enzyme that plays a crucial role in the metabolism of glycosphingolipids, a type of lipid found in cell membranes. Specifically, glucosylceramidase catalyzes the hydrolysis of glucosylceramide, a glycosphingolipid, into ceramide and glucose. In the medical field, glucosylceramidase deficiency is a rare genetic disorder called Gaucher disease, which affects the metabolism of glucosylceramide. This deficiency leads to the accumulation of glucosylceramide in cells, particularly in the spleen, liver, and bone marrow, causing a range of symptoms such as anemia, enlarged liver and spleen, bone pain, and neurological problems. There are several types of Gaucher disease, depending on the severity of the deficiency and the age of onset. Treatment for Gaucher disease typically involves enzyme replacement therapy, which involves administering the missing enzyme, glucosylceramidase, to the patient.
Levodopa is a medication that is used to treat Parkinson's disease. It is a synthetic form of dopamine, a neurotransmitter that is produced by the brain and is important for controlling movement. Parkinson's disease is a progressive neurological disorder that is characterized by the loss of dopamine-producing cells in the brain, which leads to symptoms such as tremors, stiffness, and difficulty with movement. Levodopa works by being converted into dopamine in the brain, which helps to improve the symptoms of Parkinson's disease. It is usually taken in combination with other medications, such as carbidopa, to increase its effectiveness and reduce side effects.
Secondary Parkinson's disease (also known as Parkinson's disease with a known cause) is a type of Parkinson's disease that is caused by an underlying medical condition or exposure to a toxic substance. Unlike primary Parkinson's disease, which is of unknown cause, secondary Parkinson's disease has a specific cause that can be identified. The underlying causes of secondary Parkinson's disease can include: 1. Exposure to toxins: Exposure to certain toxins, such as pesticides, solvents, and heavy metals, can increase the risk of developing Parkinson's disease. 2. Infections: Certain infections, such as viral infections, can increase the risk of developing Parkinson's disease. 3. Medications: Certain medications, such as antipsychotics and antidepressants, can increase the risk of developing Parkinson's disease. 4. Genetic factors: Some people may be more susceptible to developing Parkinson's disease due to genetic factors. 5. Head injuries: Head injuries, particularly those that result in traumatic brain injury, can increase the risk of developing Parkinson's disease. Secondary Parkinson's disease can present with similar symptoms to primary Parkinson's disease, including tremors, stiffness, and difficulty with movement. However, the symptoms may be more severe and progress more quickly in secondary Parkinson's disease. Treatment for secondary Parkinson's disease may involve addressing the underlying cause, as well as managing the symptoms of Parkinson's disease.
1-Methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP) is a neurotoxin that has been used in research to study the effects of Parkinson's disease on the brain. It is a synthetic compound that is structurally similar to the neurotransmitter dopamine, but it is not able to be broken down by the body's enzymes and instead accumulates in the brain. When MPTP is taken, it is converted into a toxic metabolite that damages the dopamine-producing neurons in the substantia nigra, a region of the brain that is important for movement control. This leads to the symptoms of Parkinson's disease, such as tremors, stiffness, and difficulty with movement. MPTP has also been used as a recreational drug, but it can be highly toxic and can cause serious harm or death if taken in large amounts.
Dopamine is a neurotransmitter that plays a crucial role in the brain's reward and pleasure centers. It is also involved in regulating movement, motivation, and emotional responses. In the medical field, dopamine is often used to treat conditions such as Parkinson's disease, which is characterized by a lack of dopamine in the brain. It can also be used to treat high blood pressure, as well as to manage symptoms of depression and schizophrenia. Dopamine is typically administered through injections or intravenous infusions, although it can also be taken orally in some cases.
Lewy Body Disease (LBD) is a progressive neurodegenerative disorder that affects the brain and nervous system. It is characterized by the presence of abnormal protein deposits called Lewy bodies in the brain, which disrupt the normal functioning of nerve cells and lead to a range of symptoms. LBD is a rare disease that can affect both the elderly and younger adults. It is often associated with Parkinson's disease, although it has its own distinct set of symptoms. The main symptoms of LBD include: 1. Cognitive impairment: This can include memory loss, confusion, and changes in personality. 2. Movement disorders: These can include tremors, stiffness, and difficulty with balance and coordination. 3. Sleep disorders: This can include excessive daytime sleepiness, insomnia, and vivid dreams. 4. Visual hallucinations: This can include seeing things that are not there. 5. Autonomic dysfunction: This can include changes in blood pressure, heart rate, and sweating. LBD is a progressive disease, meaning that the symptoms typically worsen over time. There is currently no cure for LBD, but medications and other treatments can help manage the symptoms and improve quality of life for those affected by the disease.
Multiple System Atrophy (MSA) is a rare, progressive neurological disorder that affects multiple systems in the body, including the autonomic nervous system, which controls involuntary functions such as heart rate, blood pressure, and digestion, and the central nervous system, which controls voluntary movements. MSA is characterized by a combination of symptoms, including tremors, stiffness, difficulty walking, problems with balance and coordination, urinary problems, and sexual dysfunction. These symptoms can vary in severity and may progress over time. The exact cause of MSA is not known, but it is believed to be related to the degeneration of nerve cells in the brain and spinal cord. There is no cure for MSA, and treatment is focused on managing symptoms and improving quality of life.
Gait disorders, neurologic refer to a group of conditions that affect the way a person walks due to a neurological disorder. These disorders can be caused by a variety of factors, including damage to the nervous system, muscle weakness or spasticity, and problems with balance or coordination. Some common examples of neurologic gait disorders include Parkinson's disease, multiple sclerosis, spinal cord injuries, and stroke. These disorders can cause a range of symptoms, such as shuffling gait, difficulty with balance, tripping or falling, and changes in stride length or cadence. Treatment for neurologic gait disorders typically involves a combination of physical therapy, medication, and assistive devices, such as canes or walkers. In some cases, surgery may be necessary to address underlying neurological issues or to improve mobility.
Oxidopamine is a neurotransmitter that is involved in the regulation of various physiological processes in the body, including blood pressure, heart rate, and gastrointestinal motility. It is synthesized from dopamine by the enzyme dopamine beta-hydroxylase, which adds a hydroxyl group to the beta position of the dopamine molecule. In the medical field, oxidopamine is used as a medication to increase blood pressure and heart rate in patients with low blood pressure or heart failure. It is typically administered intravenously and works by stimulating the release of norepinephrine from the adrenal glands, which in turn constricts blood vessels and increases heart rate. Oxidopamine is also used in research to study the effects of dopamine on various physiological processes and to develop new treatments for conditions such as Parkinson's disease and schizophrenia.
MPTP (1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine) poisoning is a neurological disorder caused by exposure to the neurotoxin MPTP. MPTP is a naturally occurring compound found in some species of bacteria and plants, but it is also a byproduct of the illegal synthesis of the drug MDMA (ecstasy). MPTP poisoning typically occurs when individuals accidentally ingest MPTP or its contaminated derivatives, such as contaminated street drugs or contaminated cosmetics. MPTP poisoning affects the dopaminergic neurons in the substantia nigra, a region of the brain that is responsible for producing dopamine, a neurotransmitter that plays a crucial role in movement. When these neurons are damaged or destroyed, it can lead to a condition called Parkinson's disease-like syndrome, which is characterized by symptoms such as tremors, rigidity, bradykinesia (slowness of movement), and postural instability. MPTP poisoning is a serious medical emergency that requires prompt medical attention. Treatment typically involves supportive care to manage symptoms and prevent complications, as well as medications to manage symptoms and slow the progression of the disease. In severe cases, surgery may be necessary to implant a device that can help control movement.
Neurodegenerative diseases are a group of disorders characterized by the progressive loss of structure and function of neurons, the nerve cells that make up the brain and spinal cord. These diseases are typically associated with aging, although some can occur at a younger age. Neurodegenerative diseases can affect different parts of the brain and spinal cord, leading to a wide range of symptoms and complications. Some of the most common neurodegenerative diseases include Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease, Huntington's disease, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), and multiple sclerosis (MS). The exact causes of neurodegenerative diseases are not fully understood, but they are believed to involve a combination of genetic and environmental factors. Some neurodegenerative diseases are caused by mutations in specific genes, while others may be triggered by exposure to toxins, infections, or other environmental factors. Treatment for neurodegenerative diseases is often focused on managing symptoms and slowing the progression of the disease. This may involve medications, physical therapy, speech therapy, and other forms of supportive care. While there is currently no cure for most neurodegenerative diseases, ongoing research is aimed at developing new treatments and improving the quality of life for people living with these conditions.
Ubiquitin-protein ligases, also known as E3 ligases, are a class of enzymes that play a crucial role in the process of protein degradation in cells. These enzymes are responsible for recognizing specific target proteins and tagging them with ubiquitin, a small protein that serves as a signal for degradation by the proteasome, a large protein complex that breaks down proteins in the cell. In the medical field, ubiquitin-protein ligases are of great interest because they are involved in a wide range of cellular processes, including cell cycle regulation, DNA repair, and the regulation of immune responses. Dysregulation of these enzymes has been implicated in a number of diseases, including cancer, neurodegenerative disorders, and autoimmune diseases. For example, some E3 ligases have been shown to play a role in the development of certain types of cancer by promoting the degradation of tumor suppressor proteins or by stabilizing oncogenic proteins. In addition, mutations in certain E3 ligases have been linked to neurodegenerative diseases such as Huntington's disease and Parkinson's disease. Overall, understanding the function and regulation of ubiquitin-protein ligases is an important area of research in the medical field, as it may lead to the development of new therapeutic strategies for a variety of diseases.
Supranuclear Palsy, also known as Progressive Supranuclear Palsy (PSP), is a rare neurodegenerative disorder that affects the brain's movement control system. It is characterized by a combination of symptoms that include: 1. Impaired vertical gaze: This means that the person has difficulty looking up or down without moving their head. 2. Bradykinesia: This is a slowing of movement, which can affect both the upper and lower limbs. 3. Rigidity: This is a stiffness or resistance to movement, which can be particularly noticeable in the neck and trunk. 4. Postural instability: This means that the person has difficulty maintaining balance and may fall easily. 5. Bradyphrenia: This is a slowing of speech and thought. 6. Emotion and personality changes: This can include depression, anxiety, and apathy. The exact cause of PSP is not known, but it is believed to be related to the accumulation of certain proteins in the brain. There is currently no cure for PSP, but treatment can help manage symptoms and improve quality of life.
Essential Tremor (ET) is a common neurological disorder characterized by involuntary, rhythmic shaking or trembling of the hands, arms, head, voice, legs, or other parts of the body. The shaking is usually most noticeable when the affected person is at rest or performing a task that requires fine motor control, such as writing, drinking from a glass, or using a fork. ET is classified as a movement disorder, and it is not caused by a specific underlying medical condition or substance use. Instead, it is thought to be related to abnormal activity in the brain's basal ganglia, which are responsible for regulating movement. ET can range in severity from mild to severe, and it can affect people of all ages and genders. While there is no cure for ET, there are several treatments available that can help manage symptoms, including medications, physical therapy, and deep brain stimulation surgery.
Gaucher disease is a genetic disorder that affects the body's ability to break down and recycle a fatty substance called glucocerebroside. This leads to the accumulation of the substance in certain cells and organs, particularly in the liver, spleen, and bone marrow. There are three main types of Gaucher disease: type 1, type 2, and type 3. Type 1 is the most common and typically presents in childhood, while type 2 and type 3 are less common and may not appear until adulthood. Symptoms of Gaucher disease can include an enlarged liver and spleen, fatigue, bone pain, and an increased risk of infections. Treatment options for Gaucher disease include enzyme replacement therapy, substrate reduction therapy, and bone marrow transplantation.
REM Sleep Behavior Disorder (RBD) is a sleep disorder characterized by the loss of muscle atonia, or the inability to move, during rapid eye movement (REM) sleep. This can result in the individual acting out their dreams, which can be violent or bizarre, and potentially causing harm to themselves or their sleeping partner. RBD is often associated with other neurological conditions, such as Parkinson's disease, multiple system atrophy, and dementia with Lewy bodies. It is typically diagnosed through a combination of a sleep study and a physical examination to rule out other potential causes of the symptoms. Treatment may include medication, lifestyle changes, and in some cases, the use of a special type of mask to prevent injury during sleep.
Tyrosine 3-monooxygenase (T3MO) is an enzyme that plays a role in the metabolism of tyrosine, an amino acid that is a precursor to many important molecules in the body, including neurotransmitters, hormones, and melanin. T3MO catalyzes the conversion of tyrosine to 3,4-dihydroxyphenylalanine (DOPA), which is then converted to dopamine, norepinephrine, and epinephrine by other enzymes. T3MO is primarily found in the brain and adrenal gland, and it is involved in the regulation of mood, motivation, and stress response. Abnormalities in T3MO activity have been linked to a number of neurological and psychiatric disorders, including depression, anxiety, and schizophrenia.
Pergolide is a medication that is primarily used to treat Parkinson's disease. It is a dopamine agonist, which means that it works by increasing the levels of dopamine in the brain. Dopamine is a neurotransmitter that is involved in movement and is often depleted in people with Parkinson's disease. Pergolide can help to improve symptoms such as tremors, stiffness, and slowness of movement in people with Parkinson's disease. It is usually taken in the form of tablets or as a solution that is injected under the skin. Pergolide can also be used to treat other conditions, such as restless legs syndrome and acromegaly (a hormonal disorder that causes abnormal growth of body tissues). However, it is important to note that pergolide has been associated with serious side effects, including heart valve problems and stroke, and its use is generally reserved for people with advanced Parkinson's disease who have not responded well to other treatments.
Beta-Synuclein is a protein that is found in the brain and other parts of the nervous system. It is a component of Lewy bodies, which are abnormal protein aggregates that are found in the brains of people with Parkinson's disease and other neurodegenerative disorders. Beta-Synuclein is also involved in the regulation of neurotransmitter release and the maintenance of neuronal health. Mutations in the gene that codes for beta-Synuclein have been linked to an increased risk of developing Parkinson's disease and other neurodegenerative disorders.
Hypokinesia is a medical term that refers to a decrease in the amount of movement or muscle activity in a person's body. It can be caused by a variety of factors, including neurological disorders, muscle weakness, or injury. Hypokinesia can manifest in different ways, depending on the affected muscles and the severity of the condition. Some common symptoms of hypokinesia include slow or jerky movements, difficulty with coordination and balance, and reduced range of motion. In some cases, hypokinesia may be a sign of a more serious underlying condition, such as Parkinson's disease or multiple sclerosis. Treatment for hypokinesia depends on the underlying cause and may include physical therapy, medication, or surgery.
Oncogenes are genes that have the potential to cause cancer when they are mutated or expressed at high levels. Oncogenes are also known as proto-oncogenes, and they are involved in regulating cell growth and division. When oncogenes are mutated or expressed at high levels, they can cause uncontrolled cell growth and division, leading to the development of cancer. Oncogene proteins are the proteins that are produced by oncogenes. These proteins can play a variety of roles in the development and progression of cancer, including promoting cell growth and division, inhibiting cell death, and contributing to the formation of tumors.
Nerve degeneration refers to the progressive loss of function and structure of a nerve over time. This can occur due to a variety of factors, including injury, disease, or aging. Nerve degeneration can lead to a range of symptoms, depending on which nerves are affected and the severity of the degeneration. Common symptoms of nerve degeneration include pain, numbness, weakness, and tingling sensations. In some cases, nerve degeneration can lead to more serious complications, such as muscle atrophy or paralysis. Treatment for nerve degeneration typically involves addressing the underlying cause of the degeneration, as well as managing symptoms and preventing further damage to the affected nerves.
Dementia is a general term used to describe a group of symptoms that are caused by damage or disease in the brain. It is a progressive and irreversible condition that affects memory, thinking, and behavior. Dementia can be caused by a variety of factors, including Alzheimer's disease, vascular dementia, frontotemporal dementia, and Lewy body dementia. These conditions can affect different parts of the brain and cause different symptoms. Some common symptoms of dementia include: - Memory loss - Difficulty with language and communication - Confusion and disorientation - Changes in mood and behavior - Difficulty with problem-solving and decision-making - Changes in physical abilities, such as balance and coordination Dementia can be diagnosed through a combination of medical history, physical examination, and various tests, such as brain imaging and cognitive assessments. There is currently no cure for dementia, but treatments can help manage symptoms and improve quality of life for those affected.
Carbidopa is a medication that is used in combination with levodopa to treat Parkinson's disease. Parkinson's disease is a progressive neurological disorder that affects movement and can cause symptoms such as tremors, stiffness, and difficulty with balance and coordination. Carbidopa works by inhibiting an enzyme in the body called aromatic L-amino acid decarboxylase (AADC), which breaks down levodopa before it can be converted into dopamine, a neurotransmitter that is involved in movement. By inhibiting AADC, carbidopa allows more levodopa to reach the brain and be converted into dopamine, which can help to reduce the symptoms of Parkinson's disease. Carbidopa is usually taken in combination with levodopa, which is the active ingredient in the medication Sinemet, the most commonly prescribed medication for Parkinson's disease. The combination of carbidopa and levodopa is often referred to as "levodopa/carbidopa" or simply "Sinemet."
Maneb is a chemical compound that is used as a fungicide in agriculture and horticulture. It is a member of the carbamate class of pesticides and is primarily used to control fungal diseases on crops such as corn, wheat, and rice. Maneb is also used to control fungal infections on plants such as roses and ornamental shrubs. In the medical field, Maneb is not typically used as a treatment for human diseases. However, it has been associated with certain health risks, including respiratory problems, skin irritation, and neurological effects. Exposure to Maneb can occur through inhalation, ingestion, or skin contact, and it is considered a potential carcinogen by some regulatory agencies. As a result, the use of Maneb is regulated in many countries, and its use is typically restricted to agricultural and horticultural applications.
Genetic predisposition to disease refers to the tendency of an individual to develop a particular disease or condition due to their genetic makeup. It means that certain genes or combinations of genes increase the risk of developing a particular disease or condition. Genetic predisposition to disease is not the same as having the disease itself. It simply means that an individual has a higher likelihood of developing the disease compared to someone without the same genetic predisposition. Genetic predisposition to disease can be inherited from parents or can occur due to spontaneous mutations in genes. Some examples of genetic predisposition to disease include hereditary breast and ovarian cancer, Huntington's disease, cystic fibrosis, and sickle cell anemia. Understanding genetic predisposition to disease is important in medical practice because it can help identify individuals who are at high risk of developing a particular disease and allow for early intervention and prevention strategies to be implemented.
Movement disorders are a group of neurological conditions that affect the muscles and movement of the body. These disorders can cause involuntary movements, such as tremors, stiffness, or jerking, as well as difficulties with balance, coordination, and posture. Movement disorders can be caused by a variety of factors, including genetics, brain injury, infections, toxins, and certain medications. Some common movement disorders include Parkinson's disease, Huntington's disease, dystonia, and essential tremor. Treatment for movement disorders depends on the specific disorder and its severity. It may include medications, physical therapy, occupational therapy, surgery, or a combination of these approaches. In some cases, lifestyle changes, such as exercise and a healthy diet, may also be helpful in managing symptoms.
Synucleins are a family of proteins that are involved in a variety of cellular processes, including the regulation of neurotransmitter release, the maintenance of synaptic structure, and the regulation of intracellular trafficking. There are three main types of synucleins: alpha-synuclein, beta-synuclein, and gamma-synuclein. Alpha-synuclein is the most well-studied of the three and is the primary component of Lewy bodies, which are abnormal protein aggregates that are found in the brains of people with Parkinson's disease and other neurodegenerative disorders. Beta-synuclein and gamma-synuclein are less well understood, but they are also implicated in neurodegenerative diseases.
1-Methyl-4-phenylpyridinium (MPP+) is a neurotoxin that is commonly used in research to study the mechanisms of Parkinson's disease. It is a derivative of the neurotransmitter dopamine and is thought to be involved in the degeneration of dopaminergic neurons in the substantia nigra, a region of the brain that is important for movement control. MPP+ is typically administered to laboratory animals to induce Parkinson's-like symptoms, such as tremors, rigidity, and bradykinesia (slowness of movement). It is also used to study the effects of drugs and other treatments on Parkinson's disease symptoms and to test potential therapies for the disease. In the medical field, MPP+ is not used as a treatment for Parkinson's disease or any other condition. It is only used in research settings to study the disease and to develop new treatments.
In the medical field, Tropanes are a class of organic compounds that are derived from the alkaloid tropine. They are known for their ability to interact with the cholinergic system in the brain, which can lead to a range of effects on the central nervous system. Some of the most well-known tropane compounds include atropine, scopolamine, and hyoscyamine. These compounds are often used as medications to treat a variety of conditions, including motion sickness, glaucoma, and overactive bladder. They can also be used as muscle relaxants and as sedatives. However, tropane compounds can also have side effects, including dry mouth, blurred vision, dizziness, and confusion. In some cases, they can also be toxic in high doses, and they may interact with other medications or medical conditions. As a result, tropane compounds are typically used with caution and under the supervision of a healthcare professional.
Dopamine Plasma Membrane Transport Proteins (DATs) are a group of proteins that are responsible for regulating the levels of dopamine, a neurotransmitter, in the brain. These proteins are located on the surface of neurons and are involved in the reuptake of dopamine from the synaptic cleft back into the neuron. This process is important for maintaining the proper balance of dopamine in the brain and for regulating mood, motivation, and reward. Dysfunction of DATs has been implicated in several neurological and psychiatric disorders, including Parkinson's disease, schizophrenia, and addiction.
Sleep arousal disorders are a group of sleep disorders characterized by the abnormal and frequent awakening during sleep. These disorders can cause significant disruption to sleep and can lead to daytime sleepiness, fatigue, and other negative consequences. There are several types of sleep arousal disorders, including: 1. Sleepwalking: A disorder in which a person gets up and walks around while still asleep. 2. Nightmares: Vivid and disturbing dreams that can cause a person to wake up feeling frightened or anxious. 3. Sleep terrors: A disorder in which a person experiences intense fear and panic during sleep, often accompanied by physical symptoms such as sweating and rapid heartbeat. 4. Restless legs syndrome: A disorder in which a person experiences an uncomfortable sensation in their legs that is relieved by moving their legs, often causing them to move around during sleep. 5. Narcolepsy: A disorder in which a person experiences excessive daytime sleepiness and sudden, brief episodes of sleep during waking hours. 6. Sleep-related eating disorder: A disorder in which a person eats during sleep without being aware of it. Treatment for sleep arousal disorders typically involves a combination of lifestyle changes, medication, and therapy. It is important to seek medical attention if you are experiencing symptoms of a sleep arousal disorder, as they can have a significant impact on your quality of life.
In the medical field, "Disease Models, Animal" refers to the use of animals to study and understand human diseases. These models are created by introducing a disease or condition into an animal, either naturally or through experimental manipulation, in order to study its progression, symptoms, and potential treatments. Animal models are used in medical research because they allow scientists to study diseases in a controlled environment and to test potential treatments before they are tested in humans. They can also provide insights into the underlying mechanisms of a disease and help to identify new therapeutic targets. There are many different types of animal models used in medical research, including mice, rats, rabbits, dogs, and monkeys. Each type of animal has its own advantages and disadvantages, and the choice of model depends on the specific disease being studied and the research question being addressed.
Benzothiazoles are a class of organic compounds that contain a benzene ring and a thiazole ring. They are commonly used in the medical field as anti-inflammatory, analgesic, and antipyretic agents. Some examples of benzothiazoles used in medicine include: * Benzbromarone: a diuretic used to treat high blood pressure and edema * Celecoxib: a nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) used to treat pain and inflammation associated with conditions such as arthritis * Etoricoxib: another NSAID used to treat pain and inflammation associated with conditions such as arthritis * Meloxicam: another NSAID used to treat pain and inflammation associated with conditions such as arthritis Benzothiazoles can also be used as anticonvulsants, antihistamines, and antipsychotics. They are also used in the treatment of certain types of cancer, such as leukemia and lymphoma.
Primary dysautonomias are a group of disorders that affect the autonomic nervous system, which is responsible for regulating involuntary bodily functions such as heart rate, blood pressure, digestion, and breathing. These disorders are characterized by a dysfunction of the autonomic nervous system that is not caused by another underlying medical condition. There are several different types of primary dysautonomias, including: 1. Multiple system atrophy (MSA): a progressive disorder that affects the brain and spinal cord, causing symptoms such as muscle stiffness, tremors, and difficulty with balance and coordination. 2. Parkinson's disease: a neurodegenerative disorder that affects movement and can also cause autonomic symptoms such as constipation, urinary incontinence, and orthostatic hypotension (a drop in blood pressure when standing up). 3. Pure autonomic failure (PAF): a disorder that affects the autonomic nervous system's ability to regulate blood pressure, heart rate, and other bodily functions. 4. Autonomic neuropathy: a disorder that affects the nerves that control the autonomic nervous system, causing symptoms such as dizziness, fainting, and difficulty regulating body temperature. These disorders can be difficult to diagnose and treat, as they often involve a range of symptoms and can progress slowly over time. Treatment may involve medications to manage symptoms, physical therapy, and other supportive care.
Dyskinesias are involuntary, repetitive, and often awkward movements of the muscles. They can affect any part of the body, but are most commonly seen in the face, tongue, and limbs. Dyskinesias can be caused by a variety of factors, including medication side effects, neurological disorders, and genetic conditions. In the medical field, dyskinesias are often associated with conditions such as Parkinson's disease, Huntington's disease, and tardive dyskinesia. Treatment for dyskinesias depends on the underlying cause and may include medication adjustments, physical therapy, or other interventions.
Postmortem changes refer to the physical and chemical changes that occur in the body after death. These changes can be observed during a postmortem examination, also known as an autopsy, and can provide important clues about the cause and time of death. Some common postmortem changes include: 1. Rigor mortis: This is the stiffening of the muscles that occurs after death due to the buildup of lactic acid. 2. Algor mortis: This is the cooling of the body after death due to the lack of blood flow and metabolic activity. 3. Livor mortis: This is the discoloration of the skin and tissues due to pooling of blood in the lowest parts of the body. 4. Decomposition: This is the breakdown of the body's tissues and organs due to the action of bacteria and other microorganisms. 5. Autolysis: This is the breakdown of the body's tissues by the body's own enzymes. 6. Putrefaction: This is the advanced stage of decomposition, characterized by the production of gases and the release of foul-smelling fluids. Understanding postmortem changes is important for forensic pathologists and other medical professionals who are investigating deaths and determining the cause and manner of death.
Olfaction disorders refer to conditions that affect an individual's ability to detect, identify, or interpret odors. These disorders can be caused by a variety of factors, including genetic, neurological, environmental, or systemic conditions. Some common examples of olfactory disorders include anosmia (loss of the sense of smell), hyposmia (reduced sense of smell), parosmia (distorted sense of smell), and phantosmia (false sense of smell). Olfactory disorders can have a significant impact on an individual's quality of life, as the sense of smell is closely linked to many aspects of daily functioning, including appetite, mood, and social interactions. In some cases, olfactory disorders may also be a symptom of a more serious underlying medical condition, such as a brain tumor or head injury. Diagnosis and treatment of olfactory disorders typically involve a combination of medical history, physical examination, and specialized testing, such as smell identification tests or imaging studies. Treatment options may include medications, surgery, or other interventions, depending on the underlying cause of the disorder.
Alzheimer's disease is a progressive neurodegenerative disorder that affects memory, thinking, and behavior. It is the most common cause of dementia, a condition characterized by a decline in cognitive abilities severe enough to interfere with daily life. The disease is named after Alois Alzheimer, a German psychiatrist who first described it in 1906. Alzheimer's disease is characterized by the accumulation of abnormal protein deposits in the brain, including amyloid-beta plaques and neurofibrillary tangles. These deposits disrupt the normal functioning of brain cells, leading to their death and the progressive loss of cognitive abilities. Symptoms of Alzheimer's disease typically begin with mild memory loss and gradually worsen over time. As the disease progresses, individuals may experience difficulty with language, disorientation, and changes in personality and behavior. Eventually, they may become unable to care for themselves and require around-the-clock care. There is currently no cure for Alzheimer's disease, but treatments are available to manage symptoms and improve quality of life for those affected by the disease. These treatments may include medications, lifestyle changes, and support from caregivers and healthcare professionals.
In the medical field, tau proteins are a group of proteins that are primarily found in the brain and are involved in the regulation of microtubules, which are important for maintaining the structure and function of neurons. Tau proteins are also involved in the transport of materials within neurons and play a role in the development and maintenance of neural connections. Abnormalities in the structure or function of tau proteins have been implicated in a number of neurodegenerative diseases, including Alzheimer's disease, frontotemporal dementia, and Parkinson's disease. In these conditions, tau proteins can become hyperphosphorylated, which can lead to the formation of aggregates or tangles within neurons. These aggregates can disrupt the normal functioning of neurons and contribute to the progressive loss of brain function that is characteristic of these diseases.
Manganese poisoning is a condition that occurs when a person is exposed to high levels of manganese over a prolonged period of time. Manganese is a naturally occurring element that is essential for human health in small amounts, but exposure to high levels of manganese can be harmful. Manganese poisoning can occur through inhalation of manganese dust or fumes, ingestion of contaminated water or food, or through skin absorption. Symptoms of manganese poisoning can include tremors, muscle weakness, memory loss, and difficulty with coordination and balance. In severe cases, manganese poisoning can lead to neurological damage and even death. Treatment for manganese poisoning typically involves removing the person from the source of exposure and providing supportive care to manage symptoms. In some cases, medications may be used to help manage symptoms or to speed up the elimination of manganese from the body. It is important to prevent manganese poisoning by taking steps to minimize exposure to high levels of this element.
Dyskinesia, drug-induced is a movement disorder characterized by involuntary, repetitive, and often awkward movements of the muscles. It is typically caused by long-term use of certain medications, such as antipsychotics, dopamine agonists, and some medications used to treat Parkinson's disease. The movements can range from subtle tremors to more severe, jerky movements of the face, tongue, and limbs. Dyskinesia can be a serious side effect of these medications and can significantly impact a person's quality of life. Treatment options may include reducing the dose of the medication, switching to a different medication, or using medications to manage the symptoms of dyskinesia.
Pure autonomic failure (PAF) is a rare disorder characterized by the gradual loss of function of the autonomic nervous system, which controls involuntary bodily functions such as heart rate, blood pressure, digestion, and sweating. In PAF, the autonomic nervous system fails to function properly, leading to symptoms such as dizziness, fainting, fatigue, and difficulty regulating body temperature. The disorder is typically diagnosed based on a combination of symptoms, physical examination, and tests that measure autonomic function. PAF is a progressive disorder, meaning that the symptoms typically worsen over time. There is currently no cure for PAF, but treatment can help manage symptoms and prevent complications. Treatment may include medications to regulate blood pressure and heart rate, physical therapy to improve balance and prevent falls, and lifestyle changes such as a healthy diet and regular exercise.
Rotenone is a naturally occurring organic compound that is derived from the roots of certain plants, including the South American plants Derris elliptica and Derris robusta. It has been used for centuries as a natural insecticide and fish poison. In the medical field, rotenone has been studied for its potential therapeutic effects. It has been shown to have anti-inflammatory, anti-cancer, and neuroprotective properties. Rotenone has also been used in the treatment of certain neurological disorders, such as Parkinson's disease, as it has been shown to reduce the production of alpha-synuclein, a protein that is associated with the development of Parkinson's disease. However, rotenone is also known to be toxic to humans and animals, particularly to the nervous system. Exposure to high levels of rotenone can cause symptoms such as headache, dizziness, nausea, and respiratory problems. In severe cases, it can lead to seizures, coma, and death. Therefore, the use of rotenone in the medical field is limited and requires careful monitoring and dosing.
Cognition disorders refer to a group of conditions that affect an individual's ability to think, reason, remember, and learn. These disorders can be caused by a variety of factors, including brain injury, neurological disorders, genetic factors, and aging. Cognition disorders can manifest in different ways, depending on the specific area of the brain that is affected. For example, a person with a memory disorder may have difficulty remembering important information, while someone with a language disorder may have trouble expressing themselves or understanding what others are saying. Some common types of cognition disorders include: 1. Alzheimer's disease: A progressive neurological disorder that affects memory, thinking, and behavior. 2. Dementia: A general term used to describe a decline in cognitive function that is severe enough to interfere with daily life. 3. Delirium: A sudden onset of confusion and disorientation that can be caused by a variety of factors, including illness, medication side effects, or dehydration. 4. Aphasia: A language disorder that affects a person's ability to speak, understand, or use language. 5. Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD): A neurodevelopmental disorder that affects a person's ability to focus, pay attention, and control impulses. 6. Learning disorders: A group of conditions that affect a person's ability to acquire and use knowledge and skills. Cognition disorders can have a significant impact on a person's quality of life, and treatment options may include medication, therapy, and lifestyle changes. Early diagnosis and intervention are important for managing these conditions and improving outcomes.
Paraquat is a highly toxic herbicide that is commonly used in agriculture to kill weeds and grasses. It is a non-selective herbicide, meaning that it kills all types of plants, including crops. Paraquat is typically applied as a spray to the leaves of plants, and it works by disrupting the plant's ability to produce energy through photosynthesis. In the medical field, paraquat is not typically used as a treatment for any medical condition. However, paraquat is sometimes used as a suicide poison, and exposure to paraquat can be fatal. Paraquat poisoning can cause a range of symptoms, including shortness of breath, coughing, chest pain, nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, and abdominal pain. In severe cases, paraquat poisoning can lead to respiratory failure and death. Treatment for paraquat poisoning typically involves supportive care, such as oxygen therapy, fluid replacement, and medications to manage symptoms. In some cases, treatment may also involve the use of antidotes to neutralize the effects of paraquat in the body.
Pemoline is a central nervous system stimulant that was previously used to treat attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and narcolepsy. It works by increasing the levels of dopamine and norepinephrine in the brain, which can help improve focus, attention, and alertness. Pemoline was approved by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) in 1996, but its use was later restricted due to concerns about its potential for causing serious side effects, including liver damage and psychiatric problems. In 2006, the FDA ordered the withdrawal of pemoline from the market due to the risks associated with its use. Today, pemoline is no longer available for medical use in the United States. However, it may still be available in other countries or under certain circumstances, such as in clinical trials or for off-label use. It is important to note that the use of pemoline is not recommended due to the potential risks associated with its use.
Selenoprotein W (SelW) is a protein that contains the essential trace element selenium. Selenium is a nutrient that plays a crucial role in many biological processes, including antioxidant defense, thyroid hormone metabolism, and DNA repair. SelW is a member of the selenoprotein family, which are proteins that contain selenium in the form of a selenium-containing amino acid called selenocysteine. In the medical field, SelW has been studied for its potential role in various diseases and conditions. For example, SelW has been shown to play a role in the development of cancer, as it can regulate the activity of certain enzymes involved in cell growth and division. SelW has also been implicated in the development of cardiovascular disease, as it can affect the function of blood vessels and the formation of blood clots. In addition to its potential therapeutic applications, SelW has also been studied as a biomarker for certain diseases. For example, levels of SelW have been found to be elevated in the blood of patients with certain types of cancer, such as prostate cancer and breast cancer. This suggests that SelW may be a useful diagnostic tool for detecting these diseases. Overall, SelW is an important protein that plays a role in many biological processes and has potential applications in the diagnosis and treatment of various diseases.
3,4-Dihydroxyphenylacetic acid (DOPAC) is a metabolite of dopamine, a neurotransmitter that plays a crucial role in various brain functions such as movement, motivation, and reward. DOPAC is produced when dopamine is broken down by the enzyme monoamine oxidase (MAO) in the brain and other tissues. In the medical field, DOPAC is often measured in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) or blood as a biomarker of dopamine metabolism. Abnormal levels of DOPAC can be associated with various neurological and psychiatric disorders, including Parkinson's disease, Huntington's disease, schizophrenia, and depression. Additionally, DOPAC has been studied as a potential therapeutic target for these conditions, as modulating dopamine metabolism may help to improve symptoms and slow disease progression.
Sweat gland diseases refer to a group of medical conditions that affect the sweat glands, which are responsible for producing sweat. These glands are found all over the body, and they play an important role in regulating body temperature and removing waste products from the skin. Sweat gland diseases can be classified into two main categories: primary and secondary. Primary sweat gland diseases are those that affect the sweat glands themselves, while secondary sweat gland diseases are those that result from an underlying medical condition or disorder. Some common examples of primary sweat gland diseases include: 1. Hyperhidrosis: This is a condition characterized by excessive sweating, which can be either focal (occurring in specific areas of the body) or generalized (occurring all over the body). 2. Anhidrosis: This is a rare condition in which the sweat glands do not produce any sweat. 3. Eccrine gland hypoplasia: This is a rare condition in which the sweat glands are underdeveloped or absent. 4. Apocrine gland hyperplasia: This is a condition in which the apocrine sweat glands (which are found in the armpits and groin area) become enlarged and produce an excessive amount of sweat. Secondary sweat gland diseases can result from a variety of underlying medical conditions, including: 1. Diabetes: People with diabetes may experience excessive sweating due to high blood sugar levels. 2. Thyroid disorders: Hyperthyroidism (an overactive thyroid gland) can cause excessive sweating, while hypothyroidism (an underactive thyroid gland) can cause decreased sweating. 3. Neurological disorders: Certain neurological disorders, such as Parkinson's disease and multiple sclerosis, can cause excessive sweating. 4. Infections: Infections such as tuberculosis and fungal infections can cause excessive sweating. 5. Medications: Certain medications, such as antidepressants and blood pressure medications, can cause excessive sweating as a side effect. Treatment for sweat gland diseases depends on the underlying cause and the severity of the condition. In some cases, lifestyle changes such as avoiding triggers that cause excessive sweating or wearing loose-fitting clothing may be sufficient. In more severe cases, medications or surgery may be necessary to manage symptoms.
Nerve tissue proteins are proteins that are found in nerve cells, also known as neurons. These proteins play important roles in the structure and function of neurons, including the transmission of electrical signals along the length of the neuron and the communication between neurons. There are many different types of nerve tissue proteins, each with its own specific function. Some examples of nerve tissue proteins include neurofilaments, which provide structural support for the neuron; microtubules, which help to maintain the shape of the neuron and transport materials within the neuron; and neurofilament light chain, which is involved in the formation of neurofibrillary tangles, which are a hallmark of certain neurodegenerative diseases such as Alzheimer's disease. Nerve tissue proteins are important for the proper functioning of the nervous system and any disruption in their production or function can lead to neurological disorders.
Chromogranin B is a protein that is synthesized and stored in the secretory granules of various endocrine cells, including neurons, chromaffin cells of the adrenal medulla, and endocrine cells of the pancreas, gut, and lung. It is a member of the chromogranin family of proteins, which are characterized by their high molecular weight and their ability to bind to calcium ions. In the medical field, chromogranin B is often used as a diagnostic marker for various diseases, particularly neuroendocrine tumors (NETs). NETs are a type of cancer that arises from neuroendocrine cells and can occur in various parts of the body, including the pancreas, lung, and gastrointestinal tract. Chromogranin B is often overexpressed in NETs, and its levels in the blood can be used to monitor the progression of the disease and to assess the response to treatment. Chromogranin B is also used as a marker for other conditions, such as pheochromocytoma (a tumor of the adrenal gland), carcinoid syndrome (a condition caused by the release of excessive amounts of hormones by NETs), and multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1 (a genetic disorder that increases the risk of developing NETs).
Parkinson's disease, postencephalitic (PDP) is a rare form of Parkinson's disease that is caused by an infection of the brain, usually by the virus called the human herpesvirus 6 (HHV-6). This type of Parkinson's disease is also known as postencephalitic parkinsonism. PDP is characterized by the presence of tremors, stiffness, and slow movement, which are the hallmark symptoms of Parkinson's disease. However, PDP also has some unique features, such as the presence of cognitive impairment, mood disorders, and sleep disturbances. These symptoms are thought to be caused by damage to the brain that occurs as a result of the viral infection. PDP is a rare condition, and it is estimated that only a small percentage of people with Parkinson's disease have this form of the disease. It is most commonly seen in older adults, and it is more common in women than in men. Treatment for PDP is similar to that for other forms of Parkinson's disease, and it may include medications, physical therapy, and other supportive therapies.
Vesicular monoamine transport proteins (VMATs) are a family of proteins that play a critical role in the transport of monoamine neurotransmitters, such as dopamine, serotonin, and norepinephrine, into synaptic vesicles in neurons. These vesicles are small sacs that store neurotransmitters and release them into the synaptic cleft when an action potential reaches the presynaptic terminal. VMATs are responsible for loading these neurotransmitters into the vesicles, which is a critical step in the process of neurotransmitter release. There are two main types of VMATs: VMAT1 and VMAT2. VMAT1 is primarily found in the brain and is involved in the transport of dopamine, serotonin, and norepinephrine into presynaptic terminals. VMAT2 is found in the brain and peripheral tissues, and is primarily involved in the transport of dopamine and norepinephrine into presynaptic terminals. Disruptions in the function of VMATs have been implicated in a number of neurological and psychiatric disorders, including Parkinson's disease, Huntington's disease, and schizophrenia. For example, mutations in the VMAT2 gene have been associated with an increased risk of developing Parkinson's disease. Additionally, drugs that block VMATs, such as cocaine and amphetamines, can cause a range of side effects, including psychosis and addiction.
Impulse control disorders (ICDs) are a group of mental health conditions characterized by a lack of ability to control impulsive behaviors that can lead to negative consequences for the individual or others. These disorders can include kleptomania (the urge to steal), pyromania (the urge to set fires), intermittent explosive disorder (the tendency to have sudden and uncontrollable outbursts of anger), and compulsive gambling, among others. Individuals with ICDs may experience intense urges or cravings that they are unable to resist, leading them to engage in behaviors that they know are harmful or inappropriate. These behaviors can range from minor offenses, such as stealing small items, to more serious actions, such as setting fires or engaging in risky sexual behavior. ICDs are often comorbid with other mental health conditions, such as depression, anxiety, and substance use disorders. Treatment for ICDs typically involves a combination of therapy, medication, and lifestyle changes, such as stress management techniques and avoiding triggers that may lead to impulsive behavior.
Protein-Serine-Threonine Kinases (PSTKs) are a family of enzymes that play a crucial role in regulating various cellular processes, including cell growth, differentiation, metabolism, and apoptosis. These enzymes phosphorylate specific amino acids, such as serine and threonine, on target proteins, thereby altering their activity, stability, or localization within the cell. PSTKs are involved in a wide range of diseases, including cancer, diabetes, cardiovascular disease, and neurodegenerative disorders. Therefore, understanding the function and regulation of PSTKs is important for developing new therapeutic strategies for these diseases.
Sodium benzoate is a preservative that is commonly used in the medical field to prevent the growth of microorganisms in various medical products, such as injectable solutions, eye drops, and topical creams. It is a white crystalline powder that is soluble in water and is often added to solutions in concentrations of 0.1% to 1%. Sodium benzoate works by inhibiting the growth of bacteria, fungi, and yeasts by disrupting their metabolic processes. It is generally considered safe for use in medical products, but high concentrations can cause skin irritation and allergic reactions in some individuals. In addition to its use as a preservative, sodium benzoate has also been studied for its potential therapeutic effects. It has been shown to have anti-inflammatory and anti-cancer properties, and may be useful in the treatment of certain conditions, such as rheumatoid arthritis and cancer. However, more research is needed to fully understand its potential therapeutic applications.
The proteasome endopeptidase complex is a large protein complex found in the cells of all eukaryotic organisms. It is responsible for breaking down and recycling damaged or unnecessary proteins within the cell. The proteasome is composed of two main subunits: the 20S core particle, which contains the proteolytic active sites, and the 19S regulatory particle, which recognizes and unfolds target proteins for degradation. The proteasome plays a critical role in maintaining cellular homeostasis and is involved in a wide range of cellular processes, including cell cycle regulation, immune response, and protein quality control. Dysregulation of the proteasome has been implicated in a number of diseases, including cancer, neurodegenerative disorders, and autoimmune diseases.
Deglutition disorders refer to difficulties or problems with swallowing. This can include difficulty starting or stopping the swallowing process, difficulty swallowing solid or liquid foods, or difficulty feeling full after eating. Deglutition disorders can be caused by a variety of factors, including neurological disorders, structural abnormalities of the esophagus or mouth, and certain medications. Treatment for deglutition disorders depends on the underlying cause and may include medications, dietary changes, physical therapy, or surgery.
Ubiquitin is a small, highly conserved protein that is found in all eukaryotic cells. It plays a crucial role in the regulation of various cellular processes, including protein degradation, cell cycle progression, and signal transduction. In the medical field, ubiquitin is often studied in the context of various diseases, including cancer, neurodegenerative disorders, and autoimmune diseases. For example, mutations in genes encoding ubiquitin or its regulatory enzymes have been linked to several forms of cancer, including breast, ovarian, and prostate cancer. Additionally, the accumulation of ubiquitinated proteins has been observed in several neurodegenerative diseases, such as Alzheimer's disease and Parkinson's disease. Overall, understanding the role of ubiquitin in cellular processes and its involvement in various diseases is an active area of research in the medical field.
Intracellular signaling peptides and proteins are molecules that are involved in transmitting signals within cells. These molecules can be either proteins or peptides, and they play a crucial role in regulating various cellular processes, such as cell growth, differentiation, and apoptosis. Intracellular signaling peptides and proteins can be activated by a variety of stimuli, including hormones, growth factors, and neurotransmitters. Once activated, they initiate a cascade of intracellular events that ultimately lead to a specific cellular response. There are many different types of intracellular signaling peptides and proteins, and they can be classified based on their structure, function, and the signaling pathway they are involved in. Some examples of intracellular signaling peptides and proteins include growth factors, cytokines, kinases, phosphatases, and G-proteins. In the medical field, understanding the role of intracellular signaling peptides and proteins is important for developing new treatments for a wide range of diseases, including cancer, diabetes, and neurological disorders.
Dihydroxyphenylalanine, also known as DOPA, is a chemical compound that is a precursor to the neurotransmitter dopamine. It is produced in the body from the amino acid tyrosine, which is found in many foods, including meat, dairy products, and some vegetables. In the medical field, DOPA is used to treat certain neurological conditions, such as Parkinson's disease, which is characterized by a deficiency of dopamine in the brain. DOPA is given orally or intravenously to increase the levels of dopamine in the brain and improve symptoms such as tremors, stiffness, and difficulty with movement. DOPA is also used to treat other conditions, such as Huntington's disease and some forms of depression. It is important to note that DOPA can have side effects, including nausea, vomiting, and dizziness, and it should only be used under the supervision of a healthcare professional.
Amyloid is a type of protein that is abnormal and forms deposits in tissues throughout the body. These deposits are made up of fibrils, which are long, twisted strands of protein. Amyloidosis is a disease that occurs when amyloid fibrils build up in tissues, leading to damage and dysfunction. There are many different types of amyloidosis, which can affect different organs and tissues in the body. Some types of amyloidosis are inherited, while others are acquired. Treatment for amyloidosis depends on the specific type and severity of the disease.
Receptors, Dopamine are proteins found on the surface of cells in the brain and other parts of the body that bind to the neurotransmitter dopamine. These receptors play a crucial role in regulating a wide range of physiological processes, including movement, motivation, reward, and emotion. There are several different types of dopamine receptors, each with its own specific functions and characteristics. Dysregulation of dopamine receptors has been implicated in a number of neurological and psychiatric disorders, including Parkinson's disease, schizophrenia, and addiction.
Electron transport complex I (also known as NADH:ubiquinone oxidoreductase or NADH-Q oxidoreductase) is a large protein complex located in the inner mitochondrial membrane. It is a key component of the electron transport chain, which is responsible for generating ATP (adenosine triphosphate) through oxidative phosphorylation. In the electron transport chain, electrons are transferred from NADH (nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide) to ubiquinone (coenzyme Q), and this process generates a proton gradient across the inner mitochondrial membrane. Complex I is responsible for accepting electrons from NADH and transferring them to ubiquinone, while also pumping protons from the mitochondrial matrix into the intermembrane space. Complex I is a large, multi-subunit protein complex that contains 45 different polypeptide chains. It is a highly conserved protein, meaning that its structure and function are similar across different species. Dysfunction of complex I has been implicated in a number of human diseases, including neurodegenerative disorders such as Parkinson's disease and Alzheimer's disease, as well as certain types of heart disease.
Monoamine oxidase (MAO) is an enzyme that is responsible for breaking down certain neurotransmitters in the brain, including serotonin, dopamine, and norepinephrine. These neurotransmitters play important roles in regulating mood, appetite, and other bodily functions. MAO inhibitors are a class of drugs that block the activity of this enzyme, allowing these neurotransmitters to remain in the brain for longer periods of time. This can lead to an increase in their effects and may be used to treat conditions such as depression and anxiety.
Tremor is a rhythmic, involuntary movement of a part of the body, usually caused by an underlying medical condition or a side effect of medication. It can affect any part of the body, but is most commonly seen in the hands, arms, legs, and head. Tremor can be classified into several types based on its characteristics and the part of the body affected. Some common types of tremor include: 1. Essential tremor: This is the most common type of tremor and affects the hands, arms, head, and voice. It usually worsens with movement and is more noticeable when the person is trying to perform a task that requires fine motor skills. 2. Parkinson's disease: This is a progressive neurological disorder that causes tremor, stiffness, and slow movement. It usually affects the hands, arms, and legs, and can also cause other symptoms such as speech difficulties and cognitive impairment. 3. Essential hypertension: This type of tremor is caused by high blood pressure and is usually seen in the hands and arms. 4. Medication-induced tremor: Some medications, such as those used to treat anxiety, depression, and seizures, can cause tremor as a side effect. 5. Secondary tremor: This type of tremor is caused by an underlying medical condition, such as a brain tumor, multiple sclerosis, or thyroid disease. Tremor can be treated with medication, physical therapy, or surgery, depending on the underlying cause and the severity of the symptoms.
Protein kinases are enzymes that catalyze the transfer of a phosphate group from ATP (adenosine triphosphate) to specific amino acid residues on proteins. This process, known as phosphorylation, can alter the activity, localization, or stability of the target protein, and is a key mechanism for regulating many cellular processes, including cell growth, differentiation, metabolism, and signaling pathways. Protein kinases are classified into different families based on their sequence, structure, and substrate specificity. Some of the major families of protein kinases include serine/threonine kinases, tyrosine kinases, and dual-specificity kinases. Each family has its own unique functions and roles in cellular signaling. In the medical field, protein kinases are important targets for the development of drugs for the treatment of various diseases, including cancer, diabetes, and cardiovascular disease. Many cancer drugs target specific protein kinases that are overactive in cancer cells, while drugs for diabetes and cardiovascular disease often target kinases involved in glucose metabolism and blood vessel function, respectively.
Thiazoles are a class of heterocyclic compounds that contain a five-membered ring with one nitrogen atom and two sulfur atoms. They are commonly used in the medical field as pharmaceuticals, particularly as diuretics, antihistamines, and anti-inflammatory agents. Some examples of thiazole-based drugs include hydrochlorothiazide (a diuretic), loratadine (an antihistamine), and celecoxib (a nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug). Thiazoles are also used as intermediates in the synthesis of other drugs and as corrosion inhibitors in various industrial applications.
Glial Cell Line-Derived Neurotrophic Factor (GDNF) is a protein that plays a crucial role in the development and maintenance of the nervous system. It is produced by glial cells, which are non-neuronal cells that support and protect neurons. GDNF is a neurotrophic factor, which means that it promotes the survival, growth, and differentiation of neurons. It is particularly important for the survival of neurons in the spinal cord and the peripheral nervous system, where it helps to maintain the health of sensory and motor neurons. GDNF has been shown to have a number of therapeutic potential applications in the treatment of neurological disorders, including Parkinson's disease, multiple sclerosis, and spinal cord injury. It is also being studied as a potential treatment for other conditions, such as depression and anxiety.
Disease progression refers to the worsening or progression of a disease over time. It is a natural course of events that occurs in many chronic illnesses, such as cancer, heart disease, and diabetes. Disease progression can be measured in various ways, such as changes in symptoms, physical examination findings, laboratory test results, or imaging studies. In some cases, disease progression can be slowed or stopped through medical treatment, such as medications, surgery, or radiation therapy. However, in other cases, disease progression may be inevitable, and the focus of treatment may shift from trying to cure the disease to managing symptoms and improving quality of life. Understanding disease progression is important for healthcare providers to develop effective treatment plans and to communicate with patients about their condition and prognosis. It can also help patients and their families make informed decisions about their care and treatment options.
In the medical field, hallucinations refer to the experience of seeing, hearing, feeling, tasting, or smelling something that is not actually present in the environment. Hallucinations can occur in various forms, including visual hallucinations (seeing things that are not there), auditory hallucinations (hearing voices that are not coming from a real source), olfactory hallucinations (smelling things that are not present), gustatory hallucinations (tasting things that are not there), and tactile hallucinations (feeling things that are not physically touching the skin). Hallucinations can be a symptom of various medical conditions, including mental health disorders such as schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, and depression, as well as substance abuse disorders, brain injuries, and certain medications. In some cases, hallucinations may also be a side effect of certain medications or a symptom of a physical illness, such as a brain tumor or a vitamin deficiency. It is important to note that hallucinations can be distressing and may require medical attention. If you or someone you know is experiencing hallucinations, it is important to seek help from a qualified healthcare professional.
Sensation disorders refer to a group of medical conditions that affect the way a person perceives sensory stimuli, such as touch, pain, temperature, and pressure. These disorders can be caused by a variety of factors, including injury, disease, or genetic abnormalities. Some common types of sensation disorders include: 1. Neuropathy: A condition that affects the nerves and can cause numbness, tingling, or pain in the affected area. 2. Peripheral neuropathy: A type of neuropathy that affects the nerves outside of the brain and spinal cord, often causing symptoms in the hands and feet. 3. Demyelination: A condition in which the protective covering around nerve fibers is damaged, leading to a loss of sensation. 4. Trigeminal neuralgia: A type of facial pain that is caused by damage to the trigeminal nerve. 5. Phantom limb syndrome: A condition in which a person experiences sensations in a limb that has been amputated. 6. Synesthesia: A condition in which a person experiences a cross-wiring of the senses, such as seeing colors when hearing certain sounds. Treatment for sensation disorders depends on the underlying cause and can include medications, physical therapy, surgery, or other interventions.
Amyloid beta (Aβ) peptides are a group of proteins that are produced as a normal byproduct of metabolism in the brain. They are formed from the cleavage of a larger protein called amyloid precursor protein (APP) by enzymes called beta-secretase and gamma-secretase. In healthy individuals, Aβ peptides are cleared from the brain by a process called phagocytosis, in which immune cells called microglia engulf and degrade the peptides. However, in individuals with Alzheimer's disease (AD), the clearance of Aβ peptides is impaired, leading to the accumulation of these peptides in the brain. The accumulation of Aβ peptides in the brain is thought to play a key role in the development of AD. The peptides can form insoluble aggregates called amyloid plaques, which are a hallmark of AD. These plaques can disrupt the normal functioning of neurons and contribute to the cognitive decline associated with the disease. In addition to their role in AD, Aβ peptides have also been implicated in other neurological disorders, such as Parkinson's disease and frontotemporal dementia.
Autonomic Nervous System Diseases (ANSDs) refer to a group of disorders that affect the autonomic nervous system (ANS), which is responsible for regulating involuntary bodily functions such as heart rate, blood pressure, digestion, and breathing. The ANS is divided into two branches: the sympathetic nervous system (SNS) and the parasympathetic nervous system (PNS). ANSDs can affect either or both branches of the ANS, leading to a range of symptoms and complications. Some common ANSDs include: 1. Multiple System Atrophy (MSA): a progressive disorder that affects the ANS, causing symptoms such as tremors, stiffness, and difficulty swallowing. 2. Parkinson's Disease: a neurodegenerative disorder that affects the ANS, leading to symptoms such as tremors, stiffness, and difficulty with balance and coordination. 3. Autonomic Failure: a group of disorders that affect the ANS, causing symptoms such as low blood pressure, dizziness, and fainting. 4. Postural Tachycardia Syndrome (POTS): a disorder that affects the ANS, causing symptoms such as rapid heart rate, dizziness, and fainting when standing up. 5. Orthostatic Hypotension: a disorder that affects the ANS, causing symptoms such as dizziness, fainting, and low blood pressure when standing up. Treatment for ANSDs depends on the specific disorder and its severity. In some cases, medications may be used to manage symptoms, while in other cases, lifestyle changes or surgery may be necessary.
In the medical field, gambling refers to the addictive behavior of repeatedly risking money or something of value on an uncertain outcome with the intention of winning. This behavior can lead to significant financial, social, and psychological problems for the individual, and may be diagnosed as a gambling disorder or problem gambling. Gambling disorder is a mental health condition that is characterized by persistent and recurrent problematic gambling behavior that causes significant impairment in personal, family, social, or occupational functioning. It is classified as a behavioral addiction, along with substance use disorders, and is recognized by the World Health Organization as a mental health disorder. Symptoms of gambling disorder may include preoccupation with gambling, a strong urge or need to gamble, unsuccessful attempts to control gambling behavior, and continued gambling despite negative consequences. Treatment for gambling disorder typically involves a combination of therapy, support groups, and medication to manage underlying mental health conditions such as depression or anxiety.
Parkinson's disease dementia
Parkinson's Disease (journal)
Causes of Parkinson's disease
Parkinson's disease clinical research
History of Parkinson's disease
Management of Parkinson's disease
Pathophysiology of Parkinson's disease
American Parkinson Disease Association
Washington State Parkinson Disease Registry
Gene therapy in Parkinson's disease
Animal models of Parkinson's disease
Dietary management of Parkinson's disease
Unified Parkinson's disease rating scale
Signs and symptoms of Parkinson's disease
Cell-based therapies for Parkinson's disease
List of people diagnosed with Parkinson's disease
Transcranial direct stimulation in Parkinson's disease gait rehabilitation
Rapid eye movement sleep behaviour disorder and Parkinson's disease
Don Parkinson (politician)
The Swedish Parkinson Academy
Parkinson Disease | Medscape
Parkinson's disease: MedlinePlus Genetics
Stereotactic Surgery in Parkinson Disease: Overview, Deep Brain Stimulation, Neuroablative Lesion Surgeries
Trending Clinical Topic: Parkinson's Disease
Unknown: Parkinson Disease | Encyclopedia.com
Parkinson's disease: Signs and symptoms
BioFIND | Parkinson's Disease
Parkinson's disease patients benefit from physical activity | ScienceDaily
Rev. Jesse Jackson announces he has Parkinson's disease
Gut Troubles Could Be Early Signal of Parkinson's Disease
Dance helps people with Parkinson's disease
DIY Fundraising | American Parkinson Disease Association
Neuropsychology of Parkinson's disease - CENLab - UNIGE
Parkinson's disease | Neon Tommy
Your Own Cells may Treat Parkinson's Disease
Counter Parkinson's disease with active sex life
DBS for Parkinson's Disease - DBS Surgery | Medtronic
Mitochondrial DNA and Parkinson disease. Methodologic review]
Childhood Trauma Tied to Increased Parkinson's Disease Severity | Parkinson's Foundation
Young Onset Parkinson's Disease - Parkinson Canada
Do any supplements help with Parkinson's disease? - ConsumerLab.com
Tim Ezell reveals he has Parkinson's disease
Risk Factors of Fatigue in Idiopathic Parkinson's Disease in a Polish Population
Parkinson's disease - WellSpan Health Library
Estrogen-related receptor gamma regulates mitochondrial and synaptic genes and modulates vulnerability to synucleinopathy | npj...
Mr. Big Drummer Diagnosed With Parkinson's Disease - Sleaze Roxx
Neurosurgeon in Celebration, Fla. Performs World's First Deep Brain Stimulation using Mazor Robotics Renaissance™ to Treat...
Tim Ezell reveals he has Parkinson's disease
Idiopathic Parkinson disease2
- Most cases of Parkinson disease (idiopathic Parkinson disease [IPD]) are hypothesized to be due to a combination of genetic and environmental factors. (medscape.com)
- UPDRS3 scores for most domains were similar between welders and newly diagnosed idiopathic Parkinson disease (PD) patients, except for greater frequency of rest tremor and asymmetry in PD patients. (cdc.gov)
Centers for Diseas1
- The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) cannot attest to the accuracy of a non-federal website. (cdc.gov)
- People with Parkinson's disease also have an increased risk of developing dementia, which is a decline in intellectual functions including judgment and memory. (medlineplus.gov)
- Although it is unusual for patients with Parkinson disease to suffer from dementia (loss of thinking and problem-solving abilities in the early stages of the disorder, some do develop dementia-including hallucinations-in its later stages. (encyclopedia.com)
- The Early-Onset Parkinson's Disease and Synucleinopathies Lab at Mayo Clinic focuses on early-onset Parkinson's disease and related synucleinopathies, including later onset Parkinson's disease, Lewy body dementia, multiple system atrophy and other disorders. (mayo.edu)
- His principal research interests include early-onset Parkinson's disease, Parkinson's disease and neurodegenerative diseases - in particular, dementias and dementia with Lewy bodies. (mayo.edu)
- Brand new work from Dr. Hideto Takahashi , Director of the Synapse Development and Plasticity Research Unit at the Montreal Clinical Research Institute (IRCM) and his team, recently uncovered a new mechanism that might play an important role in the development of pathologies called synucleinopathies, which include the Parkinson's disease, dementia with Lewy body and so on. (ircm.qc.ca)
- The vast majority of people with the sleep disorder (about one per cent of the general population) go on to develop either Parkinson's disease or dementia with Lewy bodies, another progressive neurological disease closely associated with Parkinson's. (parkinson.ca)
- Up to 80 per cent of these sleep behaviour disorder patients will develop Parkinson's disease or dementia with Lewy bodies within the timeframe of about 10 years," says Montplaisir. (parkinson.ca)
- Dementia with Lewy Bodies and Parkinson Disease Dementia Lewy body dementia includes clinically diagnosed dementia with Lewy bodies and Parkinson disease dementia. (msdmanuals.com)
- Parkinson disease may share features of other synucleinopathies, such as autonomic dysfunction and dementia. (msdmanuals.com)
- It is unclear whether Lewy bodies play a role in killing nerve cells or if they are part of the cells' response to the disease. (medlineplus.gov)
- Parkinson's disease (PD) is a neurodegenerative movement disorder characterized by the loss of dopaminergic (DAergic) neurons in the substantia nigra pars compacta (SNc) and the development of alpha-synuclein-containing aggregates called Lewy-bodies and Lewy-neurites 1 . (nature.com)
- Lewy bodies appear in a temporal sequence, and many experts believe that Parkinson disease is a relatively late development in a systemic synucleinopathy. (msdmanuals.com)
- The 2 major neuropathologic findings in Parkinson disease are loss of pigmented dopaminergic neurons of the substantia nigra pars compacta and the presence of Lewy bodies and Lewy neurites. (medscape.com)
- Early-onset Parkinson's disease is a group of conditions characterized by symptoms of parkinsonism - for example, tremor, rigidity, falls and slowness of movements - that start earlier than the usual onset of Parkinson's disease, which generally occurs at around 65 to 70 years of age. (mayo.edu)
Living with Parkinson's disease1
- People living with Parkinson's disease (PD) can benefit from being physically active, especially when it comes to improving gait and balance, and reducing risks of falls. (sciencedaily.com)
- Parkinson disease (PD) is one of the most common neurologic disorders, affecting approximately 1% of individuals older than 60 years and causing progressive disability that can be slowed, but not halted, by treatment. (medscape.com)
- Parkinson disease is recognized as one of the most common neurologic disorders, affecting approximately 1% of individuals older than 60 years. (medscape.com)
- The condition is described as early-onset disease if signs and symptoms begin before age 50. (medlineplus.gov)
- Early-onset cases that begin before age 20 are sometimes referred to as juvenile-onset Parkinson's disease. (medlineplus.gov)
- By identifying early predictors and mechanisms that lead to early-onset Parkinson's disease and synucleinopathies, Dr. Savica's research team is revealing information that will lead directly to improved diagnosis and treatment. (mayo.edu)
- Although there is currently no clear age cutoff to define early-onset Parkinson's disease, there are some crucial differences between patients with earlier onset and later onset Parkinson's disease that extend beyond the age of onset. (mayo.edu)
- Indeed, early-onset Parkinson's disease may exhibit differences in genetic and environmental risk and protective factors, response to therapy, and prognosis. (mayo.edu)
- The Early-Onset Parkinson's Disease and Synucleinopathies Lab is working toward identifying new early predicting factors that may be associated with synucleinopathies, such as sleep disorders, gait disorders, anemia, biomarkers and various environmental factors. (mayo.edu)
- Importantly, such information may have differing scientific and clinical meaning in patients with early-onset Parkinson's disease. (mayo.edu)
- Individuals with early-onset Parkinson's disease also have different societal requirements that need to be considered. (mayo.edu)
- Taking advantage of Mayo Clinic's multidisciplinary Early-Onset Parkinson's Disease Clinic , led by Dr. Savica, the Early-Onset Parkinson's Disease and Synucleinopathies Lab strives to translate research findings into improved clinical care for patients at Mayo Clinic and for the population at large. (mayo.edu)
- The Early-Onset Parkinson's Disease and Synucleinopathies Lab is led by Rodolfo Savica, M.D., Ph.D., with the involvement of a number of Mayo Clinic collaborators, including Brent A. Bauer, M.D. (mayo.edu)
- and Owen A. Ross, Ph.D. This long-standing collaboration has created a research team that works to understand the cause, pathogenesis and prevention of early-onset Parkinson's disease and neurodegenerative disorders caused by synucleinopathies, and the irregular accumulation of aggregates of alpha-synuclein protein in neurons, nerve fibers or glial cells. (mayo.edu)
- Onset between ages 21 and 40 years is sometimes called young or early-onset Parkinson disease. (msdmanuals.com)
Deep Brain Stimu1
- Neuropsychiatric aspects of deep brain stimulation (DBS) for Parkinson's disease (PD) was the topic of several reports presented at the Congress. (medscape.com)
- Often the first symptom of Parkinson's disease is trembling or shaking (tremor) of a limb, especially when the body is at rest. (medlineplus.gov)
- What is known is that the tremor and other muscle-related symptoms of Parkinson disease are caused by damage to a part of the brain called the substantia nigra. (encyclopedia.com)
- This blocks the abnormal nerve signals that cause the debilitating neurological symptoms of Parkinson's disease and Essential tremor, such as trembling and slowed movement. (prweb.com)
- Parkinson disease is a slowly progressive, degenerative disorder characterized by resting tremor, stiffness (rigidity), slow and decreased movement (bradykinesia), and eventually gait and/or postural instability. (msdmanuals.com)
- Many Parkinson's disease symptoms occur when nerve cells (neurons) in the substantia nigra die or become impaired. (medlineplus.gov)
- In the paper, publishing September 26 in the ISSCR's journal Stem Cell Reports , published by Cell Press, iPSCs from nonhuman primates successfully developed into the neurons depleted by Parkinson's disease while eliciting only a minimal immune response. (medindia.net)
- To test this in an animal that is more closely related to humans, investigators in Japan directed iPSCs taken from a monkey to develop into certain neurons that are depleted in Parkinson's disease patients. (medindia.net)
- Parkinson's disease (PD), a disorder of unknown etiology, is associated with the degeneration of dopaminergic neurons in nigro-striatal pathways. (nih.gov)
- Eventually, with less and less functional neurons available in time, the disease progresses in its most debilitating forms. (ircm.qc.ca)
- Parkinson's disease affects more than 1 million people in North America and more than 4 million people worldwide. (medlineplus.gov)
- Parkinson disease is a disorder that affects the patient's ability to move smoothly and at a normal rate. (encyclopedia.com)
- This section will help you understand the basics of Parkinson's Disease, how Parkinson's Disease affects the brain, its symptoms and ongoing research. (apdaparkinson.org)
- The Parkinson's disease is an uncurable degenerative condition that affects around 10 million people around the world. (ircm.qc.ca)
- Like Alzheimer's disease, which affects 55 million people worldwide, the Parkinson's disease evolution can only be slowed down with current available therapies. (ircm.qc.ca)
- Parkinson's disease (PD), a neurodegenerative disorder, affects millions of people and has gained attention because of its clinical roles affecting behaviors related to motor and nonmotor symptoms. (amrita.edu)
Affected by Parkinson's disease1
- With our online tools, you can easily create a fundraising page to let your friends, family and colleagues know that you're about to take on a challenge and using it as an opportunity to raise money for support, education, and research for those affected by Parkinson's disease. (apdaparkinson.org)
- therefore, Parkinson disease is a synucleinopathy. (medscape.com)
- is brain dysfunction that is characterized by basal ganglia dopaminergic blockade and that is similar to Parkinson disease, but it is caused by something other than Parkinson disease (eg, drugs, cerebrovascular disease, trauma, postencephalitic changes). (msdmanuals.com)
- The blood test also could improve diagnosis of Parkinson's disease, which experts say is frequently misdiagnosed because symptoms are often shared with other neurological disorders. (medicalnewstoday.com)
- At the Université de Montréal, Dr. Jacques Montplaisir, a psychiatrist and neurobiologist, is investigating the association between REM sleep behaviour disorders and Parkinson's disease. (parkinson.ca)
- Montplaisir has been conducting research into sleep disorders for decades, not knowing his work would lead to a connection with Parkinson's disease. (parkinson.ca)
- What's new concerning Parkinson's disease and other movement disorders? (medscape.com)
- WeMove produced these summaries on the basis of the data presented at the 8th International Congress of Parkinson's Disease and Movement Disorders, held in Rome, Italy, June 14-17, 2004. (medscape.com)
- Study subjects were examined by a movement disorders specialist using the Unified Parkinson Disease Rating Scale motor subsection 3 (UPDRS3). (cdc.gov)
- Recent work from Takahashi's lab, shows that Neurexin plays an important role in the development and the progression Alzheimer's disease as well. (ircm.qc.ca)
- It is very encouraging because, we now know that if we find a solution to close the Neurexin's "door" or make it unavailable to alpha-synuclein, we may find a way to address both Parkinson's and Alzheimer's disease," explained Dr. Takahashi. (ircm.qc.ca)
- Scientists have found a strong link between increasing levels of nitrates and nitrites in our food supply and increasing death rates from Alzheimer's, diabetes mellitus and Parkinson's disease. (naturalnews.com)
- The research, just published in the Journal of Alzheimer's Disease , investigated trends in death rates due to diseases associated with advancing age. (naturalnews.com)
- The results show that while nitrogen-containing fertilizer consumption increased by 230 percent between 1955 and 2005, its usage doubled between 1960 and 1980 -- and that's the time period just before the insulin-resistant epidemics of type 2 diabetes, Alzheimer's and Parkinson's Disease began. (naturalnews.com)
- The study, released today by researchers at the Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry, found that the workers were at an elevated risk to develop kidney cancer, leukemia, prostate cancer, rectal cancer and Parkinson's disease. (cdc.gov)
- When those with higher exposures at Camp Lejeune were compared to those with lower exposures at Camp Lejeune, higher cumulative exposures to the contaminants were associated with increased risks for cancers of the kidney, esophagus, prostate, and rectum, leukemias, and Parkinson's disease. (cdc.gov)
- The study found elevated risks in the Camp Lejeune civilian workers for several causes of death, including kidney cancer, leukemia's, prostate cancer, rectal cancer and Parkinson's disease. (cdc.gov)
- Currently, Parkinson's disease is diagnosed largely based on clinical symptoms after significant neurological damage has already occurred," said Laurie Sanders , PhD, a senior study author and an associate professor in the Duke School of Medicine's departments of neurology and pathology and member of the Duke Center for Neurodegeneration and Neurotherapeutics, in a press statement . (medicalnewstoday.com)
- Stages in the development of Parkinson disease (PD)-related pathology (path. (medscape.com)
- Adapted from Braak H, Ghebremedhin E, Rub U, Bratzke H, Del Tredici K. Stages in the development of Parkinson's disease-related pathology. (medscape.com)
- Most Parkinson patients have lost 60 to 80 percent or more of the dopamine-producing cells in the substantia nigra by the time the first symptoms appear. (encyclopedia.com)
- The findings can prompt specialists who treat patients with Parkinson's disease to periodically inquire about their patients' sexual life. (asianage.com)
- AIMS: To perform literature review about influences of VR in rehabilitation of patients with Parkinson's disease. (bvsalud.org)
- Parkinson's disease is a progressive disorder of the nervous system. (medlineplus.gov)
- Approximately 15 percent of people with Parkinson's disease have a family history of this disorder. (medlineplus.gov)
- It is not fully understood how genetic changes cause Parkinson's disease or influence the risk of developing the disorder. (medlineplus.gov)
- Parkinson disease is almost entirely a disorder of older adults. (encyclopedia.com)
- The identification of a genetic biomarker for Parkinson's disease raises the possibility that a blood test could be developed to identify the neurological disorder before symptoms appear. (medicalnewstoday.com)
- The American Parkinson Disease Association (APDA) is the largest grassroots network dedicated to fighting Parkinson's disease (PD) and works tirelessly to help the approximately one million with PD in the United States live life to the fullest in the face of this chronic, neurological disorder. (apdaparkinson.org)
- Parkinson's disease is a chronic progressive neurological disorder, and as it advances, symptoms will worsen over time. (parkview.com)
- There is no good evidence that dietary supplements help delay progression or improve motor impairment in people with Parkinson's disease unless they are deficient in nutrients, although some may help with non-motor symptoms, such as sleep disturbance, depression, and psychoses. (consumerlab.com)
- Moreover, the strikingly higher and climbing mortality rates in older age brackets suggest that aging and/or longer durations of exposure have greater impacts on progression and severity of these diseases. (naturalnews.com)
- Worldwide, the frequency of Parkinson disease is thought to be about 120 persons in every 100,000. (encyclopedia.com)
- The purpose of the study was to determine whether potential exposures to the drinking water contaminants at Camp Lejeune are associated with increased risk of death from specific cancers and other chronic diseases among those who were employed at the base. (cdc.gov)
- We analyzed associations between fatigue and sex, age, education, duration and severity of the disease, everyday activity, intensity of the main symptoms, treatment, presence of dyskinesias and fluctuations, depression and excessive sleep during the day, and presence of pain and nycturia. (hindawi.com)
- The higher rates of cancer and Parkinson's disease were mainly among the Camp Lejeune civilian workers with higher cumulative exposures to the contaminants. (cdc.gov)
- The Agency for Toxic Substances & Disease Registry (ATSDR) begins this week a health survey regarding diseases that may be associated with chemical exposures related to water at Marine Corps Base Camp Lejeune in North Carolina. (cdc.gov)
- In addition to The Michael J. Fox Foundation, she volunteers for the Northwest Parkinson's Foundation and the Parkinson's Disease Foundation, providing insight as PD is redefined and as she ages with the disease. (michaeljfox.org)
- In a study published today in the journal Science Translational Medicine , researchers at Duke University in North Carolina used polymerase chain reaction (PCR) technology to detect mitochondrial DNA damage in blood cells typically associated with Parkinson's disease. (medicalnewstoday.com)
- Our hope is that this assay could not only diagnose Parkinson's disease, but also identify drugs that reverse or halt mitochondrial DNA damage and the disease process. (medicalnewstoday.com)
- Mitochondrial DNA and Parkinson disease. (nih.gov)
- Thirty-eight of the 69 articles were either reviews about mitochondrial diseases (19 articles) or original articles not related to mtDNA (19 articles). (nih.gov)
- Many studies implicate mitochondrial dysfunction as a key contributor to cell loss in Parkinson disease (PD). (nature.com)
- Researchers are not yet certain, however, whether there are additional genes that play a role in the development of PD, and if so, how they interact to produce the symptoms of the disease. (encyclopedia.com)
- Researchers say a new blood test can pick up early indicators of Parkinson's disease. (medicalnewstoday.com)
- Duke University researchers said DNA damage in blood cells can serve as an early warning of Parkinson's disease. (medicalnewstoday.com)
- The researchers said the findings could provide a pathway to developing a blood test for early detection of the disease. (medicalnewstoday.com)
- Read about other researchers recently funded by the Parkinson Canada Research Program. (parkinson.ca)
- For the study, the researchers graphed and analyzed mortality rates and compared them with increasing age for each disease. (naturalnews.com)
- The power of an early diagnosis has impacts that go beyond science and even beyond the person afflicted, extending to their family and loved ones, all of whom will be better positioned to address the long-term implications of the disease and to maximize the efficacy of available treatments. (medicalnewstoday.com)
- The information should not be used for either diagnosis or treatment or both for any health related problem or disease. (medindia.net)
- The diagnosis of "primary" fatigue syndrome in the disease is difficult because of the close relationship between fatigue and other nonmotor symptoms of the disease. (hindawi.com)
- Parkinson disease is a clinical diagnosis. (medscape.com)
Signs and symptoms1
- The goal of medical management of Parkinson disease is to provide control of signs and symptoms for as long as possible while minimizing adverse effects. (medscape.com)
- An active sexual life may benefit men suffering from early Parkinson's disease, recent findings suggest. (asianage.com)
- However, they also asserted that Additional studies are needed to confirm the study's findings in men and to explore whether such a relationship occurs in women with Parkinson's disease. (asianage.com)
- The findings for the smoking-related causes of death, such as stomach cancer, cardiovascular disease, and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease suggested that smoking would have only a minor impact on any association between cause of death and exposure to the drinking water contaminants at Camp Lejeune. (cdc.gov)
- Some 30,000 people with Parkinson's have undergone DBS according to the Parkinson's Disease Foundation, and Progress in Brain Research states that there are 8,000 to 10,000 new cases each year worldwide. (prweb.com)
- By comparing their scans with scans of people who don't have Parkinson's disease, Montplaisir and his colleagues hope to find PET scan markers in the brain that will indicate a population of people most likely to develop Parkinson's. (parkinson.ca)
- Other characteristic symptoms of Parkinson's disease include rigidity or stiffness of the limbs and torso, slow movement (bradykinesia) or an inability to move (akinesia), and impaired balance and coordination (postural instability). (medlineplus.gov)
- For a person with Parkinson's Disease (PD), the natural rhythm and flow of perception, feeling, and movement is disrupted. (feldenkrais.com)
- His work focuses largely on the epidemiologic and genetic pre-motor risk factors and the clinical features of Parkinson's disease. (mayo.edu)
- Familial cases of Parkinson's disease can be caused by variants (also called mutations) in the LRRK2 , PARK7 , PINK1 , PRKN , or SNCA gene, or by alterations in genes that have not been identified. (medlineplus.gov)
- A simple blood test based on the research could aid in detection and treatment of the disease as well as improve future research. (medicalnewstoday.com)
- Okun said that the finding that the blood test could be used both to detect the disease and monitor treatment effectiveness was "very novel. (medicalnewstoday.com)
- Do supplements help with Parkinson's disease treatment or prevention? (consumerlab.com)
- In the United States, Parkinson's disease occurs in approximately 13 per 100,000 people, and about 60,000 new cases are identified each year. (medlineplus.gov)
- Because more people are living longer, the number of people with this disease is expected to increase in coming decades. (medlineplus.gov)
- People who have a parent or sibling with Parkinson disease have a slightly increased risk (5 percent) of developing the disease themselves. (encyclopedia.com)
- Despite the progressive nature of the disease, people living with PD can expect to improve their physical condition by being more physically active. (sciencedaily.com)
- Across the country, people are coming together to join in a common goal to do all we can to help everyone impacted by Parkinson's disease (PD) to live life to the fullest. (apdaparkinson.org)
- Parkinson Canada's mission is to transform the lives of people living with Parkinson's across Canada. (parkinson.ca)
- Determinants of coping styles of people with Parkinson's Disease. (bvsalud.org)
- Little is known about how people with Parkinson's disease (PD) cope with stressful life events. (bvsalud.org)
- Variations in other genes that have not been identified probably also contribute to Parkinson's disease risk. (medlineplus.gov)
- It's a very important risk factor for Parkinson's disease. (parkinson.ca)
- NewsTarget) According to a new study by scientists at Rhode Island Hospital, millions of Americans could be at risk of serious and even fatal diseases because of chemicals used to fertilizer and to preserve food. (naturalnews.com)
- Diagnosed with Parkinson's disease in 1999 at age 41, she turned to advocacy in 2002 after losing her longtime staff position at the University of Washington due to the little understood non-motor symptoms of PD. (michaeljfox.org)