The status during which female mammals carry their developing young (EMBRYOS or FETUSES) in utero before birth, beginning from FERTILIZATION to BIRTH.
The number of offspring produced at one birth by a viviparous animal.
The processes of milk secretion by the maternal MAMMARY GLANDS after PARTURITION. The proliferation of the mammary glandular tissue, milk synthesis, and milk expulsion or let down are regulated by the interactions of several hormones including ESTRADIOL; PROGESTERONE; PROLACTIN; and OXYTOCIN.
The age of the mother in PREGNANCY.
Insurance providing benefits to cover part or all of the psychiatric care.
An important aggregate factor in epidemiological studies of women's health. The concept usually includes the number and timing of pregnancies and their outcomes, the incidence of breast feeding, and may include age of menarche and menopause, regularity of menstruation, fertility, gynecological or obstetric problems, or contraceptive usage.
The mass or quantity of heaviness of an individual at BIRTH. It is expressed by units of pounds or kilograms.
The total process by which organisms produce offspring. (Stedman, 25th ed)
Permanent deprivation of breast milk and commencement of nourishment with other food. (From Stedman, 25th ed)
Any of various animals that constitute the family Suidae and comprise stout-bodied, short-legged omnivorous mammals with thick skin, usually covered with coarse bristles, a rather long mobile snout, and small tail. Included are the genera Babyrousa, Phacochoerus (wart hogs), and Sus, the latter containing the domestic pig (see SUS SCROFA).
The number of pregnancies, complete or incomplete, experienced by a female. It is different from PARITY, which is the number of offspring borne. (From Stedman, 26th ed)
Compounds, usually hormonal, taken orally in order to block ovulation and prevent the occurrence of pregnancy. The hormones are generally estrogen or progesterone or both.
The production of offspring by selective mating or HYBRIDIZATION, GENETIC in animals or plants.
An aspect of personal behavior or lifestyle, environmental exposure, or inborn or inherited characteristic, which, on the basis of epidemiologic evidence, is known to be associated with a health-related condition considered important to prevent.
Highly keratinized processes that are sharp and curved, or flat with pointed margins. They are found especially at the end of the limbs in certain animals.
An infant during the first month after birth.
Results of conception and ensuing pregnancy, including LIVE BIRTH; STILLBIRTH; SPONTANEOUS ABORTION; INDUCED ABORTION. The outcome may follow natural or artificial insemination or any of the various ASSISTED REPRODUCTIVE TECHNIQUES, such as EMBRYO TRANSFER or FERTILIZATION IN VITRO.
In females, the period that is shortly after giving birth (PARTURITION).
The white liquid secreted by the mammary glands. It contains proteins, sugar, lipids, vitamins, and minerals.
The science of breeding, feeding and care of domestic animals; includes housing and nutrition.
The process of bearing developing young (EMBRYOS or FETUSES) in utero in non-human mammals, beginning from FERTILIZATION to BIRTH.
The age of the conceptus, beginning from the time of FERTILIZATION. In clinical obstetrics, the gestational age is often estimated as the time from the last day of the last MENSTRUATION which is about 2 weeks before OVULATION and fertilization.
Conditions or pathological processes associated with pregnancy. They can occur during or after pregnancy, and range from minor discomforts to serious diseases that require medical interventions. They include diseases in pregnant females, and pregnancies in females with diseases.
The process of giving birth to one or more offspring.
The nursing of an infant at the breast.
The first MENSTRUAL CYCLE marked by the initiation of MENSTRUATION.
The capacity to conceive or to induce conception. It may refer to either the male or female.
Delivery of the FETUS and PLACENTA under the care of an obstetrician or a health worker. Obstetric deliveries may involve physical, psychological, medical, or surgical interventions.
The event that a FETUS is born dead or stillborn.
Age as a constituent element or influence contributing to the production of a result. It may be applicable to the cause or the effect of a circumstance. It is used with human or animal concepts but should be differentiated from AGING, a physiological process, and TIME FACTORS which refers only to the passage of time.
Extraction of the FETUS by means of abdominal HYSTEROTOMY.
Organized services to provide mental health care.
The lengths of intervals between births to women in the population.
A departure from the normal gait in animals.
Medical problems associated with OBSTETRIC LABOR, such as BREECH PRESENTATION; PREMATURE OBSTETRIC LABOR; HEMORRHAGE; or others. These complications can affect the well-being of the mother, the FETUS, or both.
The mass or quantity of heaviness of an individual. It is expressed by units of pounds or kilograms.
The last menstrual period. Permanent cessation of menses (MENSTRUATION) is usually defined after 6 to 12 months of AMENORRHEA in a woman over 45 years of age. In the United States, menopause generally occurs in women between 48 and 55 years of age.
Any of a group of bone disorders involving one or more ossification centers (EPIPHYSES). It is characterized by degeneration or NECROSIS followed by revascularization and reossification. Osteochondrosis often occurs in children causing varying degrees of discomfort or pain. There are many eponymic types for specific affected areas, such as tarsal navicular (Kohler disease) and tibial tuberosity (Osgood-Schlatter disease).
A term used to describe pregnancies that exceed the upper limit of a normal gestational period. In humans, a prolonged pregnancy is defined as one that extends beyond 42 weeks (294 days) after the first day of the last menstrual period (MENSTRUATION), or birth with gestational age of 41 weeks or more.
Increase in BODY WEIGHT over existing weight.
Studies which start with the identification of persons with a disease of interest and a control (comparison, referent) group without the disease. The relationship of an attribute to the disease is examined by comparing diseased and non-diseased persons with regard to the frequency or levels of the attribute in each group.
Care provided the pregnant woman in order to prevent complications, and decrease the incidence of maternal and prenatal mortality.
Payments or services provided under stated circumstances under the terms of an insurance policy. In prepayment programs, benefits are the services the programs will provide at defined locations and to the extent needed.
Pathological processes or abnormal functions of the PLACENTA.
Studies in which subsets of a defined population are identified. These groups may or may not be exposed to factors hypothesized to influence the probability of the occurrence of a particular disease or other outcome. Cohorts are defined populations which, as a whole, are followed in an attempt to determine distinguishing subgroup characteristics.
Legal guarantee protecting the individual from attack on personal liberties, right to fair trial, right to vote, and freedom from discrimination on the basis of race, color, religion, sex, age, disability, or national origin. (from accessed 1/31/2003)
Statistical models which describe the relationship between a qualitative dependent variable (that is, one which can take only certain discrete values, such as the presence or absence of a disease) and an independent variable. A common application is in epidemiology for estimating an individual's risk (probability of a disease) as a function of a given risk factor.
The thin, yellow, serous fluid secreted by the mammary glands during pregnancy and immediately postpartum before lactation begins. It consists of immunologically active substances, white blood cells, water, protein, fat, and carbohydrates.
Death of the developing young in utero. BIRTH of a dead FETUS is STILLBIRTH.
Young, unweaned mammals. Refers to nursing animals whether nourished by their biological mother, foster mother, or bottle fed.
The ratio of two odds. The exposure-odds ratio for case control data is the ratio of the odds in favor of exposure among cases to the odds in favor of exposure among noncases. The disease-odds ratio for a cohort or cross section is the ratio of the odds in favor of disease among the exposed to the odds in favor of disease among the unexposed. The prevalence-odds ratio refers to an odds ratio derived cross-sectionally from studies of prevalent cases.
The co-occurrence of pregnancy and parasitic diseases. The parasitic infection may precede or follow FERTILIZATION.
The repetitive uterine contraction during childbirth which is associated with the progressive dilation of the uterine cervix (CERVIX UTERI). Successful labor results in the expulsion of the FETUS and PLACENTA. Obstetric labor can be spontaneous or induced (LABOR, INDUCED).
Disturbances of MILK secretion in either SEX, not necessarily related to PREGNANCY.
Observation of a population for a sufficient number of persons over a sufficient number of years to generate incidence or mortality rates subsequent to the selection of the study group.
An infant having a birth weight of 2500 gm. (5.5 lb.) or less but INFANT, VERY LOW BIRTH WEIGHT is available for infants having a birth weight of 1500 grams (3.3 lb.) or less.
Female parents, human or animal.
Intentional removal of a fetus from the uterus by any of a number of techniques. (POPLINE, 1978)
CHILDBIRTH before 37 weeks of PREGNANCY (259 days from the first day of the mother's last menstrual period, or 245 days after FERTILIZATION).
Social and economic factors that characterize the individual or group within the social structure.
An indicator of body density as determined by the relationship of BODY WEIGHT to BODY HEIGHT. BMI=weight (kg)/height squared (m2). BMI correlates with body fat (ADIPOSE TISSUE). Their relationship varies with age and gender. For adults, BMI falls into these categories: below 18.5 (underweight); 18.5-24.9 (normal); 25.0-29.9 (overweight); 30.0 and above (obese). (National Center for Health Statistics, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention)
Health insurance plans for employees, and generally including their dependents, usually on a cost-sharing basis with the employer paying a percentage of the premium.
The sequence in which children are born into the family.
Tumors or cancer of the human BREAST.
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
Artificially induced UTERINE CONTRACTION. Generally, LABOR, OBSTETRIC is induced with the intent to cause delivery of the fetus and termination of pregnancy.
An interactive process whereby members of a community are concerned for the equality and rights of all.
An infant having a birth weight lower than expected for its gestational age.
Foodstuff used especially for domestic and laboratory animals, or livestock.
Procedures for finding the mathematical function which best describes the relationship between a dependent variable and one or more independent variables. In linear regression (see LINEAR MODELS) the relationship is constrained to be a straight line and LEAST-SQUARES ANALYSIS is used to determine the best fit. In logistic regression (see LOGISTIC MODELS) the dependent variable is qualitative rather than continuously variable and LIKELIHOOD FUNCTIONS are used to find the best relationship. In multiple regression, the dependent variable is considered to depend on more than a single independent variable.
The last third of a human PREGNANCY, from the beginning of the 29th through the 42nd completed week (197 to 294 days) of gestation.
The total number of cases of a given disease in a specified population at a designated time. It is differentiated from INCIDENCE, which refers to the number of new cases in the population at a given time.
The level of governmental organization and function at the national or country-wide level.
Generally refers to the amount of protection available and the kind of loss which would be paid for under an insurance contract with an insurer. (Slee & Slee, Health Care Terms, 2d ed)
Inflammation of the ENDOMETRIUM, usually caused by intrauterine infections. Endometritis is the most common cause of postpartum fever.
A principle of estimation in which the estimates of a set of parameters in a statistical model are those quantities minimizing the sum of squared differences between the observed values of a dependent variable and the values predicted by the model.
Diabetes mellitus induced by PREGNANCY but resolved at the end of pregnancy. It does not include previously diagnosed diabetics who become pregnant (PREGNANCY IN DIABETICS). Gestational diabetes usually develops in late pregnancy when insulin antagonistic hormones peaks leading to INSULIN RESISTANCE; GLUCOSE INTOLERANCE; and HYPERGLYCEMIA.
A complication of PREGNANCY, characterized by a complex of symptoms including maternal HYPERTENSION and PROTEINURIA with or without pathological EDEMA. Symptoms may range between mild and severe. Pre-eclampsia usually occurs after the 20th week of gestation, but may develop before this time in the presence of trophoblastic disease.
Regular course of eating and drinking adopted by a person or animal.
Downward displacement of the UTERUS. It is classified in various degrees: in the first degree the UTERINE CERVIX is within the vaginal orifice; in the second degree the cervix is outside the orifice; in the third degree the entire uterus is outside the orifice.
The adaptive superiority of the heterozygous GENOTYPE with respect to one or more characters in comparison with the corresponding HOMOZYGOTE.
A demographic parameter indicating a person's status with respect to marriage, divorce, widowhood, singleness, etc.
The three approximately equal periods of a normal human PREGNANCY. Each trimester is about three months or 13 to 14 weeks in duration depending on the designation of the first day of gestation.
A process involving chance used in therapeutic trials or other research endeavor for allocating experimental subjects, human or animal, between treatment and control groups, or among treatment groups. It may also apply to experiments on inanimate objects.
Educational attainment or level of education of individuals.
Domesticated bovine animals of the genus Bos, usually kept on a farm or ranch and used for the production of meat or dairy products or for heavy labor.
Inhaling and exhaling the smoke of burning TOBACCO.
The probability that an event will occur. It encompasses a variety of measures of the probability of a generally unfavorable outcome.
Nutritional physiology of animals.
A slightly movable cartilaginous joint which occurs between the pubic bones.
Postnatal deaths from BIRTH to 365 days after birth in a given population. Postneonatal mortality represents deaths between 28 days and 365 days after birth (as defined by National Center for Health Statistics). Neonatal mortality represents deaths from birth to 27 days after birth.
Studies used to test etiologic hypotheses in which inferences about an exposure to putative causal factors are derived from data relating to characteristics of persons under study or to events or experiences in their past. The essential feature is that some of the persons under study have the disease or outcome of interest and their characteristics are compared with those of unaffected persons.
Diseases of domestic cattle of the genus Bos. It includes diseases of cows, yaks, and zebus.
A republic in western Africa, south of NIGER between BENIN and CAMEROON. Its capital is Abuja.
Premature separation of the normally implanted PLACENTA from the UTERUS. Signs of varying degree of severity include UTERINE BLEEDING, uterine MUSCLE HYPERTONIA, and FETAL DISTRESS or FETAL DEATH.
The beginning third of a human PREGNANCY, from the first day of the last normal menstrual period (MENSTRUATION) through the completion of 14 weeks (98 days) of gestation.
Studies in which the presence or absence of disease or other health-related variables are determined in each member of the study population or in a representative sample at one particular time. This contrasts with LONGITUDINAL STUDIES which are followed over a period of time.
Morphological and physiological development of FETUSES.
The neck portion of the UTERUS between the lower isthmus and the VAGINA forming the cervical canal.
A sultanate on the southeast coast of the Arabian peninsula. Its capital is Masqat. Before the 16th century it was ruled by independent emirs but was captured and controlled by the Portuguese 1508-1648. In 1741 it was recovered by a descendent of Yemen's imam. After its decline in the 19th century, it became virtually a political and economic dependency within the British Government of India, retaining close ties with Great Britain by treaty from 1939 to 1970 when it achieved autonomy. The name was recorded by Pliny in the 1st century A.D. as Omana, said to be derived from the founder of the state, Oman ben Ibrahim al-Khalil. (From Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p890; Oman Embassy, Washington; Room, Brewer's Dictionary of Names, 1992, p391)
Human behavior or decision related to REPRODUCTION.
The number of new cases of a given disease during a given period in a specified population. It also is used for the rate at which new events occur in a defined population. It is differentiated from PREVALENCE, which refers to all cases, new or old, in the population at a given time.
The middle third of a human PREGNANCY, from the beginning of the 15th through the 28th completed week (99 to 196 days) of gestation.
The co-occurrence of pregnancy and a blood disease (HEMATOLOGIC DISEASES) which involves BLOOD CELLS or COAGULATION FACTORS. The hematologic disease may precede or follow FERTILIZATION and it may or may not have a deleterious effect on the pregnant woman or FETUS.
Divisions of the year according to some regularly recurrent phenomena usually astronomical or climatic. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
Diseases of domestic swine and of the wild boar of the genus Sus.
A placenta that fails to be expelled after BIRTH of the FETUS. A PLACENTA is retained when the UTERUS fails to contract after the delivery of its content, or when the placenta is abnormally attached to the MYOMETRIUM.
Infections with bacteria of the family BACILLACEAE.
A 1974 Federal act which preempts states' rights with regard to workers' pension benefits and employee benefits. It does not affect the benefits and rights of employees whose employer is self-insured. (From Slee & Slee, Health Care Reform Terms, 1993)
Malformations of organs or body parts during development in utero.
A condition of fetal overgrowth leading to a large-for-gestational-age FETUS. It is defined as BIRTH WEIGHT greater than 4,000 grams or above the 90th percentile for population and sex-specific growth curves. It is commonly seen in GESTATIONAL DIABETES; PROLONGED PREGNANCY; and pregnancies complicated by pre-existing diabetes mellitus.
A stratum of people with similar position and prestige; includes social stratification. Social class is measured by criteria such as education, occupation, and income.
Excision of the uterus.
Anatomical and functional disorders affecting the foot.
Onset of OBSTETRIC LABOR before term (TERM BIRTH) but usually after the FETUS has become viable. In humans, it occurs sometime during the 29th through 38th week of PREGNANCY. TOCOLYSIS inhibits premature labor and can prevent the BIRTH of premature infants (INFANT, PREMATURE).
The number of males per 100 females.
The period in the ESTROUS CYCLE associated with maximum sexual receptivity and fertility in non-primate female mammals.
Expulsion of the product of FERTILIZATION before completing the term of GESTATION and without deliberate interference.
The period before MENOPAUSE. In premenopausal women, the climacteric transition from full sexual maturity to cessation of ovarian cycle takes place between the age of late thirty and early fifty.
Organized efforts by communities or organizations to improve the health and well-being of the mother.
The condition of carrying two or more FETUSES simultaneously.
Contraceptive devices placed high in the uterine fundus.
Loss or destruction of the epithelial lining of the UTERINE CERVIX.
The beginning of true OBSTETRIC LABOR which is characterized by the cyclic uterine contractions of increasing frequency, duration, and strength causing CERVICAL DILATATION to begin (LABOR STAGE, FIRST ).
Predetermined sets of questions used to collect data - clinical data, social status, occupational group, etc. The term is often applied to a self-completed survey instrument.
Artificial introduction of SEMEN or SPERMATOZOA into the VAGINA to facilitate FERTILIZATION.
Involuntary loss of URINE, such as leaking of urine. It is a symptom of various underlying pathological processes. Major types of incontinence include URINARY URGE INCONTINENCE and URINARY STRESS INCONTINENCE.
The body region lying between the genital area and the ANUS on the surface of the trunk, and to the shallow compartment lying deep to this area that is inferior to the PELVIC DIAPHRAGM. The surface area is between the VULVA and the anus in the female, and between the SCROTUM and the anus in the male.
Oral contraceptives which owe their effectiveness to hormonal preparations.
A set of techniques used when variation in several variables has to be studied simultaneously. In statistics, multivariate analysis is interpreted as any analytic method that allows simultaneous study of two or more dependent variables.
Statistical models in which the value of a parameter for a given value of a factor is assumed to be equal to a + bx, where a and b are constants. The models predict a linear regression.
Soft tissue formed mainly by the pelvic diaphragm, which is composed of the two levator ani and two coccygeus muscles. The pelvic diaphragm lies just below the pelvic aperture (outlet) and separates the pelvic cavity from the PERINEUM. It extends between the PUBIC BONE anteriorly and the COCCYX posteriorly.
Herniation of the RECTUM into the VAGINA.
The position or orientation of the FETUS at near term or during OBSTETRIC LABOR, determined by its relation to the SPINE of the mother and the birth canal. The normal position is a vertical, cephalic presentation with the fetal vertex flexed on the NECK.
Exposure of the female parent, human or animal, to potentially harmful chemical, physical, or biological agents in the environment or to environmental factors that may include ionizing radiation, pathogenic organisms, or toxic chemicals that may affect offspring. It includes pre-conception maternal exposure.
The systems and processes involved in the establishment, support, management, and operation of registers, e.g., disease registers.
Pathological processes involving any part of the UTERUS.
The condition in which individuals are financially unable to access adequate medical care without depriving themselves and their dependents of food, clothing, shelter, and other essentials of living.
A plant genus of the family CAMPANULACEAE used medicinally and is a source of LOBELINE.
The visualization of tissues during pregnancy through recording of the echoes of ultrasonic waves directed into the body. The procedure may be applied with reference to the mother or the fetus and with reference to organs or the detection of maternal or fetal disease.
Deaths occurring from the 28th week of GESTATION to the 28th day after birth in a given population.
The discharge of an OVUM from a rupturing follicle in the OVARY.
The distance from the sole to the crown of the head with body standing on a flat surface and fully extended.
A diet that contributes to the development and advancement of DENTAL CARIES.
Disorders or diseases associated with PUERPERIUM, the six-to-eight-week period immediately after PARTURITION in humans.
Period from the onset of true OBSTETRIC LABOR to the complete dilatation of the CERVIX UTERI.
The social institution involving legal and/or religious sanction whereby individuals are joined together.
The concept covering the physical and mental conditions of women.
The co-occurrence of pregnancy and an INFECTION. The infection may precede or follow FERTILIZATION.
Chemical substances that interrupt pregnancy after implantation.
That portion of total HEALTH CARE COSTS borne by an individual's or group's employing organization.
Two individuals derived from two FETUSES that were fertilized at or about the same time, developed in the UTERUS simultaneously, and born to the same mother. Twins are either monozygotic (TWINS, MONOZYGOTIC) or dizygotic (TWINS, DIZYGOTIC).
The consumption of edible substances.
The behavior patterns associated with or characteristic of a mother.
The inhabitants of rural areas or of small towns classified as rural.
Maternal deaths resulting from complications of pregnancy and childbirth in a given population.
Nutrition of a mother which affects the health of the FETUS and INFANT as well as herself.
Therapeutic use of hormones to alleviate the effects of hormone deficiency.
Childbirth taking place in the home.
A condition in pregnant women with elevated systolic (>140 mm Hg) and diastolic (>90 mm Hg) blood pressure on at least two occasions 6 h apart. HYPERTENSION complicates 8-10% of all pregnancies, generally after 20 weeks of gestation. Gestational hypertension can be divided into several broad categories according to the complexity and associated symptoms, such as EDEMA; PROTEINURIA; SEIZURES; abnormalities in BLOOD COAGULATION and liver functions.
Methods for recognizing the state of ESTRUS.
The enactment of laws and ordinances and their regulation by official organs of a nation, state, or other legislative organization. It refers also to health-related laws and regulations in general or for which there is no specific heading.
In humans, one of the paired regions in the anterior portion of the THORAX. The breasts consist of the MAMMARY GLANDS, the SKIN, the MUSCLES, the ADIPOSE TISSUE, and the CONNECTIVE TISSUES.
The failure of a FETUS to attain its expected FETAL GROWTH at any GESTATIONAL AGE.
The physiological period following the MENOPAUSE, the permanent cessation of the menstrual life.
The use of hormonal agents with estrogen-like activity in postmenopausal or other estrogen-deficient women to alleviate effects of hormone deficiency, such as vasomotor symptoms, DYSPAREUNIA, and progressive development of OSTEOPOROSIS. This may also include the use of progestational agents in combination therapy.
The relative amounts of various components in the body, such as percentage of body fat.
The qualitative or quantitative estimation of the likelihood of adverse effects that may result from exposure to specified health hazards or from the absence of beneficial influences. (Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 1988)
Specialized connective tissue composed of fat cells (ADIPOCYTES). It is the site of stored FATS, usually in the form of TRIGLYCERIDES. In mammals, there are two types of adipose tissue, the WHITE FAT and the BROWN FAT. Their relative distributions vary in different species with most adipose tissue being white.
Value of all final goods and services produced in a country in one year.
Drugs used to increase fertility or to treat infertility.
The commitment in writing, as authentic evidence, of something having legal importance. The concept includes certificates of birth, death, etc., as well as hospital, medical, and other institutional records.
The gradual irreversible changes in structure and function of an organism that occur as a result of the passage of time.
Official certifications by a physician recording the individual's birth date, place of birth, parentage and other required identifying data which are filed with the local registrar of vital statistics.
CHILDBIRTH at the end of a normal duration of PREGNANCY, between 37 to 40 weeks of gestation or about 280 days from the first day of the mother's last menstrual period.
A species of SWINE, in the family Suidae, comprising a number of subspecies including the domestic pig Sus scrofa domestica.
Revenues or receipts accruing from business enterprise, labor, or invested capital.
A status with BODY WEIGHT that is grossly above the acceptable or desirable weight, usually due to accumulation of excess FATS in the body. The standards may vary with age, sex, genetic or cultural background. In the BODY MASS INDEX, a BMI greater than 30.0 kg/m2 is considered obese, and a BMI greater than 40.0 kg/m2 is considered morbidly obese (MORBID OBESITY).
Persons with psychiatric illnesses or diseases, particularly psychotic and severe mood disorders.
Age of the biological father.
Exchange of substances between the maternal blood and the fetal blood at the PLACENTA via PLACENTAL CIRCULATION. The placental barrier excludes microbial or viral transmission.
INFLAMMATION of the UDDER in cows.
Procedures that render the female sterile by interrupting the flow in the FALLOPIAN TUBE. These procedures generally are surgical, and may also use chemicals or physical means.
Individuals whose ancestral origins are in the continent of Europe.
Diminished or absent ability of a female to achieve conception.
The co-occurrence of pregnancy and a cardiovascular disease. The disease may precede or follow FERTILIZATION and it may or may not have a deleterious effect on the pregnant woman or FETUS.
The name given to all Christian denominations, sects, or groups rising out of the Reformation. Protestant churches generally agree that the principle of authority should be the Scriptures rather than the institutional church or the pope. (from W.L. Reese, Dictionary of Philosophy and Religion, 1999)
The state of birth outside of wedlock. It may refer to the offspring or the parents.
Prevention of CONCEPTION by blocking fertility temporarily, or permanently (STERILIZATION, REPRODUCTIVE). Common means of reversible contraception include NATURAL FAMILY PLANNING METHODS; CONTRACEPTIVE AGENTS; or CONTRACEPTIVE DEVICES.
The occurrence in an individual of two or more cell populations of different chromosomal constitutions, derived from different individuals. This contrasts with MOSAICISM in which the different cell populations are derived from a single individual.
A highly vascularized mammalian fetal-maternal organ and major site of transport of oxygen, nutrients, and fetal waste products. It includes a fetal portion (CHORIONIC VILLI) derived from TROPHOBLASTS and a maternal portion (DECIDUA) derived from the uterine ENDOMETRIUM. The placenta produces an array of steroid, protein and peptide hormones (PLACENTAL HORMONES).

Difference between mammary epithelial cells from mature virgin and primiparous mice. (1/2537)

Mammary epithelial cells from mature virgin mice are similar to those from primiparous mice in several respects. However, there is one known difference. The cells from the mature virgin must traverse the cell cycle in order to become competent to make casein and enzymatically active alpha-lactalbumin in vitro; those from the primiparous animal can make these proteins without first traversing the cycle. In this regard, cells from human placental lactogen- and prolactin-treated mature virgins are, after involution, similar to those from primiparous mice. The developemental block in the cells from the mature virgin, imposed by preventing cell cycle traversal, has been partially delineated. It does not appear to reside at the levels of ultrastructural maturation or the formation of casein messenger RNA. Rather, the lesion is postranscriptional and may be at the level of translation, or posttranslational modification, or both.  (+info)

Reproductive factors and fatal hip fractures. A Norwegian prospective study of 63,000 women. (2/2537)

STUDY OBJECTIVE: The aim of the study was to investigate the impact of reproductive variables (age at menarche, menopause, first and last birth as well as parity, lactation, and abortions) on hip fracture mortality. DESIGN AND SETTING: A prospective study in Norway with more than 60,000 women followed up for 29 years. A total of 465 deaths as a result of hip fracture were recorded. MAIN RESULTS: Statistically significant linear relations (p < or = 0.02) were found between both age at menarche and length of reproductive period (defined as age at menopause to age at menarche) and the mortality of hip fractures in women aged less than 80. The death rate for women with a late menarche (> or = 17 years) was twice that of the women with relatively early menarche (< or = 13 years). Compared with women with less than 30 years between menopause and menarche, the mortality rate ratio in women with more than 38 reproductive years was 0.5. We also found an inverse relation with age at first birth. CONCLUSIONS: This study supports by hypothesis that an early menarche and a long reproductive period protect against hip fracture mortality. High age at first birth may also be protective.  (+info)

Moderate physical activity in relation to mammographic patterns. (3/2537)

High-risk mammographic patterns may be used as a surrogate end point for breast cancer in etiologic research as well as in prevention studies. Physical activity may be one of the few modifiable risk factors for breast cancer. We examined the relationship between physical activity and mammographic patterns among 2720 Norwegian women, ages 40-56 years, who participated in both the Second and Third Tromso studies. Epidemiologic data were obtained through questionnaires. Two questions from the Second Tromso study and five questions from the Third elicited information on physical activity. The mammograms were categorized into five groups based on anatomical-mammographic correlations. For analysis, patterns I through III were combined into a low-risk group and patterns IV and V into a high-risk group. Odds ratios that were adjusted for age, education, menopausal status, body mass index, parity, age at menarche, oral contraceptive use, and alcohol intake, with 95% confidence intervals, were estimated using logistic regression. Women who reported moderate physical activity, i.e., more than 2 h/week, were 20% less likely (odds ratio, 0.8; 95% confidence interval, 0.6-1.1) to have high-risk mammographic patterns compared with those who reported being inactive. This relationship remains consistent when stratified by menopausal status, parity, and tertiles of body mass index. However, all of the associations between various measures of physical activity and high-risk patterns found in this study are weak with confidence intervals that include 1.0. Thus, chance is a reasonable explanation for the weak associations found. The relationship between physical activity and high-risk patterns should be examined further as a means to explore the biologic mechanisms relating physical activity to breast cancer risk.  (+info)

Reproductive experience and opioid regulation of luteinizing hormone release in female rats. (4/2537)

The objective of the present study was to determine whether reproductive experience that produces shifts in opioid regulation of prolactin secretion and behavioural functions also alters opioid regulation of LH during the oestrous cycle or lactation. In Expt 1 the effect of naloxone administration (i.v.) on LH was compared between age-matched, nulliparous and primiparous, catheterized female rats on dioestrus II. In Expt 2, the effects of multiple reproductive experiences on opiate control of LH were investigated using cyclic, nulliparous and multiparous (three litters) rats. In both experiments, no differences in naloxone-stimulated LH release were found between groups even though multiple reproductive experiences resulted in the prolongation of oestrous cyclicity. In Expt 3, day 8 lactating primiparous rats were administered 2, 5, 10 or 25 mg naloxone kg-1 i.v. The three lowest naloxone doses, but not the 25 mg kg-1 dose, significantly increased LH concentrations. The possible effects of prior reproductive experience on opioid control of LH during lactation were then investigated. Naloxone at 0.5 mg kg-1, but not at 2 mg kg-1 or 10 mg kg-1, stimulated a significantly greater rise in LH in multiparous (two litters) than in primiparous females. Overall, these data indicate that while modest differences were found in naloxone-induced LH responses between multiparous and primiparous animals during lactation, reproductive experience did not significantly alter opioid regulation of LH during subsequent oestrous cycles at the naloxone doses examined. Hence, the effects of reproductive experience on opioid regulation of LH are less pronounced than those previously found for opioid regulation of prolactin and behaviour.  (+info)

Primary endometrioid carcinoma of fallopian tube. Clinicomorphologic study. (5/2537)

Twenty cases of primary Fallopian tube endometrioid carcinoma (PFTEC) are presented in the paper. This accounts for 42.5% of all histologic forms of primary Fallopian tube carcinoma (PFTC) found in our Department. The youngest patient was 38, and the oldest 68 years (mean: 56 years). Seven patients were nulliparas. Only two cases were bilateral. According to FIGO staging, 13 cases were evaluated as stage I, 4 as II, and 3 as stage III. Due to the histologic grading, 8 tumors were classified as well, 7 as moderately, and 5 as poorly differentiated. In the time of preparation of the manuscript, 12 women were still alive, 2 of them with recurrent disease. The follow-up of patients without recurrence ranged from 4 to 120 months (median: 63). Eight patients had died (survival time: from 4 to 65 months; median: 26). Metastases were found in 8 patients, especially to ovaries. In 14/20 cases of PFTEC various forms of tubal wall invasion were observed. Blood or lymphatic vessels involvement was found in 9 patients. Six of them had died and one is alive with the symptoms of disease. Immunohistochemical detection of the mutant form of p53 protein and oncogene product, c-erbB-2, was studied in 17 cases. Nine patients exhibited simultaneous p53 protein accumulation and c-erbB-2 expression. 2/9 of these patients are alive with recurrent tumors and 4/9 died. Endometrioid carcinoma of the Fallopian tube can be characterized by a tendency to superficial invasion of tubal wall and in a half of the cases by invasion of vessels. The majority of these tumors were diagnosed at an early stage tumors.  (+info)

Breast cancer risk in monozygotic and dizygotic female twins: a 20-year population-based cohort study in Finland from 1976 to 1995. (6/2537)

This population-based study investigated the occurrence of breast cancer over a 20-year period in a cohort of monozygotic (MZ) and dizygotic (DZ) twins in Finland. Altogether, 13,176 female twins of known zygosity who were living in Finland at the end of 1975 were identified from the Finnish Twin Cohort Study and followed-up for cancer through the Finnish Cancer Registry for the years 1976-1995. Standardized incidence ratios (SIRs) were calculated, based on national cancer incidence rates. The relative risk of breast cancer for MZ twins compared to DZ twins was decreased [SIR(MZ)/SIR(DZ) ratio = 0.78; 95% confidence interval (CI), 0.58-1.0]; the decreased risk for MZ twins (SIR = 0.76; 95% CI, 0.58-1.0) accounted for this result, whereas the risk for DZ twins did not differ from the general population risk (SIR = 0.98; 95% CI, 0.84-1.1). There was no risk decrease among MZ twins in other cancers related to reproductive behavior; i.e., number of children and age at first birth seem not to explain the decreased risk of breast cancer. Our results, which are in line with earlier studies on the same topic, suggest that prenatal influences or postnatal behavioral factors may protect MZ female twins from breast cancer.  (+info)

Evaluating a policy of reduced consultant antenatal clinic visits for low risk multiparous women. (7/2537)

OBJECTIVES: To evaluate a change in antenatal care policy to reduce antenatal clinic visits, whereby low risk multiparous women were managed by the primary care team and seen at booking and at 41 weeks' gestation at the consultant antenatal clinic. DESIGN: Comparative study of low risk multiparous women retrospectively identified through the Oxford obstetric data system and cared for by three consultants who changed their policy (group A) or three consultants who maintained their routine care (group B). SETTING: Oxfordshire Health District. SUBJECTS: 2153 low risk multiparous women (1079 group A, 1074 group B) booked for consultant care at John Radcliffe Maternity Hospital between August 1985 and July 1987. MAIN MEASURES: Comparison of pregnancy outcomes, satisfaction with care, and clinic waiting times, during one year before and after the policy change (year 1, year 2). RESULTS: The proportion of women in group A with only one or two consultant clinic visits increased from 19.9% to 57.9% between years 1 and 2 (p < 0.001). Clinic waiting times did not improve. Of five perinatal deaths in group A, one (from postmaturity) could possibly be attributed to the policy change. The proportion of women reaching 42 weeks' gestation rose from 4.7% to 9.2% (p < 0.01); the proportion fully satisfied with their care rose from 68.4% to 82.1% (p < 0.025). No such changes were seen in group B. CONCLUSIONS: The change in policy was successful in reducing hospital antenatal clinic visits. The exercise identified dilemmas around evaluating changes in antenatal care settings. IMPLICATIONS: Criteria to test policy objectives should be selected carefully and rare events assessed prospectively in order to detect problems early.  (+info)

Too far, too little, too late: a community-based case-control study of maternal mortality in rural west Maharashtra, India. (8/2537)

A total of 121 maternal deaths, identified through multiple-source surveillance in 400 villages in Maharashtra, were prospectively enrolled during 1993-95 in a population-based case-control study, which compared deaths with the survivors of similar pregnancy complications. The cases took significantly longer to seek care and to make the first health contact after the decision to seek care was taken. They also travelled significantly greater distances through a greater number of health facilities before appropriate treatment was started. Multivariate analysis showed the negative effect of excessive referrals and the protective effect of the following: residing in and not away from the village; presence of a resident nurse in the village; having an educated husband and a trained attendant at delivery; and being at the woman's parents' home at the time of illness. Other significant findings showed that deaths due to domestic violence were the second-largest cause of deaths in pregnancy, that more than two-thirds of maternal deaths were underreported in official records, and that liveborn infants of maternal deaths had a markedly higher risk of dying in the first year of life. This study points to the need for information-education-communication (IEC) efforts to increase family (especially male) preparedness for emergencies, decentralized obstetric management with effective triage, and a restructuring of the referral system.  (+info)

The International Collaboration of Epidemiological Studies of Cervical Cancer has combined individual data on 11,161 women with invasive carcinoma, 5,402 women with cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN)3/carcinoma in situ and 33,542 women without cervical carcinoma from 25 epidemiological studies. Relative risks (RRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) of cervical carcinoma in relation to number of full-term pregnancies, and age at first full-term pregnancy, were calculated conditioning by study, age, lifetime number of sexual partners and age at first sexual intercourse. Number of full-term pregnancies was associated with a risk of invasive cervical carcinoma. After controlling for age at first full-term pregnancy, the RR for invasive cervical carcinoma among parous women was 1.76 (95% CI: 1.53-2.02) for | or =| or =7 full-term pregnancies compared with 1-2. For CIN3/carcinoma in situ, no significant trend was found with increasing number of births after controlling for age at first full-term
Press Release Summary: Alan Rommel, promoted to managing director of the recruitment arm of Parity Group plc Press Release Body: Alan Rommel joined Parity at the end of 1993 and since then he has steadily developed his career and actively contributed to many of the organisations achievements. Most recently, he has been leading the public sector recruitment operation, strengthening Paritys position in the market with many successes; amongst these, the win of two supplier awards through the Catalist Framework Agreement, and taking the business to the top of the suppliers list in IT and project & programme management services within the framework.. The company has now decided to entrust into Rommels hands the whole recruitment business, promoting him to managing director. This appointment recognises the talent that Parity nurtures and also illustrates the commitment of the organisation to reward success with real opportunities for development, said Parity Group CEO Alwyn Welch.. Asked about ...
Breast cancer risk has traditionally been linked to nulliparity or late first full-term pregnancy, whereas young age at first childbirth, multiparity, and breast-feeding are associated with a reduced risk. Early pregnancy confers protection by inducing breast differentiation, which imprints a specific and permanent genomic signature in experimental rodent models. For testing whether the same phenomenon was detectable in the atrophic breast of postmenopausal parous women, we designed a case-control study for the analysis of the gene expression profile of RNA extracted from epithelial cells microdissected from normal breast tissues obtained from 18 parous and 7 nulliparous women free of breast pathology (controls), and 41 parous and 8 nulliparous women with history of breast cancer (cases ...
There is a well-documented reduction in endometrial cancer (EC) risk with combined oral contraceptive (COC) use. COC use prior to the first full-term pregnancy may affect breast cancer risk for decades, but this relationship has not been investigated in EC. We investigated the risk for EC with COC use prior to the first full-term pregnancy. Cases (n=524) from a population-based cancer registry and age-matched controls (n=1032) were recruited between 2002 and 2006 in Alberta, Canada. Participants completed an in-person interview and provided detailed information on exogenous hormone use and other risk factors. Risk reductions in EC with COC use over the premenopausal years were consistent with the published literature. We also found evidence of a long-term, significant risk reduction in parous women with COC use prior to the first full-term pregnancy. Among parous women, ≥5 years of COC use prior to a first full-term pregnancy was associated with a significant reduction in risk (adjusted ...
Its interesting that a woman who has her first full-term pregnancy by the age of 18 has about one-third the risk of developing breast cancer as a woman who has her first full-term pregnancy after age 30. We dont know exactly why that is but the data seems to indicate that its the breast while its developing that is most susceptible to environmental factors -- carcinogens, cancer-causing agents in the environment that may trigger a cancer later on in life, even
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The second independent risk factor for breast cancer is induced abortion. As of 2004, 41 studies had been published in the worldwide medical literature (including 16 American studies) reporting data on the risk of breast cancer among women with a history of induced abortion. 29 (70%) of these studies report increased risk. Thirteen of the 16 (81%) American studies report increased risk, 8 with statistical significance (at least 95% probability that the result is not due to chance) irrespective of age at first full-term pregnancy. The relative risk increase of the 41 studies combined is 30%. (Note: this means that among aborted women there would be a 30% increase in breast cancer cases over what would normally be expected). ...
The second independent risk factor for breast cancer is induced abortion. As of 2004, 41 studies had been published in the worldwide medical literature (including 16 American studies) reporting data on the risk of breast cancer among women with a history of induced abortion. 29 (70%) of these studies report increased risk. Thirteen of the 16 (81%) American studies report increased risk, 8 with statistical significance (at least 95% probability that the result is not due to chance) irrespective of age at first full-term pregnancy. The relative risk increase of the 41 studies combined is 30%. (Note: this means that among aborted women there would be a 30% increase in breast cancer cases over what would normally be expected). ...
Genetic variants may influence miRNA-mRNA interaction through modulate binding affinity, creating or destroying miRNA-binding sites. Twenty-four single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) that were predicted to affect the binding affinity of breast cancer-related miRNAs to 3′-untranslated regions (UTR) of known genes were genotyped in 878 breast cancer cases and 900 controls in Chinese women. Three promising SNPs (rs10494836, rs10857748 and rs7963551) were further validated in additional 914 breast cancer cases and 967 controls. The variant allele (C) of rs7963551 at 3′-UTR of RAD52 showed a consistently reduced breast cancer risk in two stages with a combined odds ratio (OR) of 0.84 [95% confidence interval (CI) = 0.75-0.95], which was more prominent among women with early age at first live birth (OR = 0.71, 95% CI = 0.58-0.87). A significant interaction was observed between rs7963551 and age at first live birth on breast cancer risk (P for interaction = 0.04). Luciferase activity assay showed ...
Background: Correlational studies have showed that parity is associated with risk for cardiovascular disease (CVD). According to these correlations, multiparous women have reduced risk of developing CVD compared to nulliparous women. Experimental studies examining the effects of parity on vascular function are lacking and most importantly, how parity affects women with established cardiovascular risk factors is unknown. Women with type 2 diabetes have a greater risk of developing vascular complications compared to their non-diabetic counterparts. This study focuses on the influence of parity on contractile arterial responses of multiparous and nulliparous rats with type 2 diabetes. Hypothesis: Old multiparous rats with type 2 diabetes (Goto-Kakizaki rats, GK) were hypothesized to have a decreased contractile response to phenylephrine (PE) and endothelin-1 (ET-1) compared to nulliparous GK young and age-matched rats. Materials and Methods: Three experimental groups were used: GK young nulliparous rats,
BACKGROUND: Few studies have examined in depth the labor progression of multiparas to determine if there is any additional impact of being parous beyond the first birth. The objective of this study was to determine the effect of parity on labor progr
Adjusted for age at enrollment, mother or sister with breast cancer (y/n), body mass index, ,1 year of irregular years (y/n), hormone replacement therapy ever (y/n), ever married (y/n), infertility consult ever (y/n), educational level, and parity and age at first childbirth (centered around its mean and multiplied by parity). ...
This study was undertaken to examine whether there is an association between parity and age at first birth and risk of death from brain cancer. The study cohort consisted of 1,292,462 women who had a first and singleton childbirth between Jan. 1, 1978 and Dec. 31, 1987. We tracked each woman from the time of their first childbirth to December 31, 2009, and their vital status was ascertained by linking records with the computerized mortality database. Cox proportional hazard regression models were used to estimate the hazard ratios (HR) of death from brain cancer associated with parity and age at first birth. There were 316 brain cancer deaths during 34,980,246 person-years of follow-up. The mortality rate of brain cancer was 0.90 cases per 100,000 person-years. The adjusted HR was 1.35 (95% CI= 0.91-2.01) for women who gave birth between 21 and 25, 1.61 (95% CI=1.05-2.45) for women who gave birth after 25 years of age, respectively, when compared with women who gave birth less than 20 years. A trend of
We observed that nulliparous mothers had children with lower fetal growth rates and higher risks of delivering preterm and small-size-for-gestational-age children. Among multiparous women only, trend analyses showed a tendency toward decreasing risks of adverse birth outcomes with increasing parity. Our findings are in line with a previous study among 25 614 singleton births, which showed that the rates of intrauterine growth restriction and preterm delivery were higher among nulliparous women compared with multiparous women.5 Compared with infants of nulliparous mothers, infants of multiparous mothers had lower rates of accelerated infant growth, lower childhood BMI, fat mass percentage, and cholesterol levels. Among multiparous women only, consistent trends with increasing parity in similar direction were present. Although the observed effect estimates were small and they are mainly of interest from a cardiovascular developmental perspective, previous studies have shown that these childhood ...
We are building a coalition of leaders, supporters, volunteers, and partners interested in diversifying leadership and decision-making in Massachusetts. Support An Act to Ensure Gender Parity and Racial and Ethnic Diversity on Public Boards and Commissions (H.4153) by becoming a Parity On Board coalition partner. As a coalition partner, you will receive updates on the status of the bill, have the opportunity to be a part of coalition meetings, and be the first to know of future interventions in support of this bill. As a coalition partner, you are committing to publicly advocating for this bill.. ...
Read The impact of purchasing power parity on auto foreign trade, Quality & Quantity on DeepDyve, the largest online rental service for scholarly research with thousands of academic publications available at your fingertips.
Objective: To examine the effect of childbearing and maternal breastfeeding on a womans subsequent risk of developing type 2 diabetes.. Research Design and Methods: Using information on parity, breastfeeding and diabetes collected from 52,731 women recruited into a cohort study, we estimated the risk of type 2 diabetes using multivariate logistic regression.. Results: 3,160 (6.0%) women were classified with type 2 diabetes. Overall, nulliparous and parous women had a similar risk of diabetes. Among parous women, there was a 14% (95%CI 10-18%, p,0.001) reduced likelihood of diabetes per year of breastfeeding. Compared to nulliparous women, parous women who did not breastfeed had a greater risk of diabetes, OR=1.48(95%CI 1.26-1.73, p,0.001); whilst for those breastfeeding for at least 3 months per child, the risk was not significantly increased.. Conclusions: Compared to nulliparous women, childbearing women who do not breastfeed have about a 50% increased risk of type 2 diabetes in later life. ...
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Sinn Féin MP Conor Murphy has accused the DUP of contradicting itself by seeking parity with Britain on Brexit arrangements but not on peoples rights.. The Newry-Armagh MP was commenting after DUP Leader Arlene Foster said Brexit cannot be allowed to lead to different arrangements here than in Britain.. Arlene Fosters comments expose the contradiction at the heart of DUP policy, Conor Murphy said.. They dont want any divergence when it comes to Brexit but they are quite happy to go a different way when it comes to the rights and entitlements of citizens in the North of Ireland.. Language rights, marriage equality and the right to proper inquests are all taken for granted in Britain but they are not available here because the DUP is denying them to citizens.. Like the pro-Brexit camp in general, they are trying to have it both ways but I am confident they will find out in time, that is not a credible position.. Similarly, their denial of rights is not sustainable given the fact that ...
Amazing employment figures warmed the hearts of Canadian policymakers and sent USD/CAD tumbling down. Is the Canadian dollar going to be in parity with
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I guess I should mention at this point that Michael is an awful driver. He hit everyones car in the studio lot at least once, including mine. One time, he rear
Introduction This post gives a simple overview of the different parities that can occur during a reduction solve on 4x4x4 upwards. Even layered cubes...
This note extends a result of Frank, Jordán, and Szigeti [3] on parity constrained orientations with connectivity requirements. Given a hypergraph H,
I first installed Mist, which downloaded 23GB of blockchain data, and the deleted all the blockchain data and mist-related files. Then, I installed the parity on my windows 10 machine. Within a 10 min, parity shows that chain data is synced. However, I cannot find any chain data on my PC. The remaining storage has not been changed. I cannot find the folders mentioned in this answer: Location of parity blockchain in Windows. I could send and receive ETH with parity. So, I guess the parity client does not download any chain data. I was wondering whether my guess is correct or not. If it is getting the blockchain from the web, would it be safer option than the Mist? Thanks. ...
SAEs Parity Compliance team is available to assist in understanding, monitoring and changing policy and practice with NTQLs. If you would like to explore how we can help you in this arena, email [email protected] or call us at (212) 684-4480 to connect with our team ...
Everything was fine until i do a full parity check. First time it cam back with 1000000s of read only errors on pairty drive #2. Fine RMAd the drive awaiting return. Ran another pairty check hard lockup, same thing this morning. The only recent change was adding a 10G nic which has been working ...
I got hold of the previously mentioned report from Parity today. It sheds some additional light but it still confirms my view that despite surveying a thousand people theres something basically wrong with the study. The researchers need to understand what people do online, what people do offline, and why; which is something they fail…
A researcher claims that the average age of a woman before he has her first child is now greater than it was in 1990. In 1990, that average age was 26.4 years. She obtains a random sample of 40 women who all recently gave birth.
A 38-year-old nulliparous woman comes to the physician for an annual check-up. She reports a 10-pack-year smoking history and a family history of early...
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Squamous cell carcinomas account for about 80% of cancers of the uterine cervix, and the majority of the remainder are adenocarcinomas. There is limited evidence on the extent to which these histological types share a common etiology. The International Collaboration of Epidemiological Studies of Cervical Cancer has brought together and combined individual data on 8,097 women with invasive squamous cell carcinoma, 1,374 women with invasive adenocarcinoma and 26,445 women without cervical cancer (controls) from 12 epidemiological studies. Compared to controls, the relative risk of each histological type of invasive cervical cancer was increased with increasing number of sexual partners, younger age at first intercourse, increasing parity, younger age at first full-term pregnancy and increasing duration of oral contraceptive use. Current smoking was associated with a significantly increased risk of squamous cell carcinoma (RR = 1.50, 95% CI: 1.35-1.66) but not of adenocarcinoma (RR = 0.86 (0.70-1.05)), and
TY - JOUR. T1 - Female reproductive factors, menopausal hormone use, and Parkinsons disease. AU - Liu, Rui. AU - Baird, Donna. AU - Park, Yikyung. AU - Freedman, Neal D.. AU - Huang, Xuemei. AU - Hollenbeck, Albert. AU - Blair, Aaron. AU - Chen, Honglei. PY - 2014/6. Y1 - 2014/6. N2 - The objective of this study was to examine the associations of reproductive factors and exogenous hormone use with risk of Parkinsons disease (PD) among postmenopausal women. The study comprised 119,166 postmenopausal women aged 50 to 71 years in the NIH-AARP Diet and Health Study, who completed a baseline questionnaire in 1995-1996 and a follow-up survey in 2004-2006. A total of 410 self-reported PD diagnoses were identified between 1995 and 2006. Multivariate odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were derived from logistic regression models. PD risk was not significantly associated with female reproductive factors including age at menarche, age at first live birth, parity, and age at menopause. ...
RESULTS: 9760 women delivered at the Department during the study period, among them 193 met the inclusion criteria for the study: 40 primiparas (average age 40.9 ± 1.14) and 153 multiparas (average age 41.3 ± 1.35). No relation between parity and preterm delivery was observed (5% primiparas vs 11.1% multiparas; p>0.05). However, gestational age at delivery was associated with the number of pregnancies - the higher the pregnancy number, the lower the gestational age (p=0.009; R=-0.188). Primiparity was associated with an increased rate of oligohydramnios (RR=4.78; 95% CI 1.15-20.63) and pregnancy induced hypertension (RR=2.34; 95% CI 0.93-5.58). Primiparas had a significantly greater risk of operative delivery (RR=1.83; 95% CI 1.42-2.12) and unsuccessful labor inductions (RR=3.60; 95% CI 1.04-5.29). They were more often diagnosed with fibroids (RR=3.04; 95%CI 1.15-7.81). No relations between parity and birth weight, fetal abnormalities or Apgar score were observed ...
Fertility timing across the Czech women, the 1966-1990 generations Abstract: The mean age of women at the first and second childbirth in Czechia is growing since the beginning of the 90s. The aim of this doctoral thesis is therefore to analyse the intensity and causes of the unplanned postponement of childbirth, mainly from the individual perspective of Czech women. The main sources of data used in the thesis are from the Ženy 2016 survey and the Ženy 2019 survey, that gather data about the women born in Czechia between the years 1966 and 1990. The research contribution of the thesis is twofold. Firstly, the separation of postponement into two phases - planned postponement and unplanned postponement, as both of them contribute to the growing mean age at first childbirth. Secondly, the finding of the sequential nature of fertility timing. First stage of postponement is related to the unfulfillment of defined prerequisites for the first childbirth, such as completion of education, stable ...
Breast cancer is the second leading cause of death from cancer in women during pregnancy. Pregnancy-associated breast cancer presents a challenging clinical situation because of the special and unique circumstances surrounding the growth and differentiation of the developing fetus. The trend towards later age at first childbirth has resulted in an increase in the number of breast cancer …. Read More…. ...
Older, primiparous mothers were much more likely to have a no indicated risk primary caesarean; almost one fifth (19.5%) of primiparous mothers aged over 34 had such a delivery in 2001. More than 5% of multiparous mothers over 34 who had had previous vaginal births also had a no indicated risk primary caesarean in 2001. Among mothers under 30 with no indicated risk, the primary caesarean rate grew by more than half (58%) between 1991 and 2001 to 4.9%.. The raw numbers of births also illustrates this trend. In 2001, 80 028 no indicated risk primary caesareans took place in the United States, an increase of 25 162 since 1996. This represented 25.8% of the total increase (97 659) in primary caesareans between 1996 and 2001.. We used multivariate logistic regression analysis (SAS version 8) to examine changes in primary caesarean rates after controlling for parity; maternal ethnicity, age, and education; birth weight; and data year (1991, 1996, or 2001) (see table on We ran models for all ...
Montréal, June 12, 2015 - Catherine Isabelle, Chair of the YMCAs of Québecs Board of Directors, is pleased to announce the appointment of Lyse Brunet, Fannie Dagenais, Josée De La Durantaye and Josée Dubuc to its Board. The Board of Directors arrived at this unanimous decision during the YMCAs Annual General Meeting on June 2, 2015. For the first time in its history, the YMCAs Board of Directors has as many female directors as male directors.. We are certain that reaching gender parity on the YMCAs Board of Directors will bring together diverse views and experiences and, in turn, strengthen the governance of the organization, said Catherine Isabelle, Chair of the Board of Directors.. The YMCA will benefit from the extensive experience of each director:. ...
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Factors associated with RR 1.1-2.0 for breast cancer are as follows{ref6}{ref7}{ref8}: Alcohol consumption Age 30-35 at first full-term pregnancy Diethylstilbestrol exposure in utero Early menarch... more
TY - JOUR. T1 - A cohort study of reproductive risk factors, weight and weight change and the development of diabetes mellitus. AU - Dawson, S. I.. AU - Smith, W. C. S.. AU - Watson, M. S.. AU - Wilson, B. J.. AU - Prescott, G. J.. AU - Campbell, D.. AU - Hannaford, P.. N1 - This work was supported by a grant from the British Heart Foundation, and by a PhD studentship (SID)from the University of Aberdeen.We would like to acknowledge the contribution of the following people: Sarah Sunderland for conducting the clinical examinations, Dean Phillips for tracing and data management, Amanda Cardy for review of the original case notes, Nicola Torrance for assistance with the data collection and the operation of clinics, Linda Harrigan and Wendy Aiken for entering the data, Tracy Mapp for assistance with the study design, Isobel Ford and Ian Ross at Department of Medicine, Aberdeen for assistance with the laboratory analysis, and Val Angus of Practitioner Services at Grampian Health Board for the ...
Breast cancer therapeutic strategies today are generally based on histopathological characterization, tumor size, grading, and axillary lymph node and receptor status [1]. Even so, patients when diagnosed with similar conditions and when treated with similar drug can go through extensive differences in the development and relapse of BC. Studies show that women, who had a full-term pregnancy at an age below 30; and who went through three full-term pregnancies, and three or more years of breast feeding, were significantly protected against BC [20]. However, BC incidence is high among women from the KSA. BC risk factors including nulliparity or low parity, first full term pregnancy at very late age, no breast feeding etc., are not common in the Saudi society [19]. These factors combined with the early onset of BC among women, in this ethnicity, prompted us to study the molecular mechanism underlying the malignancies.. In the present study, we identified transcriptomic signature in BC from the KSA ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Reproductive and hormonal factors and ovarian cancer. AU - Chiaffarino, F.. AU - Pelucchi, C.. AU - Parazzini, F.. AU - Negri, E.. AU - Franceschi, S.. AU - Talamini, R.. AU - Conti, E.. AU - Montella, M.. AU - Vecchia, C. L.. PY - 2001. Y1 - 2001. N2 - Background: Menstrual, reproductive and hormonal factors have been related to ovarian cancer risk, but further quantification of their role in various populations is required. Patients and methods: Cases were 1031 women, below age 79, with incident, histologically confirmed epithelial ovarian cancer, and controls 2411 women, admitted between 1992 and 1999 to a network of hospitals in 4 Italian areas for acute, non-neoplastic, diseases. Odds ratios (OR) were obtained using multiple logistic regression. Results: Multiparity was associated with a significant reduction in risk of ovarian cancer (OR=0.6 for 3, and 0.5 for ≥ 4 births). No consistent association was observed with time since first or last birth, nor with spontaneous or ...
By this stage gaining weight during pregnancy chart your pregnancy, the ICM will be divided into two layers: the epiblast and the hypoblast. In numerous European countries (Spain), the imply age of girls at first childbirth has crossed the 30-yr threshold. My husband had a vasectomy about 11 yrs. Growing twins and supporting them towards maturity takes a lot of vitality. And drained Wierd cravings. It also can rotate across the body for a extra snug fit. A qualitative hCG blood take a look where can i buy maternity formal dresses checks to see whether the pregnancy hormone is current or not. A protracted cycle might imply that you just will not ovulate till two weeks after your period has ended. Irritated cervix would then cause bleeding if exterior means might be applied within the space resembling when present process a Pap smear check or after having sexual activity or any serious medical situation equivalent to cervical (benign) polyp which can change into cancerous at anytime. c of ...
Soren, L, Immunological reactivity of lymphocytes in multiparous females after strain specific matings. (1967). Subject Strain Bibliography 1967. 281 ...
KumakumarAJANTA EXPORT INDUSTRIES - Exporter, Manufacturer, Distributor, Supplier, Trading Company of Multipara Monitor Systems Multi Parameter Patient Monitor,Digital Multipara Monitors,Vital Sign Monitors,Multipara Patient Monitor,M8B Multipara Monitor,Vital Signs Monitor, India
Effect of Smoking Behavior before and during Pregnancy on Selected Birth Outcomes among Singleton Full-Term Pregnancy: A Murmansk County Birth Registry Study Academic Article ...
October 01, 2019. Municipal leaders from nine hometowns in central Saskatchewan are gathered in Wadena today to discuss issues important to their communities.. Parity at the council table is one of the discussions at the Central Regional Meeting hosted by the Saskatchewan Urban Municipalities Association (SUMA).. See more in the full media release. ...
Erwin Chargaff, working with sea-urchin sperm in the 1950s, observed that within double-stranded DNA, the amount of adenine equals the amount of thymine (A = T) and guanine equals cytosine (G = C), which we now know is the basis of complementarity in DNA. But Chargaff later went on to observe the same thing in studies of single-stranded DNA, causing him to postulate that A = T and G = C more generally (within as well as across strands of DNA). The more general postulation is known as Chargaffs second parity rule. It says that A = T and G = C within a single strand of DNA ...
Results Of 3232 women with SLE identified, 2317 (72%) were parous. Median age was 49 years. Compared to the parous women, the non-parous women had more SLE-related morbidity [LM1], cardiovascular risk factors and CVE (15.1 vs. 8.5 [LM2] %). Amongst the parous women 23.3% (n=539) had a history of MPS. The incidence of CV events was highest amongst the non-parous group at 3.4 per 1,000 person-years (95%CI 2.91-4.07) followed by those who had pregnancies complicated by MPS (2.8 per 1,000 person-years (95% CI 2.2-3.6)). Hazard of a CVE was 2.2-fold higher in the non-parous group (HR 2.2; 95%CI 1.7-2.8) compared to 1.8-fold increase in those with MPS (HR 1.8; 95%CI 1.3-2.4). This hazard persisted after adjustment. The probability of a CVE-free survival was lowest in the non-parous group even when compared to those with MPS (p,0.001). (Figure 1) ...
Hormonal and reproductive factors and the risk of ovarian cancer: PurposeHormone-related factors have been associated with ovarian cancer, the strongest being p
After a dozen years of pushing AIX as its premier mission critical operating system — a top IBM exec is now saying that there is little difference in features between AIX-Unix and Linux.Linux is on parity with AIX, Jean Staten Healy, IBMs director of worldwide Linux strategy told InternetNe...
After a dozen years of pushing AIX as its premier mission critical operating system — a top IBM exec is now saying that there is little difference in features between AIX-Unix and Linux.Linux is on parity with AIX, Jean Staten Healy, IBMs director of worldwide Linux strategy told InternetNe...
In reply to Matt Brubeck (:mbrubeck) from comment #34) , I agree that an opt-out would be the best design if we were considering the , UX in isolation. But I think a good opt-in mechanism can do a lot to avoid , a PR shitstorm and communicate with our users better without making the UX , significantly worse. You might not care much about PR, but I think the , mobile team needs to weigh it fairly heavily since we have an uphill , perception battle just to get Android users to try our browser. Part of that perception problem is that we dont do what the users and the reviewers expect from their browser. You know how we took users from IE with Firefox? By matching and then beating their expectations. Parity on stuff that users actually like was critical. It wasnt enough -- we had to be better at some things, but if we didnt meet their basic expectations, wed have never gained significant share. Every user who fails the opt in test, for what ever reason, will be having a less good than the ...
A Comparative Study to Determine the Effect of Age and Parity on Vaginal Epithelial Cells Diameters. Nadia M. Al-Hilli,Haythem A. Abdul-Hussain,Mariamm M. Burhan, Hameda A. Al-Mahdy,Asmaa M. Mekky ...
બે મહિના પહેલાં નુસરત પ્રેગ્નન્ટ છે, તે વાત સામે આવી હતી.,નુસરતના પતિ નિખિલે કહ્યું હતું, આ બાળક તેનું નથી,નુસરત તથા યશદાસ ગુપ્તા વચ્ચે અફેર હોવાની ચર્ચા અને બાળકનો પિતા યશ હોવાનું માનવામાં આવે છે | TMC MP Nusrat Jahan admitted to hospital, likely to give birth to first child on Thursday
Oscar winning actress Jennifer Lawrence is pregnant and expecting her first child with her art dealer husband Cooke Maroney.A representative for the 31-year-old
A mother is nervous about the first birth family visit, wondering what it will be like, how to react if she or the birth mother get upset. Parents in open adoptions offer advice.
Page 17 - Morning everyone! Im doing a paper for development psych (ugh) and was wondering how old most of you were when you had your first child and what you think the best age to start a family is. I
Page 3 - Morning everyone! Im doing a paper for development psych (ugh) and was wondering how old most of you were when you had your first child and what you think the best age to start a family is. I
After youve given birth, its going to take a while for your body to regulate hormone levels and even start your period again. Read more here.
When I found out I was pregnant with my first child the method of feeding never entered my head until around 20 odd weeks when I was asked if I would try breas
... may refer to: Parity (computing) Parity bit in computing, sets the parity of data for the purpose of error detection ... respectively Parity (charity), UK equal rights organisation Parity (law), legal principle Mental Health Parity Act, also ... a problem in machine learning Parity of even and odd functions Parity (physics), a symmetry property of physical quantities or ... waiting times for males and females in restroom queues A tactic in reversi Grid parity of renewable energy Doctrine of parity, ...
Parity is calculated by summing all the binary inputs and reporting if the sum is odd or even. This is considered difficult ... Parity problems are widely used as benchmark problems in genetic programming but inherited from the artificial neural network ...
These have parity invariant mass terms, and so Pauli-Villars may be used to regulate the divergences and no parity anomaly ... is not parity invariant, therefore the possibility exists that the violation of parity invariance may remain when the mass goes ... Consider a classically parity-invariant gauge theory whose gauge group G has dual Coxeter number h in 3-dimensions. Include n ... If one includes a gauge-invariant regulator then the quantum parity invariance of the theory will be broken if h and n are odd ...
... s are found in scientific papers and reports, when the author wishes to validate a model in a visual way. However, ... A parity plot is a scatterplot that compares a set of results from a computational model against benchmark data. Each point has ...
The terms gender parity and gender equality are sometimes used interchangeably but gender parity differs from gender equality ... The resulting value is called a gender parity score. A gender parity score between 0 and 1 shows a greater number of male ... "How We Work: Gender parity in the United Nations". UN Women. Retrieved 2020-10-29. "UNITED for GENDER PARITY ,". ... politics is the furthest from achieving gender parity. Progress is being made towards gender parity but it is happening more ...
... (also referred to as Operator measurement) is a procedure in Quantum information science that is used to ... the circuit on the top right performs a Parity measurement on U {\displaystyle U} . After the first Hadamard gate, the state of ...
... is equal or equitable provision of public toilet facilities for females and males within a public space. Parity ... An alternative parity is by number of fixtures within washrooms. However, since females on average spend more time in washrooms ... More recent parity regulations therefore require more fixtures for females to ensure that the average time spent waiting to use ... Potty parity' aims to remedy long lines". Christian Science Monitor. 2006-01-19. "March Fong Eu". Retrieved 3 ...
A parity drive is a hard drive used in a RAID array to provide fault tolerance. For example, RAID 3 uses a parity drive to ... One way to implement a parity drive in a RAID array is to use the exclusive or, or XOR, function. XOR is a Boolean logic ... Definitions of RAID configurations Retrieved on 2010-11-15 "What does the parity bit do in RAID?". v t e ( ... The XOR of all of the data drives in the RAID array is written to the parity drive. If one of the data drives fails, the XOR of ...
... is a problem in machine learning. An algorithm that solves this problem must find a function ƒ, given some ... In Learning Parity with Noise (LPN), the samples may contain some error. Instead of samples (x, ƒ(x)), the algorithm is ... Avrim Blum, Adam Kalai, and Hal Wasserman, "Noise-tolerant learning, the parity problem, and the statistical query model," J. ... Adam Tauman Kalai, Yishay Mansour, and Elad Verbin, "On agnostic boosting and parity learning," in Proceedings of the 40th ...
... can be seen as either a passive or active management strategy. Interest in the risk parity approach has increased ... Risk parity critics rarely contest the claim that the risk parity portfolio is near the tangency portfolio but they say that ... Risk parity advocates assert that the unlevered risk parity portfolio is quite close to the tangency portfolio, as close as can ... Risk parity (or risk premia parity) is an approach to investment management which focuses on allocation of risk, usually ...
The output of the parity function is the parity bit. The n {\displaystyle n} -variable parity function is the Boolean function ... The parity function of two inputs is also known as the XOR function. The parity function is notable for its role in theoretical ... Parity only depends on the number of ones and is therefore a symmetric Boolean function. The n-variable parity function and its ... to compute the parity function. This is asymptotically almost optimal as there are depth-k circuits computing parity which have ...
The intrinsic parity's phase is conserved for non-weak interactions (the product of the intrinsic parities is the same before ... The intrinsic parity of a system is the product of the intrinsic parities of the particles, for instance for noninteracting ... In quantum mechanics, the intrinsic parity is a phase factor that arises as an eigenvalue of the parity operation x i → x i ... we assume an eigenstate of the parity operation (this is realized because the intrinsic parity is a property of a particle ...
"Parity - Campaigning for equal rights for UK men and women". Retrieved 13 June 2019. Official Parity Website ( ... "Parity - Campaigning for equal rights for UK men and women". Retrieved 13 June 2019. "Date of report : 13 June ... "Parity - Campaigning for equal rights for UK men and women". Retrieved 13 June 2019. "BBC News , UK , Winter ... ManKind Initiative "Parity - Campaigning for equal rights for UK men and women". Retrieved 13 June 2019. "Threat ...
Principle of parity is a legal concept used in codecision procedure that disables one European institution from making ...
For a system of free particles, the C parity is the product of C parities for each particle. In a pair of bound mesons there is ... In physics, the C parity or charge parity is a multiplicative quantum number of some particles that describes their behavior ... 1 C parity ηC = (−1)L + S = +1, −1, respectively. Since charge parity is preserved, annihilation of these states in photons (ηC ... 1 to the overall C parity of the pion. The decay to 3γ would violate C parity conservation. A search for this decay was ...
Logic parity RAM, also known as fake parity RAM, is non-parity RAM that can be used in computers that require parity RAM. Logic ... RAM parity checking is the storing of a redundant parity bit representing the parity (odd or even) of a small amount of ... Early computers sometimes required the use of parity RAM, and parity-checking could not be disabled. A parity error typically ... modules, they became available in non-parity and parity (with an extra bit per byte, storing 9 bits for every 8 bits of actual ...
The term parity problem may refer to: Parity problem (sieve theory), the question of how many primes less than a given integer ... but it is famously not in AC0 This disambiguation page lists articles associated with the title Parity problem. If an internal ...
... s lie in the third level of the Borel hierarchy, and are consequently determined. Games related to parity games were ... Given that parity games are history-free determined, solving a given parity game is equivalent to solving the following simple ... The Knaster-Tarski theorem leads to a relatively simple proof of determinacy of parity games. Moreover, parity games are ... A parity game is played on a colored directed graph, where each node has been colored by a priority - one of (usually) finitely ...
Complexity Zoo: Class Parity P C. H. Papadimitriou and S. Zachos. Two remarks on the power of counting. In Proceedings of the ... In computational complexity theory, the complexity class ⊕P (pronounced "parity P") is the class of decision problems solvable ...
... have opposite parities. In particular, the parity of zero is even. Any two consecutive integers have opposite parity. A number ... because each domino covers one square of each parity and there are two more squares of one parity than of the other. The parity ... The parity of a permutation (as defined in abstract algebra) is the parity of the number of transpositions into which the ... Integer coordinates of points in Euclidean spaces of two or more dimensions also have a parity, usually defined as the parity ...
For example, assume a machine where a set parity flag indicates even parity. If the result of the last operation were 26 (11010 ... Similarly, if the result were 10 (1010 in binary) then the parity flag would be 1. In x86 processors, the parity flag reflects ... the parity bit is set if the sum of the bits is even). According to 80386 Intel manual, the parity flag is changed in the x86 ... When this happens, C0 is placed in the carry flag, C2 in the parity flag and C3 in the zero flag. The C2 flag is set when e.g. ...
Every parity graph is a Meyniel graph, a graph in which every odd cycle of length five or more has two chords. For, in a parity ... In graph theory, a parity graph is a graph in which every two induced paths between the same two vertices have the same parity ... A graph is a parity graph if and only if every component of its split decomposition is either a complete graph or a bipartite ... Parity graphs, Information System on Graph Classes and their Inclusions, retrieved 2016-09-25. Burlet, M.; Uhry, J.-P. (1984 ...
Thus the parity of such states is ±1. The parity of a multiparticle state is the product of the parities of each state; in ... The total parity is the product of the intrinsic parities of the particles and the extrinsic parity of the spherical harmonic ... the nucleon state has odd overall parity if and only if the number of nucleons in odd-parity states is odd. The parity is ... The parity is odd for orbitals p, f, ... with ℓ = 1, 3, ..., and an atomic state has odd parity if an odd number of electrons ...
... (or socket parity) occurs when an alternative energy source can generate power at a levelized cost of electricity ( ... In order to encompass all of these possibilities, Japan's NEDO defines the grid parity in three phases: 1st phase grid parity: ... As a result, widespread grid parity for wind and solar were generally predicted for the time between 2015 and 2020. Grid parity ... grid parity for solar PV systems had already been reached in at least nineteen countries. Wind power reached grid parity in ...
The appearance of parity in the NFL over the course of the entire season may be something of an illusion; the New England ... In sports, parity is when participating teams have roughly equivalent levels of talent. In such a league, the "best" team is ... In the NFL, complete parity would be a state where on any given Sunday, any given team can win any given game. ... In much of the world outside North America, parity is enforced through promotion and relegation: the weakest teams in a league ...
C-parity applies only to neutral systems; in the pion triplet, only π0 has C-parity. On the other hand, strong interaction does ... In particle physics, G-parity is a multiplicative quantum number that results from the generalization of C-parity to multiplets ... is the C-parity operator, and I2 is the operator associated with the 2nd component of the isospin "vector". G-parity is a ... 1 are the eigenvalues of G-parity. The G-parity operator is defined as G = C e ( i π I 2 ) {\displaystyle {\mathcal {G}}={\ ...
Accordingly, there are two variants of parity bits: even parity bit and odd parity bit. In the case of even parity, for a given ... In computer science the parity stripe or parity disk in a RAID provides error-correction. Parity bits are written at the rate ... Extensions and variations on the parity bit mechanism "double," "dual," or "diagonal" parity, are used in RAID-DP. A parity ... the parity bit will be incorrect, thus indicating that a parity error occurred in the transmission. The parity bit is only ...
... one should not confuse this parity with any other parity. With R-parity being preserved, the lightest supersymmetric particle ( ... This has motivated the study of R-parity violation where only one set of the R-parity violating couplings are non-zero which is ... "R-parity violating ..." "R-parity violating ..." FNAL. Archived from the original on 2010-05-28. ( ... All Standard Model particles have R-parity of +1 while supersymmetric particles have R-parity of −1. Note that there are ...
... may refer to: Export parity price Import parity price Doctrine of parity This disambiguation page lists articles ... associated with the title Parity price. If an internal link led you here, you may wish to change the link to point directly to ...
The doctrine of parity was used to justify agricultural price controls in the United States beginning in the 1920s. It was the ... After 1948, parity-prices were linked to the relationships among farm and nonfarm prices during the most recent 10-year period ... These efforts did raise prices; but by 1938 the farm commodity price ratio was still at only 77 percent of pre-war parity. In ... The doctrine of parity was politically controversial, particularly in the 1930s and 1940s. Proponents believed the period from ...
... TAGS: 113th Congress, Adam Kinzinger, Amateur Radio Parity, amateur ... "The Amateur Radio Parity Act of 2015" - H.R.1301 - has been introduced in the US House of Representatives. The measure would ... Kinzinger also sponsored "The Amateur Radio Parity Act of 2014, which died at the end of the 113th Congress. H.R. 1301 is an ... Radio Parity Act, reasonable accommodation, Rep Greg Walden, Technology Subcommittee, three-part test ...
HIAA has warned that a broad mandate for parity would amount to a "hidden tax on businesses and workers." Advocates of mental ... Small business groups exempt from the Mental Health Parity Act come under state law rather than federal law. Most states have a ... Many mental health advocates believe the Mental Health Parity Act of 1996 did not work as intended. They support more ... A 1998 study sponsored by the National Advisory Mental Health Council (NAMHC) Parity Workgroup, a division of the federal ...
Parity was defined as the number of children ever born to a woman. We defined overweight as having a body mass index (BMI, kg/m ... Mean parity in rural women was 2.25 (95% CI, 2.17-2.33) and was 1.40 (95% CI, 1.36-1.43) in urban women. Table 1 shows ... Parity was defined as the self-reported number of children ever born to a woman (7,12). We classified this variable into 3 ... Mean parity was 2.25 (95% confidence interval [CI], 2.17-2.33) among rural women and 1.40 (95% CI, 1.36-1.43) among urban women ...
Gillies, M. T; Ruzette, M. A; Conférence de l OMS sur le paludisme en Afrique (‎1955 : Lagos, Nigeria)‎ (‎Organisation mondiale de la Santé, 1956)‎ ...
Report abuse for Parity Signer Companion. Use this form only if you feel this item violates the Chrome Web Store Content ... ExtensionsDeveloper ToolsParity Signer CompanionReport Abuse. ...
Data Bits, Stop Bits, Parity Synchronizer Stages Streaming Data (DMA) Control ... Parity 55.4.5. Synchronizer Stages 55.4.6. Streaming Data (DMA) Control ...
... the OECD discussed the key competition concerns that can raised by cross platform parity agreements, as well as the benefits ... Competition and Across Platform Parity Agreements. Across Platform Parity Agreements are agreements between suppliers and ... presenting The competitive effects of parity clauses on online commerce , ppt. Matthew BENNETT Charles River Associates, UK ... OECD Home Directorate for Financial and Enterprise AffairsCompetitionCompetition and Across Platform Parity Agreements ...
... parity bit ), to see if the value is even or odd. See more. ... Parity check definition, a method for detecting errors in data ... Words nearby parity check. Parisian, Parisienne, parison, parisyllabic, parity, parity check, parity conjugation, parity price ... parity bit ), to see if the value is even or odd. ...
As she says, "[t]hats called parity, and its truly remarkable in a country where only 16 percent of the Congress is female, ...
... is needed to ensure that the Mental Health Parity and Addiction Equity Act fulfills its promise of mental health parity. ... The parity law, passed in 2008, had its roots in the landmark report on mental health from then Surgeon General David Satcher, ... Getting the parity bill passed wasnt easy. Kennedy talked about the resistance in congress and the arguments about how it was ... The mental health parity movement, he said, needs something like the advocacy group, AIDS Coalition to Unleash Power (ACT UP), ...
This slump in the US dollar allowed the EUR/USD exchange rate to climb back above parity. ...
Start using @parity/electron in your project by running `npm i @parity/electron`. There are no other projects in the npm ... Control the Parity Ethereum node from Electron.. Latest version: 5.1.13, last published: 3 years ago. ...
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Tag Archives: parity. ♦ NASADAD Comments on Proposed Rule Applying Parity to Medicaid, CHIP, and Alternative Benefit Plans. ♦ ...
National Scenic Trails Parity Act, S. 2964, 117th Cong. (2021).. {{cite web. ,url= ... 2022). S. 2964 - 117th Congress: National Scenic Trails Parity Act. Retrieved from ... "S. 2964 - 117th Congress: National Scenic Trails Parity Act." 2021. November 28, 2022 , ...
... its a chance to look at the NFL landscape and understand the parity that exists as teams head down the final stretch. ...
Open question: The parity problem in sieve theory. 5 June, 2007 in expository, math.NT, question , Tags: parity problem, sieve ... A general parity problem obstruction. 21 November, 2014 in expository, math.NT , Tags: parity problem, sieve theory, Zeb Brady ... violates the parity condition, the asymptotic involves the unknown . This scalar thus embodies the "parity problem" for the ... from holding purely from parity considerations. Thus, we do not expect a parity obstruction of the type in Claim 1 to hold when ...
Under the Mental Health Parity Act of 1996 and the Mental Health Parity and Addiction Equity Act of 2008 ("MHPAEA"), insurers ... With a small number of exceptions, nearly every group health plan must offer parity. However, most sponsors will not be able to ... The DOL and patients also have been successfully taking health plans to court as a way of enforcing parity. These court ... One of the simplest steps plan sponsors may take to demonstrate compliance with parity requirements is to request a compliance ...
... parity(uint32_t v) ,, +{ ,, +#if HAVE_PARITY ,, + return __builtin_parity(v); ,, +#else ,, + return av_popcount(v) & 1; ,, +# ... builtin parity __builtin_parity(123) ,, ,, case $custom_allocator in ,, jemalloc) ,, diff --git a/libavutil/x86/intmath. ... FFmpeg-devel] [PATCH 1/3] common: add ff_parity(). James Almer jamrial at Sun Jan 3 21:56:41 CET 2016 *Previous ... Next message: [FFmpeg-devel] [PATCH 1/3] common: add ff_parity() * Messages sorted by: [ date ] [ thread ] [ subject ] [ author ...
Purchasing power parity (PPP) is a disarmingly simple theory that holds that the nominal exchange rate between two currencies ... Home » Uncategorized » History of Purchasing Power Parity. History of Purchasing Power Parity. April 7, 2017. April 30, 2014. ... Purchasing power parity (PPP) is a disarmingly simple theory that holds that the nominal exchange rate between two currencies ... New Chart of Estimated purchasing power parity GDP for the USA and China ...
Gillies, M. T; Ruzette, M. A; Conférence de l OMS sur le paludisme en Afrique (‎1955 : Lagos, Nigeria)‎ (‎Organisation mondiale de la Santé, 1956)‎ ...
Go the distance for mental health parity. Beacon Hill should act in this session to improve access to care for the mentally ill ... Mental health parity - treating mental and physical illnesses with equal seriousness, concern, and coverage - has been the law ... The legislation attempts to address the parity issue by mandating coverage and eliminating prior authorization by insurers for ... and would require quicker resolution of parity complaints by consumers. ...
Differentiation and Parity in Assortment Pricing. Journal of Consumer Research. 33(2): 199-210. ... Differentiation and Parity in Assortment Pricing, Journal of Consumer Research Type Article ... Differentiation and Parity in Assortment Pricing. Journal of Consumer Research. 33(2): 199-210. ...
... today announced a technical amendment extending the interim final rules under the Mental Health Parity Act (MHPA) to December ...
... he new law requires parity in coverage, but does not mandate parity in payment. In other words, the payment for the same ... Additionally, the Parity Law defines telemedicine narrowly, excluding telephone, email or other modes of communication that do ... Washington is the 24th state to adopt a full or partial telemedicine parity law.... [T] ... Washington is the 24th state to adopt a full or partial telemedicine parity law.... [T]he new law requires parity in coverage, ...
... by John W. Mitchell, Senior Correspondent , July 02, 2019 ... which determined that gender trends in computer science authorship between males and females will not reach parity at the ...
Grid parity is building like a relentless wave, but how much solar is at parity today? In 2016? In 2020? On homes or businesses ... clean energy, Distributed Generation, distributed solar, grid parity, local, map, renewable energy, solar, solar grid parity, ... The Most Amazing, Interactive U.S. Solar Grid Parity Map. by John Farrell , Date: 14 Jan 2013 , posted in: Energy, Energy Self ... coal, federal, Federal Solar Tax Credit, fossil fuels, grid parity, initiative, initiative feature, initiative homepage, ...
Because I am a woman, I will earn between 25% - 40% less that a man doing the same job.
We consider two measures of potty parity: first, the conventional wait-time parity, and second, our proposed utility parity, ... iii) Even though an all-unisex restroom leads to complete parity of wait times, surprisingly, it does not improve potty parity ... Potty Parity: Process Flexibility via Unisex Restroom. Rotman School of Management Working Paper No. 3914880 ... Farajollahzadeh, Setareh and Hu, Ming, Potty Parity: Process Flexibility via Unisex Restroom (December 9, 2021). Rotman School ...
  • 2022). S. 2964 - 117th Congress: National Scenic Trails Parity Act. (
  • Washington is the 24th state to adopt a full or partial telemedicine parity law. (
  • Indiana, Minnesota, and Nevada have enacted telemedicine parity laws, which require private insurers to cover remote consultations the same way they cover in-person visits to healthcare providers. (
  • What is the Locarno programming pledge for parity and inclusion in cinema? (
  • The Consolidated Appropriations Act of 2021 added an extra layer of enforcement to longstanding parity requirements for mental health and substance abuse treatment. (
  • Based on the changes in the gender split of councillors that occurred between the 2019 and 2021 local elections, evidence shows that gender parity will not be achieved among local councillors until 2077. (
  • In 1996 Congress passed "mental health parity" legislation requiring employers who had more than 50 employees and who included mental health coverage in their insurance benefits mix to offer the same annual and lifetime benefits for mental health care as for standard health care, such as surgery and physician visits. (
  • Many mental health advocates believe the Mental Health Parity Act of 1996 did not work as intended. (
  • Findings from studies from Brazil (8) and Chile (6) using data from 1996 and from 1997 and 1998, respectively, indicated a modest association between parity and obesity. (
  • Under the Mental Health Parity Act of 1996 and the Mental Health Parity and Addiction Equity Act of 2008 ("MHPAEA"), insurers and group health plans are required to provide coverage for mental health and substance abuse treatment on par with medical and surgical benefits. (
  • In 1996, the breakthrough Mental Health Parity Act was passed - the first legislation to require that certain insurance providers cover mental health benefits the same, or on parity, with medical benefits. (
  • Yet even after the Mental Health Equity and Substance Abuse Parity Act passed in 2008, expanding the reach of the 1996 legislation, along with the Affordable Care Act in 2010, parity between mental health care and medical health care is far from achieved. (
  • Fertility analysis - data sources, fertility indicators, age-specific fertility rates, total and completed fertility rates, birth order-specific fertility rates, parity progression ratio, birth interval analysis, standardization applied to fertility rates - Coale indices, marital and extra-marital fertility, differential fertility. (
  • They support more comprehensive mental health parity legislation. (
  • So before acting," suggested Matthews, "Congress needs to consider whether new mental health parity legislation would do more harm than good. (
  • While the Tri-Agency regulations issued in 2013 required group health plans to extend MHPAEA parity to non-quantitative treatment limitations (NQTLs), or factors limiting the scope or duration of benefits for treatment, the new legislation required group health plans to demonstrate their compliance. (
  • The legislation attempts to address the parity issue by mandating coverage and eliminating prior authorization by insurers for adults and children seeking treatment for acute mental health crises. (
  • For example, the Indiana legislation goes into effect July 1, 2015, whereas Minnesota's parity law affects health plans that provide coverage starting on or after January 1, 2017. (
  • Of the 24 states that had parity legislation at the time, only 16 states and Washington, DC, authorized statewide coverage, without any provider or technology restrictions. (
  • ii) Building the women's room and the unisex restroom next to each other (such that users can jockey lines) improves potty parity. (
  • But in facing the headwinds of COVID-19, placing gender parity at the heart of recovery won't just benefit women's advancement. (
  • This International Women's Day, we take the emphasis on 'empowering the local level' highlighted in the recent levelling up white paper to reflect on why gender parity in policymaking is essential, and what can be done to promote it, leading from the local level. (
  • Brussels, 27 September] The European Women's Lobby (EWL) and Parity Democracy campaign national partners were joined by MEP's, the European Commission and an esteemed audience to launch the next phase of the 50/50 campaign and the Parity Democracy campaign, for greater women's political representation and participation. (
  • Instead of focusing on why professorial parity enhances the cause of women's equality, they're focusing on why it benefits patients. (
  • Many countries in our region have made great strides towards gender parity in education, health, economic and political systems, and have incorporated multisectoral actions for advancing women's health through the life course in their national health development strategies. (
  • At 0.99 Indexes in 2018, the country was ranked number 84 among other countries in Gender Parity Index for Gross Enrollment Ratio in Primary Education. (
  • Lack of parity is rampant throughout the U.S.: the 2018 State Parity Implementation Survey gave 43 states a grade of D or F on mental health parity. (
  • HIAA has warned that a broad mandate for parity would amount to a "hidden tax on businesses and workers. (
  • Matthews questions whether another mental health parity mandate would be good for patients, the uninsured, and the mental health industry. (
  • T]he new law requires parity in coverage, but does not mandate parity in payment. (
  • ABSTRACT A study in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia investigated the prevalence of gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) and its predictors in a high-parity group of pregnant women (n = 633, 50.1% grand multiparas). (
  • ANC attendance, gestational age, MOD, parity and birth order were also significant variables associated with EBF. (
  • The rise in noncommunicable diseases and their risk factors in developing countries may have changed or intensified the effect of parity on obesity. (
  • We found a positive association between parity and overweight/obesity. (
  • Parity also appears to contribute to the prevalence of obesity (5,6). (
  • Some studies, using international data from up to year 2000, found a positive relationship between parity and obesity in all women in developed countries but only in the richest women in low-income and middle-income nations (7). (
  • Many developing countries are facing an increase in noncommunicable diseases (NCDs) and their risk factors, so the relationship between the risk factors for several NCDs could have changed or intensified - including the effect of parity on obesity (9). (
  • In this study, we aimed to 1) assess the relationship between parity and obesity in Peruvian women at the national level, 2) characterize this association by area of residence (urban and rural) and age, and 3) explore the distribution of nutritional status by parity in the country's 24 administrative regions. (
  • Relationship of gallbladder disease to parity, obesity, and age. (
  • Further, little is known about how patterns of exposure differ by race/ethnicity and reproductive characteristics including parity and menopause. (
  • Associations between PFAS concentrations and race/ethnicity, menstruation and parity were evaluated with linear mixed models, adjusting for age, body mass index and study site. (
  • Temporal trends in PFAS concentrations are not uniform across race/ethnicity and parity groups. (
  • 8,192 memory bits per block (9,216 bits per block including parity). (
  • Kinzinger also sponsored "The Amateur Radio Parity Act of 2014, which died at the end of the 113th Congress. (
  • As she says, "[t]hat's called parity, and it's truly remarkable in a country where only 16 percent of the Congress is female, only 9 states are led by women, and only 10 Fortune 500 companies have female CEOs. (
  • Generalized linear models were used to evaluate the association between parity and BMI and BMI categories, by area of residence and age, adjusting for confounders. (
  • Subsequently however, this has shifted back to higher numbers of men, demonstrating that gender equality should not be forgotten about once the gender parity box has been ticked once. (
  • Antibody levels at study inclusion and delivery, by parity, against placental malaria in pregnant women, Benin. (
  • Out of 156 letters to group health plans and insurers requesting comparative parity analysis, not a single reply contained sufficient information, leading to further investigations and enforcement actions. (
  • Since 2008, "interim" federal rules and regulations have left the parity law open to interpretation, and advocates have been waiting (and waiting) for the Obama administration to issue final rules on the full scope of services that insurers must provide. (
  • Female reproductive history , especially high parity , affects general health and may impact negatively on oral health . (
  • Older, higher parity women experienced more caries, as did those with longer reproductive spans. (
  • Parity, dental caries and implications for maternal depletion syndrome in northern Nigerian Hausa women. (
  • These results suggest that a form of maternal depletion, expressed as heightened caries susceptibility and subsequent tooth loss , occurs with higher parity . (
  • Conclusion: Maternal variables such as age, occupation, religion, parity, MOD, ANC attendance including spouse age and occupation significantly influence EBF of new borne. (
  • ABSTRACT Objective to analyze the association between maternal difficulties in home care for newborns and parity. (
  • The coronavirus pandemic appears to be increasing demands for feature parity between live events and meetings in Microsoft Teams. (
  • Parity-specific fertility analysis : a comparative study on 41 countries participating in the World Fertility Survey / Wolfgang Lutz. (
  • Domenici, whose daughter suffers from mental illness, has long championed federally enforced parity guaranteeing that insurance for mental disorders is as comprehensive as that offered for other illnesses. (
  • The parity law, passed in 2008, had its roots in the landmark report on mental health from then Surgeon General David Satcher, MD, PhD, who pushed for mental illness being considered as part of overall health. (
  • Mean parity was 2.25 (95% confidence interval [CI], 2.17-2.33) among rural women and 1.40 (95% CI, 1.36-1.43) among urban women. (
  • An association between parity and BMI categories was observed in rural areas as a gradient, being highest in younger women. (
  • Interview Maestra Music Is Revolutionizing Gender Parity in Theatre Thanks to the non-profit founded by Georgia Stitt, "I don't know who the women are" will never be an excuse again. (
  • This information was countered by a research article published last week by Cornell University, which determined that gender trends in computer science authorship between males and females will not reach parity at the current rates of publication by women until 2100. (
  • Could women see gender parity in the 4th industrial revolution? (
  • Using information on parity, breastfeeding, and diabetes collected from 52,731 women recruited into a cohort study, we estimated the risk of type 2 diabetes using multivariate logistic regression. (
  • With the spotlight on women in leadership, gender parity may finally earn its long-overdue status as a business imperative. (
  • In Greater Manchester, there is gender parity across the 10 council chief executives, and the combined authority has established a Women and Girls' Equality Panel. (
  • Parity democracy means the equal representation of women and men in political decision-making. (
  • If women have to run an obstacle course of sexism and double standards to get elected in equal numbers, then parity is not the only problem. (
  • To determine the association between parity and caries in a population of higher parity women . (
  • This was a cross-sectional study involving 635 Hausa women of varying parity aged 13-80 years. (
  • Parity was associated with lower concentrations at baseline but the differences between nulliparous and parous women became smaller over time. (
  • The challenge around gender parity or diversity and equity is across the entire value chain of sailing and therein lies an opportunity. (
  • Merrill Matthews, director of the Council for Affordable Health Insurance (CAHI), explained, "One reason for the Mental Health Parity Act's limited impact is that it contains a provision exempting employers for whom compliance would increase health care expenses by more than 1 percent. (
  • One of the simplest steps plan sponsors may take to demonstrate compliance with parity requirements is to request a compliance demonstration from their TPA. (
  • At Parity Cube, we believe that success of our organisation is the direct result of the ability to work together as a team. (
  • And one unique opportunity now on the table, amid what the World Economic Forum (WEF) has labeled the " Great Reset ," is the chance for business leaders to anchor economic recovery with new levels of gender parity and workplace equality. (
  • Purchasing power parity (PPP) is a disarmingly simple theory that holds that the nominal exchange rate between two currencies should be equal to the ratio of aggregate price levels between the two countries, so that a unit of currency of one country will have the same purchasing power in a foreign country. (
  • The PPP theory has a long history in economics, dating back several centuries, but the specific terminology of purchasing power parity was introduced in the years after World War I during the international policy debate concerning the appropriate level for nominal exchange rates among the major industrialized countries after the large-scale inflations during and after the war (Cassel, 1918). (
  • Purchasing power parity ( PPP ) [1] is the measurement of prices in different countries that uses the prices of specific goods to compare the absolute purchasing power of the countries' currencies , and, to some extent, their people's living standards. (
  • The Purchasing Power Parity indicator can be used to compare economies regarding their Gross Domestic Product, labour productivity and actual individual consumption, and in some cases to analyse price convergence and to compare the cost of living between places. (
  • Purchasing Power Parity (PPP) in Millions of International Dollars, 2004. (
  • This document provides an overview of essential information necessary for understanding mental health and substance use disorder parity and how to implement and comply with federal parity laws. (
  • This guide applies to parity laws in employer-sponsored health plans and group and individual insurance. (
  • Cite this: Majority of States Now Have Pay Parity Laws for Telemedicine - Medscape - May 28, 2015. (
  • Vanilla Parity is a data pack that aims to resolve some parity issues between Minecraft Bedrock and Minecraft Java, where issues only exist in one version and not the other. (
  • The People's Parity Project aims to bring a labor-organizing model to the legal profession. (
  • a method for detecting errors in data communications or within a computer system by counting the number of ones or zeros per byte or per word, including a special check bit ( parity bit ), to see if the value is even or odd. (
  • Parity runs until December 10 at Paradise Hills (1-9 Doonside St, Richmond), so check it out. (
  • mlpdec: Simplify check for substream_parity_present. (
  • Medical College hospital, Nagpur, to investigate role of parity in the outcome of cancer cervix. (
  • Already this simple query of quantifier structure parity-exists is a major roadblock for dynamically capturing extensions of first-order logic. (
  • LatinasRepresent is a nonprofit, nonpartisan initiative of Political Parity and the National Hispanic Leadership Agenda that does not endorse any specific candidate for public office. (
  • The Mental Health Parity Collaborative is a partnership between The Carter Center's Rosalynn Carter Fellowships for Mental Health Journalism, The Center for Public Integrity and other news outlets. (
  • More than 40 reporters and editors from 15 news outlets are working to produce data- and solutions-driven stories that examine access to mental health care in their states and why mental health parity hasn't been achieved. (
  • Advocates of mental health parity, however, think coverage would cost less in the end because the mentally ill would be able to get the full range of treatment they need to resume fully productive lives. (
  • The Department of Labor has stepped up its enforcement activity and a flurry of pending court cases are challenging coverage denials and reviewing policies for parity. (
  • Mental health parity - treating mental and physical illnesses with equal seriousness, concern, and coverage - has been the law of the land for decades. (
  • Across Platform Parity Agreements are agreements between suppliers and retailers that specify a relative relationship between prices of competing products or prices charged by competing retailers. (
  • ATLANTA ― It's been about 8 years since the Mental Health Parity and Addiction Equity Act was passed into law in the United States, but more advocacy is needed to ensure that it is enforced. (
  • Wellstone, who pushed for passage of the parity law for eight years after his father's death, was thrilled for longtime parity champion Former First Lady Rosalynn Carter. (
  • A much-awaited final rule to implement the 2008 Paul Wellstone and Pete Domenici Mental Health Parity and Addiction Equity Act is likely to come on Friday, U.S. Rep. Patrick Kennedy said during testimony today before a Senate subcommittee hearing. (
  • The Paul Wellstone and Pete Domenici Mental Health Parity and Addiction Equity Act was signed into law by President George W. Bush in 2008. (
  • IMSEAR at SEARO: Parity as a risk factor for cancer cervix. (
  • This retrospective study is based on data collected from medical records and A questionnaire was developed to assess the risk factors (such as: parity, age at first marriage, smoking, oral contraceptive, and Hormonal status) of cervical cancer among the participants. (
  • It would also require an "equitable rate floor" for "evaluation and management services that is consistent with primary care" and would require quicker resolution of parity complaints by consumers. (
  • Since 2013, Ireland Gender Parity Index for Gross Enrollment Ratio in Primary Education was down by 0% year on year. (
  • The DOL and patients also have been successfully taking health plans to court as a way of enforcing parity. (
  • There are protections in federal law, collectively known as "parity," which are designed to ensure that certain types of health plans cover mental and substance use disorders no less generously than they cover other health issues. (
  • What they do attempt is to establish parity between digital broadcasters - for example, the rates Pandora pays vs. the rates SiriusXM pays (hint: less than Pandora). (