The status during which female mammals carry their developing young (EMBRYOS or FETUSES) in utero before birth, beginning from FERTILIZATION to BIRTH.
The number of offspring produced at one birth by a viviparous animal.
The processes of milk secretion by the maternal MAMMARY GLANDS after PARTURITION. The proliferation of the mammary glandular tissue, milk synthesis, and milk expulsion or let down are regulated by the interactions of several hormones including ESTRADIOL; PROGESTERONE; PROLACTIN; and OXYTOCIN.
The age of the mother in PREGNANCY.
Insurance providing benefits to cover part or all of the psychiatric care.
An important aggregate factor in epidemiological studies of women's health. The concept usually includes the number and timing of pregnancies and their outcomes, the incidence of breast feeding, and may include age of menarche and menopause, regularity of menstruation, fertility, gynecological or obstetric problems, or contraceptive usage.
The mass or quantity of heaviness of an individual at BIRTH. It is expressed by units of pounds or kilograms.
The total process by which organisms produce offspring. (Stedman, 25th ed)
Permanent deprivation of breast milk and commencement of nourishment with other food. (From Stedman, 25th ed)
Any of various animals that constitute the family Suidae and comprise stout-bodied, short-legged omnivorous mammals with thick skin, usually covered with coarse bristles, a rather long mobile snout, and small tail. Included are the genera Babyrousa, Phacochoerus (wart hogs), and Sus, the latter containing the domestic pig (see SUS SCROFA).
The number of pregnancies, complete or incomplete, experienced by a female. It is different from PARITY, which is the number of offspring borne. (From Stedman, 26th ed)
Compounds, usually hormonal, taken orally in order to block ovulation and prevent the occurrence of pregnancy. The hormones are generally estrogen or progesterone or both.
The production of offspring by selective mating or HYBRIDIZATION, GENETIC in animals or plants.
An aspect of personal behavior or lifestyle, environmental exposure, or inborn or inherited characteristic, which, on the basis of epidemiologic evidence, is known to be associated with a health-related condition considered important to prevent.
Highly keratinized processes that are sharp and curved, or flat with pointed margins. They are found especially at the end of the limbs in certain animals.
An infant during the first month after birth.
Results of conception and ensuing pregnancy, including LIVE BIRTH; STILLBIRTH; SPONTANEOUS ABORTION; INDUCED ABORTION. The outcome may follow natural or artificial insemination or any of the various ASSISTED REPRODUCTIVE TECHNIQUES, such as EMBRYO TRANSFER or FERTILIZATION IN VITRO.
In females, the period that is shortly after giving birth (PARTURITION).
The white liquid secreted by the mammary glands. It contains proteins, sugar, lipids, vitamins, and minerals.
The science of breeding, feeding and care of domestic animals; includes housing and nutrition.
The process of bearing developing young (EMBRYOS or FETUSES) in utero in non-human mammals, beginning from FERTILIZATION to BIRTH.
The age of the conceptus, beginning from the time of FERTILIZATION. In clinical obstetrics, the gestational age is often estimated as the time from the last day of the last MENSTRUATION which is about 2 weeks before OVULATION and fertilization.
Conditions or pathological processes associated with pregnancy. They can occur during or after pregnancy, and range from minor discomforts to serious diseases that require medical interventions. They include diseases in pregnant females, and pregnancies in females with diseases.
The process of giving birth to one or more offspring.
The nursing of an infant at the breast.
The first MENSTRUAL CYCLE marked by the initiation of MENSTRUATION.
The capacity to conceive or to induce conception. It may refer to either the male or female.
Delivery of the FETUS and PLACENTA under the care of an obstetrician or a health worker. Obstetric deliveries may involve physical, psychological, medical, or surgical interventions.
The event that a FETUS is born dead or stillborn.
Age as a constituent element or influence contributing to the production of a result. It may be applicable to the cause or the effect of a circumstance. It is used with human or animal concepts but should be differentiated from AGING, a physiological process, and TIME FACTORS which refers only to the passage of time.
Extraction of the FETUS by means of abdominal HYSTEROTOMY.
Organized services to provide mental health care.
The lengths of intervals between births to women in the population.
A departure from the normal gait in animals.
Medical problems associated with OBSTETRIC LABOR, such as BREECH PRESENTATION; PREMATURE OBSTETRIC LABOR; HEMORRHAGE; or others. These complications can affect the well-being of the mother, the FETUS, or both.
The mass or quantity of heaviness of an individual. It is expressed by units of pounds or kilograms.
The last menstrual period. Permanent cessation of menses (MENSTRUATION) is usually defined after 6 to 12 months of AMENORRHEA in a woman over 45 years of age. In the United States, menopause generally occurs in women between 48 and 55 years of age.
Any of a group of bone disorders involving one or more ossification centers (EPIPHYSES). It is characterized by degeneration or NECROSIS followed by revascularization and reossification. Osteochondrosis often occurs in children causing varying degrees of discomfort or pain. There are many eponymic types for specific affected areas, such as tarsal navicular (Kohler disease) and tibial tuberosity (Osgood-Schlatter disease).
A term used to describe pregnancies that exceed the upper limit of a normal gestational period. In humans, a prolonged pregnancy is defined as one that extends beyond 42 weeks (294 days) after the first day of the last menstrual period (MENSTRUATION), or birth with gestational age of 41 weeks or more.
Increase in BODY WEIGHT over existing weight.
Studies which start with the identification of persons with a disease of interest and a control (comparison, referent) group without the disease. The relationship of an attribute to the disease is examined by comparing diseased and non-diseased persons with regard to the frequency or levels of the attribute in each group.
Care provided the pregnant woman in order to prevent complications, and decrease the incidence of maternal and prenatal mortality.
Payments or services provided under stated circumstances under the terms of an insurance policy. In prepayment programs, benefits are the services the programs will provide at defined locations and to the extent needed.
Pathological processes or abnormal functions of the PLACENTA.
Studies in which subsets of a defined population are identified. These groups may or may not be exposed to factors hypothesized to influence the probability of the occurrence of a particular disease or other outcome. Cohorts are defined populations which, as a whole, are followed in an attempt to determine distinguishing subgroup characteristics.
Legal guarantee protecting the individual from attack on personal liberties, right to fair trial, right to vote, and freedom from discrimination on the basis of race, color, religion, sex, age, disability, or national origin. (from accessed 1/31/2003)
Statistical models which describe the relationship between a qualitative dependent variable (that is, one which can take only certain discrete values, such as the presence or absence of a disease) and an independent variable. A common application is in epidemiology for estimating an individual's risk (probability of a disease) as a function of a given risk factor.
The thin, yellow, serous fluid secreted by the mammary glands during pregnancy and immediately postpartum before lactation begins. It consists of immunologically active substances, white blood cells, water, protein, fat, and carbohydrates.
Death of the developing young in utero. BIRTH of a dead FETUS is STILLBIRTH.
Young, unweaned mammals. Refers to nursing animals whether nourished by their biological mother, foster mother, or bottle fed.
The ratio of two odds. The exposure-odds ratio for case control data is the ratio of the odds in favor of exposure among cases to the odds in favor of exposure among noncases. The disease-odds ratio for a cohort or cross section is the ratio of the odds in favor of disease among the exposed to the odds in favor of disease among the unexposed. The prevalence-odds ratio refers to an odds ratio derived cross-sectionally from studies of prevalent cases.
The co-occurrence of pregnancy and parasitic diseases. The parasitic infection may precede or follow FERTILIZATION.
The repetitive uterine contraction during childbirth which is associated with the progressive dilation of the uterine cervix (CERVIX UTERI). Successful labor results in the expulsion of the FETUS and PLACENTA. Obstetric labor can be spontaneous or induced (LABOR, INDUCED).
Disturbances of MILK secretion in either SEX, not necessarily related to PREGNANCY.
Observation of a population for a sufficient number of persons over a sufficient number of years to generate incidence or mortality rates subsequent to the selection of the study group.
An infant having a birth weight of 2500 gm. (5.5 lb.) or less but INFANT, VERY LOW BIRTH WEIGHT is available for infants having a birth weight of 1500 grams (3.3 lb.) or less.
Female parents, human or animal.
Intentional removal of a fetus from the uterus by any of a number of techniques. (POPLINE, 1978)
CHILDBIRTH before 37 weeks of PREGNANCY (259 days from the first day of the mother's last menstrual period, or 245 days after FERTILIZATION).
Social and economic factors that characterize the individual or group within the social structure.
An indicator of body density as determined by the relationship of BODY WEIGHT to BODY HEIGHT. BMI=weight (kg)/height squared (m2). BMI correlates with body fat (ADIPOSE TISSUE). Their relationship varies with age and gender. For adults, BMI falls into these categories: below 18.5 (underweight); 18.5-24.9 (normal); 25.0-29.9 (overweight); 30.0 and above (obese). (National Center for Health Statistics, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention)
Health insurance plans for employees, and generally including their dependents, usually on a cost-sharing basis with the employer paying a percentage of the premium.
The sequence in which children are born into the family.
Tumors or cancer of the human BREAST.
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
Artificially induced UTERINE CONTRACTION. Generally, LABOR, OBSTETRIC is induced with the intent to cause delivery of the fetus and termination of pregnancy.
An interactive process whereby members of a community are concerned for the equality and rights of all.
An infant having a birth weight lower than expected for its gestational age.
Foodstuff used especially for domestic and laboratory animals, or livestock.
Procedures for finding the mathematical function which best describes the relationship between a dependent variable and one or more independent variables. In linear regression (see LINEAR MODELS) the relationship is constrained to be a straight line and LEAST-SQUARES ANALYSIS is used to determine the best fit. In logistic regression (see LOGISTIC MODELS) the dependent variable is qualitative rather than continuously variable and LIKELIHOOD FUNCTIONS are used to find the best relationship. In multiple regression, the dependent variable is considered to depend on more than a single independent variable.
The last third of a human PREGNANCY, from the beginning of the 29th through the 42nd completed week (197 to 294 days) of gestation.
The total number of cases of a given disease in a specified population at a designated time. It is differentiated from INCIDENCE, which refers to the number of new cases in the population at a given time.
The level of governmental organization and function at the national or country-wide level.
Generally refers to the amount of protection available and the kind of loss which would be paid for under an insurance contract with an insurer. (Slee & Slee, Health Care Terms, 2d ed)
Inflammation of the ENDOMETRIUM, usually caused by intrauterine infections. Endometritis is the most common cause of postpartum fever.
A principle of estimation in which the estimates of a set of parameters in a statistical model are those quantities minimizing the sum of squared differences between the observed values of a dependent variable and the values predicted by the model.
Diabetes mellitus induced by PREGNANCY but resolved at the end of pregnancy. It does not include previously diagnosed diabetics who become pregnant (PREGNANCY IN DIABETICS). Gestational diabetes usually develops in late pregnancy when insulin antagonistic hormones peaks leading to INSULIN RESISTANCE; GLUCOSE INTOLERANCE; and HYPERGLYCEMIA.
A complication of PREGNANCY, characterized by a complex of symptoms including maternal HYPERTENSION and PROTEINURIA with or without pathological EDEMA. Symptoms may range between mild and severe. Pre-eclampsia usually occurs after the 20th week of gestation, but may develop before this time in the presence of trophoblastic disease.
Regular course of eating and drinking adopted by a person or animal.
Downward displacement of the UTERUS. It is classified in various degrees: in the first degree the UTERINE CERVIX is within the vaginal orifice; in the second degree the cervix is outside the orifice; in the third degree the entire uterus is outside the orifice.
The adaptive superiority of the heterozygous GENOTYPE with respect to one or more characters in comparison with the corresponding HOMOZYGOTE.
A demographic parameter indicating a person's status with respect to marriage, divorce, widowhood, singleness, etc.
The three approximately equal periods of a normal human PREGNANCY. Each trimester is about three months or 13 to 14 weeks in duration depending on the designation of the first day of gestation.
A process involving chance used in therapeutic trials or other research endeavor for allocating experimental subjects, human or animal, between treatment and control groups, or among treatment groups. It may also apply to experiments on inanimate objects.
Educational attainment or level of education of individuals.
Domesticated bovine animals of the genus Bos, usually kept on a farm or ranch and used for the production of meat or dairy products or for heavy labor.
Inhaling and exhaling the smoke of burning TOBACCO.
The probability that an event will occur. It encompasses a variety of measures of the probability of a generally unfavorable outcome.
Nutritional physiology of animals.
A slightly movable cartilaginous joint which occurs between the pubic bones.
Postnatal deaths from BIRTH to 365 days after birth in a given population. Postneonatal mortality represents deaths between 28 days and 365 days after birth (as defined by National Center for Health Statistics). Neonatal mortality represents deaths from birth to 27 days after birth.
Studies used to test etiologic hypotheses in which inferences about an exposure to putative causal factors are derived from data relating to characteristics of persons under study or to events or experiences in their past. The essential feature is that some of the persons under study have the disease or outcome of interest and their characteristics are compared with those of unaffected persons.
Diseases of domestic cattle of the genus Bos. It includes diseases of cows, yaks, and zebus.
A republic in western Africa, south of NIGER between BENIN and CAMEROON. Its capital is Abuja.
Premature separation of the normally implanted PLACENTA from the UTERUS. Signs of varying degree of severity include UTERINE BLEEDING, uterine MUSCLE HYPERTONIA, and FETAL DISTRESS or FETAL DEATH.
The beginning third of a human PREGNANCY, from the first day of the last normal menstrual period (MENSTRUATION) through the completion of 14 weeks (98 days) of gestation.
Studies in which the presence or absence of disease or other health-related variables are determined in each member of the study population or in a representative sample at one particular time. This contrasts with LONGITUDINAL STUDIES which are followed over a period of time.
Morphological and physiological development of FETUSES.
The neck portion of the UTERUS between the lower isthmus and the VAGINA forming the cervical canal.
A sultanate on the southeast coast of the Arabian peninsula. Its capital is Masqat. Before the 16th century it was ruled by independent emirs but was captured and controlled by the Portuguese 1508-1648. In 1741 it was recovered by a descendent of Yemen's imam. After its decline in the 19th century, it became virtually a political and economic dependency within the British Government of India, retaining close ties with Great Britain by treaty from 1939 to 1970 when it achieved autonomy. The name was recorded by Pliny in the 1st century A.D. as Omana, said to be derived from the founder of the state, Oman ben Ibrahim al-Khalil. (From Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p890; Oman Embassy, Washington; Room, Brewer's Dictionary of Names, 1992, p391)
Human behavior or decision related to REPRODUCTION.
The number of new cases of a given disease during a given period in a specified population. It also is used for the rate at which new events occur in a defined population. It is differentiated from PREVALENCE, which refers to all cases, new or old, in the population at a given time.
The middle third of a human PREGNANCY, from the beginning of the 15th through the 28th completed week (99 to 196 days) of gestation.
The co-occurrence of pregnancy and a blood disease (HEMATOLOGIC DISEASES) which involves BLOOD CELLS or COAGULATION FACTORS. The hematologic disease may precede or follow FERTILIZATION and it may or may not have a deleterious effect on the pregnant woman or FETUS.
Divisions of the year according to some regularly recurrent phenomena usually astronomical or climatic. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
Diseases of domestic swine and of the wild boar of the genus Sus.
A placenta that fails to be expelled after BIRTH of the FETUS. A PLACENTA is retained when the UTERUS fails to contract after the delivery of its content, or when the placenta is abnormally attached to the MYOMETRIUM.
Infections with bacteria of the family BACILLACEAE.
A 1974 Federal act which preempts states' rights with regard to workers' pension benefits and employee benefits. It does not affect the benefits and rights of employees whose employer is self-insured. (From Slee & Slee, Health Care Reform Terms, 1993)
Malformations of organs or body parts during development in utero.
A condition of fetal overgrowth leading to a large-for-gestational-age FETUS. It is defined as BIRTH WEIGHT greater than 4,000 grams or above the 90th percentile for population and sex-specific growth curves. It is commonly seen in GESTATIONAL DIABETES; PROLONGED PREGNANCY; and pregnancies complicated by pre-existing diabetes mellitus.
A stratum of people with similar position and prestige; includes social stratification. Social class is measured by criteria such as education, occupation, and income.
Excision of the uterus.
Anatomical and functional disorders affecting the foot.
Onset of OBSTETRIC LABOR before term (TERM BIRTH) but usually after the FETUS has become viable. In humans, it occurs sometime during the 29th through 38th week of PREGNANCY. TOCOLYSIS inhibits premature labor and can prevent the BIRTH of premature infants (INFANT, PREMATURE).
The number of males per 100 females.
The period in the ESTROUS CYCLE associated with maximum sexual receptivity and fertility in non-primate female mammals.
Expulsion of the product of FERTILIZATION before completing the term of GESTATION and without deliberate interference.
The period before MENOPAUSE. In premenopausal women, the climacteric transition from full sexual maturity to cessation of ovarian cycle takes place between the age of late thirty and early fifty.
Organized efforts by communities or organizations to improve the health and well-being of the mother.
The condition of carrying two or more FETUSES simultaneously.
Contraceptive devices placed high in the uterine fundus.
Loss or destruction of the epithelial lining of the UTERINE CERVIX.
The beginning of true OBSTETRIC LABOR which is characterized by the cyclic uterine contractions of increasing frequency, duration, and strength causing CERVICAL DILATATION to begin (LABOR STAGE, FIRST ).
Predetermined sets of questions used to collect data - clinical data, social status, occupational group, etc. The term is often applied to a self-completed survey instrument.
Artificial introduction of SEMEN or SPERMATOZOA into the VAGINA to facilitate FERTILIZATION.
Involuntary loss of URINE, such as leaking of urine. It is a symptom of various underlying pathological processes. Major types of incontinence include URINARY URGE INCONTINENCE and URINARY STRESS INCONTINENCE.
The body region lying between the genital area and the ANUS on the surface of the trunk, and to the shallow compartment lying deep to this area that is inferior to the PELVIC DIAPHRAGM. The surface area is between the VULVA and the anus in the female, and between the SCROTUM and the anus in the male.
Oral contraceptives which owe their effectiveness to hormonal preparations.
A set of techniques used when variation in several variables has to be studied simultaneously. In statistics, multivariate analysis is interpreted as any analytic method that allows simultaneous study of two or more dependent variables.
Statistical models in which the value of a parameter for a given value of a factor is assumed to be equal to a + bx, where a and b are constants. The models predict a linear regression.
Soft tissue formed mainly by the pelvic diaphragm, which is composed of the two levator ani and two coccygeus muscles. The pelvic diaphragm lies just below the pelvic aperture (outlet) and separates the pelvic cavity from the PERINEUM. It extends between the PUBIC BONE anteriorly and the COCCYX posteriorly.
Herniation of the RECTUM into the VAGINA.
The position or orientation of the FETUS at near term or during OBSTETRIC LABOR, determined by its relation to the SPINE of the mother and the birth canal. The normal position is a vertical, cephalic presentation with the fetal vertex flexed on the NECK.
Exposure of the female parent, human or animal, to potentially harmful chemical, physical, or biological agents in the environment or to environmental factors that may include ionizing radiation, pathogenic organisms, or toxic chemicals that may affect offspring. It includes pre-conception maternal exposure.
The systems and processes involved in the establishment, support, management, and operation of registers, e.g., disease registers.
Pathological processes involving any part of the UTERUS.
The condition in which individuals are financially unable to access adequate medical care without depriving themselves and their dependents of food, clothing, shelter, and other essentials of living.
A plant genus of the family CAMPANULACEAE used medicinally and is a source of LOBELINE.
The visualization of tissues during pregnancy through recording of the echoes of ultrasonic waves directed into the body. The procedure may be applied with reference to the mother or the fetus and with reference to organs or the detection of maternal or fetal disease.
Deaths occurring from the 28th week of GESTATION to the 28th day after birth in a given population.
The discharge of an OVUM from a rupturing follicle in the OVARY.
The distance from the sole to the crown of the head with body standing on a flat surface and fully extended.
A diet that contributes to the development and advancement of DENTAL CARIES.
Disorders or diseases associated with PUERPERIUM, the six-to-eight-week period immediately after PARTURITION in humans.
Period from the onset of true OBSTETRIC LABOR to the complete dilatation of the CERVIX UTERI.
The social institution involving legal and/or religious sanction whereby individuals are joined together.
The concept covering the physical and mental conditions of women.
The co-occurrence of pregnancy and an INFECTION. The infection may precede or follow FERTILIZATION.
Chemical substances that interrupt pregnancy after implantation.
That portion of total HEALTH CARE COSTS borne by an individual's or group's employing organization.
Two individuals derived from two FETUSES that were fertilized at or about the same time, developed in the UTERUS simultaneously, and born to the same mother. Twins are either monozygotic (TWINS, MONOZYGOTIC) or dizygotic (TWINS, DIZYGOTIC).
The consumption of edible substances.
The behavior patterns associated with or characteristic of a mother.
The inhabitants of rural areas or of small towns classified as rural.
Maternal deaths resulting from complications of pregnancy and childbirth in a given population.
Nutrition of a mother which affects the health of the FETUS and INFANT as well as herself.
Therapeutic use of hormones to alleviate the effects of hormone deficiency.
Childbirth taking place in the home.
A condition in pregnant women with elevated systolic (>140 mm Hg) and diastolic (>90 mm Hg) blood pressure on at least two occasions 6 h apart. HYPERTENSION complicates 8-10% of all pregnancies, generally after 20 weeks of gestation. Gestational hypertension can be divided into several broad categories according to the complexity and associated symptoms, such as EDEMA; PROTEINURIA; SEIZURES; abnormalities in BLOOD COAGULATION and liver functions.
Methods for recognizing the state of ESTRUS.
The enactment of laws and ordinances and their regulation by official organs of a nation, state, or other legislative organization. It refers also to health-related laws and regulations in general or for which there is no specific heading.
In humans, one of the paired regions in the anterior portion of the THORAX. The breasts consist of the MAMMARY GLANDS, the SKIN, the MUSCLES, the ADIPOSE TISSUE, and the CONNECTIVE TISSUES.
The failure of a FETUS to attain its expected FETAL GROWTH at any GESTATIONAL AGE.
The physiological period following the MENOPAUSE, the permanent cessation of the menstrual life.
The use of hormonal agents with estrogen-like activity in postmenopausal or other estrogen-deficient women to alleviate effects of hormone deficiency, such as vasomotor symptoms, DYSPAREUNIA, and progressive development of OSTEOPOROSIS. This may also include the use of progestational agents in combination therapy.
The relative amounts of various components in the body, such as percentage of body fat.
The qualitative or quantitative estimation of the likelihood of adverse effects that may result from exposure to specified health hazards or from the absence of beneficial influences. (Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 1988)
Specialized connective tissue composed of fat cells (ADIPOCYTES). It is the site of stored FATS, usually in the form of TRIGLYCERIDES. In mammals, there are two types of adipose tissue, the WHITE FAT and the BROWN FAT. Their relative distributions vary in different species with most adipose tissue being white.
Value of all final goods and services produced in a country in one year.
Drugs used to increase fertility or to treat infertility.
The commitment in writing, as authentic evidence, of something having legal importance. The concept includes certificates of birth, death, etc., as well as hospital, medical, and other institutional records.
The gradual irreversible changes in structure and function of an organism that occur as a result of the passage of time.
Official certifications by a physician recording the individual's birth date, place of birth, parentage and other required identifying data which are filed with the local registrar of vital statistics.
CHILDBIRTH at the end of a normal duration of PREGNANCY, between 37 to 40 weeks of gestation or about 280 days from the first day of the mother's last menstrual period.
A species of SWINE, in the family Suidae, comprising a number of subspecies including the domestic pig Sus scrofa domestica.
Revenues or receipts accruing from business enterprise, labor, or invested capital.
A status with BODY WEIGHT that is grossly above the acceptable or desirable weight, usually due to accumulation of excess FATS in the body. The standards may vary with age, sex, genetic or cultural background. In the BODY MASS INDEX, a BMI greater than 30.0 kg/m2 is considered obese, and a BMI greater than 40.0 kg/m2 is considered morbidly obese (MORBID OBESITY).
Persons with psychiatric illnesses or diseases, particularly psychotic and severe mood disorders.
Age of the biological father.
Exchange of substances between the maternal blood and the fetal blood at the PLACENTA via PLACENTAL CIRCULATION. The placental barrier excludes microbial or viral transmission.
INFLAMMATION of the UDDER in cows.
Procedures that render the female sterile by interrupting the flow in the FALLOPIAN TUBE. These procedures generally are surgical, and may also use chemicals or physical means.
Individuals whose ancestral origins are in the continent of Europe.
Diminished or absent ability of a female to achieve conception.
The co-occurrence of pregnancy and a cardiovascular disease. The disease may precede or follow FERTILIZATION and it may or may not have a deleterious effect on the pregnant woman or FETUS.
The name given to all Christian denominations, sects, or groups rising out of the Reformation. Protestant churches generally agree that the principle of authority should be the Scriptures rather than the institutional church or the pope. (from W.L. Reese, Dictionary of Philosophy and Religion, 1999)
The state of birth outside of wedlock. It may refer to the offspring or the parents.
Prevention of CONCEPTION by blocking fertility temporarily, or permanently (STERILIZATION, REPRODUCTIVE). Common means of reversible contraception include NATURAL FAMILY PLANNING METHODS; CONTRACEPTIVE AGENTS; or CONTRACEPTIVE DEVICES.
The occurrence in an individual of two or more cell populations of different chromosomal constitutions, derived from different individuals. This contrasts with MOSAICISM in which the different cell populations are derived from a single individual.
A highly vascularized mammalian fetal-maternal organ and major site of transport of oxygen, nutrients, and fetal waste products. It includes a fetal portion (CHORIONIC VILLI) derived from TROPHOBLASTS and a maternal portion (DECIDUA) derived from the uterine ENDOMETRIUM. The placenta produces an array of steroid, protein and peptide hormones (PLACENTAL HORMONES).

Difference between mammary epithelial cells from mature virgin and primiparous mice. (1/2537)

Mammary epithelial cells from mature virgin mice are similar to those from primiparous mice in several respects. However, there is one known difference. The cells from the mature virgin must traverse the cell cycle in order to become competent to make casein and enzymatically active alpha-lactalbumin in vitro; those from the primiparous animal can make these proteins without first traversing the cycle. In this regard, cells from human placental lactogen- and prolactin-treated mature virgins are, after involution, similar to those from primiparous mice. The developemental block in the cells from the mature virgin, imposed by preventing cell cycle traversal, has been partially delineated. It does not appear to reside at the levels of ultrastructural maturation or the formation of casein messenger RNA. Rather, the lesion is postranscriptional and may be at the level of translation, or posttranslational modification, or both.  (+info)

Reproductive factors and fatal hip fractures. A Norwegian prospective study of 63,000 women. (2/2537)

STUDY OBJECTIVE: The aim of the study was to investigate the impact of reproductive variables (age at menarche, menopause, first and last birth as well as parity, lactation, and abortions) on hip fracture mortality. DESIGN AND SETTING: A prospective study in Norway with more than 60,000 women followed up for 29 years. A total of 465 deaths as a result of hip fracture were recorded. MAIN RESULTS: Statistically significant linear relations (p < or = 0.02) were found between both age at menarche and length of reproductive period (defined as age at menopause to age at menarche) and the mortality of hip fractures in women aged less than 80. The death rate for women with a late menarche (> or = 17 years) was twice that of the women with relatively early menarche (< or = 13 years). Compared with women with less than 30 years between menopause and menarche, the mortality rate ratio in women with more than 38 reproductive years was 0.5. We also found an inverse relation with age at first birth. CONCLUSIONS: This study supports by hypothesis that an early menarche and a long reproductive period protect against hip fracture mortality. High age at first birth may also be protective.  (+info)

Moderate physical activity in relation to mammographic patterns. (3/2537)

High-risk mammographic patterns may be used as a surrogate end point for breast cancer in etiologic research as well as in prevention studies. Physical activity may be one of the few modifiable risk factors for breast cancer. We examined the relationship between physical activity and mammographic patterns among 2720 Norwegian women, ages 40-56 years, who participated in both the Second and Third Tromso studies. Epidemiologic data were obtained through questionnaires. Two questions from the Second Tromso study and five questions from the Third elicited information on physical activity. The mammograms were categorized into five groups based on anatomical-mammographic correlations. For analysis, patterns I through III were combined into a low-risk group and patterns IV and V into a high-risk group. Odds ratios that were adjusted for age, education, menopausal status, body mass index, parity, age at menarche, oral contraceptive use, and alcohol intake, with 95% confidence intervals, were estimated using logistic regression. Women who reported moderate physical activity, i.e., more than 2 h/week, were 20% less likely (odds ratio, 0.8; 95% confidence interval, 0.6-1.1) to have high-risk mammographic patterns compared with those who reported being inactive. This relationship remains consistent when stratified by menopausal status, parity, and tertiles of body mass index. However, all of the associations between various measures of physical activity and high-risk patterns found in this study are weak with confidence intervals that include 1.0. Thus, chance is a reasonable explanation for the weak associations found. The relationship between physical activity and high-risk patterns should be examined further as a means to explore the biologic mechanisms relating physical activity to breast cancer risk.  (+info)

Reproductive experience and opioid regulation of luteinizing hormone release in female rats. (4/2537)

The objective of the present study was to determine whether reproductive experience that produces shifts in opioid regulation of prolactin secretion and behavioural functions also alters opioid regulation of LH during the oestrous cycle or lactation. In Expt 1 the effect of naloxone administration (i.v.) on LH was compared between age-matched, nulliparous and primiparous, catheterized female rats on dioestrus II. In Expt 2, the effects of multiple reproductive experiences on opiate control of LH were investigated using cyclic, nulliparous and multiparous (three litters) rats. In both experiments, no differences in naloxone-stimulated LH release were found between groups even though multiple reproductive experiences resulted in the prolongation of oestrous cyclicity. In Expt 3, day 8 lactating primiparous rats were administered 2, 5, 10 or 25 mg naloxone kg-1 i.v. The three lowest naloxone doses, but not the 25 mg kg-1 dose, significantly increased LH concentrations. The possible effects of prior reproductive experience on opioid control of LH during lactation were then investigated. Naloxone at 0.5 mg kg-1, but not at 2 mg kg-1 or 10 mg kg-1, stimulated a significantly greater rise in LH in multiparous (two litters) than in primiparous females. Overall, these data indicate that while modest differences were found in naloxone-induced LH responses between multiparous and primiparous animals during lactation, reproductive experience did not significantly alter opioid regulation of LH during subsequent oestrous cycles at the naloxone doses examined. Hence, the effects of reproductive experience on opioid regulation of LH are less pronounced than those previously found for opioid regulation of prolactin and behaviour.  (+info)

Primary endometrioid carcinoma of fallopian tube. Clinicomorphologic study. (5/2537)

Twenty cases of primary Fallopian tube endometrioid carcinoma (PFTEC) are presented in the paper. This accounts for 42.5% of all histologic forms of primary Fallopian tube carcinoma (PFTC) found in our Department. The youngest patient was 38, and the oldest 68 years (mean: 56 years). Seven patients were nulliparas. Only two cases were bilateral. According to FIGO staging, 13 cases were evaluated as stage I, 4 as II, and 3 as stage III. Due to the histologic grading, 8 tumors were classified as well, 7 as moderately, and 5 as poorly differentiated. In the time of preparation of the manuscript, 12 women were still alive, 2 of them with recurrent disease. The follow-up of patients without recurrence ranged from 4 to 120 months (median: 63). Eight patients had died (survival time: from 4 to 65 months; median: 26). Metastases were found in 8 patients, especially to ovaries. In 14/20 cases of PFTEC various forms of tubal wall invasion were observed. Blood or lymphatic vessels involvement was found in 9 patients. Six of them had died and one is alive with the symptoms of disease. Immunohistochemical detection of the mutant form of p53 protein and oncogene product, c-erbB-2, was studied in 17 cases. Nine patients exhibited simultaneous p53 protein accumulation and c-erbB-2 expression. 2/9 of these patients are alive with recurrent tumors and 4/9 died. Endometrioid carcinoma of the Fallopian tube can be characterized by a tendency to superficial invasion of tubal wall and in a half of the cases by invasion of vessels. The majority of these tumors were diagnosed at an early stage tumors.  (+info)

Breast cancer risk in monozygotic and dizygotic female twins: a 20-year population-based cohort study in Finland from 1976 to 1995. (6/2537)

This population-based study investigated the occurrence of breast cancer over a 20-year period in a cohort of monozygotic (MZ) and dizygotic (DZ) twins in Finland. Altogether, 13,176 female twins of known zygosity who were living in Finland at the end of 1975 were identified from the Finnish Twin Cohort Study and followed-up for cancer through the Finnish Cancer Registry for the years 1976-1995. Standardized incidence ratios (SIRs) were calculated, based on national cancer incidence rates. The relative risk of breast cancer for MZ twins compared to DZ twins was decreased [SIR(MZ)/SIR(DZ) ratio = 0.78; 95% confidence interval (CI), 0.58-1.0]; the decreased risk for MZ twins (SIR = 0.76; 95% CI, 0.58-1.0) accounted for this result, whereas the risk for DZ twins did not differ from the general population risk (SIR = 0.98; 95% CI, 0.84-1.1). There was no risk decrease among MZ twins in other cancers related to reproductive behavior; i.e., number of children and age at first birth seem not to explain the decreased risk of breast cancer. Our results, which are in line with earlier studies on the same topic, suggest that prenatal influences or postnatal behavioral factors may protect MZ female twins from breast cancer.  (+info)

Evaluating a policy of reduced consultant antenatal clinic visits for low risk multiparous women. (7/2537)

OBJECTIVES: To evaluate a change in antenatal care policy to reduce antenatal clinic visits, whereby low risk multiparous women were managed by the primary care team and seen at booking and at 41 weeks' gestation at the consultant antenatal clinic. DESIGN: Comparative study of low risk multiparous women retrospectively identified through the Oxford obstetric data system and cared for by three consultants who changed their policy (group A) or three consultants who maintained their routine care (group B). SETTING: Oxfordshire Health District. SUBJECTS: 2153 low risk multiparous women (1079 group A, 1074 group B) booked for consultant care at John Radcliffe Maternity Hospital between August 1985 and July 1987. MAIN MEASURES: Comparison of pregnancy outcomes, satisfaction with care, and clinic waiting times, during one year before and after the policy change (year 1, year 2). RESULTS: The proportion of women in group A with only one or two consultant clinic visits increased from 19.9% to 57.9% between years 1 and 2 (p < 0.001). Clinic waiting times did not improve. Of five perinatal deaths in group A, one (from postmaturity) could possibly be attributed to the policy change. The proportion of women reaching 42 weeks' gestation rose from 4.7% to 9.2% (p < 0.01); the proportion fully satisfied with their care rose from 68.4% to 82.1% (p < 0.025). No such changes were seen in group B. CONCLUSIONS: The change in policy was successful in reducing hospital antenatal clinic visits. The exercise identified dilemmas around evaluating changes in antenatal care settings. IMPLICATIONS: Criteria to test policy objectives should be selected carefully and rare events assessed prospectively in order to detect problems early.  (+info)

Too far, too little, too late: a community-based case-control study of maternal mortality in rural west Maharashtra, India. (8/2537)

A total of 121 maternal deaths, identified through multiple-source surveillance in 400 villages in Maharashtra, were prospectively enrolled during 1993-95 in a population-based case-control study, which compared deaths with the survivors of similar pregnancy complications. The cases took significantly longer to seek care and to make the first health contact after the decision to seek care was taken. They also travelled significantly greater distances through a greater number of health facilities before appropriate treatment was started. Multivariate analysis showed the negative effect of excessive referrals and the protective effect of the following: residing in and not away from the village; presence of a resident nurse in the village; having an educated husband and a trained attendant at delivery; and being at the woman's parents' home at the time of illness. Other significant findings showed that deaths due to domestic violence were the second-largest cause of deaths in pregnancy, that more than two-thirds of maternal deaths were underreported in official records, and that liveborn infants of maternal deaths had a markedly higher risk of dying in the first year of life. This study points to the need for information-education-communication (IEC) efforts to increase family (especially male) preparedness for emergencies, decentralized obstetric management with effective triage, and a restructuring of the referral system.  (+info)

The International Collaboration of Epidemiological Studies of Cervical Cancer has combined individual data on 11,161 women with invasive carcinoma, 5,402 women with cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN)3/carcinoma in situ and 33,542 women without cervical carcinoma from 25 epidemiological studies. Relative risks (RRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) of cervical carcinoma in relation to number of full-term pregnancies, and age at first full-term pregnancy, were calculated conditioning by study, age, lifetime number of sexual partners and age at first sexual intercourse. Number of full-term pregnancies was associated with a risk of invasive cervical carcinoma. After controlling for age at first full-term pregnancy, the RR for invasive cervical carcinoma among parous women was 1.76 (95% CI: 1.53-2.02) for | or =| or =7 full-term pregnancies compared with 1-2. For CIN3/carcinoma in situ, no significant trend was found with increasing number of births after controlling for age at first full-term
Press Release Summary: Alan Rommel, promoted to managing director of the recruitment arm of Parity Group plc Press Release Body: Alan Rommel joined Parity at the end of 1993 and since then he has steadily developed his career and actively contributed to many of the organisations achievements. Most recently, he has been leading the public sector recruitment operation, strengthening Paritys position in the market with many successes; amongst these, the win of two supplier awards through the Catalist Framework Agreement, and taking the business to the top of the suppliers list in IT and project & programme management services within the framework.. The company has now decided to entrust into Rommels hands the whole recruitment business, promoting him to managing director. This appointment recognises the talent that Parity nurtures and also illustrates the commitment of the organisation to reward success with real opportunities for development, said Parity Group CEO Alwyn Welch.. Asked about ...
Breast cancer risk has traditionally been linked to nulliparity or late first full-term pregnancy, whereas young age at first childbirth, multiparity, and breast-feeding are associated with a reduced risk. Early pregnancy confers protection by inducing breast differentiation, which imprints a specific and permanent genomic signature in experimental rodent models. For testing whether the same phenomenon was detectable in the atrophic breast of postmenopausal parous women, we designed a case-control study for the analysis of the gene expression profile of RNA extracted from epithelial cells microdissected from normal breast tissues obtained from 18 parous and 7 nulliparous women free of breast pathology (controls), and 41 parous and 8 nulliparous women with history of breast cancer (cases ...
There is a well-documented reduction in endometrial cancer (EC) risk with combined oral contraceptive (COC) use. COC use prior to the first full-term pregnancy may affect breast cancer risk for decades, but this relationship has not been investigated in EC. We investigated the risk for EC with COC use prior to the first full-term pregnancy. Cases (n=524) from a population-based cancer registry and age-matched controls (n=1032) were recruited between 2002 and 2006 in Alberta, Canada. Participants completed an in-person interview and provided detailed information on exogenous hormone use and other risk factors. Risk reductions in EC with COC use over the premenopausal years were consistent with the published literature. We also found evidence of a long-term, significant risk reduction in parous women with COC use prior to the first full-term pregnancy. Among parous women, ≥5 years of COC use prior to a first full-term pregnancy was associated with a significant reduction in risk (adjusted ...
Its interesting that a woman who has her first full-term pregnancy by the age of 18 has about one-third the risk of developing breast cancer as a woman who has her first full-term pregnancy after age 30. We dont know exactly why that is but the data seems to indicate that its the breast while its developing that is most susceptible to environmental factors -- carcinogens, cancer-causing agents in the environment that may trigger a cancer later on in life, even
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The second independent risk factor for breast cancer is induced abortion. As of 2004, 41 studies had been published in the worldwide medical literature (including 16 American studies) reporting data on the risk of breast cancer among women with a history of induced abortion. 29 (70%) of these studies report increased risk. Thirteen of the 16 (81%) American studies report increased risk, 8 with statistical significance (at least 95% probability that the result is not due to chance) irrespective of age at first full-term pregnancy. The relative risk increase of the 41 studies combined is 30%. (Note: this means that among aborted women there would be a 30% increase in breast cancer cases over what would normally be expected). ...
The second independent risk factor for breast cancer is induced abortion. As of 2004, 41 studies had been published in the worldwide medical literature (including 16 American studies) reporting data on the risk of breast cancer among women with a history of induced abortion. 29 (70%) of these studies report increased risk. Thirteen of the 16 (81%) American studies report increased risk, 8 with statistical significance (at least 95% probability that the result is not due to chance) irrespective of age at first full-term pregnancy. The relative risk increase of the 41 studies combined is 30%. (Note: this means that among aborted women there would be a 30% increase in breast cancer cases over what would normally be expected). ...
Genetic variants may influence miRNA-mRNA interaction through modulate binding affinity, creating or destroying miRNA-binding sites. Twenty-four single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) that were predicted to affect the binding affinity of breast cancer-related miRNAs to 3′-untranslated regions (UTR) of known genes were genotyped in 878 breast cancer cases and 900 controls in Chinese women. Three promising SNPs (rs10494836, rs10857748 and rs7963551) were further validated in additional 914 breast cancer cases and 967 controls. The variant allele (C) of rs7963551 at 3′-UTR of RAD52 showed a consistently reduced breast cancer risk in two stages with a combined odds ratio (OR) of 0.84 [95% confidence interval (CI) = 0.75-0.95], which was more prominent among women with early age at first live birth (OR = 0.71, 95% CI = 0.58-0.87). A significant interaction was observed between rs7963551 and age at first live birth on breast cancer risk (P for interaction = 0.04). Luciferase activity assay showed ...
Background: Correlational studies have showed that parity is associated with risk for cardiovascular disease (CVD). According to these correlations, multiparous women have reduced risk of developing CVD compared to nulliparous women. Experimental studies examining the effects of parity on vascular function are lacking and most importantly, how parity affects women with established cardiovascular risk factors is unknown. Women with type 2 diabetes have a greater risk of developing vascular complications compared to their non-diabetic counterparts. This study focuses on the influence of parity on contractile arterial responses of multiparous and nulliparous rats with type 2 diabetes. Hypothesis: Old multiparous rats with type 2 diabetes (Goto-Kakizaki rats, GK) were hypothesized to have a decreased contractile response to phenylephrine (PE) and endothelin-1 (ET-1) compared to nulliparous GK young and age-matched rats. Materials and Methods: Three experimental groups were used: GK young nulliparous rats,
BACKGROUND: Few studies have examined in depth the labor progression of multiparas to determine if there is any additional impact of being parous beyond the first birth. The objective of this study was to determine the effect of parity on labor progr
Adjusted for age at enrollment, mother or sister with breast cancer (y/n), body mass index, ,1 year of irregular years (y/n), hormone replacement therapy ever (y/n), ever married (y/n), infertility consult ever (y/n), educational level, and parity and age at first childbirth (centered around its mean and multiplied by parity). ...
This study was undertaken to examine whether there is an association between parity and age at first birth and risk of death from brain cancer. The study cohort consisted of 1,292,462 women who had a first and singleton childbirth between Jan. 1, 1978 and Dec. 31, 1987. We tracked each woman from the time of their first childbirth to December 31, 2009, and their vital status was ascertained by linking records with the computerized mortality database. Cox proportional hazard regression models were used to estimate the hazard ratios (HR) of death from brain cancer associated with parity and age at first birth. There were 316 brain cancer deaths during 34,980,246 person-years of follow-up. The mortality rate of brain cancer was 0.90 cases per 100,000 person-years. The adjusted HR was 1.35 (95% CI= 0.91-2.01) for women who gave birth between 21 and 25, 1.61 (95% CI=1.05-2.45) for women who gave birth after 25 years of age, respectively, when compared with women who gave birth less than 20 years. A trend of
We observed that nulliparous mothers had children with lower fetal growth rates and higher risks of delivering preterm and small-size-for-gestational-age children. Among multiparous women only, trend analyses showed a tendency toward decreasing risks of adverse birth outcomes with increasing parity. Our findings are in line with a previous study among 25 614 singleton births, which showed that the rates of intrauterine growth restriction and preterm delivery were higher among nulliparous women compared with multiparous women.5 Compared with infants of nulliparous mothers, infants of multiparous mothers had lower rates of accelerated infant growth, lower childhood BMI, fat mass percentage, and cholesterol levels. Among multiparous women only, consistent trends with increasing parity in similar direction were present. Although the observed effect estimates were small and they are mainly of interest from a cardiovascular developmental perspective, previous studies have shown that these childhood ...
We are building a coalition of leaders, supporters, volunteers, and partners interested in diversifying leadership and decision-making in Massachusetts. Support An Act to Ensure Gender Parity and Racial and Ethnic Diversity on Public Boards and Commissions (H.4153) by becoming a Parity On Board coalition partner. As a coalition partner, you will receive updates on the status of the bill, have the opportunity to be a part of coalition meetings, and be the first to know of future interventions in support of this bill. As a coalition partner, you are committing to publicly advocating for this bill.. ...
Read The impact of purchasing power parity on auto foreign trade, Quality & Quantity on DeepDyve, the largest online rental service for scholarly research with thousands of academic publications available at your fingertips.
Objective: To examine the effect of childbearing and maternal breastfeeding on a womans subsequent risk of developing type 2 diabetes.. Research Design and Methods: Using information on parity, breastfeeding and diabetes collected from 52,731 women recruited into a cohort study, we estimated the risk of type 2 diabetes using multivariate logistic regression.. Results: 3,160 (6.0%) women were classified with type 2 diabetes. Overall, nulliparous and parous women had a similar risk of diabetes. Among parous women, there was a 14% (95%CI 10-18%, p,0.001) reduced likelihood of diabetes per year of breastfeeding. Compared to nulliparous women, parous women who did not breastfeed had a greater risk of diabetes, OR=1.48(95%CI 1.26-1.73, p,0.001); whilst for those breastfeeding for at least 3 months per child, the risk was not significantly increased.. Conclusions: Compared to nulliparous women, childbearing women who do not breastfeed have about a 50% increased risk of type 2 diabetes in later life. ...
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Sinn Féin MP Conor Murphy has accused the DUP of contradicting itself by seeking parity with Britain on Brexit arrangements but not on peoples rights.. The Newry-Armagh MP was commenting after DUP Leader Arlene Foster said Brexit cannot be allowed to lead to different arrangements here than in Britain.. Arlene Fosters comments expose the contradiction at the heart of DUP policy, Conor Murphy said.. They dont want any divergence when it comes to Brexit but they are quite happy to go a different way when it comes to the rights and entitlements of citizens in the North of Ireland.. Language rights, marriage equality and the right to proper inquests are all taken for granted in Britain but they are not available here because the DUP is denying them to citizens.. Like the pro-Brexit camp in general, they are trying to have it both ways but I am confident they will find out in time, that is not a credible position.. Similarly, their denial of rights is not sustainable given the fact that ...
Amazing employment figures warmed the hearts of Canadian policymakers and sent USD/CAD tumbling down. Is the Canadian dollar going to be in parity with
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I guess I should mention at this point that Michael is an awful driver. He hit everyones car in the studio lot at least once, including mine. One time, he rear
Introduction This post gives a simple overview of the different parities that can occur during a reduction solve on 4x4x4 upwards. Even layered cubes...
This note extends a result of Frank, Jordán, and Szigeti [3] on parity constrained orientations with connectivity requirements. Given a hypergraph H,
I first installed Mist, which downloaded 23GB of blockchain data, and the deleted all the blockchain data and mist-related files. Then, I installed the parity on my windows 10 machine. Within a 10 min, parity shows that chain data is synced. However, I cannot find any chain data on my PC. The remaining storage has not been changed. I cannot find the folders mentioned in this answer: Location of parity blockchain in Windows. I could send and receive ETH with parity. So, I guess the parity client does not download any chain data. I was wondering whether my guess is correct or not. If it is getting the blockchain from the web, would it be safer option than the Mist? Thanks. ...
SAEs Parity Compliance team is available to assist in understanding, monitoring and changing policy and practice with NTQLs. If you would like to explore how we can help you in this arena, email [email protected] or call us at (212) 684-4480 to connect with our team ...
Everything was fine until i do a full parity check. First time it cam back with 1000000s of read only errors on pairty drive #2. Fine RMAd the drive awaiting return. Ran another pairty check hard lockup, same thing this morning. The only recent change was adding a 10G nic which has been working ...
I got hold of the previously mentioned report from Parity today. It sheds some additional light but it still confirms my view that despite surveying a thousand people theres something basically wrong with the study. The researchers need to understand what people do online, what people do offline, and why; which is something they fail…
A researcher claims that the average age of a woman before he has her first child is now greater than it was in 1990. In 1990, that average age was 26.4 years. She obtains a random sample of 40 women who all recently gave birth.
A 38-year-old nulliparous woman comes to the physician for an annual check-up. She reports a 10-pack-year smoking history and a family history of early...
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Squamous cell carcinomas account for about 80% of cancers of the uterine cervix, and the majority of the remainder are adenocarcinomas. There is limited evidence on the extent to which these histological types share a common etiology. The International Collaboration of Epidemiological Studies of Cervical Cancer has brought together and combined individual data on 8,097 women with invasive squamous cell carcinoma, 1,374 women with invasive adenocarcinoma and 26,445 women without cervical cancer (controls) from 12 epidemiological studies. Compared to controls, the relative risk of each histological type of invasive cervical cancer was increased with increasing number of sexual partners, younger age at first intercourse, increasing parity, younger age at first full-term pregnancy and increasing duration of oral contraceptive use. Current smoking was associated with a significantly increased risk of squamous cell carcinoma (RR = 1.50, 95% CI: 1.35-1.66) but not of adenocarcinoma (RR = 0.86 (0.70-1.05)), and
TY - JOUR. T1 - Female reproductive factors, menopausal hormone use, and Parkinsons disease. AU - Liu, Rui. AU - Baird, Donna. AU - Park, Yikyung. AU - Freedman, Neal D.. AU - Huang, Xuemei. AU - Hollenbeck, Albert. AU - Blair, Aaron. AU - Chen, Honglei. PY - 2014/6. Y1 - 2014/6. N2 - The objective of this study was to examine the associations of reproductive factors and exogenous hormone use with risk of Parkinsons disease (PD) among postmenopausal women. The study comprised 119,166 postmenopausal women aged 50 to 71 years in the NIH-AARP Diet and Health Study, who completed a baseline questionnaire in 1995-1996 and a follow-up survey in 2004-2006. A total of 410 self-reported PD diagnoses were identified between 1995 and 2006. Multivariate odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were derived from logistic regression models. PD risk was not significantly associated with female reproductive factors including age at menarche, age at first live birth, parity, and age at menopause. ...
RESULTS: 9760 women delivered at the Department during the study period, among them 193 met the inclusion criteria for the study: 40 primiparas (average age 40.9 ± 1.14) and 153 multiparas (average age 41.3 ± 1.35). No relation between parity and preterm delivery was observed (5% primiparas vs 11.1% multiparas; p>0.05). However, gestational age at delivery was associated with the number of pregnancies - the higher the pregnancy number, the lower the gestational age (p=0.009; R=-0.188). Primiparity was associated with an increased rate of oligohydramnios (RR=4.78; 95% CI 1.15-20.63) and pregnancy induced hypertension (RR=2.34; 95% CI 0.93-5.58). Primiparas had a significantly greater risk of operative delivery (RR=1.83; 95% CI 1.42-2.12) and unsuccessful labor inductions (RR=3.60; 95% CI 1.04-5.29). They were more often diagnosed with fibroids (RR=3.04; 95%CI 1.15-7.81). No relations between parity and birth weight, fetal abnormalities or Apgar score were observed ...
Fertility timing across the Czech women, the 1966-1990 generations Abstract: The mean age of women at the first and second childbirth in Czechia is growing since the beginning of the 90s. The aim of this doctoral thesis is therefore to analyse the intensity and causes of the unplanned postponement of childbirth, mainly from the individual perspective of Czech women. The main sources of data used in the thesis are from the Ženy 2016 survey and the Ženy 2019 survey, that gather data about the women born in Czechia between the years 1966 and 1990. The research contribution of the thesis is twofold. Firstly, the separation of postponement into two phases - planned postponement and unplanned postponement, as both of them contribute to the growing mean age at first childbirth. Secondly, the finding of the sequential nature of fertility timing. First stage of postponement is related to the unfulfillment of defined prerequisites for the first childbirth, such as completion of education, stable ...
Breast cancer is the second leading cause of death from cancer in women during pregnancy. Pregnancy-associated breast cancer presents a challenging clinical situation because of the special and unique circumstances surrounding the growth and differentiation of the developing fetus. The trend towards later age at first childbirth has resulted in an increase in the number of breast cancer …. Read More…. ...
Older, primiparous mothers were much more likely to have a no indicated risk primary caesarean; almost one fifth (19.5%) of primiparous mothers aged over 34 had such a delivery in 2001. More than 5% of multiparous mothers over 34 who had had previous vaginal births also had a no indicated risk primary caesarean in 2001. Among mothers under 30 with no indicated risk, the primary caesarean rate grew by more than half (58%) between 1991 and 2001 to 4.9%.. The raw numbers of births also illustrates this trend. In 2001, 80 028 no indicated risk primary caesareans took place in the United States, an increase of 25 162 since 1996. This represented 25.8% of the total increase (97 659) in primary caesareans between 1996 and 2001.. We used multivariate logistic regression analysis (SAS version 8) to examine changes in primary caesarean rates after controlling for parity; maternal ethnicity, age, and education; birth weight; and data year (1991, 1996, or 2001) (see table on We ran models for all ...
Montréal, June 12, 2015 - Catherine Isabelle, Chair of the YMCAs of Québecs Board of Directors, is pleased to announce the appointment of Lyse Brunet, Fannie Dagenais, Josée De La Durantaye and Josée Dubuc to its Board. The Board of Directors arrived at this unanimous decision during the YMCAs Annual General Meeting on June 2, 2015. For the first time in its history, the YMCAs Board of Directors has as many female directors as male directors.. We are certain that reaching gender parity on the YMCAs Board of Directors will bring together diverse views and experiences and, in turn, strengthen the governance of the organization, said Catherine Isabelle, Chair of the Board of Directors.. The YMCA will benefit from the extensive experience of each director:. ...
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Factors associated with RR 1.1-2.0 for breast cancer are as follows{ref6}{ref7}{ref8}: Alcohol consumption Age 30-35 at first full-term pregnancy Diethylstilbestrol exposure in utero Early menarch... more
TY - JOUR. T1 - A cohort study of reproductive risk factors, weight and weight change and the development of diabetes mellitus. AU - Dawson, S. I.. AU - Smith, W. C. S.. AU - Watson, M. S.. AU - Wilson, B. J.. AU - Prescott, G. J.. AU - Campbell, D.. AU - Hannaford, P.. N1 - This work was supported by a grant from the British Heart Foundation, and by a PhD studentship (SID)from the University of Aberdeen.We would like to acknowledge the contribution of the following people: Sarah Sunderland for conducting the clinical examinations, Dean Phillips for tracing and data management, Amanda Cardy for review of the original case notes, Nicola Torrance for assistance with the data collection and the operation of clinics, Linda Harrigan and Wendy Aiken for entering the data, Tracy Mapp for assistance with the study design, Isobel Ford and Ian Ross at Department of Medicine, Aberdeen for assistance with the laboratory analysis, and Val Angus of Practitioner Services at Grampian Health Board for the ...
Breast cancer therapeutic strategies today are generally based on histopathological characterization, tumor size, grading, and axillary lymph node and receptor status [1]. Even so, patients when diagnosed with similar conditions and when treated with similar drug can go through extensive differences in the development and relapse of BC. Studies show that women, who had a full-term pregnancy at an age below 30; and who went through three full-term pregnancies, and three or more years of breast feeding, were significantly protected against BC [20]. However, BC incidence is high among women from the KSA. BC risk factors including nulliparity or low parity, first full term pregnancy at very late age, no breast feeding etc., are not common in the Saudi society [19]. These factors combined with the early onset of BC among women, in this ethnicity, prompted us to study the molecular mechanism underlying the malignancies.. In the present study, we identified transcriptomic signature in BC from the KSA ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Reproductive and hormonal factors and ovarian cancer. AU - Chiaffarino, F.. AU - Pelucchi, C.. AU - Parazzini, F.. AU - Negri, E.. AU - Franceschi, S.. AU - Talamini, R.. AU - Conti, E.. AU - Montella, M.. AU - Vecchia, C. L.. PY - 2001. Y1 - 2001. N2 - Background: Menstrual, reproductive and hormonal factors have been related to ovarian cancer risk, but further quantification of their role in various populations is required. Patients and methods: Cases were 1031 women, below age 79, with incident, histologically confirmed epithelial ovarian cancer, and controls 2411 women, admitted between 1992 and 1999 to a network of hospitals in 4 Italian areas for acute, non-neoplastic, diseases. Odds ratios (OR) were obtained using multiple logistic regression. Results: Multiparity was associated with a significant reduction in risk of ovarian cancer (OR=0.6 for 3, and 0.5 for ≥ 4 births). No consistent association was observed with time since first or last birth, nor with spontaneous or ...
By this stage gaining weight during pregnancy chart your pregnancy, the ICM will be divided into two layers: the epiblast and the hypoblast. In numerous European countries (Spain), the imply age of girls at first childbirth has crossed the 30-yr threshold. My husband had a vasectomy about 11 yrs. Growing twins and supporting them towards maturity takes a lot of vitality. And drained Wierd cravings. It also can rotate across the body for a extra snug fit. A qualitative hCG blood take a look where can i buy maternity formal dresses checks to see whether the pregnancy hormone is current or not. A protracted cycle might imply that you just will not ovulate till two weeks after your period has ended. Irritated cervix would then cause bleeding if exterior means might be applied within the space resembling when present process a Pap smear check or after having sexual activity or any serious medical situation equivalent to cervical (benign) polyp which can change into cancerous at anytime. c of ...
Soren, L, Immunological reactivity of lymphocytes in multiparous females after strain specific matings. (1967). Subject Strain Bibliography 1967. 281 ...
KumakumarAJANTA EXPORT INDUSTRIES - Exporter, Manufacturer, Distributor, Supplier, Trading Company of Multipara Monitor Systems Multi Parameter Patient Monitor,Digital Multipara Monitors,Vital Sign Monitors,Multipara Patient Monitor,M8B Multipara Monitor,Vital Signs Monitor, India
Effect of Smoking Behavior before and during Pregnancy on Selected Birth Outcomes among Singleton Full-Term Pregnancy: A Murmansk County Birth Registry Study Academic Article ...
October 01, 2019. Municipal leaders from nine hometowns in central Saskatchewan are gathered in Wadena today to discuss issues important to their communities.. Parity at the council table is one of the discussions at the Central Regional Meeting hosted by the Saskatchewan Urban Municipalities Association (SUMA).. See more in the full media release. ...
Erwin Chargaff, working with sea-urchin sperm in the 1950s, observed that within double-stranded DNA, the amount of adenine equals the amount of thymine (A = T) and guanine equals cytosine (G = C), which we now know is the basis of complementarity in DNA. But Chargaff later went on to observe the same thing in studies of single-stranded DNA, causing him to postulate that A = T and G = C more generally (within as well as across strands of DNA). The more general postulation is known as Chargaffs second parity rule. It says that A = T and G = C within a single strand of DNA ...
Results Of 3232 women with SLE identified, 2317 (72%) were parous. Median age was 49 years. Compared to the parous women, the non-parous women had more SLE-related morbidity [LM1], cardiovascular risk factors and CVE (15.1 vs. 8.5 [LM2] %). Amongst the parous women 23.3% (n=539) had a history of MPS. The incidence of CV events was highest amongst the non-parous group at 3.4 per 1,000 person-years (95%CI 2.91-4.07) followed by those who had pregnancies complicated by MPS (2.8 per 1,000 person-years (95% CI 2.2-3.6)). Hazard of a CVE was 2.2-fold higher in the non-parous group (HR 2.2; 95%CI 1.7-2.8) compared to 1.8-fold increase in those with MPS (HR 1.8; 95%CI 1.3-2.4). This hazard persisted after adjustment. The probability of a CVE-free survival was lowest in the non-parous group even when compared to those with MPS (p,0.001). (Figure 1) ...
Hormonal and reproductive factors and the risk of ovarian cancer: PurposeHormone-related factors have been associated with ovarian cancer, the strongest being p
After a dozen years of pushing AIX as its premier mission critical operating system — a top IBM exec is now saying that there is little difference in features between AIX-Unix and Linux.Linux is on parity with AIX, Jean Staten Healy, IBMs director of worldwide Linux strategy told InternetNe...
After a dozen years of pushing AIX as its premier mission critical operating system — a top IBM exec is now saying that there is little difference in features between AIX-Unix and Linux.Linux is on parity with AIX, Jean Staten Healy, IBMs director of worldwide Linux strategy told InternetNe...
In reply to Matt Brubeck (:mbrubeck) from comment #34) , I agree that an opt-out would be the best design if we were considering the , UX in isolation. But I think a good opt-in mechanism can do a lot to avoid , a PR shitstorm and communicate with our users better without making the UX , significantly worse. You might not care much about PR, but I think the , mobile team needs to weigh it fairly heavily since we have an uphill , perception battle just to get Android users to try our browser. Part of that perception problem is that we dont do what the users and the reviewers expect from their browser. You know how we took users from IE with Firefox? By matching and then beating their expectations. Parity on stuff that users actually like was critical. It wasnt enough -- we had to be better at some things, but if we didnt meet their basic expectations, wed have never gained significant share. Every user who fails the opt in test, for what ever reason, will be having a less good than the ...
A Comparative Study to Determine the Effect of Age and Parity on Vaginal Epithelial Cells Diameters. Nadia M. Al-Hilli,Haythem A. Abdul-Hussain,Mariamm M. Burhan, Hameda A. Al-Mahdy,Asmaa M. Mekky ...
બે મહિના પહેલાં નુસરત પ્રેગ્નન્ટ છે, તે વાત સામે આવી હતી.,નુસરતના પતિ નિખિલે કહ્યું હતું, આ બાળક તેનું નથી,નુસરત તથા યશદાસ ગુપ્તા વચ્ચે અફેર હોવાની ચર્ચા અને બાળકનો પિતા યશ હોવાનું માનવામાં આવે છે | TMC MP Nusrat Jahan admitted to hospital, likely to give birth to first child on Thursday
Oscar winning actress Jennifer Lawrence is pregnant and expecting her first child with her art dealer husband Cooke Maroney.A representative for the 31-year-old
A mother is nervous about the first birth family visit, wondering what it will be like, how to react if she or the birth mother get upset. Parents in open adoptions offer advice.
Page 17 - Morning everyone! Im doing a paper for development psych (ugh) and was wondering how old most of you were when you had your first child and what you think the best age to start a family is. I
Page 3 - Morning everyone! Im doing a paper for development psych (ugh) and was wondering how old most of you were when you had your first child and what you think the best age to start a family is. I
After youve given birth, its going to take a while for your body to regulate hormone levels and even start your period again. Read more here.
When I found out I was pregnant with my first child the method of feeding never entered my head until around 20 odd weeks when I was asked if I would try breas
... oil parity approached the full oil parity or even exceeds oil parity.[95] In January 2016, the spot LNG price of $5.461 per ... Oil parity[edit]. Oil parity is the LNG price that would be equal to that of crude oil on a Barrel of oil equivalent (BOE) ... A coefficient of 0.1724 results in full oil parity. In most cases the price of LNG is less than the price of crude oil in BOE ... If the LNG price exceeds the price of crude oil in BOE terms, then the situation is called broken oil parity. ...
Range parity[edit]. Driving range parity means that the electric vehicle has the same range as an average all-combustion ... Cost parity[edit]. See also: Electric vehicle conversion. Different costs are important. One issue is purchase price, the other ... EV parity[edit]. In 2010, battery professor Poul Norby stated that he believed that lithium batteries will need to double their ...
Parity check[edit]. See also: Parity bit. Parity check is the special case where n = k + 1. From a set of k values {. v. i. }. ...
The parity of a Stirling number of the second kind is equal to the parity of a related binomial coefficient: {. n. k. }. ≡. (. ... to obtain the parity of a Stirling number of the second kind in O(1) time. In pseudocode: {. n. k. }. mod. 2. :=. [. (. (. n. − ...
Devolution and parity[edit]. Employment, health and safety, and social security policy are reserved matters in Scotland.[33] ...
Now part of RAID 6, double parity (sometimes known as row diagonal parity[1]) features two sets of parity checks, like ... Rather, double parity calculates the extra parity against a different group of blocks. For example, in our graph both RAID 5 ... The ZFS filesystem provides RAID-Z, a data/parity distribution scheme similar to RAID 5, but using dynamic stripe width: every ... RAID-DP implements RAID 4, except with an additional disk that is used for a second parity, so it has the same failure ...
Grid parity. Main article: Grid parity. Grid parity, the point at which the cost of photovoltaic electricity is equal to or ... Grid parity was first reached in Spain in 2013,[91] Hawaii and other islands that otherwise use fossil fuel (diesel fuel) to ... "The Path to Grid Parity". BP. Archived from the original on 29 October 2013.. [failed verification] ... "Solar Grid Parity Comes to Spain". Forbes. Archived from the original on 2 January 2013.. ...
Parity[edit]. Main article: Parity (physics). If the universe were reflected in a mirror, most of the laws of physics would be ... This concept of mirror reflection is called intrinsic parity" or simply "parity" (P). Gravity, the electromagnetic force, and ... Such particle types are said to have negative or odd parity (P = −1, or alternatively P = -), while the other particles are ... For baryons, the parity is related to the orbital angular momentum by the relation:[14] ...
Parity pricing[edit]. Parity pricing refers to the process of pricing a product at or near a rival's price in order to remain ...
Subsidies and grid parity[edit]. Solar-specific feed-in tariffs vary by country and within countries. Such tariffs encourage ... George W. Bush set 2015 as the date for grid parity in the US.[30][31] The Photovoltaic Association reported in 2012 that ... Widespread grid parity, the point at which photovoltaic electricity is equal to or cheaper than grid power without subsidies, ... "BP Global - Reports and publications - Going for grid parity". Archived from the original on 8 June 2011. Retrieved 4 August ...
Uncovered interest rate parity[edit]. See also: Interest rate parity § Uncovered interest rate parity ... Like purchasing power parity, the balance of payments model focuses largely on tradeable goods and services, ignoring the ... Uncovered interest rate parity (UIRP) states that an appreciation or depreciation of one currency against another currency ... The most common method in order to estimate the equilibrium RER is the universally accepted Purchasing Power Parity (PPP) ...
Low-density parity-check (LDPC) codes are a class of highly efficient linear block codes made from many single parity check ( ... Low-density parity-check (LDPC)[edit]. Main article: Low-density parity-check code ... Low-density parity-check code, also known as Gallager code, as the archetype for sparse graph codes ... Other examples of classical block codes include Golay, BCH, Multidimensional parity, and Hamming codes. ...
List of purchasing power parity exchange rates[edit]. Purchasing power parity (PPP) figures vary based on inflation and the ... This page lists past and present CNY exchange rates with other major currencies, in both nominal and purchasing power parity ( ...
Purchasing power parity exchange rate is the exchange rate based on the purchasing power parity (PPP) of a currency relative to ... Cross-border comparison and purchasing power parity[edit]. The level of GDP in countries may be compared by converting their ... There is a clear pattern of the purchasing power parity method decreasing the disparity in GDP between high and low income (GDP ... therefore using a basis of GDP per capita at purchasing power parity (PPP) is arguably more useful when comparing differences ...
Parity between accelerated mobile pages and canonical pages[edit]. A recent requirement - beginning 1 February 2018[citation ...
Sectional parity and issue of slavery in new territories[edit]. Another issue feeding sectionalism was slavery, and especially ...
"Parity". "The Muse Seek Project".. ...
"What Ever Happened to the Revolution? Activism and the Early Days of Youth Refuges in NSW." Parity. Volume 19, Issue 10. ...
In November 2017, a subsequent multisignature flaw in Parity caused 513,774 (about US$150 million at the time) to be frozen. As ... "The Multi-sig Hack: A Postmortem". Parity. 20 July 2017. Archived from the original on 7 March 2021. Destefanis, Giuseppe; ... "A Postmortem on the Parity Multi-Sig Library Self-Destruct". Blockchain Infrastructure for the Decentralised Web. 15 November ... Wieczner, Jen (4 March 2019). "Ethereum Fork Could Help Restore Frozen Parity Cryptocurrency". Fortune. Farivar, Cyris (October ...
The symbols encountered in these lists are: I (isospin), J (total angular momentum), P (parity), C (C-parity), G (G-parity), u ... and various other properties such as C-parity and G-parity. While no meson is stable, those of lower mass are nonetheless more ... refer to axial-vector mesons with positive parity, negative C-parity, and quantum numbers IG of 1+ and 0− respectively. The, "f ... M.S. Sozzi (2008a). "Parity". Discrete Symmetries and CP Violation: From Experiment to Theory. Oxford University Press. pp. 15- ...
"Reversal of the Parity Conservation Law in Nuclear Physics" (PDF). NIST. "Parity is not conserved!". Caltech/The Feynman ... In that year, T. D. Lee and C. N. Yang predicted the nonconservation of parity in the weak interaction. To the surprise of many ...
"What Ever Happened to the Revolution? Activism and the Early Days of Youth Refuges in NSW." Parity. Volume 19, Issue 10. ... "Youth refuge: Towards diversity and specialisation?." Parity 25, no. 3 (2012): 38. Coffey, Michael. " ...
"What Ever Happened to the Revolution? Activism and the Early Days of Youth Refuges in NSW." Parity. Volume 19, Issue 10. ...
The Yankees have drawn criticism for their payroll, with some claiming it undermines the parity of MLB. This table refers to ... Nightengale, Bob (April 11, 2010). "Parity? Yankees, Red Sox loom large for smaller market teams". USA Today. Retrieved March 6 ...
Stuart, Chase (December 16, 2014). "Parity? A.F.C. Is Made Up of Haves and Have-Nots". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. ...
Petersburg (Архитектура Санкт-Петербурга). 2004, Parity. ISBN 5-93437-125-8 (in Russian) Kirikov, Boris (2014). Architecture of ...
Therefore, it encompasses the two sub-goals of the original EFA goal: gender parity (achieving equal participation of girls and ... The fifth goal of the Education for All programme envisaged achieving parity by 2005, a target that was missed; however, ... Goal 5: Achieve gender parity by 2005, gender equality by 2015: The indicator selected to measure progress towards this goal is ... "Gender Parity". United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization. Retrieved 11 Sep 2010. "Quality Education". ...
Parity Paperbacks. ISBN 9788188888085 Col. V S Yadav, (2012) Employment of Special Forces: Challenges and Opportunities for the ... Parity Paperbacks. p. 130. ISBN 9788188888085. Katoch, Prakash Chand (2013). India's Special Forces History and Future of ...
Political Parity; Rape, Abuse & Incest National Network (RAINN); The White House Project; The Women's Media Center; V-Day; ... "bridge the political divide and achieve parity in politics" Women & Media, "which strives to raise awareness about the lack of ...
"About Us". Retrieved 2019-01-11. "Inc. 5000 2017: Filtered List". Retrieved 11 January 2019. CS1 maint ... He sits on the Board of Advisors. In 2017 and 2018 his company, Domo, landed on the Inc. 5000 and Deloitte ...
... but is not used for parity, it may be referred to as a mark parity bit if the parity bit is always 1, or a space parity bit if ... There are two variants of parity bits: even parity bit and odd parity bit. ... the parity bit will be incorrect, thus indicating that a parity error occurred in the transmission. The parity bit is only ... Parity[edit]. In mathematics, parity refers to the evenness or oddness of an integer, which for a binary number is determined ...
Intrinsic parity of hadrons[edit]. To every particle one can assign an intrinsic parity as long as nature preserves parity. ... The total parity is the product of the intrinsic parities of the particles and the extrinsic parity of the spherical harmonic ... Parity forms the abelian group Z. 2. {\displaystyle \mathbb {Z} _{2}}. due to the relation P. ^. 2. =. 1. ^. {\displaystyle {\ ... our parity operator, instead of P. ^. {\displaystyle {\hat {\mathcal {P}}}}. . Note that P. ^. ′. 2. =. 1. {\displaystyle {{\ ...
parity (countable and uncountable, plural parities) *(uncountable) Equality; comparability of strength or intensity. *2000 ... Parity is always preserved in such operations.. *(mathematics, countable) The classification of an element of a set with parity ... Altogether, Microsoft claims a 99% feature parity between 32-bit and 64-bit editions.. ... Arsenal possessed genuine menace in attack and they carved through Chelsea with ease to restore parity nine minutes before half ...
A parity product is functionally equivalent to a product offered by a competitor. The existence of parity products means that a ... BREAKING DOWN Parity Product. A business selling a parity product will in most cases be unable to command premium pricing ... A parity product is functionally equivalent to a product offered by a competitor. The existence of parity products means that a ... DEFINITION of Parity Product. A brand of good that has enough similarities with other brands of the same good type that it is ...
Will Congress act to keep tax-break parity for transit and parking?. ...
Making progress toward achieving gender parity. "Gender parity at the United Nations is an urgent need - and a personal ... Meet United Nations staff members working in duty stations across the world and read more about how why gender parity is ... Video message by Secretary-General António Guterres to Staff on the UN System-wide Strategy on Gender Parity. ... The United Nations-wide Strategy on Gender Parity sets targets and monitors the following areas: leadership and accountability ...
... is a theory in which the interest rate differential between two countries is equal to the differential ... Uncovered Interest Rate Parity The interest rate parity is said to be covered when the no-arbitrage condition could be ... Parity Parity refers to things being equal to each other. It can thus refer to two securities having equal value. ... Covered Interest Rate Parity Covered interest rate parity is when the relationship between interest rates and the spot and ...
Beyond Parity: Primary Care Physicians Perspectives On Access To Mental Health Care (Web) ... The results suggest that implementing mental health parity nationally will reduce some but not all of the barriers to mental ...
Gender Parity Task Force. In January 2017, a Gender Parity Task Force was established to come up with a clear roadmap, with ... To ensure parity by these dates, annual targets should be set for each entity/level combination based on the gap to parity. The ... The system-wide strategy on gender parity is a milestone in this journey. It operationalizes the goal of gender parity, moving ... In his oath of office, the Secretary-General made clear that achieving gender parity was a top priority:. Management reform ...
The admission that parity with Moscow had been lost, perhaps irretrievably, during the first three years of the Carter ... Ellis shocker compares with the revelation in 1935 that Britain had lost air parity with Germany, but his words have had ... Demonstrations of resolve are needed now, before the loss of strategic parity wrecks the Western alliance. Gen. Jones, who had ... "U.S. intelligence has grossly underestimated" the Soviet threat, he said, adding: "We may never be able to regain parity." ...
... O. C. Stine. Chapter in NBER book Studies in Income and Wealth, Volume 1 (1937), The Conference ...
Without parity, there are limited incentives for the develop-ment of telehealth or for providers to move toward telehealth ... To reap the benefits of telehealth services, states are likely to move toward full parity laws for telehealth services. ... In addition, states are likely to gradually re-move restrictions from their parity laws that limit providers, locations, and ... "parity," defined as "equivalent treatment of analogous services," is expected between in-person health services reimbursements ...
Also calledintrinsic parity.a number +1 or −1 assigned to each kind of elementary particle in such a way that the product of ... the parities of the particles in a system of particles multiplied by the parity of the wave function describing the system is ...
... LATEST NEWS:. At its annual meeting January 18 - 19, 2019 the ARRL Board of Directors decided that ... The resolution also is asking members of Congress who had refiled legislation to enact the Amateur Radio Parity Act (ARPA) to ... which sought to amend the Part 97 Amateur Service rules to incorporate the provisions of the Amateur Radio Parity Act (ARPA), ... of ARRL members who took the time to contact their representatives in Congress to urge them to support the Amateur Radio Parity ...
Other articles where Interest parity is discussed: international payment and exchange: Forward exchange: …a comparison of the ...
Grid parity solar projects seeking permits in Spain. The trend is becoming pretty clear. As costs continue to fall, solar ... As a consequence, we are now able to talk seriously about grid parity of solar resources, and sun-drenched Spain has gotten to ...
Parity binomial edge ideals of simple undirected graphs are introduced. Unlike binomial edge ideals, they do not have square- ... Parity binomial edge ideals of simple undirected graphs are introduced. Unlike binomial edge ideals, they do not have square- ... The authors would like to thank Rafael Villareal for posting the question of radicality of parity binomial edge ideals. We ... Windisch, T.: BinomialEdgeIdeals, a Macaulay2 package for (parity) binomial edge ideals. ...
Parity and Unity. Br Med J 1964; 1 doi: (Published 29 February 1964) Cite this as: Br ...
w0984 Covered Interest Parity, Uncovered Interest Parity, and Exchange Rate Dynamics. Gourinchas and Rey. w19240 External ... Exchange Rates and Interest Parity. Charles Engel. NBER Working Paper No. 19336. Issued in August 2013. NBER Program(s):The ... The paper first considers monetary models under uncovered interest parity and rational expectations. Then the paper considers ... Exchange Rates and Interest Parity ☆ Charles Engel ...
... describes an idealised situation in foreign exchange markets in which the interest rates on assets ... "covered interest parity," The New Palgrave Dictionary of Economics, Palgrave Macmillan. Handle: RePEc:pal:dofeco:v:4:year:2010: ... "A structural VARX modelling of international parities between China and Japan in the liberalization era," Economics Bulletin, ... Covered Interest Parity describes an idealised situation in foreign exchange markets in which the interest rates on assets ...
Parity Bits + , Parity Bits + , Parity Bits + Creation dateThis property is a special property in this wiki. 3 December 2013 09 ... Parity Bits Has description Is a placeholder for discussion about the shared values of the CCC community and how to protect and ...
Gender Parity at Film Festivals: Hot Docs Programmer Says Theres Great Demand for As Many Diverse Voices As Possible. Now in ... How TIFF Sets the Standard For Film Festivals to Build Filmmaker Gender Parity. More than 35 percent of the films on the TIFF ... Venice Film Festival Will Sign Gender Parity Protocol, But Will Not Pledge to Meet Filmmaker Quotas. The festival will join its ... Camden International Film Festival Is Latest American Festival to Embrace Gender Parity. When the documentary festival kicks ...
The 59 hexadudes colored by up/down parity, left/right parity, and east/west parity. The three parities of ETERNITY -- up/down ... Parity leads to many excellent proofs, so I decided to write about it. PARITY. There is a puzzle in the FAQ: Remove two ... In parity mazes, you must find an area that allows you to change your parity. Can the 35 hexominoes tile a rectangle? Martin ... By parity, this problem was unsolvable. To see this, draw a 3x3 grid and place different objects on a1, a2, c1, and c2. Make ...
... TOOLKIT The Paul Wellstone and Pete Domenici Mental Health Parity and Addiction Equity Act (MHPAEA) was passed in ... Model State Parity Legislation The American Psychiatric Association developed model parity legislation specifically adapted for ... which highlights progress to date on parity implementation and offers recommendations to support consumers and improve parity ... Parity at 10 seeks to ensure that insurance carriers and state Medicaid programs comply with MHPAEA so consumers can access the ...
... TOOLKIT The Paul Wellstone and Pete Domenici Mental Health Parity and Addiction Equity Act (MHPAEA) was passed in ... The Kennedy Forums Parity Toolkit. The Kennedy Forum has created an extensive parity toolkit that provides resources for ... Model State Parity Legislation The American Psychiatric Association developed model parity legislation specifically adapted for ... which highlights progress to date on parity implementation and offers recommendations to support consumers and improve parity ...
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... TAGS: Administrator Craig Fugate, amateur radio, amateur radio antennas, amateur radio ... "Clarity on Amateur Radio Parity" made it clear that the bill would not create new federal policy with respect to outdoor ... Visit the ARRL websites Amateur Radio Parity Act of 2015 page for more information about this legislation and how you can get ... Now, a new video - "The Amateur Radio Parity Act of 2015 - Separating Fact from Fiction" - doubles down on the arguments ...
The long-awaited final rules implementing the Mental Health Parity and Addiction Equity Act address issues such as parity ... Final Mental Health Parity Rules Issued Issues include determining parity within a plans tiered networks ... The mental-health parity provisions of the final rules apply to plan years beginning on or after July 1, 2014. Until the final ... High Compliance with Parity Law Found. The results ofan HHS-commissioned study, also released in November 2013, found that ...
... and therefore parity (mirror symmetry) is conserved in all interactions. The... ... and therefore parity (mirror symmetry) is conserved in all interactions. The discovery in 1956 that parity is not conserved for ... Latal H. (1991) Parity Violation in Atomic Physics. In: Janoschek R. (eds) Chirality. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg. * DOI https ... Weak Interaction Dirac Equation Vector Boson Atomic Physic Parity Violation These keywords were added by machine and not by the ...
Parity (biology), Parity (charity), Parity (disambiguation), Parity (law), Parity (mathematics), Parity (medicine), Parity ( ... parity: [home, info] *parity, parity, parity: Oxford Dictionaries [home, info] *parity, parity: American ... Phrases that include parity: even parity, conversion parity, longitudinal parity, gross parity, interest rate parity line, more ... parity: [home, info] *parity: Macmillan Dictionary [home, info] *Parity, parity: Wordnik [home, info] *parity: ...
  • Interest rate parity is a theory in which the interest rate differential between two countries is equal to the differential between the forward exchange rate and the spot exchange rate . (
  • Interest rate parity plays an essential role in foreign exchange markets, connecting interest rates, spot exchange rates, and foreign exchange rates. (
  • In other words, the interest rate parity presents an idea that there is no arbitrage in the foreign exchange markets. (
  • The interest rate parity is said to be covered when the no-arbitrage condition could be satisfied through the use of forward contracts in an attempt to hedge against foreign exchange risk. (
  • However, under the covered interest rate parity, the transaction would only have a return of 0.5%, or else the no-arbitrage condition would be violated. (
  • Covered interest rate parity is when the relationship between interest rates and the spot and forward currency values of two countries are balanced. (
  • October 10, 2018, by unanimous consent the Senate passed the resolution honoring the 10th anniversary of the enactment of the Mental Health Parity and Addiction Equity Act (MHPAEA). (
  • The State of Workplace Gender Parity 2018 - A TopCHRO Report comes with a researched and detailed picture of workplace gender discrimination. (
  • Video message by Secretary-General António Guterres to Staff on the UN System-wide Strategy on Gender Parity. (
  • The system-wide strategy on gender parity is a milestone in this journey. (
  • The System-wide Strategy on Gender Parity balances accountability with incentives, recognises different starting points and challenges, and provides positive tools to empower and encourage staff and managers alike. (
  • The System-wide Strategy on Gender Parity is available in English , Arabic , Chinese , French , Russian , and Spanish . (
  • Specifically, the bill would increase oversight and enforcement of the federal parity law, which requires that insurance coverage of mental health and SUD services be equal to the coverage of medical and surgical health services. (
  • Emerging research reveals that the federal parity law has been effective in moderately reducing the financial burden on adults and increasing access to mental health services among children with autism spectrum disorder. (
  • WASHINGTON - For downcast Democrats, a lone bright spot emerged Wednesday: Their gains in gubernatorial elections drew them near parity with Republicans in an important measure of political strength. (
  • None of the 18 foreign exchange professionals surveyed by AAP expect the Aussie dollar to be above or even near parity with the US dollar by the end of the year. (
  • Jeffrey Halley, senior manager of FX trading at Saxo Capital Markets, forecasts euro-dollar to near parity by year-end. (
  • Purchasing Power Parity (PPP) is an economic hypothesis for international trade . (
  • GDP (purchasing power parity) compares the gross domestic product (GDP) or value of all final goods and services produced within a nation in a given year. (
  • A nation's GDP at purchasing power parity (PPP) exchange rates is the sum value of all goods and services produced in the country valued at prices prevailing in the United States. (
  • As a result, qualified health plans (individual and small group health plans offered in and outside the health insurance exchanges) and the benefits offered to the Medicaid expansion population must include MH/SUD benefits as an essential health benefit, and thereby, must comply with the parity law. (
  • Until the final rules take effect, plans must continue to comply with the parity provisions of the interim final regulations. (
  • The resolution also is asking members of Congress who had refiled legislation to enact the Amateur Radio Parity Act (ARPA) to refrain from seeking to advance that legislation pending further input from the ARRL. (
  • The American Psychiatric Association developed model parity legislation specifically adapted for each state, amending the appropriate sections of state code or creating new sections in the right titles or chapters and includes appropriate terminology for each state. (
  • The parity principle underlying section 1 can best be understood through the lens of Progressive-Era thought at the time of the FAA's enactment that focused on the regulatory responsibility of the state, through public adjudication and legislation subject to judicial interpretation, to publicly oversee the resolution of disputes and distribution of rights between parties of highly disparate economic power. (
  • It didn't matter that 33 other states, including Mississippi, benefit from parity legislation. (
  • Massachusetts released a report late last week showing that full mental health parity legislation to bring the payment of mental health conditions in line with physical health conditions would add negligible costs. (
  • The Department of Public Health evaluation - based on a review of past studies, an actuarial analysis, and interviews with Massachusetts insurers and providers - projected that the mental health parity legislation, which overwhelmingly passed the House Monday, would add between 0.1 percent and 0.3 percent to the cost of insurance. (
  • Most states have enacted legislation that requires health insurance plans to provide coverage for mental health treatment that's equal to coverage for physical illness, known as "mental health parity. (
  • 43 states and the District of Columbia have passed oral parity legislation limiting patient out-of-pocket costs for the oral medications used to treat cancer, and legislation has been introduced in Congress to extend this vital protection to the 100 million people covered by federally-regulated private insurance plans. (
  • This consumer guide, created by ParityTrack, shows which types of insurance are exempt from MHPAEA and what benefits may be subject to parity rules. (
  • A difference-in-differences approach was used to compare commercially insured children ages 3 to 18 years (in 2008) who were continuously enrolled in plans newly subject to parity under MHPAEA to children continuously enrolled in plans never subject to parity. (
  • Among children with mental health conditions who were enrolled in plans subject to parity, parity was associated with $140 (95% confidence interval: −$196 to −$84) lower average annual out-of-pocket (OOP) mental health spending than expected given changes in the comparison group. (
  • On October 27, 2016, the White House Mental Health and Substance Use Disorder Parity Task Force released its report , which highlights progress to date on parity implementation and offers recommendations to support consumers and improve parity implementation and enforcement. (
  • Even parity is a special case of a cyclic redundancy check (CRC), where the 1-bit CRC is generated by the polynomial x +1. (
  • See also longitudinal parity , checksum , cyclic redundancy check . (
  • To ensure parity by these dates, annual targets should be set for each entity/level combination based on the gap to parity. (
  • First, the regulations themselves were more complex than expected, and the changes some employers had made to their mental health benefits to ensure parity proved to be insufficient to pass the required testing. (
  • Same kind of 'parity' as a Fisher Cube, but it still causes visually different parity problems due to the nature of the puzzles. (
  • The interim final rules established six classifications of benefits and provided that the parity requirements between medical/surgical benefits and mental-health/substance-abuse benefits be applied on a classification-by-classification basis. (
  • For example, the regulations require testing for parity among six classifications of benefits. (
  • As a consequence, we are now able to talk seriously about grid parity of solar resources, and sun-drenched Spain has gotten to the point that utility-scale programs can be envisioned without subsidies. (
  • The twenty blue octiamonds have an unbalanced (3-5) parity when they are placed on a triangular checkerboard grid. (
  • A grid with a parity of six, such as the side-six trapezoid, is impossible. (
  • Grid parity would have been achieved in all but four to six states. (
  • This turning point is known as "grid parity" in the energy business. (
  • As parts of the country start to hit grid parity, the people in those areas can save money by switching to solar, and the market for solar will skyrocket. (
  • By 2015, two-thirds of the U.S. will have achieved grid parity, the point at which electricity generated from photovoltaics is equal in cost or less expensive than grid power. (
  • The U.S. Department of Energy also targeted a date around 2015 for solar grid parity, as seen in their graph below. (
  • Hitting a point of grid parity for large parts of the country will be a huge milestone. (
  • I don't think most people are aware of how close we actually are to grid parity-or how big a deal it is. (
  • A parity bit , or check bit , is a bit added to a string of binary code to ensure that the total number of 1-bits in the string is even or odd . (
  • [1] Parity bits are used as the simplest form of error detecting code . (
  • In the case of even parity, for a given set of bits, the occurrences of bits whose value is 1 is counted. (
  • If the count of 1s in a given set of bits is already even, the parity bit's value is 0. (
  • For a given set of bits, if the count of bits with a value of 1 is even, the parity bit value is set to 1 making the total count of 1s in the whole set (including the parity bit) an odd number. (
  • If the count of bits with a value of 1 is odd, the count is already odd so the parity bit's value is 0. (
  • Parity bits are generally applied to the smallest units of a communication protocol, typically 8-bit octets (bytes), although they can also be applied separately to an entire message string of bits. (
  • In telecommunications and computing, parity refers to the evenness or oddness of the number of bits with value one within a given set of bits, and is thus determined by the value of all the bits. (
  • It can be calculated via a XOR sum of the bits, yielding 0 for even parity and 1 for odd parity. (
  • If an odd number of bits (including the parity bit) are transmitted incorrectly, the parity bit will be incorrect, thus indicating that a parity error occurred in the transmission. (
  • Parity bit checking is used occasionally for transmitting ASCII characters, which have 7 bits, leaving the 8th bit as a parity bit. (
  • Values of decoded bits of a first frame are deduced from known bits of a first parity vector having an effective length of one frame. (
  • For parity vectors having an effective length greater than one frame, a Log Likelihood Ratio of each unknown bit associated with the first frame is updated based on known and unknown bits of each parity vector. (
  • 3. The method as claimed in claim 1, wherein the bits of a parity vector are computed from a subset of rows or columns of rectangular product FEC frames. (
  • and calculating a local Log Likelihood Ratio (LLR) of parity bits of the first parity vector corresponding to a subset of bits of a second FEC frame that has not been successfully decoded. (
  • Even (odd) parity means that the parity bit is set so that there are an even (odd) number of one bits in the word, including the parity bit. (
  • A single parity bit can only reveal single bit errors since if an even number of bits are wrong then the parity bit will not change. (
  • In January 2017, a Gender Parity Task Force was established to come up with a clear roadmap, with benchmarks and timeframes, to achieve parity across the system. (
  • ALEXANDRIA, Va. , Dec. 4, 2017 /PRNewswire/ -- Today the American Academy of PAs (AAPA) established Wage PArity Day, the day female PAs start working for free based on the compensation disparity that exists between male and female PAs. (
  • The quest for a polynomial time algorithm for solving parity games gained momentum in 2017 when two different quasipolynomial time algorithms were constructed. (
  • 2017). S. 1464 - 115th Congress: Water Conservation Tax Parity Act. (
  • Soon thereafter, in 2001, we wrote Senate Bill 2486, 'The Chris G Mental Health Parity Act of 2002,' sponsored by state Sen. Buddy Dyer. (
  • In order to effectively undertake such a review, the Board adopted a resolution to withdraw its December 18 Petition for Rule Making to the FCC, which sought to amend the Part 97 Amateur Service rules to incorporate the provisions of the Amateur Radio Parity Act ( ARPA ), without prejudice to refiling. (
  • The mental-health parity provisions of the final rules apply to plan years beginning on or after July 1, 2014. (
  • Second, certain provisions of the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act, the health care reform law enacted in March 2010, are likely to have a major impact on mental health parity compliance. (
  • Limits equal coverage to a specific list of mental health conditions and/or excludes equal coverage for significant policy groups and/or limits equal coverage for a certain durational or financial limit or cost-sharing requirements and/or allows plans to opt out of parity due to cost-increase provisions. (
  • For more information or if you're having difficulty getting mental health and/or substance disorder benefits read the Summary of HB-1 Parity Provisions . (
  • Fortson EN Lewis LL (1984) Atomic parity nonconservation experiments, Phys. (
  • They were first introduced by Antti J. Niemi and Gordon Walter Semenoff in the letter Axial-Anomaly-Induced Fermion Fractionization and Effective Gauge-Theory Actions in Odd-Dimensional Space-Times and by A. Norman Redlich in the letter Gauge Noninvariance and Parity Nonconservation of Three-Dimensional Fermions and the article Parity violation and gauge noninvariance of the effective gauge field action in three dimensions. (
  • The Paul Wellstone and Pete Domenici Mental Health Parity and Addiction Equity Act (MHPAEA) was passed in October, 2008 to end discriminatory health care practices against those with mental illness and/or addiction. (
  • The federal Mental Health Parity and Addiction Equity Act (MHPAEA) was enacted in 2008 on a simple principle: Insurance coverage for mental health and addiction treatment should be no more restrictive than insurance coverage for other medical care. (
  • The long-awaited final rules implementing the Mental Health Parity and Addiction Equity Act (MHPAEA), together with mental health coverage mandates taking effect under the Affordable Care Act (ACA), will result in 'the largest expansion of behavioral health care in a generation,' said Health and Human Services Secretary Kathleen Sebelius as she announced the release of the final regulations on Nov. 8, 2013. (
  • Before the interim final rules for the Mental Health Parity and Addiction Equity Act (MHPAEA) were released in February 2010, most employers were ready to do whatever was necessary to ensure compliance with the 2008 law. (
  • One of the objectives of the Mental Health Parity and Addiction Equity Act (MHPAEA) is to reduce the financial burden for those with intensive mental health service needs. (
  • All fundamental interactions of elementary particles , with the exception of the weak interaction , are symmetric under parity. (
  • The particles' parities can switch at random. (
  • Also calledintrinsic parity.a number +1 or −1 assigned to each kind of elementary particle in such a way that the product of the parities of the particles in a system of particles multiplied by the parity of the wave function describing the system is unchanged when particles are created or annihilated. (
  • We discuss a theorem of Csonka, Moravcsik, and Scadron on the nonexistence of purely kinematic parity experiments involving scattering processes with more than four particles. (
  • In October 2008, the Paul Wellstone-Pete Domenici Mental Health Parity and Addiction Equity Act of 2008 became law, requiring health plans to cover treatment for mental illness on the same terms and conditions as medical treatment. (
  • CEO Brenda Darden Wilkerson shares top takeaways focused on driving change toward intersectional gender and pay parity for the tech industry coming out of vGHC 2020. (
  • 2020). S. 2463 - 116th Congress: E-Cigarette Tax Parity Act. (
  • Together, they form a growing global network of economies accelerating gender parity, with 15 economies expected to join by 2020. (
  • Low-density parity-check (LDPC) codes can be considered serious competitors to turbo codes in terms of performance and complexity and they are based on a similar philosophy: constrained random code ensembles and iterative decoding algorithms. (
  • covered interest parity ," The New Palgrave Dictionary of Economics , Palgrave Macmillan. (
  • Monetary Policy and Long-Horizon Uncovered Interest Parity ," IMF Staff Papers , Palgrave Macmillan, vol. 51(3), pages 409-430, November. (
  • Gender parity at the United Nations is an urgent need - and a personal priority. (
  • Meet United Nations staff members working in duty stations across the world and read more about how why gender parity is important to them and their ideas on how the UN can better promote gender equality in the workplace. (
  • Management reform must ensure we reach gender parity sooner rather than later. (
  • I pledge to respect gender parity from the start in all my appointments to the Senior Management Group and the Chief Executives Board. (
  • By the end of my mandate, we should reach full gender parity at the Under-Secretary-General and Assistant Secretary-General levels, including special representatives and special envoys. (
  • It operationalizes the goal of gender parity, moving the UN from ambition to action. (
  • The commitment to achieving system-wide gender parity is underpinned by a strong legislative and institutional framework which has been consistently developed and strengthened since the founding of the United Nations in 1945. (
  • Ultimately, the strategy operationalizes this legal framework, taking the imperative of gender parity from ambition to action. (
  • When the documentary festival kicks off later this week, it will be able to boast something new in an evolving industry: gender parity across its entire slate. (
  • The festival will join its European brethren and will sign a gender parity protocol recently embraced by Cannes, Locarno, and Sarajevo. (
  • The Gender Parity Taskforces (IPG, for its initials in Spanish)-a high-level public-private collaboration model that seeks to support countries interested in reducing the economic gender gap-lie at this intersection. (
  • With this objective, the World Economic Forum (WEF) created the Gender Parity Taskforces in 2012. (
  • The 10 measures contemplated in the action plan include: the incorporation of a gender perspective in the human resource policies of companies, the measurement and adjustment of gender wage gaps in the public and private sectors, the recognition and certifications of companies that establish gender parity practices and the development of commitments to further gender parity at the managerial level. (
  • It was a controversial exercise but we wanted to show our people that we're very committed to gender parity and will work to adjust any gaps in salary identified between men and women in like roles. (
  • For these reasons, Tyro supports International Women's Day as we continue to #BeBoldForChange by driving action that will help accelerate gender parity. (
  • The day also marks a call to action for accelerating gender parity. (
  • The very concept of gender parity is doing rounds of corporate corridors for some while now. (
  • David Olive's excellent article on the state of gender parity in Canada provides a litany of reasons for why we should see the Conservative position on wearing the niqab during the citizenship ceremony as cynical Islamophobia. (
  • With this government's record on gender parity, it is certainly not Stephen Harper's place either. (
  • Senate Republicans blocked a Democratic pay parity bill from coming to the floor today, arguing that the measure was not the right answer to gender discrimination in pay. (
  • The World Economic Forum predicted in 2014 that it would take until 2095 to achieve global gender parity. (
  • Addressing hunger and nutrition is another gender parity gap. (
  • When it comes to achieving intersectional gender and pay parity around the world, let alone in the tech industry, figuring out where to start is an age-old question. (
  • Yet, while Justice Ginsburg saw great changes in her long life having entered law school in 1956 when women accounted for less than 3 percent of the legal profession in the United States, to today, with nearly half of U.S. law students being women, she never did see gender and pay parity in her lifetime. (
  • Every year, the World Economic Forum's Global Gender Gap Report examines national gender gaps as they stand today, and projects recent trends into the future to map the likely distance to gender parity. (
  • First, women - and men - around the world are increasingly aware of the front lines of gender parity. (
  • Gender parity starts at home. (
  • The writing is on the wall that a trend toward gender parity in the workplace can only be good for business. (
  • By demonstrating equality in the home, we'll be sending a positive message to the next generation of career builders and entrepreneurs about gender parity. (
  • This means that telehealth implementation varies from state to state in terms of what services provid-ers will be reimbursed for delivering, as well as what sort of "parity," defined as "equivalent treatment of analogous services," is expected between in-person health services reimbursements and telehealth reimbursements. (
  • Parity implementation requires robust state oversight. (
  • Implementation of policies in favor of parity is a slow process. (
  • Far worse, it's a patent encumbered implementation of a triple parity RAID level. (
  • In 2015, Illinois enacted a new parity law to advance parity implementation and expand on the Federal law. (
  • if the mass is constant) equates two vectors, and hence is invariant under parity. (
  • In theoretical physics a quantum field theory is said to have a parity anomaly if its classical action is invariant under a change of parity of the universe, but the quantum theory is not invariant. (
  • Consider a classically parity-invariant gauge theory whose gauge group G has dual Coxeter number h in 3-dimensions. (
  • If one includes a gauge-invariant regulator then the quantum parity invariance of the theory will be broken if h and n are odd. (
  • The complication arises from the fact that the 3-dimensional Majorana mass term, m ψ ¯ ψ {\displaystyle m{\overline {\psi }}\psi } is not parity invariant, therefore the possibility exists that the violation of parity invariance may remain when the mass goes to infinity. (
  • These have parity invariant mass terms, and so Pauli-Villars may be used to regulate the divergences and no parity anomaly arises. (
  • In mathematics, parity refers to the evenness or oddness of an integer, which for a binary number is determined only by the least significant bit . (
  • mathematics , countable ) The classification of an element of a set with parity into one of the two sets. (
  • If it's not as comprehensive-or if it's more restrictive-that's a parity violation. (
  • How can state departments of insurance know if there's a parity violation? (
  • Latal H. (1991) Parity Violation in Atomic Physics. (
  • They provide that any parity provided by law to state chartered banks and savings banks shall not permit a violation of New Jersey law and rules regulating insurance companies and insurance producers. (
  • The World Economic Forum recently predicted that leadership parity won't be achieved until 2095. (
  • The final rules address a number of unresolved issues, including determining parity between medical and mental-health benefits within a health plan's tiered networks. (
  • For questions related to mental health and substance use disorder parity laws, or to talk to someone about concerns related to your plan's compliance, contact the Office of Consumer Health Insurance at 877-527-9431. (
  • and the parity vectors are staggered with respect to any sequence in which the FEC frames are processed. (
  • 2. The method as claimed in claim 1, wherein at least one of the parity vectors is computed using a binary Single Parity Check (SPC) encoding scheme. (
  • The Board expressed its sincere appreciation to the thousands of ARRL members who took the time to contact their representatives in Congress to urge them to support the Amateur Radio Parity Act. (
  • said that nearly 90 percent of all Americans support pay parity and 77 percent of Republicans support it. (
  • That includes allies like keynote speakers Serena Williams and Megan Rapinoe - two powerhouse leaders who used their platforms to inspire millions, support women founders, and advocate for pay parity, equal representation, and fair treatment in health and wellness for all. (
  • The "Dartmouth Unity" slate resoundingly defeated the "Parity Slate"(of which I am a member) by more than 5,000 votes. (
  • The "Parity" slate promised to maintain the lawsuit as the only means of stopping the trustees from instituting the board-packing plan they have announced, and any other plan along the same lines. (
  • For now I want to express my gratitude to the more than 9,000 alums who voted for members of our slate and my pride at having been associated with Mike Murphy and the other Parity candidates all of whom fought hard for what we believed in. (
  • In interactions that are symmetric under parity, such as electromagnetism in atomic and molecular physics, parity serves as a powerful controlling principle underlying quantum transitions. (
  • However, as is elaborated below, in quantum mechanics states need not transform under actual representations of parity but only under projective representations and so in principle a parity transformation may rotate a state by any phase . (
  • The Article argues that section 1, though targeted at employees, is based on a parity principle that holds that the state has reason to regulate and limit the enforcement of arbitration agreements where deep economic power imbalances exist between the parties - that is, where relative parity is lacking. (
  • This Article develops the logic and theory of the parity principle, and explores its implications for how courts should interpret the FAA and for legislative and administrative reforms targeted at workers and consumers. (
  • The discovery in 1956 that parity is not conserved for the weak interaction governing β -decay had an immediate and profound influence on nuclear and elementary particle physics. (
  • The admission that parity with Moscow had been lost, perhaps irretrievably, during the first three years of the Carter administration was made in late February in closed-door testimony to Congress by Gen. Richard H. Ellis, commander of the Strategic Air Command: "An adverse imbalance has developed and will continue for several years to come," said Ellis in testimony labeled "secret. (
  • Although a few members of Congress occasionally mention loss of strategic parity, nobody of stature has hammered home the reality as Winston Churchill did from the back bench 45 years ago. (
  • Demonstrations of resolve are needed now, before the loss of strategic parity wrecks the Western alliance. (
  • My strategic partner Take The Lead , a women's movement focused on heading the charge to achieve workplace parity, has pondered this forecast and agrees that an 80-year wait is unreasonable. (
  • A reconsideration of the uncovered interest parity relationship ," Journal of Monetary Economics , Elsevier, vol. 33(1), pages 105-132, February. (
  • The results suggest that implementing mental health parity nationally will reduce some but not all of the barriers to mental health care. (
  • In addition, states are likely to gradually re-move restrictions from their parity laws that limit providers, locations, and services, and focus on integrating telehealth into regular health care coverage. (
  • Find out about ASAM's policy and recommendations to achieve parity in publicly financed health insurance plans and other systems of care. (
  • The act does not mandate that all plans provide mental-health and substance-abuse benefits, just that they provide parity with medical/surgical benefits if they do. (
  • Amazingly, during our trips to Tallahassee, we could find not one legislator who was openly against mental-health insurance parity. (
  • It's important to know that the top Republican, President George W. Bush, recently reversed field 180 degrees and now fully supports mental-health insurance parity. (
  • In 2003 we will try once again to get the Florida Legislature to pass the Chris G Mental Health Parity Bill. (
  • Private health care providers seek pay parity with their counterparts in the University of Vermont Medical Center. (
  • However, because the law was so broadly written, most employers do not know exactly how health care reform will affect mental health parity compliance. (
  • Complying with mental health parity alone would not have been that big a deal," said Tom Wildsmith, senior consultant with The Hay Group consultancy in Arlington, Va. "But now it's one more piece to stay on top of while many other things are changing because of health care reform. (
  • The danger is that employers will get so caught up in the changes and implications of health care reform that mental health parity compliance does not get the attention it requires. (
  • The intent of the Mental Health Parity and Addiction Equity Act, enacted in 2008, is to ensure that coverage for mental health and substance use treatment, including depression and addiction, is treated fundamentally the same as physical ailments, such as heart attacks and diabetes. (
  • The parity requirements apply to U.S. employers with 50 or more workers whose group health plans choose to offer mental health or substance use disorder benefits. (
  • To learn more, see the SHRM Online article " Agencies Issue Final Rules for Mental Health Parity Act . (
  • The original thinking behind (mental health) parity focused on eliminating some of the maximums, limits on visits and limits on days in the hospital," said Thompson. (
  • Small and fully insured employers are less likely to run into trouble when complying with mental health parity because they can rely on an insurance company to make sure that the plan design will meet the requirements. (
  • In general, Stover noted, employer plans in which all medical and mental health services are subject to the same deductibles and co-insurance tend to have an easier time complying with the mental health parity regulations. (
  • State mental health parity laws vary considerably. (
  • LLS strongly supports a policy called "cancer treatment fairness" - or "oral parity" - which requires health plans to ensure that patients being treated for cancer do not pay more for an oral medication than for one administered by IV. (
  • Parity laws are federal and state regulations that remove limits imposed by health insurers on access to mental health benefits that are more restrictive than those imposed on medical and surgical benefits. (
  • The Mental Health Parity Act of 1996 required that large group health plans could not impose annual or lifetime dollar limits on mental health benefits that were less favorable than the limits imposed on medical and surgical benefits. (
  • Since then, more federal laws related to mental health parity have been passed. (
  • The ruling marks a validation for patients and providers who have long raised concerns that health plans were not fulfilling the requirements set forth in the Mental Health Parity and Addiction Equity Act of 2008, which established parity between the coverage of behavioral health and medical/surgical benefits. (
  • In its second year, BHECON translated the key state issues identified by stakeholders in year one, including mental health parity, workforce and increasing access to behavioral health services, into specific policy solutions in each of the nine states currently participating in the program. (
  • Among children who were ≥85th percentile in total mental health spending, parity was associated with $234 (−$391 to −$76) lower average annual OOP mental health spending. (
  • The Professional Insurance Agents of New Jersey issued a statement supporting the New Jersey Department of Banking and Insurance for its proposed regulation implementing the Parity Act, which amended the powers of state banks, savings banks and their subsidiaries to be consistent with new powers granted to federal banks by the Gramm-Leach-Bliley Act. (
  • ACM's latest journal had an interesting article about RAID which suggested it might be time for triple parity raid . (
  • The final regulations maintain these broad classifications and address parity issues regarding subclassifications. (
  • Only through the progress in our understanding of the connections between the various interactions, which finally led to a unified theory of electromagnetic and weak forces in the "Standard Model" of Glashow, Salam and Weinberg at the end of the 1960s (for reviews, see e.g [1-3]), have parity-violating effects in atoms become predictable. (
  • So when you have a 4x4x4 parity case, you actually just have a mirrored 5x5x5 edge, or incorrectly placed some 5x5x5 edges. (
  • It's a similar parity as having one of the middle layer edges incorrectly oriented on a Fisher Cube 3x3x3 shapemod . (
  • So, if either the green or red 3x3x3 edge is incorrectly placed/mirrored, you are unable to solve the top layer of the puzzle due to parity. (
  • Even though you are partially correct with the centers lacking a specific place and can be mixed up, the cause of 4x4x4 parity is actually the inner 5x5x5 edges being incorrectly oriented or placed. (