Paresthesia: Subjective cutaneous sensations (e.g., cold, warmth, tingling, pressure, etc.) that are experienced spontaneously in the absence of stimulation.Trigeminal Nerve Injuries: Traumatic injuries to the TRIGEMINAL NERVE. It may result in extreme pain, abnormal sensation in the areas the nerve innervates on face, jaw, gums and tongue and can cause difficulties with speech and chewing. It is sometimes associated with various dental treatments.Lingual Nerve Injuries: Traumatic injuries to the LINGUAL NERVE. It may be a complication following dental treatments.Mandibular Nerve: A branch of the trigeminal (5th cranial) nerve. The mandibular nerve carries motor fibers to the muscles of mastication and sensory fibers to the teeth and gingivae, the face in the region of the mandible, and parts of the dura.Lip DiseasesTongue DiseasesHypesthesia: Absent or reduced sensitivity to cutaneous stimulation.Chin: The anatomical frontal portion of the mandible, also known as the mentum, that contains the line of fusion of the two separate halves of the mandible (symphysis menti). This line of fusion divides inferiorly to enclose a triangular area called the mental protuberance. On each side, inferior to the second premolar tooth, is the mental foramen for the passage of blood vessels and a nerve.Ecchymosis: Extravasation of blood into the skin, resulting in a nonelevated, rounded or irregular, blue or purplish patch, larger than a petechia.Trigeminal Nerve Diseases: Diseases of the trigeminal nerve or its nuclei, which are located in the pons and medulla. The nerve is composed of three divisions: ophthalmic, maxillary, and mandibular, which provide sensory innervation to structures of the face, sinuses, and portions of the cranial vault. The mandibular nerve also innervates muscles of mastication. Clinical features include loss of facial and intra-oral sensation and weakness of jaw closure. Common conditions affecting the nerve include brain stem ischemia, INFRATENTORIAL NEOPLASMS, and TRIGEMINAL NEURALGIA.Peripheral Nervous System Diseases: Diseases of the peripheral nerves external to the brain and spinal cord, which includes diseases of the nerve roots, ganglia, plexi, autonomic nerves, sensory nerves, and motor nerves.Sensation Disorders: Disorders of the special senses (i.e., VISION; HEARING; TASTE; and SMELL) or somatosensory system (i.e., afferent components of the PERIPHERAL NERVOUS SYSTEM).Neuroma: A tumor made up of nerve cells and nerve fibers. (Dorland, 27th ed)Spinal Cord Stimulation: Application of electric current to the spine for treatment of a variety of conditions involving innervation from the spinal cord.Nerve Compression Syndromes: Mechanical compression of nerves or nerve roots from internal or external causes. These may result in a conduction block to nerve impulses (due to MYELIN SHEATH dysfunction) or axonal loss. The nerve and nerve sheath injuries may be caused by ISCHEMIA; INFLAMMATION; or a direct mechanical effect.Nerve Block: Interruption of NEURAL CONDUCTION in peripheral nerves or nerve trunks by the injection of a local anesthetic agent (e.g., LIDOCAINE; PHENOL; BOTULINUM TOXINS) to manage or treat pain.Carticaine: A thiophene-containing local anesthetic pharmacologically similar to MEPIVACAINE.Paramethasone: A glucocorticoid with the general properties of corticosteroids. It has been used by mouth in the treatment of all conditions in which corticosteroid therapy is indicated except adrenal-deficiency states for which its lack of sodium-retaining properties makes it less suitable than HYDROCORTISONE with supplementary FLUDROCORTISONE. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p737)Varicose Veins: Enlarged and tortuous VEINS.Cranial Nerve Injuries: Dysfunction of one or more cranial nerves causally related to a traumatic injury. Penetrating and nonpenetrating CRANIOCEREBRAL TRAUMA; NECK INJURIES; and trauma to the facial region are conditions associated with cranial nerve injuries.Radiculopathy: Disease involving a spinal nerve root (see SPINAL NERVE ROOTS) which may result from compression related to INTERVERTEBRAL DISK DISPLACEMENT; SPINAL CORD INJURIES; SPINAL DISEASES; and other conditions. Clinical manifestations include radicular pain, weakness, and sensory loss referable to structures innervated by the involved nerve root.Maxillary Nerve: The intermediate sensory division of the trigeminal (5th cranial) nerve. The maxillary nerve carries general afferents from the intermediate region of the face including the lower eyelid, nose and upper lip, the maxillary teeth, and parts of the dura.Voluntary Programs: Programs in which participation is not required.Tooth Extraction: The surgical removal of a tooth. (Dorland, 28th ed)Electric Stimulation Therapy: Application of electric current in treatment without the generation of perceptible heat. It includes electric stimulation of nerves or muscles, passage of current into the body, or use of interrupted current of low intensity to raise the threshold of the skin to pain.Carpal Tunnel Syndrome: Entrapment of the MEDIAN NERVE in the carpal tunnel, which is formed by the flexor retinaculum and the CARPAL BONES. This syndrome may be associated with repetitive occupational trauma (CUMULATIVE TRAUMA DISORDERS); wrist injuries; AMYLOID NEUROPATHIES; rheumatoid arthritis (see ARTHRITIS, RHEUMATOID); ACROMEGALY; PREGNANCY; and other conditions. Symptoms include burning pain and paresthesias involving the ventral surface of the hand and fingers which may radiate proximally. Impairment of sensation in the distribution of the median nerve and thenar muscle atrophy may occur. (Joynt, Clinical Neurology, 1995, Ch51, p45)Thoracic Outlet Syndrome: A neurovascular syndrome associated with compression of the BRACHIAL PLEXUS; SUBCLAVIAN ARTERY; and SUBCLAVIAN VEIN at the superior thoracic outlet. This may result from a variety of anomalies such as a CERVICAL RIB, anomalous fascial bands, and abnormalities of the origin or insertion of the anterior or medial scalene muscles. Clinical features may include pain in the shoulder and neck region which radiates into the arm, PARESIS or PARALYSIS of brachial plexus innervated muscles, PARESTHESIA, loss of sensation, reduction of arterial pulses in the affected extremity, ISCHEMIA, and EDEMA. (Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp214-5).Prilocaine: A local anesthetic that is similar pharmacologically to LIDOCAINE. Currently, it is used most often for infiltration anesthesia in dentistry.Shoulder: Part of the body in humans and primates where the arms connect to the trunk. The shoulder has five joints; ACROMIOCLAVICULAR joint, CORACOCLAVICULAR joint, GLENOHUMERAL joint, scapulathoracic joint, and STERNOCLAVICULAR joint.Pain Measurement: Scales, questionnaires, tests, and other methods used to assess pain severity and duration in patients or experimental animals to aid in diagnosis, therapy, and physiological studies.Root Canal Therapy: A treatment modality in endodontics concerned with the therapy of diseases of the dental pulp. For preparatory procedures, ROOT CANAL PREPARATION is available.Peripheral Nerves: The nerves outside of the brain and spinal cord, including the autonomic, cranial, and spinal nerves. Peripheral nerves contain non-neuronal cells and connective tissue as well as axons. The connective tissue layers include, from the outside to the inside, the epineurium, the perineurium, and the endoneurium.Peripheral Nerve Injuries: Injuries to the PERIPHERAL NERVES.Treatment Outcome: Evaluation undertaken to assess the results or consequences of management and procedures used in combating disease in order to determine the efficacy, effectiveness, safety, and practicability of these interventions in individual cases or series.Muscle Weakness: A vague complaint of debility, fatigue, or exhaustion attributable to weakness of various muscles. The weakness can be characterized as subacute or chronic, often progressive, and is a manifestation of many muscle and neuromuscular diseases. (From Wyngaarden et al., Cecil Textbook of Medicine, 19th ed, p2251)Tooth, Impacted: A tooth that is prevented from erupting by a physical barrier, usually other teeth. Impaction may also result from orientation of the tooth in an other than vertical position in the periodontal structures.Cervical Atlas: The first cervical vertebra.Angiostrongylus cantonensis: A species of parasitic nematodes distributed throughout the Pacific islands that infests the lungs of domestic rats. Human infection, caused by consumption of raw slugs and land snails, results in eosinophilic meningitis.Anesthetics, Local: Drugs that block nerve conduction when applied locally to nerve tissue in appropriate concentrations. They act on any part of the nervous system and on every type of nerve fiber. In contact with a nerve trunk, these anesthetics can cause both sensory and motor paralysis in the innervated area. Their action is completely reversible. (From Gilman AG, et. al., Goodman and Gilman's The Pharmacological Basis of Therapeutics, 8th ed) Nearly all local anesthetics act by reducing the tendency of voltage-dependent sodium channels to activate.Molar, Third: The aftermost permanent tooth on each side in the maxilla and mandible.Hematoma, Epidural, Spinal: A rare epidural hematoma in the spinal epidural space, usually due to a vascular malformation (CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM VASCULAR MALFORMATIONS) or TRAUMA. Spontaneous spinal epidural hematoma is a neurologic emergency due to a rapidly evolving compressive MYELOPATHY.Electrodiagnosis: Diagnosis of disease states by recording the spontaneous electrical activity of tissues or organs or by the response to stimulation of electrically excitable tissue.Ulnar Nerve: A major nerve of the upper extremity. In humans, the fibers of the ulnar nerve originate in the lower cervical and upper thoracic spinal cord (usually C7 to T1), travel via the medial cord of the brachial plexus, and supply sensory and motor innervation to parts of the hand and forearm.Peripheral Nervous System Neoplasms: Neoplasms which arise from peripheral nerve tissue. This includes NEUROFIBROMAS; SCHWANNOMAS; GRANULAR CELL TUMORS; and malignant peripheral NERVE SHEATH NEOPLASMS. (From DeVita Jr et al., Cancer: Principles and Practice of Oncology, 5th ed, pp1750-1)Venous Insufficiency: Impaired venous blood flow or venous return (venous stasis), usually caused by inadequate venous valves. Venous insufficiency often occurs in the legs, and is associated with EDEMA and sometimes with VENOUS STASIS ULCERS at the ankle.Decompression, Surgical: A surgical operation for the relief of pressure in a body compartment or on a body part. (From Dorland, 28th ed)Iatrogenic Disease: Any adverse condition in a patient occurring as the result of treatment by a physician, surgeon, or other health professional, especially infections acquired by a patient during the course of treatment.Saphenous Vein: The vein which drains the foot and leg.Orthopedic Procedures: Procedures used to treat and correct deformities, diseases, and injuries to the MUSCULOSKELETAL SYSTEM, its articulations, and associated structures.Hand: The distal part of the arm beyond the wrist in humans and primates, that includes the palm, fingers, and thumb.Neuralgia: Intense or aching pain that occurs along the course or distribution of a peripheral or cranial nerve.Sciatica: A condition characterized by pain radiating from the back into the buttock and posterior/lateral aspects of the leg. Sciatica may be a manifestation of SCIATIC NEUROPATHY; RADICULOPATHY (involving the SPINAL NERVE ROOTS; L4, L5, S1, or S2, often associated with INTERVERTEBRAL DISK DISPLACEMENT); or lesions of the CAUDA EQUINA.Migraine Disorders: A class of disabling primary headache disorders, characterized by recurrent unilateral pulsatile headaches. The two major subtypes are common migraine (without aura) and classic migraine (with aura or neurological symptoms). (International Classification of Headache Disorders, 2nd ed. Cephalalgia 2004: suppl 1)Pain: An unpleasant sensation induced by noxious stimuli which are detected by NERVE ENDINGS of NOCICEPTIVE NEURONS.

Clinical profile of multiple sclerosis in Bengal. (1/316)

Forty five patients of multiple sclerosis diagnosed on the basis of Poser's criteria from West Bengal were studied. The male-female ratio was 1:1.5, mean age of onset 31.83 years in male and 29.11 years in females. The maximum cases were between the 3rd and 4th decade. Definite MS comprised of 60%, while remaining 40% were probable. Visual impairment (53.33%), weakness of limbs (31.11%) and sensory paraesthesia (20%) were the common presenting symptoms whereas pyramidal tract involvement (93.33%) with absent abdominal reflexes (90%) and optic pallor (64.44%) were common signs. Posterior column and spinothalamic sensations were involved in 55% and 51% of cases respectively. Inter-nuclear ophthalmoplegia was present in 6.66% of cases. Pattern of involvement commonly showed three or more sites of lesion. Optico-spinal affection was present in 22.2% of cases. Relapsing and remitting course was found in 48. 91%, relapsing and progressive course in 33.33% and chronic progressive in 17.8%. MRI of brain showed positive results in 16 out of 23 cases. CSF study showed increased positivity in estimation of immunoglobulin level than oligoclonal band. Findings revalidate the disease pattern as being similar to that in other parts of India as well as Asia.  (+info)

Conduction block in carpal tunnel syndrome. (2/316)

Wrist extension was performed in six healthy subjects to establish, first, whether it would be sufficient to produce conduction block and, secondly, whether the excitability changes associated with this manoeuvre are similar to those produced by focal nerve compression. During maintained wrist extension to 90 degrees, all subjects developed conduction block in cutaneous afferents distal to the wrist, with a marked reduction in amplitude of the maximal potential by >50%. This was associated with changes in axonal excitability at the wrist: a prolongation in latency, a decrease in supernormality and an increase in refractoriness. These changes indicate axonal depolarization. Similar studies were then performed in seven patients with carpal tunnel syndrome. The patients developed conduction block, again with evidence of axonal depolarization prior to block. Mild paraesthesiae were reported by all subjects (normals and patients) during wrist extension, and more intense paraesthesiae were reported following the release of wrist extension. In separate experiments, conduction block was produced by ischaemic compression, but its development could not be altered by hyperpolarizing currents. It is concluded that wrist extension produces a 'depolarization' block in both normal subjects and patients with carpal tunnel syndrome, much as occurs with ischaemic compression, but that this block cannot be altered merely by compensating for the axonal depolarization. It is argued that conduction slowing need not always be attributed to disturbed myelination, and that ischaemic compression may be sufficient to explain some of the intermittent symptoms and electrodiagnostic findings in patients with carpal tunnel syndrome, particularly when it is of mild or moderate severity.  (+info)

Movement-related cerebellar activation in the absence of sensory input. (3/316)

Movement-related cerebellar activation may be due to sensory or motor processing. Ordinarily, sensory and motor processing are obligatorily linked, but in patients who have severe pansensory neuropathies with normal muscle strength, motor activity occurs in isolation. In the present study, positron emission tomography and functional magnetic resonance imaging in such patients showed no cerebellar activation with passive movement, whereas there was prominent movement-related cerebellar activation despite absence of proprioceptive or visual input. The results indicate that motor processing occurs within the cerebellum and do not support the recently advanced view that the cerebellum is primarily a sensory organ.  (+info)

The wrist of the formula 1 driver. (4/316)

OBJECTIVES: During formula 1 driving, repetitive cumulative trauma may provoke nerve disorders such as nerve compression syndrome as well as osteoligament injuries. A study based on interrogatory and clinical examination of 22 drivers was carried out during the 1998 formula 1 World Championship in order to better define the type and frequency of these lesions. METHODS: The questions investigated nervous symptoms, such as paraesthesia and diminishment of sensitivity, and osteoligamentous symptoms, such as pain, specifying the localisation (ulnar side, dorsal aspect of the wrist, snuff box) and the effect of the wrist position on the intensity of the pain. Clinical examination was carried out bilaterally and symmetrically. RESULTS: Fourteen of the 22 drivers reported symptoms. One suffered cramp in his hands at the end of each race and one described a typical forearm effort compartment syndrome. Six drivers had effort "osteoligamentous" symptoms: three scapholunate pain; one medial hypercompression of the wrist; two sequellae of a distal radius fracture. Seven reported nerve disorders: two effort carpal tunnel syndromes; one typical carpal tunnel syndrome; one effort cubital tunnel syndrome; three paraesthesia in all fingers at the end of a race, without any objective signs. CONCLUSIONS: This appears to be the first report of upper extremity disorders in competition drivers. The use of a wrist pad to reduce the effects of vibration may help to prevent trauma to the wrist in formula 1 drivers.  (+info)

Sensory sequelae of medullary infarction: differences between lateral and medial medullary syndrome. (5/316)

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: A comparison between long-term sensory sequelae of lateral medullary infarction (LMI) and medial medullary infarction (MMI) has never been made. METHODS: We studied 55 patients with medullary infarction (41 with LMI and 14 with MMI) who were followed up for >6 months. We examined and interviewed the patients with the use of a structured format regarding the most important complaints, functional disabilities, and the presence of sensory symptoms. The nature and the intensity of sensory symptoms were assessed with the modified McGill-Melzack Pain Questionnaire and the visual analog scale, respectively. RESULTS: There were 43 men and 12 women, with an average age of 59 years. Mean follow-up period was 21 months. The sensory symptoms were the most important residual sequelae in LMI patients and the second most important in MMI patients. In LMI patients, the severity of residual sensory symptoms was significantly related to the initial severity of objective sensory deficits (P<0.05). Sensory symptoms were most often described by LMI patients as numbness (39%), burning (35%), and cold (22%) in the face, and cold (38%), numbness (29%), and burning (27%) in the body/limbs, whereas they were described as numbness (60%), squeezing (30%) and cold (10%), but never as burning, in their body/limbs by MMI patients. LMI patients significantly (P<0.05) more often cited a cold environment as an aggravating factor for the sensory symptoms than did the MMI patients without spinothalamic sensory impairment. The subjective sensory symptoms were frequently of a delayed onset (up to 6 months) in LMI patients, whereas they usually started immediately after the onset in MMI patients. CONCLUSIONS: Our study shows that sensory symptoms are major sequelae in both LMI and MMI patients. However, the nature, the mode of onset, and aggravating factors are different between the 2 groups, which probably is related to a selective involvement of the spinothalamic tract by the former and the medial lemniscus by the latter. We suggest that the mechanisms for the central poststroke pain or paresthesia may differ according to the site of damages on the sensory tracts (spinothalamic tract versus medial lemniscal tract).  (+info)

Methylmercury: a new look at the risks. (6/316)

In the US, exposure to methylmercury, a neurotoxin, occurs primarily through consumption of fish. Data from recent studies assessing the health impact of methylmercury exposure due to consumption of fish and other sources in the aquatic food web (shellfish, crustacea, and marine mammals) suggest adverse effects at levels previously considered safe. There is substantial variation in human methylmercury exposure based on differences in the frequency and amount of fish consumed and in the fish's mercury concentration. Although virtually all fish and other seafood contain at least trace amounts of methylmercury, large predatory fish species have the highest concentrations. Concerns have been expressed about mercury exposure levels in the US, particularly among sensitive populations, and discussions are underway about the standards used by various federal agencies to protect the public. In the 1997 Mercury Study Report to Congress, the US Environmental Protection Agency summarized the current state of knowledge on methylmercury's effects on the health of humans and wildlife; sources of mercury; and how mercury is distributed in the environment. This article summarizes some of the major findings in the Report to Congress and identifies issues of concern to the public health community.  (+info)

Patients treated with antitumor drugs displaying neurological deficits are characterized by a low circulating level of nerve growth factor. (7/316)

The aim of our study was to explore whether nerve growth factor (NGF) plays any role in the development of peripheral neuropathy induced by anticancer treatment. We measured the circulating NGF levels in 23 cancer patients before and after chemotherapy. We evaluated whether the development of peripheral neurotoxicity was associated with changes in basal NGF concentrations in patients studied with a comprehensive neurological and neurophysiological examination. The results of these studies showed that the circulating levels of NGF, which are about 20 pg/ml in plasma of controls, decrease during chemotherapy and in some cases completely disappeared after prolonged treatment with antitumor agents. The decrease in NGF levels seems to be correlated with the severity of neurotoxicity. These results clearly suggest that NGF might become a useful agent to prevent neuropathies induced by antineoplastic drugs and restore peripheral nerve dysfunction induced by these pharmacological compounds.  (+info)

Radiofrequency electrocution (196 MHz). (8/316)

Radiofrequency (RF) electrocutions are uncommon. A case of electrocution at 196 MHz is presented partly because there are no previous reports with frequencies as high as this, and partly to assist in safety standard setting. A 53-year-old technician received two brief exposures to both hands of 2A current at 196 MHz. He did not experience shock or burn. Progressively over the next days and months he developed joint pains in the hands, wrists and elbows, altered temperature and touch sensation and parasthesiae. Extensive investigation found no frank neurological abnormality, but there were changes in temperature perception in the palms and a difference in temperature between hands. His symptoms were partly alleviated with ultra-sound therapy, phenoxybenzamine and glyceryl trinitrate patches locally applied, but after several months he continues to have some symptoms. The biophysics and clinical aspects are discussed. It is postulated that there was mainly surface flow of current and the micro-vasculature was effected. Differences to 50 Hz electrocution are noted. Electrocution at 196 MHz, even in the absence of burns may cause long-term morbidity to which physicians should be alerted. Safety standards should consider protection from electrocution at these frequencies.  (+info)

  • Paresthesia can be caused by disorders affecting the central nervous system, such as stroke and transient ischemic attacks (mini-strokes), multiple sclerosis, transverse myelitis, and encephalitis. (
  • Peripheral neuropathy caused by diabetes usually starts with a feeling of paresthesia in your foot or feet and it needs to be managed appropriately by your doctor. (
  • Paresthesia can also be indicative of nerve pressure, such as in paresthesia of the fingers, a marker of carpal tunnel syndrome where the median nerve is partially compressed in the wrist. (
  • Transient paresthesia can be a symptom of hyperventilation syndrome or a panic attack, and chronic paresthesia can be a result of poor circulation, nerve irritation, neuropathy, or many other conditions and causes. (
  • Paresthesia of the extremities signifies these feelings located in the hands, fingers, feet, and toes. (
  • This document, titled ' Paresthesia of the extremities - Definition ,' is available under the Creative Commons license. (
  • In our office Dr Cliff and colleagues utilize the newest functional medicine techniques and protocols to naturally strengthen weak areas, balance the nervous system and reduce paresthesias. (