Parents: Persons functioning as natural, adoptive, or substitute parents. The heading includes the concept of parenthood as well as preparation for becoming a parent.Child of Impaired Parents: Child with one or more parents afflicted by a physical or mental disorder.ParisEuropeQuestionnaires: Predetermined sets of questions used to collect data - clinical data, social status, occupational group, etc. The term is often applied to a self-completed survey instrument.Single Parent: A natural, adoptive, or substitute parent of a dependent child, who lives with only one parent. The single parent may live with or visit the child. The concept includes the never-married, as well as the divorced and widowed.Infant, Newborn: An infant during the first month after birth.Professional-Family Relations: The interactions between the professional person and the family.Fathers: Male parents, human or animal.Child Behavior: Any observable response or action of a child from 24 months through 12 years of age. For neonates or children younger than 24 months, INFANT BEHAVIOR is available.Risk Factors: An aspect of personal behavior or lifestyle, environmental exposure, or inborn or inherited characteristic, which, on the basis of epidemiologic evidence, is known to be associated with a health-related condition considered important to prevent.Family: A social group consisting of parents or parent substitutes and children.Cross-Sectional Studies: Studies in which the presence or absence of disease or other health-related variables are determined in each member of the study population or in a representative sample at one particular time. This contrasts with LONGITUDINAL STUDIES which are followed over a period of time.Parental Consent: Informed consent given by a parent on behalf of a minor or otherwise incompetent child.Prevalence: The total number of cases of a given disease in a specified population at a designated time. It is differentiated from INCIDENCE, which refers to the number of new cases in the population at a given time.Attitude to Health: Public attitudes toward health, disease, and the medical care system.Socioeconomic Factors: Social and economic factors that characterize the individual or group within the social structure.Health Knowledge, Attitudes, Practice: Knowledge, attitudes, and associated behaviors which pertain to health-related topics such as PATHOLOGIC PROCESSES or diseases, their prevention, and treatment. This term refers to non-health workers and health workers (HEALTH PERSONNEL).Genotype: The genetic constitution of the individual, comprising the ALLELES present at each GENETIC LOCUS.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Age Factors: Age as a constituent element or influence contributing to the production of a result. It may be applicable to the cause or the effect of a circumstance. It is used with human or animal concepts but should be differentiated from AGING, a physiological process, and TIME FACTORS which refers only to the passage of time.Child Rearing: The training or bringing-up of children by parents or parent-substitutes. It is used also for child rearing practices in different societies, at different economic levels, in different ethnic groups, etc. It differs from PARENTING in that in child rearing the emphasis is on the act of training or bringing up the child and the interaction between the parent and child, while parenting emphasizes the responsibility and qualities of exemplary behavior of the parent.Prospective Studies: Observation of a population for a sufficient number of persons over a sufficient number of years to generate incidence or mortality rates subsequent to the selection of the study group.Africa, Northern: The geographical area of Africa comprising ALGERIA; EGYPT; LIBYA; MOROCCO; and TUNISIA. It includes also the vast deserts and oases of the Sahara. It is often referred to as North Africa, French-speaking Africa, or the Maghreb. (From Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p856)Child Behavior Disorders: Disturbances considered to be pathological based on age and stage appropriateness, e.g., conduct disturbances and anaclitic depression. This concept does not include psychoneuroses, psychoses, or personality disorders with fixed patterns.Incidence: The number of new cases of a given disease during a given period in a specified population. It also is used for the rate at which new events occur in a defined population. It is differentiated from PREVALENCE, which refers to all cases, new or old, in the population at a given time.Sex Factors: Maleness or femaleness as a constituent element or influence contributing to the production of a result. It may be applicable to the cause or effect of a circumstance. It is used with human or animal concepts but should be differentiated from SEX CHARACTERISTICS, anatomical or physiological manifestations of sex, and from SEX DISTRIBUTION, the number of males and females in given circumstances.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Population Surveillance: Ongoing scrutiny of a population (general population, study population, target population, etc.), generally using methods distinguished by their practicability, uniformity, and frequently their rapidity, rather than by complete accuracy.Phylogeny: The relationships of groups of organisms as reflected by their genetic makeup.Attitude: An enduring, learned predisposition to behave in a consistent way toward a given class of objects, or a persistent mental and/or neural state of readiness to react to a certain class of objects, not as they are but as they are conceived to be.Sequence Analysis, DNA: A multistage process that includes cloning, physical mapping, subcloning, determination of the DNA SEQUENCE, and information analysis.Family Health: The health status of the family as a unit including the impact of the health of one member of the family on the family as a unit and on individual family members; also, the impact of family organization or disorganization on the health status of its members.GermanyTravel: Aspects of health and disease related to travel.Genetic Variation: Genotypic differences observed among individuals in a population.Longitudinal Studies: Studies in which variables relating to an individual or group of individuals are assessed over a period of time.Seasons: Divisions of the year according to some regularly recurrent phenomena usually astronomical or climatic. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Cohort Studies: Studies in which subsets of a defined population are identified. These groups may or may not be exposed to factors hypothesized to influence the probability of the occurrence of a particular disease or other outcome. Cohorts are defined populations which, as a whole, are followed in an attempt to determine distinguishing subgroup characteristics.Anti-Bacterial Agents: Substances that reduce the growth or reproduction of BACTERIA.Child Welfare: Organized efforts by communities or organizations to improve the health and well-being of the child.Bereavement: Refers to the whole process of grieving and mourning and is associated with a deep sense of loss and sadness.Child Psychology: The study of normal and abnormal behavior of children.Educational Status: Educational attainment or level of education of individuals.Mandatory Reporting: A legal requirement that designated types of information acquired by professionals or institutions in the course of their work be reported to appropriate authorities.Northern IrelandDNA, Bacterial: Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of bacteria.BelgiumUnited StatesPregnancy: The status during which female mammals carry their developing young (EMBRYOS or FETUSES) in utero before birth, beginning from FERTILIZATION to BIRTH.Schools: Educational institutions.Communication: The exchange or transmission of ideas, attitudes, or beliefs between individuals or groups.Adult Children: Children who have reached maturity or the legal age of majority.Phenotype: The outward appearance of the individual. It is the product of interactions between genes, and between the GENOTYPE and the environment.Data Collection: Systematic gathering of data for a particular purpose from various sources, including questionnaires, interviews, observation, existing records, and electronic devices. The process is usually preliminary to statistical analysis of the data.Polymerase Chain Reaction: In vitro method for producing large amounts of specific DNA or RNA fragments of defined length and sequence from small amounts of short oligonucleotide flanking sequences (primers). The essential steps include thermal denaturation of the double-stranded target molecules, annealing of the primers to their complementary sequences, and extension of the annealed primers by enzymatic synthesis with DNA polymerase. The reaction is efficient, specific, and extremely sensitive. Uses for the reaction include disease diagnosis, detection of difficult-to-isolate pathogens, mutation analysis, genetic testing, DNA sequencing, and analyzing evolutionary relationships.Interviews as Topic: Conversations with an individual or individuals held in order to obtain information about their background and other personal biographical data, their attitudes and opinions, etc. It includes school admission or job interviews.Adolescent Behavior: Any observable response or action of an adolescent.Family Relations: Behavioral, psychological, and social relations among various members of the nuclear family and the extended family.Retrospective Studies: Studies used to test etiologic hypotheses in which inferences about an exposure to putative causal factors are derived from data relating to characteristics of persons under study or to events or experiences in their past. The essential feature is that some of the persons under study have the disease or outcome of interest and their characteristics are compared with those of unaffected persons.Stress, Psychological: Stress wherein emotional factors predominate.Pedigree: The record of descent or ancestry, particularly of a particular condition or trait, indicating individual family members, their relationships, and their status with respect to the trait or condition.Paternal Behavior: The behavior patterns associated with or characteristic of a father.Disabled Children: Children with mental or physical disabilities that interfere with usual activities of daily living and that may require accommodation or intervention.Mediterranean Region: The MEDITERRANEAN SEA, the MEDITERRANEAN ISLANDS, and the countries bordering on the sea collectively.Adoption: Voluntary acceptance of a child of other parents to be as one's own child, usually with legal confirmation.Treatment Outcome: Evaluation undertaken to assess the results or consequences of management and procedures used in combating disease in order to determine the efficacy, effectiveness, safety, and practicability of these interventions in individual cases or series.Consanguinity: The magnitude of INBREEDING in humans.Great BritainFollow-Up Studies: Studies in which individuals or populations are followed to assess the outcome of exposures, procedures, or effects of a characteristic, e.g., occurrence of disease.Logistic Models: Statistical models which describe the relationship between a qualitative dependent variable (that is, one which can take only certain discrete values, such as the presence or absence of a disease) and an independent variable. A common application is in epidemiology for estimating an individual's risk (probability of a disease) as a function of a given risk factor.Quality of Life: A generic concept reflecting concern with the modification and enhancement of life attributes, e.g., physical, political, moral and social environment; the overall condition of a human life.Cross-Cultural Comparison: Comparison of various psychological, sociological, or cultural factors in order to assess the similarities or diversities occurring in two or more different cultures or societies.Reproducibility of Results: The statistical reproducibility of measurements (often in a clinical context), including the testing of instrumentation or techniques to obtain reproducible results. The concept includes reproducibility of physiological measurements, which may be used to develop rules to assess probability or prognosis, or response to a stimulus; reproducibility of occurrence of a condition; and reproducibility of experimental results.Geography: The science dealing with the earth and its life, especially the description of land, sea, and air and the distribution of plant and animal life, including humanity and human industries with reference to the mutual relations of these elements. (From Webster, 3d ed)Child Care: Care of CHILDREN in the home or in an institution.Case-Control Studies: Studies which start with the identification of persons with a disease of interest and a control (comparison, referent) group without the disease. The relationship of an attribute to the disease is examined by comparing diseased and non-diseased persons with regard to the frequency or levels of the attribute in each group.Microbial Sensitivity Tests: Any tests that demonstrate the relative efficacy of different chemotherapeutic agents against specific microorganisms (i.e., bacteria, fungi, viruses).Family Characteristics: Size and composition of the family.Communicable Diseases, Emerging: Infectious diseases that are novel in their outbreak ranges (geographic and host) or transmission mode.Age Distribution: The frequency of different ages or age groups in a given population. The distribution may refer to either how many or what proportion of the group. The population is usually patients with a specific disease but the concept is not restricted to humans and is not restricted to medicine.Intergenerational Relations: The interactions between individuals of different generations. These interactions include communication, caring, accountability, loyalty, and even conflict between related or non-related individuals.Health Surveys: A systematic collection of factual data pertaining to health and disease in a human population within a given geographic area.ItalyCluster Analysis: A set of statistical methods used to group variables or observations into strongly inter-related subgroups. In epidemiology, it may be used to analyze a closely grouped series of events or cases of disease or other health-related phenomenon with well-defined distribution patterns in relation to time or place or both.Child Health Services: Organized services to provide health care for children.Base Sequence: The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.Early Intervention (Education): Procedures and programs that facilitate the development or skill acquisition in infants and young children who have disabilities, who are at risk for developing disabilities, or who are gifted. It includes programs that are designed to prevent handicapping conditions in infants and young children and family-centered programs designed to affect the functioning of infants and children with special needs. (From Journal of Early Intervention, Editorial, 1989, vol. 13, no. 1, p. 3; A Discursive Dictionary of Health Care, prepared for the U.S. House of Representatives Committee on Interstate and Foreign Commerce, 1976)Algeria: A country in northern Africa bordering the Mediterranean Sea, between MOROCCO and TUNISIA. Its capital is Algiers.Qualitative Research: Any type of research that employs nonnumeric information to explore individual or group characteristics, producing findings not arrived at by statistical procedures or other quantitative means. (Qualitative Inquiry: A Dictionary of Terms Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications, 1997)Books, Illustrated: Books containing photographs, prints, drawings, portraits, plates, diagrams, facsimiles, maps, tables, or other representations or systematic arrangement of data designed to elucidate or decorate its contents. (From The ALA Glossary of Library and Information Science, 1983, p114)Serotyping: Process of determining and distinguishing species of bacteria or viruses based on antigens they share.Electrophoresis, Gel, Pulsed-Field: Gel electrophoresis in which the direction of the electric field is changed periodically. This technique is similar to other electrophoretic methods normally used to separate double-stranded DNA molecules ranging in size up to tens of thousands of base-pairs. However, by alternating the electric field direction one is able to separate DNA molecules up to several million base-pairs in length.Spain: Parliamentary democracy located between France on the northeast and Portugual on the west and bordered by the Atlantic Ocean and the Mediterranean Sea.Attention Deficit Disorder with Hyperactivity: A behavior disorder originating in childhood in which the essential features are signs of developmentally inappropriate inattention, impulsivity, and hyperactivity. Although most individuals have symptoms of both inattention and hyperactivity-impulsivity, one or the other pattern may be predominant. The disorder is more frequent in males than females. Onset is in childhood. Symptoms often attenuate during late adolescence although a minority experience the full complement of symptoms into mid-adulthood. (From DSM-V)Health Education: Education that increases the awareness and favorably influences the attitudes and knowledge relating to the improvement of health on a personal or community basis.Social Environment: The aggregate of social and cultural institutions, forms, patterns, and processes that influence the life of an individual or community.Hybridization, Genetic: The genetic process of crossbreeding between genetically dissimilar parents to produce a hybrid.Vaccination: Administration of vaccines to stimulate the host's immune response. This includes any preparation intended for active immunological prophylaxis.Father-Child Relations: Interaction between the father and the child.Bacterial Typing Techniques: Procedures for identifying types and strains of bacteria. The most frequently employed typing systems are BACTERIOPHAGE TYPING and SEROTYPING as well as bacteriocin typing and biotyping.Social Class: A stratum of people with similar position and prestige; includes social stratification. Social class is measured by criteria such as education, occupation, and income.Registries: The systems and processes involved in the establishment, support, management, and operation of registers, e.g., disease registers.Risk Assessment: The qualitative or quantitative estimation of the likelihood of adverse effects that may result from exposure to specified health hazards or from the absence of beneficial influences. (Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 1988)Multivariate Analysis: A set of techniques used when variation in several variables has to be studied simultaneously. In statistics, multivariate analysis is interpreted as any analytic method that allows simultaneous study of two or more dependent variables.Child Development: The continuous sequential physiological and psychological maturing of an individual from birth up to but not including ADOLESCENCE.Family Conflict: Struggle or disagreement between parents, parent and child or other members of a family.Psychometrics: Assessment of psychological variables by the application of mathematical procedures.Molecular Epidemiology: The application of molecular biology to the answering of epidemiological questions. The examination of patterns of changes in DNA to implicate particular carcinogens and the use of molecular markers to predict which individuals are at highest risk for a disease are common examples.Alleles: Variant forms of the same gene, occupying the same locus on homologous CHROMOSOMES, and governing the variants in production of the same gene product.Disease Notification: Notification or reporting by a physician or other health care provider of the occurrence of specified contagious diseases such as tuberculosis and HIV infections to designated public health agencies. The United States system of reporting notifiable diseases evolved from the Quarantine Act of 1878, which authorized the US Public Health Service to collect morbidity data on cholera, smallpox, and yellow fever; each state in the US has its own list of notifiable diseases and depends largely on reporting by the individual health care provider. (From Segen, Dictionary of Modern Medicine, 1992)beta-Lactamases: Enzymes found in many bacteria which catalyze the hydrolysis of the amide bond in the beta-lactam ring. Well known antibiotics destroyed by these enzymes are penicillins and cephalosporins.Caregivers: Persons who provide care to those who need supervision or assistance in illness or disability. They may provide the care in the home, in a hospital, or in an institution. Although caregivers include trained medical, nursing, and other health personnel, the concept also refers to parents, spouses, or other family members, friends, members of the clergy, teachers, social workers, fellow patients.Mother-Child Relations: Interaction between a mother and child.Proxy: A person authorized to decide or act for another person, for example, a person having durable power of attorney.Archaeology: The scientific study of past societies through artifacts, fossils, etc.Molecular Typing: Using MOLECULAR BIOLOGY techniques, such as DNA SEQUENCE ANALYSIS; PULSED-FIELD GEL ELECTROPHORESIS; and DNA FINGERPRINTING, to identify, classify, and compare organisms and their subtypes.Child Custody: The formally authorized guardianship or care of a CHILD.Radiometric Dating: Techniques used to determine the age of materials, based on the content and half-lives of the RADIOACTIVE ISOTOPES they contain.Parental Leave: The authorized absence from work of either parent prior to and after the birth of their child. It includes also absence because of the illness of a child or at the time of the adoption of a child. It does not include leave for care of siblings, parents, or other family members: for this FAMILY LEAVE is available.Peer Group: Group composed of associates of same species, approximately the same age, and usually of similar rank or social status.Crosses, Genetic: Deliberate breeding of two different individuals that results in offspring that carry part of the genetic material of each parent. The parent organisms must be genetically compatible and may be from different varieties or closely related species.Social Support: Support systems that provide assistance and encouragement to individuals with physical or emotional disabilities in order that they may better cope. Informal social support is usually provided by friends, relatives, or peers, while formal assistance is provided by churches, groups, etc.Severity of Illness Index: Levels within a diagnostic group which are established by various measurement criteria applied to the seriousness of a patient's disorder.Smoking: Inhaling and exhaling the smoke of burning TOBACCO.Regression Analysis: Procedures for finding the mathematical function which best describes the relationship between a dependent variable and one or more independent variables. In linear regression (see LINEAR MODELS) the relationship is constrained to be a straight line and LEAST-SQUARES ANALYSIS is used to determine the best fit. In logistic regression (see LOGISTIC MODELS) the dependent variable is qualitative rather than continuously variable and LIKELIHOOD FUNCTIONS are used to find the best relationship. In multiple regression, the dependent variable is considered to depend on more than a single independent variable.Socialization: The training or molding of an individual through various relationships, educational agencies, and social controls, which enables him to become a member of a particular society.Patient Acceptance of Health Care: The seeking and acceptance by patients of health service.Education: Acquisition of knowledge as a result of instruction in a formal course of study.Drug Resistance, Bacterial: The ability of bacteria to resist or to become tolerant to chemotherapeutic agents, antimicrobial agents, or antibiotics. This resistance may be acquired through gene mutation or foreign DNA in transmissible plasmids (R FACTORS).Sibling Relations: Interactions and relationships between sisters and/or brothers. The concept also applies to animal studies.Virulence: The degree of pathogenicity within a group or species of microorganisms or viruses as indicated by case fatality rates and/or the ability of the organism to invade the tissues of the host. The pathogenic capacity of an organism is determined by its VIRULENCE FACTORS.Netherlands: Country located in EUROPE. It is bordered by the NORTH SEA, BELGIUM, and GERMANY. Constituent areas are Aruba, Curacao, Sint Maarten, formerly included in the NETHERLANDS ANTILLES.Physician's Practice Patterns: Patterns of practice related to diagnosis and treatment as especially influenced by cost of the service requested and provided.Salmonella Food Poisoning: Poisoning caused by ingestion of food harboring species of SALMONELLA. Conditions of raising, shipping, slaughtering, and marketing of domestic animals contribute to the spread of this bacterium in the food supply.Health Status: The level of health of the individual, group, or population as subjectively assessed by the individual or by more objective measures.Siblings: Persons or animals having at least one parent in common. (American College Dictionary, 3d ed)Perception: The process by which the nature and meaning of sensory stimuli are recognized and interpreted.Family Therapy: A form of group psychotherapy. It involves treatment of more than one member of the family simultaneously in the same session.Sex Distribution: The number of males and females in a given population. The distribution may refer to how many men or women or what proportion of either in the group. The population is usually patients with a specific disease but the concept is not restricted to humans and is not restricted to medicine.Internal-External Control: Personality construct referring to an individual's perception of the locus of events as determined internally by his or her own behavior versus fate, luck, or external forces. (ERIC Thesaurus, 1996).Cost of Illness: The personal cost of acute or chronic disease. The cost to the patient may be an economic, social, or psychological cost or personal loss to self, family, or immediate community. The cost of illness may be reflected in absenteeism, productivity, response to treatment, peace of mind, or QUALITY OF LIFE. It differs from HEALTH CARE COSTS, meaning the societal cost of providing services related to the delivery of health care, rather than personal impact on individuals.Odds Ratio: The ratio of two odds. The exposure-odds ratio for case control data is the ratio of the odds in favor of exposure among cases to the odds in favor of exposure among noncases. The disease-odds ratio for a cohort or cross section is the ratio of the odds in favor of disease among the exposed to the odds in favor of disease among the unexposed. The prevalence-odds ratio refers to an odds ratio derived cross-sectionally from studies of prevalent cases.Focus Groups: A method of data collection and a QUALITATIVE RESEARCH tool in which a small group of individuals are brought together and allowed to interact in a discussion of their opinions about topics, issues, or questions.Interpersonal Relations: The reciprocal interaction of two or more persons.Bacterial Proteins: Proteins found in any species of bacterium.Polymorphism, Restriction Fragment Length: Variation occurring within a species in the presence or length of DNA fragment generated by a specific endonuclease at a specific site in the genome. Such variations are generated by mutations that create or abolish recognition sites for these enzymes or change the length of the fragment.Feeding Behavior: Behavioral responses or sequences associated with eating including modes of feeding, rhythmic patterns of eating, and time intervals.Genetic Markers: A phenotypically recognizable genetic trait which can be used to identify a genetic locus, a linkage group, or a recombination event.Nuclear Family: A family composed of spouses and their children.Asthma: A form of bronchial disorder with three distinct components: airway hyper-responsiveness (RESPIRATORY HYPERSENSITIVITY), airway INFLAMMATION, and intermittent AIRWAY OBSTRUCTION. It is characterized by spasmodic contraction of airway smooth muscle, WHEEZING, and dyspnea (DYSPNEA, PAROXYSMAL).Neoplasms: New abnormal growth of tissue. Malignant neoplasms show a greater degree of anaplasia and have the properties of invasion and metastasis, compared to benign neoplasms.Influenza, Human: An acute viral infection in humans involving the respiratory tract. It is marked by inflammation of the NASAL MUCOSA; the PHARYNX; and conjunctiva, and by headache and severe, often generalized, myalgia.Analysis of Variance: A statistical technique that isolates and assesses the contributions of categorical independent variables to variation in the mean of a continuous dependent variable.Object Attachment: Emotional attachment to someone or something in the environment.Grief: Normal, appropriate sorrowful response to an immediate cause. It is self-limiting and gradually subsides within a reasonable time.Tobacco Smoke Pollution: Contamination of the air by tobacco smoke.ArtHealth Care Surveys: Statistical measures of utilization and other aspects of the provision of health care services including hospitalization and ambulatory care.Personality Assessment: The determination and evaluation of personality attributes by interviews, observations, tests, or scales. Articles concerning personality measurement are considered to be within scope of this term.Food Microbiology: The presence of bacteria, viruses, and fungi in food and food products. This term is not restricted to pathogenic organisms: the presence of various non-pathogenic bacteria and fungi in cheeses and wines, for example, is included in this concept.Attention Deficit and Disruptive Behavior Disorders: Includes two similar disorders: oppositional defiant disorder and CONDUCT DISORDERS. Symptoms occurring in children with these disorders include: defiance of authority figures, angry outbursts, and other antisocial behaviors.Chromosome Mapping: Any method used for determining the location of and relative distances between genes on a chromosome.Feces: Excrement from the INTESTINES, containing unabsorbed solids, waste products, secretions, and BACTERIA of the DIGESTIVE SYSTEM.Environment: The external elements and conditions which surround, influence, and affect the life and development of an organism or population.Infant Care: Care of infants in the home or institution.Regression (Psychology): A return to earlier, especially to infantile, patterns of thought or behavior, or stage of functioning, e.g., feelings of helplessness and dependency in a patient with a serious physical illness. (From APA, Thesaurus of Psychological Index Terms, 1994).Television: The transmission and reproduction of transient images of fixed or moving objects. An electronic system of transmitting such images together with sound over a wire or through space by apparatus that converts light and sound into electrical waves and reconverts them into visible light rays and audible sound. (From Webster, 3rd ed)Obesity: A status with BODY WEIGHT that is grossly above the acceptable or desirable weight, usually due to accumulation of excess FATS in the body. The standards may vary with age, sex, genetic or cultural background. In the BODY MASS INDEX, a BMI greater than 30.0 kg/m2 is considered obese, and a BMI greater than 40.0 kg/m2 is considered morbidly obese (MORBID OBESITY).Students: Individuals enrolled in a school or formal educational program.EnglandSensitivity and Specificity: Binary classification measures to assess test results. Sensitivity or recall rate is the proportion of true positives. Specificity is the probability of correctly determining the absence of a condition. (From Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)Microsatellite Repeats: A variety of simple repeat sequences that are distributed throughout the GENOME. They are characterized by a short repeat unit of 2-8 basepairs that is repeated up to 100 times. They are also known as short tandem repeats (STRs).Truth Disclosure: Truthful revelation of information, specifically when the information disclosed is likely to be psychologically painful ("bad news") to the recipient (e.g., revelation to a patient or a patient's family of the patient's DIAGNOSIS or PROGNOSIS) or embarrassing to the teller (e.g., revelation of medical errors).Islam: A monotheistic religion promulgated by the Prophet Mohammed with Allah as the deity.IrelandSpecies Specificity: The restriction of a characteristic behavior, anatomical structure or physical system, such as immune response; metabolic response, or gene or gene variant to the members of one species. It refers to that property which differentiates one species from another but it is also used for phylogenetic levels higher or lower than the species.Rooming-in Care: Care of the newborn infant in a crib near the mother's bed, instead of in a nursery, during the hospital stay.Consumer Satisfaction: Customer satisfaction or dissatisfaction with a benefit or service received.Social Adjustment: Adaptation of the person to the social environment. Adjustment may take place by adapting the self to the environment or by changing the environment. (From Campbell, Psychiatric Dictionary, 1996)Urban Population: The inhabitants of a city or town, including metropolitan areas and suburban areas.Pilot Projects: Small-scale tests of methods and procedures to be used on a larger scale if the pilot study demonstrates that these methods and procedures can work.Mass Screening: Organized periodic procedures performed on large groups of people for the purpose of detecting disease.Tunisia: A country in northern Africa between ALGERIA and LIBYA. Its capital is Tunis.Child Advocacy: Promotion and protection of the rights of children; frequently through a legal process.Reunion: One of the Indian Ocean Islands, east of Madagascar. Its capital is Saint-Denis. It was discovered in 1507 by the Portuguese and claimed by France in 1638. It was first colonized in 1662 as Isle de Bourbon but renamed Reunion in 1793. In 1946 it was made an overseas department of France. The name commemorates the reunion of the revolutionaries from Marseilles with the National Guard in Paris in 1792. (From Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p1011; Room, Brewer's Dictionary of Names, 1992, p454; French Embassy)National Health Programs: Components of a national health care system which administer specific services, e.g., national health insurance.Food Contamination: The presence in food of harmful, unpalatable, or otherwise objectionable foreign substances, e.g. chemicals, microorganisms or diluents, before, during, or after processing or storage.Demography: Statistical interpretation and description of a population with reference to distribution, composition, or structure.Escherichia coli: A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria (GRAM-NEGATIVE FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC RODS) commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. It is usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce DIARRHEA and pyogenic infections. Pathogenic strains (virotypes) are classified by their specific pathogenic mechanisms such as toxins (ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI), etc.Cheese: A nutritious food consisting primarily of the curd or the semisolid substance formed when milk coagulates.Developmental Disabilities: Disorders in which there is a delay in development based on that expected for a given age level or stage of development. These impairments or disabilities originate before age 18, may be expected to continue indefinitely, and constitute a substantial impairment. Biological and nonbiological factors are involved in these disorders. (From American Psychiatric Glossary, 6th ed)Canada: The largest country in North America, comprising 10 provinces and three territories. Its capital is Ottawa.Chronic Disease: Diseases which have one or more of the following characteristics: they are permanent, leave residual disability, are caused by nonreversible pathological alteration, require special training of the patient for rehabilitation, or may be expected to require a long period of supervision, observation, or care. (Dictionary of Health Services Management, 2d ed)Drug Resistance, Microbial: The ability of microorganisms, especially bacteria, to resist or to become tolerant to chemotherapeutic agents, antimicrobial agents, or antibiotics. This resistance may be acquired through gene mutation or foreign DNA in transmissible plasmids (R FACTORS).Breeding: The production of offspring by selective mating or HYBRIDIZATION, GENETIC in animals or plants.History, 19th Century: Time period from 1801 through 1900 of the common era.Diabetes Mellitus, Type 1: A subtype of DIABETES MELLITUS that is characterized by INSULIN deficiency. It is manifested by the sudden onset of severe HYPERGLYCEMIA, rapid progression to DIABETIC KETOACIDOSIS, and DEATH unless treated with insulin. The disease may occur at any age, but is most common in childhood or adolescence.Maternal Behavior: The behavior patterns associated with or characteristic of a mother.Physician's Role: The expected function of a member of the medical profession.Australia: The smallest continent and an independent country, comprising six states and two territories. Its capital is Canberra.
  • PARIS (Reuters) - COVID-19 has forced the closure of a dozen schools in France just days into the new academic year, the government said on Friday, as coronavirus cases surge in parts of the country. (reuters.com)
  • The dynamic looks terribly like what we experienced before lockdown," Jean-Andre Lasserre, head of School Parents' Union FCPE in Paris, said of the virus' spread in the capital. (reuters.com)
  • Following networks of mothers in London and Paris, the author profiles the narratives of women who breastfeed their children to full term, typically a period of several years, as part of an 'attachment parenting' philosophy. (berghahnbooks.com)
  • PARIS - Some supporters of Turkish President Recep Tayyip Erdogan have caused an outcry in France after they forced a local newsstand to remove an advertising poster for a newsmagazine that called the Turkish leader a "dictator. (nationalpost.com)
  • PARIS (AP) - Authorities across France braced Thursday for the possibility of more riots and violence at anti-government protests this weekend, holding emergency meetings and deploying tens of thousands of police and security forces. (yahoo.com)
  • Some "yellow vest" protesters, French union officials and prominent politicians across the political spectrum called for calm Thursday after the worst rioting in Paris in decades last weekend. (yahoo.com)
  • The rioting in Paris has worried tourists, prompted the cancellation of four French league soccer matches this weekend around the country and damaged the local economy at the height of the holiday shopping season. (yahoo.com)
  • PARIS, France, February 8, 2008 (LifeSiteNews.com) - France's supreme court has ruled that parents of miscarried or stillborn children can register a name for the child, no matter what stage of development the child was at at the time of miscarriage or birth, reports the AFP. (blogspot.com)
  • A French movie about a tempestuous love affair between two homeless people, THE LOVERS ON THE BRIDGE mostly takes place on the oldest bridge in Paris, the Pont Neuf, which underwent repairs about 10 years ago. (movieguide.org)
  • She lived and worked in Paris, France. (wikipedia.org)
  • Macron agreed to abandon the fuel tax hike, part of his plans to combat global warming, but protesters' demands have now expanded to other issues hurting French workers, retirees and students. (yahoo.com)
  • That can be said of Claude Parent (1923-2016), the French architect and utopian thinker who passed away over the weekend on February 27th, one day after his 93rd birthday. (core77.com)
  • Taken together, this pattern mirrors the type of activity we saw prior to the 2016 election in the United States and the 2017 election in France. (go.com)
  • A research study was carried out after three years with the patients/parents and the professionals to assess the French QIP's effectiveness using a questionnaire to report their opinions on various components of the program, including their experience of P&PI. (biomedcentral.com)
  • I created the Newborn Movement Assessment to give parents the opportunity to assess their infant's movements from birth throughout their first year of life. (ecochildsplay.com)
  • Whether your child has a disability, was born premature, came from a C-section or vaginal birth, this book contains excellent information for every parent to assess and enhance his or her child's developmental movements. (ecochildsplay.com)
  • By taking a few simple steps, a company can identify its implicit parenting strategy, assess the effectiveness of this strategy given the company's industry and competitive environment, and select the most appropriate strategy on the basis of its capabilities and the needs of its portfolio of businesses. (bcg.com)
  • The parents of the toddlers featured in the doctored "racist baby" video have sued President Trump and the creator behind the meme. (yahoo.com)
  • I am currently teaching English to adults and translating from English to French as a Freelance translator. (proz.com)
  • Parent designed the French pavilion during for the 1970 Venice Biennale as an immersive experience for his oblique vision. (core77.com)
  • A daughter followed and when Pamela finally found time to take a breath, she uncovered another surprising aspect of French life. (npr.org)
  • My daughter went to what's called the creche in France, it's the public daycare. (npr.org)
  • DRUCKERMAN: You know, I notice this when I go to the park in France because I would usually arrive with a big bag of stuff to entertain my daughter the entire day, whereas the French mom on the blanket next to me would have just one ball. (npr.org)
  • What could fulfill his need for 1) total control, 2) "spending time" with his daughter and 3) delusions of Tour de France grandeur? (psychcentral.com)
  • Take it from a parent who has had to explain to her 13 year old daughter why she could not longer see her friends, attend school, attend church, etc. because she became so sick after being vaccinated with Gardasil that her life became a constant trip to hospitals and doctor's offices. (ecochildsplay.com)
  • We know little else about the lives of Mary's parents, but considering the person of Mary, they must have been two very remarkable people to have been given such a daughter and to have played so important a part in the work of the Redemption. (catholicculture.org)
  • We assume that, I think, a little more that kids have inherent likes and dislikes whereas the French view on food is the parent must educate their child and that appreciation for different foods is something you cultivate over time. (npr.org)
  • Dr. Françoise Dolto, a French psychoanalyst, was at the forefront of any discussion on child rearing and education. (frenchentree.com)
  • Most American parents, for example, will almost instinctively react by stopping the conversation to listen to their child, respond in detail and if need be, will go with the youngster in an attempt to find a solution. (frenchentree.com)
  • would be the response of French parents to his or her child, and insistence from the child will only be met with irritation. (frenchentree.com)
  • Child psychiatrists in the U.S. consider ADHD to be a biological-neurological disorder, best treated with medication, while psychiatrists in France view it as a medical condition with psycho-social and situational causes that can be addressed with psychotherapy or family counseling. (treehugger.com)
  • As France prepares to start letting public life resume after eight weeks, many parents are deeply torn over a question without a clear or conclusive answer: Should I send my child back to school? (keloland.com)
  • A n NSPCC spokesman said: "It might be difficult for parents to accept that their child could be pressured into sending sexual images of themselves, but we know from calls to Childline that it does happen and it can cause them to feel depressed, self-harm, and even have suicidal thoughts. (telegraph.co.uk)
  • It's vital that parents take the first step - even if it feels awkward - to talk to their child about sexting, and the dangers it can bring. (telegraph.co.uk)
  • The child, the hospital, the battling parents? (nationalpost.com)
  • Whatever it is that makes you love France (even if it's simply the way the language sounds), there are many, many beautiful French names out there for your child. (sheknows.com)
  • Parents' ability to perceive pain experienced by their child with Down syndrome. (cdc.gov)
  • All new parents experience some sort of anxiety after their child is born. (ecochildsplay.com)
  • This new ruling gives parents the right to claim the body of their child, which, until this point, was incinerated by the hospital along with other waste tissues. (blogspot.com)
  • According to the AFP report, the ruling is triggering a storm over the issue of abortion in France, with pro-abortion activists arguing that the ruling gives pro-life activists a strongly emotional argument for the humanity of the child, by indicating that a fetus at any stage has a right to a name. (blogspot.com)
  • Many parents have found that the process of grieving is helped significantly by the giving of a name to their child. (blogspot.com)
  • There is simply no feasible way that a parent can monitor every possible means of internet access for their child. (thenextweb.com)
  • We could look to the phone manufacturers and mobile OS developers for answers, but despite signing up to agreements and organisations (mentioned below), there are far too many of them out there for parents to really understand how to set the phones up correctly to ensure their child is well and truly protected. (thenextweb.com)
  • Authorization to use the data signed by at least one of the parents of the child and by the very child when he is old at least of six years. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • Made famous by some A-list parents who follow its teachings (Tobey Maguire, Penelope Cruz and Felicity Huffman supposedly), RIE's more challenged teachings include no tummy time, no fancy toys and not pushing your child in a stroller before he can sit up on his own. (thebump.com)
  • The basic principle is to let your child learn and discover things at his own pace, so not forcing him into tummy time or into sitting upright before he's ready makes sense to plenty of parents. (thebump.com)
  • Parents collected a daily symptom diary for the duration of the study and were taught to collect a combined nose-throat swab and complete an impact diary when the study child had an acute respiratory illness. (aappublications.org)
  • And I suddenly looked up and I realized that the French families all around us were having a very different experience - that their kids were sitting in their high-chairs, enjoying their meals, eating their vegetables and fish and all kinds of other things, and talking to their parents. (npr.org)
  • DRUCKERMAN: First of all, there is no category of food in France called kids' food. (npr.org)
  • And the other trick that French parents do is they say to their kids you don't have to eat everything, you just have to taste it. (npr.org)
  • A shocking 9 percent of U.S. kids are diagnosed and medicated for ADHD, compared to 0.5 percent of French kids. (treehugger.com)
  • Worrywart parents might want to look to her book's stats to help them realize that hovering over their kids doesn't prevent bad things from happening, and most of the things they worry about aren't really worth stressing over. (thebump.com)
  • Judging by these hilarious photos, these parents have clearly maintained their sense of humour by trolling their kids, and while we likely found our parents jokes lame in our younger years, let's face it, looking back at them, they're pretty funny and it's more than likely we'll end up doing the same. (boredpanda.com)
  • The French government is easing some of the closure and home-confinement orders it imposed March 17 to curb coronavirus infections, with businesses permitted to reopen, residents cleared to return to workplaces and schools welcoming some students again starting Monday. (keloland.com)
  • Students with parents who want or need to send them to school are not guaranteed places in the smaller classes and only will be allowed to attend if their school can accommodate them. (keloland.com)
  • Christian Monnin, president of the Société de la francophonie manitobaine, said this demonstrates the "lack of understanding of French language education and a lack of respect for French minority language students, parents and partners. (metronews.ca)
  • Teacher and parents of students in the Toronto District School Board were left wondering Monday night what class on Tuesday would look like, and how they'd connect. (yahoo.com)
  • Claude Parent speaking to students in his house which was outfitted with inclined planes rather than furniture. (core77.com)
  • My child's school is a friendly environment for students, parents, and families. (google.com)
  • NICUPS™ is made up of a group of former Neonatal Intensive Care Unit ( NICU ) parents who volunteer time to provide support to NICU families. (mercy.net)
  • I condemn the cowardly and barbaric terrorist attack perpetrated this Sunday in the peaceful town of Koure," he wrote, extending condolences to the families of the victims and to the French president, adding that France's "commitment to our side in the fight against terrorism is unwavering. (wtop.com)
  • The parents of the two boys accuse Cook of manipulating the video without their consent and using "a portion of it out of context, sending out an extremely distorted and false message," according to the lawsuit. (yahoo.com)
  • The parents' associations favored the widening of the diagnostic criteria for autism, and they demanded the transfer of the care of autism from hospital to school and the training of professionals in educational and behavioral methods. (springer.com)
  • Thats something the parents of a newborn baby from Rochdale who died from the infection want changing. (itv.com)
  • Police have arrested the parents of a newborn who was found dead in a tied plastic bag at Marshfield hospital in Wisconsin, according to reports. (theepochtimes.com)
  • Landry/French has built a reputation as a fast-growing and employee-friendly company. (pressherald.com)
  • After closing his architecture office in the early 2000s (his reputation in France suffered greatly after he designed a nuclear power plant that was opposed by politicians and environmentalists) Parent pursued his vision through drawing. (core77.com)
  • Things you may french method of parenting consider about tub time. (mostsacredright.com)
  • French's first appearance on the small screen was in 2006, when French starred alongside Tatum O'Neal in the prime-time telenova soap opera Wicked Wicked Games . (wikipedia.org)
  • In her spare time, French enjoys surfing , water skiing and hiking with her pet dogs. (wikipedia.org)
  • CNN) - A newly discovered and potentially deadly virus related to the one that causes the common cold has befallen another victim, this time in France. (fox2now.com)
  • To your second question - It's important to be clear that altering a model's body shape as described by the new French law is quite rare in commercial stock photography (it is time consuming and is also against the increasing trend towards more authentic imagery) so is likely to affect only a small number of images in our collection. (dpreview.com)
  • At one time, July 26 was the feast of St. Anne only, but with the new calendar the two feasts of the parents of the Blessed Virgin Mary have been joined and are celebrated today. (catholicculture.org)
  • The company said in a news release that its stock ownership plan is a way to enhance the firm's client-focused culture and position Landry/French for future growth. (pressherald.com)
  • Switching the setting from his news desk to a French bistro in black and white and lighting a cigarette, Oliver then proceeded to speak entirely in French (with English subtitles). (yahoo.com)
  • The federal NDP's four leadership hopefuls demonstrated their proficiency in French and answered questions on asylum-seekers, Quebec, and other issues. (macleans.ca)
  • Her two great shrines - that of Ste. Anne d'Auray in Britanny, France, and that of Ste. Anne de Beaupre near Quebec in Canada - are very popular. (catholicculture.org)
  • Solve Your Child's Sleep Problems author Richard Ferber, MD, is probably best known for advising parents to let baby " cry it out " to help him sleep through the night. (thebump.com)
  • I think this is just one more item that adds to the concern that parents should have about their child's diet,' she continues. (foxnews.com)
  • to appreciate beauty, to find love in French Camp. (match.com)
  • French food giant Danone said Friday it is asking parents to alert the company if they find any worm larvae in packages of its Gallia powdered baby milk, after a couple reported that their three-month-old had regurgitated a parasitic worm. (medicalxpress.com)
  • A French baron Paul travels to Russia to find the woman whom he had been in correspondence. (imdb.com)
  • Infrequently you may find other languages in French records. (familysearch.org)
  • These ideas have been embraced and interpreted by the likes of Zaha Hadid, Frank Gehry, Rem Koolhaas and Jean Nouvel-who all cite Parent as an important influence-though Parent himself remained (rather contentedly, it seems) outside of the mainstream. (core77.com)
  • To do that we want to understand the full scale of the problem and explore how everyone - including Government, social media companies, technology firms, parents and others - can play their part in tackling it. (telegraph.co.uk)
  • The French public prosecutor's office in the southern city of Toulouseis to decide on whether the parents of a baby boy are legally entitled to name him Jihad, a phonetic spelling from the Arabic meaning "struggle" and which has become a common term adopted by Islamic fundamentalists engaged in terrorist attacks, which have claimed more than 230 lives in France over the past two years. (mediapart.fr)
  • But now, she cautions parents to be well aware of the risks and effectiveness before they decide their daughters should get the shot, according to CBS . (ecochildsplay.com)
  • Landry/French Construction Co. of Scarborough has established an employee stock ownership plan and is now employee-owned, the company said Thursday. (pressherald.com)
  • It also provides a way to reward employees for their dedication to the company and allows employees to benefit directly from its success by sharing in company profits, Landry/French said. (pressherald.com)
  • By converting to an (employee-owned model), it allows the company to plan beyond the next decade to ensure that the Landry/French culture stays intact. (pressherald.com)
  • The stock ownership plan, which is in addition to the company's existing 401(k) retirement program, also will provide a competitive advantage that enables Landry/French to retain its top employees and attract other high-performing employees, the company said. (pressherald.com)
  • The parent company says Kennecott President and Chief Executive Kelly Sanders will step down Sept. 1. (yahoo.com)
  • Internet-services company Genuity Inc. agreed to buy struggling French Web-hosting company Integra SA in a stock deal valued at $113.7 million, accelerating its expansion into Europe. (wsj.com)
  • When, by the power of God, their boat survived and finally drifted to the shores of France, the little company of saints buried Saint Anne's body in a cave, in a place called Apt, in the south of France. (catholicculture.org)
  • By contrast, an effective parenting strategy can create a situation in which the whole really is bigger than the sum of the parts and can deliver a valuation premium for a multibusiness company. (bcg.com)
  • According to the lawsuit, the boys' parents said the video was the "epitome of love and unity" showing their toddlers "hugging and enjoying the warmth and companionship" of friendship. (yahoo.com)
  • Actor French Stewart and his wife, Vanessa , welcomed a baby girl about a month back. (parents.com)
  • Is it acceptable to name your baby "Jihad" in France, which has suffered Europe's worst Islamist terror attacks in recent years? (mediapart.fr)
  • Authorities confirmed this week that a couple in Brittany, western France, had filed a complaint against Danone after their baby, fed with Gallia, threw up a six-centimetre (2.5 inch) worm last November. (medicalxpress.com)
  • If you want to say oui your bebe-to-be's name, check out these fantastic French baby names that are sure to make you swoon. (sheknows.com)
  • Some new parents swear swaddling helps baby sleep longer - she may be less likely to startle herself awake when her arms can't flail. (thebump.com)
  • They will be equipped with a dozen armored vehicles -a first in a French urban area since 2005. (yahoo.com)
  • The victims were six French citizens and one Nigerien working for ACTED and Geneva-based IMPACT Initiatives. (wtop.com)
  • Parenting can be tough, and in all the toughest jobs, it's important to for our mums and dads to keep a healthy sense of humour. (boredpanda.com)
  • The movement of May '68 opened French society to such transformations as women lib, abortion rights and the abolition of the death penalty. (frenchentree.com)
  • On June 5, the European Court of Human Rights in Strasbourg Germany decided that Vincent Lambert, a cognitively disabled man who lives in France, could have his food and water withdrawn causing his death by dehydration. (blogspot.com)
  • One of the biggest French NGOs, ACTED has been present in Niger since 2010 and provides aid to displaced people and local populations who are particularly vulnerable due to conflicts in the region, lack of food and droughts. (wtop.com)
  • Canadian Parents for French furthers bilingualism by promoting and creating opportunities for youth to learn and use French. (cpf.ca)
  • Thankfully, in the past, where Windows and Mac OS have dominated the personal computer market, it wasn't too difficult for parents to learn how to block access to certain areas of the computer or specific websites. (thenextweb.com)