Persons functioning as natural, adoptive, or substitute parents. The heading includes the concept of parenthood as well as preparation for becoming a parent.
Child with one or more parents afflicted by a physical or mental disorder.
A natural, adoptive, or substitute parent of a dependent child, who lives with only one parent. The single parent may live with or visit the child. The concept includes the never-married, as well as the divorced and widowed.
The interactions between the professional person and the family.
Male parents, human or animal.
Predetermined sets of questions used to collect data - clinical data, social status, occupational group, etc. The term is often applied to a self-completed survey instrument.
Any observable response or action of a child from 24 months through 12 years of age. For neonates or children younger than 24 months, INFANT BEHAVIOR is available.
Informed consent given by a parent on behalf of a minor or otherwise incompetent child.
A social group consisting of parents or parent substitutes and children.
An infant during the first month after birth.
The training or bringing-up of children by parents or parent-substitutes. It is used also for child rearing practices in different societies, at different economic levels, in different ethnic groups, etc. It differs from PARENTING in that in child rearing the emphasis is on the act of training or bringing up the child and the interaction between the parent and child, while parenting emphasizes the responsibility and qualities of exemplary behavior of the parent.
Disturbances considered to be pathological based on age and stage appropriateness, e.g., conduct disturbances and anaclitic depression. This concept does not include psychoneuroses, psychoses, or personality disorders with fixed patterns.
Public attitudes toward health, disease, and the medical care system.
The health status of the family as a unit including the impact of the health of one member of the family on the family as a unit and on individual family members; also, the impact of family organization or disorganization on the health status of its members.
Knowledge, attitudes, and associated behaviors which pertain to health-related topics such as PATHOLOGIC PROCESSES or diseases, their prevention, and treatment. This term refers to non-health workers and health workers (HEALTH PERSONNEL).
Organized efforts by communities or organizations to improve the health and well-being of the child.
Refers to the whole process of grieving and mourning and is associated with a deep sense of loss and sadness.
The study of normal and abnormal behavior of children.
An enduring, learned predisposition to behave in a consistent way toward a given class of objects, or a persistent mental and/or neural state of readiness to react to a certain class of objects, not as they are but as they are conceived to be.
The exchange or transmission of ideas, attitudes, or beliefs between individuals or groups.
Children who have reached maturity or the legal age of majority.
Any observable response or action of an adolescent.
Behavioral, psychological, and social relations among various members of the nuclear family and the extended family.
Studies in which the presence or absence of disease or other health-related variables are determined in each member of the study population or in a representative sample at one particular time. This contrasts with LONGITUDINAL STUDIES which are followed over a period of time.
The behavior patterns associated with or characteristic of a father.
Children with mental or physical disabilities that interfere with usual activities of daily living and that may require accommodation or intervention.
Voluntary acceptance of a child of other parents to be as one's own child, usually with legal confirmation.
Social and economic factors that characterize the individual or group within the social structure.
Care of CHILDREN in the home or in an institution.
The interactions between individuals of different generations. These interactions include communication, caring, accountability, loyalty, and even conflict between related or non-related individuals.
Studies in which variables relating to an individual or group of individuals are assessed over a period of time.
Organized services to provide health care for children.
Stress wherein emotional factors predominate.
Educational institutions.
Procedures and programs that facilitate the development or skill acquisition in infants and young children who have disabilities, who are at risk for developing disabilities, or who are gifted. It includes programs that are designed to prevent handicapping conditions in infants and young children and family-centered programs designed to affect the functioning of infants and children with special needs. (From Journal of Early Intervention, Editorial, 1989, vol. 13, no. 1, p. 3; A Discursive Dictionary of Health Care, prepared for the U.S. House of Representatives Committee on Interstate and Foreign Commerce, 1976)
Conversations with an individual or individuals held in order to obtain information about their background and other personal biographical data, their attitudes and opinions, etc. It includes school admission or job interviews.
A behavior disorder originating in childhood in which the essential features are signs of developmentally inappropriate inattention, impulsivity, and hyperactivity. Although most individuals have symptoms of both inattention and hyperactivity-impulsivity, one or the other pattern may be predominant. The disorder is more frequent in males than females. Onset is in childhood. Symptoms often attenuate during late adolescence although a minority experience the full complement of symptoms into mid-adulthood. (From DSM-V)
The aggregate of social and cultural institutions, forms, patterns, and processes that influence the life of an individual or community.
The genetic process of crossbreeding between genetically dissimilar parents to produce a hybrid.
Interaction between the father and the child.
The record of descent or ancestry, particularly of a particular condition or trait, indicating individual family members, their relationships, and their status with respect to the trait or condition.
The continuous sequential physiological and psychological maturing of an individual from birth up to but not including ADOLESCENCE.
Struggle or disagreement between parents, parent and child or other members of a family.
An aspect of personal behavior or lifestyle, environmental exposure, or inborn or inherited characteristic, which, on the basis of epidemiologic evidence, is known to be associated with a health-related condition considered important to prevent.
Educational attainment or level of education of individuals.
The magnitude of INBREEDING in humans.
Persons who provide care to those who need supervision or assistance in illness or disability. They may provide the care in the home, in a hospital, or in an institution. Although caregivers include trained medical, nursing, and other health personnel, the concept also refers to parents, spouses, or other family members, friends, members of the clergy, teachers, social workers, fellow patients.
Interaction between a mother and child.
Size and composition of the family.
A person authorized to decide or act for another person, for example, a person having durable power of attorney.
The term "United States" in a medical context often refers to the country where a patient or study participant resides, and is not a medical term per se, but relevant for epidemiological studies, healthcare policies, and understanding differences in disease prevalence, treatment patterns, and health outcomes across various geographic locations.
The formally authorized guardianship or care of a CHILD.
The authorized absence from work of either parent prior to and after the birth of their child. It includes also absence because of the illness of a child or at the time of the adoption of a child. It does not include leave for care of siblings, parents, or other family members: for this FAMILY LEAVE is available.
Group composed of associates of same species, approximately the same age, and usually of similar rank or social status.
Deliberate breeding of two different individuals that results in offspring that carry part of the genetic material of each parent. The parent organisms must be genetically compatible and may be from different varieties or closely related species.
Support systems that provide assistance and encouragement to individuals with physical or emotional disabilities in order that they may better cope. Informal social support is usually provided by friends, relatives, or peers, while formal assistance is provided by churches, groups, etc.
The training or molding of an individual through various relationships, educational agencies, and social controls, which enables him to become a member of a particular society.
Acquisition of knowledge as a result of instruction in a formal course of study.
Interactions and relationships between sisters and/or brothers. The concept also applies to animal studies.
Persons or animals having at least one parent in common. (American College Dictionary, 3d ed)
The process by which the nature and meaning of sensory stimuli are recognized and interpreted.
A form of group psychotherapy. It involves treatment of more than one member of the family simultaneously in the same session.
Any type of research that employs nonnumeric information to explore individual or group characteristics, producing findings not arrived at by statistical procedures or other quantitative means. (Qualitative Inquiry: A Dictionary of Terms Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications, 1997)
Personality construct referring to an individual's perception of the locus of events as determined internally by his or her own behavior versus fate, luck, or external forces. (ERIC Thesaurus, 1996).
A method of data collection and a QUALITATIVE RESEARCH tool in which a small group of individuals are brought together and allowed to interact in a discussion of their opinions about topics, issues, or questions.
The outward appearance of the individual. It is the product of interactions between genes, and between the GENOTYPE and the environment.
The reciprocal interaction of two or more persons.
A family composed of spouses and their children.
Maleness or femaleness as a constituent element or influence contributing to the production of a result. It may be applicable to the cause or effect of a circumstance. It is used with human or animal concepts but should be differentiated from SEX CHARACTERISTICS, anatomical or physiological manifestations of sex, and from SEX DISTRIBUTION, the number of males and females in given circumstances.
Emotional attachment to someone or something in the environment.
Normal, appropriate sorrowful response to an immediate cause. It is self-limiting and gradually subsides within a reasonable time.
The determination and evaluation of personality attributes by interviews, observations, tests, or scales. Articles concerning personality measurement are considered to be within scope of this term.
Includes two similar disorders: oppositional defiant disorder and CONDUCT DISORDERS. Symptoms occurring in children with these disorders include: defiance of authority figures, angry outbursts, and other antisocial behaviors.
Age as a constituent element or influence contributing to the production of a result. It may be applicable to the cause or the effect of a circumstance. It is used with human or animal concepts but should be differentiated from AGING, a physiological process, and TIME FACTORS which refers only to the passage of time.
Education that increases the awareness and favorably influences the attitudes and knowledge relating to the improvement of health on a personal or community basis.
Care of infants in the home or institution.
Assessment of psychological variables by the application of mathematical procedures.
The transmission and reproduction of transient images of fixed or moving objects. An electronic system of transmitting such images together with sound over a wire or through space by apparatus that converts light and sound into electrical waves and reconverts them into visible light rays and audible sound. (From Webster, 3rd ed)
Truthful revelation of information, specifically when the information disclosed is likely to be psychologically painful ("bad news") to the recipient (e.g., revelation to a patient or a patient's family of the patient's DIAGNOSIS or PROGNOSIS) or embarrassing to the teller (e.g., revelation of medical errors).
Customer satisfaction or dissatisfaction with a benefit or service received.
Adaptation of the person to the social environment. Adjustment may take place by adapting the self to the environment or by changing the environment. (From Campbell, Psychiatric Dictionary, 1996)
Promotion and protection of the rights of children; frequently through a legal process.
A generic concept reflecting concern with the modification and enhancement of life attributes, e.g., physical, political, moral and social environment; the overall condition of a human life.
Disorders in which there is a delay in development based on that expected for a given age level or stage of development. These impairments or disabilities originate before age 18, may be expected to continue indefinitely, and constitute a substantial impairment. Biological and nonbiological factors are involved in these disorders. (From American Psychiatric Glossary, 6th ed)
The behavior patterns associated with or characteristic of a mother.
The teaching staff and members of the administrative staff having academic rank in an educational institution.
Preventive health services provided for students. It excludes college or university students.
Spontaneous or voluntary recreational activities pursued for enjoyment and accessories or equipment used in the activities; includes games, toys, etc.
The status during which female mammals carry their developing young (EMBRYOS or FETUSES) in utero before birth, beginning from FERTILIZATION to BIRTH.
Predisposition to react to one's environment in a certain way; usually refers to mood changes.
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
Behavioral responses or sequences associated with eating including modes of feeding, rhythmic patterns of eating, and time intervals.
The statistical reproducibility of measurements (often in a clinical context), including the testing of instrumentation or techniques to obtain reproducible results. The concept includes reproducibility of physiological measurements, which may be used to develop rules to assess probability or prognosis, or response to a stimulus; reproducibility of occurrence of a condition; and reproducibility of experimental results.
Special hospitals which provide care for ill children.
Freedom from exposure to danger and protection from the occurrence or risk of injury or loss. It suggests optimal precautions in the workplace, on the street, in the home, etc., and includes personal safety as well as the safety of property.
Research carried out by nurses concerning techniques and methods to implement projects and to document information, including methods of interviewing patients, collecting data, and forming inferences. The concept includes exploration of methodological issues such as human subjectivity and human experience.
Legal dissolution of an officially recognized marriage relationship.
A repetitive and persistent pattern of behavior in which the basic rights of others or major age-appropriate societal norms or rules are violated. These behaviors include aggressive conduct that causes or threatens physical harm to other people or animals, nonaggressive conduct that causes property loss or damage, deceitfulness or theft, and serious violations of rules. The onset is before age 18. (From DSM-IV, 1994)
To utter an inarticulate, characteristic sound in order to communicate or express a feeling, or desire for attention.
Studies in which individuals or populations are followed to assess the outcome of exposures, procedures, or effects of a characteristic, e.g., occurrence of disease.
The different ways GENES and their ALLELES interact during the transmission of genetic traits that effect the outcome of GENE EXPRESSION.
A disorder beginning in childhood. It is marked by the presence of markedly abnormal or impaired development in social interaction and communication and a markedly restricted repertoire of activity and interest. Manifestations of the disorder vary greatly depending on the developmental level and chronological age of the individual. (DSM-V)
Facilities which provide care for pre-school and school-age children.
The personality pattern or syndrome consisting of behavioral and attitudinal characteristics reflecting a preoccupation with the factors of power and authority in interpersonal relationships.
Feeling or emotion of dread, apprehension, and impending disaster but not disabling as with ANXIETY DISORDERS.
The total number of cases of a given disease in a specified population at a designated time. It is differentiated from INCIDENCE, which refers to the number of new cases in the population at a given time.
Human artificial insemination in which the semen used is that of a man other than the woman's husband.
A household that includes children and is headed by one adult.
The social institution involving legal and/or religious sanction whereby individuals are joined together.
A form of bronchial disorder with three distinct components: airway hyper-responsiveness (RESPIRATORY HYPERSENSITIVITY), airway INFLAMMATION, and intermittent AIRWAY OBSTRUCTION. It is characterized by spasmodic contraction of airway smooth muscle, WHEEZING, and dyspnea (DYSPNEA, PAROXYSMAL).
The identification of selected parameters in newborn infants by various tests, examinations, or other procedures. Screening may be performed by clinical or laboratory measures. A screening test is designed to sort out healthy neonates (INFANT, NEWBORN) from those not well, but the screening test is not intended as a diagnostic device, rather instead as epidemiologic.
Persons whom one knows, likes, and trusts.
Systematic gathering of data for a particular purpose from various sources, including questionnaires, interviews, observation, existing records, and electronic devices. The process is usually preliminary to statistical analysis of the data.
The genetic constitution of the individual, comprising the ALLELES present at each GENETIC LOCUS.
Individuals enrolled in a school or formal educational program.
Any method used for determining the location of and relative distances between genes on a chromosome.
The expected and characteristic pattern of behavior exhibited by an individual as a member of a particular social group.
Anxiety experienced by an individual upon separation from a person or object of particular significance to the individual.
Statistical models which describe the relationship between a qualitative dependent variable (that is, one which can take only certain discrete values, such as the presence or absence of a disease) and an independent variable. A common application is in epidemiology for estimating an individual's risk (probability of a disease) as a function of a given risk factor.
The seeking and acceptance by patients of health service.
Any behavior caused by or affecting another individual, usually of the same species.
Severe distortions in the development of many basic psychological functions that are not normal for any stage in development. These distortions are manifested in sustained social impairment, speech abnormalities, and peculiar motor movements.
Contamination of the air by tobacco smoke.
A stratum of people with similar position and prestige; includes social stratification. Social class is measured by criteria such as education, occupation, and income.
Those affective states which can be experienced and have arousing and motivational properties.
Variant forms of the same gene, occupying the same locus on homologous CHROMOSOMES, and governing the variants in production of the same gene product.
A phenotypically recognizable genetic trait which can be used to identify a genetic locus, a linkage group, or a recombination event.
Hospital units providing continuous surveillance and care to acutely ill infants and children. Neonates are excluded since INTENSIVE CARE UNITS, NEONATAL is available.
Subnormal intellectual functioning which originates during the developmental period. This has multiple potential etiologies, including genetic defects and perinatal insults. Intelligence quotient (IQ) scores are commonly used to determine whether an individual has an intellectual disability. IQ scores between 70 and 79 are in the borderline range. Scores below 67 are in the disabled range. (from Joynt, Clinical Neurology, 1992, Ch55, p28)
The application of modern theories of learning and conditioning in the treatment of behavior disorders.
Studies in which subsets of a defined population are identified. These groups may or may not be exposed to factors hypothesized to influence the probability of the occurrence of a particular disease or other outcome. Cohorts are defined populations which, as a whole, are followed in an attempt to determine distinguishing subgroup characteristics.
Abuse of children in a family, institutional, or other setting. (APA, Thesaurus of Psychological Index Terms, 1994)
BODY MASS INDEX in children (ages 2-12) and in adolescents (ages 13-18) that is grossly above the recommended cut-off for a specific age and sex. For infants less than 2 years of age, obesity is determined based on standard weight-for-length percentile measures.
Behaviors expressed by individuals to protect, maintain or promote their health status. For example, proper diet, and appropriate exercise are activities perceived to influence health status. Life style is closely associated with health behavior and factors influencing life style are socioeconomic, educational, and cultural.
A status with BODY WEIGHT that is above certain standard of acceptable or desirable weight. In the scale of BODY MASS INDEX, overweight is defined as having a BMI of 25.0-29.9 kg/m2. Overweight may or may not be due to increases in body fat (ADIPOSE TISSUE), hence overweight does not equal "over fat".
A status with BODY WEIGHT that is grossly above the acceptable or desirable weight, usually due to accumulation of excess FATS in the body. The standards may vary with age, sex, genetic or cultural background. In the BODY MASS INDEX, a BMI greater than 30.0 kg/m2 is considered obese, and a BMI greater than 40.0 kg/m2 is considered morbidly obese (MORBID OBESITY).
Observation of a population for a sufficient number of persons over a sufficient number of years to generate incidence or mortality rates subsequent to the selection of the study group.

What parents think of fever. (1/5222)

OBJECTIVES: We aimed to assess knowledge, perception and management of fever by parents. METHODS: We conducted a questionnaire survey among 392 parents of children attending locally a paediatric clinic at The Royal Oldham Hospital. The main outcome measures were answers to questions covering a variety of aspects of the knowledge, perception and management of fever by parents. RESULTS: Almost half the parents used a liquid crystal forehead thermometer. Most could not use a glass thermometer. Thirty per cent did not know normal body temperature and would have treated children with a temperature below 38 degrees C. Sixty-four per cent treated fever with both paracetamol and tepid sponging. Most parents awakened children at night for antipyretics. Eighty-one per cent thought that untreated fever was most likely to cause fits or brain damage and 7% thought it could cause death. CONCLUSION: Parents perceive fever as being dangerous. They have a poor knowledge and measure it inaccurately. Needless consultations and hospital admissions could be avoided by a change in perception.  (+info)

B cell lymphoproliferative disorders following hematopoietic stem cell transplantation: risk factors, treatment and outcome. (2/5222)

Twenty-six cases of B cell lymphoproliferative disorder (BLPD) were identified among 2395 patients following hematopoietic stem cell transplants (HSCT) for which an overall incidence of BLPD was 1.2%. The true incidence was probably higher, since 9/26 of the diagnoses were made at autopsy. No BLPD was observed following autologous HSCT, so risk factor analyses were confined to the 1542 allogeneic HSCT. Factors assessed were HLA-mismatching (> or = 1 antigen), T cell depletion (TCD), presence of acute GvHD (grades II-IV), donor type (related vs unrelated), age of recipient and donor, and underlying disease. Factors found to be statistically significant included patients transplanted for immune deficiency and CML, donor age > or = 18 years, TCD, and HLA-mismatching, with recipients of combined TCD and HLA-mismatched grafts having the highest incidence. Factors found to be statistically significant in a multiple regression analysis were TCD, donor age and immune deficiency, although 7/8 of the patients with immunodeficiencies and BLPD received a TCD graft from a haploidentical parent. The overall mortality was 92% (24/26). One patient had a spontaneous remission, but subsequently died >1 year later of chronic GVHD. Thirteen patients received therapy for BLPD. Three patients received lymphocyte infusions without response. The only patients with responses and longterm survival received alpha interferon (alphaIFN). Of seven patients treated with alphaIFN there were four responses (one partial and three complete). These data demonstrate that alphaIFN can be an effective agent against BLPD following HSCT, if a timely diagnosis is made.  (+info)

Genetic linkage of IgA deficiency to the major histocompatibility complex: evidence for allele segregation distortion, parent-of-origin penetrance differences, and the role of anti-IgA antibodies in disease predisposition. (3/5222)

Immunoglobulin A (IgA) deficiency (IgAD) is characterized by a defect of terminal lymphocyte differentiation, leading to a lack of IgA in serum and mucosal secretions. Familial clustering, variable population prevalence in different ethnic groups, and a predominant inheritance pattern suggest a strong genetic predisposition to IgAD. The genetic susceptibility to IgAD is shared with a less prevalent, but more profound, defect called "common variable immunodeficiency" (CVID). Here we show an increased allele sharing at 6p21 in affected members of 83 multiplex IgAD/CVID pedigrees and demonstrate, using transmission/diseqilibrium tests, family-based associations indicating the presence of a predisposing locus, designated "IGAD1," in the proximal part of the major histocompatibility complex (MHC). The recurrence risk of IgAD was found to depend on the sex of parents transmitting the defect: affected mothers were more likely to produce offspring with IgAD than were affected fathers. Carrier mothers but not carrier fathers transmitted IGAD1 alleles more frequently to the affected offspring than would be expected under random segregation. The differential parent-of-origin penetrance is proposed to reflect a maternal effect mediated by the production of anti-IgA antibodies tentatively linked to IGAD1. This is supported by higher frequency of anti-IgA-positive females transmitting the disorder to children, in comparison with female IgAD nontransmitters, and by linkage data in the former group. Such pathogenic mechanisms may be shared by other MHC-linked complex traits associated with the production of specific autoantibodies, parental effects, and a particular MHC haplotype.  (+info)

Allowing for missing parents in genetic studies of case-parent triads. (4/5222)

In earlier work, my colleagues and I described a log-linear model for genetic data from triads composed of affected probands and their parents. This model allows detection of and discrimination between effects of an inherited haplotype versus effects of the maternal haplotype, which presumably would be mediated by prenatal factors. Like the transmission disequilibrium test (TDT), the likelihood-ratio test (LRT) based on this model is not sensitive to associations that are due to genetic admixture. When used as a method for testing for linkage disequilibrium, the LRT can be regarded as an alternative to the TDT. When one or both parents are missing, the resulting incomplete triad must be discarded to ensure validity of the TDT, thereby sacrificing information. By contrast, when the problem is set in a likelihood framework, the expectation-maximization algorithm allows the incomplete triads to contribute their information to the LRT without invalidation of the analysis. Simulations demonstrate that much of the lost statistical power can be recaptured by means of this missing-data technique. In fact, power is reasonably good even when no triad is complete-for example, when a study is designed to include only mothers of cases. Information from siblings also can be incorporated to further improve the statistical power when genetic data from parents or probands are missing.  (+info)

Psychosocial and economic problems of parents of children with epilepsy. (5/5222)

The parents of children with epilepsy (PCE) face multiple psychosocial and economic problems that are often neglected. We undertook this study to ascertain these problems among the patients attending a tertiary referral center for epilepsy in India. A structured questionnaire was administrated to parents of 50 children aged between 5-10 years and having epilepsy for more than 1 year's duration. Some 52% of the children had partial epilepsy whilst the remaining had generalized epilepsy. The median seizure frequency was one per 6 months. The majority of the patients (86%) were living in villages. The family income was less than 1000 Rs per month (1 USD = 42 INR) for 66% of the patients. A decline in social activities, after the onset of epilepsy in their children, was reported by 80% of the parents. Daily routines were significantly affected in over 75% of the parents. Parents had been experiencing frustration (52%) and hopelessness (76%), whilst 60% were in financial difficulties. The most important item of expenditure was cost of drugs or cost of travel to hospital for 54% and 36% parents respectively. Impaired emotional status and poor social adaptation were co-related with the severity of epilepsy (frequent seizures/generalized seizures/attention disorder) and low economic status of the parents. These observations need to be borne in mind while organizing rehabilitation programs for epilepsy.  (+info)

Health effects of passive smoking-10: Summary of effects of parental smoking on the respiratory health of children and implications for research. (6/5222)

BACKGROUND: Two recent reviews have assessed the effect of parental smoking on respiratory disease in children. METHODS: The results of the systematic quantitative review published as a series in Thorax are summarised and brought up to date by considering papers appearing on Embase or Medline up to June 1998. The findings are compared with those of the review published recently by the Californian Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). Areas requiring further research are identified. RESULTS: Overall there is a very consistent picture with odds ratios for respiratory illnesses and symptoms and middle ear disease of between 1.2 and 1.6 for either parent smoking, the odds usually being higher in pre-school than in school aged children. For sudden infant death syndrome the odds ratio for maternal smoking is about 2. Significant effects from paternal smoking suggest a role for postnatal exposure to environmental tobacco smoke. Recent publications do not lead us to alter the conclusions of our earlier reviews. While essentially narrative rather than systematic and quantitative, the findings of the Californian EPA review are broadly similar. In addition they have reviewed studies of the effects of environmental tobacco smoke on children with cystic fibrosis and conclude from the limited evidence that there is a strong case for a relationship between parental smoking and admissions to hospital. They also review data from adults of the effects of acute exposure to environmental tobacco smoke under laboratory conditions which suggest acute effects on spirometric parameters rather than on bronchial hyperresponsiveness. It seems likely that such effects are also present in children. CONCLUSIONS: Substantial benefits to children would arise if parents stopped smoking after birth, even if the mother smoked during pregnancy. Policies need to be developed which reduce smoking amongst parents and protect infants and young children from exposure to environmental tobacco smoke. The weight of evidence is such that new prevalence studies are no longer justified. What are needed are studies which allow comparison of the effects of critical periods of exposure to cigarette smoke, particularly in utero, early infancy, and later childhood. Where longitudinal studies are carried out they should be analysed to look at the way in which changes in exposure are related to changes in outcome. Better still would be studies demonstrating reversibility of adverse effects, especially in asthmatic subjects or children with cystic fibrosis.  (+info)

Diabetic nephropathy is associated with an increased familial risk of stroke. (7/5222)

OBJECTIVE: To test the hypothesis that genetic susceptibility to diabetic nephropathy is associated with an increased familial risk of vascular disease, we have examined the causes and rates of death of parents of individuals with type 1 diabetes complicated by diabetic nephropathy compared with the causes and rates of death of parents of control subjects with diabetes uncomplicated by nephropathy. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: Individuals with at least a 14-year duration of type 1 diabetes complicated by diabetic nephropathy were identified and matched for age, sex, and duration of diabetes to control subjects. A total of 118 patients and 118 matched control subjects were identified and approached to obtain information on parental age and cause of death. For parents who had died, the cause of death was ascertained from the death certificate. RESULTS: Kaplan-Meier curves showed that parents of subjects with nephropathy (PN) had reduced survival compared with parents of diabetic subjects without nephropathy (PC) (log rank test P < 0.05). There was an excess of all vascular deaths and, in particular, strokes in the parents of subjects with nephropathy (PN: 20 of 103 deaths, 19% vs. PC: 3 of 66 deaths, 4%; Fisher's exact test P < 0.01). CONCLUSIONS: Parents of diabetic patients with nephropathy have reduced survival. This seems to be largely explained by an increase in vascular deaths and, in particular, a four-fold increase in the number of strokes. This supports the hypothesis that a common hereditary risk factor predisposes to both vascular death and diabetic renal disease.  (+info)

Urinary cotinine and exposure to parental smoking in a population of children with asthma. (8/5222)

BACKGROUND: Studies of the effects of tobacco smoke often rely on reported exposure to cigarette smoke, a measure that is subject to bias. We describe here the relationship between parental smoking exposure as assessed by urinary cotinine excretion and lung function in children with asthma. METHODS: We studied 90 children 4-14 years of age, who reported a confirmed diagnosis or symptoms of asthma. In each child, we assessed baseline pulmonary function (spirometry) and bronchial responsiveness to carbachol stimulation. Urinary cotinine was measured by HPLC with ultraviolet detection. RESULTS: Urinary cotinine concentrations in the children were significantly correlated (P <0.001) with the number of cigarettes the parents, especially the mothers, smoked. Bronchial responsiveness to carbachol (but not spirometry test results) was correlated (P <0.03) with urinary cotinine in the children. CONCLUSION: Passive smoke exposure increases the bronchial responsiveness to carbachol in asthmatic children.  (+info)

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "parents" is not a term that has a medical definition. In general usage, parents are the two people (typically) who bring up and care for a child, or who have given birth to or adopted a child. They are responsible for the child's housing, food, clothing, education, and medical care. Is there a specific medical or healthcare-related context you had in mind? I would be happy to help further if I can.

There is no formal medical definition for "child of impaired parents." However, it generally refers to a child who has at least one parent with physical, mental, or psychological challenges that impact their ability to care for themselves and/or their children. These impairments may include substance abuse disorders, mental illnesses, chronic medical conditions, or developmental disabilities.

Children of impaired parents often face unique challenges and stressors in their lives, which can affect their emotional, social, and cognitive development. They may have to take on additional responsibilities at home, experience neglect or abuse, or witness disturbing behaviors related to their parent's impairment. As a result, these children are at higher risk for developing mental health issues, behavioral problems, and academic difficulties.

Support services and interventions, such as family therapy, counseling, and community resources, can help mitigate the negative effects of growing up with impaired parents and improve outcomes for these children.

There is no specific medical definition for "single parent." It is a social term used to describe a person who is raising one or more children without the other parent's involvement. This could be due to various reasons such as divorce, separation, death, or absence of the other parent. The responsibilities and challenges faced by single parents can sometimes have implications for their physical and mental health, but it is not a medical term or concept.

I couldn't find a medical definition specifically for "professional-family relations," as it is more commonly referred to as "professional-patient relationship" in the medical field. However, I can provide you with the definition of professional-patient relationship:

A professional-patient relationship is a formal relationship between a healthcare provider and a patient, characterized by trust, honesty, and mutual respect. The healthcare provider has a duty to act in the best interest of the patient, providing competent and ethical care, while maintaining appropriate boundaries and confidentiality. Effective communication, shared decision-making, and informed consent are essential components of this relationship.

Family members may also be involved in the professional-patient relationship, particularly when the patient is unable to make decisions for themselves or when family involvement is necessary for the patient's care. In these cases, healthcare providers must communicate clearly and respectfully with family members while still maintaining the primary focus on the patient's needs and autonomy.

The term "Fathers" is a general term used to describe male parents or parental figures. It does not have a specific medical definition. In the context of genetics and reproduction, the father is the biological male who contributes his sperm to fertilize an egg, resulting in conception and pregnancy. However, it's important to note that there are many different types of families and parental relationships, and not all fathers are biological parents or male.

A questionnaire in the medical context is a standardized, systematic, and structured tool used to gather information from individuals regarding their symptoms, medical history, lifestyle, or other health-related factors. It typically consists of a series of written questions that can be either self-administered or administered by an interviewer. Questionnaires are widely used in various areas of healthcare, including clinical research, epidemiological studies, patient care, and health services evaluation to collect data that can inform diagnosis, treatment planning, and population health management. They provide a consistent and organized method for obtaining information from large groups or individual patients, helping to ensure accurate and comprehensive data collection while minimizing bias and variability in the information gathered.

Child behavior refers to the actions, reactions, and interactions exhibited by children in response to their environment, experiences, and developmental stage. It is a broad term that encompasses various aspects, including emotional, social, cognitive, and physical development.

Child behavior can be categorized into two main types:

1. Desirable or positive behaviors - These are behaviors that promote healthy development, social interactions, and learning. Examples include sharing toys, following rules, expressing emotions appropriately, and demonstrating empathy towards others.
2. Challenging or negative behaviors - These are behaviors that hinder healthy development, social interactions, and learning. Examples include aggression, defiance, tantrums, anxiety, and withdrawal.

Understanding child behavior is crucial for parents, caregivers, educators, and healthcare professionals to provide appropriate support, guidance, and interventions to promote positive developmental outcomes in children. Factors influencing child behavior include genetics, temperament, environment, parenting style, and life experiences.

Parental consent refers to the legal right and obligation of parents or guardians to make decisions on behalf of a minor child, including providing authorization for medical treatment. The specific requirements for parental consent may vary depending on jurisdiction, but generally, it involves providing written permission for a medical procedure or treatment after being fully informed about the nature, risks, benefits, and alternatives of the proposed care.

In some cases, parental consent may be required for routine medical procedures, while in other situations, it may only be necessary for more invasive or higher-risk treatments. Healthcare providers must obtain appropriate parental consent before performing medical procedures on minors to ensure that they are acting within the bounds of the law and protecting the best interests of their patients.

It's important to note that in some circumstances, such as when a minor is mature enough to make their own healthcare decisions or if seeking treatment for certain sensitive issues (such as reproductive health), parental consent may not be required, and the minor may be able to provide informed consent themselves.

The term "family" in a medical context often refers to a group of individuals who are related by blood, marriage, or adoption and who consider themselves to be a single household. This can include spouses, parents, children, siblings, grandparents, and other extended family members. In some cases, the term may also be used more broadly to refer to any close-knit group of people who provide emotional and social support for one another, regardless of their biological or legal relationship.

In healthcare settings, understanding a patient's family dynamics can be important for providing effective care. Family members may be involved in decision-making about medical treatments, providing care and support at home, and communicating with healthcare providers. Additionally, cultural beliefs and values within families can influence health behaviors and attitudes towards medical care, making it essential for healthcare professionals to take a culturally sensitive approach when working with patients and their families.

A newborn infant is a baby who is within the first 28 days of life. This period is also referred to as the neonatal period. Newborns require specialized care and attention due to their immature bodily systems and increased vulnerability to various health issues. They are closely monitored for signs of well-being, growth, and development during this critical time.

Child rearing, also known as child care or child raising, refers to the process of caring for and raising children from infancy through adolescence. This includes providing for their physical needs such as food, clothing, and shelter, as well as their emotional, social, and intellectual development. Child rearing involves a range of activities such as feeding, bathing, dressing, educating, disciplining, and providing love and support. It is typically the responsibility of parents or guardians, but may also involve other family members, teachers, caregivers, and community institutions. Effective child rearing requires knowledge, skills, patience, and a commitment to meeting the needs of the child in a loving and supportive environment.

Childhood behavior disorders are a group of disruptive behaviors that are more frequent or severe than is typical for the child's age and development. These behaviors can cause significant impairment in the child's life, including their relationships with family, friends, and at school. Common examples of childhood behavior disorders include:

1. Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD): A chronic condition characterized by difficulty paying attention, impulsivity, and hyperactivity.
2. Oppositional Defiant Disorder (ODD): A pattern of negative, hostile, and defiant behavior towards authority figures.
3. Conduct Disorder: A repetitive and persistent pattern of behavior that violates the rights of others or major age-appropriate societal norms or rules.
4. Intermittent Explosive Disorder (IED): A disorder characterized by recurrent impulsive aggressive behavior disproportionate to the situation.
5. Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD): A neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by difficulties in social interaction, communication, and repetitive behaviors.
6. Tourette Syndrome: A neurological disorder characterized by repetitive, involuntary movements and vocalizations called tics.

It's important to note that children with behavior disorders often have other conditions such as learning disabilities, mood disorders, or anxiety disorders. Early identification and treatment of these disorders can significantly improve the child's outcome.

An "attitude to health" is a set of beliefs, values, and behaviors that an individual holds regarding their own health and well-being. It encompasses their overall approach to maintaining good health, preventing illness, seeking medical care, and managing any existing health conditions.

A positive attitude to health typically includes:

1. A belief in the importance of self-care and taking responsibility for one's own health.
2. Engaging in regular exercise, eating a balanced diet, getting enough sleep, and avoiding harmful behaviors such as smoking and excessive alcohol consumption.
3. Regular check-ups and screenings to detect potential health issues early on.
4. Seeking medical care when necessary and following recommended treatment plans.
5. A willingness to learn about and implement new healthy habits and lifestyle changes.
6. Developing a strong support network of family, friends, and healthcare professionals.

On the other hand, a negative attitude to health may involve:

1. Neglecting self-care and failing to take responsibility for one's own health.
2. Engaging in unhealthy behaviors such as sedentary lifestyle, poor diet, lack of sleep, smoking, and excessive alcohol consumption.
3. Avoidance of regular check-ups and screenings, leading to delayed detection and treatment of potential health issues.
4. Resistance to seeking medical care or following recommended treatment plans.
5. Closed-mindedness towards new healthy habits and lifestyle changes.
6. Lack of a support network or reluctance to seek help from others.

Overall, an individual's attitude to health can significantly impact their physical and mental well-being, as well as their ability to manage and overcome any health challenges that may arise.

"Family Health" is not a term that has a single, widely accepted medical definition. However, in the context of healthcare and public health, "family health" often refers to the physical, mental, and social well-being of all members of a family unit. It includes the assessment, promotion, and prevention of health conditions that affect individual family members as well as the family as a whole.

Family health may also encompass interventions and programs that aim to strengthen family relationships, communication, and functioning, as these factors can have a significant impact on overall health outcomes. Additionally, family health may involve addressing social determinants of health, such as poverty, housing, and access to healthcare, which can affect the health of families and communities.

Overall, family health is a holistic approach to healthcare that recognizes the importance of considering the needs and experiences of all family members in promoting and maintaining good health.

"Health Knowledge, Attitudes, and Practices" (HKAP) is a term used in public health to refer to the knowledge, beliefs, assumptions, and behaviors that individuals possess or engage in that are related to health. Here's a brief definition of each component:

1. Health Knowledge: Refers to the factual information and understanding that individuals have about various health-related topics, such as anatomy, physiology, disease processes, and healthy behaviors.
2. Attitudes: Represent the positive or negative evaluations, feelings, or dispositions that people hold towards certain health issues, practices, or services. These attitudes can influence their willingness to adopt and maintain healthy behaviors.
3. Practices: Encompass the specific actions or habits that individuals engage in related to their health, such as dietary choices, exercise routines, hygiene practices, and use of healthcare services.

HKAP is a multidimensional concept that helps public health professionals understand and address various factors influencing individual and community health outcomes. By assessing and addressing knowledge gaps, negative attitudes, or unhealthy practices, interventions can be designed to promote positive behavior change and improve overall health status.

Child welfare is a broad term that refers to the overall well-being and protection of children. It encompasses a range of services and interventions aimed at promoting the physical, emotional, social, and educational development of children, while also protecting them from harm, abuse, and neglect. The medical definition of child welfare may include:

1. Preventive Services: Programs and interventions designed to strengthen families and prevent child maltreatment, such as home visiting programs, parent education classes, and family support services.
2. Protective Services: Interventions that aim to protect children from harm, abuse, or neglect, including investigations of reports of maltreatment, removal of children from dangerous situations, and provision of alternative care arrangements.
3. Family Reunification Services: Efforts to reunite children with their families when it is safe and in the best interest of the child, such as family therapy, parent-child visitation, and case management services.
4. Permanency Planning: The development of long-term plans for children who cannot safely return to their families, including adoption, guardianship, or other permanent living arrangements.
5. Foster Care Services: Provision of temporary care for children who cannot safely remain in their own homes, including placement with foster families, group homes, or residential treatment facilities.
6. Child Health and Development Services: Programs that promote the physical, emotional, and developmental well-being of children, such as health screenings, immunizations, mental health services, and early intervention programs for children with special needs.
7. Advocacy and Policy Development: Efforts to promote policies and practices that support the well-being and protection of children, including advocating for laws and regulations that protect children's rights and ensure their safety and well-being.

Bereavement is the state of loss or grief experienced when a person experiences the death of a loved one, friend, or family member. It is a normal response to the death of someone close and can involve a range of emotions such as sadness, anger, guilt, and anxiety. The grieving process can be different for everyone and can take time to work through. Professional support may be sought to help cope with the loss.

Child psychology is a branch of psychology that deals with the mental, emotional, and social development of children from birth to adolescence. It involves the study of children's behavior, thoughts, feelings, and relationships with others, including their families, peers, and teachers. Child psychologists use various research methods, such as observation, interviews, and testing, to understand how children develop and learn. They also work with children who have emotional, social, or behavioral problems, providing assessments, therapy, and counseling services to help them overcome these challenges. Additionally, child psychologists may provide consultation and training to parents, teachers, and other professionals who work with children.

In the context of medical terminology, "attitude" generally refers to the position or posture of a patient's body or a part of it. It can also refer to the mental set or disposition that a person has towards their health, illness, or healthcare providers. However, it is not a term that has a specific medical definition like other medical terminologies do.

For example, in orthopedics, "attitude" may be used to describe the position of a limb or joint during an examination or surgical procedure. In psychology, "attitude" may refer to a person's feelings, beliefs, and behaviors towards a particular object, issue, or idea related to their health.

Therefore, the meaning of "attitude" in medical terminology can vary depending on the context in which it is used.

In the medical context, communication refers to the process of exchanging information, ideas, or feelings between two or more individuals in order to facilitate understanding, cooperation, and decision-making. Effective communication is critical in healthcare settings to ensure that patients receive accurate diagnoses, treatment plans, and follow-up care. It involves not only verbal and written communication but also nonverbal cues such as body language and facial expressions.

Healthcare providers must communicate clearly and empathetically with their patients to build trust, address concerns, and ensure that they understand their medical condition and treatment options. Similarly, healthcare teams must communicate effectively with each other to coordinate care, avoid errors, and provide the best possible outcomes for their patients. Communication skills are essential for all healthcare professionals, including physicians, nurses, therapists, and social workers.

"Adult children" is a term used to describe individuals who are typically adults in age, but who still have developmental or psychological dependencies on their parents or caregivers. This term is often used in the context of adult children of alcoholics or other dysfunctional families, where the adult child may exhibit behaviors such as:

* Difficulty setting boundaries
* Low self-esteem
* Fear of abandonment
* Difficulty with intimacy and commitment
* A tendency to assume responsibility for others' feelings and actions

These patterns often stem from childhood experiences in which the adult child took on a caretaking role or felt responsible for their parents' emotions. While "adult children" is not a formal medical term, it is widely used in psychology and social work to describe this population.

Adolescent behavior refers to the typical behaviors, attitudes, and emotions exhibited by individuals who are within the developmental stage of adolescence, which generally falls between the ages of 10-24 years old. The World Health Organization (WHO) defines an adolescent as "an individual who is in the process of growing from childhood to adulthood, and whose age ranges from 10 to 19 years." However, it's important to note that the specific age range can vary depending on cultural, societal, and individual factors.

During adolescence, individuals experience significant physical, cognitive, emotional, and social changes that can influence their behavior. Some common behaviors exhibited by adolescents include:

1. Increased independence and autonomy seeking: Adolescents may start to challenge authority figures, question rules, and seek more control over their lives as they develop a stronger sense of self.
2. Peer influence: Adolescents often place greater importance on their relationships with peers and may engage in behaviors that are influenced by their friends, such as experimenting with substances or adopting certain fashion styles.
3. Risk-taking behavior: Adolescents are more likely to engage in risky behaviors, such as reckless driving, substance use, and unsafe sexual practices, due to a combination of factors, including brain development, peer pressure, and the desire for novelty and excitement.
4. Emotional volatility: Hormonal changes and brain development during adolescence can lead to increased emotional intensity and instability, resulting in mood swings, irritability, and impulsivity.
5. Identity exploration: Adolescents are often preoccupied with discovering their own identity, values, beliefs, and goals, which may result in experimentation with different hairstyles, clothing, hobbies, or relationships.
6. Cognitive development: Adolescents develop the ability to think more abstractly, consider multiple perspectives, and engage in complex problem-solving, which can lead to improved decision-making and self-reflection.
7. Formation of long-term relationships: Adolescence is a critical period for establishing close friendships and romantic relationships that can have lasting impacts on an individual's social and emotional development.

It is essential to recognize that adolescent development is a complex and dynamic process, and individual experiences may vary significantly. While some risky behaviors are common during this stage, it is crucial to provide support, guidance, and resources to help adolescents navigate the challenges they face and promote healthy development.

"Family relations" is a broad term that refers to the various interactions, roles, and relationships between members of a family unit. This can include the dynamics between parents and children, siblings, extended family members, and any other individuals considered part of the family.

Family relations can be influenced by a variety of factors, including cultural background, individual personalities, life experiences, and family structure. These relationships can have a significant impact on an individual's emotional, social, and psychological development and well-being.

Positive family relations are characterized by open communication, mutual respect, support, and affection. On the other hand, negative family relations can be marked by conflict, hostility, neglect, and abuse. It is important to note that family relations can be complex and multifaceted, with both positive and negative aspects coexisting within the same family system.

In a medical context, understanding family relations can be crucial for healthcare providers in order to provide effective care and support to their patients. This may involve assessing family dynamics and communication patterns, as well as providing education and resources to help families navigate any challenges or conflicts that may arise.

A cross-sectional study is a type of observational research design that examines the relationship between variables at one point in time. It provides a snapshot or a "cross-section" of the population at a particular moment, allowing researchers to estimate the prevalence of a disease or condition and identify potential risk factors or associations.

In a cross-sectional study, data is collected from a sample of participants at a single time point, and the variables of interest are measured simultaneously. This design can be used to investigate the association between exposure and outcome, but it cannot establish causality because it does not follow changes over time.

Cross-sectional studies can be conducted using various data collection methods, such as surveys, interviews, or medical examinations. They are often used in epidemiology to estimate the prevalence of a disease or condition in a population and to identify potential risk factors that may contribute to its development. However, because cross-sectional studies only provide a snapshot of the population at one point in time, they cannot account for changes over time or determine whether exposure preceded the outcome.

Therefore, while cross-sectional studies can be useful for generating hypotheses and identifying potential associations between variables, further research using other study designs, such as cohort or case-control studies, is necessary to establish causality and confirm any findings.

"Paternal behavior" is not a term that has a specific medical definition. However, in general, it refers to the nurturing and protective behaviors exhibited by a male animal or human towards their offspring. In humans, paternal behavior can include providing financial support, emotional care, and protection for their children. It can also involve active involvement in child-rearing activities such as feeding, bathing, playing, teaching, and disciplining.

In some cases, "paternal behavior" may be used to describe a syndrome or set of behaviors exhibited by individuals who have a particular genetic mutation associated with increased paternal caregiving. However, this is not a widely recognized medical term or condition.

It's worth noting that the study of paternal behavior and its impact on child development has gained increasing attention in recent years, as researchers seek to better understand the complex interplay between genetic, hormonal, and environmental factors that shape parenting behaviors and outcomes for children.

A disabled child is a child who has a physical, cognitive, or developmental condition that limits their ability to perform everyday tasks and activities. This limitation can be temporary or permanent and may range from mild to severe. According to the Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA), a person with a disability is someone who has a physical or mental impairment that substantially limits one or more major life activities, has a record of such an impairment, or is regarded as having such an impairment.

Disabled children may face challenges in various areas of their lives, including mobility, communication, self-care, learning, and socialization. Some common examples of disabilities that affect children include cerebral palsy, Down syndrome, autism spectrum disorder, intellectual disability, hearing or vision loss, and spina bifida.

It is important to note that disabled children have the same rights and entitlements as other children, and they should be given equal opportunities to participate in all aspects of society. This includes access to education, healthcare, social services, and community activities. With appropriate support and accommodations, many disabled children can lead fulfilling lives and reach their full potential.

Adoption is a legal process in which the rights and responsibilities of being a parent are transferred from one person or couple to another. It permanently gives adoptive parents custody of the child and makes them legally responsible for the child's care and well-being. The birth parents' legal rights and responsibilities are typically terminated as part of the adoption process, although in some cases they may retain certain rights or have ongoing contact with the child. Adoption can involve infants, older children, or siblings, and can be arranged through private agencies, foster care systems, or international channels.

Socioeconomic factors are a range of interconnected conditions and influences that affect the opportunities and resources a person or group has to maintain and improve their health and well-being. These factors include:

1. Economic stability: This includes employment status, job security, income level, and poverty status. Lower income and lack of employment are associated with poorer health outcomes.
2. Education: Higher levels of education are generally associated with better health outcomes. Education can affect a person's ability to access and understand health information, as well as their ability to navigate the healthcare system.
3. Social and community context: This includes factors such as social support networks, discrimination, and community safety. Strong social supports and positive community connections are associated with better health outcomes, while discrimination and lack of safety can negatively impact health.
4. Healthcare access and quality: Access to affordable, high-quality healthcare is an important socioeconomic factor that can significantly impact a person's health. Factors such as insurance status, availability of providers, and cultural competency of healthcare systems can all affect healthcare access and quality.
5. Neighborhood and built environment: The physical conditions in which people live, work, and play can also impact their health. Factors such as housing quality, transportation options, availability of healthy foods, and exposure to environmental hazards can all influence health outcomes.

Socioeconomic factors are often interrelated and can have a cumulative effect on health outcomes. For example, someone who lives in a low-income neighborhood with limited access to healthy foods and safe parks may also face challenges related to employment, education, and healthcare access that further impact their health. Addressing socioeconomic factors is an important part of promoting health equity and reducing health disparities.

Child care, also known as daycare, refers to the supervision and care of children usually outside of their home, provided by a professional or licensed facility. This can include early education, meals, and activities for children while their parents are at work or otherwise unable to care for them. Child care may be provided in a variety of settings such as child care centers, family child care homes, and in-home care. It is an essential service for many families with young children, allowing parents to maintain employment and providing children with socialization and learning opportunities.

Intergenerational relations, in the context of healthcare and social sciences, refer to the interactions, relationships, and connections between different generations within a family or society. These relations can encompass various aspects such as communication, support, values, and attitudes. In the medical field, intergenerational relations may be studied to understand the impact of health policies, healthcare practices, and disease prevalence across different age groups. It can also help in identifying and addressing health disparities and creating age-friendly healthcare systems.

Longitudinal studies are a type of research design where data is collected from the same subjects repeatedly over a period of time, often years or even decades. These studies are used to establish patterns of changes and events over time, and can help researchers identify causal relationships between variables. They are particularly useful in fields such as epidemiology, psychology, and sociology, where the focus is on understanding developmental trends and the long-term effects of various factors on health and behavior.

In medical research, longitudinal studies can be used to track the progression of diseases over time, identify risk factors for certain conditions, and evaluate the effectiveness of treatments or interventions. For example, a longitudinal study might follow a group of individuals over several decades to assess their exposure to certain environmental factors and their subsequent development of chronic diseases such as cancer or heart disease. By comparing data collected at multiple time points, researchers can identify trends and correlations that may not be apparent in shorter-term studies.

Longitudinal studies have several advantages over other research designs, including their ability to establish temporal relationships between variables, track changes over time, and reduce the impact of confounding factors. However, they also have some limitations, such as the potential for attrition (loss of participants over time), which can introduce bias and affect the validity of the results. Additionally, longitudinal studies can be expensive and time-consuming to conduct, requiring significant resources and a long-term commitment from both researchers and study participants.

Child health services refer to a range of medical and supportive services designed to promote the physical, mental, and social well-being of children from birth up to adolescence. These services aim to prevent or identify health problems early, provide treatment and management for existing conditions, and support healthy growth and development.

Examples of child health services include:

1. Well-child visits: Regular checkups with a pediatrician or other healthcare provider to monitor growth, development, and overall health.
2. Immunizations: Vaccinations to protect against infectious diseases such as measles, mumps, rubella, polio, and hepatitis B.
3. Screening tests: Blood tests, hearing and vision screenings, and other diagnostic tests to identify potential health issues early.
4. Developmental assessments: Evaluations of a child's cognitive, emotional, social, and physical development to ensure they are meeting age-appropriate milestones.
5. Dental care: Preventive dental services such as cleanings, fluoride treatments, and sealants, as well as restorative care for cavities or other dental problems.
6. Mental health services: Counseling, therapy, and medication management for children experiencing emotional or behavioral challenges.
7. Nutrition counseling: Education and support to help families make healthy food choices and promote good nutrition.
8. Chronic disease management: Coordinated care for children with ongoing medical conditions such as asthma, diabetes, or cerebral palsy.
9. Injury prevention: Programs that teach parents and children about safety measures to reduce the risk of accidents and injuries.
10. Public health initiatives: Community-based programs that promote healthy lifestyles, provide access to healthcare services, and address social determinants of health such as poverty, housing, and education.

Psychological stress is the response of an individual's mind and body to challenging or demanding situations. It can be defined as a state of emotional and physical tension resulting from adversity, demand, or change. This response can involve a variety of symptoms, including emotional, cognitive, behavioral, and physiological components.

Emotional responses may include feelings of anxiety, fear, anger, sadness, or frustration. Cognitive responses might involve difficulty concentrating, racing thoughts, or negative thinking patterns. Behaviorally, psychological stress can lead to changes in appetite, sleep patterns, social interactions, and substance use. Physiologically, the body's "fight-or-flight" response is activated, leading to increased heart rate, blood pressure, muscle tension, and other symptoms.

Psychological stress can be caused by a wide range of factors, including work or school demands, financial problems, relationship issues, traumatic events, chronic illness, and major life changes. It's important to note that what causes stress in one person may not cause stress in another, as individual perceptions and coping mechanisms play a significant role.

Chronic psychological stress can have negative effects on both mental and physical health, increasing the risk of conditions such as anxiety disorders, depression, heart disease, diabetes, and autoimmune diseases. Therefore, it's essential to identify sources of stress and develop effective coping strategies to manage and reduce its impact.

I believe there may be some confusion in your question. "Schools" is not a medical term. It generally refers to educational institutions where children or adults receive instruction in various subjects. If you are asking about a medical condition that might be associated with the word "school," it's possible you could mean "psychological disorders that first present or become evident during the school-aged period (approximately 5-18 years of age)." These disorders can include, but are not limited to, ADHD, learning disabilities, anxiety disorders, and mood disorders. However, without more context, it's difficult for me to provide a more specific answer.

I'm happy to help, but it seems there might be some confusion in your question. "Interviews" is a broad topic that isn't typically a medical term or subject. However, interviews can certainly be a part of medical settings and procedures, such as job interviews for healthcare positions, patient interviews during medical consultations, or research interviews in clinical studies.

In the context of medical education, an interview might refer to the process by which medical schools evaluate applicants for admission, known as the medical school interview. This is a critical component of the application process and typically involves one-on-one conversations between the applicant and an admissions committee member or a series of multiple mini-interviews (MMIs) with various evaluators.

If you could provide more context or clarify what you mean by "Interviews as Topic" in a medical setting, I'd be happy to help further!

Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) with hyperactivity is a neurodevelopmental disorder that affects both children and adults. The condition is characterized by symptoms including:

1. Difficulty paying attention or staying focused on a single task
2. Impulsivity, or acting without thinking
3. Hyperactivity, or excessive fidgeting, restlessness, or talking

In order to be diagnosed with ADHD with hyperactivity, an individual must exhibit these symptoms to a degree that is developmentally inappropriate and interferes with their daily functioning. Additionally, the symptoms must have been present for at least six months and be present in multiple settings (e.g., at home, school, work).

It's important to note that ADHD can manifest differently in different people, and some individuals may experience predominantly inattentive or impulsive symptoms rather than hyperactive ones. However, when the hyperactive component is prominent, it is referred to as ADHD with hyperactivity.

Effective treatments for ADHD with hyperactivity include a combination of medication (such as stimulants) and behavioral therapy. With appropriate treatment, individuals with ADHD can learn to manage their symptoms and lead successful, fulfilling lives.

A "social environment" is not a term that has a specific medical definition, but it is often used in the context of public health and social sciences to refer to the physical and social conditions, relationships, and organized institutions that influence the health and well-being of individuals and communities.

The social environment includes factors such as:

* Social support networks (family, friends, community)
* Cultural norms and values
* Socioeconomic status (income, education, occupation)
* Housing and neighborhood conditions
* Access to resources (food, healthcare, transportation)
* Exposure to discrimination, violence, and other stressors

These factors can have a significant impact on health outcomes, as they can influence behaviors related to health (such as diet, exercise, and substance use), as well as exposure to disease and access to healthcare. Understanding the social environment is essential for developing effective public health interventions and policies that promote health equity and reduce health disparities.

Genetic hybridization is a biological process that involves the crossing of two individuals from different populations or species, which can lead to the creation of offspring with new combinations of genetic material. This occurs when the gametes (sex cells) from each parent combine during fertilization, resulting in a zygote with a unique genetic makeup.

In genetics, hybridization can also refer to the process of introducing new genetic material into an organism through various means, such as genetic engineering or selective breeding. This type of hybridization is often used in agriculture and biotechnology to create crops or animals with desirable traits, such as increased disease resistance or higher yields.

It's important to note that the term "hybrid" can refer to both crosses between different populations within a single species (intraspecific hybrids) and crosses between different species (interspecific hybrids). The latter is often more challenging, as significant genetic differences between the two parental species can lead to various reproductive barriers, making it difficult for the hybrid offspring to produce viable offspring of their own.

I'm not a medical professional, but I can tell you that the term "Father-Child Relations" is a social science or psychological concept rather than a medical one. It generally refers to the nature and quality of the emotional, social, and behavioral relationship between a father and his child. This relationship can have significant impacts on a child's development, including their cognitive, emotional, and social growth. Factors such as involvement, communication, support, and attachment are often considered when examining father-child relations.

I must clarify that the term "pedigree" is not typically used in medical definitions. Instead, it is often employed in genetics and breeding, where it refers to the recorded ancestry of an individual or a family, tracing the inheritance of specific traits or diseases. In human genetics, a pedigree can help illustrate the pattern of genetic inheritance in families over multiple generations. However, it is not a medical term with a specific clinical definition.

Child development is a multidisciplinary field that examines the biological, psychological, emotional, and social growth and changes that occur in human beings between birth and the onset of adulthood. It involves a complex interaction of genetics, environment, culture, and experiences that shape a child's growth and development over time.

Child development is typically divided into several domains, including:

1. Physical Development: This refers to the growth and changes in a child's body, including their motor skills, sensory abilities, and overall health.
2. Cognitive Development: This involves the development of a child's thinking, learning, problem-solving, memory, language, and other mental processes.
3. Emotional Development: This refers to the development of a child's emotional awareness, expression, understanding, and regulation.
4. Social Development: This involves the development of a child's ability to interact with others, form relationships, communicate effectively, and understand social norms and expectations.

Child development is an ongoing process that occurs at different rates and in different ways for each child. Understanding typical patterns of child development can help parents, educators, and healthcare providers support children's growth and identify any potential delays or concerns.

Family conflict refers to disagreements or discord between family members, which can range from minor misunderstandings or differences in opinion to more serious issues such as communication breakdowns, emotional distress, and negative behaviors. These conflicts can arise from various sources, including differing values, beliefs, expectations, and parenting styles, as well as financial problems, substance abuse, and chronic illness. In some cases, family conflicts may be resolved through open communication, compromise, and counseling, while in other situations, they may lead to more serious consequences such as divorce, separation, or estrangement.

Medical Definition:

"Risk factors" are any attribute, characteristic or exposure of an individual that increases the likelihood of developing a disease or injury. They can be divided into modifiable and non-modifiable risk factors. Modifiable risk factors are those that can be changed through lifestyle choices or medical treatment, while non-modifiable risk factors are inherent traits such as age, gender, or genetic predisposition. Examples of modifiable risk factors include smoking, alcohol consumption, physical inactivity, and unhealthy diet, while non-modifiable risk factors include age, sex, and family history. It is important to note that having a risk factor does not guarantee that a person will develop the disease, but rather indicates an increased susceptibility.

Educational status refers to the level or stage of education that a person has reached. It can be used to describe an individual's educational background, achievements, and qualifications. Educational status can be categorized in various ways, including by level (e.g., elementary school, high school, college, graduate school), years of schooling completed, or type of degree earned (e.g., bachelor's, master's, doctoral).

In medical settings, educational status may be used as a demographic variable to describe the characteristics of a patient population or to identify potential disparities in health outcomes based on education level. Research has shown that higher levels of education are often associated with better health outcomes, including lower rates of chronic diseases and improved mental health. Therefore, understanding a patient's educational status can help healthcare providers tailor their care and education strategies to meet the unique needs and challenges of each individual.

Consanguinity is a medical and genetic term that refers to the degree of genetic relationship between two individuals who share common ancestors. Consanguineous relationships exist when people are related by blood, through a common ancestor or siblings who have children together. The closer the relationship between the two individuals, the higher the degree of consanguinity.

The degree of consanguinity is typically expressed as a percentage or fraction, with higher values indicating a closer genetic relationship. For example, first-degree relatives, such as parents and children or full siblings, share approximately 50% of their genes and have a consanguinity coefficient of 0.25 (or 25%).

Consanguinity can increase the risk of certain genetic disorders and birth defects in offspring due to the increased likelihood of sharing harmful recessive genes. The risks depend on the degree of consanguinity, with closer relationships carrying higher risks. It is important for individuals who are planning to have children and have a history of consanguinity to consider genetic counseling and testing to assess their risk of passing on genetic disorders.

A caregiver is an individual who provides assistance and support to another person who is unable to meet their own needs for activities of daily living due to illness, disability, frailty, or other reasons. Caregiving can take many forms, including providing physical care, emotional support, managing medications, assisting with mobility, and helping with household tasks and errands. Caregivers may be family members, friends, or professional providers, and the level of care they provide can range from a few hours a week to round-the-clock assistance. In medical contexts, caregivers are often referred to as informal or family caregivers when they are unpaid relatives or friends, and professional or paid caregivers when they are hired to provide care.

I could not find a specific medical definition for "Mother-Child Relations," as it is more commonly studied in fields such as psychology, sociology, and social work. However, I can provide you with some related medical or psychological terms that might help you understand the concept better:

1. Attachment Theory: Developed by John Bowlby and Mary Ainsworth, attachment theory describes the emotional bond between an infant and their primary caregiver (usually the mother). Secure attachment is crucial for healthy emotional and social development in children.
2. Mother-Infant Interaction: This refers to the reciprocal communication and interaction between a mother and her infant, which includes verbal and non-verbal cues, such as facial expressions, gestures, touch, and vocalizations. Positive and responsive interactions contribute to healthy emotional development and secure attachment.
3. Parent-Child Relationship: A broader term that encompasses the emotional bond, communication patterns, and behaviors between a parent (in this case, the mother) and their child. This relationship significantly influences a child's cognitive, social, and emotional development.
4. Maternal Depression: A mental health condition in which a mother experiences depressive symptoms, such as sadness, hopelessness, or loss of interest in activities, after giving birth (postpartum depression) or at any point during the first year after childbirth (major depressive disorder with peripartum onset). Maternal depression can negatively impact mother-child relations and a child's development.
5. Parenting Styles: Different approaches to raising children, characterized by the degree of demandingness and responsiveness. Four main parenting styles include authoritative (high demandingness, high responsiveness), authoritarian (high demandingness, low responsiveness), permissive (low demandingness, high responsiveness), and neglectful/uninvolved (low demandingness, low responsiveness). These styles can influence mother-child relations and child development.

While not a direct medical definition, these terms highlight the significance of mother-child relations in various aspects of child development and mental health.

"Family characteristics" is a broad term that can refer to various attributes, dynamics, and structures of a family unit. These characteristics can include:

1. Family structure: This refers to the composition of the family, such as whether it is a nuclear family (two parents and their children), single-parent family, extended family, blended family, or same-sex parent family.
2. Family roles: The responsibilities and expectations assigned to each family member, such as caregiver, provider, or decision-maker.
3. Communication patterns: How family members communicate with one another, including frequency, tone, and level of openness.
4. Problem-solving styles: How the family approaches and resolves conflicts and challenges.
5. Cultural and religious practices: The values, traditions, and beliefs that shape the family's identity and worldview.
6. Family functioning: The overall health and effectiveness of the family system, including its ability to adapt to change and support individual members' needs.
7. Attachment styles: The quality and nature of the emotional bonds between family members, which can impact attachment security and relationships throughout life.
8. Parenting style: The approach that parents take in raising their children, such as authoritative, authoritarian, permissive, or uninvolved.
9. Family history: Past experiences and events that have shaped the family's development and dynamics.
10. Genetic factors: Inherited traits and predispositions that can influence family members' health, behavior, and personality.

Understanding family characteristics is essential in fields such as medicine, psychology, social work, and counseling, as these factors can significantly impact individual and family well-being.

In the context of medicine, a proxy is an individual who is authorized to make healthcare decisions on behalf of another person, also known as the principal, when the principal is unable to make or communicate their own decisions. This may be due to factors such as incapacity, illness, or injury. The proxy is typically appointed through legal documents such as advance directives, health care powers of attorney, or guardianship arrangements. It's important for individuals to establish clear advance care plans and choose a trusted proxy to ensure their healthcare wishes are respected when they cannot speak for themselves.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "United States" is a geopolitical entity, specifically the name of the country consisting of 50 states, and it is not a medical term or concept. Therefore, I can't provide a medical definition for it. If you have any questions related to health, medicine, or biology, I would be happy to try to help answer those!

Child custody is a legal term used in family law to describe the legal and practical relationship between a parent and his/her child such as the right of the parent to make decisions for the child's welfare and/or the right and duty to physically care for the child. In cases of divorce or separation, child custody arrangements can be made either through an agreement between the parents or by court order.

There are two main types of child custody: legal custody and physical custody. Legal custody refers to the parent's right to make important decisions about the child's upbringing, such as education, healthcare, and religious training. Physical custody refers to where the child will live and which parent will be responsible for the child's daily care.

Custody may be awarded to one parent exclusively (sole custody) or shared by both parents (joint custody). In some cases, grandparents or other relatives may also seek custody of a child. The primary consideration in any child custody case is the best interests of the child.

Parental leave is a work policy, not a medical term. However, it is related to the medical field as it often pertains to the time taken off from work by a parent for the purpose of caring for a newborn child or an adopted child. It is designed to allow employees to balance their work and family responsibilities during important transitional periods in their lives.

Parental leave policies can vary between different countries, states, and organizations. They may include maternity leave, paternity leave, and/or family leave. Maternity leave typically refers to the time taken off by a mother before and after childbirth, while paternity leave is the time taken off by the father around the time of the child's birth or adoption. Family leave can be used for various family-related reasons, such as caring for a seriously ill family member.

Parental leave policies are essential for promoting the health and well-being of both parents and children. They can help reduce stress, improve mental health, and enhance the bonding between parents and their newborn or adopted child. Additionally, parental leave policies can contribute to gender equality in the workplace by encouraging fathers to take an active role in caregiving responsibilities.

In the context of public health and medical research, a peer group is a social group whose members have similar interests, concerns, or social positions. Peer groups can play an important role in shaping individual behaviors, attitudes, and beliefs, particularly during adolescence and young adulthood. In research, studying peer groups can help researchers understand how social norms and influences affect health-related behaviors, such as substance use, sexual behavior, and mental health. It's worth noting that the term "peer group" doesn't have a specific medical definition, but it is widely used in public health and medical research to refer to these types of social groups.

"Genetic crosses" refer to the breeding of individuals with different genetic characteristics to produce offspring with specific combinations of traits. This process is commonly used in genetics research to study the inheritance patterns and function of specific genes.

There are several types of genetic crosses, including:

1. Monohybrid cross: A cross between two individuals that differ in the expression of a single gene or trait.
2. Dihybrid cross: A cross between two individuals that differ in the expression of two genes or traits.
3. Backcross: A cross between an individual from a hybrid population and one of its parental lines.
4. Testcross: A cross between an individual with unknown genotype and a homozygous recessive individual.
5. Reciprocal cross: A cross in which the male and female parents are reversed to determine if there is any effect of sex on the expression of the trait.

These genetic crosses help researchers to understand the mode of inheritance, linkage, recombination, and other genetic phenomena.

Social support in a medical context refers to the resources and assistance provided by an individual's social network, including family, friends, peers, and community groups. These resources can include emotional, informational, and instrumental support, which help individuals cope with stress, manage health conditions, and maintain their overall well-being.

Emotional support involves providing empathy, care, and encouragement to help an individual feel valued, understood, and cared for. Informational support refers to the provision of advice, guidance, and knowledge that can help an individual make informed decisions about their health or other aspects of their life. Instrumental support includes practical assistance such as help with daily tasks, financial aid, or access to resources.

Social support has been shown to have a positive impact on physical and mental health outcomes, including reduced stress levels, improved immune function, better coping skills, and increased resilience. It can also play a critical role in promoting healthy behaviors, such as adherence to medical treatments and lifestyle changes.

In the context of medicine and public health, "socialization" typically refers to the process by which individuals learn and internalize the norms, values, attitudes, and behaviors that are considered appropriate within their particular cultural, social, or community group. This process is critical for developing a sense of identity, fostering social connections, and promoting mental and emotional well-being.

Socialization can have important implications for health outcomes, as individuals who are able to effectively navigate social norms and relationships may be better equipped to access resources, seek support, and make healthy choices. On the other hand, inadequate socialization or social isolation can contribute to a range of negative health outcomes, including depression, anxiety, substance abuse, and poor physical health.

Healthcare providers may play an important role in promoting socialization and addressing social isolation among their patients, for example by connecting them with community resources, support groups, or other opportunities for social engagement.

I am not a medical professional, but I can provide you with some general information about the concept of "education" in the context of health and medicine.

In this context, education generally refers to the process of acquiring knowledge, skills, values, and attitudes related to maintaining and improving one's health and well-being, as well as preventing and managing diseases and injuries. Health education can take place in various settings, such as schools, healthcare facilities, workplaces, and communities.

Health education aims to empower individuals and populations to make informed decisions about their health and promote healthy behaviors and lifestyle choices. It covers a wide range of topics, including:

1. Anatomy and physiology
2. Nutrition and diet
3. Exercise and physical activity
4. Mental health and well-being
5. Substance use and abuse
6. Sexual and reproductive health
7. Personal hygiene and infection control
8. Chronic disease management
9. Injury prevention and safety
10. Environmental health

Health education is often delivered by healthcare professionals, educators, and community leaders, using various methods such as lectures, workshops, demonstrations, simulations, and digital media. The ultimate goal of health education is to improve overall health outcomes and reduce health disparities in populations.

"Sibling relations" is not a standard term in medical terminology. However, in a broader context, it generally refers to the relationships between brothers and sisters. It can encompass both biological and non-biological siblings who share a common parent or are raised together in a family unit. The quality of sibling relations can have an impact on psychological development, emotional well-being, and social skills throughout a person's life. However, it is not typically used in a medical context or clinical setting.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "siblings" is not a medical term. It is a term used in genealogy and sociology to refer to the brothers and sisters that someone has. Sibling relationships can have medical implications, such as when inherited genetic disorders are present in a family, but the term "siblings" itself does not have a specific medical definition.

In the context of medicine and psychology, perception refers to the neurophysiological processes, cognitive abilities, and psychological experiences that enable an individual to interpret and make sense of sensory information from their environment. It involves the integration of various stimuli such as sight, sound, touch, taste, and smell to form a coherent understanding of one's surroundings, objects, events, or ideas.

Perception is a complex and active process that includes attention, pattern recognition, interpretation, and organization of sensory information. It can be influenced by various factors, including prior experiences, expectations, cultural background, emotional states, and cognitive biases. Alterations in perception may occur due to neurological disorders, psychiatric conditions, sensory deprivation or overload, drugs, or other external factors.

In a clinical setting, healthcare professionals often assess patients' perceptions of their symptoms, illnesses, or treatments to develop individualized care plans and improve communication and adherence to treatment recommendations.

Family therapy, also known as family systems therapy, is a type of psychological counseling that involves all members of a nuclear or extended family. Its primary goal is to promote understanding and improve communication between family members in order to resolve conflicts and foster healthy relationships. It is based on the belief that the family system is an interconnected unit and that changes in one part of the system affect the other parts as well.

Family therapy can be used to address a wide range of issues, including behavioral problems in children and adolescents, mental health disorders such as depression and anxiety, substance abuse, marital conflicts, and chronic illness or disability. The therapist will typically observe the family's interaction patterns and communication styles during sessions and provide feedback and guidance on how to make positive changes.

Family therapy can be conducted with the entire family present in the same room, or it may involve individual sessions with different family members. The number of sessions required will depend on the severity and complexity of the issues being addressed. It is important for all family members to be open and willing to participate in the therapy process in order for it to be effective.

Qualitative research is a methodological approach in social sciences and healthcare research that focuses on understanding the meanings, experiences, and perspectives of individuals or groups within a specific context. It aims to gather detailed, rich data through various techniques such as interviews, focus groups, observations, and content analysis. The findings from qualitative research are typically descriptive and exploratory, providing insights into processes, perceptions, and experiences that may not be captured through quantitative methods.

In medical research, qualitative research can be used to explore patients' experiences of illness, healthcare providers' perspectives on patient care, or the cultural and social factors that influence health behaviors. It is often used in combination with quantitative methods to provide a more comprehensive understanding of complex health issues.

I am not aware of a medical definition for "Internal-External Control." However, the term "locus of control" is commonly used in psychology and medicine to describe an individual's belief about the degree to which they have control over events and outcomes in their life.

Locus of control can be categorized as either internal or external:

* Internal locus of control refers to the belief that one has control over their own life outcomes, and that these outcomes are determined by their own efforts, abilities, and choices.
* External locus of control, on the other hand, refers to the belief that events and outcomes in one's life are controlled by external factors such as luck, chance, or powerful others.

Both internal and external locus of control can have implications for health behaviors and medical outcomes. For example, individuals with an internal locus of control may be more likely to engage in healthy behaviors such as exercise and healthy eating, while those with an external locus of control may be more likely to engage in risky behaviors such as smoking or substance abuse. Similarly, a strong internal locus of control has been associated with better medical outcomes, including improved mental health and reduced symptoms of chronic illness.

"Focus groups" is a term from the field of social science research, rather than medicine. It does not have a specific medical definition. However, focus groups are sometimes used in medical research to gather data and insights from a small group of people on a specific topic or product. This can include gathering feedback on patient experiences, testing prototypes of medical devices or treatments, or exploring attitudes and perceptions related to health issues. The goal is to gain a deeper understanding of the perspectives and needs of the target population through facilitated group discussion.

A phenotype is the physical or biochemical expression of an organism's genes, or the observable traits and characteristics resulting from the interaction of its genetic constitution (genotype) with environmental factors. These characteristics can include appearance, development, behavior, and resistance to disease, among others. Phenotypes can vary widely, even among individuals with identical genotypes, due to differences in environmental influences, gene expression, and genetic interactions.

Interpersonal relations, in the context of medicine and healthcare, refer to the interactions and relationships between patients and healthcare professionals, as well as among healthcare professionals themselves. These relationships are crucial in the delivery of care and can significantly impact patient outcomes. Positive interpersonal relations can lead to improved communication, increased trust, greater patient satisfaction, and better adherence to treatment plans. On the other hand, negative or strained interpersonal relations can result in poor communication, mistrust, dissatisfaction, and non-adherence.

Healthcare professionals are trained to develop effective interpersonal skills, including active listening, empathy, respect, and cultural sensitivity, to build positive relationships with their patients. Effective interpersonal relations also involve clear and concise communication, setting appropriate boundaries, and managing conflicts in a constructive manner. In addition, positive interpersonal relations among healthcare professionals can promote collaboration, teamwork, and knowledge sharing, leading to improved patient care and safety.

A nuclear family, in medical and social sciences, refers to a family structure consisting of two married parents and their biological or adopted children living together in one household. It's the basic unit of a traditional family structure, typically comprising of a father (male parent), a mother (female parent) and their direct offspring. However, it's important to note that there are many different types of families and none is considered universally superior or normative. The concept of a nuclear family has evolved over time and varies across cultures and societies.

"Sex factors" is a term used in medicine and epidemiology to refer to the differences in disease incidence, prevalence, or response to treatment that are observed between males and females. These differences can be attributed to biological differences such as genetics, hormones, and anatomy, as well as social and cultural factors related to gender.

For example, some conditions such as autoimmune diseases, depression, and osteoporosis are more common in women, while others such as cardiovascular disease and certain types of cancer are more prevalent in men. Additionally, sex differences have been observed in the effectiveness and side effects of various medications and treatments.

It is important to consider sex factors in medical research and clinical practice to ensure that patients receive appropriate and effective care.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "object attachment" is not a term that has a specific medical definition in the way that a term like "myocardial infarction" (heart attack) or "major depressive disorder" does. It may be used in various ways in different contexts, such as in psychology or psychiatry to describe a phenomenon where an individual becomes excessively attached to an object or items, but it is not a widely recognized or standardized term in medical terminology. If you are referring to a specific concept or diagnosis and could provide more context, I would be happy to help further!

Grief is not strictly defined in medical terms, but it is generally described as the normal and natural response to the loss of someone or something that holds significant meaning to an individual. This emotional suffering can include feelings of sadness, anger, frustration, disbelief, yearning, and even physical symptoms such as fatigue, nausea, or difficulty sleeping. The process of grieving is unique to each person and may vary in duration and intensity based on factors like the nature of the loss, the relationship with what/who was lost, and individual coping mechanisms.

While not a medical condition itself, complicated grief can develop when intense feelings of grief persist for an extended period, typically more than six months, and interfere with daily functioning. Complicated grief may require professional intervention to help the person navigate through their loss and find healthy ways to cope.

A personality assessment is a systematic process used by healthcare professionals to evaluate and understand an individual's characteristic patterns of thought, emotion, and behavior. It typically involves the use of standardized measures, such as self-report questionnaires, interviews, and observational techniques, to gather information about an individual's personality traits, attitudes, values, and behaviors.

The goal of a personality assessment is to provide a comprehensive and integrated understanding of an individual's unique personality style, including their strengths, weaknesses, and potential vulnerabilities. This information can be useful in a variety of contexts, including clinical treatment planning, vocational counseling, and forensic evaluation.

It is important to note that personality assessments should always be conducted by qualified professionals with appropriate training and expertise in the use of these measures. Additionally, while personality assessments can provide valuable insights into an individual's personality style, they are not infallible and should always be considered alongside other sources of information when making important decisions about treatment or management.

Attention Deficit and Disruptive Behavior Disorders (ADDBDs) are a group of childhood-onset disorders characterized by persistent patterns of behavior that are difficult for the individual to control. These disorders include Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD), Oppositional Defiant Disorder (ODD), and Conduct Disorder (CD).

Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) is characterized by symptoms of inattention, hyperactivity, and impulsivity that interfere with daily functioning. These symptoms must be present for at least six months and occur in multiple settings, such as school, home, and social situations.

Oppositional Defiant Disorder (ODD) is characterized by a pattern of negative, hostile, and defiant behavior towards authority figures, which includes arguing with adults, losing temper, actively defying rules, and deliberately annoying others. These symptoms must be present for at least six months and occur more frequently than in other children of the same age and developmental level.

Conduct Disorder (CD) is characterized by a repetitive and persistent pattern of behavior that violates the rights of others or major age-appropriate societal norms and rules. These behaviors include aggression towards people and animals, destruction of property, deceitfulness or theft, and serious violation of rules.

It's important to note that these disorders can co-occur with other mental health conditions, such as mood disorders, anxiety disorders, and learning disabilities. Proper diagnosis and treatment are essential for managing the symptoms and improving the individual's quality of life.

"Age factors" refer to the effects, changes, or differences that age can have on various aspects of health, disease, and medical care. These factors can encompass a wide range of issues, including:

1. Physiological changes: As people age, their bodies undergo numerous physical changes that can affect how they respond to medications, illnesses, and medical procedures. For example, older adults may be more sensitive to certain drugs or have weaker immune systems, making them more susceptible to infections.
2. Chronic conditions: Age is a significant risk factor for many chronic diseases, such as heart disease, diabetes, cancer, and arthritis. As a result, age-related medical issues are common and can impact treatment decisions and outcomes.
3. Cognitive decline: Aging can also lead to cognitive changes, including memory loss and decreased decision-making abilities. These changes can affect a person's ability to understand and comply with medical instructions, leading to potential complications in their care.
4. Functional limitations: Older adults may experience physical limitations that impact their mobility, strength, and balance, increasing the risk of falls and other injuries. These limitations can also make it more challenging for them to perform daily activities, such as bathing, dressing, or cooking.
5. Social determinants: Age-related factors, such as social isolation, poverty, and lack of access to transportation, can impact a person's ability to obtain necessary medical care and affect their overall health outcomes.

Understanding age factors is critical for healthcare providers to deliver high-quality, patient-centered care that addresses the unique needs and challenges of older adults. By taking these factors into account, healthcare providers can develop personalized treatment plans that consider a person's age, physical condition, cognitive abilities, and social circumstances.

Health education is the process of providing information and strategies to individuals and communities about how to improve their health and prevent disease. It involves teaching and learning activities that aim to empower people to make informed decisions and take responsible actions regarding their health. Health education covers a wide range of topics, including nutrition, physical activity, sexual and reproductive health, mental health, substance abuse prevention, and environmental health. The ultimate goal of health education is to promote healthy behaviors and lifestyles that can lead to improved health outcomes and quality of life.

'Infant care' is not a medical term per se, but it generally refers to the provision of nurturing and developmentally appropriate support, supervision, and healthcare for newborns and young children, typically up to 12 months of age. This can include:

1. Meeting basic needs: Providing food (through breastfeeding or formula), changing diapers, ensuring a safe sleep environment, and maintaining hygiene.
2. Monitoring growth and development: Tracking weight gain, height, head circumference, and motor skills to ensure normal developmental progression.
3. Preventive care: Administering vaccinations according to the recommended immunization schedule, performing routine health screenings, and providing guidance on safety practices (e.g., car seat usage, safe sleep).
4. Early detection and management of medical issues: Identifying and addressing common infant health problems such as colic, reflux, or ear infections, and seeking prompt medical attention for more serious conditions.
5. Emotional bonding and attachment: Promoting parent-infant bonding through skin-to-skin contact, responsive feeding, and consistent caregiving.
6. Supporting cognitive and social development: Engaging in age-appropriate play and interaction to foster language development, problem-solving skills, and emotional regulation.
7. Providing education and guidance: Offering evidence-based information on various aspects of infant care, such as feeding, sleep, and soothing techniques, to support parents in their caregiving role.

Psychometrics is a branch of psychology that deals with the theory and technique of psychological measurement, such as the development and standardization of tests used to measure intelligence, aptitude, personality, attitudes, and other mental abilities or traits. It involves the construction and validation of measurement instruments, including the determination of their reliability and validity, and the application of statistical methods to analyze test data and interpret results. The ultimate goal of psychometrics is to provide accurate, objective, and meaningful measurements that can be used to understand individual differences and make informed decisions in educational, clinical, and organizational settings.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Television" is a consumer electronic device and does not have a medical definition. It is used for receiving and displaying broadcast television programs through an antenna, satellite dish, or cable provider. If you have any medical questions or terms you would like defined, I'd be happy to help!

"Truth disclosure" is not a standard term in medicine, but it may refer to the act of revealing or expressing the truth, particularly in the context of medical communication. This can include:

1. Informed Consent: Disclosing all relevant information about a medical treatment or procedure, including its risks and benefits, so that a patient can make an informed decision about their care.
2. Breaking Bad News: Communicating difficult medical news to patients honestly, clearly, and compassionately, such as telling a patient they have a serious illness.
3. Medical Error Disclosure: Admitting and explaining mistakes made in the course of medical treatment, including any harm that may have resulted.
4. Research Integrity: Disclosing all relevant information and conflicts of interest in the conduct and reporting of medical research.

The term "truth disclosure" is not commonly used in these contexts, but the principle of honesty and transparency in medical communication is a fundamental aspect of ethical medical practice.

Consumer satisfaction in a medical context refers to the degree to which a patient or their family is content with the healthcare services, products, or experiences they have received. It is a measure of how well the healthcare delivery aligns with the patient's expectations, needs, and preferences. Factors that contribute to consumer satisfaction may include the quality of care, communication and interpersonal skills of healthcare providers, accessibility and convenience, affordability, and outcomes. High consumer satisfaction is associated with better adherence to treatment plans, improved health outcomes, and higher patient loyalty.

Social adjustment, in the context of mental health and psychology, refers to an individual's ability to adapt and function effectively within their social environment. It involves developing and maintaining positive relationships with others, fulfilling various social roles (such as being a family member, friend, or employee), and meeting the expectations and demands of one's social group.

Social adjustment can be affected by various factors, including an individual's personality traits, coping skills, mental and physical health status, and life experiences. Poor social adjustment can lead to feelings of isolation, loneliness, and dissatisfaction with life, as well as increased risk for mental health problems such as depression and anxiety.

Assessing social adjustment is an important aspect of mental health care, as it can provide valuable insights into an individual's overall functioning and quality of life. Treatments such as psychotherapy and social skills training may be used to help improve social adjustment in individuals who are struggling in this area.

Child advocacy refers to the act or process of advocating, supporting, or defending the rights and interests of children, particularly those who are vulnerable or at risk due to abuse, neglect, poverty, discrimination, or other challenging circumstances. Child advocacy can take many forms, including:

1. Direct services: Providing support and assistance to individual children and families, such as counseling, case management, legal representation, and medical care.
2. Systems reform: Working to change laws, policies, and practices that affect the lives of children, such as advocating for stronger child abuse reporting laws or better funding for child welfare services.
3. Education and awareness-raising: Providing information and resources to communities, professionals, and policymakers about the needs and rights of children, with the goal of promoting positive attitudes and behaviors towards children and families.
4. Research and evaluation: Conducting studies and evaluations to better understand the effectiveness of child advocacy interventions and to inform policy and practice.

Child advocates may work in a variety of settings, including nonprofit organizations, government agencies, schools, hospitals, and legal clinics. They may also be volunteers or community members who are committed to promoting the well-being of children.

Quality of Life (QOL) is a broad, multidimensional concept that usually includes an individual's physical health, psychological state, level of independence, social relationships, personal beliefs, and their relationship to salient features of their environment. It reflects the impact of disease and treatment on a patient's overall well-being and ability to function in daily life.

The World Health Organization (WHO) defines QOL as "an individual's perception of their position in life in the context of the culture and value systems in which they live and in relation to their goals, expectations, standards and concerns." It is a subjective concept, meaning it can vary greatly from person to person.

In healthcare, QOL is often used as an outcome measure in clinical trials and other research studies to assess the impact of interventions or treatments on overall patient well-being.

Developmental disabilities are a group of conditions that arise in childhood and are characterized by significant impairments in cognitive functioning, physical development, or both. These disabilities can affect various areas of an individual's life, including their ability to learn, communicate, socialize, and take care of themselves.

Examples of developmental disabilities include intellectual disabilities, cerebral palsy, autism spectrum disorder, Down syndrome, and fetal alcohol spectrum disorders. These conditions are typically diagnosed in childhood and can persist throughout an individual's life.

The causes of developmental disabilities are varied and can include genetic factors, environmental influences, and complications during pregnancy or childbirth. In some cases, the exact cause may be unknown.

It is important to note that individuals with developmental disabilities have unique strengths and abilities, as well as challenges. With appropriate support and services, they can lead fulfilling lives and participate actively in their communities.

Maternal behavior refers to the nurturing and protective behaviors exhibited by a female animal towards its offspring. In humans, this term is often used to describe the natural instincts and actions of a woman during pregnancy, childbirth, and early child-rearing. It encompasses a broad range of activities such as feeding, grooming, protecting, and teaching the young.

In the context of medical and psychological research, maternal behavior is often studied to understand the factors that influence its development, expression, and outcomes for both the mother and offspring. Factors that can affect maternal behavior include hormonal changes during pregnancy and childbirth, as well as social, cultural, and environmental influences.

Abnormal or atypical maternal behavior may indicate underlying mental health issues, such as postpartum depression or anxiety, and can have negative consequences for both the mother and the child's development and well-being. Therefore, it is important to monitor and support healthy maternal behaviors in new mothers to promote positive outcomes for both parties.

In a medical context, "faculty" most commonly refers to the inherent abilities or powers of a normal functioning part of the body or mind. For example, one might speak of the "faculties of perception" to describe the senses of sight, hearing, touch, taste, and smell. It can also refer to the teaching staff or body of instructors at a medical school or other educational institution. Additionally, it can be used more generally to mean a capability or skill, as in "the faculty of quick thinking."

School health services refer to the health programs and services provided within schools by qualified healthcare professionals or specialists. These services aim to improve the overall well-being, academic success, and development of students by addressing both their physical and mental health needs. Examples of school health services include:

1. Health screenings: Routine vision, hearing, dental, and other health screenings to identify any potential issues early on.
2. Immunizations: Ensuring students are up-to-date with required immunizations and providing education about the importance of vaccinations.
3. Chronic disease management: Helping students manage chronic conditions such as asthma, diabetes, or epilepsy through individualized care plans and coordination with healthcare providers.
4. Mental health services: Providing counseling, therapy, and support for students dealing with emotional or behavioral challenges, including anxiety, depression, or trauma.
5. Health education: Teaching students about various health topics, such as nutrition, hygiene, sexual health, substance abuse prevention, and safety practices.
6. Case management: Coordinating care and providing resources for students with complex medical needs or social determinants of health challenges.
7. First aid and emergency care: Providing immediate medical attention in case of injuries or illnesses that occur during school hours.
8. Referrals to community resources: Connecting students and families with local healthcare providers, support services, and other resources as needed.

The goal of school health services is to create a safe, healthy, and supportive learning environment that promotes the overall well-being of all students.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Play" and "Playthings" are not medical terms. "Play" is a fundamental aspect of child development, encompassing all types of activities that children engage in for enjoyment and recreation. These activities can include physical play (such as running, climbing, or riding a bike), social play (interacting with others), creative play (drawing, building, or pretending), and quiet play (reading, puzzles, or listening to music).

"Playthings," on the other hand, refer to objects or toys used during play. These can range from traditional toys like dolls, cars, and balls to more open-ended items like blocks, art supplies, or natural materials.

While there is no medical definition for "play" or "playthings," it's important to note that play has a significant role in children's physical, emotional, social, and cognitive development. Play allows children to explore their environment, learn new skills, develop problem-solving abilities, build relationships, and express themselves creatively. Access to diverse playthings can support and enhance these developmental processes.

Pregnancy is a physiological state or condition where a fertilized egg (zygote) successfully implants and grows in the uterus of a woman, leading to the development of an embryo and finally a fetus. This process typically spans approximately 40 weeks, divided into three trimesters, and culminates in childbirth. Throughout this period, numerous hormonal and physical changes occur to support the growing offspring, including uterine enlargement, breast development, and various maternal adaptations to ensure the fetus's optimal growth and well-being.

In the context of medicine and psychology, "temperament" refers to a person's natural disposition or character, which is often thought to be inherited and relatively stable throughout their life. It is the foundation on which personality develops, and it influences how individuals react to their environment, handle emotions, and approach various situations.

Temperament is composed of several traits, including:

1. Activity level: The degree of physical and mental energy a person exhibits.
2. Emotional intensity: The depth or strength of emotional responses.
3. Regularity: The consistency in biological functions like sleep, hunger, and elimination.
4. Approach/withdrawal: The tendency to approach or avoid new situations or people.
5. Adaptability: The ease with which a person adapts to changes in their environment.
6. Mood: The general emotional tone or baseline mood of an individual.
7. Persistence: The ability to maintain focus and effort on a task despite challenges or distractions.
8. Distractibility: The susceptibility to being diverted from a task by external stimuli.
9. Sensitivity: The degree of responsiveness to sensory input, such as touch, taste, sound, and light.
10. Attention span: The length of time a person can concentrate on a single task or activity.

These traits combine to create an individual's unique temperamental profile, which can influence their mental and physical health, social relationships, and overall well-being. Understanding temperament can help healthcare professionals tailor interventions and treatments to meet the specific needs of each patient.

In the field of medicine, "time factors" refer to the duration of symptoms or time elapsed since the onset of a medical condition, which can have significant implications for diagnosis and treatment. Understanding time factors is crucial in determining the progression of a disease, evaluating the effectiveness of treatments, and making critical decisions regarding patient care.

For example, in stroke management, "time is brain," meaning that rapid intervention within a specific time frame (usually within 4.5 hours) is essential to administering tissue plasminogen activator (tPA), a clot-busting drug that can minimize brain damage and improve patient outcomes. Similarly, in trauma care, the "golden hour" concept emphasizes the importance of providing definitive care within the first 60 minutes after injury to increase survival rates and reduce morbidity.

Time factors also play a role in monitoring the progression of chronic conditions like diabetes or heart disease, where regular follow-ups and assessments help determine appropriate treatment adjustments and prevent complications. In infectious diseases, time factors are crucial for initiating antibiotic therapy and identifying potential outbreaks to control their spread.

Overall, "time factors" encompass the significance of recognizing and acting promptly in various medical scenarios to optimize patient outcomes and provide effective care.

Molecular sequence data refers to the specific arrangement of molecules, most commonly nucleotides in DNA or RNA, or amino acids in proteins, that make up a biological macromolecule. This data is generated through laboratory techniques such as sequencing, and provides information about the exact order of the constituent molecules. This data is crucial in various fields of biology, including genetics, evolution, and molecular biology, allowing for comparisons between different organisms, identification of genetic variations, and studies of gene function and regulation.

Feeding behavior refers to the various actions and mechanisms involved in the intake of food and nutrition for the purpose of sustaining life, growth, and health. This complex process encompasses a coordinated series of activities, including:

1. Food selection: The identification, pursuit, and acquisition of appropriate food sources based on sensory cues (smell, taste, appearance) and individual preferences.
2. Preparation: The manipulation and processing of food to make it suitable for consumption, such as chewing, grinding, or chopping.
3. Ingestion: The act of transferring food from the oral cavity into the digestive system through swallowing.
4. Digestion: The mechanical and chemical breakdown of food within the gastrointestinal tract to facilitate nutrient absorption and eliminate waste products.
5. Assimilation: The uptake and utilization of absorbed nutrients by cells and tissues for energy production, growth, repair, and maintenance.
6. Elimination: The removal of undigested material and waste products from the body through defecation.

Feeding behavior is regulated by a complex interplay between neural, hormonal, and psychological factors that help maintain energy balance and ensure adequate nutrient intake. Disruptions in feeding behavior can lead to various medical conditions, such as malnutrition, obesity, eating disorders, and gastrointestinal motility disorders.

Reproducibility of results in a medical context refers to the ability to obtain consistent and comparable findings when a particular experiment or study is repeated, either by the same researcher or by different researchers, following the same experimental protocol. It is an essential principle in scientific research that helps to ensure the validity and reliability of research findings.

In medical research, reproducibility of results is crucial for establishing the effectiveness and safety of new treatments, interventions, or diagnostic tools. It involves conducting well-designed studies with adequate sample sizes, appropriate statistical analyses, and transparent reporting of methods and findings to allow other researchers to replicate the study and confirm or refute the results.

The lack of reproducibility in medical research has become a significant concern in recent years, as several high-profile studies have failed to produce consistent findings when replicated by other researchers. This has led to increased scrutiny of research practices and a call for greater transparency, rigor, and standardization in the conduct and reporting of medical research.

A pediatric hospital is a specialized medical facility that provides comprehensive healthcare services for infants, children, adolescents, and young adults up to the age of 21. These hospitals employ medical professionals with expertise in treating various childhood illnesses, injuries, and developmental disorders. The facilities are designed to cater to the unique needs of children, including child-friendly environments, specialized equipment, and age-appropriate care.

Pediatric hospitals offer a wide range of services such as inpatient and outpatient care, emergency services, surgical procedures, diagnostic testing, rehabilitation, and mental health services. They also focus on preventive healthcare, family-centered care, and education to support the overall well-being of their young patients. Some pediatric hospitals may specialize further, focusing on specific areas such as cancer treatment, cardiology, neurology, or orthopedics.

In the context of healthcare, "safety" refers to the freedom from harm or injury that is intentionally designed into a process, system, or environment. It involves the prevention of adverse events or injuries, as well as the reduction of risk and the mitigation of harm when accidents do occur. Safety in healthcare aims to protect patients, healthcare workers, and other stakeholders from potential harm associated with medical care, treatments, or procedures. This is achieved through evidence-based practices, guidelines, protocols, training, and continuous quality improvement efforts.

Nursing methodology research is a type of scientific inquiry that focuses on the development, evaluation, and refinement of nursing interventions used in clinical practice. This research aims to determine the most effective and efficient methods for promoting health, preventing illness, and managing symptoms or conditions in patients receiving nursing care. Nursing methodology research can involve various study designs, including experimental, quasi-experimental, correlational, and qualitative approaches. The ultimate goal of this research is to contribute to evidence-based practice in nursing, which involves making clinical decisions based on the best available research evidence, patient preferences, and clinical expertise.

Divorce is a legal dissolution of a marriage by a court or other competent body. It is the termination of a marital union, and often involves the division of property, assets, and debts, as well as decisions regarding child custody, visitation, and support. Divorce laws vary by location and can be influenced by factors such as the length of the marriage, the presence of minor children, and fault or no-fault grounds for divorce.

Conduct Disorder is a mental health disorder that typically begins in childhood or adolescence and is characterized by a repetitive pattern of behavior that violates the rights of others or major age-appropriate societal norms and rules. The behaviors fall into four main categories: aggression to people and animals, destruction of property, deceitfulness or theft, and serious violation of rules.

The specific symptoms of Conduct Disorder can vary widely among individuals, but they generally include:

1. Aggression to people and animals: This may include physical fights, bullying, threatening others, cruelty to animals, and use of weapons.
2. Destruction of property: This may include deliberate destruction of others' property, arson, and vandalism.
3. Deceitfulness or theft: This may include lying, shoplifting, stealing, and breaking into homes, buildings, or cars.
4. Serious violation of rules: This may include running away from home, truancy, staying out late without permission, and frequent violations of school rules.

Conduct Disorder can have serious consequences for individuals who suffer from it, including academic failure, substance abuse, depression, anxiety, and difficulties in interpersonal relationships. It is important to note that Conduct Disorder should be diagnosed by a qualified mental health professional based on a comprehensive evaluation.

Crying is not a medical term itself, but it can be a symptom or a response to various medical and emotional conditions. In a broader sense, crying refers to the production of tears and the audible sounds that accompany this action due to strong emotions such as sadness, happiness, frustration, or pain.

From a physiological standpoint, crying involves the activation of the autonomic nervous system, which leads to the production of tears by the lacrimal glands and the contraction of various facial muscles responsible for the expression of emotion. The parasympathetic branch of the autonomic nervous system is primarily responsible for the initiation of crying, leading to increased tear production and a decrease in heart rate.

There are several types of crying:

1. Emotional crying: This type of crying is a response to strong emotional states such as sadness, joy, frustration, or anger. It can be accompanied by sobbing, which involves deep, convulsive breaths and audible sounds.
2. Reflex crying: This occurs when the eyes are irritated due to foreign particles, bright lights, or other environmental factors. The reflex is designed to protect the eyes by producing tears to wash away the irritant.
3. Basal tearing: This type of tear production is continuous and helps keep the eyes lubricated and protected from drying out. It occurs at a low rate throughout the day and is not typically associated with crying as an emotional response.

In summary, while crying is not a medical term per se, it can be indicative of various emotional or physical states that may warrant medical attention. For instance, excessive or inappropriate crying might be a sign of underlying neurological or psychological conditions and should be evaluated by a healthcare professional if it becomes a concern.

Follow-up studies are a type of longitudinal research that involve repeated observations or measurements of the same variables over a period of time, in order to understand their long-term effects or outcomes. In medical context, follow-up studies are often used to evaluate the safety and efficacy of medical treatments, interventions, or procedures.

In a typical follow-up study, a group of individuals (called a cohort) who have received a particular treatment or intervention are identified and then followed over time through periodic assessments or data collection. The data collected may include information on clinical outcomes, adverse events, changes in symptoms or functional status, and other relevant measures.

The results of follow-up studies can provide important insights into the long-term benefits and risks of medical interventions, as well as help to identify factors that may influence treatment effectiveness or patient outcomes. However, it is important to note that follow-up studies can be subject to various biases and limitations, such as loss to follow-up, recall bias, and changes in clinical practice over time, which must be carefully considered when interpreting the results.

Inheritance patterns refer to the way in which a particular genetic trait or disorder is passed down from one generation to the next, following the rules of Mendelian genetics. There are several different inheritance patterns, including:

1. Autosomal dominant: A single copy of the altered gene in each cell is sufficient to cause the disorder. An affected parent has a 50% chance of passing on the altered gene to each offspring.
2. Autosomal recessive: Two copies of the altered gene in each cell are necessary for the disorder to occur. Both parents must be carriers of the altered gene and have a 25% chance of passing on the altered gene to each offspring, who may then develop the disorder.
3. X-linked dominant: The altered gene is located on the X chromosome, and one copy of the altered gene in each cell is sufficient to cause the disorder. Females are more likely to be affected than males, and an affected female has a 50% chance of passing on the altered gene to each offspring.
4. X-linked recessive: The altered gene is located on the X chromosome, and two copies of the altered gene in each cell are necessary for the disorder to occur. Males are more likely to be affected than females, and an affected male will pass on the altered gene to all of his daughters (who will be carriers) but none of his sons.
5. Mitochondrial inheritance: The altered gene is located in the mitochondria, the energy-producing structures in cells. Both males and females can pass on mitochondrial genetic disorders, but only through the female line because offspring inherit their mother's mitochondria.

Understanding inheritance patterns helps medical professionals predict the likelihood of a genetic disorder occurring in families and provides information about how a disorder may be passed down through generations.

Autistic Disorder, also known as Autism or Classic Autism, is a neurodevelopmental disorder that affects communication and behavior. It is characterized by:

1. Persistent deficits in social communication and social interaction across multiple contexts, including:
* Deficits in social-emotional reciprocity;
* Deficits in nonverbal communicative behaviors used for social interaction;
* Deficits in developing, maintaining, and understanding relationships.
2. Restricted, repetitive patterns of behavior, interests, or activities, as manifested by at least two of the following:
* Stereotyped or repetitive motor movements, use of objects, or speech;
* Insistence on sameness, inflexible adherence to routines, or ritualized patterns of verbal or nonverbal behavior;
* Highly restricted, fixated interests that are abnormal in intensity or focus;
* Hyper- or hyporeactivity to sensory input or unusual interest in sensory aspects of the environment.
3. Symptoms must be present in the early developmental period (but may not become fully manifest until social demands exceed limited capacities) and limit or impair everyday functioning.
4. Symptoms do not occur exclusively during the course of a schizophrenia spectrum disorder or other psychotic disorders.

Autistic Disorder is part of the autism spectrum disorders (ASDs), which also include Asperger's Syndrome and Pervasive Developmental Disorder Not Otherwise Specified (PDD-NOS). The current diagnostic term for this category of conditions, according to the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fifth Edition (DSM-5), is Autism Spectrum Disorder.

Child day care centers are facilities that provide supervision and care for children for varying lengths of time during the day. These centers may offer early education, recreational activities, and meals, and they cater to children of different age groups, from infants to school-aged children. They are typically licensed and regulated by state authorities and must meet certain standards related to staff qualifications, child-to-staff ratios, and safety. Child day care centers may be operated by non-profit organizations, religious institutions, or for-profit businesses. They can also be referred to as daycare centers, nursery schools, or preschools.

Authoritarianism is a political system or philosophy in which individuals are subordinated to the state or organizational authorities that are perceived to be infallible, and where such authority has the right to exercise power over citizens without restriction or oversight. In an authoritarian regime, individual freedoms are often limited, dissent is suppressed, and the ruling authority maintains control through force, coercion, or propaganda.

In a medical context, authoritarianism can refer to a type of doctor-patient relationship in which the physician holds all the power and makes decisions without considering the patient's preferences or values. This approach can lead to poor communication, decreased patient satisfaction, and worse health outcomes. Instead, a more collaborative and patient-centered approach is generally recommended, in which patients are actively involved in their own care and decision-making processes.

Anxiety: A feeling of worry, nervousness, or unease, typically about an imminent event or something with an uncertain outcome. In a medical context, anxiety refers to a mental health disorder characterized by feelings of excessive and persistent worry, fear, or panic that interfere with daily activities. It can also be a symptom of other medical conditions, such as heart disease, diabetes, or substance abuse disorders. Anxiety disorders include generalized anxiety disorder, panic disorder, social anxiety disorder, and phobias.

Prevalence, in medical terms, refers to the total number of people in a given population who have a particular disease or condition at a specific point in time, or over a specified period. It is typically expressed as a percentage or a ratio of the number of cases to the size of the population. Prevalence differs from incidence, which measures the number of new cases that develop during a certain period.

Artificial insemination, heterologous (also known as donor insemination) is a medical procedure that involves the introduction of sperm from a donor into a woman's reproductive tract with the aim of achieving pregnancy. The sperm used in this procedure comes from a donor who is not the woman's sexual partner. This method may be used when the male partner has severe fertility problems, such as azoospermia (absence of sperm in the ejaculate), or when the couple has a high risk of passing on genetic disorders to their offspring. The donor sperm can be injected into the woman's uterus through intrauterine insemination (IUI) or placed directly into the cervix through intracervical insemination (ICI).

A single-parent family is not strictly a medical term, but it is a social and demographic term used to describe a family structure where a parent lives with their children without the presence of a spouse or partner. This can be due to various reasons such as divorce, separation, widowhood, or choosing to have and raise children outside marriage or partnership.

It's important to note that single-parent families can face unique challenges in terms of financial stability, emotional wellbeing, and social support. These factors might indirectly impact the health and healthcare access of both the parent and the children, making it relevant to various medical and social science disciplines. However, a medical definition for this term does not exist, as it is more commonly used in sociology, psychology, and family studies.

I must clarify that I can't provide a "medical definition" of marriage, as the concept of marriage is a social, legal, and often religious institution, rather than a medical one. However, I can tell you that there are no medical definitions associated with the term "marriage." It is typically defined in terms of a committed relationship between two individuals, recognized by law and/or religion, which may involve shared responsibilities, rights, and obligations.

Asthma is a chronic respiratory disease characterized by inflammation and narrowing of the airways, leading to symptoms such as wheezing, coughing, shortness of breath, and chest tightness. The airway obstruction in asthma is usually reversible, either spontaneously or with treatment.

The underlying cause of asthma involves a combination of genetic and environmental factors that result in hypersensitivity of the airways to certain triggers, such as allergens, irritants, viruses, exercise, and emotional stress. When these triggers are encountered, the airways constrict due to smooth muscle spasm, swell due to inflammation, and produce excess mucus, leading to the characteristic symptoms of asthma.

Asthma is typically managed with a combination of medications that include bronchodilators to relax the airway muscles, corticosteroids to reduce inflammation, and leukotriene modifiers or mast cell stabilizers to prevent allergic reactions. Avoiding triggers and monitoring symptoms are also important components of asthma management.

There are several types of asthma, including allergic asthma, non-allergic asthma, exercise-induced asthma, occupational asthma, and nocturnal asthma, each with its own set of triggers and treatment approaches. Proper diagnosis and management of asthma can help prevent exacerbations, improve quality of life, and reduce the risk of long-term complications.

Neonatal screening is a medical procedure in which specific tests are performed on newborn babies within the first few days of life to detect certain congenital or inherited disorders that are not otherwise clinically apparent at birth. These conditions, if left untreated, can lead to serious health problems, developmental delays, or even death.

The primary goal of neonatal screening is to identify affected infants early so that appropriate treatment and management can be initiated as soon as possible, thereby improving their overall prognosis and quality of life. Commonly screened conditions include phenylketonuria (PKU), congenital hypothyroidism, galactosemia, maple syrup urine disease, sickle cell disease, cystic fibrosis, and hearing loss, among others.

Neonatal screening typically involves collecting a small blood sample from the infant's heel (heel stick) or through a dried blood spot card, which is then analyzed using various biochemical, enzymatic, or genetic tests. In some cases, additional tests such as hearing screenings and pulse oximetry for critical congenital heart disease may also be performed.

It's important to note that neonatal screening is not a diagnostic tool but rather an initial step in identifying infants who may be at risk of certain conditions. Positive screening results should always be confirmed with additional diagnostic tests before any treatment decisions are made.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Friends" is not a medical term. If you are referring to the term "friends" in the context of social relationships, it generally refers to individuals who share a mutual affection and enjoy spending time together. However, if you have any medical questions or terms you would like defined, I'd be happy to help!

Data collection in the medical context refers to the systematic gathering of information relevant to a specific research question or clinical situation. This process involves identifying and recording data elements, such as demographic characteristics, medical history, physical examination findings, laboratory results, and imaging studies, from various sources including patient interviews, medical records, and diagnostic tests. The data collected is used to support clinical decision-making, inform research hypotheses, and evaluate the effectiveness of treatments or interventions. It is essential that data collection is performed in a standardized and unbiased manner to ensure the validity and reliability of the results.

Genotype, in genetics, refers to the complete heritable genetic makeup of an individual organism, including all of its genes. It is the set of instructions contained in an organism's DNA for the development and function of that organism. The genotype is the basis for an individual's inherited traits, and it can be contrasted with an individual's phenotype, which refers to the observable physical or biochemical characteristics of an organism that result from the expression of its genes in combination with environmental influences.

It is important to note that an individual's genotype is not necessarily identical to their genetic sequence. Some genes have multiple forms called alleles, and an individual may inherit different alleles for a given gene from each parent. The combination of alleles that an individual inherits for a particular gene is known as their genotype for that gene.

Understanding an individual's genotype can provide important information about their susceptibility to certain diseases, their response to drugs and other treatments, and their risk of passing on inherited genetic disorders to their offspring.

I apologize for any confusion, but "students" is not a medical term. It refers to individuals who are engaged in studying or learning at an educational institution, such as a school, college, or university. If you have any questions related to medical terminology or concepts, I would be happy to help clarify those for you.

Chromosome mapping, also known as physical mapping, is the process of determining the location and order of specific genes or genetic markers on a chromosome. This is typically done by using various laboratory techniques to identify landmarks along the chromosome, such as restriction enzyme cutting sites or patterns of DNA sequence repeats. The resulting map provides important information about the organization and structure of the genome, and can be used for a variety of purposes, including identifying the location of genes associated with genetic diseases, studying evolutionary relationships between organisms, and developing genetic markers for use in breeding or forensic applications.

In the context of medicine, a "role" generally refers to the function or position that an individual holds within a healthcare system or team. This could include roles such as:

* Physician
* Nurse
* Allied health professional (e.g., physical therapist, occupational therapist, speech-language pathologist)
* Social worker
* Administrative staff member

Each role comes with its own set of responsibilities and expectations for how the individual in that role will contribute to the overall care and well-being of patients. Effective communication, collaboration, and coordination among team members in their various roles are essential for providing high-quality patient care.

Separation anxiety is a condition in which an individual experiences excessive and disproportionate fear or distress when separated from a person or place that they are attached to. This condition is commonly diagnosed in children, but it can also affect adults. The anxiety experienced during separation may manifest as excessive worrying, crying, clinginess, panic attacks, or physical symptoms such as nausea, headaches, or rapid heartbeat. In order for a diagnosis of separation anxiety disorder to be made, the symptoms must cause significant distress and impairment in social, occupational, or other areas of functioning.

Logistic models, specifically logistic regression models, are a type of statistical analysis used in medical and epidemiological research to identify the relationship between the risk of a certain health outcome or disease (dependent variable) and one or more independent variables, such as demographic factors, exposure variables, or other clinical measurements.

In contrast to linear regression models, logistic regression models are used when the dependent variable is binary or dichotomous in nature, meaning it can only take on two values, such as "disease present" or "disease absent." The model uses a logistic function to estimate the probability of the outcome based on the independent variables.

Logistic regression models are useful for identifying risk factors and estimating the strength of associations between exposures and health outcomes, adjusting for potential confounders, and predicting the probability of an outcome given certain values of the independent variables. They can also be used to develop clinical prediction rules or scores that can aid in decision-making and patient care.

Patient acceptance of health care refers to the willingness and ability of a patient to follow and engage in a recommended treatment plan or healthcare regimen. This involves understanding the proposed medical interventions, considering their potential benefits and risks, and making an informed decision to proceed with the recommended course of action.

The factors that influence patient acceptance can include:

1. Patient's understanding of their condition and treatment options
2. Trust in their healthcare provider
3. Personal beliefs and values related to health and illness
4. Cultural, linguistic, or socioeconomic barriers
5. Emotional responses to the diagnosis or proposed treatment
6. Practical considerations, such as cost, time commitment, or potential side effects

Healthcare providers play a crucial role in facilitating patient acceptance by clearly communicating information, addressing concerns and questions, and providing support throughout the decision-making process. Encouraging shared decision-making and tailoring care plans to individual patient needs and preferences can also enhance patient acceptance of health care.

Social behavior, in the context of medicine and psychology, refers to the ways in which individuals interact and engage with others within their social environment. It involves various actions, communications, and responses that are influenced by cultural norms, personal values, emotional states, and cognitive processes. These behaviors can include but are not limited to communication, cooperation, competition, empathy, altruism, aggression, and conformity.

Abnormalities in social behavior may indicate underlying mental health conditions such as autism spectrum disorder, schizophrenia, or personality disorders. Therefore, understanding and analyzing social behavior is an essential aspect of diagnosing and treating various psychological and psychiatric conditions.

Pervasive developmental disorders (PDD) are a group of conditions that affect the development and functioning of the brain, leading to delays in many areas of development. The American Psychiatric Association's Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fifth Edition (DSM-5) has replaced the term "pervasive developmental disorders" with "autism spectrum disorder" and "other neurodevelopmental disorders."

Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is a neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by persistent deficits in social communication and interaction across multiple contexts, as well as restricted, repetitive patterns of behavior, interests, or activities. The symptoms of ASD can range from mild to severe, and the condition affects approximately 1 in 54 children in the United States.

Other neurodevelopmental disorders that were previously classified as PDDs include:

1. Intellectual disability (ID): a condition characterized by significant limitations in intellectual functioning and adaptive behavior, which covers many everyday social and practical skills. This disorder used to be referred to as "mental retardation."
2. Communication disorders: these are disorders that affect an individual's ability to communicate, including language disorders, speech sound disorders, and stuttering.
3. Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD): a neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by symptoms of inattention, hyperactivity, and impulsivity.
4. Specific learning disorder: a neurodevelopmental disorder that affects an individual's ability to learn and use specific academic skills, such as reading, writing, or mathematics.
5. Motor disorders: these are disorders that affect an individual's movement and coordination, including developmental coordination disorder, stereotypic movement disorder, and tic disorders.

The medical definition of 'Child Development Disorders, Pervasive' has been replaced with more specific diagnoses in the DSM-5 to better reflect the diverse nature of these conditions and improve diagnostic accuracy and treatment planning.

Tobacco smoke pollution is not typically defined in medical terms, but it refers to the presence of tobacco smoke in indoor or outdoor environments, which can have negative effects on air quality and human health. It is also known as secondhand smoke or environmental tobacco smoke (ETS). This type of smoke is a mixture of sidestream smoke (the smoke given off by a burning cigarette) and mainstream smoke (the smoke exhaled by a smoker).

The medical community recognizes tobacco smoke pollution as a serious health hazard. It contains more than 7,000 chemicals, hundreds of which are toxic and about 70 that can cause cancer. Exposure to tobacco smoke pollution can cause a range of adverse health effects, including respiratory symptoms, lung cancer, heart disease, and stroke. In children, it can also lead to ear infections, asthma attacks, and sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS).

Therefore, many laws and regulations have been implemented worldwide to protect people from tobacco smoke pollution, such as smoking bans in public places and workplaces.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "social class" is not a term that has a medical definition. It is a sociological concept that refers to the grouping of individuals in a society based on their shared economic and social positions. This can include factors such as income, education, occupation, and wealth.

However, social class can have an impact on health outcomes and access to healthcare. For example, people in lower socioeconomic groups are more likely to experience chronic diseases, mental health disorders, and have limited access to quality healthcare services compared to those in higher socioeconomic groups. This relationship is often referred to as the "social determinants of health."

Emotions are complex psychological states that involve three distinct components: a subjective experience, a physiological response, and a behavioral or expressive response. Emotions can be short-lived, such as a flash of anger, or more long-lasting, such as enduring sadness. They can also vary in intensity, from mild irritation to intense joy or fear.

Emotions are often distinguished from other psychological states, such as moods and temperament, which may be less specific and more enduring. Emotions are typically thought to have a clear cause or object, such as feeling happy when you receive good news or feeling anxious before a job interview.

There are many different emotions that people can experience, including happiness, sadness, anger, fear, surprise, disgust, and shame. These emotions are often thought to serve important adaptive functions, helping individuals respond to challenges and opportunities in their environment.

In medical contexts, emotions may be relevant to the diagnosis and treatment of various mental health conditions, such as depression, anxiety disorders, and bipolar disorder. Abnormalities in emotional processing and regulation have been implicated in many psychiatric illnesses, and therapies that target these processes may be effective in treating these conditions.

An allele is a variant form of a gene that is located at a specific position on a specific chromosome. Alleles are alternative forms of the same gene that arise by mutation and are found at the same locus or position on homologous chromosomes.

Each person typically inherits two copies of each gene, one from each parent. If the two alleles are identical, a person is said to be homozygous for that trait. If the alleles are different, the person is heterozygous.

For example, the ABO blood group system has three alleles, A, B, and O, which determine a person's blood type. If a person inherits two A alleles, they will have type A blood; if they inherit one A and one B allele, they will have type AB blood; if they inherit two B alleles, they will have type B blood; and if they inherit two O alleles, they will have type O blood.

Alleles can also influence traits such as eye color, hair color, height, and other physical characteristics. Some alleles are dominant, meaning that only one copy of the allele is needed to express the trait, while others are recessive, meaning that two copies of the allele are needed to express the trait.

Genetic markers are specific segments of DNA that are used in genetic mapping and genotyping to identify specific genetic locations, diseases, or traits. They can be composed of short tandem repeats (STRs), single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), restriction fragment length polymorphisms (RFLPs), or variable number tandem repeats (VNTRs). These markers are useful in various fields such as genetic research, medical diagnostics, forensic science, and breeding programs. They can help to track inheritance patterns, identify genetic predispositions to diseases, and solve crimes by linking biological evidence to suspects or victims.

A Pediatric Intensive Care Unit (PICU) is a specialized hospital unit that provides intensive care to critically ill or injured infants, children, and adolescents. The PICU is equipped with advanced medical technology and staffed by healthcare professionals trained in pediatrics, including pediatric intensivists, pediatric nurses, respiratory therapists, and other specialists as needed.

The primary goal of the PICU is to closely monitor and manage the most critical patients, providing around-the-clock care and interventions to support organ function, treat life-threatening conditions, and prevent complications. The PICU team works together to provide family-centered care, keeping parents informed about their child's condition and involving them in decision-making processes.

Common reasons for admission to the PICU include respiratory failure, shock, sepsis, severe trauma, congenital heart disease, neurological emergencies, and post-operative monitoring after complex surgeries. The length of stay in the PICU can vary widely depending on the severity of the child's illness or injury and their response to treatment.

Intellectual disability (ID) is a term used when there are significant limitations in both intellectual functioning and adaptive behavior, which covers many everyday social and practical skills. This disability originates before the age of 18.

Intellectual functioning, also known as intelligence, refers to general mental capacity, such as learning, reasoning, problem-solving, and other cognitive skills. Adaptive behavior includes skills needed for day-to-day life, such as communication, self-care, social skills, safety judgement, and basic academic skills.

Intellectual disability is characterized by below-average intelligence or mental ability and a lack of skills necessary for day-to-day living. It can be mild, moderate, severe, or profound, depending on the degree of limitation in intellectual functioning and adaptive behavior.

It's important to note that people with intellectual disabilities have unique strengths and limitations, just like everyone else. With appropriate support and education, they can lead fulfilling lives and contribute to their communities in many ways.

Behavior therapy is a type of psychotherapy that focuses on modifying harmful or unhealthy behaviors, thoughts, and emotions by applying learning principles derived from behavioral psychology. The goal of behavior therapy is to reinforce positive behaviors and eliminate negative ones through various techniques such as systematic desensitization, aversion therapy, exposure therapy, and operant conditioning.

Systematic desensitization involves gradually exposing the individual to a feared situation or stimulus while teaching them relaxation techniques to reduce anxiety. Aversion therapy aims to associate an undesirable behavior with an unpleasant stimulus to discourage the behavior. Exposure therapy exposes the individual to a feared situation or object in a controlled and safe environment to help them overcome their fear. Operant conditioning uses reinforcement and punishment to encourage desirable behaviors and discourage undesirable ones.

Behavior therapy has been found to be effective in treating various mental health conditions, including anxiety disorders, phobias, depression, obsessive-compulsive disorder, post-traumatic stress disorder, and substance use disorders. It is often used in combination with other forms of therapy and medication to provide a comprehensive treatment plan for individuals seeking help for mental health concerns.

A cohort study is a type of observational study in which a group of individuals who share a common characteristic or exposure are followed up over time to determine the incidence of a specific outcome or outcomes. The cohort, or group, is defined based on the exposure status (e.g., exposed vs. unexposed) and then monitored prospectively to assess for the development of new health events or conditions.

Cohort studies can be either prospective or retrospective in design. In a prospective cohort study, participants are enrolled and followed forward in time from the beginning of the study. In contrast, in a retrospective cohort study, researchers identify a cohort that has already been assembled through medical records, insurance claims, or other sources and then look back in time to assess exposure status and health outcomes.

Cohort studies are useful for establishing causality between an exposure and an outcome because they allow researchers to observe the temporal relationship between the two. They can also provide information on the incidence of a disease or condition in different populations, which can be used to inform public health policy and interventions. However, cohort studies can be expensive and time-consuming to conduct, and they may be subject to bias if participants are not representative of the population or if there is loss to follow-up.

Child abuse is a broad term that refers to any form of physical, emotional, or sexual mistreatment or neglect that causes harm to a child's health, development, or dignity. According to the World Health Organization (WHO), child abuse includes:

1. Physical abuse: Non-accidental injuries caused by hitting, kicking, shaking, burning, or otherwise harming a child's body.
2. Sexual abuse: Any sexual activity involving a child, such as touching or non-touching behaviors, exploitation, or exposure to pornographic material.
3. Emotional abuse: Behaviors that harm a child's emotional well-being and self-esteem, such as constant criticism, humiliation, threats, or rejection.
4. Neglect: Failure to provide for a child's basic needs, including food, clothing, shelter, medical care, education, and emotional support.

Child abuse can have serious short-term and long-term consequences for the physical, emotional, and psychological well-being of children. It is a violation of their fundamental human rights and a public health concern that requires prevention, early detection, and intervention.

Pediatric obesity is a medical condition where a child or adolescent has an excessive amount of body fat. This is typically defined as having a body mass index (BMI) at or above the 95th percentile for their age and sex, according to growth charts developed by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC).

It's important to note that BMI is not a direct measure of body fat, but it's widely used as a screening tool because it correlates well with more direct measures of body fat.

Pediatric obesity can lead to various health complications, including type 2 diabetes, high blood pressure, sleep apnea, and psychological issues like depression and low self-esteem. It's also associated with an increased risk of obesity in adulthood.

The causes of pediatric obesity are multifactorial, including genetic, environmental, behavioral, and societal factors. Treatment often involves a combination of dietary changes, increased physical activity, behavior modification, and sometimes medication or surgery in severe cases.

Health behavior can be defined as a series of actions and decisions that individuals take to protect, maintain or promote their health and well-being. These behaviors can include activities such as engaging in regular exercise, eating a healthy diet, getting sufficient sleep, practicing safe sex, avoiding tobacco and excessive alcohol consumption, and managing stress.

Health behaviors are influenced by various factors, including knowledge and attitudes towards health, beliefs and values, cultural norms, social support networks, environmental factors, and individual genetic predispositions. Understanding health behaviors is essential for developing effective public health interventions and promoting healthy lifestyles to prevent chronic diseases and improve overall quality of life.

Medically, 'overweight' is a term used to describe a person whose body weight is greater than what is considered healthy for their height. This excess weight often comes from fat, muscle, bone, or water accumulation. The most commonly used measure to define overweight is the Body Mass Index (BMI), which is calculated by dividing a person's weight in kilograms by the square of their height in meters. A BMI of 25.0 to 29.9 is considered overweight, while a BMI of 30.0 or higher is considered obese. However, it's important to note that BMI doesn't directly measure body fat and may not accurately reflect health status for all individuals, such as athletes with high muscle mass.

Obesity is a complex disease characterized by an excess accumulation of body fat to the extent that it negatively impacts health. It's typically defined using Body Mass Index (BMI), a measure calculated from a person's weight and height. A BMI of 30 or higher is indicative of obesity. However, it's important to note that while BMI can be a useful tool for identifying obesity in populations, it does not directly measure body fat and may not accurately reflect health status in individuals. Other factors such as waist circumference, blood pressure, cholesterol levels, and blood sugar levels should also be considered when assessing health risks associated with weight.

Prospective studies, also known as longitudinal studies, are a type of cohort study in which data is collected forward in time, following a group of individuals who share a common characteristic or exposure over a period of time. The researchers clearly define the study population and exposure of interest at the beginning of the study and follow up with the participants to determine the outcomes that develop over time. This type of study design allows for the investigation of causal relationships between exposures and outcomes, as well as the identification of risk factors and the estimation of disease incidence rates. Prospective studies are particularly useful in epidemiology and medical research when studying diseases with long latency periods or rare outcomes.

"The Parents" is the twenty-fourth episode overall and the ninth episode of the second season of the American television series ... "The Parents" at the Internet Movie Database ASCAP database music search (Articles lacking in-text citations from April 2013, ...
"Parents". parents.com. Retrieved December 12, 2011. Schlossman, S. (1985), "Perils of Popularization: The founding of Parents' ... Leighton-Dore, Samuel (January 21, 2019),"'Parents' magazine features same-sex dads on its cover", SBS. "Tell Parents Magazine ... In 1937, the magazine was granted trademark registration for the mark Parents' Magazine. From 1941 to 1965, Parents' Magazine ... In 1992, Gruner + Jahr filed suit against Meredith for trademark infringement of Parents when Meredith published Parent's ...
"Parents" at IMDb "Parents" at Fox.com Medical review of "Parents" (Use American English from January 2023, All Wikipedia ... "Parents" is the sixth episode of the eighth season of the American television medical drama series House and the 161st overall ... Handlen, Zack (November 14, 2011). "House: "Parents"". The A.V. Club. Archived from the original on December 7, 2021. Retrieved ...
... (Italian: Cari genitori) is a 1973 Italian drama film directed by Enrico Maria Salerno. For this film Florinda ... ISBN 88-7742-221-1. Dear Parents at IMDb v t e v t e (CS1 Italian-language sources (it), Articles with short description, Short ...
... at IMDb Bad Parents at Rotten Tomatoes Orel, Gwen (October 11, 2012). "Montclair recognizes "Bad Parents"". North ... Bad Parents is a 2012 comedy film written and directed by Caytha Jentis and starring Janeane Garofalo. The movie humorously ... Bad Parents premiered on October 3, 2012, at the Montclair Film Festival and later played at Ridgewood, New Jersey, on February ... Bad Parents' Ridgewood filmmaker holds red carpet movie premiere". North Jersey Media Group. February 24, 2014. Archived from ...
In a diagram entitled 'Becoming a Spirit Child of Heavenly Parents,' ... the one parent [is] labeled 'Heavenly Father' (caps), ... which discusses heavenly parents. The poem contained the following language: In the heavens are parents single? No, the thought ... "heav'nly parents". "The Family: A Proclamation to the World" mentions "heavenly parents". Various LDS Church curriculum ... Heavenly Parents is the term used in Mormonism to refer collectively to the divine partnership of God the Father and the ...
"Chinese Parents - A Tiger Parent Sim now supports English - with 33% off discount". www.gamasutra.com. Chan, Khee Hoon (July 11 ... Chinese Parents (Chinese: 中国式家长; pinyin: Zhōngguó Shì Jiāzhǎng) is a child-raising life simulation game by Beijing-based studio ... Official website Chinese Parents at MobyGames Portals: China Video games v t e (Orphaned articles from April 2020, All orphaned ... "Review: Chinese Parents (Nintendo Switch)". Digitally Downloaded. August 2020. Retrieved March 25, 2021. Wen, Alan (August 25, ...
... at IMDb Drunk Parents at Rotten Tomatoes v t e (Articles with short description, Short description is different ... Drunk Parents' & More". Deadline Hollywood. Retrieved January 25, 2019. N'Duka, Amanda (September 14, 2018). "'Drunk Parents' ... Drunk Parents is a 2019 American comedy film directed by Fred Wolf and written by Peter Gaulke and Fred Wolf. The film stars ... "Drunk Parents (2019)". Box Office Mojo. IMDb. Retrieved March 31, 2023. Williams, Owen (September 14, 2015). "Alec Baldwin And ...
"Delinquent Parents". Catalog.afi.com. Retrieved 2019-06-01. Delinquent Parents at IMDb (Articles with short description, Short ... Carol's adopted parents turn to their friend Edith Ellis, now an unmarried Judge who doesn't know that Carol is really her ... Delinquent Parents is a 1938 American crime film directed by Nick Grinde and written by Nicholas T. Barrows and Robert St. ... Shamed by not knowing she was adopted, Carol cruelly turns her back on her adopted parents and works as a nightclub singer ...
... is a color painting on silk drawn in the coastal areas of southern China during the late Yuan and early Ming ... Mani's Parents Birth of Mani Episodes from Mani's Missionary Work Mani's Community Established One scroll depicting Cosmology ( ...
... (PA) is a self-help group for parents with the goal of preventing child abuse and providing support for ... Parents Anonymous chapter development manual. Torrance, CA: Parents Anonymous. 1974. OCLC 37659500. "Frontiers". Inglewood, CA ... cite journal}}: Cite journal requires ,journal= (help) WorldCat search results list 48 books from Parents Anonymous Parents ... Jolly K. was under Lieber's care at the time, and he suggested she meet with another parent from his caseload who had similar ...
Helicopter parent, a similar parenting style in the United States Kyoiku mama, a similar parenting style in Japan Tiger parent ... "Helicopter Parents"? "Monster Parents"? "Free-Range Parenting?" - Part 2 - I Am Not a Monster Parent". Lifetime Development. ... "Monster Parents, Helicopter Parents & Anxiety". Retrieved 17 December 2012. Chan, Oswald. "Monster Parents, Helicopter Parents ... A good deal of how one parents is shaped by how they were parented. It is reasonable to assume that monster parenting style is ...
... (TV Movie 2006) - IMDb User Ratings, retrieved 25 May 2020 Perfect Parents (TV Movie 2006) - IMDb User Reviews ... Perfect Parents, retrieved 23 May 2020 Rotten Tomatoes-Perfect Parents (2006), retrieved 23 May 2020 Simon, Jane (28 December ... Perfect Parents marked his return to acting where he plays the role of a tender and loving parent that is a combination of wit ... Perfect Parents is a fictional 2006 British TV film written and directed by Joe Ahearne and produced by ITV Productions. It ...
... (lit. 'Parents-in-law') is a 2019 French comedy directed by Héctor Cabello Reyes. Released only in France, it ... "Beaux-parents". Box Office Mojo. Retrieved 3 April 2023. Beaux-parents at IMDb v t e (Articles with short description, Short ... "Beaux-parents". boxofficemojo.com. Retrieved 4 July 2019. "Beaux-parents - film 2019 - AlloCiné". allocine.fr. Retrieved 4 July ...
Family events focus on the parents; popular actions include giving parents carnations. The ceremony to designate Parents' Day ... In South Korea, Parents' Day (Korean: 어버이날 Eobeoinal) is annually held on May 8. Parents' Day is celebrated by both the public ... The United Nations proclaimed June 1 to be the Global Day of Parents "to appreciate all parents in all parts of the world for ... "Parents' Day in DR Congo in 2020". Office Holidays. "Democratic Republic of the Congo Celebrates Parents Day". Holidays Around ...
1946; reprinted in Les Parents terribles; édition de Jean Touzot. (Paris: Gallimard, 1994) p. 223: "Les Parents terribles ... Jean Touzot in: Jean Cocteau, Les Parents terribles. (Paris: Gallimard, 1994) pp. 189-190. Jean Cocteau, Les Parents terribles ... Les Parents terribles is a 1938 French play written by Jean Cocteau. Despite initial problems with censorship, it was revived ... After the war Les Parents terribles was revived again at the Théâtre du Gymnase in February 1946, and this time found almost ...
In Parents' Day, an unnamed male in his thirties begins teaching at a private school early in World War II. He is a single ... Parents' Day sold poorly and has been largely forgotten, save for some recognition as an early gay American novel. In the ... Goodman referred to Parents' Day, alongside Making Do and The Break-up of Our Camp, as his three "community novels". The ... Parents' Day is a 1951 novel by Paul Goodman. Written as autobiographical fiction based on the author's experiences teaching at ...
"Ethio-Parents' School - A Gate to Wisdom". Ours Site. Retrieved 24 June 2017. "ABOUT US". Ethio-Parents' School. Retrieved 24 ... "Ethio-Parents' School - A Gate to Wisdom". Ours Site. Retrieved 29 June 2017. "History". Ethio-parents' School. Retrieved 24 ... "Ethio-Parents' School - A Gate to Wisdom". Our Site. Retrieved 24 June 2017. "Governance". Ethio-Parents' School. Retrieved 24 ... The school is managed by HOHETE TIBEB Share Company (HTSC). Ethio-Parents' School was formed by volunteer parents in 1995. It ...
Parents' Day is a holiday celebrating parents. Parents' Day may also refer to: A school's parent visitation day, open house ... "Parent's Day" (Camp Lazlo episode), a 2005 episode of animated television series Camp Lazlo "Parents' Day" (D:TNG episode), a ... activities in which parents are invited "Parents' Day" (Camp Camp episode), a 2017 episode of animated television series Camp ... 2001 episode of Canadian television series Degrassi: The Next Generation Parents' Day (Moldova), a holiday in Maldova Parents' ...
"2014 Shared Parenting Report". "2019 Shared Parenting Report Card, A New Look At Child Welfare, A State-by-State Ranking". ... "RECENT ACHIEVEMENTS". National Parents Organization. Jonathan Ellis, USA TODAY (27 January 2014). "Shared parenting could be ... Donald C. Hubin, Frank Glandorf, Julia W. Carpenter-Hubin (August 29, 2018). "NPO Ohio Parenting Time Report". National Parents ... Together with the International Council on Shared Parenting, the National Parents Organization sponsored the Third ...
Parents with physical or sensory disabilities experience misunderstanding of their parenting abilities. Deaf parents face ... Comparing to non-disabled parents, more disabled parents are not employed. Families with disabled parents also face extra ... Direct care for parents, including assist in parents' mobility and other personal cares like toileting, eating, communicating, ... And life details of children with disabled parents like the number of friend and activities they do with parents are almost ...
... Amazon entry for film Wikimedia Commons has media related to Are Parents People?. Are Parents People? at ... Her parents become so interested in her welfare that now have a mutual interest and become reconciled. The parents then learn ... Are Parents People? is a 1925 American silent comedy film starring Betty Bronson, Florence Vidor, Adolphe Menjou, George ... As described in a film magazine review, Lita's parents are the victims of a divorce due to incompatibility and each want her to ...
Some parents' rights advocates claim that many parents' parental rights are unnecessarily terminated, and that children are ... The issue of parents' rights has also arisen in connection with disagreements over medical treatment. Two recent high-profile ... The parents' rights movement is a civil rights movement whose members are primarily interested in issues affecting fathers, ... And it was so vague that it would result in a flood of litigation initiated by angry parents, at taxpayers' expense, against ...
... (Sumizdat, 2007, ISBN 9780977985258) is a book about mathematics education aimed at parents and teachers ... Bovill, Megan R. (April 19, 2007), "Arithmetic for Parents: A Book for Grownups about Children's Mathematics", MAA Reviews, ... Bogomolny, Alexander, "Review of Arithmetic for Parents", Cut-the-Knot. (Articles with short description, Short description ...
Foreldrar (Parents) is a 2007 Icelandic film written and directed by Ragnar Bragason. Foreldrar won five Edda Awards in 2007, ... Parents at IMDb Gagnrýni Topp5.is á Foreldrum (in Icelandic) Sjá bíóbrot (trailer) fyrir Foreldra (in Icelandic) Opinber ...
... is a registered charity in the United Kingdom which aims to help parents of children with special ... The charity is pro-inclusion and was founded in 1984 as Parents in Partnership. Official website v t e (Articles lacking ...
... are parents whose obsession with ethical and environmental awareness often works against their basic role as parents to Tarquin ... The Modern Parents is a comic strip from the British comic Viz created by John Fardell who both writes and illustrates it. One ... The Modern Parents do not believe in childhood activities such as fairgrounds, fast food restaurants, games, competitions and ... Tarquin appeared to get older in the early years of Modern Parents and in one episode turned thirteen. Guinevere, whose name is ...
... hired attorney William Lee Dwyer to advocate for their case. At one point the judge assigned to the case was ... In fall 1984 parents David C. Crosby and Maureen Crosby became concerned that Ian, their 14 year old son and only child, had ... Parents in Arms viewed teen nightclubs as corrupting to youth and sought to eliminate them. Crosby said that the age for clubs ... Parents in Arms was a community organization active in the 1980s in Seattle which petitioned the Seattle City Council for the ...
... at IMDb v t e (CS1 Italian-language sources (it), Articles with short description, Short description is ... Parents in Progress (Italian: Genitori quasi perfetti) is a 2019 Italian comedy-drama film directed by Laura Chiossone. Anna ... "Parents in Progress". True Colors. Retrieved 13 July 2020. Manca, Mario (2 September 2019). ""Genitori quasi perfetti" è il ...
... is a 1939 American drama film directed by Sam Nelson and starring Jean Parker, Johnny Downs and Noah Beery Jr ... Parents on Trial at IMDb v t e (Articles with short description, Short description matches Wikidata, Wikipedia articles without ...
Questions About Vaccines: Answers for Parents. *Travel Vaccines: Plan Ahead Before You Go ...
"The Parents" is the twenty-fourth episode overall and the ninth episode of the second season of the American television series ... "The Parents" at the Internet Movie Database ASCAP database music search (Articles lacking in-text citations from April 2013, ...
How Can Parents Help?. To help ease cold discomfort, you can:. *Put saline (saltwater) drops in the nostrils to relieve nasal ... Getting Help for Depression If you feel depressed or alone, talking to a parent is a good place to start. Tips for talking ... Helping Kids When They Worry When kids worry, parents can provide calm support. Heres how ...
... Larry King Live ^ , Brenda & Damon Van Dam Posted on 02/11/2002 5:06:42 PM PST ... Larry King just confronted them about whether one can have an alternate lifestyle and still be good parents. Like I said, it ... On Gibsons show on FOX tonight, the reporter was skating around this issue, saying that the parents marriage was now an issue ... Did a partner take a detour to the childs room for some perveted sex while parents were too stoned ? ...
Joey Kings parents raised her in Simi Valley, California ... Her parents welcomed their first child Kelli King on March 22, ... She grew up in Simi Valley, away from the heart of Hollywood, as neither of her parents were previously involved in the ... So, who are Joey Kings parents? Heres everything to know about Jamie and Terry King. ...
Parenting Tips from the Pros: How to Teach Children Not to Lie. By Dr. Magdalena Battles ... How To Parent An Only Child: 7 Essential Tips. By Dr. Magdalena Battles ... How To Help a Teen With Depression (The Parents Guide). By Rossana Snee ... 13 Practical Pieces of Advice for New Parents. By Dr. Magdalena Battles ...
Parents of Olympians dont get to see much of their children during the Games. At best, they get to share a few minutes after ... Being an Olympic parent can be stressful, too. Carl Nordgren said it is "agonizing to watch" when Leif is not having a good day ... "I have to say, Im not watching it like a regular parent," he said. "Im watching it with a critical eye. My wife is far more ... Her parents - and the mothers and fathers of many other Minnesota-linked Olympians - made the 6,400-mile journey to South Korea ...
Hospital national poll found that discipline and behavioral issues can cause conflict between grandparents and parents. ... Respondents to the poll said smartphones and the internet have presented parenting challenges that their own parents never ... says differences in parenting expectations may be caused by the age gap between parents and their children. "The most important ... Parents, Grandparents Disagree on How Grandchildren Are Raised, Poll Finds. Issues around discipline, food and screen time ...
Browse Profiles & Photos of Parents Singles in Arizona! Join Match.com, the leader in online dating with more dates, more ... Parents Dating in Arizona: Browse Parents Singles. Search this online dating site for singles in Arizona, the Grand Canyon ...
... at BellaOnline ... Parents.com is the home of four popular family magazines which have ongoing contest and sweepstakes listings. No subscription ... Parents (2-year). Family Fun (2-year). You Should Also Read:. Five Environmental Contests for Kids. Young Voices Foundation ... The Parents Network website is the home of four family magazines from the Meredith Corporation including American Baby Magazine ...
parent_class_name = $class_name;. do {. $parent_class_names[] = $parent_class_name;. } while($parent_class_name = get_parent_ ... parent = get_parent_class($className);. if ($parent !== false) {. $chain .= " , {$parent}";. return $function($parent);. }. ... get_first_common_parent(array(new G(), F));. //returns false (no common parent). get_first_common_parent(array(C, H));. ... echo get_parent_class(Bar);. echo "\n";. echo get_parent_class(bar);. ?,. will output:. foo. foo. ...
Parents Support Kindergarten Teachers Strike. Friday, 9 December 2005, 9:07 am. Press Release: NZEI ... There were parents and children supporting the striking teachers at every single rally. Throughout the country more than 2000 ... "This is because parents share the teachers concerns about the working conditions the Ministry of Education and the ... Parents Support Kindergarten Teachers Strike Kindergarten teachers went on strike today in unprecedented numbers with 1700 ...
Parents, 3 children killed in Paradise Hills murder-suicide. 9-year-old boy rushed to the hospital ...
THIS ENTITILES IMMIGRANT PARENTS OF AMERICAN CITIZEN CHILDREN, AFTER FILING AND RECEIVING AN APPROVED I-130 (PETITION OF AN ... and NOT BE ABLE TO DEPORT IMMIGRANT PARENTS WHEN MINOR CHILDREN ARE INVOLVED ALLOWING THEM A CERTAIN AMOUNT OF TIME TO BEGIN ...
... and birth parents. Get your adoption questions answered ... Forum Adoptive Parents State Adoptive Parents Ohio Adoptive ... It does not place children for adoption or match birth parents and adoptive parents. Users of Adoption.com agree to the Terms ...
Co-Parenting describes a parenting situation where the parents are not in a marriage, cohabitation or romantic relationship ... Co-Parenting is a new concept of alternative families and there is also a growing trend of single parenting by choice as more ... HuffPost UK Parents Newsletter. Sign up and well email you a weekly dose of parenting stories, covering everything from ... Parents. Life As A ParentPregnancyBirth and BabiesToddlersSchoolTeensBetween Us ...
Parents Helping Parents provides parent support for children and adults with disabilities in San Jose, CA, and beyond. Get ... Parents Helping Parents provides parent support for children and adults with disabilities in San Jose, CA, and beyond. Get ... Parents Helping Parents, Inc.. PHP@Sobrato Center for Nonprofits. 1400 Parkmoor Av Ste 100, San Jose, CA 95126. San Jose 408- ... Parents Helping Parents can empower you with resources and support at every stage of your childs life, from birth through ...
claim parents had been told by investigators that it was likely. that some of the children who went to Betts Way were sexually ... Solicitors representing parents who allege their children were. abused while attending Betts Way special needs residential home ...
... In an effort to improve system practices, Broward County School District is conducting a Parent Survey ... Parent Survey Link: https://eprovesurveys.advanc-ed.org/surveys/#/action/246161/p568 ...
Parents of the suspected shooter in the Atlanta spa killings identified their son to the police after reporting he had a GPS ... Then, Longs parents called in and turned over a GPS tracking device that allowed police to locate Long. ... Baker added that he was unsure why Longs parents were tracking him, but that the cooperation was key to tracking down Long in ... Baker said that as authorities responded to the first shooting and met with Longs parents, a call was made reporting a robbery ...
Study of young parents highlights links among stress, poverty, ethnicity. Date:. December 2, 2013. Source:. University of ... "Study of young parents highlights links among stress, poverty, ethnicity." ScienceDaily. www.sciencedaily.com. /. releases. /. ... "The abundance of stress for poor parents is clear, potent and potentially toxic for them and their children," Dunkel Schetter ... "Study of young parents highlights links among stress, poverty, ethnicity." ScienceDaily. ScienceDaily, 2 December 2013. ,www. ...
For the Australian parent left behind, its a never-ending nightmare. ... So one parent gets all the kids all the time and the other parent goes and commits suicide on the living room floor. Or they ... "They think it will cause conflict to share a child between parents. So one parent gets all the kids and the other goes and ... even when that parent is overseas. The payments are calculated on the percentage of care. Since the abducting parent has the ...
... of the sample for the full Library Services Survey is parents of minor children, and this report examines their particularly ... Part 2: Parents and Reading Part 3: Parents and Reading to Children Part 4: Parents and Libraries Part 5: Parents, children, ... and compare them to parents with no teenagers (54% of the parent sample). For other questions we focus on parents with any ... Parents, Children, Libraries, and Reading. Part 1: A Profile of Parents. By Kathryn Zickuhr, Lee Rainie and Kristen Purcell ...
... following a survey that showed parents still treat girls differently. ... In fact, 59 percent of parents - among the nearly 7,000 parents and children aged 6 to 14 years old surveyed in China, the ... Many parents perceive the Lego brand as a good example of an inclusive product - products are not labeled "for girls" or "for ... Lego Surveyed Parents and Discovered They Still Treat the Blocks Like Toys For Boys Over Girls. By. Kate Schweitzer ...
Meet the folks on HRCs Parents for Transgender Equality National Council and check out our resources for parents, family ... The HRC National Parents for Transgender Equality Council is made up of a small but mighty, diverse segment of the thousands of ... Add Your Name to Our Growing List of Parent Advocates!. There are many ways to engage in our work - from large to small, ... We invite you to fill out the form below to join our Parents for Transgender Equality National Network, a growing body of folks ...
These unidentified parents made our influential parents hall of fame by starting an actual wildfire with their over-the-top ... Why are new parents still so obsessed with gender?. From throwing gender-reveal parties to buying gendered clothes and toys, ... 6 parenting trends we hope will finally die in 2019. Milk bath maternity shoots, play teepees and umbilical cord jewellery: ... 19 trends that will affect parents in 2020. From gender-neutral *everything* and normalizing anxiety to environmentally ...
Mark Ginsberg appointed Parents as Teachers Board Chair. After four years of dedicated service as the Parents as Teachers board ... Parents as Teachers announces appointments to its Board of Directors. Parents as Teachers has appointed four new members to its ... Parents as Teachers 2022 International Conference heads west to Denver. We are excited to announce that the Parents as Teachers ... Parents as Teachers National Center Employees Reach United Way Goal. As in years past, employees at Parents as Teachers ...
By seeing their parents excitement at hearing "dada" or "mama," babies soon learn to connect a word with its meaning. ...
... parents met in Lebanon and welcomed their son in 1964 ... Keanu Reeves parents met in Lebanon and welcomed their son in ... Keanus parents met in Beirut when they were both in their early 20s. "My mother and father were like 22, 21, the Speed star ... Keanu tends to keep his personal life out of the spotlight and doesnt often open up about his parents or his childhood. But ... On the Conversations with Charlie podcast, Herzfeld asked Keanu about how his parents met. The actor responded, "My father was ...
  • There were parents and children supporting the striking teachers at every single rally. (scoop.co.nz)
  • Throughout the country more than 2000 teachers, parents and children took part in the strike activities. (scoop.co.nz)
  • Kindergarten teachers are hoping that the employing parties will take notice of today's action, and the fact that several hundred parents and children stood along side the striking teachers," says Colin Tarr. (scoop.co.nz)
  • Parents Helping Parents provides parent support for children and adults with disabilities in San Jose, CA, and beyond. (php.com)
  • The abundance of stress for poor parents is clear, potent and potentially toxic for them and their children," Dunkel Schetter said. (sciencedaily.com)
  • Roughly a quarter (26%) of the sample for the full Library Services Survey is parents of minor children, and this report examines their particularly strong attachments to libraries. (pewresearch.org)
  • Our sample of parents closely mirrors the national population of parents of minor children as measured by the Census Bureau's 2011 Annual Social and Economic Supplement. (pewresearch.org)
  • Our sample slightly over-represents parents of younger children - 52% of our sample is a parent of at least one child 5 or younger, compared with 46% of the full U.S. population of parents. (pewresearch.org)
  • There are substantive differences between parents of younger children and parents of older children on questions related to reading, library use, and perceptions of libraries. (pewresearch.org)
  • Comparing the demographic profile of parents of children under 18 to other adults (adults with no children currently under age 18) in our sample reveals some important differences that may, in part, explain differences between the two groups in their reading habits, and relationship with libraries. (pewresearch.org)
  • Sometimes there are differences in parents' responses to our questions that are associated with the age of their children. (pewresearch.org)
  • Although 51% of parents give their children 'pocket money' in order to encourage responsible saving habits, a survey of 10,000 parents and children, conducted by the Royal Economic Society, found that almost a quarter of children fail to save any of it. (huffingtonpost.co.uk)
  • The HRC National Parents for Transgender Equality Council is made up of a small but mighty, diverse segment of the thousands of parents out there who, every day, are modeling love, acceptance, and affirmation for their trans children, and by extension, all trans children. (hrc.org)
  • All across this country, parents are taking action to support and protect their transgender, non-binary, and gender-expansive children. (hrc.org)
  • Call me old-fashioned, but I prefer when my conservative news outlets don't encourage parents to trans their little children,' he said. (newsmax.com)
  • Cite this: Helping Parents and Children Deal With a Child's Limb Deformity - Medscape - Feb 25, 2021. (medscape.com)
  • We j.ijantimicag.2020.106006 sought to determine whether parents of children with 9. (cdc.gov)
  • A new NCHS report presents estimates of the proportion of children who have experienced selected adverse family events by the number of biological parents in the household, with a focus on comparisons among subgroups of children in nonparental care defined by caregiver type. (cdc.gov)
  • When our children don't feel well, we parents will look to just about anything to bring them comfort. (cdc.gov)
  • It is well documented in previous research that Singaporean (middle-class) parents invest substantial resources, time and emotion in supporting their children academically and developmentally. (lu.se)
  • Hays 1996) is likely heightened in such a competitive education system, parents' efforts and aspirations in raising their young children cannot be understood as purely strategic and calculating. (lu.se)
  • Title : Measuring the Physical Activity Practices Used by Parents of Preschool Children Personal Author(s) : Vaughn, Amber;Hales, Derek;Ward, Dianne S. (cdc.gov)
  • As children grow and develop, some parents may notice that their eyes begin to point in different directions and become misaligned. (msdmanuals.com)
  • Parents should not delay in making sure children displaying signs of strabismus are seen by a doctor. (msdmanuals.com)
  • Filial Children and Ageing Parents is an anthropological study of the politics and practice of intergenerational relations among Chinese Singaporeans. (lu.se)
  • In particular, it examines the issue of filial obligations between children and aged parents. (lu.se)
  • For instance, for some questions, we examine parents who have at least one teenager (46% of the sample) and compare them to parents with no teenagers (54% of the parent sample). (pewresearch.org)
  • In a rare public warning, Surgeon General Jerome Adams said Tuesday that parents, teachers, health professionals, and government officials must take "aggressive steps" to keep teenagers from using e-cigarettes. (thedailybeast.com)
  • The government's top doctor has urged parents and government officials to take immediate action to stop millions of teens from becoming addicted to vaping after figures showed high-school students are taking up the habit in record numbers. (thedailybeast.com)
  • Meanwhile, the parents of several terrorists who were shot dead after attacking or killing Jews have risen to this call, praising their children's deaths in Palestinian Arab media. (israelnationalnews.com)
  • As the ambassador for Safe Kids Central California, Dr. Nelson hosts biweekly virtual Lunch and Learn sessions for parents covering a variety of safety and injury prevention topics, and frequently appears as a subject matter expert on Valley Children's Virtual Health Series for Families events. (cdc.gov)
  • In this context, parents' involvement in children's education is increasingly taken for granted. (lu.se)
  • On the contrary, ethnographic data highlights the complexities of parents' risk management and how they navigate uncertainties with regard to their children's future. (lu.se)
  • Sentiments of fear of regret and guilt are particularly conspicuous in parents' narratives around their children's education. (lu.se)
  • In this paper I propose that the transformation of traditional intergenerational expectations and the emergence of a child-centered relatedness in East Asian societies (Kipnis 2011) are vital to understand parents' sentiments of uncertainty and guilt in relation to their children's future. (lu.se)
  • Here are a few things parents and patients should know if they notice a misalignment in their children's eyes. (msdmanuals.com)
  • Parents Helping Parents can empower you with resources and support at every stage of your child's life, from birth through adulthood. (php.com)
  • Parents Helping Parents, Inc. (php.com)
  • Introduction and Objective: The aim of this study was to evaluate the perception of parents or guardians about the signs and symptoms found during tooth eruption of their infants treated in the Pediatric Dentistry Clinics at the University of Joinville Region - Univille. (bvsalud.org)
  • Material and methods: We conducted an observational and cross-sectional study using data collected from structured interviews with 50 parents and guardians. (bvsalud.org)
  • Her parents welcomed their first child Kelli King on March 22, 1992, in L.A. A little over a year later Jamie gave birth to their second daughter, Hunter King , on Oct. 19, 1993. (yahoo.com)
  • As many parents will know, the first impulse of a child with a pocket full of coins is not to deposit them into a piggy bank, but into a shop till. (huffingtonpost.co.uk)
  • Ryland's parents, Jeff and Hillary Whittington, encouraged their biological female child to identify as a male from around the age of 5, with an informal transition. (newsmax.com)
  • Events in parent window (html document) will be invisible to child window opened in IFrame. (codeproject.com)
  • If you're a parent, you get plenty of suggestions on how to raise your child. (medlineplus.gov)
  • My decision to accept the risks to reap the benefits of surgery is small potatoes compared with the decisions that the parents of a child born with a deformed lower extremity must face. (medscape.com)
  • Principles of Pediatric Environmental Health: How Can Parents' Preconception Exposures and In Utero Exposures Affect a Developing Child? (cdc.gov)
  • How Can Parents' Preconception Exposures and In Utero Exposures Affect a Developing Child? (cdc.gov)
  • The possibility to filter on parent/child items in table listing was added in #1129 . (lu.se)
  • If a child is showing signs of misalignment in their eyes, parents may want to wait and see if the condition goes away on its own. (msdmanuals.com)
  • The parents were put on trial for child neglect . (medscape.com)
  • The parents didn't do that and the child died. (medscape.com)
  • For the most part, we want to assume that all parents are thinking about what's best for their child in every situation and even in the most stressful situations. (medscape.com)
  • differences in endorsement of misinformation related to https://doi.org/10.1111/jdv.16387 the coronavirus disease pandemic between parents of 3. (cdc.gov)
  • So, the results presented in the remainder of this report should be interpreted in the context of who these parents are. (pewresearch.org)
  • context and it will not find the control in the parent window. (codeproject.com)
  • So, the code running in the IFrame context, cannot trigger the event of the controls of the parent window (web page). (codeproject.com)
  • Sign up and we'll email you a weekly dose of parenting stories, covering everything from pregnancy and birth, to babies and toddlers. (huffingtonpost.co.uk)
  • By seeing their parents' excitement at hearing "dada" or "mama," babies soon learn to connect a word with its meaning. (kidshealth.org)
  • Dunkel Schetter said the study did not support a few of the researchers' original assumptions, including their hypotheses that African-American and Hispanic parents would have higher levels of most kinds of stress, and that stress would be a major reason for the racial and ethnic disparities in health. (sciencedaily.com)
  • While predominantly white (61%), 17% of the sample of parents is Hispanic and 13% African-American. (pewresearch.org)
  • This information will be used to help us plan parent involvement activities for our district, and will provide valuable feedback on programs for our school. (google.com)
  • The researchers measured many forms of stress that had never before been assessed together in a single study, including stress triggered by concerns about finances, parenting, partner relationships, family and neighborhood, interpersonal violence, major life events such as the death of a family member, and racism and discrimination. (sciencedaily.com)
  • Parents are demographically different from the other adults in our sample - and in the wider population. (pewresearch.org)
  • This first section will examine the sample of parents analyzed for this report and compare them to national parameters for parents and to the sample of other adults from the survey. (pewresearch.org)
  • Compared with other adults, parents are more likely to be in their 30s and 40s and live in the suburbs. (pewresearch.org)
  • By signing up, you will receive a monthly newsletter with legislative updates, useful resources, advocacy tips, and other timely updates on local and national initiatives for parents. (hrc.org)
  • Partnership with parents : report on a workshop, Siblin, Lebanon, 22-24 January 1993 / by Ghanem Bibi. (who.int)
  • I'm stunned that Fox News ran a segment celebrating a girl whose parents 'transitioned' her into a boy when she was 5 because she apparently told them she was a boy 'before [she] could talk. (newsmax.com)
  • An avalanche of chronic stress -- driven by concerns ranging from parenting to discrimination -- disproportionately affects poor mothers and fathers, according to the first results from a comprehensive multi-state study. (sciencedaily.com)
  • Our parent sample is composed of slightly more mothers than fathers (54% vs. 46%) and it is relatively young (54% under 40 years old) and well-educated (31% some college, 31% four year college or more). (pewresearch.org)
  • We conducted a survey among 735 parents to determine perspective. (cdc.gov)
  • This is because parents share the teachers' concerns about the working conditions the Ministry of Education and the kindergarten associations are trying to impose on the teachers. (scoop.co.nz)
  • We invite you to fill out the form below to join our Parents for Transgender Equality National Network , a growing body of folks who are able and willing to participate in various levels of public education and advocacy, or who just want to stay more informed and engaged. (hrc.org)
  • This study aimed at investigating relations between the career interests of 81 high school students and their parents' levels of education. (bvsalud.org)
  • By drawing on ethnographic fieldwork in Singapore, I attempt to shed light on the subjective desires, anxieties and aspirations that shapes contemporary parenting in East Asia, and address its consequences for family life and intergenerational relations. (lu.se)
  • In parent window (web page), I have flyout control which has a tree control which displays some hierarchical data. (codeproject.com)
  • script will not access the parent window control directly, and can never trigger event of the parent page controls. (codeproject.com)
  • Getting Help for Depression If you feel depressed or alone, talking to a parent is a good place to start. (kidshealth.org)
  • On the other hand, I have read stories of young people who had become so frustrated by their deformity that they were more than eager to undergo amputation despite the concerns of their parents. (medscape.com)
  • The handy resources below will help you navigate your first year as an MSOE parent. (msoe.edu)
  • Keanu's parents met in Beirut when they were both in their early 20s. (yahoo.com)
  • The truth is there is more than one "right" way to be a good parent. (medlineplus.gov)
  • We need YOU to extend that work in your communities as part of our Parents Network to share resources and to encourage others to educate themselves about transgender, non-binary, and gender-expansive youth so that they can become better allies. (hrc.org)
  • The table below shows the comparison of our sample of parents to these national parameters on some key demographic variables. (pewresearch.org)
  • n = 420 j.watres.2020.115942 without a cancer history, 67.1% female parent/care- giver) during May 1-31, 2020. (cdc.gov)
  • It is well documented in previous research that Singaporean (middle-class) parents invest. (lu.se)
  • Parents play an important role in infant's speech development. (babyology.com.au)
  • Why are all these parents or all these people freaking out about Miley being herself? (mtv.com)
  • From experts to other parents, people are always ready to offer advice. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Helping Kids When They Worry When kids worry, parents can provide calm support. (kidshealth.org)
  • I saw a statement from the American Academy of Pediatrics not too long ago that said that you have to be a little wary about the ability of parents to make decisions for their kids in high-stress situations. (medscape.com)
  • Parents vs Doctor: Who Is Really in Charge? (medscape.com)
  • She urged the parents to take the baby to the doctor or to a hospital. (medscape.com)
  • I think that presents an extreme situation that, for any parent, is horrible and can really tax their ability to make decisions. (medscape.com)
  • The results indicated that most students wanted to attend university and, specially the ones who had parents who had concluded at least high school, showed interests for traditionally valued professions. (bvsalud.org)