Animals, Inbred Strains: Animals produced by the mating of progeny over multiple generations. The resultant strain of animals is virtually identical genotypically. Highly inbred animal lines allow the study of certain traits in a relatively pure form. (Segen, Dictionary of Modern Medicine, 1992)Animals, Outbred Strains: Animals that are generated from breeding two genetically dissimilar strains of the same species.Mice, Inbred Strains: Genetically identical individuals developed from brother and sister matings which have been carried out for twenty or more generations, or by parent x offspring matings carried out with certain restrictions. All animals within an inbred strain trace back to a common ancestor in the twentieth generation.Species Specificity: The restriction of a characteristic behavior, anatomical structure or physical system, such as immune response; metabolic response, or gene or gene variant to the members of one species. It refers to that property which differentiates one species from another but it is also used for phylogenetic levels higher or lower than the species.Crosses, Genetic: Deliberate breeding of two different individuals that results in offspring that carry part of the genetic material of each parent. The parent organisms must be genetically compatible and may be from different varieties or closely related species.Mutation: Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.Mice, Inbred DBAPhenotype: The outward appearance of the individual. It is the product of interactions between genes, and between the GENOTYPE and the environment.Chromosome Mapping: Any method used for determining the location of and relative distances between genes on a chromosome.Sequence Analysis, DNA: A multistage process that includes cloning, physical mapping, subcloning, determination of the DNA SEQUENCE, and information analysis.Virulence: The degree of pathogenicity within a group or species of microorganisms or viruses as indicated by case fatality rates and/or the ability of the organism to invade the tissues of the host. The pathogenic capacity of an organism is determined by its VIRULENCE FACTORS.Mice, Inbred C57BLGenes, Bacterial: The functional hereditary units of BACTERIA.Mice, Inbred C3HQuantitative Trait Loci: Genetic loci associated with a QUANTITATIVE TRAIT.Escherichia coli: A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria (GRAM-NEGATIVE FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC RODS) commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. It is usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce DIARRHEA and pyogenic infections. Pathogenic strains (virotypes) are classified by their specific pathogenic mechanisms such as toxins (ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI), etc.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Mice, Inbred ABacterial Proteins: Proteins found in any species of bacterium.Mice, Inbred BALB CGenotype: The genetic constitution of the individual, comprising the ALLELES present at each GENETIC LOCUS.RNA, Ribosomal, 16S: Constituent of 30S subunit prokaryotic ribosomes containing 1600 nucleotides and 21 proteins. 16S rRNA is involved in initiation of polypeptide synthesis.Chromosomes, Mammalian: Complex nucleoprotein structures which contain the genomic DNA and are part of the CELL NUCLEUS of MAMMALS.Genetic Variation: Genotypic differences observed among individuals in a population.Gene Expression Regulation, Bacterial: Any of the processes by which cytoplasmic or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in bacteria.Recombination, Genetic: Production of new arrangements of DNA by various mechanisms such as assortment and segregation, CROSSING OVER; GENE CONVERSION; GENETIC TRANSFORMATION; GENETIC CONJUGATION; GENETIC TRANSDUCTION; or mixed infection of viruses.Mice, Inbred AKRDNA, Bacterial: Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of bacteria.DNA, Ribosomal: DNA sequences encoding RIBOSOMAL RNA and the segments of DNA separating the individual ribosomal RNA genes, referred to as RIBOSOMAL SPACER DNA.Genetic Linkage: The co-inheritance of two or more non-allelic GENES due to their being located more or less closely on the same CHROMOSOME.Bacterial Typing Techniques: Procedures for identifying types and strains of bacteria. The most frequently employed typing systems are BACTERIOPHAGE TYPING and SEROTYPING as well as bacteriocin typing and biotyping.Amino Acid Sequence: The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.Anti-Bacterial Agents: Substances that reduce the growth or reproduction of BACTERIA.Hybridization, Genetic: The genetic process of crossbreeding between genetically dissimilar parents to produce a hybrid.Culture Media: Any liquid or solid preparation made specifically for the growth, storage, or transport of microorganisms or other types of cells. The variety of media that exist allow for the culturing of specific microorganisms and cell types, such as differential media, selective media, test media, and defined media. Solid media consist of liquid media that have been solidified with an agent such as AGAR or GELATIN.Rats, Inbred Strains: Genetically identical individuals developed from brother and sister matings which have been carried out for twenty or more generations or by parent x offspring matings carried out with certain restrictions. This also includes animals with a long history of closed colony breeding.Drug Resistance, Microbial: The ability of microorganisms, especially bacteria, to resist or to become tolerant to chemotherapeutic agents, antimicrobial agents, or antibiotics. This resistance may be acquired through gene mutation or foreign DNA in transmissible plasmids (R FACTORS).Inbreeding: The mating of plants or non-human animals which are closely related genetically.Microbial Sensitivity Tests: Any tests that demonstrate the relative efficacy of different chemotherapeutic agents against specific microorganisms (i.e., bacteria, fungi, viruses).Plasmids: Extrachromosomal, usually CIRCULAR DNA molecules that are self-replicating and transferable from one organism to another. They are found in a variety of bacterial, archaeal, fungal, algal, and plant species. They are used in GENETIC ENGINEERING as CLONING VECTORS.Polymerase Chain Reaction: In vitro method for producing large amounts of specific DNA or RNA fragments of defined length and sequence from small amounts of short oligonucleotide flanking sequences (primers). The essential steps include thermal denaturation of the double-stranded target molecules, annealing of the primers to their complementary sequences, and extension of the annealed primers by enzymatic synthesis with DNA polymerase. The reaction is efficient, specific, and extremely sensitive. Uses for the reaction include disease diagnosis, detection of difficult-to-isolate pathogens, mutation analysis, genetic testing, DNA sequencing, and analyzing evolutionary relationships.Mice, Congenic: Mouse strains constructed to possess identical genotypes except for a difference at a single gene locus.Gene Deletion: A genetic rearrangement through loss of segments of DNA or RNA, bringing sequences which are normally separated into close proximity. This deletion may be detected using cytogenetic techniques and can also be inferred from the phenotype, indicating a deletion at one specific locus.Disease Models, Animal: Naturally occurring or experimentally induced animal diseases with pathological processes sufficiently similar to those of human diseases. They are used as study models for human diseases.Base Sequence: The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.Muridae: A family of the order Rodentia containing 250 genera including the two genera Mus (MICE) and Rattus (RATS), from which the laboratory inbred strains are developed. The fifteen subfamilies are SIGMODONTINAE (New World mice and rats), CRICETINAE, Spalacinae, Myospalacinae, Lophiomyinae, ARVICOLINAE, Platacanthomyinae, Nesomyinae, Otomyinae, Rhizomyinae, GERBILLINAE, Dendromurinae, Cricetomyinae, MURINAE (Old World mice and rats), and Hydromyinae.Cloning, Molecular: The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.Genes: A category of nucleic acid sequences that function as units of heredity and which code for the basic instructions for the development, reproduction, and maintenance of organisms.Alleles: Variant forms of the same gene, occupying the same locus on homologous CHROMOSOMES, and governing the variants in production of the same gene product.Mice, Inbred CBASerotyping: Process of determining and distinguishing species of bacteria or viruses based on antigens they share.Nucleic Acid Hybridization: Widely used technique which exploits the ability of complementary sequences in single-stranded DNAs or RNAs to pair with each other to form a double helix. Hybridization can take place between two complimentary DNA sequences, between a single-stranded DNA and a complementary RNA, or between two RNA sequences. The technique is used to detect and isolate specific sequences, measure homology, or define other characteristics of one or both strands. (Kendrew, Encyclopedia of Molecular Biology, 1994, p503)Disease Susceptibility: A constitution or condition of the body which makes the tissues react in special ways to certain extrinsic stimuli and thus tends to make the individual more than usually susceptible to certain diseases.Mutagenesis, Insertional: Mutagenesis where the mutation is caused by the introduction of foreign DNA sequences into a gene or extragenic sequence. This may occur spontaneously in vivo or be experimentally induced in vivo or in vitro. Proviral DNA insertions into or adjacent to a cellular proto-oncogene can interrupt GENETIC TRANSLATION of the coding sequences or interfere with recognition of regulatory elements and cause unregulated expression of the proto-oncogene resulting in tumor formation.Genetics, Behavioral: The experimental study of the relationship between the genotype of an organism and its behavior. The scope includes the effects of genes on simple sensory processes to complex organization of the nervous system.Genetic Complementation Test: A test used to determine whether or not complementation (compensation in the form of dominance) will occur in a cell with a given mutant phenotype when another mutant genome, encoding the same mutant phenotype, is introduced into that cell.Bacterial Adhesion: Physicochemical property of fimbriated (FIMBRIAE, BACTERIAL) and non-fimbriated bacteria of attaching to cells, tissue, and nonbiological surfaces. It is a factor in bacterial colonization and pathogenicity.Staphylococcus aureus: Potentially pathogenic bacteria found in nasal membranes, skin, hair follicles, and perineum of warm-blooded animals. They may cause a wide range of infections and intoxications.RNA, Bacterial: Ribonucleic acid in bacteria having regulatory and catalytic roles as well as involvement in protein synthesis.Polymorphism, Restriction Fragment Length: Variation occurring within a species in the presence or length of DNA fragment generated by a specific endonuclease at a specific site in the genome. Such variations are generated by mutations that create or abolish recognition sites for these enzymes or change the length of the fragment.Base Composition: The relative amounts of the PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in a nucleic acid.Genome, Bacterial: The genetic complement of a BACTERIA as represented in its DNA.DNA Transposable Elements: Discrete segments of DNA which can excise and reintegrate to another site in the genome. Most are inactive, i.e., have not been found to exist outside the integrated state. DNA transposable elements include bacterial IS (insertion sequence) elements, Tn elements, the maize controlling elements Ac and Ds, Drosophila P, gypsy, and pogo elements, the human Tigger elements and the Tc and mariner elements which are found throughout the animal kingdom.Virulence Factors: Those components of an organism that determine its capacity to cause disease but are not required for its viability per se. Two classes have been characterized: TOXINS, BIOLOGICAL and surface adhesion molecules that effect the ability of the microorganism to invade and colonize a host. (From Davis et al., Microbiology, 4th ed. p486)Bacterial Outer Membrane Proteins: Proteins isolated from the outer membrane of Gram-negative bacteria.Genes, rRNA: Genes, found in both prokaryotes and eukaryotes, which are transcribed to produce the RNA which is incorporated into RIBOSOMES. Prokaryotic rRNA genes are usually found in OPERONS dispersed throughout the GENOME, whereas eukaryotic rRNA genes are clustered, multicistronic transcriptional units.Immunogenetics: A subdiscipline of genetics which deals with the genetic basis of the immune response (IMMUNITY).Animals, Congenic: Animals that are produced through selective breeding to eliminate genetic background differences except for a single or few specific loci. They are used to investigate the contribution of genetic background differences to PHENOTYPE.Quantitative Trait, Heritable: A characteristic showing quantitative inheritance such as SKIN PIGMENTATION in humans. (From A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)Antigens, Bacterial: Substances elaborated by bacteria that have antigenic activity.Fermentation: Anaerobic degradation of GLUCOSE or other organic nutrients to gain energy in the form of ATP. End products vary depending on organisms, substrates, and enzymatic pathways. Common fermentation products include ETHANOL and LACTIC ACID.Phylogeny: The relationships of groups of organisms as reflected by their genetic makeup.Blotting, Southern: A method (first developed by E.M. Southern) for detection of DNA that has been electrophoretically separated and immobilized by blotting on nitrocellulose or other type of paper or nylon membrane followed by hybridization with labeled NUCLEIC ACID PROBES.Operon: In bacteria, a group of metabolically related genes, with a common promoter, whose transcription into a single polycistronic MESSENGER RNA is under the control of an OPERATOR REGION.Rats, Inbred BNDrug Resistance, Bacterial: The ability of bacteria to resist or to become tolerant to chemotherapeutic agents, antimicrobial agents, or antibiotics. This resistance may be acquired through gene mutation or foreign DNA in transmissible plasmids (R FACTORS).Spleen: An encapsulated lymphatic organ through which venous blood filters.Soil Microbiology: The presence of bacteria, viruses, and fungi in the soil. This term is not restricted to pathogenic organisms.Chromosomes, Bacterial: Structures within the nucleus of bacterial cells consisting of or containing DNA, which carry genetic information essential to the cell.Pseudomonas aeruginosa: A species of gram-negative, aerobic, rod-shaped bacteria commonly isolated from clinical specimens (wound, burn, and urinary tract infections). It is also found widely distributed in soil and water. P. aeruginosa is a major agent of nosocomial infection.Temperature: The property of objects that determines the direction of heat flow when they are placed in direct thermal contact. The temperature is the energy of microscopic motions (vibrational and translational) of the particles of atoms.Escherichia coli Proteins: Proteins obtained from ESCHERICHIA COLI.Genetic Markers: A phenotypically recognizable genetic trait which can be used to identify a genetic locus, a linkage group, or a recombination event.Conjugation, Genetic: A parasexual process in BACTERIA; ALGAE; FUNGI; and ciliate EUKARYOTA for achieving exchange of chromosome material during fusion of two cells. In bacteria, this is a uni-directional transfer of genetic material; in protozoa it is a bi-directional exchange. In algae and fungi, it is a form of sexual reproduction, with the union of male and female gametes.Restriction Mapping: Use of restriction endonucleases to analyze and generate a physical map of genomes, genes, or other segments of DNA.Saccharomyces cerevisiae: A species of the genus SACCHAROMYCES, family Saccharomycetaceae, order Saccharomycetales, known as "baker's" or "brewer's" yeast. The dried form is used as a dietary supplement.Mice, Mutant Strains: Mice bearing mutant genes which are phenotypically expressed in the animals.Sequence Homology, Nucleic Acid: The sequential correspondence of nucleotides in one nucleic acid molecule with those of another nucleic acid molecule. Sequence homology is an indication of the genetic relatedness of different organisms and gene function.Chromosomes: In a prokaryotic cell or in the nucleus of a eukaryotic cell, a structure consisting of or containing DNA which carries the genetic information essential to the cell. (From Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed)Pseudomonas: A genus of gram-negative, aerobic, rod-shaped bacteria widely distributed in nature. Some species are pathogenic for humans, animals, and plants.Fatty Acids: Organic, monobasic acids derived from hydrocarbons by the equivalent of oxidation of a methyl group to an alcohol, aldehyde, and then acid. Fatty acids are saturated and unsaturated (FATTY ACIDS, UNSATURATED). (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)DNA Primers: Short sequences (generally about 10 base pairs) of DNA that are complementary to sequences of messenger RNA and allow reverse transcriptases to start copying the adjacent sequences of mRNA. Primers are used extensively in genetic and molecular biology techniques.Genome: The genetic complement of an organism, including all of its GENES, as represented in its DNA, or in some cases, its RNA.Sequence Alignment: The arrangement of two or more amino acid or base sequences from an organism or organisms in such a way as to align areas of the sequences sharing common properties. The degree of relatedness or homology between the sequences is predicted computationally or statistically based on weights assigned to the elements aligned between the sequences. This in turn can serve as a potential indicator of the genetic relatedness between the organisms.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Flurothyl: A convulsant primarily used in experimental animals. It was formerly used to induce convulsions as a alternative to electroshock therapy.H-2 Antigens: The major group of transplantation antigens in the mouse.Bacterial Toxins: Toxic substances formed in or elaborated by bacteria; they are usually proteins with high molecular weight and antigenicity; some are used as antibiotics and some to skin test for the presence of or susceptibility to certain diseases.Salmonella typhimurium: A serotype of Salmonella enterica that is a frequent agent of Salmonella gastroenteritis in humans. It also causes PARATYPHOID FEVER.Cell Wall: The outermost layer of a cell in most PLANTS; BACTERIA; FUNGI; and ALGAE. The cell wall is usually a rigid structure that lies external to the CELL MEMBRANE, and provides a protective barrier against physical or chemical agents.Chimera: An individual that contains cell populations derived from different zygotes.DNA Fingerprinting: A technique for identifying individuals of a species that is based on the uniqueness of their DNA sequence. Uniqueness is determined by identifying which combination of allelic variations occur in the individual at a statistically relevant number of different loci. In forensic studies, RESTRICTION FRAGMENT LENGTH POLYMORPHISM of multiple, highly polymorphic VNTR LOCI or MICROSATELLITE REPEAT loci are analyzed. The number of loci used for the profile depends on the ALLELE FREQUENCY in the population.Mice, Inbred NZBPolymorphism, Genetic: The regular and simultaneous occurrence in a single interbreeding population of two or more discontinuous genotypes. The concept includes differences in genotypes ranging in size from a single nucleotide site (POLYMORPHISM, SINGLE NUCLEOTIDE) to large nucleotide sequences visible at a chromosomal level.Electrophoresis, Gel, Pulsed-Field: Gel electrophoresis in which the direction of the electric field is changed periodically. This technique is similar to other electrophoretic methods normally used to separate double-stranded DNA molecules ranging in size up to tens of thousands of base-pairs. However, by alternating the electric field direction one is able to separate DNA molecules up to several million base-pairs in length.Vaccines, Attenuated: Live vaccines prepared from microorganisms which have undergone physical adaptation (e.g., by radiation or temperature conditioning) or serial passage in laboratory animal hosts or infected tissue/cell cultures, in order to produce avirulent mutant strains capable of inducing protective immunity.Genes, Regulator: Genes which regulate or circumscribe the activity of other genes; specifically, genes which code for PROTEINS or RNAs which have GENE EXPRESSION REGULATION functions.Cell Line: Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.Colony Count, Microbial: Enumeration by direct count of viable, isolated bacterial, archaeal, or fungal CELLS or SPORES capable of growth on solid CULTURE MEDIA. The method is used routinely by environmental microbiologists for quantifying organisms in AIR; FOOD; and WATER; by clinicians for measuring patients' microbial load; and in antimicrobial drug testing.Cluster Analysis: A set of statistical methods used to group variables or observations into strongly inter-related subgroups. In epidemiology, it may be used to analyze a closely grouped series of events or cases of disease or other health-related phenomenon with well-defined distribution patterns in relation to time or place or both.Microbial Viability: Ability of a microbe to survive under given conditions. This can also be related to a colony's ability to replicate.Histocompatibility Antigens: A group of antigens that includes both the major and minor histocompatibility antigens. The former are genetically determined by the major histocompatibility complex. They determine tissue type for transplantation and cause allograft rejections. The latter are systems of allelic alloantigens that can cause weak transplant rejection.Polysaccharides, Bacterial: Polysaccharides found in bacteria and in capsules thereof.Immunity, Innate: The capacity of a normal organism to remain unaffected by microorganisms and their toxins. It results from the presence of naturally occurring ANTI-INFECTIVE AGENTS, constitutional factors such as BODY TEMPERATURE and immediate acting immune cells such as NATURAL KILLER CELLS.Sequence Homology, Amino Acid: The degree of similarity between sequences of amino acids. This information is useful for the analyzing genetic relatedness of proteins and species.Biofilms: Encrustations, formed from microbes (bacteria, algae, fungi, plankton, or protozoa) embedding in extracellular polymers, that adhere to surfaces such as teeth (DENTAL DEPOSITS); PROSTHESES AND IMPLANTS; and catheters. Biofilms are prevented from forming by treating surfaces with DENTIFRICES; DISINFECTANTS; ANTI-INFECTIVE AGENTS; and antifouling agents.Open Reading Frames: A sequence of successive nucleotide triplets that are read as CODONS specifying AMINO ACIDS and begin with an INITIATOR CODON and end with a stop codon (CODON, TERMINATOR).Candida albicans: A unicellular budding fungus which is the principal pathogenic species causing CANDIDIASIS (moniliasis).Transformation, Genetic: Change brought about to an organisms genetic composition by unidirectional transfer (TRANSFECTION; TRANSDUCTION, GENETIC; CONJUGATION, GENETIC, etc.) and incorporation of foreign DNA into prokaryotic or eukaryotic cells by recombination of part or all of that DNA into the cell's genome.Transformation, Bacterial: The heritable modification of the properties of a competent bacterium by naked DNA from another source. The uptake of naked DNA is a naturally occuring phenomenon in some bacteria. It is often used as a GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUE.Transcription, Genetic: The biosynthesis of RNA carried out on a template of DNA. The biosynthesis of DNA from an RNA template is called REVERSE TRANSCRIPTION.Rabbits: The species Oryctolagus cuniculus, in the family Leporidae, order LAGOMORPHA. Rabbits are born in burrows, furless, and with eyes and ears closed. In contrast with HARES, rabbits have 22 chromosome pairs.Aerobiosis: Life or metabolic reactions occurring in an environment containing oxygen.Lethal Dose 50: The dose amount of poisonous or toxic substance or dose of ionizing radiation required to kill 50% of the tested population.Antibodies, Bacterial: Immunoglobulins produced in a response to BACTERIAL ANTIGENS.Major Histocompatibility Complex: The genetic region which contains the loci of genes which determine the structure of the serologically defined (SD) and lymphocyte-defined (LD) TRANSPLANTATION ANTIGENS, genes which control the structure of the IMMUNE RESPONSE-ASSOCIATED ANTIGENS, HUMAN; the IMMUNE RESPONSE GENES which control the ability of an animal to respond immunologically to antigenic stimuli, and genes which determine the structure and/or level of the first four components of complement.Leukemia Virus, Murine: Species of GAMMARETROVIRUS, containing many well-defined strains, producing leukemia in mice. Disease is commonly induced by injecting filtrates of propagable tumors into newborn mice.Anaerobiosis: The complete absence, or (loosely) the paucity, of gaseous or dissolved elemental oxygen in a given place or environment. (From Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed)Water Microbiology: The presence of bacteria, viruses, and fungi in water. This term is not restricted to pathogenic organisms.Biodegradation, Environmental: Elimination of ENVIRONMENTAL POLLUTANTS; PESTICIDES and other waste using living organisms, usually involving intervention of environmental or sanitation engineers.Gene Expression Profiling: The determination of the pattern of genes expressed at the level of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION, under specific circumstances or in a specific cell.Streptococcus: A genus of gram-positive, coccoid bacteria whose organisms occur in pairs or chains. No endospores are produced. Many species exist as commensals or parasites on man or animals with some being highly pathogenic. A few species are saprophytes and occur in the natural environment.Fimbriae, Bacterial: Thin, hairlike appendages, 1 to 20 microns in length and often occurring in large numbers, present on the cells of gram-negative bacteria, particularly Enterobacteriaceae and Neisseria. Unlike flagella, they do not possess motility, but being protein (pilin) in nature, they possess antigenic and hemagglutinating properties. They are of medical importance because some fimbriae mediate the attachment of bacteria to cells via adhesins (ADHESINS, BACTERIAL). Bacterial fimbriae refer to common pili, to be distinguished from the preferred use of "pili", which is confined to sex pili (PILI, SEX).Hemolysin Proteins: Proteins from BACTERIA and FUNGI that are soluble enough to be secreted to target ERYTHROCYTES and insert into the membrane to form beta-barrel pores. Biosynthesis may be regulated by HEMOLYSIN FACTORS.Kinetics: The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.Sprains and Strains: A collective term for muscle and ligament injuries without dislocation or fracture. A sprain is a joint injury in which some of the fibers of a supporting ligament are ruptured but the continuity of the ligament remains intact. A strain is an overstretching or overexertion of some part of the musculature.Genetic Predisposition to Disease: A latent susceptibility to disease at the genetic level, which may be activated under certain conditions.Escherichia coli Infections: Infections with bacteria of the species ESCHERICHIA COLI.Genes, Fungal: The functional hereditary units of FUNGI.Rodent Diseases: Diseases of rodents of the order RODENTIA. This term includes diseases of Sciuridae (squirrels), Geomyidae (gophers), Heteromyidae (pouched mice), Castoridae (beavers), Cricetidae (rats and mice), Muridae (Old World rats and mice), Erethizontidae (porcupines), and Caviidae (guinea pigs).Adhesins, Bacterial: Cell-surface components or appendages of bacteria that facilitate adhesion (BACTERIAL ADHESION) to other cells or to inanimate surfaces. Most fimbriae (FIMBRIAE, BACTERIAL) of gram-negative bacteria function as adhesins, but in many cases it is a minor subunit protein at the tip of the fimbriae that is the actual adhesin. In gram-positive bacteria, a protein or polysaccharide surface layer serves as the specific adhesin. What is sometimes called polymeric adhesin (BIOFILMS) is distinct from protein adhesin.Staphylococcal Infections: Infections with bacteria of the genus STAPHYLOCOCCUS.Genes, Dominant: Genes that influence the PHENOTYPE both in the homozygous and the heterozygous state.DNA, Fungal: Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of fungi.Bacillus: A genus of BACILLACEAE that are spore-forming, rod-shaped cells. Most species are saprophytic soil forms with only a few species being pathogenic.Fungal Proteins: Proteins found in any species of fungus.Gene Knockout Techniques: Techniques to alter a gene sequence that result in an inactivated gene, or one in which the expression can be inactivated at a chosen time during development to study the loss of function of a gene.Animals, LaboratoryVibrio cholerae: The etiologic agent of CHOLERA.Gene Expression: The phenotypic manifestation of a gene or genes by the processes of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION and GENETIC TRANSLATION.Virus Replication: The process of intracellular viral multiplication, consisting of the synthesis of PROTEINS; NUCLEIC ACIDS; and sometimes LIPIDS, and their assembly into a new infectious particle.Hydrogen-Ion Concentration: The normality of a solution with respect to HYDROGEN ions; H+. It is related to acidity measurements in most cases by pH = log 1/2[1/(H+)], where (H+) is the hydrogen ion concentration in gram equivalents per liter of solution. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Mutagenesis: Process of generating a genetic MUTATION. It may occur spontaneously or be induced by MUTAGENS.Actinomycetales: An order of gram-positive, primarily aerobic BACTERIA that tend to form branching filaments.Behavior, Animal: The observable response an animal makes to any situation.RNA, Messenger: RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.Organ Size: The measurement of an organ in volume, mass, or heaviness.Liver: A large lobed glandular organ in the abdomen of vertebrates that is responsible for detoxification, metabolism, synthesis and storage of various substances.Multigene Family: A set of genes descended by duplication and variation from some ancestral gene. Such genes may be clustered together on the same chromosome or dispersed on different chromosomes. Examples of multigene families include those that encode the hemoglobins, immunoglobulins, histocompatibility antigens, actins, tubulins, keratins, collagens, heat shock proteins, salivary glue proteins, chorion proteins, cuticle proteins, yolk proteins, and phaseolins, as well as histones, ribosomal RNA, and transfer RNA genes. The latter three are examples of reiterated genes, where hundreds of identical genes are present in a tandem array. (King & Stanfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)Antibody Formation: The production of ANTIBODIES by proliferating and differentiated B-LYMPHOCYTES under stimulation by ANTIGENS.Haplotypes: The genetic constitution of individuals with respect to one member of a pair of allelic genes, or sets of genes that are closely linked and tend to be inherited together such as those of the MAJOR HISTOCOMPATIBILITY COMPLEX.Spores, Bacterial: Heat and stain resistant, metabolically inactive bodies formed within the vegetative cells of bacteria of the genera Bacillus and Clostridium.Rhizobium: A genus of gram-negative, aerobic, rod-shaped bacteria that activate PLANT ROOT NODULATION in leguminous plants. Members of this genus are nitrogen-fixing and common soil inhabitants.Streptomycin: An antibiotic produced by the soil actinomycete Streptomyces griseus. It acts by inhibiting the initiation and elongation processes during protein synthesis.Ethanol: A clear, colorless liquid rapidly absorbed from the gastrointestinal tract and distributed throughout the body. It has bactericidal activity and is used often as a topical disinfectant. It is widely used as a solvent and preservative in pharmaceutical preparations as well as serving as the primary ingredient in ALCOHOLIC BEVERAGES.Genetics, Microbial: A subdiscipline of genetics which deals with the genetic mechanisms and processes of microorganisms.Seawater: The salinated water of OCEANS AND SEAS that provides habitat for marine organisms.Macrophages: The relatively long-lived phagocytic cell of mammalian tissues that are derived from blood MONOCYTES. Main types are PERITONEAL MACROPHAGES; ALVEOLAR MACROPHAGES; HISTIOCYTES; KUPFFER CELLS of the liver; and OSTEOCLASTS. They may further differentiate within chronic inflammatory lesions to EPITHELIOID CELLS or may fuse to form FOREIGN BODY GIANT CELLS or LANGHANS GIANT CELLS. (from The Dictionary of Cell Biology, Lackie and Dow, 3rd ed.)Electrophoresis, Polyacrylamide Gel: Electrophoresis in which a polyacrylamide gel is used as the diffusion medium.Polymorphism, Single Nucleotide: A single nucleotide variation in a genetic sequence that occurs at appreciable frequency in the population.Models, Genetic: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of genetic processes or phenomena. They include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Genetic Engineering: Directed modification of the gene complement of a living organism by such techniques as altering the DNA, substituting genetic material by means of a virus, transplanting whole nuclei, transplanting cell hybrids, etc.Streptomyces: A genus of bacteria that form a nonfragmented aerial mycelium. Many species have been identified with some being pathogenic. This genus is responsible for producing a majority of the ANTI-BACTERIAL AGENTS of practical value.Feces: Excrement from the INTESTINES, containing unabsorbed solids, waste products, secretions, and BACTERIA of the DIGESTIVE SYSTEM.Sodium Chloride: A ubiquitous sodium salt that is commonly used to season food.Molecular Epidemiology: The application of molecular biology to the answering of epidemiological questions. The examination of patterns of changes in DNA to implicate particular carcinogens and the use of molecular markers to predict which individuals are at highest risk for a disease are common examples.Genes, Viral: The functional hereditary units of VIRUSES.DNA, Viral: Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of viruses.DNA: A deoxyribonucleotide polymer that is the primary genetic material of all cells. Eukaryotic and prokaryotic organisms normally contain DNA in a double-stranded state, yet several important biological processes transiently involve single-stranded regions. DNA, which consists of a polysugar-phosphate backbone possessing projections of purines (adenine and guanine) and pyrimidines (thymine and cytosine), forms a double helix that is held together by hydrogen bonds between these purines and pyrimidines (adenine to thymine and guanine to cytosine).Animals, Wild: Animals considered to be wild or feral or not adapted for domestic use. It does not include wild animals in zoos for which ANIMALS, ZOO is available.Bacterial Vaccines: Suspensions of attenuated or killed bacteria administered for the prevention or treatment of infectious bacterial disease.Penicillin Resistance: Nonsusceptibility of an organism to the action of penicillins.Cells, Cultured: Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.Hot Temperature: Presence of warmth or heat or a temperature notably higher than an accustomed norm.Membrane Proteins: Proteins which are found in membranes including cellular and intracellular membranes. They consist of two types, peripheral and integral proteins. They include most membrane-associated enzymes, antigenic proteins, transport proteins, and drug, hormone, and lectin receptors.Histocompatibility: The degree of antigenic similarity between the tissues of different individuals, which determines the acceptance or rejection of allografts.Genome, Viral: The complete genetic complement contained in a DNA or RNA molecule in a virus.Bacteriophages: Viruses whose hosts are bacterial cells.Random Amplified Polymorphic DNA Technique: Technique that utilizes low-stringency polymerase chain reaction (PCR) amplification with single primers of arbitrary sequence to generate strain-specific arrays of anonymous DNA fragments. RAPD technique may be used to determine taxonomic identity, assess kinship relationships, analyze mixed genome samples, and create specific probes.Disease Outbreaks: Sudden increase in the incidence of a disease. The concept includes EPIDEMICS and PANDEMICS.Mycobacterium tuberculosis: A species of gram-positive, aerobic bacteria that produces TUBERCULOSIS in humans, other primates, CATTLE; DOGS; and some other animals which have contact with humans. Growth tends to be in serpentine, cordlike masses in which the bacilli show a parallel orientation.Plant Diseases: Diseases of plants.Immune Sera: Serum that contains antibodies. It is obtained from an animal that has been immunized either by ANTIGEN injection or infection with microorganisms containing the antigen.Graft vs Host Reaction: An immunological attack mounted by a graft against the host because of tissue incompatibility when immunologically competent cells are transplanted to an immunologically incompetent host; the resulting clinical picture is that of GRAFT VS HOST DISEASE.Food Microbiology: The presence of bacteria, viruses, and fungi in food and food products. This term is not restricted to pathogenic organisms: the presence of various non-pathogenic bacteria and fungi in cheeses and wines, for example, is included in this concept.Carbohydrate Metabolism: Cellular processes in biosynthesis (anabolism) and degradation (catabolism) of CARBOHYDRATES.Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction: A variation of the PCR technique in which cDNA is made from RNA via reverse transcription. The resultant cDNA is then amplified using standard PCR protocols.Fimbriae Proteins: Proteins that are structural components of bacterial fimbriae (FIMBRIAE, BACTERIAL) or sex pili (PILI, SEX).Swine: Any of various animals that constitute the family Suidae and comprise stout-bodied, short-legged omnivorous mammals with thick skin, usually covered with coarse bristles, a rather long mobile snout, and small tail. Included are the genera Babyrousa, Phacochoerus (wart hogs), and Sus, the latter containing the domestic pig (see SUS SCROFA).Brucella abortus: A species of the genus BRUCELLA whose natural hosts are cattle and other bovidae. Abortion and placentitis are frequently produced in the pregnant animal. Other mammals, including humans, may be infected.Bacteriolysis: Rupture of bacterial cells due to mechanical force, chemical action, or the lytic growth of BACTERIOPHAGES.
  • Inbred strains are genetically homogeneous, and the genetic and environmental components can be strictly controlled in the experimental setting. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • Research into the role of microbiota in health and disease has increased during the past decade due to the development of genetically engineered mutant animal models. (criver.com)
  • The "National Institutes of Health" genetically heterogeneous (NIH-HS) rat stock was created in the 1980s through an eight-way cross of as much as possible separate inbred rat strains (i.e. the MR/N, WN/N, WKY/N, M520/N, F344/N, ACI/N, BN/SsN and BUF/N strains) which were readily available at that time. (scirp.org)
  • Hansen and Spuhler developed a more naturalistic, genetically heterogeneous rat stock with the aim of optimizing the distribution of genotypic frequencies and recombination and under the hypothesis that the NIH-HS stock could yield a broad-range distribution of responses (broader than commonly used laboratory rat strains) to experimental conditions, and thus serve as a base population for selection studies. (scirp.org)
  • So, with the goal of optimizing the distribution of genotypic frequencies and recombination within the laboratory rat population, the "National Institutes of Health-N/NIH- Genetically Heterogeneous Rat Stock" (hereafter NIHHS rats) was formed through an eight-way cross of as much as possible separate inbred strains which were readily available. (scirp.org)
  • We initiated a large-scale bidirectional selection experiment in a genetically heterogeneous rat population (N/NIH stock, n = 152) to develop lines of low response trainers (LRT) and high response trainers (HRT) as a contrasting animal model system. (physiology.org)
  • Because each strain is genetically equivalent to the SS parental strain except for the introgressed chromosome, the consomic rat is an ideal control animal for the parental rat (in this case the SSMcwi). (physiology.org)
  • These resources are revolutionizing the identification of osteoporosis susceptibility genes through the use of genetically defined inbred mouse libraries, which are screened for bone phenotypes that are then correlated with known genetic variation. (frontiersin.org)
  • As is the case with inbred strains, they are genetically and phenotypically uniform. (janvier-labs.com)
  • Inbreeding is the production of offspring from the mating or breeding of individuals or organisms that are closely related genetically . (wikipedia.org)
  • Recombinant inbred (RI) strains are a powerful tool for analyzing not only single genetic traits but also multifactorial genetic traits. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • The underlying genetic factors in several polygenic model animals with type 2 diabetes have been studied by QTL mapping analysis. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • It should be borne in mind that genetic drift means that there may still be unknown genetic differences between individuals within strains. (jax.org)
  • The main problems have been an insufficient density of genetic markers and the amount of work required to get reliable data on cell numbers from hundreds of animals. (nervenet.org)
  • Furthermore, although offspring resemble their mother, and there is some indication for an effect of inbreeding, additive genetic variance and heritability are close to zero. (royalsocietypublishing.org)
  • The backcrosses having a low antibody response bred true with inbreeding and with second backcrossing, as predicted, so they apparently have only those genetic factors that lead to a low antibody response. (jimmunol.org)
  • Inbreeding of moderately responding backcrosses with moderately or highly responding backcrosses gave offspring that showed the whole spectrum of antibody responses, as would be expected for control by multiple genetic factors. (jimmunol.org)
  • Furthermore, they strongly suggest that genetic recombination has occurred in the animals with the very high or very low antibody responses. (jimmunol.org)
  • The data suggest that there are additional genetic factors active in the female which lead to a more heterogeneous antibody response in all and to a higher response in the females of the ACI strain. (jimmunol.org)
  • With carefully controlled lineages and environments, samples derived from inbred mouse strains are amenable to powerful statistical dissection of complex genetic and environmental interactions ( 15 ). (diabetesjournals.org)
  • Charles River stocks and strains are managed under the International Genetic Standardization (IGS) program, a unique program designed to manage the health and genetics of outbred and inbred strains on a global basis, ensuring that researchers worldwide have access to standardized models, regardless of the production location. (criver.com)
  • In this study, we have performed a genetic analysis in an F2 cohort of 161 rats derived from BN and LOU rat strains to detect genetic loci contributing to quantitative variations of aortic elastin, collagen, and cell protein contents and to test a possible relationship between these loci and those linked to susceptibility to aortic IEL ruptures. (ahajournals.org)
  • When the parents are diploid, sexed, and inbred, the diallel can characterize aggregate effects of genetic background on a phenotype, revealing effects of strain dosage, heterosis, parent of origin, epistasis, and sex-specific versions thereof. (genetics.org)
  • The premise is simple: given a set of J parents, generate and phenotype offspring from all J × J reciprocal crosses and from these data estimate genetic parameters that characterize how the parental genomes and sex influence phenotypic variation. (genetics.org)
  • Animal models developed from heterogeneous stock and enriched via selection, as presented here, often generate extreme values for traits of interest and may prove more useful than current models for uncovering genetic underpinnings. (physiology.org)
  • Thus, we reasoned that two-way artificial selection on the magnitude of change in running capacity (ΔDIST) as a result of training across several generations would yield a contrasting animal model system and serve as unique substrate to uncover genetic features responsible for low and high responsiveness to exercise training. (physiology.org)
  • Furthermore, inbred rat strains minimize the effects of genetic heterogeneity in determining physiological phenotypes. (physiology.org)
  • PhysGen has developed a panel of chromosomal substitution strains (consomic panel) of these two parental strains in which single chromosomes from the BN rat (≥95% of the BN chromosome) are introgressed onto the homogeneous genetic background of the SS rat, one chromosome at a time ( 6 ). (physiology.org)
  • In a panel of consomic rats, it is possible to assess the contribution of genes on each chromosome by phenotyping the consomic strain for the traits of interest, using the advantage of the uniform genetic background. (physiology.org)
  • As genotyping became progressively less expensive and more accurate the main advantage of using recombinant inbred strains and other genetic reference panels shifted to the ability to assemble massive and coherent databases on phenotypes (e.g., the GeneNetwork web service), and to use these coherent open-source data sets for large-scale collaborative research projects in predictive medicine and plant and animal research. (wikipedia.org)
  • It is possible to accumulate extensive genetic and phenotype data for each member of a family of recombinant inbred strains under several different conditions (e.g., baseline environment versus stressful environment). (wikipedia.org)
  • Each strain has a single fixed genome and it is also possible to resample a given genotype multiple times in multiple environments to obtain highly accurate estimates of genetic and environmental effects and their interactions. (wikipedia.org)
  • Experimental animals are useful for dissecting complex traits because of the greater degree of control they afford over genetic and environmental variables. (jneurosci.org)
  • Intentional genetic introgression influences survival of adults and subadults in a small, inbred felid population. (harvard.edu)
  • Legesse BW, Myburg AA, Pixley KV, Botha AM. Genetic diversity of African maize inbred lines revealed by SSR markers. (harvard.edu)
  • Identification of genetic factors contributing to heterosis in a hybrid from two elite maize inbred lines using molecular markers. (harvard.edu)
  • Identification of osteoporosis-related susceptibility genes by genetic approaches enables further characterization of gene function in animal models, with the ultimate aim being the identification of novel therapeutic targets for osteoporosis. (frontiersin.org)
  • Although gene-environment interactions are known to significantly influence psychopathology-related disease states, only few animal models cover both the genetic background and environmental manipulations. (frontiersin.org)
  • Therefore, we have taken advantage of the bidirectionally inbred high (HAB) and low (LAB) anxiety-related behavior mouse lines to generate HAB × LAB F1 hybrids that intrinsically carry both lines' genetic characteristics, and subsequently raised them in three different environments-standard, enriched (EE) and chronic mild stress (CMS). (frontiersin.org)
  • We had previously demonstrated genetic variation of this trait among inbred mouse strains. (aspetjournals.org)
  • Phenotypic differences among inbred mouse strains can be exploited to identify genetic differences in the expression of genes underlying the trait under consideration. (aspetjournals.org)
  • There is considerable evidence for a genetic basis underlying individual differences in spontaneous physical activity in humans and animals. (northwestern.edu)
  • The overall goal of this grant is to establish the cartilage repair and osteoarthritis phenotype in the various recombinant inbred and advanced intercross lines to map the genetic variation for these phenotypes. (wustl.edu)
  • The focus of this grant proposal is to understand the genetic, molecular and cellular differences in cartilage regeneration and degeneration in a set of healer and non-healer mouse strains from recombinant inbred lines. (wustl.edu)
  • Finally, we discuss the pros and cons of genetic variation induced by mutagens compared to that found in existing mouse strains and lines. (nervenet.org)
  • By comparing only littermates for all experimental genotypes, we minimized the influence of genetic variation resulting from the parental strains. (nih.gov)
  • Animal breeding, just like its sister technology plant breeding, is concerned with steering the genetic makeup of agriculturally important species to make them better fit for use. (springer.com)
  • The -omics technologies will not replace the other approaches of quantitative genetic evaluations of populations or animal breeding but will complement and add to already existing approaches. (springer.com)
  • Finally, possible uses of integrated or systems genomics approaches in quantitative genetic/genomic modeling and animal breeding are discussed. (springer.com)
  • Common autoimmune disorders in humans such as type 1 diabetes (T1D), rheumatoid arthritis, and systemic lupus erythematosus reflect influences of a combination of many genetic factors, and this complex genetic picture in human patients has been supported by results on animal models of autoimmune disease. (rupress.org)
  • Mechanistic studies in the animal systems have shown that the genetic variants conditioning autoimmune disease act at several levels of the immunoregulatory cascade that normally enforces self-tolerance. (rupress.org)
  • Given the genetic characterization presented, these new RCS should prove valuable to investigators interested in studying genes controlling differential susceptibilities distinguishing the NOD and CBA inbred strain backgrounds. (deepdyve.com)
  • This report studied how the interplay of genetic and environmental variation affects gene expression by exposing Drosophila melanogaster strains to four different developmental temperatures. (sdbonline.org)
  • It has taken about 100 years since the mouse first captured our imagination as an intriguing animal for it to become the premier genetic model organism. (biologists.org)
  • At present, no single dietary or genetic animal model recapitulates all pathological features of human NASH. (ueg.eu)
  • Domestication - the genetic adaptation of a population of animals, by selection, to life in intimate association with and to the advantage of man. (fao.org)
  • Effective Population Size (Ne) - the size of an "ideal population" that would have a specified rate of increase in inbreeding or decrease in genetic diversity by genetic drift. (fao.org)
  • By controlling for a host of behavioral variables during the course of adolescent development, the researchers demonstrated specific differences in social motivations among juveniles of the two mouse strains - behavioral variations that could only be explained by genetic differences. (innovations-report.com)
  • This result is crucial, argue Lahvis and Panksepp, because it suggests that the genetic influences on juvenile social behavior may be quite distinct from genetic factors that affect adult social behavior, a finding the researchers suggest has great importance for understanding social evolution, as well as developing more realistic animal models of pervasive developmental disorders, such as autism. (innovations-report.com)
  • The backcrosses of reciprocally mated F 1 hybrids into both the highly responding ACI strain of inbred rats and the poorly responding F344 strain yielded offspring with low, moderate and high responses in a ratio compatible with that predicted by the polygenic model. (jimmunol.org)
  • Pedigree analyses of the antibody responses to poly(Glu 52 Lys 33 Tyr 15 ) in a variety of hybrids of the ACI and F344 strains were performed in order to search for unexpectedly high responses (mean of the parental responses + three standard deviations) or for minimal responses (≤50 µg of antibody/ml) in the offspring of parents that made moderate amounts of antibody. (jimmunol.org)
  • Such unexpected antibody responses were found in all of the crosses examined: F 1 hybrids, F 2 hybrids, F 1 backcrosses, inbred F 1 backcrosses, second F 1 backcrosses and F 2 backcrosses. (jimmunol.org)
  • This study was carried out in cardiac tissue from F1 hybrids resulting from reciprocal crosses of two inbred mouse strains. (biomedcentral.com)
  • F1 hybrids are heterozygous at every locus (provided that the parental strains have different alleles). (janvier-labs.com)
  • Three phenotypic traits, liver weight in male animals, serum insulin in male animals, and reproductive fat pad weight, show locus-by-diet interactions in the 127-kb region between markers D13Mit1 and D13Mit302 . (diabetesjournals.org)
  • Charles River maintains a global portfolio of high quality immunodeficient animal models with varying levels of immunodeficiency and phenotypic characteristics. (criver.com)
  • We have also compared the phenotypic profiles of NIH-HS rats with those of the low anxious RHA-I and the high anxious RLA-I rat strains. (scirp.org)
  • The Mx1 allele of mouse strain A2G codes for a 72-kDa GTPase, designated MX1, that accumulates in the nuclei of IFN-stimulated cells. (asm.org)
  • In recent rodent studies, three independent laboratories have shown that in inbred mouse strains, a Comt allele, ComtB2i, defined by the presence of 3'-UTR B2 SINE element, affects Comt expression and multiple behaviors, including nociceptive behaviors [ 8 - 10 ]. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • however, because the increased proportion of deleterious homozygotes exposes the allele to natural selection , in the long run its frequency decreases more rapidly in inbred populations. (wikipedia.org)
  • We identified a significant reduction in overall genomic contribution from the two strains with non- domesticus subspecific origin, CAST/ EiJ and PWK/PhJ. (g3journal.org)
  • The resulting strain distribution pattern showed high concordance with a marker that mapped to chromosome 18 (19 cM).Linkage with this genomic interval was associated with a likelihood of odds score of 3.3, surpassing the level required for significance.Interestingly, this segment, containing the EGR-1 gene, shows synteny with human chromosome 5q, a region strongly associated with various hematological malignancies. (nih.gov)
  • These inbred mouse strains have already been subjected to deep genomic sequencing and SNP analyses, with a higher protection for B6 than for D2. (chloridechannels.com)
  • In situations where the research requires a living organism, and humans are not suitable, investigators must search for a suitable animal model. (encyclopedia.com)
  • Moreover, dominance has been linked to heritable traits in animals ( 7 , 8 ) and humans ( 9 ). (sciencemag.org)
  • Therefore, utilizations of animal models have been as the alternative approach for the study of the gender difference of humans [ 11 ]. (jcancer.org)
  • In plant breeding , inbred lines are used as stocks for the creation of hybrid lines to make use of the effects of heterosis . (wikipedia.org)
  • and 35 lines of BXD recombinant inbred (RI) strains. (nervenet.org)
  • With the need for more powerful resources, multiparent populations (MPP) ( de Koning and McIntyre 2017 ), a set of inbred lines using multiple lines as founders, can overcome the limitations of traditional RI lines and have become an innovative tool for fine quantitative trait locus (QTL) mapping. (g3journal.org)
  • Since all parental RI lines are isogenic at each locus, genotypes of RIX can be imputed in advance from those of their parental RI lines. (g3journal.org)
  • In the present studies inheritance of the characteristic light chain patterns has been studied in the AKXL recombinant inbred lines (derived from C57L/J and AKR/J parental lines) and in the inbred Ly-2a,3a congenic line B6.PL-Ly-2aLy-3a/Cy as well as in individual backcross animals of an incipient Ly-2a,3a congenic strain. (jax.org)
  • Also, based on the results of the diallele mating and field trials, both male and female lines were selected for superior growth rate and excellent egg production, named "TLRI Native Chicken, Taihsu Male No. 11" and "TLRI Native Chicken, Taihsi Female No. 12," and distributed to chicken breeding farms as parental stocks of commercial native chicken production. (gov.tw)
  • To maximize the possibility that differences among the strains would become apparent, each strain of rat including the parental SS and BN was also studied after being maintained on a high-salt diet (4.0% NaCl) for 3 wk. (physiology.org)
  • Laboratory rat strains derive from the Rattus norvegicus species. (jax.org)
  • Another species, Rattus rattus , also is used as an experimental model, but has not contributed to the common laboratory rat strains. (jax.org)
  • e.g. , mouse strain 129P1/J). (jax.org)
  • The New Zealand Obese (NZO) inbred mouse strain was initially selected for polygenic obesity. (jax.org)
  • The interferon-regulated Mx1 gene of the A2G mouse strain confers a high degree of resistance against influenza A and Thogoto viruses. (asm.org)
  • When using the AKXL43/TyJ mouse strain in a publication, please cite the originating article(s) and include JAX stock #003700 in your Materials and Methods section. (jax.org)
  • The population size of primitive stem cells (CAFC day 35) varied widely (up to sevenfold) among strains, unlike total CAFC day 7 numbers (cycling and quiescent), which were similar. (nih.gov)
  • Other breeding schemes are acceptable provided that the inbreeding is equivalent to 20 successive generations of sib mating ( Green 1981 ). (jax.org)
  • The single most surprising and unequivocal finding was the lack of any detectable correlation between populations of LGN neurons and RGCs, a correlation of merely 0.01 across 56 strains. (jneurosci.org)
  • Two of these strains, BXD-2 and BXD-8, showed a 26-fold difference in the number of newly generated neurons per hippocampus. (nih.gov)
  • Over all strains, including the parental strains, there was a significant correlation between the number of new neurons generated in the dentate gyrus and parameters describing the acquisition of the water maze task (slope of the learning curves). (nih.gov)
  • Multiparent populations (MPP) have become popular resources for complex trait mapping because of their wider allelic diversity and larger population size compared with traditional two-way recombinant inbred (RI) strains. (g3journal.org)
  • Results Significant differences in PR-interval were found between strains (range 0.03 ± 0.0001 (AXB5) vs. 0.04 ± 0.0003 ms (BXA2) and the distribution of PR-intervals was continuous suggesting a complex trait. (ahajournals.org)
  • For example, in livestock breeding , breeders may use inbreeding when trying to establish a new and desirable trait in the stock and for producing distinct families within a breed, but will need to watch for undesirable characteristics in offspring, which can then be eliminated through further selective breeding or culling . (wikipedia.org)
  • Inbreeding also helps to ascertain the type of gene action affecting a trait. (wikipedia.org)
  • QTL mapping analyses in these model animals identified several QTLs that influenced glucose tolerance, blood glucose concentration, serum insulin concentration, and parameters that define glucose homeostasis. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • These new strains will be useful to further analyze diabesity QTLs and as new models for type 2 (NIDDM) diabetes. (jax.org)
  • We present a general Bayesian model for analyzing diallel data on dioecious diploid inbred strains that cleanly decomposes the observed patterns of variation into biologically intuitive components, simultaneously models and accommodates outliers, and provides shrinkage estimates of effects that automatically incorporate uncertainty due to imbalance, missing data, and small sample size. (genetics.org)
  • In addition, the presence of an extracellular polysaccharide capsule promotes staphylococcal virulence in certain animal models of infection ( 25 , 31 ). (asm.org)
  • The virulence of the parental and mutant strains was examined in a murine model of subcutaneous streptococcal infection. (spbu.ru)
  • The results obtained showed that S pyogenes M49-16 delArcA, unable to produce AD, had reduced virulence in comparison with the parental S pyogenes M49-16 strain. (spbu.ru)