Persons functioning as natural, adoptive, or substitute parents. The heading includes the concept of parenthood as well as preparation for becoming a parent.
The interactions between parent and child.
Organized efforts by communities or organizations to improve the health and well-being of the child.
Child with one or more parents afflicted by a physical or mental disorder.
Any observable response or action of a child from 24 months through 12 years of age. For neonates or children younger than 24 months, INFANT BEHAVIOR is available.
Children with mental or physical disabilities that interfere with usual activities of daily living and that may require accommodation or intervention.
The training or bringing-up of children by parents or parent-substitutes. It is used also for child rearing practices in different societies, at different economic levels, in different ethnic groups, etc. It differs from PARENTING in that in child rearing the emphasis is on the act of training or bringing up the child and the interaction between the parent and child, while parenting emphasizes the responsibility and qualities of exemplary behavior of the parent.
Organized services to provide health care for children.
Disturbances considered to be pathological based on age and stage appropriateness, e.g., conduct disturbances and anaclitic depression. This concept does not include psychoneuroses, psychoses, or personality disorders with fixed patterns.
The study of normal and abnormal behavior of children.
A child who is receiving long-term in-patient services or who resides in an institutional setting.
The giving of attention to the special dental needs of children, including the prevention of tooth diseases and instruction in dental hygiene and dental health. The dental care may include the services provided by dental specialists.
Child who has lost both parents through death or desertion.
Predetermined sets of questions used to collect data - clinical data, social status, occupational group, etc. The term is often applied to a self-completed survey instrument.
An aspect of personal behavior or lifestyle, environmental exposure, or inborn or inherited characteristic, which, on the basis of epidemiologic evidence, is known to be associated with a health-related condition considered important to prevent.
Age as a constituent element or influence contributing to the production of a result. It may be applicable to the cause or the effect of a circumstance. It is used with human or animal concepts but should be differentiated from AGING, a physiological process, and TIME FACTORS which refers only to the passage of time.
Studies in which the presence or absence of disease or other health-related variables are determined in each member of the study population or in a representative sample at one particular time. This contrasts with LONGITUDINAL STUDIES which are followed over a period of time.
Nutritional physiology of children aged 2-12 years.
The language and sounds expressed by a child at a particular maturational stage in development.
Disorders caused by nutritional imbalance, either overnutrition or undernutrition, occurring in children ages 2 to 12 years.
An infant during the first month after birth.
Number of deaths of children between one year of age to 12 years of age in a given population.
The total number of cases of a given disease in a specified population at a designated time. It is differentiated from INCIDENCE, which refers to the number of new cases in the population at a given time.
Observation of a population for a sufficient number of persons over a sufficient number of years to generate incidence or mortality rates subsequent to the selection of the study group.
Studies in which variables relating to an individual or group of individuals are assessed over a period of time.
Male parents, human or animal.
Studies in which individuals or populations are followed to assess the outcome of exposures, procedures, or effects of a characteristic, e.g., occurrence of disease.
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
Female parents, human or animal.
Social and economic factors that characterize the individual or group within the social structure.
A social group consisting of parents or parent substitutes and children.
Interaction between a mother and child.
Educational institutions.
Studies which start with the identification of persons with a disease of interest and a control (comparison, referent) group without the disease. The relationship of an attribute to the disease is examined by comparing diseased and non-diseased persons with regard to the frequency or levels of the attribute in each group.
The status during which female mammals carry their developing young (EMBRYOS or FETUSES) in utero before birth, beginning from FERTILIZATION to BIRTH.
Maleness or femaleness as a constituent element or influence contributing to the production of a result. It may be applicable to the cause or effect of a circumstance. It is used with human or animal concepts but should be differentiated from SEX CHARACTERISTICS, anatomical or physiological manifestations of sex, and from SEX DISTRIBUTION, the number of males and females in given circumstances.
The formally authorized guardianship or care of a CHILD.
Studies used to test etiologic hypotheses in which inferences about an exposure to putative causal factors are derived from data relating to characteristics of persons under study or to events or experiences in their past. The essential feature is that some of the persons under study have the disease or outcome of interest and their characteristics are compared with those of unaffected persons.
The interactions between the professional person and the family.
A form of bronchial disorder with three distinct components: airway hyper-responsiveness (RESPIRATORY HYPERSENSITIVITY), airway INFLAMMATION, and intermittent AIRWAY OBSTRUCTION. It is characterized by spasmodic contraction of airway smooth muscle, WHEEZING, and dyspnea (DYSPNEA, PAROXYSMAL).
The distance from the sole to the crown of the head with body standing on a flat surface and fully extended.
Severe distortions in the development of many basic psychological functions that are not normal for any stage in development. These distortions are manifested in sustained social impairment, speech abnormalities, and peculiar motor movements.
Evaluation undertaken to assess the results or consequences of management and procedures used in combating disease in order to determine the efficacy, effectiveness, safety, and practicability of these interventions in individual cases or series.
Procedures for finding the mathematical function which best describes the relationship between a dependent variable and one or more independent variables. In linear regression (see LINEAR MODELS) the relationship is constrained to be a straight line and LEAST-SQUARES ANALYSIS is used to determine the best fit. In logistic regression (see LOGISTIC MODELS) the dependent variable is qualitative rather than continuously variable and LIKELIHOOD FUNCTIONS are used to find the best relationship. In multiple regression, the dependent variable is considered to depend on more than a single independent variable.
Spontaneous or voluntary recreational activities pursued for enjoyment and accessories or equipment used in the activities; includes games, toys, etc.
Size and composition of the family.
A behavior disorder originating in childhood in which the essential features are signs of developmentally inappropriate inattention, impulsivity, and hyperactivity. Although most individuals have symptoms of both inattention and hyperactivity-impulsivity, one or the other pattern may be predominant. The disorder is more frequent in males than females. Onset is in childhood. Symptoms often attenuate during late adolescence although a minority experience the full complement of symptoms into mid-adulthood. (From DSM-V)
Special hospitals which provide care for ill children.
Levels within a diagnostic group which are established by various measurement criteria applied to the seriousness of a patient's disorder.
Behavioral, psychological, and social relations among various members of the nuclear family and the extended family.
The reciprocal interaction of two or more persons.
A status with BODY WEIGHT that is grossly above the acceptable or desirable weight, usually due to accumulation of excess FATS in the body. The standards may vary with age, sex, genetic or cultural background. In the BODY MASS INDEX, a BMI greater than 30.0 kg/m2 is considered obese, and a BMI greater than 40.0 kg/m2 is considered morbidly obese (MORBID OBESITY).
A disorder beginning in childhood. It is marked by the presence of markedly abnormal or impaired development in social interaction and communication and a markedly restricted repertoire of activity and interest. Manifestations of the disorder vary greatly depending on the developmental level and chronological age of the individual. (DSM-V)
The health status of the family as a unit including the impact of the health of one member of the family on the family as a unit and on individual family members; also, the impact of family organization or disorganization on the health status of its members.
Voluntary acceptance of a child of other parents to be as one's own child, usually with legal confirmation.
An indicator of body density as determined by the relationship of BODY WEIGHT to BODY HEIGHT. BMI=weight (kg)/height squared (m2). BMI correlates with body fat (ADIPOSE TISSUE). Their relationship varies with age and gender. For adults, BMI falls into these categories: below 18.5 (underweight); 18.5-24.9 (normal); 25.0-29.9 (overweight); 30.0 and above (obese). (National Center for Health Statistics, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention)
Statistical models which describe the relationship between a qualitative dependent variable (that is, one which can take only certain discrete values, such as the presence or absence of a disease) and an independent variable. A common application is in epidemiology for estimating an individual's risk (probability of a disease) as a function of a given risk factor.
Informed consent given by a parent on behalf of a minor or otherwise incompetent child.
The aggregate of social and cultural institutions, forms, patterns, and processes that influence the life of an individual or community.
The study of NUTRITION PROCESSES as well as the components of food, their actions, interaction, and balance in relation to health and disease of children, infants or adolescents.
Children who have reached maturity or the legal age of majority.
The ability to learn and to deal with new situations and to deal effectively with tasks involving abstractions.
Procedures and programs that facilitate the development or skill acquisition in infants and young children who have disabilities, who are at risk for developing disabilities, or who are gifted. It includes programs that are designed to prevent handicapping conditions in infants and young children and family-centered programs designed to affect the functioning of infants and children with special needs. (From Journal of Early Intervention, Editorial, 1989, vol. 13, no. 1, p. 3; A Discursive Dictionary of Health Care, prepared for the U.S. House of Representatives Committee on Interstate and Foreign Commerce, 1976)
The statistical reproducibility of measurements (often in a clinical context), including the testing of instrumentation or techniques to obtain reproducible results. The concept includes reproducibility of physiological measurements, which may be used to develop rules to assess probability or prognosis, or response to a stimulus; reproducibility of occurrence of a condition; and reproducibility of experimental results.
The number of new cases of a given disease during a given period in a specified population. It also is used for the rate at which new events occur in a defined population. It is differentiated from PREVALENCE, which refers to all cases, new or old, in the population at a given time.
A statistical technique that isolates and assesses the contributions of categorical independent variables to variation in the mean of a continuous dependent variable.
The inhabitants of rural areas or of small towns classified as rural.
A medical specialty concerned with maintaining health and providing medical care to children from birth to adolescence.
The technique that deals with the measurement of the size, weight, and proportions of the human or other primate body.
Knowledge, attitudes, and associated behaviors which pertain to health-related topics such as PATHOLOGIC PROCESSES or diseases, their prevention, and treatment. This term refers to non-health workers and health workers (HEALTH PERSONNEL).
A situation in which the level of living of an individual, family, or group is below the standard of the community. It is often related to a specific income level.
Stress wherein emotional factors predominate.
Persons who provide care to those who need supervision or assistance in illness or disability. They may provide the care in the home, in a hospital, or in an institution. Although caregivers include trained medical, nursing, and other health personnel, the concept also refers to parents, spouses, or other family members, friends, members of the clergy, teachers, social workers, fellow patients.
The inhabitants of a city or town, including metropolitan areas and suburban areas.
A child or adolescent who is deserted by parents or parent substitutes without regard for its future care.
Public attitudes toward health, disease, and the medical care system.
Deviations from the average values for a specific age and sex in any or all of the following: height, weight, skeletal proportions, osseous development, or maturation of features. Included here are both acceleration and retardation of growth.
The mass or quantity of heaviness of an individual. It is expressed by units of pounds or kilograms.
The gradual expansion in complexity and meaning of symbols and sounds as perceived and interpreted by the individual through a maturational and learning process. Stages in development include babbling, cooing, word imitation with cognition, and use of short sentences.
The exposure to potentially harmful chemical, physical, or biological agents in the environment or to environmental factors that may include ionizing radiation, pathogenic organisms, or toxic chemicals.
Conditions characterized by language abilities (comprehension and expression of speech and writing) that are below the expected level for a given age, generally in the absence of an intellectual impairment. These conditions may be associated with DEAFNESS; BRAIN DISEASES; MENTAL DISORDERS; or environmental factors.
A natural, adoptive, or substitute parent of a dependent child, who lives with only one parent. The single parent may live with or visit the child. The concept includes the never-married, as well as the divorced and widowed.
Statistical models in which the value of a parameter for a given value of a factor is assumed to be equal to a + bx, where a and b are constants. The models predict a linear regression.
The range or frequency distribution of a measurement in a population (of organisms, organs or things) that has not been selected for the presence of disease or abnormality.
A set of techniques used when variation in several variables has to be studied simultaneously. In statistics, multivariate analysis is interpreted as any analytic method that allows simultaneous study of two or more dependent variables.
Noises, normal and abnormal, heard on auscultation over any part of the RESPIRATORY TRACT.
The frequency of different ages or age groups in a given population. The distribution may refer to either how many or what proportion of the group. The population is usually patients with a specific disease but the concept is not restricted to humans and is not restricted to medicine.
Conversations with an individual or individuals held in order to obtain information about their background and other personal biographical data, their attitudes and opinions, etc. It includes school admission or job interviews.
A stratum of people with similar position and prestige; includes social stratification. Social class is measured by criteria such as education, occupation, and income.
Gradual increase in the number, the size, and the complexity of cells of an individual. Growth generally results in increase in ORGAN WEIGHT; BODY WEIGHT; and BODY HEIGHT.
A status with BODY WEIGHT that is above certain standard of acceptable or desirable weight. In the scale of BODY MASS INDEX, overweight is defined as having a BMI of 25.0-29.9 kg/m2. Overweight may or may not be due to increases in body fat (ADIPOSE TISSUE), hence overweight does not equal "over fat".
The training or molding of an individual through various relationships, educational agencies, and social controls, which enables him to become a member of a particular society.
Regular course of eating and drinking adopted by a person or animal.
The transmission and reproduction of transient images of fixed or moving objects. An electronic system of transmitting such images together with sound over a wire or through space by apparatus that converts light and sound into electrical waves and reconverts them into visible light rays and audible sound. (From Webster, 3rd ed)
State of the body in relation to the consumption and utilization of nutrients.
An increased liquidity or decreased consistency of FECES, such as running stool. Fecal consistency is related to the ratio of water-holding capacity of insoluble solids to total water, rather than the amount of water present. Diarrhea is not hyperdefecation or increased fecal weight.
Predisposition to react to one's environment in a certain way; usually refers to mood changes.
Damage inflicted on the body as the direct or indirect result of an external force, with or without disruption of structural continuity.
A systematic collection of factual data pertaining to health and disease in a human population within a given geographic area.
The nursing of an infant at the breast.
The ratio of two odds. The exposure-odds ratio for case control data is the ratio of the odds in favor of exposure among cases to the odds in favor of exposure among noncases. The disease-odds ratio for a cohort or cross section is the ratio of the odds in favor of disease among the exposed to the odds in favor of disease among the unexposed. The prevalence-odds ratio refers to an odds ratio derived cross-sectionally from studies of prevalent cases.
The determination and evaluation of personality attributes by interviews, observations, tests, or scales. Articles concerning personality measurement are considered to be within scope of this term.
The qualitative or quantitative estimation of the likelihood of adverse effects that may result from exposure to specified health hazards or from the absence of beneficial influences. (Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 1988)
Divisions of the year according to some regularly recurrent phenomena usually astronomical or climatic. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
The genetic constitution of the individual, comprising the ALLELES present at each GENETIC LOCUS.
The behavior patterns associated with or characteristic of a mother.
Any behavior caused by or affecting another individual, usually of the same species.
Standardized tests that measure the present general ability or aptitude for intellectual performance.
Financial assistance provided by the government to indigent families with dependent children who meet certain requirements as defined by the Social Security Act, Title IV, in the U.S.
Assessment of psychological variables by the application of mathematical procedures.
Localized destruction of the tooth surface initiated by decalcification of the enamel followed by enzymatic lysis of organic structures and leading to cavity formation. If left unchecked, the cavity may penetrate the enamel and dentin and reach the pulp.
Hospital units providing continuous surveillance and care to acutely ill infants and children. Neonates are excluded since INTENSIVE CARE UNITS, NEONATAL is available.
Living facilities for humans.
Personality construct referring to an individual's perception of the locus of events as determined internally by his or her own behavior versus fate, luck, or external forces. (ERIC Thesaurus, 1996).
Conditions characterized by a significant discrepancy between an individual's perceived level of intellect and their ability to acquire new language and other cognitive skills. These disorders may result from organic or psychological conditions. Relatively common subtypes include DYSLEXIA, DYSCALCULIA, and DYSGRAPHIA.
The consequences of exposing the FETUS in utero to certain factors, such as NUTRITION PHYSIOLOGICAL PHENOMENA; PHYSIOLOGICAL STRESS; DRUGS; RADIATION; and other physical or chemical factors. These consequences are observed later in the offspring after BIRTH.
The level of health of the individual, group, or population as subjectively assessed by the individual or by more objective measures.
Any observable response or action of an adolescent.
A generic concept reflecting concern with the modification and enhancement of life attributes, e.g., physical, political, moral and social environment; the overall condition of a human life.
The number of males and females in a given population. The distribution may refer to how many men or women or what proportion of either in the group. The population is usually patients with a specific disease but the concept is not restricted to humans and is not restricted to medicine.
Behavioral responses or sequences associated with eating including modes of feeding, rhythmic patterns of eating, and time intervals.
Subnormal intellectual functioning which originates during the developmental period. This has multiple potential etiologies, including genetic defects and perinatal insults. Intelligence quotient (IQ) scores are commonly used to determine whether an individual has an intellectual disability. IQ scores between 70 and 79 are in the borderline range. Scores below 67 are in the disabled range. (from Joynt, Clinical Neurology, 1992, Ch55, p28)
Preventive health services provided for students. It excludes college or university students.
Adaptation of the person to the social environment. Adjustment may take place by adapting the self to the environment or by changing the environment. (From Campbell, Psychiatric Dictionary, 1996)
Diseases which have one or more of the following characteristics: they are permanent, leave residual disability, are caused by nonreversible pathological alteration, require special training of the patient for rehabilitation, or may be expected to require a long period of supervision, observation, or care. (Dictionary of Health Services Management, 2d ed)
Contamination of the air by tobacco smoke.
A class of statistical methods applicable to a large set of probability distributions used to test for correlation, location, independence, etc. In most nonparametric statistical tests, the original scores or observations are replaced by another variable containing less information. An important class of nonparametric tests employs the ordinal properties of the data. Another class of tests uses information about whether an observation is above or below some fixed value such as the median, and a third class is based on the frequency of the occurrence of runs in the data. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed, p1284; Corsini, Concise Encyclopedia of Psychology, 1987, p764-5)
Refers to the whole process of grieving and mourning and is associated with a deep sense of loss and sadness.
Country located in EUROPE. It is bordered by the NORTH SEA, BELGIUM, and GERMANY. Constituent areas are Aruba, Curacao, Sint Maarten, formerly included in the NETHERLANDS ANTILLES.
Struggle or disagreement between parents, parent and child or other members of a family.
The interactions between individuals of different generations. These interactions include communication, caring, accountability, loyalty, and even conflict between related or non-related individuals.
Disease having a short and relatively severe course.
Intellectual or mental process whereby an organism obtains knowledge.
Success in bringing an effort to the desired end; the degree or level of success attained in some specified area (esp. scholastic) or in general.
Freedom from exposure to danger and protection from the occurrence or risk of injury or loss. It suggests optimal precautions in the workplace, on the street, in the home, etc., and includes personal safety as well as the safety of property.
The behavior patterns associated with or characteristic of a father.
Support systems that provide assistance and encouragement to individuals with physical or emotional disabilities in order that they may better cope. Informal social support is usually provided by friends, relatives, or peers, while formal assistance is provided by churches, groups, etc.
Surgical removal of a tonsil or tonsils. (Dorland, 28th ed)
A state of harmony between internal needs and external demands and the processes used in achieving this condition. (From APA Thesaurus of Psychological Index Terms, 8th ed)
A group of people with a common cultural heritage that sets them apart from others in a variety of social relationships.
Feeling or emotion of dread, apprehension, and impending disaster but not disabling as with ANXIETY DISORDERS.

Family factors affecting child development. (1/2108)

In a large, geographically defined population of children a number of family factors in addition to social class, determined by the father's occupation, were recorded by health visitors and school nurses with routine responsibility for these children. The quality of the children in normal schools was assessed in terms of nonverbal IQ and height at the ages of 5 and 10 years, and of behavior as reported by the teacher at the age of 10 years. By analysis of variance the sum of the independent effects of the other family factors greatly outweighed that of occupational social class, except in the case of the IQ at 10 years. The most important of the other family factors was the quality of the mother's care of her child during the first 3 years of life.  (+info)

Like mother, like daughter: familial patterns of overweight are mediated by mothers' dietary disinhibition. (2/2108)

BACKGROUND: Obese parents are more likely to have obese children. Parents provide both the genes and eating environment for their children and familial patterns of adiposity are the result of gene-environment interactions. Environmental factors are implicated in the rapid increases in prevalence of childhood overweight that have occurred in the past 2 decades. Examination of aspects of the family environment may provide insight into increases in childhood overweight over time. OBJECTIVE: We examined parental characteristics associated with overweight and eating behaviors in preschool children. DESIGN: Seventy-five preschool children and their parents were recruited from local daycare centers. Information was obtained on parents' body mass indexes (BMIs), dietary restraint, and dietary disinhibition. A behavioral index of disinhibited eating in children was used to measure children's eating when given free access to palatable snack foods in the absence of hunger. Children's weight-for-height values were also calculated. RESULTS: Maternal dietary disinhibition (R2 = 0.35, P < 0.01) and maternal BMI (R2 = 0.19, P < 0.05) positively predicted daughters' overweight. Maternal disinhibition (R2 = 0.35, P < 0.05) mediated the relation between mothers' BMI and daughters' overweight when both maternal disinhibition and maternal BMI were used to predict daughters' overweight. Furthermore, when both mothers' disinhibition and daughters' free access intakes were used to predict daughters' overweight, mothers' disinhibition (P < 0.05) showed independent prediction. CONCLUSIONS: These findings suggest that familial influences on child overweight differ according to parent and child sex. Also, these results suggest that mothers' dietary disinhibition mediates familial similarities in degree of overweight for mothers and daughters.  (+info)

An office-based intervention to maintain parent-adolescent teamwork in diabetes management. Impact on parent involvement, family conflict, and subsequent glycemic control. (3/2108)

OBJECTIVE: To design and evaluate an office-based intervention aimed at maintaining parent-adolescent teamwork in diabetes management tasks without increasing diabetes-related family conflict. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: There were 85 patients (aged 10-15 years, mean 12.6 years) with type 1 diabetes (mean duration 5.5 years; mean HbA1c 8.5%) who were randomly assigned to one of three study groups--teamwork, attention control, and standard care--and followed for 24 months. At each visit, parent involvement in insulin administration and blood glucose monitoring was assessed. The teamwork and attention control interventions were integrated into routine ambulatory visits over the first 12 months (four medical visits). Measures of diabetes-related family conflict were collected at baseline and after 12 months. All patients were followed for an additional 12 months with respect to glycemic control. RESULTS: In the teamwork group, there was no major deterioration (0%) in parent involvement in insulin administration, in contrast to 16% major deterioration in the combined comparison (attention control and standard care) group (P < 0.03). Similarly, no teamwork families showed major deterioration in parent involvement with blood glucose monitoring versus 11% in the comparison group (P < 0.07). On both the Diabetes Family Conflict Scale and the Diabetes Family Behavior Checklist, teamwork families reported significantly less conflict at 12 months. An analysis of HbA1c over the 12- to 24-month follow-up period indicated that more adolescents in the teamwork group (68%) than in the comparison group (47%) improved their HbA1c (P < 0.07). CONCLUSIONS: The data demonstrate that parent involvement in diabetes management tasks can be strengthened through a low-intensity intervention integrated into routine follow-up diabetes care. Moreover, despite increased engagement between teen and parent centered around diabetes tasks, the teamwork families showed decreased diabetes-related family conflict. Within the context of a broader cultural recognition of the protective function of parent involvement in the lives of adolescents, the findings of this study reinforce the potential value of a parent-adolescent partnership in managing chronic disease.  (+info)

Teenage partners' communication about sexual risk and condom use: the importance of parent-teenager discussions. (4/2108)

CONTEXT: Teenagers' communication with their partners about sex and their use of condoms may be influenced by the discussions teenagers have with their parents about sex. However, little is known about the process of parent-teenager communication on this topic. Understanding both what parents discuss with their children and how they discuss it may lead to a greater understanding of teenagers' sexual behavior. METHODS: Interviews were conducted with 372 sexually active black and Hispanic youth aged 14-17 from Alabama, New York and Puerto Rico. Regression analyses were used to examine parent-teenager discussions about sexuality and about sexual risk, and parental communication skills as predictors of teenagers' discussions about sexual risk with a partner and teenagers' condom use. RESULTS: Parent-teenager discussions about sexuality and sexual risk were associated with an increased likelihood of teenager-partner discussions about sexual risk and of teenagers' condom use, but only if parents were open, skilled and comfortable in having those discussions. Teenagers' communication with their partner about sexual risk also was associated with greater condom use, but the relationship between parent-teenager communication and teenagers' condom use was independent of this association. CONCLUSIONS: The influence on teenagers of parent-teenager discussions about sexuality and sexual risk depends on both what parents say and how they say it. Programs that foster parent-teenager communication about sexuality and sexual risk must emphasize both of these aspects.  (+info)

Dependence, locus of control, parental bonding, and personality disorders: a study in alcoholics and controls. (5/2108)

Personality traits, socio-cultural factors, and dysfunctional family systems are considered to be important in the aetiology and clinical development of alcoholism. Particularly, conflict and issues involving psychological (emotional) dependence have long been associated with alcohol addiction. The present work, part of a more extensive study to validate a new rating scale to measure emotional dependence, the Dependence Self-rating Scale (DSRS), assesses dependence, orientation of locus of control, parental bonding perceptions, and personality disorders (PDs) in alcoholic and non-alcoholic samples. The alcoholics showed a prevalence of PDs of 31.3%. The most frequent is the Schizoid PD (40%) followed by the Dependent PD (20%). Subjects with antisocial PD were not included in our selection criteria. The alcoholics scored higher on the DSRS than the controls, but this difference was not statistically significant. By making a comparison between subjects with and without PDs, the DSRS scores were significantly higher in alcoholics with PDs. No significant differences between alcoholics and non-alcoholics in the parental perceptions and locus of control were seen. These findings are sufficiently coherent to encourage further studies on psychological emotional dependence in alcoholics using the DSRS.  (+info)

Intellectual outcome at 12 years of age in congenital hypothyroidism. (6/2108)

BACKGROUND: The intellectual outcome in children with congenital hypothyroidism detected by neonatal screening is generally good; however, subtle neurological dysfunctions, subnormal IQ, or both, have been reported. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the intellectual outcome in 12-year-old patients with congenital hypothyroidism, detected by neonatal screening, in an attempt to identify factors that may affect intellectual development. METHODS: The intelligence quotient (IQ) of 40 children with congenital hypothyroidism was evaluated at 12 years of age, using the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children -- Revised, and compared with the IQ of 40 healthy siblings (control group). RESULTS: The mean IQ score (88.4+/-13.1) was not significantly different from that of the control group (93.4+/-10.7). Thirteen patients showed subnormal IQ score (72.4+/-4.9) compared with their siblings (86.7+/-9.6; P<0.0001) and with the other patients (96.1+/-9.6; P<0.0001). The low IQ score was associated with lower serum concentrations of thyroxine at diagnosis, poor treatment compliance during follow-up and lower familial IQ. Interviews with parents of children with congenital hypothyroidism revealed that a refusal to acknowledge the disease was linked to poor attention to the child's emotional life and to poor treatment compliance in some cases (11%). CONCLUSION: Even though the mean IQ score in patients with congenital hypothyroidism falls within normal for the control population, low IQ scores may be present in patients with severe hypothyroidism, inadequate compliance to replacement therapy during follow-up and poor parental pedagogic attitude.  (+info)

Quality of early family relationships and individual differences in the timing of pubertal maturation in girls: a longitudinal test of an evolutionary model. (7/2108)

In an 8-year prospective study of 173 girls and their families, the authors tested predictions from J. Belsky, L. Steinberg, and P. Draper's (1991) evolutionary model of individual differences in pubertal timing. This model suggests that more negative-coercive (or less positive-harmonious) family relationships in early childhood provoke earlier reproductive development in adolescence. Consistent with the model, fathers' presence in the home, more time spent by fathers in child care, greater supportiveness in the parental dyad, more father-daughter affection, and more mother-daughter affection, as assessed prior to kindergarten, each predicted later pubertal timing by daughters in 7th grade. The positive dimension of family relationships, rather than the negative dimension, accounted for these relations. In total, the quality of fathers' investment in the family emerged as the most important feature of the proximal family environment relative to daughters' pubertal timing.  (+info)

Slapping and spanking in childhood and its association with lifetime prevalence of psychiatric disorders in a general population sample. (8/2108)

BACKGROUND: Little information is available in Canada about the prevalence of and outcomes associated with a history of slapping and spanking in childhood. The objectives of this study were to estimate the prevalence of a history of slapping or spanking in a general population sample and to assess the relation between such a history and the lifetime prevalence of psychiatric disorders. METHODS: In this general population survey, a probability sample of 9953 residents of Ontario aged 15 years and older who participated in the Ontario Health Supplement was used to examine the prevalence of a history of slapping and spanking. A subgroup of this sample (n = 4888), which comprised people aged 15 to 64 years who did not report a history of physical or sexual abuse during childhood, was used to assess the relation between a history of slapping or spanking and the lifetime prevalence of 4 categories of psychiatric disorder. The measures included a self-administered questionnaire with a question about frequency of slapping and spanking during childhood, as well as an interviewer-administered questionnaire to measure psychiatric disorder. RESULTS: The majority of respondents indicated that they had been slapped or spanked, or both, by an adult during childhood "sometimes" (33.4%) or "rarely" (40.9%); 5.5% reported that this occurred "often." The remainder (20.2%) reported "never" experiencing these behaviours. Among the respondents without a history of physical or sexual abuse during childhood, those who reported being slapped or spanked "often" or "sometimes" had significantly higher lifetime rates of anxiety disorders (adjusted odds ratio [OR] 1.43, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.04-1.96), alcohol abuse or dependence (adjusted OR 2.02, 95% CI 1.27-3.21) and one or more externalizing problems (adjusted OR 2.08, 95% CI 1.36-3.16), compared with those who reported "never" being slapped or spanked. There was also an association between a history of slapping or spanking and major depression, but it was not statistically significant (adjusted OR 1.64, 95% CI 0.96-2.80). INTERPRETATION: There appears to be a linear association between the frequency of slapping and spanking during childhood and a lifetime prevalence of anxiety disorder, alcohol abuse or dependence and externalizing problems.  (+info)

The parent-adolescent relationship has been a classic research topic, and researchers have found that parenting styles (e.g., authoritative, authoritarian) are closely related to various qualities of parent-adolescent relationships (e.g., cohesion, conflict). However, little empirical work has addressed how these variables correlate with each other in mainland China, nor has prior research addressed internal psychological mechanisms. The present study investigated the associations between parenting styles and parent-adolescent relationship factors, examined the mediating effects of adolescents expectations of behavioral autonomy and beliefs about parental authority, and explored whether adolescent gender moderated these effects. Results from a sample of 633 Chinese adolescents (7th grade: Mage = 13.50 ± 0.62 years, 9th grade: Mage = 15.45 ± 0.67 years, 11th grade: Mage = 17.30 ± 0.75 years) suggested similar levels of parent-adolescent conflict frequency for all parenting styles. However, for parent
Doctor answers on Symptoms, Diagnosis, Treatment, and More: Dr. Maes on adhd parent support groups: United cerebral palsy is a great resource central and help all children with disabilities, not just cerebral palsy. They would be a great resource for you and your child. for topic: Adhd Parent Support Groups
The study included 746 Hispanic 8th-graders and their primary caregivers who reported the past 90-day and lifetime alcohol and illicit drug use, as well early sex initiation and unprotected sex. Parents and children answered questions about family functioning based on six factors: positive parenting, parental involvement, family cohesion, family communication, parental monitoring of peers and parent-adolescent communication. When the parents and teens reported a greater difference in how they perceive the family context, the youth were more likely to report lawful and illicit drug use both in their lifetime and the past 90 days, and having sex early in life and unprotected sex. Therefore, family functioning may help curb the tide of HIV health disparities among Hispanic youth, Cordova said. Study participants also assessed their comfort and enjoyment with American and Hispanic cultural practices, such as use of language, food and traditions. The greater the difference in parent and adolescent ...
Why is parent involvement so important? The research overwhelmingly demonstrates that parent involvement has a direct positive impact on student achievement. The research also shows that the earlier parent involvement begins, the more powerful the effects will be. There is no better time than now to get involved in your childs education. Remember, you are your childs first teacher. How can you get involved? ...
CiteSeerX - Document Details (Isaac Councill, Lee Giles, Pradeep Teregowda): Families of 54 behaviorally disturbed preschool-aged children (3 to 5 years) were randomly assigned to 1 of 3 treatment conditions: standard parent-child interaction therapy (PCIT; STD); modified PCIT that used didactic videotapes, telephone consultations, and face-to-face sessions to abbreviate treatment; and a no-treatment waitlist control group (WL). Twenty-one nondisturbed preschoolers were recruited as a social validation comparison condition. Posttreatment assessment indicated significant differences in parent-reported externalizing behavior in children, and parental stress and discipline practices from both treatment groups on most measures compared with the WL group. Clinical significance testing suggested a superior effect for the STD immediately after intervention, but by 6-month follow-up, the two groups were comparable. The findings indicate that abbreviated PCIT may be of benefit for families with young conduct
Latinos are disproportionately represented among those diagnosed with HIV and Latino adolescents are at risk for engaging in sexual behaviors that can lead to HIV. However, data regarding HIV prevention interventions for Latino adolescents, as distinct from other ethnic groups, have not been published to date. This K Award will conduct an initial study of a family-based intervention specifically for Latino families. With the support of a NIMH Minority Supplement Award, Dr. Lescano has adapted a family-based intervention from a multi-site trial for non-minority youth. Using a qualitative approach, Dr. Lescano has added to the intervention family context issues relevant to Latinos such as acculturation, religiosity, gender role and sexual socialization, parent-child communication, and monitoring practices. The initial phase of the K Award will be a run-through of the adapted family-based intervention with three cohorts (8 families per group) to further assess participant reaction and ...
Latinos are disproportionately represented among those diagnosed with HIV and Latino adolescents are at risk for engaging in sexual behaviors that can lead to HIV. However, data regarding HIV prevention interventions for Latino adolescents, as distinct from other ethnic groups, have not been published to date. This K Award will conduct an initial study of a family-based intervention specifically for Latino families. With the support of a NIMH Minority Supplement Award, Dr. Lescano has adapted a family-based intervention from a multi-site trial for non-minority youth. Using a qualitative approach, Dr. Lescano has added to the intervention family context issues relevant to Latinos such as acculturation, religiosity, gender role and sexual socialization, parent-child communication, and monitoring practices. The initial phase of the K Award will be a run-through of the adapted family-based intervention with three cohorts (8 families per group) to further assess participant reaction and ...
ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Prior research supports the notion that parents have the ability to influence their childrens decisions regarding sexual behavior. Yet parent-based approaches to curbing teen pregnancy and STDs have been relatively unexplored. The Parents Speak Up National Campaign (PSUNC) is a multimedia campaign that attempts to fill this void by targeting parents of
A parent to parent support group is now available in Skowhegan. Beginning on January 9th, the group will meet the second Tuesday of each month, from 5:30-7:00pm, at 26 Mary Street in Skowhegan.
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Article An improved self routing scheme by using parent-child relationship and beacon-only period for WSNs. The IEEE Standard 802.15.4 for wireless personal area networks shows promise of bringing ubiquitous sensor networking into reality, at least t...
This toolkit is designed to assist states as they plan for and carry out their efforts to collect, report, analyze, and use high-quality parent and family involvement data. It defines key concepts; offers guidance on ways to improve the quality of the collection, analysis, and use of parent and family involvement data; and provides resources and tools to help states in their parent involvement data efforts. The toolkit also contains guidance on involving stakeholders to ensure
Mental Health America released results from a national study of Latino parents to better understand parent-child communication about bullying, sexual orientation and prejudice.. The findings coincide with the release of a new Spanish-language brochure, Qué Significa Ser Gay?, part of Mental Health Americas ongoing efforts to reduce bullying, particularly regarding sexual orientation.. Bullying and the use of gay slurs in schoolyards and communities are far too common in America, said David Shern, Ph.D., president and CEO of Mental Health America. It has serious effects on childrens self-esteem, schoolwork and overall development. Talking with children about sexual orientation may not be easy, but it will help them learn to better handle situations of bullying and to respect and value others.. In 2005, nearly one-third of students reported being bullied at school during a 6-month period, according to the Department of Education.. The Sex Information and Education Council of the United ...
Ashwood Waldorf School is offering a new, five-week session of its popular Parent-Child classes, led by teacher Audrey McGlashan, beginning on Tuesday, January 16 and running through February 13. Classes are held in Ashwoods early-childhood center on Park Street in Rockport on Tuesdays from 9:00-11:00 a.m.. Parent-Child classes are for children ages 18 months to three years with a caregiver. While children engage in creative play with simple, natural toys, adults may work on a craft project provided by the teacher, help with snack preparation, and discuss parenting and child development. A walk through the woods on one of Ashwoods trails, time on the playground to climb and swing, and a goodbye song complete the morning.. Ashwoods Parent-Child program nurtures the whole family (moms, dads, babies, toddlers, and grandparents are all welcome) and provides a bridge from home to school. When ready, young children may transition to Ashwoods mixed-age early childhood classroom.. Cost for each ...
Emerging empirical research has shown that parent involvement is associated with later adolescent sexual initiation; lower rates of adolescent premarital sexual activity, sexually transmitted infections (STIs), pregnancy, and childbearing; a reduction in the number of adolescent sexual partners; and increased adolescent condom and other contraceptive use.
Meet one of the anchors of Arbors parent community: your Parent Involvement Coordinator, or PIC. What is a PIC, and why are they so important?
Examined longitudinal data from a national survey to explore continuity and change in parent-child relations as children become adults. Results support a social learning view where past relationship patterns persist when families enter a new life stage. The effects of earlier patterns of interaction on later relations proved modest. (RJM)
Some parents may not know how to support their children in school. These parents as children may have had an unsuccessful school experience where they felt frustrated and even ashamed of their personal educational outcomes.
The ppt used for a session with parents at Route 39 Academy as they look to best support their young learners develop their Spanish
The woman glanced around quickly, identified me as another likely candidate and asked me, Is that your green car out there?. Yes, it is, I replied. Im often thankful for my green car. Not only is it a great car (Honda CR-V), but it is also distinct because of its color. That aspect was not a consideration when I bought the car-I just liked the green color.. Tell me about your parent support, the woman says, I saw it on your car. She wasnt crying yet, but I could tell there was an urgency in her voice.. I knew exactly what she meant. The back window of my car has the logo for Learning Abled Kids on it. I proceeded to tell her that I helped support parents of learning abled kids in figuring out how to meet their childs educational needs. I told her we have an online parent support group where everyone helps each other.. Thats good because.. and she started telling me her story. It was similar to many stories Ive heard, and yet distinct with its own little nuances and a slightly ...
My preschool days with N were like nothing I could ever have imagined. My life had gone ridiculous on me. In a typical day, I had to do crazy things to help him cope. I would spin him (and me), and spend large amounts of time finding things that spin for him to watch, everywhere…
We continue to follow CDC Guidelines for gatherings at Elbow Tree continuing to disinfect as instructed to protect clients and clinicians. ...
Lifes Little Treasures Foundation support parent network exists to match parents who have had similar prem experiences together for support.
January 19, 2017:. Card designer Emily McDowell acknowledges that raising kids is hard! But she has given parents a way to cope, and have some laughs at the same time. More. ...
My 16-year-old son Jonathan and I are in that delicate stage of our relationship where nothing I do for him matters much and everything I say easily tunes me out of his life. Its not
Early identification and intervention programs have become the focus of much attention as preventive interventions in the field of mental health. Research in the areas of child development, parent-child interaction and life stress has provided evidence which suggests that it is possible to identify parent-child systems at risk for later difficulty. The stresses which impinge on parents and children have been identified as playing a significant role in the development of emotional and behavioral dysfunction. The present study had as its major goal the development of a technique, based on existing research literature, which could serve as a screening device in identifying parents and children at risk for later difficulty.. Items were developed based on existing research literature and were submitted to a series of 6 pilot testing procedures aimed at 1) establishing face validity and 2) providing the basis for revisions in items and procedures.. Subjects were drawn from among mothers of children ...
Invited Keynote. 16 Years of Research on Family Dynamics within Parent-Child Interaction Therapy and the Road Ahead. July 2019. Conference on Family Dynamics and Psychopathology of Parents and Children: Implications for Prevention and Interventions, Utrecht University, Utrecht, The Netherlands. Seminar. Adolescent Relationships and Mental Health: Searching for Cognitive and Emotional Mechanisms of Risk and Resilience.…
The parent-child room is available for our large and small passengers. Wash basins and toilets adapted for adults and children simplify the stay.. ...
The Terra Nova Education Foundation (TNEF) is a nonprofit established in 2018 to spark academic excellence at Terra Nova High School.. The Foundations first focus will be on college and career readiness. Your generous donation can help fund college readiness initiatives such as:. ...
RT @VsauceTwo: Episode 2 of Hyper History! Youll never see this bird (alive) @googlearts [watch] --, https://t.co/8UoIF1H8Pj https://t.co/…. 1 year ago ...
His job left him off a couple of hours on Fri.so he could go to another graduation,he completed the probation dept.`s classes ,he was 1 of 26.It`s really hard to finish them & we thought the parents/support people who took them should get some sort of medal too,hah,hah.So glad all of the running him about is almost over.He got a plaque,as did everyone,but he also got a special award,only a handful of people got these awards,1 for perfect attendance,& different things like that.I believe his is for understanding cause & effect,something like that,we didn`t pay attention like we should as we didn`t know he was being reconized for that,plus the kids were beginning to act up.See the balloons in the picture?There were about 4 sets of those,& my precious grandaughter asked if she could have them after we were done eating{they supplied subway hoagies & cake},then she asked for some for her brother,so they ended up with 4 clusters of them.It was funny seeing them trying to put them in the car.I used the ...
A study led by a researcher at the University of California, San Diego School of Medicine indicates that parent-only treatments for childhood obesity work equally as well as plans that include parents and child, while at the same time more cost effective and potentially easier for families.
Oh, and that exact scenario actually happened on the weekend.. Nothing like constant repeat violations of every basic household and social rule, often within minutes, to make one pretty convinced of ones ineffectiveness as a parent, and as a facilitator of attachment (as I envision will one day be evidenced by blissfully and mutually respectful, serene parent-child relationships. Indeed).. If I was more convinced all this lack of compliance was substantially linked with attachment stuff, I might put more effort into using a more exclusively attachment-oriented approach - or if I was more motivated to do the thing with less evident short-term, but more evident long-term, potential results. Or if I felt strongly that there was an organic inability to link cause-effect and learn from experience. Perhaps there is truth in all of that - we have no way of knowing. But darn it, I would really like to see even a speck of progress in the rule-following and inhibition department after nearly one year. ...
Oh, and that exact scenario actually happened on the weekend.. Nothing like constant repeat violations of every basic household and social rule, often within minutes, to make one pretty convinced of ones ineffectiveness as a parent, and as a facilitator of attachment (as I envision will one day be evidenced by blissfully and mutually respectful, serene parent-child relationships. Indeed).. If I was more convinced all this lack of compliance was substantially linked with attachment stuff, I might put more effort into using a more exclusively attachment-oriented approach - or if I was more motivated to do the thing with less evident short-term, but more evident long-term, potential results. Or if I felt strongly that there was an organic inability to link cause-effect and learn from experience. Perhaps there is truth in all of that - we have no way of knowing. But darn it, I would really like to see even a speck of progress in the rule-following and inhibition department after nearly one year. ...
performs a permutation test on a set of lineage trees to determine the significance of an annotations association with parent-child relationships.. ...
They also advise and support parents whose children are being wrongly excluded or discriminated against in educational settings. These things cannot be underestimated in terms of their impact on the long-term achievement and well being of young people.. ...
In school, children will be taught age-appropriate lessons on how to stay safe online. Successful online safety teaching is best done through an effective home-school partnership and we therefore ask for parental support in reinforcing, at home, online safety messages. The resources and guides below will help you to do so ...
When I started working on my theme, I was lost on finding resources like images and code files.. Child themes was a great addition to Wordpress, but IMHO it lacked support from functions to locate data that is easier to find on a unique theme structure. Functions are not intuitive, same functions behave differently when we are in parent-child structure from when we have only 1 active theme, and documentation also doesnt help.. With this article I try to clear it up a bit and share what Ive learned.. Continue Reading ». information ...
Symptom Checker is ready the moment someone has symptoms. More than 250 self-care guides help your customers make appropriate decisions on what level of care is needed for themselves (Symptom Checker Adult) or their children (Symptom Checker Pediatric), wherever they are, and all at their fingertips.
This study examined the role of aggressiveness and parenting in the development of childrens moral self-concept. Participants were 198 elementary school children and their parents (M = 8.65 years, SD = 2.44). Participants completed a structured moral self puppet interview and a questionnaire about their relationship to parents. Parents completed a questionnaire measuring their childrens aggressiveness. Results indicated that children who were more aggressive scored significantly lower on the moral self than did less aggressive children. Positive parent-child relationships predicted higher scores on childrens moral selves. Finally, negative parent-child interaction moderated the effect of aggression, with negative associations between aggression and childrens moral self exacerbated at high levels of negative parent-child interaction, and attenuated at lower levels. This study elucidates the importance of aggression and parenting in accounting for differences in childrens moral
TY - JOUR. T1 - The parent-child relationship and adolescent alcohol use. T2 - a systematic review of longitudinal studies. AU - Visser, Leenke. AU - de Winter, Andrea F.. AU - Reijneveld, Sijmen A.. PY - 2012/10/20. Y1 - 2012/10/20. N2 - BACKGROUNDS:Alcohol use among adolescents has become a major public health problem in the past decade and has large short- and long-term consequences on their health. The aim of this systematic review was to provide an overview of longitudinal cohort studies that have analyzed the association between the parent-child relationship (PCR) and change in alcohol use during adolescence.METHODS: A search of the literature from 1985 to July 2011 was conducted in Medline, PsycINFO, and EMBASE in order to identify longitudinal, general population studies regarding the influence of the PCR on alcohol use during adolescence. The studies were screened, and the quality of the relevant studies was assessed. A best-evidence synthesis was used to summarize the results.RESULTS: ...
The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship of family size, birth order, socioeconomic status, and parent-child relationships to young childrens intellectual development. Seventy-four children, 39 boys and 35 girls, with a mean age of 4 years-8 months, and their parents (mothers and fathers), selected from 9 preschool programs and daycare centers in Corvallis, Oregon, acted as subjects for this study. Ninety-five percent of the families came from upper or upper-middle socioeconomic classes. All the families were intact, consisting of children and their biological parents, representing one-, two, and three-child families. The children in this study were either first-, second- or third-born children. Family socioeconomic status was determined via Hollingsheads Four Factor Index of Social Status. Information on family size and birth order was obtained through a Demographic Questionnaire. Parent-child relationship was assessed via the Parent Attitude Research Instrument-Short ...
The Dyslexia Parent Support Group is a friendly, internationally represented group of parents living in The Netherlands, with the majority of their children being educated in English. .
Alcohol use among adolescents has become a major public health problem in the past decade and has large short- and long-term consequences on their health. The aim of this systematic review was to provide an overview of longitudinal cohort studies that have analyzed the association between the parent-child relationship (PCR) and change in alcohol use during adolescence. A search of the literature from 1985 to July 2011 was conducted in Medline, PsycINFO, and EMBASE in order to identify longitudinal, general population studies regarding the influence of the PCR on alcohol use during adolescence. The studies were screened, and the quality of the relevant studies was assessed. A best-evidence synthesis was used to summarize the results. Twenty-eight relevant studies were identified. Five studies found that a negative PCR was associated with higher levels of alcohol use. Another seven papers only found this association for certain subgroups such as boys or girls, or a specific age group. The remaining
Positive Parenting Program seminars will provide parents of children ages 0-12 years with a toolbox of strategies. Parents will learn how to raise confident and healthy children, build strong family relationships, manage misbehavior, and prevent problems from happening in the first place. Seminars and group discussi...
SAN DIEGO (KUSI) -A local woman is teaching parents about positive parenting which is a type of parenting that allows parents and children to nurture their attachment bond while still managing typical and difficult behaviors that are common in all children.. All techniques are rooted in attachment and child development so they are positive in nature and help the child develop self-esteem, respect, and social skills while also learning to follow family and social rules and expectations. There is no spanking or yelling in this approach to parenting, said Early Childhod and Family Therapist, Cara Fairfax.. Class dates are: 8/10/19 9-4 in La Mesa. For more information click here.. ...
From a customer: Today I keep getting a pop up message saying the above and saying I should reenter my licence key. Which I have done. I also logged onto my.eset.com and I choose to send an email for eset verification which I have done, but still getting error message. I see parental control modu...
Get much more than superfast broadband with BT. Keep your family safe online with our security package, including virus protection and parental controls.
Underage drinkers with the least amount of parental control and who are most secretive about their drinking, hit the bottle hardest.
5 positive parenting tips on how to deal with a stubborn child: 1) Stay calm. As a parent, never allow your childs mood to control yours. Just keep breathing ...
We should not only measure childrens growth by their height and weight, but also need to use age-based developmental milestones in evaluating how they play, learn, speak and act. A delay in any of these areas could be a sign of a developmental problem. The earlier its recognized the more parents can do to help children reach their full potential.. Positive parenting for 0- to 1-year-old. Child safety first. It is parents responsibility to ensure a safe environment for the baby. Here are a few tips to keep the baby safe during his or her first year of life.. ...
Learn how to respond to your complaining child using wants and wishes phrases. Free printable list with the positive parenting phrases to say!
An overview of Positive Parenting Strategies for raising children through positive approaches Education presentation by svittoatmuskegonisd.org
A Guide On Positive Parenting Skills You should try to imagine raising confident kids that will not be affected by peer pressure, and will not be influenced by the media. You will no longer have to worry a lot about the choices that they make because you are confident that they will always be following the good values that you taught them. It does not matter what style of parenting skills you will be doing when you will be raising your kids. But the challenges in parenting will actually turn the most understanding and patient parent into misunderstood and frustrated parents. That is the reason why so many parents today are interested to know the important skills needed for positive parenting so that they can raise their kids well. When it comes to this, there are actually various point of views. There are three main skills that you should use in order to achieve positive parenting which are; stress management, setting boundaries, positive communication, and problem-solving. This blog will ...
Deadline September 30, 2013. This conference will bring researchers, educators, policy-makers, and providers from across disciplines together with members of the judiciary and those with lived experience. The primary aim is to share knowledge and experience, to advance the rights and highlight the needs of families striving to live well with parental mental health challenges. Related objectives include provision of an interactive forum to discuss common experiences, effective and evidence informed support and advocacy strategies, and contemporary, cutting edge, research.. Friday, April 25 - Sunday, April 27, ...
This study has shown that the majority of parents, whose childrens backpacks weigh 10% or more of their body weights, do not know the backpack weights or contents. Paradoxically, many of the published reports on backpack safety have focused on older children, adult use in the work place or for recreational hiking, and military personnel.3-5 Few reports have focused on young children.6 It is easy to underestimate the large supply demands required of children in our modern educational system. Carrying a days worth of books, supplies, gym clothes, and the myriad of items treasured by children for many hours is a difficult task.. Definitely, an experimental trial is what is needed to assess the influence of parental knowledge on backpack loads or related symptoms. Our findings are also limited by the small number of public elementary schools used and the fact that data on items carried in the backpacks and parental knowledge were based on self reports. Nonetheless, we believe that there is a need ...
You do not have to do all these Asanas and remember to hearken to your body and just do as a lot as you easily can. Third Trimester Cooking and Diet: Learn how to kool kids positive parenting extreme weight achieve and refill on satisfying food in this video that covers proper diet to your third trimester. The first trimester is maybe probably the most tedious and tough a part of the being pregnant because you are kool kids positive parenting getting used to the idea of kool kids positive parenting pregnant. Arnhem, The Netherlands: European Association of Urology; February 2012. So why not attempt one other pure method to extend the possibilities. Vitamin C also has a light diuretic motion, so improve your consumption of C-rich fruits. I am simply too nervous abt hetting an HPT. You realize, in the event youre ever feeling fancy. The endoderm: the underside layer - develops the glands, lung linings, tongue, bladder, digestive tract, tonsils, urethra and related glands. Our helpline is answered ...
Talking Parents, Healthy Teens is a worksite based programme that applies the principles of worksite health promotion to help parents learn to communicate with adolescents about sexual health and risk reduction.29 It is unique in being offered at parents worksites during lunch hour, which we believed could increase participation and retention. Unlike many evaluations of parenting programmes, this study used a randomised controlled trial. We investigated the immediate and extended effects of the communication skills we taught, as distinct from pre-existing skills or other characteristics that parents might selectively bring into such a programme.. Reports from both parents and adolescents indicate that the programme had significant immediate effects on parent-adolescent communication. Compared with control parents, intervention parents reported more conversations about new sexual topics and more repeated conversations about topics that they had previously discussed. Both are important. Parents ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - The importance of family factors to protect against substance use related problems among Mexican heritage and White youth. AU - Kopak, Albert M.. AU - Chen, Angela Chia Chen. AU - Haas, Steven A.. AU - Gillmore, Mary Rogers. PY - 2012/7/1. Y1 - 2012/7/1. N2 - Introduction: This study examined the ability of family cohesion, parental control, and parent-child attachment to prevent adolescents with a history of drug or alcohol use from experiencing subsequent problems related to their use. Methods: Data came from Wave I and Wave II of the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health and included Mexican heritage and White adolescents who reported alcohol use (n=4894, 25% prevalence) or any other drug use (n=2875, 14% prevalence) in their lifetime. Results: Logistic regression results indicate greater parent-child attachment predicted lower risk of experiencing drug use problems (OR = 0.87, 95% CI = 0.77-0.98) while stronger family cohesion predicted lower odds of experiencing ...
PubMed comprises more than 30 million citations for biomedical literature from MEDLINE, life science journals, and online books. Citations may include links to full-text content from PubMed Central and publisher web sites.
The rise of childhood obesity in less developed countries is often overlooked. The authors study the impact of body weight report cards in Mexico. The report cards increased parental knowledge and shifted parental attitudes about childrens weight. The authors observe no meaningful changes in parental behaviors or childrens body mass index. Interestingly, parents of children
Description: Autism is one of the fastest growing childhood disorders in the world, and the families that have children with autism experience frustration and stress due to many practical problems. with the increase in the prevalence of autism, it is urgent to raise awareness of autism and to provide services and support for children with autism and their parents to improve the parent-child relationship and moderate the parental stress. with regard to families with children diagnosed as autistic, the purposes of this study are to: (a) examine the group differences in parental stress and parent-child relationship between Taiwan and the United States based on racial and cultural differences; (b) identify factors, if any, that influence the parental stress and parent-children relationship; (c) investigate if there are differences in the results of child development when children are diagnosed with autism in these two countries; (d) establish the Battelle Development Inventory-II in Mandarin Chinese ...
PubMed comprises more than 30 million citations for biomedical literature from MEDLINE, life science journals, and online books. Citations may include links to full-text content from PubMed Central and publisher web sites.
The information on the Website is provided for information purposes only. It is not intended to provide medical, legal or professional advice whatsoever and should not be relied upon in that respect. The website and the content are provided as is. While Community Connection/211 endeavours to provide information that is correct, accurate and timely, Community Connection/211 makes no representations or warranties, express or implied, regarding the website and the content. The inclusion of an organization and information about its programs and services on the Website does not imply endorsement by Community Connection/211, nor does exclusion indicate lack of endorsement. For more information, please read the full Terms of Use for this site located at http://communityconnection.ca/terms_of_use.pdf.. This website was built with accessibility in mind. Please let us know if you encounter any difficulties using this site.. ...
Research led by Harvard Pilgrim Health Care Institute found that almost two-thirds (65 percent) of parents of adolescents agreed with policies to ban indoor tanning for youth under age 18. About one-quarter of parents had no opinion (23 percent), and only 12 percent disagreed. Support for an indoor tanning ban was high across racial/ethnic groups and geographic regions of the US. The study appears online in the American Journal of Preventive Medicine.
I am a very frustrated mum in need of desperate help. I have a son who just wont attend school, do any work around the home, is rude and difficult when spoken to and someone I just cannot reason with. Do you think that this program will help me communicate with my son better by getting him to be and do more positive things rather than the poor choices he is currently making. This situation is affecting the whole family and I am currently off from work due to depression as I am unable to cope with this stress. I really love my son but he tells me that I am always negative and never understand or help him in a positive manner. Can you please help as I dont know how to deal with this issue any longer. My main worry is he has totally messed up schooling and is still continuing. I am very desperate ...
TY - CPAPER AB - A Survey to Assess Parents Perception of and Familiarity with EngineeringThe efforts of promoting engineering in K-12 education usually focus on students and teachers.However, parents can be important agents in infusing engineering in childrens learning, asresearch has provided evidence for parents impact on childrens attitudes towards learning asubject. Therefore, it is important to understand possible parental influence on childrensengineering learning. The purpose of the study is to provide validity evidence for a Lickert-scalesurvey exploring parents familiarity with engineering and their perceptions of engineering.For our theoretical foundation, we adopted the Knowledge, Attitudes, and Behavior (KAB)Framework, which recognizes the interactive relationships between the three dimensions. In thisstudy, we constructed a 13-item survey to probe parents self-rated knowledge of engineering andattitudes towards engineering. Of the 13 items, 10 were adopted from a survey ...
This is a main page holder for thoughts on parenting. I am not primarily a positive parenting or gentle parenting advocate but a strong advocate for the full understanding and acceptance of children and child development. As such, I am non-punitive. I do not believe in punishing or altering what is already designed well: the natural forward moving growth of children. My work documents the age-related stages children go through. Children, per our common sensibilities, misbehave during these stages. My main argument is these are not times to fix, correct, or punish, but to see as a clue-a new ability is on its way. These times when they provoke and shock us are clues. We lean in harder. Hence the title of my book series, Misbehavior is Growth. I hope people say this commonly. When a child falls apart: Misbehavior is Growth!. I also delve into some Toxic Parenting practices. I believe that knowing how things go wrong can teach us, sometimes more deeply, how and why it is important to get ...
The #1 resource for school parent groups. PTOtoday.com has expert advice, free programs, tools, tips, and tons of ideas to help make parent groups successful and schools great.
Original series (aqua cover)The second book in the Essential Elements series includes an easy-to-teach sight reading system, logical sequence of skills, band arrangements, Dr. Tim parent letters, and more. Effective pedagogy, a logical sequence of skills, innovative parental communication tools, multicultural songs, duets, full band arrangements, and much more, create a method designed to help kids succeed. Authors:
Health,... OAKLAND Calif. Jan. 8 /- The flu season will likely... In fact a child can touch up to 300 surfaces in 30 minutes making... Clorox and PTA are working to reduce the nearly 22 million school ... Teachers Need Parents Support ...,Clorox,Partners,With,PTA,to,Help,Parents,and,Teachers,Prepare,for,Height,of,Flu,Season,medicine,medical news today,latest medical news,medical newsletters,current medical news,latest medicine news
The phenomenon of discordance between parents and childrens ratings of the childs mental health symptoms or of parenting behavior until recently has been treated as a problem of reliability. More r
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Whether you are a parent or a teacher; behaviorcorner.com is your cornerstone for facts, plans, and advice from our Child Behavioral Specialist. We are so glad you are here.
Higher levels of parenting stress and lower levels of parental competency have been shown to adversely affect a variety of child outcomes such as both exte
Eventbrite - Sportball presents Complimentary Parent & Child Sportball Class @ White Rock Elementary - Monday, January 15, 2018 at White Rock Elementary, White Rock, BC. Find event and ticket information.
Q: Whats the best way to monitor where your kid goes online — and what they text, Snapchat, etc. Also, where should parents draw the...
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Parental stress, depression, and anxiety have again increased since new national restrictions have been introduced according to the latest report from the Oxford University-led COVID-19 Supporting Parents, Adolescents, and Children in Epidemics (Co-SPACE) study, based on data from over 6000 UK parents.
In the latest Mapping America, the National Survey of Childrens Health shows that children from intact families who worship at least monthly are most likely to have a high-quality relationship with their parents.
parent-child relations,. *parent-teacher communications,. *peer interactions,. *policy,. *public relations, and ... 2009) found that parents were less likely to report homework as a distraction from their children's activities and ... Homework also provides an opportunity for parents to participate in their children's education. Homework is designed to ... The Case Against Homework: How Homework Is Hurting Our Children and What We Can Do About It by Sarah Bennett & Nancy Kalish ( ...
Relations. See Jinnah family. Children. Dina Wadia (by Rattanbai Petit). Parents. Jinnahbhai Poonja (father). Mithibai Jinnah ( ... The parents were native Gujarati speakers, and the children also came to speak Kutchi and English.[15] Jinnah was not fluent in ... The couple's only child, daughter Dina, was born on 15 August 1919.[30] The couple separated prior to Ruttie's death in 1929, ... Relations between Indians and British were strained in 1919 when the Imperial Legislative Council extended emergency wartime ...
Children. Edward Goodbird. Parents. Father, Small Ankle, mother, Want-to-be-a-woman; stepmothers, Red Blossom and Strikes-many- ... Relations. Brother, Henry Wolf Chief; grandmother, Otter; adopted grandmother, Turtle. ... A children's picture book, Buffalo Bird Girl: A Hidatsa Story was published in 2012.[7] Written by S.D. Nelson, the book uses ... In 1869, the two had their only child, Tsaka'kasakic, commonly known as Edward Goodbird. ...
K7155-7197 - Domestic relations. Family law. K7157-7179 - Marriage. Husband and wife. K7181-7197 - Parent and child. Guardian ... K486-487 - Relation of law to other topics. K520-5582 - Comparative law. International uniform law K524-525 - Treaties and ... K670-709 - Domestic relations. Family law. K720-792 - Property. K795-798 - Trusts and trustees. K805-821 - Succession upon ... K3201 - Foreign relations administration. K3220 - Public policy. K3224-3278 - Individual and state. K3280-3282 - Church and ...
Severing of the parent-child relation. This grew out of the hostility of families who had been rejected by members of the ... Hitler's Children is now spoken of as "lurid", while Women in Bondage is described as a low-budget exploitation film; the ... The story appeared on the front page of The Washington Post, and was presented to the Senate Foreign Relations Committee by ... In November 1991, a Serbian photographer claimed to have seen the corpses of 41 children, which had allegedly been killed by ...
1999) No substance, no kinship? Procreation, Performativity and Temanambondro parent/child relations. In Conceiving persons: ... given out of love for the child, evoke the child's love for its parents and other kin. Older siblings are very important here. ... Such intimate ties with siblings replace the earlier one with parents as the child grows. (Gow, 1991, 157) Thomas on the ... to its parents changes from one in which the parents take care that their physical connection to the body of the child does not ...
Kuczynski, Leon (December 31, 2003). Handbook of Dynamics in Parent-Child Relations. SAGE. ISBN 9780761923640 - via Google ... "SMU Study Shows Many Parents Still Spank Kids". June 30, 2011. "A Surprising Number of Americans Still Spank Their Kids". ... "Parents can change mind on spanking if told it harms a child". UPI. Pace, Eric (December 3, 1995). "Reuben Holden, 77, College ... "Parenting; a dynamic perspective. - Free Online Library". www.thefreelibrary.com. "Children's Bodies Keep Score: The Adverse ...
For example, if x is the parent of y, the relation may be symbolized as xPy. The converse relation, that y is the child of x, ... Here the relation of siblings is expressed as the composition PTP of the parent relation with its inverse. The relation of ... The relation of uncle is the composition of parent with brother, while the relation of aunt composes parent with sister. ... and her children); or extended family in which parents and children co-reside with other members of one parent's family. ...
Kuczynski, Leon (2003). Handbook of Dynamics in Parent-Child Relations. ISBN 9780761923640. "Holden biography". Minnesota State ...
Liu, Ruth X. (December 2005). "Parent-Youth Closeness and Youth's Suicidal Ideation; The Moderating Effects of Gender, Stages ... "Relations between suicidal ideation, depression, and emotional autonomy from parents in adolescence". Springer Science + ... Liu goes on to explain the relationship found between closeness with the opposite sex parent and the child's risk of suicidal ... a significant connection was found between the parent-child relationships of adolescents in early, middle and late adolescence ...
Analysis and replication of mother-child relations at two years of age. Child Development, 50, 777-793. Clarke-Stewart, K. A. ( ... such as close ties between child and parent) which may protect children from suggestive questioning. She has also examined ... She is well known for her work on the effects of child care on children's development, and for her research on children's ... Child Development, 49, 466-478. Clarke-Stewart, K. A. (1978). Popular primers for parents. American Psychologist, 33, 359-369 ...
A parent or educator may need to employ several techniques before finding the most appropriate method for an individual child. ... Retrieved October 24, 2004 from [6] Weininger O., (1972). Ready or Not: Some Psychological Aspects of Readiness in Relation to ... Read to the child. Have the child "read" to you. Allow the child to create their own story based on the pictures they see ... Allow the child to experiment with words. Point to the words on the page as you read out loud to the child. This enables the ...
The opposite of joint physical custody is sole custody, where the child primarily lives with one parent while the other parent ... Domestic Relations § 19-9-6". Findlaw. Thomson Reuters. Retrieved 29 November 2017. CS1 maint: discouraged parameter (link) ... Typically, the family court issues a parenting schedule that defines the time that the child will spend with each parent. The ... the child spends equal or close to equal amount of time with both parents. After a divorce or separation, parents may have ...
Precedence Relation It is the parent-child relationship between concepts. It captures the inter-dependency of concepts ( ... Because of precedence relations some of the knowledge states are infeasible. The outer and inner fringes The unique items ... Typically, not all subsets are feasible, due to prerequisite relations among the concepts. The knowledge space is the family of ...
Prentice Hall, 1996, (author). Father-Child Relations: Cultural and Biocultural Contexts. Aldine, 1992 (editor). Intimate ... Transcultural Nursing, 2005, 16, 289-297 (co-author). Weaning and parent-offspring conflict in Fofi foragers and farmers. ...
Rossi, A. & Rossi, P. (1990). Of Human Bonding: Parent Child Relations Across the Life Course. Chicago: Aldine. ISBN 0-202- ... Father-child bonds also tend to develop with respect to topics such as political views or money, whereas mother-child bonds ... or parents and children. This bond is characterised by emotions such as affection and trust. Any two people who spend time ... created some concern about whether adoptive parents have missed some crucial period for the child's development. However, ...
Exploration into possible contributions of parent-child relations". Journal of Youth and Adolescence. 11 (1): 25-31. doi: ... For example, if someone breaks the child's toy, the child would not forgive the other and the child would not be able to ... Piaget observed that children would talk to themselves during play, and this egocentric speech was merely the child's thoughts ... According to Piaget, "an egocentric child assumes that other people see, hear, and feel exactly the same as the child does."[ ...
PMID 4836843 Freund K, Langevin R, Zajac Y, Steiner B, Zajac A (1974). Parent-child relations in transsexual and non- ... In 1985 she edited Gender Dysphoria, and in 1990, she co-edited Clinical management of gender identity disorders in children ... Toronto Star Kirkwood Leone (January 27, 1973). Work described with children having 2 sexes. The Globe and Mail Haworth, Eric ( ... Blanchard R, Steiner BW (eds.) (1990). Clinical management of gender identity disorders in children and adults. American ...
Relations. Albert Göring (brother). Children. Edda Göring. Parents. *Heinrich Ernst Göring (father) ... Heinrich had three children from a previous marriage. Göring was the fourth of five children by Heinrich's second wife, ... She left the six-week-old baby with a friend in Bavaria and did not see the child again for three years, when she and Heinrich ... They arranged a visit at the home of her parents and spent much time together through 1921, when Göring left for Munich to take ...
Relations. Marion Maréchal (niece). Children. 3. Parents. *Jean-Marie Le Pen. *Pierrette Lalanne ... She has three children with Chauffroy (Jehanne, Louis, and Mathilde).[24] After her divorce from Chauffroy in 2000, she married ... Substitute: Committee on International Trade (since 16 July 2009), Delegation for relations with Canada (16 September 2009 - 14 ... and has lived in La Celle-Saint-Cloud with her three children since September 2014. She has an apartment in Hénin-Beaumont. In ...
They are the parents of five children. Galbraith spent much of his academic career in the Middle East. He lived there for a ... He holds a doctorate in international relations from Hebrew University of Jerusalem. His doctorate focused on Arab-Israeli ... where he received a bachelor's degree in political science and a master's degree in international relations. ... relations and conflict resolution. Galbraith married Frieda Greta Lucile Kruger, a native of Amsterdam in the Netherlands. They ...
Her parents are Penny and John Haigh. She knew that she wanted to compete at Olympic Games as a child but had not chosen a ... Haigh has studied public relations at the University of Auckland, the University of Waikato, and Massey University. Haigh was ...
... both of her parents are mixed-race. She was born abroad in Caracas while her father was serving in diplomatic relations as the ... Villedrouin comes from a prominent Haitian family; the seventh child of Alix Balmir, a diplomat, and his wife, Gladys ... In 2003, she married Marcel Bernard Villedrouin and they have three children together. "Stéphanie B. Villedrouin : le Tourisme ...
They were the parents of three children. Initially a theorist about naval power, Brodie shifted his focus to nuclear strategy ... Brodie was a full professor and taught Political Science and International Relations at UCLA from 1966 until his death in 1978 ...
Ginott, Dr., Haim (2003). Between Parent and Child: The Bestselling Classic That Revolutionized Parent-Child Communication ( ... "Truth for its own sake can be a deadly weapon in family relations. Truth without compassion can destroy love. Some parents try ... He pioneered techniques for conversing with children that are still taught today. His book, Between Parent and Child,[1] stayed ... Between Parent and Child. Haim G. Ginott (originally Ginzburg; 5 August 1922 - 4 November 1973) was a school teacher,[1] a ...
He is the youngest of three children. As a boy, he was a reporter for a youth television show. His parents were both Holocaust ... degree in international relations and a PhD (for his dissertation on the Israeli Mossad) by the University of Cambridge. He is ... He later studied history and international relations at Corpus Christi College, Cambridge in the United Kingdom, and was ...
Personal Life He is married and has two children. His greatest influence are his parents. His political hero is Winston ... From 1984 to 1989 he worked for the now defunct Hungarian Socialist Workers' Party in the foreign relations department with ... After university, Simonyi worked with many youth exchange programs, in particular the State Committee for Youth and the World ... but with a special interest in forging ties between youth organizations of the East and the West, a result of détente, to span ...
In Roman law, a right or privilege allowed to the parent of three or more children. 2 Kent Comm. 85; 2 Bl. Comm. 247. These ... Those rights that, in civil law, belong to persons as such, or in their different characters and relation; as parents and ... A right a father anciently had over his children. Jus non habenti tute non paretur. "One who has no right cannot be safely ... Foreigners, and the legal relations of Romans with them, were governed by the ius gentium. Ius gladii. The right of the sword; ...
Her parents were both first-generation American Jews. Her mother's parents were from Romania, and her father's from Lithuania. ... His language abilities were equivalent to those of a 2-year-old child and he had the problem solving skills of a 5-year-old. ... Irene Maxine Pepperberg (born April 1, 1949) is a scientist noted for her studies in animal cognition, particularly in relation ... When some autistic children were taught using the same methods Pepperberg devised to teach parrots, their response exceeded ...
... of the children where only a single suture is affected.[22][23] The incidence of ICP in children with more than one suture ... The first is looking with a bird's eye view at the patient while the patient preferably faces the parent while sitting on the ... A relation between the mutations in these genes and craniosynostosis is therefore possible. Moloney et al. observed a FGFR3 ... which is not even when the child is assessed from a point of view standing behind the child, as well as on the cervical spine, ...
Parent(s). Frederick Fulton and Beatrice Fulton. She was born in New York City, attended Vassar College and graduated in 1909. ... Upon seeing the dead child's face, Ruth claimed that it was the most beautiful thing she had ever seen.[5] ... They also were both interested in psychology and the relation between individual personalities and cultural patterns, and in ... "Culture and Personality In Henry's Backyard: Boasian War Allegories in Children's Science Writ Large Stories" in Darnell, Regna ...
... and children were again allowed to live with their parents.[373] Pol Pot commented that his previous administration had been ... Foreign relationsEdit. Pol Pot meeting with Romanian Marxist leader Nicolae Ceaușescu during the latter's visit to Cambodia in ... the government ordered that children over the age of seven would live not with their parents but communally with Khmer Rouge ... In summer 1935, Sâr went to live with his brother Suong and the latter's wife and child.[14] That year he began an education at ...
Their mythology and Godmen, ideas and heroes are not the children of this soil. Consequently, their names and their outlook ... The native thought streams became highly relevant in Indian history when they helped form a distinctive identity in relation to ... widely regarded as the ruling Bharatiya Janata Party's parent organisation, along with its affiliate organisations, notably the ... Swami Dayananda, the founder of Arya Samaj, rejected idolatry, caste restriction and untouchability, child marriage and ...
They are also valuable for parents wishing to accompany one or more of their young children needing a toilet facility. ... "FCPD Media Relations Bureau.. *^ "Florida Teacher Placed Hidden Cameras Where Students Change Clothes, Deputies Say". WESH2 ( ... United Nations Children's Fund (UNICEF), New York, USA *^ House, S. et al., 2014. Violence, gender & WASH: A practitioner's ... As of 2016, no laws were in place regarding the usage of public toilets in relation to gender identity. There may, however, be ...
Ulrik Varnæs - Søren Bruun (child), Jens Arentzen (adult) - (born c.1923) A spoiled child. In love with Ellen Skjern. ... Ingeborg consults her parents, and Katrine advises her to go back to Mads. Ingeborg seeks out Mads, under the impression that ... Ulrik reveals to Ellen that he is to marry Maja, prompting Ellen to sever all relations. Misse, now a widow, reveals to the ... She and Mads eventually have a child named Erik. Despite loving to work, Mads insists she tends the house in the style of a ...
The Swedish Settlements on the Delaware: Their History and Relation to the Indians, Dutch and English, 1638-1664 : With an ... His children, however, would not belong to the Turkey Clan, but to the mother's clan. As such, a person's mother's brothers ( ... came out of one parent language."[14] ... Relations between regular Continental Army officers from the ... A Brief Description of New York, Formerly Called New Netherlands with the Places Thereunto Adjoining, Likewise a Brief Relation ...
Most parents either home schooled their children using peripatetic tutors or sent them to small local private schools.[9] A ... 1941: Merze Tate became the first African American woman to earn a Ph.D. in government and international relations from Harvard ... To help lessen the financial burden faced by families trying to educate their children, the National Youth Administration was ... Northampton assessed taxes on all households, rather than only on those with children, and used the funds to support a grammar ...
... one of eight children, Anna raised six children: Vincent, Anna, Elizabeth, Theo, Wilhelmien and Cornelius.[1] Anna enjoyed ... By 1881 Vincent had developed his personal view of the world and realized it was quite different than his parents. To his ... After years of strained relations with family members, Van Gogh excitedly shared some of his works he thought his mother would ... They taught their children to look for God's presence in nature, such as the shape of the clouds or in the many colors in the ...
Parent agency. Los Angeles County Health Agency. Child agencies. *LAC+USC Medical Center ... Director of Board Relations; and Gerardo Pinedo, Director of Government Relations & Policy.[5] ... and children. The Rancho Los Amigos National Rehabilitation Center provides physical therapy services to individuals around the ...
For instance, a study of American soccer players, parents, and coaches found that parents provide a "generalized form" of ... Gucciardi, D. F.; Gordon, S.; Dimmock (2009). "Evaluation of a Mental Toughness Training Program for Youth-Aged Australian ... Gucciardi, D. F. (2010). "Mental toughness profiles and their relations with achievement goals and sport motivation in ... parents, and coaches". Journal of Sports Sciences. 28 (7): 699-716. doi:10.1080/02640411003734085. Crust, L. (2007). Mental ...
Many are euphemismistic, colloquial, or both; some are profane (such as shit), whereas most belong chiefly to child-directed ... 29] Disgust is experienced primarily in relation to the sense of taste (either perceived or imagined) and, secondarily to ... it is not only likely to be far away from the parent plant, but is even provided with its own fertilizer. ... In all human cultures, feces elicit varying degrees of disgust, a basic human emotion, though children under two years ...
There were cases recorded of parents abandoning their children by the roadsides or at orphanages.[267] Altogether, the fate of ... Ram, Bindeshwar (1997). Land and Society in India: Agrarian Relations in Colonial North Bihar. Chennai, India: Orient Longman. ... Lines of small children begging stretched for miles outside cities; at night, children could be heard "crying bitterly and ... Although very young children and the elderly are usually more susceptible to the effects of starvation and disease, overall in ...
Children attending activities at Wat Phra Dhammakaya are taken care of through Sunday school and crèche while their parents ... and became active in using modern media and public relations, to a scale which was until then unknown in Thailand.[42] The ... Bansong, Aggarat (15 January 2013). "'One million children' join Buddhist meditation event". BBC News. BBC. Retrieved 10 ... From 2008 onward, the temple extended its youth activities to include a training course in Buddhist practice known as V-star. ...
Children of parent-child or sibling-sibling unions are at an increased risk compared to cousin-cousin unions.[25]:3 Inbreeding ... who have historically engaged in familyline relations.[68] ... Higher infant mortality and child mortality[29]. *Smaller adult ... who was a descendant of one or possibly two generations of sibling or cousin parents, had two children with his own half-sister ... Since relatives share a higher proportion of their genes than do unrelated people, it is more likely that related parents will ...
"We are the children of the Medes and Kai Khosrow."[85] However, MacKenzie and Asatrian challenge the relation of the Median ... stated that his parents were originally from an Assyrian village called Hazza, but were driven out and subsequently settled in ... Chubin, Shahram; Zabih, Sepehr (1974). The Foreign Relations of Iran: A Developing State in a Zone of Great-Power Conflict. ... See also: Kurdish-Armenian relations and Kurds in Azerbaijan. Between the 1930s and 1980s, Armenia was a part of the Soviet ...
Children[edit]. Use in children is not recommended as there is insufficient data to assess their safety and efficacy in these ... Tikal K, Hrabánková M (June 1993). "[Indications for antidepressive agents in relation to diseases of the cardiovascular system ... other metabolites are significantly less potent than the parent compound.[8] ...
"Group Processes & Intergroup Relations. 15 (6): 725-743. doi:10.1177/1368430212442419. ISSN 1368-4302. S2CID 3056711.. ... "5 Things You Can Do Right Now to Support the Asexual Youth in Your Life". Everyday Feminism. Retrieved 7 December 2018 ...
In 2008, Kathryn Lindenfelser and colleagues looked at the experiences parents of terminally ill children had with music ... Levinge, Alison (2015). The Music of Being: Music Therapy, Winnicott and the School of Object Relations. London: Jessica ... Parent-infant bonding can also be affected by the noise of the NICU, which in turn can delay the interactions between parents ... Parent-infant bonding: Therapists work with parents so they may perform infant-directed singing techniques, as well as home ...
Their children started to identify more with Chinese culture. This migration occurred in the 17th and 18th centuries.[105] In ... Tong, Chee Kiong (2010). Identity and Ethnic Relations in Southeast Asia: Racializing Chineseness. Springer. ISBN 978- ... Very few direct details about his parents are known,[75] however, the ethnic Chinese background of Lý Công Uẩn (李公蘊 [Hokkien ... An ethnic Chinese man was deported while his ethnic Vietnamese wife and child were left behind.[170] For those who lacked the ...
Object relations psychotherapy. *Orthodox psychotherapy. PEdit. *Parent-child interaction therapy. *Parent management training ...
... for parents, psychologists, and educators striving to develop libertarian methods of child rearing. (He did not use the term " ... a fundamentally different relation between man and nature, and fundamentally different existential relations".[33] It contends ... Although most felt the Russian Revolution was working class in character, they believed that, because capitalist relations ... In Children of the Future, Reich made numerous suggestions, based on his research and clinical experience, ...
... did an experiment to see if a child would learn how to turn on a light box by watching a parent. They found that children who ... A study of 25-month-old infants found that they can learn causal relations from observing human interventions. They also learn ... Children of captured crow parents were conditioned to scold the dangerous mask, which demonstrates vertical social learning ( ... Additionally, children find their own approaches to learning.[35] Children are often allowed to learn without restrictions and ...
Parent support organizations[edit]. SAS Parent Teacher Association (PTA)[edit]. The PTA was founded in the same year as the ... Children At Promise: 9 Principles to Help Kids Thrive in an At Risk World (with Cheryl Bostrom, 2003) ... Infobox mapframe without OSM relation ID on Wikidata. *Pages using the Kartographer extension ... "Guide to Kids' Outdoor Sports in Singapore". Sassymamasg.com. Archived from the original on 4 March 2016. Retrieved 9 December ...
The 2006 pardoning of several convicted child rapists, including an Australian rapist and child pornographer, caused ... "Council on Foreign Relations. Archived from the original on 3 February 2014. Retrieved 26 January 2014.. ... Bhumibol's U.S. birth certificate reads simply "Baby Songkla", as the parents had to consult his uncle, King Rama VII ( ... In his youth, Bhumibol was greatly interested in firearms. He kept a carbine, a Sten gun and two automatic pistols in his ...
... in which the parents give the child a name that they believe will be lucky or favourable for the child. Given names most often ... Terrence Terry and Robert Bob not only to friends and relations, but to millions who know these people only as faces and/or ... A child's given name or names are usually chosen by the parents soon after birth. If a name is not assigned at birth, one may ... Parents may choose a name because of its meaning. This may be a personal or familial meaning, such as giving a child the name ...
Child slavery issues[edit]. A major study of the issue in 2016, published in Fortune Magazine in the U.S., concluded that ... Foreign relations[edit]. Former President Laurent Gbagbo was extradited to the International Criminal Court (ICC), becoming the ... who had two northern Ivorian parents, from running for future presidential election. As people originating from foreign ... Walckenaer, Charles-Athanase (1827). Histoire générale des voyages ou Nouvelle collection des relations de voyages par mer et ...
He grew up in Britain, living in Plaistow.[64] He had a wife and two children. Neighbours told the BBC that Butt had been ... When his parents divorced, he went to Italy with his mother. In 2016, Zaghba was stopped at Bologna Guglielmo Marconi Airport ... Three George Medals were awarded in relation to the attacks: Ignacio Echeverría (posthumous), a civilian, and two to police ... reported to police for attempting to radicalise children; he had also expressed disgust at the way women dressed.[65] He was ...
Parent(s). Jakob and Gitel Juran. Joseph Moses Juran (December 24, 1904 - February 28, 2008) was a Romanian-born American ... For Juran, human relations problems were the ones to isolate, and resistance to change was the root cause of quality issues. ... Juran was born in Brăila, Romania, one of the six children born to Jakob and Gitel Juran; they later lived in Gura Humorului. ... They were survived by their four children, nine grandchildren, and ten great-grandchildren.[9][3] Juran left a book that was 37 ...
the children of pidgin-speaking parents face a big problem, because pidgins are so rudimentary and inexpressive, poorly capable ... koineization in Ancient Greece enabled the various Greek political entities to maintain commercial and diplomatic relations. ... The first generation of such children spontaneously develops a pidgin into a more complex language termed a creole. [...] [T]he ...
9780789024831 Our cheapest price for Parent-Youth Relations: Cultural and Cross-Cultural Perspectives is $20.90. Free shipping ... Parent-Youth Relations: Cultural and Cross-Cultural Perspectives explores: parenting style and its effects on children in ... factors parenting in Mexican society relations with parents and friends during adolescence and early adulthood parent-child ... and maternal parenting in Germany and more original research studies! Parent-Youth Relations: Cultural and Cross-Cultural ...
Intrahousehold Allocations and Intergenerational Relations in the United States, Jere R. Behrman, Robert A. Pollak, and Paul ... From Parent to Child. Intrahousehold Allocations and Intergenerational Relations in the United States. Jere R. Behrman, Robert ... The analyses in From Parent to Child explore these questions by developing and testing a model in which the earnings of ... How do parents allocate human capital among their children? To what extent do parental decisions about resource allocation ...
Many schools offer child development and parenting classes for teen parents to help them with parenting skills. - Maintaining a ... PARENT CHILD RELATIONS - Online. 7400:360. School of Family and Consumer Sciences at The University of Akron. Professor Susan D ... the basics of taking care of a child and teach basic child development so these moms are better able to parent their children. ... A unique situation for the never married single parent is that the child lives with only one parent right from the start. For ...
Parenting Children With Cognitive Impairments • Parenting the Child With Autism • Parenting Children With Attention-Deficit/ ... Permissive Parents • Indulgent Parents • Indifferent Parents • Overprotective ParentsParents with Inconsistent Child ... Parenting Children With Physical Impairments • Parenting Children With Chronic Illnesses • The Effects of a Childs Chronic ... Foster Parents and Foster Children • Grandfamilies: Grandparents Rearing Their Grandchildren. Parents and Children Affected by ...
An Introduction to Parenting (6th Edition) (9780130284952) by Jerry J. Bigner and a great selection of similar New, Used and ... Parenting Young Children; Parenting School-Age Children; Parenting Adolescents and Young Adults; Parenting in Single-Parent ... 4. Parent-Child Relations: An Introduction to Parenting (6th Edition) Bigner, Jerry J. Jerry J. Bigner ... Parent-Child Relations: An Introduction to Parenting (6th Edition) ISBN 13: 9780130284952. ...
Read Parent-Child Relations throughout Life now at Questia. ... Parent-Child Relations throughout Life - 1991, Page 125 by Karl ... 4 - Double Jeopardy: Identity Transitions and Parent-Child Relations Among Gay and Lesbian Youth 59 ... Parent-Child Relations throughout Life. By Karl Pillemer; Kathleen McCartney , Go to book overview ... Publication information: Book title: Parent-Child Relations throughout Life. Contributors: Karl Pillemer - Editor, Kathleen ...
The current study examined bidirectional effects between parenting stress and three domains of child functioning... ... Parents of children with autism spectrum disorder report elevated parenting stress. ... Transactional Relations Between Parenting Stress and Child Autism Symptoms and Behavior Problems. ... Parents of children with autism spectrum disorder report elevated parenting stress. The current study examined bidirectional ...
... child ages 1, 3, 5, and 9)To test bidirectional relations between unmarried parents coparenting and their childrens behavior ... Using a sample of 1,656 dyads of unmarried parents and their children from the Fragile Families and Child Wellbeing data, this ... involvement on child behavior problems transmitted through mothers depressive symptoms, parenting stress, and harsh parenting ... 314-03 - Unmarried Parents Cooperative Coparenting and Their Childrens Behavior Problems: Ages 1 Through 9. By Jeong Kyun ...
... no into Child Set Skip to Child e.g. IF Sale Hea ... Child Table index set on same Parent table index Select Parent ... Parent Child Relation and Child Table index. mstrcmtr (Programmer). (OP). 22 Feb 18 12:44. In Parent Child Relation Child Table ... No and Parent Child relation also NOT Break RE: Parent Child Relation and Child Table index. Olaf Doschke (Programmer). 22 Feb ... Parent Child Relation and Child Table index. JRB-Bldr (Programmer). 22 Feb 18 16:18. Quote (mstrcmtr). In Parent Child Relation ...
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The effects of earlier patterns of interaction on later relations proved modest. (RJM) ... Examined longitudinal data from a national survey to explore continuity and change in parent-child relations as children become ... Examined longitudinal data from a national survey to explore continuity and change in parent-child relations as children become ... From Adolescent to Young Adult: A Prospective Study of Parent-Child Relations during the Transition to Adulthood. ...
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The annual Take Our Sons and Daughters to Work Day saw kids ratting out colleagues to their CEOs, running through offices and ... CooperKatz & Company, a public relations firm in Manhattan, had four kids ages four to nine spend half of the day doing ... she advises parents to approach bringing their kids to work in the same way you would in bringing kids on a flight. "Youre ... Parents tell Moneyish their funniest Take Your Child to Work Day fails Published: April 27, 2018 at 8:00 a.m. ET By Nicole Lyn ...
  • Using a sample of 1,656 dyads of unmarried parents and their children from the Fragile Families and Child Wellbeing data, this longitudinal study examined bidirectional relations between unmarried parents' coparenting and their children's behavior problems over time (child ages 1, 3, 5, and 9). (ncfr.org)
  • The child self-report SCT factor also showed moderate convergent validity with mother, father, and teacher ratings of children's SCT. (springer.com)
  • In addition, higher child-reported SCT predicted greater mother, father, and teacher ratings of children's academic impairment even after controlling for mother, father, and teacher ratings of children's SCT and ADHD-IN. (springer.com)
  • Higher child-rated SCT also predicted greater mother ratings of children's social impairment after controlling for mother ratings of children's SCT and ADHD-IN. (springer.com)
  • This 1‐year longitudinal study examined relations between maternal power‐assertive parenting and children's social, academic and psychological adjustment in China. (iupsys.net)
  • Maternal power‐assertive parenting was assessed using children's self‐reports. (iupsys.net)
  • Cross‐lagged analyses indicated that whereas maternal power‐assertive parenting was only related to later academic adjustment, children's adjustment in socioemotional and academic domains contributed to the prediction of later maternal power‐assertive parenting. (iupsys.net)
  • The Unsteady Mainstay of the Family : Now Adult Children's Retrospective View on Social Support in Relation to Their Parent's Heart Transplantation. (diva-portal.org)
  • The aim was to describe now adult children's experiences of social support in relation to a parent's heart transplant during childhood. (diva-portal.org)
  • Children's dirty diapers, crying crying, their children's needs are unbearable for such parents. (triaxsys.com)
  • Children's Obesity Fund and its cofounders Julian Omidi and Dr. Michael Omidi are pleased to support ChopChopKids, an organization dedicated to helping parents and kids improve their eating habits. (prweb.com)
  • Children's Obesity Fund partners with other organizations to educate and support parents, educators and others so that we can all work together to raise healthy, active, social, and happy children. (prweb.com)
  • Homework also provides an opportunity for parents to participate in their children's education. (wikipedia.org)
  • But little is known about what charter parents think of their children's schools. (educationnext.org)
  • Both studies find that charter parents, on average, are more satisfied with their children's schools than are district-school parents. (educationnext.org)
  • As compared to parents of children in district schools, charter parents are 15 and 7 percentage points more likely to say they have communicated with the school about volunteering and about their children's accomplishments, respectively. (educationnext.org)
  • As compared to parents of children in private schools, charter parents are 14 percentage points more likely to say they have communicated with school officials about their children's schoolwork or homework. (educationnext.org)
  • The present study aimed to analyse the perception of parents of children with cow's milk protein allergy or lactose intolerance regarding health aspects, emphasising their children's oral health and the factors involved in the treatment of allergy and food intolerance. (bvsalud.org)
  • While the risk for serious illness in children from COVID-19 remains low, some children's hospitals across the country are reporting an uptick in COVID patients. (yahoo.com)
  • Numerous studies have reported substantive correlations between indicators of parenting, children's emotion regulation (ER), and children's psychosocial adjustment. (uni-bielefeld.de)
  • N. Otterpohl and E. Wild, "Cross-Lagged Relations Among Parenting, Children's Emotion Regulation, and Psychosocial Adjustment in Early Adolescence", Journal of Clinical Child & Adolescent Psychology , vol. 44, 2015, pp. 93-108. (uni-bielefeld.de)
  • Agreeableness and Conscientiousness) predicted maternal positive parenting (i.e., warmth/sensitivity and structure), and whether maternal parenting predicted children's regulation and sympathy and/or prosocial behavior. (asu.edu)
  • Interview data revealed significant discrepancies in parent and child reports of parental gun ownership and inaccurate parental predictions of their children's interest in guns. (nih.gov)
  • It examines all the skills necessary to make parents agents of positive change in their children's lives, such as didactic instructions, training models, and role playing. (powells.com)
  • Because this seems to be the case, Belkin argues, parents are delaying their children's independence and hovering over them unnecessarily in order to prolong the parents' involvement with the honored parenting role. (blogspot.com)
  • Baskind MJ, Taveras EM, Gerber MW, Fiechtner L, Horan C, Sharifi M. Parent-Perceived Stress and Its Association With Children's Weight and Obesity-Related Behaviors. (cdc.gov)
  • Our study provides more insight into the relationship between parents' stress and children's obesity. (cdc.gov)
  • The nature and effect of parent-perceived stress on children's health may be variable among different populations. (cdc.gov)
  • We examined associations of parents' stress with children's BMI, expressed as a percentage of the 95th percentile (%BMIp95), and obesity-related behaviors by using multivariable regression models adjusted for child and parent characteristics. (cdc.gov)
  • However, few studies have examined stress among parents and its association with their children's risk of obesity (4-6). (cdc.gov)
  • Parents' stress may affect children's hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis or disrupt the formation of secure attachment and self-regulation skills (11). (cdc.gov)
  • Boston Children's has launched the world's 1st program dedicated to offering hand transplants to children who qualify. (childrenshospital.org)
  • Individual differences in children's inhibitory control abilities, assessed using behavioral tasks and maternal ratings, were related to child externalizing problems reported by mothers. (springer.com)
  • A wealth of research demonstrates the importance of early parent-child interactions on children's social functioning. (scienceopen.com)
  • This study is an examination of the relations between parent responsiveness, negativity, and emotional supportiveness, attachment security, and child temperament, and their impact on children's social competence from infancy to kindergarten entry. (scienceopen.com)
  • Much research has examined how parents manage safety issues for young children, however, little is known about how they do so in the preadolescent years when children's demand for autonomy increases. (medscape.com)
  • A few studies have examined young children's knowledge of safety rules (Mayes, Roberts, Boles, & Brown, 2006), but for older children the issue is not knowledge of safety rules but rather whether they agree with the parent's rules. (medscape.com)
  • Mothers' and teachers' estimations of first graders' literacy level and their relation to the children's actual performance in different SES groups. (freepatentsonline.com)
  • Our goals were to examine the relationship between teachers' and mothers' estimations of children's literacy level and their relation to the children's actual level and to investigate the extent to which this estimation was related to the children's family socio-economic status (SES) level. (freepatentsonline.com)
  • It may also lead to practical information in learning about parents' and teachers' estimation of children's performance compared to direct assessment, which may contribute to improving children's literacy skills. (freepatentsonline.com)
  • This is an essential guide to the diagnosis and treatment of eating disorders and obesity from the pediatricians, neurologists, child psychiatrists, psychologists and social workers at the renowned Children's Hospital and its affiliate, the Philadelphia Child Guidance Clinic. (barnesandnoble.com)
  • This longitudinal study explored the relations between fear-enhancing parenting behaviors (modeling and threat information transmission) and children's cognitive biases and anxiety symptoms on three subsequent time points over a one-year period. (maastrichtuniversity.nl)
  • While child self-regulation is shaped by the environment (e.g., the parents' caregiving behaviors), children also play an active role in influencing the care they receive, indicating that children's individual differences should be integrated in models relating early care to children's development. (cambridge.org)
  • We assessed 409 children's observed temperamental behavioral inhibition (BI), effortful control (EC), and the primary caregiver's parenting at child ages 3 and 5. (cambridge.org)
  • It covers every stage of development, including older parents and their adult children, and uses an inclusive approach that looks at a variety of different family contexts, such as foster families, military families, and families with an LGBTQ member, as well as the influence of culture and ethnicity on family beliefs and behaviors. (pearson.com)
  • Researchers are currently studying in what domains and in which contexts siblings receive different behaviors from parents. (questia.com)
  • Psychosocial stress is associated with obesity in adult and pediatric populations, but few studies have examined the relationship between parent-perceived stress and risk of child obesity and related behaviors. (cdc.gov)
  • The proposed model was nearly fully supported by path analysis, and it provides insight into the complex relations between early parenting behaviors, child characteristics, and parent-child interactions in the development of social competence. (scienceopen.com)
  • Hence, parents must somehow become aware of unsafe behaviors by their children (e.g., safety-rule violations) even though they have less direct observation of them during preadolescence. (medscape.com)
  • A study found that although parents did rate their adoptive children higher in negative traits and behaviors like arrogance and stealing, they scored both adopted and biological children similarly when it came to positive traits like conscientiousness and persistence. (wikipedia.org)
  • These findings extend research on the relations between parenting behaviors, cognitive biases, and childhood anxiety symptoms, and suggest valuable leads for assessment and intervention. (maastrichtuniversity.nl)
  • Research over the past 20 years suggests that the quality of the parent-adolescent relationship significantly affects the development of risk behaviors in adolescent health. (scielo.br)
  • The purpose of this paper is to present a review of studies published between 1996-2007 that address specific relationships between parenting styles and six priority adolescent risk behaviors. (scielo.br)
  • There is also considerable evidence to show that parenting styles and behaviors related to warmth, communication and disciplinary practices predict important mediators, including academic achievement and psychosocial adjustment. (scielo.br)
  • Findings from numerous studies over the past 20 years suggest that the quality of the parent-adolescent relationship has significant impact on the development or prevention of risky adolescent health behaviors (1-8) . (scielo.br)
  • There are many dimensions of the adolescent-parent relationship that might influence adolescent health and developmental outcomes, as well as the development of risky health behaviors. (scielo.br)
  • Specific parenting behaviors that have been found to influence adolescent health and risky health behaviors include type of discipline (consistent versus inconsistent), level of parental involvement, level of parental monitoring, type of communication (11-17) , and parenting style (18) . (scielo.br)
  • In a study (19) , parenting style was definied encompassing both contextual and individual aspects of a parent's child rearing, and distinguished this concept from more content- and goal-specific parenting practices and behaviors. (scielo.br)
  • Readers will encounter a broad range of issues such as multiracial families, adoption, gay and lesbian parents, and family therapy. (abebooks.com)
  • The current study examined bidirectional effects between parenting stress and three domains of child functioning (ASD symptoms, internalizing behavior problems, and externalizing behavior problems) across four time points in 188 families of children with ASD (ages 5-12 years). (springer.com)
  • Overall, findings have important implications for interventions for families of children with ASD. (springer.com)
  • We are indebted to our colleagues and students and to the children and families who participated in this research. (springer.com)
  • Burlington: University of Vermont, Research Center of Children, Youth & Families. (springer.com)
  • Using a subsample of 748 unmarried black mothers with their male child from the Fragile Families and Child Wellbeing Study, we tested a model linking economic hardship and nonresident fathers' involvement in single mothers' family life during black boys' early childhood (ages 3 - 5) to behavior problems in middle childhood (age 9). (ncfr.org)
  • This illuminates mixed experiences, especially for lowest quality and contact across children, contributing to collective ambivalence in parent-adult child relations within families. (ed.gov)
  • Using the family systems model, the author explains how families function, how they strive to maintain stability over time, and how they change and adapt as children grow up. (slugbooks.com)
  • The book offers the following pedagogical tools to help students prepare for their roles as professionals working with parents and families as well as becoming parents themselves: Frequently Asked Questions -allow students to see parenting concerns and issues not only through the eyes of a parent, but also those of a therapist who consults with the parent. (slugbooks.com)
  • Absent such changes, fear of prosecution may effectively force parents to conform to the overprotective parenting norm, to the detriment of society, families, and the children themselves. (ssrn.com)
  • Relates the stories of 88 families and their 157 children (ages 3 to 17) who participated in a parent-guidance intervention through the terminal illness and death of one of the parents from cancer. (phsa.ca)
  • Today they are very proud to support ChopChopKids, an amazing organization whose complementary mission is to give parents and children the tools to cook and eat together as healthy families. (prweb.com)
  • ChopChopKids is the publisher of ChopChop magazine ( http://www.chopchopmag.org ), a publication for families interested in learning new and healthy recipes that children enjoy preparing and eating. (prweb.com)
  • By encouraging children to develop an interest in nutrition and food preparation with their families, children will hopefully grow up with an appreciation for real food and a conscientious approach to their dietary habits. (prweb.com)
  • When parents have access to proven parenting information and support designed to address problems all families face-from tantrums to encouraging good behavior-key measures of child maltreatment fall, according to a study released in the Jan. 26 online edition of the journal Prevention Science. (cdc.gov)
  • This is the first large-scale study to show that by providing all families, not just families in crisis, with access to parenting information and support, we can reduce the rates of child maltreatment in whole communities. (cdc.gov)
  • Dr. Felix Naughton, from UEA's School of Health Sciences, adds: "Uncovering this mismatch in perceptions is important as it may have implications for parenting programs designed to support families in reducing childhood alcohol use and indeed for parents who just want to know what they can do to protect their children. (techexplorist.com)
  • Dysregulated infant sleep is predictive of poor parent sleep, and chronic sleep disruption can place families in turmoil, with consequences for the marital and coparenting relationship. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • The information gained in this study may improve methods of early detection and intervention for infants who may be at risk for developing autism and lead to better outcome for these young children and their families. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • Participants include families with a child who has been diagnosed with an autism spectrum disorder or typical development and a younger sibling 12 months old or younger. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • Families who are assigned to the UW intervention will take part in a parent delivered intervention. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • We found that among non-Hispanic black and low-income families, higher parent-perceived stress was associated with greater BMI among children. (cdc.gov)
  • There are many ways you can help children and their families get the care they need. (childrenshospital.org)
  • Now available for free in the iTunes store, Caremap lets families organize their kids' medical data, graph it and share it with any health care provider. (childrenshospital.org)
  • Media interventions (e.g. the television series "Families") aim to educate all parents to increase their knowledge and strengthen awareness of child maltreatment. (who.int)
  • This paper examines what is known about how parents and families may contribute to the problem of school bullying and how they can assist in addressing it more effectively. (aifs.gov.au)
  • In contrast, sociologists who have taken a microsociological approach have focused on intergenerational relations within families. (encyclopedia.com)
  • A study involving 39 families suggested the QoLA has excellent internal consistency as well as good known-groups validity between parents of children with ASD and those who were typically developing. (hindawi.com)
  • In addition to measuring mental health related factors such as stress and psychological wellbeing, a broader and encompassing construct that is important to assess in families of children with ASD is Quality of Life (QoL). (hindawi.com)
  • Families were originally sampled in 1975 when the children were ages 1 to 10 and the families were living in one of two upstate New York counties. (ncjrs.gov)
  • All children are treated regardless of the families' ability to pay. (shrinershospitalsforchildren.org)
  • Participants Of all participating CheckPoint families (n=1874), 1299 children (50.3% girls) and 1274 parents (85.9% mothers) with snack data were included. (bmj.com)
  • When socioeconomic differences between two-biological-parent and two-adoptive-parent households are controlled for, the two types of families tend to invest a similar amount of resources. (wikipedia.org)
  • Family Relations gives me a powerful resource to work with families in distress and gives me the help I need to solve problems. (ncfr.org)
  • In both cases the Parent's Relation is established by matching the expression with the ChildDBF's Index expression. (tek-tips.com)
  • Scientists also found a mismatch between what children think is their parent's attitude towards them drinking and what the parent's attitude actually is. (techexplorist.com)
  • Parent's relation to child? (google.com)
  • The aim of the present research was to assess the impact of an educational leaflet on parent's knowledge and awareness of orthodontic malocclusion in children. (who.int)
  • The sample was derived from the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study--Birth Cohort and included 6850 parent-child dyads. (scienceopen.com)
  • Design Cross-sectional study (Child Health CheckPoint), nested within the Longitudinal Study of Australian Children. (bmj.com)
  • The findings suggest that economic hardship was linked to harsh parenting through mothers' depressive symptoms and parenting stress, both of which were related to increased harsh parenting. (ncfr.org)
  • The current study used a large, school-based sample of children and a multi-informant design to examine child self-reported SCT using the Child Concentration Inventory - Version 2 (CCI-2) which was recently revised based on meta-analytic findings and parallels the item content of validated parent and teacher rating scales. (springer.com)
  • Although the data was based on children and their parents in the US and Europe, we expect that our findings will also apply here in the UK. (techexplorist.com)
  • Our findings support the assumption that reciprocal relations between parenting, ER, and psychosocial adjustment are likely to persist until early adolescence. (uni-bielefeld.de)
  • Findings also suggest that parenting and parent and child programmes can reduce problematic aggressive, disruptive and defiant behaviour in children in the short term, and arrests, convictions and violent acts in adolescence and early adulthood. (who.int)
  • However, some findings strongly suggest that the mental health of children is, in fact, affected negatively by their involvement in bullying. (aifs.gov.au)
  • Our findings supported the cross-cultural generalizability of child inhibitory control and parental harsh punishment as key contributors to disruptive behavior in young children. (springer.com)
  • These findings confirm previous studies that indicate children whose parents exhibit deviant behavior are at increased risk for both drug use and delinquency. (ncjrs.gov)
  • This comprehensive book examines the causes and consequences of parenting distress, drawing on a wide array of findings in current empirical research. (yalebooks.co.uk)
  • Analysis of the findings using a hemenutic pheomenology perspecitve suggest that parents of children with MPS experience multiple cyclical movements across all five human lived existential experience, and they gradually develop ways to incorporate MPS in their day to day life. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The findings revealed significant gender differences: Daughters were more likely than sons to spontaneously disclose safety issues to their parents, and parents were more likely to discuss the issue and provide teaching to daughters than sons. (medscape.com)
  • Findings indicate that child behavior may shape the development of caregiving and, in turn, long-term child adjustment, suggesting that studies of caregiving and child outcomes should consider the role of child temperament toward developing more informative models of child-environment interplay. (cambridge.org)
  • Parental relations and cultural belief systems both play integral parts on how socialization and development occur in children. (ecampus.com)
  • The study of differential parental treatment of siblings has been used to document child effects on parents. (questia.com)
  • Indeed, a growing body of literature suggests that parental overreaction to remote and even illusory risks of physical harm is exposing children to far more serious risks to their well-being and development. (ssrn.com)
  • However, if we take into account threats, cuffs, intimidation and spanking, almost every child is exposed to at least occasional displays of parental violence. (triaxsys.com)
  • Justia US Law US Codes and Statutes Oregon Revised Statutes 2013 Oregon Revised Statutes Volume : 03 - Landlord-Tenant, Domestic Relations, Probate Chapter 109 - Parent and Child Rights and Relationships Section 109.675 - Right to diagnosis or treatment for mental or emotional disorder or chemical dependency without parental consent. (justia.com)
  • Parental sense of competence, parental anxiety, the amount of parent-child interaction and the child's age and gender had no predictive value. (frontiersin.org)
  • For this study, scientists gathered the data from a review of published articles examining parent-child pairs and the relationship between parental attitudes and their child's alcohol use. (techexplorist.com)
  • Ms. Tael-Oeren said, "This mismatch doesn't mean that children perceive parental attitudes completely differently from their parents. (techexplorist.com)
  • In conclusion, psychosocial problems of children with cancer were associated with parental post-traumatic stress symptoms (PTSS). (mdpi.com)
  • Of course, the problem with Belkin's or my arguments is that they focus primarily on parental attitudes and behavior, and give little attention to changes in the world such as fewer serious childhood illnesses, but more cars on the road, or fewer children per family as well as fewer grandparents living nearby and making themselves available. (blogspot.com)
  • We examined associations between child inhibitory control, harsh parental discipline and externalizing problems in 120 4 year-old boys and girls in the US, China, and Japan. (springer.com)
  • Relationship quality emerged as an important factor, particularly for boys: A positive parent-child relationship predicted increased parental teaching in response to a safety-relevant issue for boys only. (medscape.com)
  • For example, social class differences may lead to specific differences in parental beliefs that are also related to child development (Kohn, 1969). (freepatentsonline.com)
  • Adoptive Parents, Adaptive Parents: Evaluating the Importance of Biological Ties for Parental Investment" (PDF). (wikipedia.org)
  • On each time point, children and parents completed the Parental Enhancement of Anxious Cognitions scale, which measures parental modeling and threat information transmission. (maastrichtuniversity.nl)
  • All told, 1,100 adolescents (10-14 years) and their parents filled out questionnaires assessing responsiveness and psychological control, adolescents' anger regulation, and adolescents' problem and prosocial behavior. (uni-bielefeld.de)
  • 3) Questionnaires and phone interviews for parents. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • The participants answered a package of questionnaires consisting of the Impact of Event Scale-Revised (IES-R), the Parent Experience of Child Illness (PECI), and the Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL). (mdpi.com)
  • Approval was given by the Ministry of Education in order to contact the parents through the school system and to distribute anonymous questionnaires. (hindawi.com)
  • Parents initially completed questionnaires and, with their child, retrospectively recalled safety disagreements. (medscape.com)
  • Anxiety Free Child provides alternative methods that relieve a child's excessive anxieties and phobias, and new powerful tools for gaining the war against all kinds of fears. (sbwire.com)
  • parents contribute valuable information of a different kind about the child's behavior and emotional problems ( Achenbach, 2006 ). (frontiersin.org)
  • Do parents of children with cerebral palsy express different concerns in relation to their child's type of cerebral palsy, age and level of disability? (physiospot.com)
  • Concluding that within this sample, parents demonstrated that they have specific concerns, with clear themes emerging about parents’ concerns related to their child's diagnosis, age and level of disability. (physiospot.com)
  • Parents can have a strong positive influence on their child's reading. (readingrockets.org)
  • In a new study, scientists at the University of Cambridge and the University of East Anglia have found that children whose parents had less restrictive attitudes towards their child's alcohol use were more likely to start drinking alcohol than their peers. (techexplorist.com)
  • Training parents to manage their child's sleep problem / Jo Douglas -- Contingent negative practice as a home-based treatment of tics and stuttering / Fredric M. Levine and Rafael Ramirez -- Home-based treatment for primary enuresis / Arthur C. Houts and Michael W. Mellon -- Conduct disorders. (powells.com)
  • CHILDMYTHS: Is It a Child's Job to Make You a Parent? (blogspot.com)
  • Parents reported that their decisions about their child's participation in the trial had been voluntary. (bmj.com)
  • The QoLA has 48 items in two subscales: one comprising QoL items and the second a parent report of how problematic their child's ASD symptoms are. (hindawi.com)
  • Any child age 18 or under is eligible for care as long as the child's condition is within the scope of services provided. (shrinershospitalsforchildren.org)
  • Sociologists have explored intergenerational relations extensively, using both macrosociological and microsociological approaches. (encyclopedia.com)
  • To fully understand intergenerational relations, it is essential to study both levels and to draw connections between them. (encyclopedia.com)
  • From Adolescent to Young Adult: A Prospective Study of Parent-Child Relations during the Transition to Adulthood. (ed.gov)
  • In the context of a population-based health assessment involving parent-child dyads at child age 11-12 years, we report cross-generational concordance in intake at a controlled snack food observation. (bmj.com)
  • Parent-Child participants in assessment and monitoring visits but also the Promoting First Relationships PFR intervention (http://pfrprogram. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • Parent delivered intervention provided between 6 and 12 months. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • Researchers at the University of Washington want to learn more about the benefits of early monitoring and intervention for younger siblings of children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD). (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • A total of 53% of the pairs played with the gun, and there was no difference in gun-play behavior between those children who did and did not receive the intervention. (nih.gov)
  • Parent participants in the wait-list control group will not receive the intervention until after the 3-month follow-up assessment. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • Their parents will not receive the intervention until after the 3-month follow-up assessment. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • This study has identified the main groups of parents that should be targeted in future intervention programs. (hindawi.com)
  • Discharge from stress' also often happens on children, more often on preschool children and younger schoolchildren, who do not understand why parents are angry with them. (triaxsys.com)
  • Is your child enrolled in preschool? (google.com)
  • Start) provide both parents and their children with family support, preschool education, child care and health and community services. (who.int)
  • Developmentally sensitive measures of executive function in preschool children. (springer.com)
  • This qualitative hermeneutic phenomenological study explored and interpreted Irish parents' experiences of living with and caring for children, adolescents and young adults with MPS and the impact of these diseases on their day to day life. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The obesity rate among children has doubled in the last twenty years, while the incidence of anorexia nervosa and bulimia has grown among adolescents and young adults to almost epidemic proportions. (barnesandnoble.com)
  • About 95% of adolescent mothers plan to keep and rear their children themselves. (uakron.edu)
  • It is unlikely that adolescent mothers will marry the fathers of their children. (uakron.edu)
  • While there has been an increase in recent years in older, career-oriented women opting to have a child without being married, the largest group of unmarried mothers (and the group which is likely to have the most problems with pregnancy and parenting) is adolescents. (uakron.edu)
  • Frequently, teenage mothers must rely on public assistance to help raise their children, and if the teenager is living in poverty herself before becoming pregnant, she is much more likely to continue living in poverty with her child, thus perpetuating the cycle of poverty. (uakron.edu)
  • Many teenage mothers are able to raise their children to be responsible, confident, capable, caring individuals and are able to do so against long odds sometimes. (uakron.edu)
  • Many teenage mothers manage to finish school, work and have a good family life for their children. (uakron.edu)
  • As mentioned earlier, there is greater likelihood that adolescent mothers and their children will live in poverty, with all the problems that involves. (uakron.edu)
  • Children of teenage mothers face several psychological risks. (uakron.edu)
  • Young mothers are less mature and less able to provide stable living arrangements, so children experience more moves and more changes in caretakers. (uakron.edu)
  • Results indicated parent-driven effects for child internalizing behavior problems, while child externalizing behavior problems and ASD symptoms evidenced both parent-driven and child-driven effects, in different ways for mothers versus fathers. (springer.com)
  • Mothers have more positive but not more negative relations than fathers, but mothers have more negative relations with stepchildren. (ed.gov)
  • Mothers, fathers, and teachers provided written informed consent and children provided verbal assent. (springer.com)
  • Further, mothers reporting early coparenting distress are at risk for personal distress and poor bedtime and nighttime parenting, which in turn predicts infant sleep problems and insecure infant attachment. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • The present study was a cross-sectional survey of 33 mothers and one father (mean age: 37.9), each of whom had a child that had been treated for cancer. (mdpi.com)
  • The mothers evaluated their own children and 17 teachers evaluated these same children in the same domains. (freepatentsonline.com)
  • HSES children exhibited a higher actual literacy level than low SES children, and were estimated as having a higher literacy level by their mothers and teachers. (freepatentsonline.com)
  • Mothers' estimations were higher than those of teachers, and spelling level was estimated as the lowest domain by teachers and parents. (freepatentsonline.com)
  • Participants were 216 children aged 7-12 years (114 boys and 102 girls), and their mothers (n = 199) and/or fathers (n = 117). (maastrichtuniversity.nl)
  • CP was more prevalent among African American and low socioeconomic status parents, in the South, for boys, and by mothers. (dspacedirect.org)
  • The first chapter focuses on the history of theoretical and research influences of childrearing to help students understand why parents today hold certain beliefs regarding how to raise children. (pearson.com)
  • Critics of socialization research argue that there are reciprocal influences within parent-child relationships. (questia.com)
  • Kirby Deater-Deckard explores normal and pathological parenting stress, the influences of parents on their children as well as children on their parents, and the effects of biological and environmental factors. (yalebooks.co.uk)
  • We also considered if the parent-child relationship influences these processes, and whether they vary for daughters compared with sons (see Figure 1). (medscape.com)
  • We're excited to offer the NAMI Basics program online for the first time for parents and caregivers of children and young adults experiencing a mental health condition," said NAMI Acting CEO Angela Kimball. (nami.org)
  • The analyses in From Parent to Child explore these questions by developing and testing a model in which the earnings of children with different genetic endowments respond differently to investments in human capital. (uchicago.edu)
  • Two new studies released by Education Next provide the first analyses of the views of nationally representative samples of parents that compare perceptions of school operations in the charter, private and district-operated sectors. (educationnext.org)
  • Cross-lagged analyses revealed reciprocal effects between parenting, ER, and adjustment for the parent and boys', but not for the girls', report. (uni-bielefeld.de)
  • These analyses are based on the Children in the Community Project's longitudinal cohort of children who have been assessed since early childhood. (ncjrs.gov)
  • Mediation analyses were conducted to examine relations between child temperament and parenting in predicting child problems. (cambridge.org)
  • Psychological strains in the family-especially maternal depression and low social support-lower the parent-child agreement on anxiety symptoms. (frontiersin.org)
  • But Kulik cautions that it's possible the child could be asymptomatic, meaning a person has the virus but is not showing any symptoms, and that could put the other caregivers at risk. (cbc.ca)
  • Moreover, relations were different for adolescents with versus without clinically elevated symptoms of psychopathology. (uni-bielefeld.de)
  • The new class format is an adaptation of the in-person NAMI Basics, a free, six-session education program for parents, caregivers and other family who provide care for youth aged 22 or younger who are experiencing mental health symptoms. (nami.org)
  • Furthermore, children filled in a measure of anxiety disorder symptoms. (maastrichtuniversity.nl)
  • The aim of this study was to examine predictive relations among parenting and adolescents' ER, and adolescents' ER and psychosocial adjustment, respectively. (uni-bielefeld.de)
  • Harsh parenting was associated positively with boys' behavior problems. (ncfr.org)
  • A training program for parents of children with attention deficit-hyperactivity disorder / Arthur D. Anastopoulos and Russell A. Barkley -- Parent training for oppositional-defiant preschoolers / Sheila Eyberg and Stephen R. Boggs -- A family-systems-oriented training program for parents of language-delayed children with behavior problems / Charles E. Cunningham -- Disorders involving anxiety or depression. (powells.com)
  • Parents reported on child behavior problems at child ages 3, 5, and 8. (cambridge.org)
  • Explore the most fundamental human relationship--between parent and child Western social science has long neglected to acknowledge that family relationships must always be examined from a culturally sensitive perspective. (ecampus.com)
  • Parent-Youth Relations: Cultural and Cross-Cultural Perspectives presents the freshest research available along with extensive bibliographies, providing essential reading for educators, advanced undergraduates, graduate students, and professionals in family studies, sociology, psychology, and anthropology. (ecampus.com)
  • Building on the seminal work of Gary Becker, From Parent to Child integrates careful modeling of household behavior with systematic empirical testing, and will appeal to anyone interested in the economics of the family. (uchicago.edu)
  • one that explores relations between parents and children from a developmental perspective, a perspective enhanced in the Fourth Edition by the introduction of family systems theory as a starting point for helping students understand how relationships grow and change over time. (abebooks.com)
  • He has taught undergraduate and graduate courses in the areas of life-span human development, parent-child relations, theories of human development and family studies, marriage and family relationships, early childhood education, and research methods in human development and family studies. (abebooks.com)
  • His text, Parent-Child Relations , is now in its 8th edition, and he has two published texts in life-span human development and family studies. (abebooks.com)
  • He is the author or co-author of over 50 research articles focusing primarily on parent-child relations as well as relationship and family therapy issues. (abebooks.com)
  • He is a research member of the American Family Therapy Academy and is a member of the National Council on Family Relations. (abebooks.com)
  • NSFH respondents aged 50+ with adult children (N = 2,270) are used to assess patterns of quality and contact across multiple children in the same family. (ed.gov)
  • Stepchildren exhibit more negative relations than nonstepchildren, even in the same family. (ed.gov)
  • Family Snapshots -These case studies throughout the book provide students with a broader understanding of how the various theories found in human development and family studies are applied to parent-child relations. (slugbooks.com)
  • Gives a much greater emphasis on the cultural context of parenting throughout and especially in Chapters 1 and 2-Describes how parenting is shaped by family ecological and cultural factors. (slugbooks.com)
  • And then the kids that say work 'takes time away from your family' pretty much broke my heart. (marketwatch.com)
  • Where a Probate & Family Court appointed the parents of a mentally ill 32-year-old woman guardians for the purpose of consenting to an abortion and a sterilization procedure, the appointment must be modified so as to vacate the judge's decision to order sterilization and an abortion. (masslawyersweekly.com)
  • However, every family should have a plan, and if the parents and child feel as though the child would be better off living with a friend or relative, then that's an option too. (cbc.ca)
  • It would be scary to have two sick parents, but it is not your job as a child to take care of them or make adult decisions for them,' says Alyson Schafer, family counsellor and parenting expert. (cbc.ca)
  • Introduction to the Special Issue: Discrepancies in Adolescent-Parent Perceptions of the Family and Adolescent Adjustment. (uni-bielefeld.de)
  • Download Relationships Family Religion Parenting General, relations. (tradebit.com)
  • Dorothy Law Nolte, a lifelong teacher and lecturer on family dynamics, presents a simple but powerful guide to parenting the. (tradebit.com)
  • A qualitative study was conducted to explore the life experiences, within the family context, of perinatally HIV-infected (pHIV-I) youth in Puerto Rico. (mdpi.com)
  • Most participants who lost their parents lived with other family members. (mdpi.com)
  • But Stryker goes on from these obvious or stated motives and suggests a much more powerful motivation: that adopted children have a critical role as "emotional assets" who are expected to establish a family life and permit the adults to experience roles which they too may think of as the top of the pyramid. (blogspot.com)
  • 3.Family relations. (who.int)
  • High-quality evidence has shown, for instance, that the Nurse Family Partnership home-visiting programme and the Triple P in the United States of America reduce child maltreatment. (who.int)
  • It is unclear in the general picture how important the influence of parents, parenting and family life can be on bullying behaviour, but there is now considerable evidence suggesting that they too can have a significant effect. (aifs.gov.au)
  • These scholars have examined the content and quality of relationships among family members in different generations, posing such questions as: How much contact do adult children have with their parents? (encyclopedia.com)
  • This bill does nothing to improve the lives of people with disabilities, nor increase their access to health care or other services, nor does it educate a woman and her family about having a child with a disability," Gary Daniels, chief lobbyist for the ACLU of Ohio, said in a statement . (christianpost.com)
  • The domains included were the larger social context, family attributes, parent-child relationship, and biological risk. (ncjrs.gov)
  • The city is also home to vibrant community organizations that will inform your research and practice, as well as a network of bilingual youth protection services, including family preservation and young offenders services. (concordia.ca)
  • Some of the values consistently found to be relevant to substance use among Latino adolescents, for example, were family connection and respect for parents, as well as acceptance of culturally prescribed gender roles. (ncjrs.gov)
  • Two wild dogs came around the corner, started messing with the family across the street, me and my family were trying to get the kids out the way, putting all the kids in the jumper so the dog wouldn't bother them," said Michael Marshall, who witnessed the attack. (nbcchicago.com)
  • Family Relations. (wikipedia.org)
  • Family Relations is a publication of the National Council on Family Relations (NCFR). (ncfr.org)
  • More than 80 percent of our readers identify Family Relations as meeting their needs better than any other applied journal. (ncfr.org)
  • Family Relations is published five times a year (February, April, July, October, and December) and averages 120 pages. (ncfr.org)
  • Family Relations is a member of, and subscribes to the principles of, the Committee on Publication Ethics (COPE) . (ncfr.org)
  • Family Relations is the first place I go to find a research base for family life education, especially parent education. (ncfr.org)
  • The February 2020 issue of Family Relations (FR) is open to the public in the Wiley Online Library. (ncfr.org)
  • A single parent family is a family with children that is headed by a single parent. (wikipedia.org)
  • Lower maternal depression, and higher social support reported by mother and father were associated with higher parent-child agreement. (frontiersin.org)
  • As predicted, both child inhibitory control and maternal harsh discipline made significant contributions to child externalizing problems in all three countries. (springer.com)
  • Across countries, child inhibitory control and maternal harsh discipline made significant independent contributions to early externalizing problems, suggesting an additive model of association. (springer.com)
  • The study examined four domains of early childhood risk factors in relationship to drug use, externalizing, and internalizing behavior as assessed by maternal report on the Child Behavior Checklist. (ncjrs.gov)
  • Parent-Youth Relations: Cultural and Cross-Cultural Perspectives fills this void by exploring in depth the most fundamental human relationship--between parent and child--in different societies around the world. (ecampus.com)
  • Parent-Youth Relations: Cultural and Cross-Cultural Perspectives presents several viewpoints, some comparing similarities and differences across societies or nations, others exploring relationships within a single culture. (ecampus.com)
  • Developmental behavior geneticists argue that child effects on adults reflect a process of genotype → environment effects. (questia.com)
  • Recent theory along these two lines has led to an increased interest in child effects on adults. (questia.com)
  • Examined longitudinal data from a national survey to explore continuity and change in parent-child relations as children become adults. (ed.gov)
  • New To This Edition: NEW: Includes expanded coverage of attachment between parents and children-Explains how it affects development of both adults and children. (slugbooks.com)
  • Currently, it affects 6%-8% of children and 2% of adults worldwide 2,3 . (bvsalud.org)
  • From age four on, children start to understand that alcohol is usually restricted to adults and consumed in specific situations. (techexplorist.com)
  • Psychosocial stress is associated with obesity in adults and children (1-3). (cdc.gov)
  • Not only has it been reported that children who are bullied at school have significantly poorer mental health than others, but they are also significantly more likely than others to experience mental illness as adults. (aifs.gov.au)
  • It could be suggested that children who become involved in bully-victim problems are mentally less well than most students to begin with, and would be mentally unwell as adults, regardless of whether they had become involved in bullying at school. (aifs.gov.au)
  • The series underscores how difficult it can be to raise teenage daughters, but it also shows how adults can fail to be responsible parents. (commonsensemedia.org)
  • Set Skip to Child e.g. (tek-tips.com)
  • and, in some cases, the ill-judged wish to skip the sticky, demanding baby period and to start with older children who (they think) won't be so much trouble. (blogspot.com)
  • This paper describes the conceptualisation and development of an autism-specific measure of QoL, the Quality of Life in Autism Questionnaire (QoLA) for parents and caregivers of children with ASD, that is suitable to clinical and research settings. (hindawi.com)
  • Relations between pain characteristics, child and parent variables, and school functioning in adolescents with chronic headache: a comparison of tension-type headache and migraine. (harvard.edu)
  • Across five key characteristics-teacher quality, discipline, expectations for achievement, safety, and instruction in character and values-charter parents are on average 13 percentage points more satisfied than district parents. (educationnext.org)
  • Private-school parents are on average 12 percentage points more satisfied than charter-school parents across the same five characteristics. (educationnext.org)
  • Instead, Kenrick and colleagues propose that real "self-actualization" must have to do with characteristics that attract a mate and contribute to rearing children who can also attract mates, etc. (blogspot.com)
  • However, less is known about the interrelations between child and parent characteristics and parent-child interactions in early childhood. (scienceopen.com)
  • The purpose of this study was to examine the extent to which physicians reported using a participatory decision-making (PDM) style with children and their parents during attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder visits and the physician characteristics that were related to physician use of a PDM style. (biomedsearch.com)
  • Particularly in early adolescence, it is still unclear whether relations between parenting and ER are caused by adolescent behavior, by parent behavior, or by reciprocal processes. (uni-bielefeld.de)
  • Measuring Parenting Throughout Adolescence. (uni-bielefeld.de)
  • Journal of Clinical Child and Adolescent Psychology, 42 , 161-173. (springer.com)
  • Journal of Clinical Child & Adolescent Psychology 44(1): 93-108. (uni-bielefeld.de)
  • A 2004 study found that after gaining a child (whether through birth or adoption), respondents reported less depressed affect, more disagreements with their spouse, and more support from their own parents, but it appeared the experience of becoming an adoptive parent or a stepparent was less stressful than the adjustment to biological parenthood. (wikipedia.org)
  • Pre-school children with and without developmental delay: Behaviour problems and parenting stress over time. (springer.com)
  • The effects of early positive parenting and developmental delay status on child emotion dysregulation. (uni-bielefeld.de)
  • Can parents accurately screen children at risk of developmental delay? (biomedsearch.com)
  • AIM: To evaluate the validity and potential value of the parent-completed Infant/Child Monitoring Questionnaire (IMQ) as a screening measure for developmental delay in high-risk infants. (biomedsearch.com)
  • Having more children increases prevalence of both positive and negative relations. (ed.gov)
  • The overall prevalence rate (the percentage of parents using any of these types of CP during the previous year) was 35% for infants and reached a peak of 94% at ages 3 and 4. (dspacedirect.org)
  • The assessment of child psychopathology requires diagnostic information from multiple informants to increase the validity and reliability of the assessment ( Achenbach, 2006 ). (frontiersin.org)
  • Mother and father reports of parenting stress and child functioning were used in cross-lag models to examine bidirectional associations between parenting stress and child functioning. (springer.com)
  • The aims of the present study are (1) to examine diagnostic agreement on anxiety disorders between parents and children on the levels of current and lifetime diagnostic category and diagnoses focusing in particular on diagnostic criteria and (2) to identify parent- and child-related diagnoses predictors for diagnostic agreement. (frontiersin.org)
  • Obesity interventions should consider parent-perceived stress and potential differences in the nature of stress experienced by parents of different racial/ethnic and socioeconomic backgrounds. (cdc.gov)
  • A better understanding of the relationship between parent stress and child obesity can support the development of more effective screening and interventions. (cdc.gov)
  • Practitioners and parents supported the use of deferred consent in CATCH and in future trials of interventions already used in clinical care. (bmj.com)
  • Interventions that encourage safe, stable and nurturing relationships between parents (or caregivers) and children in their early years can prevent child maltreatment and reduce childhood aggression. (who.int)
  • This briefing looks at the effectiveness of interventions that encourage safe, stable and nurturing relationships for preventing child maltreatment and aggressive behaviour in childhood. (who.int)
  • The Graduate Diploma in Youth Work provides an experiential learning environment where you will combine cutting edge principles of community youth development with clinical interventions. (concordia.ca)
  • Under the guidance of distinguished faculty members who are actively involved with various youth and youth programs, you will gain access to a range of approaches to clinical interventions with young people, including an emphasis on relational, emancipatory and psycho-educational techniques. (concordia.ca)
  • The book concludes with a useful review of coping strategies and interventions that have been demonstrated to alleviate parenting stress. (yalebooks.co.uk)
  • Careful examination of parenting style patterns in diverse populations, particularly with respect to physical activity and unintentional injury, will be a critical next step in the development of efficacious, culturally tailored adolescent health promotion interventions. (scielo.br)
  • Parent participants will receive weekly exercises to help them practice their new skills at home with their child. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • A knowledge-attitude-practice (KAP) questionnaire was developed and distributed to Greek parents caring for children who were 5-6 years old, between January and July of the same school year. (hindawi.com)
  • In order to reveal the contributing factors of this phenomenon, a knowledge, attitude, and practice (KAP) study of Greek parents towards antibiotic use in children suffering from URTIs was performed. (hindawi.com)
  • Known for its interactive format, this research-driven book tackles the intricacies of parent-child relationships in a contemporary society. (abebooks.com)
  • Engaging parents is an important step in our ongoing efforts to prevent child maltreatment and promote safe, stable, nurturing, relationships for children in all communities," said Rodney Hammond, Ph.D., director of the CDC's Division of Violence Prevention. (cdc.gov)
  • Teachable Moments" is an engaging, informative, useful toolbox of resources for parents who want to enrich their relationships with their. (tradebit.com)
  • Social and emotional development of vulnerable children and adolescents and factors that enhance or undermine their competencies, including relationships with peers, parents, and teachers and setting-level processes (e.g., classroom instructional practices). (ualberta.ca)
  • At Shriners Hospitals for Children - Twin Cities, we value relationships with our referring providers. (shrinershospitalsforchildren.org)
  • The blog focuses on parsing mistaken beliefs that can influence people's decisions about childrearing-- for example, beliefs about day care, about punishment, about child psychotherapies, and about adoption. (blogspot.com)
  • Such an effort might provide theoretical understanding from an ecological perspective on how socio-cultural contexts (parents/home compared to teacher/classroom) shape our beliefs and perceptions and which may later influence our behavior (Okagaki & Strenberg, 1993b). (freepatentsonline.com)
  • This life-span approach to parent-child relations gives students a comprehensive, contemporary look at theories, research, and techniques within historical and cultural contexts. (pearson.com)
  • This research was supported by the National Institute of Mental Health (NIMH) R01MH099190, the National Institute of Child Health and Human Development (NICHD) U54HD090256, and National Institute of Child and Human Development (NICHD) T32HD07489. (springer.com)
  • Little research has investigated these multiple relations. (ed.gov)
  • Despite increasing interest in sluggish cognitive tempo (SCT) in children and advancements in its measurement, little research has examined child self-reported SCT. (springer.com)
  • Qualitative research employing focus groups, with a sample of 12 parents of children with CMPA or LI (two groups), including the participation of a researcher/moderator, an observer, and six participants in each group and a plan with guiding questions. (bvsalud.org)
  • A qualitative research was conducted using the focus group technique with a sample of 12 parents of children with cow's milk protein allergy or lactose intolerance. (bvsalud.org)
  • Research has shown that enjoying books with a child for even a few minutes a day can make a measurable difference in the acquisition of basic reading skills, and that everyday activities - such as a trip to the grocery store - can be turned into enjoyable learning experiences. (readingrockets.org)
  • For information on CDC's prevention research in child maltreatment, visit www.cdc.gov/injury. (cdc.gov)
  • Drawing on the international research, this article examines the association between parenting factors and the involvement of children in bullying at school, whether as bullies or victims. (aifs.gov.au)
  • Research shows a connection between kids' healthy self-esteem and positive, diverse representations in books, TV shows, and movies. (commonsensemedia.org)
  • Past research has revealed the important role that parents play in injury prevention. (medscape.com)
  • The proposed research addresses this gap by examining parent-child disagreements about safety, including how parents become aware of, react to, and resolve safety disagreements. (medscape.com)
  • There is surprisingly little research on parent-child disagreements about safety issues, and virtually no research on how parents react to and resolve safety disagreements. (medscape.com)
  • Research into relative outcomes of parenting by biological and adoptive parents has produced a variety of results. (wikipedia.org)
  • Telethon Institute for Child Health Research, Centre for Child Health Research, The University of Western Australia, Subiaco, Western Australia. (biomedsearch.com)
  • About a third of all those parents who are ill-treated in early childhood, badly refer to their own children later. (triaxsys.com)
  • The focus is on primary prevention programmes, those that are implemented early enough to avoid the development of violent behaviour such as child maltreatment and childhood aggression (a risk factor for youth violence). (who.int)
  • The relation of parenting, child temperament, and attachment security in early childhood to social competence at school entry. (scienceopen.com)
  • The current study focused on youth in this transition stage (10-13 years) and examined parent-child disagreements about safety, including how parents learn of these, react to these, and resolve these (Aim 1), if the parent-child relationship or sex of the child impacts these processes (Aim 2), and the nature and reasons why children intentionally keep safety-relevant secrets from their parents (Aim 3). (medscape.com)
  • The s econd study reports the results of a survey conducted in 2012 by the U.S. Department of Education, which was administered to more than 17,000 households with children in charter, private, assigned district, and chosen district sectors (about nine percent of all district schools). (educationnext.org)
  • In all OECD countries, most single-parent households were headed by a mother. (wikipedia.org)
  • This probing global look at parent-youth relations provides sensitively nuanced information valuable for every professional or student in the social sciences. (ecampus.com)
  • Because adolescents are such a large part of this group, and because adolescents are much more likely than older parents to face social problems as a result of their situation, we will focus here on the common situations that teen moms face. (uakron.edu)
  • Within any culture, children are shaped by the physical and social settings within which they live, culturally regulated customs and childrearing practices, and culturally based belief systems. (slugbooks.com)
  • And for every cheerful #TakeYourChildToWorkDay social media post with beaming kids in tiny blazers sitting in conference rooms, you know there were also countless other parents working overtime to keep the peace between their kids and their colleagues. (marketwatch.com)
  • Of four indicators of social disruption-students using drugs, students destroying property, fighting, and missing classes-district parents are on average 8 percentage points more likely than charter parents to perceive a problem as serious or very serious. (educationnext.org)
  • If the social norm supports parents introducing alcohol to children, children might mistakenly assume that their parents are more lenient, even when this is not the case. (techexplorist.com)
  • Anonymous) help parents build social networks to provide peer support and reduce social isolation. (who.int)
  • Moreover, few studies have broadly examined the longitudinal relations between these constructs and social competence. (scienceopen.com)
  • A journal that keeps improving with more on children, parenting, marriage and contemporary social problems than any journal I know of. (ncfr.org)
  • The anthropologist Rachael Stryker, in her book "The Road to Evergreen", examines adoption, particularly adoption from Russia, and looks at adoptive parents' motives. (blogspot.com)
  • We know that fathers are very important to the development of children, yet for unmarried women who have children, very often there is no consistent male role model for the child. (uakron.edu)
  • S. Hartley, P.I.). The study was supported by core grant to the Waisman Center from the National Institute of Child Health and Human Development (U54 HD090256 to A. Messing). (springer.com)
  • Additional support was also provided by the Waisman Center Postdoctoral Training Program in Intellectual and Developmental Disabilities National Institutes of Child and Human Development (NICHD) T32 (T32HD07489). (springer.com)
  • Child Development, 55 (4), 1456-1464. (springer.com)
  • Provides for increased development of empathy and understanding of the global human development issues affecting parenting topics. (slugbooks.com)
  • Free Range" parenting is based on the concern that coddling children through overprotection inhibits the development of their independence and responsibility. (ssrn.com)
  • The following is a list of ways in which parents can encourage the development of the skills needed by children in order for them to become good readers. (readingrockets.org)
  • Each of these views focuses on what we as modern parents may implicitly demand of our children-- what their existence and good or poor development does for our sense of ourselves and of life in general. (blogspot.com)
  • The interaction of temperamental resistance to control and restrictive parenting in the development of externalizing behavior. (springer.com)
  • Child Development, 72 (4), 1032-1053. (springer.com)
  • It appears that both pediatricians and parents are responsible for this antibiotic misuse [ 5 - 7 ] which is contributing to the development of resistant strains of bacterial pathogens [ 8 - 10 ] and placing a burden on the economy of the health care system. (hindawi.com)
  • For example, parents who tend to rate their children at a higher level than their actual performance may not have a firm understanding of early literacy development. (freepatentsonline.com)
  • The review supports the substantial influence of parenting style on adolescent development. (scielo.br)
  • Parents of children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) tend to experience greater psychological distress than parents of typically developing children or children with other disabilities. (hindawi.com)
  • Studies have consistently found higher levels of psychological distress in parents of children with ASD when compared to parents of typically developing children or children with other disabilities [ 7 - 10 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • Researchers estimate the results of this study could translate annually into 688 fewer cases of child maltreatment, 240 fewer out-of-home placements, and 60 fewer children with injuries requiring hospitalization or emergency room treatment for every 100,000 children under age 8. (cdc.gov)
  • Child maltreatment harms people and society, contributing to costly long-term health problems ranging from heart disease and obesity to depression and anxiety, making this type of prevention study critical. (cdc.gov)
  • Evidence suggests that parenting and parent and child programmes can reduce child maltreatment and aggressive behaviour in children. (who.int)
  • Participants were 316 elementary school children (mean age = 11 years, 153 boys). (iupsys.net)
  • Parent-Child participants in assessment and monitoring visits but does not receive any study provided treatment. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • Adolescent wait-list control participants have parents who are in the wait-list control group. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • Adolescent participants will have parents who are in the Let's Talk Worksite Parenting Program. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • Despite the challenges, participants expressed a desire to have children. (mdpi.com)
  • The study involved 2142 unique children (ages 8-13 years, 50.51% males). (springer.com)
  • The present study provides initial empirical support for the reliability and validity of child-reported SCT as part of the multi-informant assessment of SCT. (springer.com)
  • Proponents claim that assigning homework to young children helps them learn good study habits. (wikipedia.org)
  • In a single study, parents and teachers of middle school students believed that homework improved students' study skills and personal responsibility skills. (wikipedia.org)
  • The first study reports the responses to a survey administered by Education Next in May and June of 2016 to a nationally representative sample of 1,519 parents with school-aged children. (educationnext.org)
  • This is the first national qualitative study based on the population of parents of children with cow's milk allergy or lactose intolerance and their relationship to oral health. (bvsalud.org)
  • The study, which was funded by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), found lower rates of confirmed abuse cases, child out-of-home placements, and hospitalizations and emergency room visits for child injuries in counties where parenting support was implemented. (cdc.gov)
  • Using a multi-level system of parenting support called the Triple P-Positive Parenting Program, nine study counties in South Carolina implemented a wide range of support mechanisms for parents including local media, brief public seminars, and parent consultation by specially trained providers in clinics, schools, churches, and community centers. (cdc.gov)
  • Mariliis Tael-Oeren, Ph.D. student and lead author for the study, says: "Our study suggests that when parents have a lenient attitude towards their children drinking alcohol , this can lead to their child drinking more frequently - and drinking too much. (techexplorist.com)
  • If parents don't want their children to drink, then our study suggests they need to be clear about the message they give out. (techexplorist.com)
  • The results of the current study cast doubt on the potential effectiveness of skills-based gun safety programs for children. (nih.gov)
  • The purpose of this study was to explore the association between psychosocial functioning of children treated for cancer and that of their parents. (mdpi.com)
  • Our mixed method interview, survey and focus group study involved 275 parents and 17 practitioners from 12 of 14 CATheter infections in CHildren (CATCH) trial sites. (bmj.com)
  • In a study conducted in Finland a sample of 2,713 eight-year-old schoolboys were identified as being repeatedly bullied and/or bullying others at school, based on reports from teachers, parents and the children themselves (Ronning et al. (aifs.gov.au)
  • Study for the GED or get lucky and have your parents agree to homeschool you? (hubpages.com)
  • The sample of the study contained 5312 parents from all geographic areas of Greece. (hindawi.com)
  • It was also evident that all the carers in this study experienced a range of uncertainties, with parents using terms such as 'no man's land' and 'future is unknown' to describe their world. (biomedcentral.com)
  • This study uses an objective measure to assess food intake, rather than self-reporting methodology used in previous parent-child concordance studies. (bmj.com)
  • thus, the study concluded that "environmental transmission from parent to offspring has little effect on later cognitive ability. (wikipedia.org)
  • Fathers' involvement was associated with reduced economic hardship, parenting stress, and levels of harsh parenting. (ncfr.org)
  • If the adopted children do not accomplish this, they are failing in their responsibilities as emotional assets, and the parents interviewed by Stryker were dissatisfied or even concerned that the children were mentally ill. (blogspot.com)
  • The PFR curriculum focuses on increasing parenting sensitivity using attachment theory-informed, strength-based consultation strategies. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • The effects of earlier patterns of interaction on later relations proved modest. (ed.gov)
  • Also promotes critical thinking and encourages empathetic involvement with the parenting topics being discussed. (slugbooks.com)
  • Parent involvement in the treatment of the school phobic child / William Yule -- Developmental disorders. (powells.com)
  • His remarks came as the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention advisory panel voted to back the use of Pfizer's COVID-19 vaccine for children aged 12 to 15. (wgntv.com)
  • 7.Child abuse - prevention and control. (who.int)
  • In Canada and the United States, as well as most other industrialized countries, injuries are the leading cause of death for youth under 19 years of age [Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), 2016]. (medscape.com)
  • The therapeutic use of play for mentally ill children and their parents / Irving N. Berlin and Deane L. Critchley. (powells.com)
  • Pediatricians and younger physicians were more likely to use a participatory style with parents of ADHD children. (biomedsearch.com)
  • The bottom line is this: the vaccine for kids between the ages of 12- to 15- years-old are safe, effective, easy, fast, and free. (wgntv.com)
  • Denver, CO -- ( SBWIRE ) -- 02/01/2013 -- People who are on this Anxiety Free Child Review page are looking to find out more information about different fears, phobias and anxiety. (sbwire.com)
  • Parents who's kids is having anxiety should be informed that Anxiety Free Child just launched and provides a revolutionary solution to this problem. (sbwire.com)
  • On this Anxiety Free Child page parents can read testimonial of other parents who shares how amazingly Anxiety Free Child guide have worked for their kids. (sbwire.com)
  • Anxiety Free Child is a new revolutionary online program which offers parents powerful strategies very helpful for free their children from different fears. (sbwire.com)
  • The person behind Anxiety Free Child is Richard Presta who's researches will help many parents and children to overcome debilitating anxiety. (sbwire.com)
  • Anxiety Free child is based on parents support, because children need to work together with their parents to overcome their fears. (sbwire.com)
  • Presta's main goal is to make parents to better understand that anxiety is very real and serious disorder. (sbwire.com)
  • Faced with feelings of fear and anxiety, children prepare unconsciously inherent to different dramatic situations that will arise in life. (sbwire.com)
  • Also, depending on the source of anxiety, some of these states helps children learn to protect themselves from dangers: a child who is afraid of fire especially will not ever play with matches, for example. (sbwire.com)
  • As the child grows, anxiety disappear or is replaced by other feelings, a child at age 5 could not sleep with the lights off because it is afraid of ghosts. (sbwire.com)
  • On the other hand, in some cases, anxiety and panic persists, the "extended" to a stimulus but otherwise harmless, as the example of a child who wants to adopt young lion that he saw at the zoo, but not can approach, meanwhile, the neighbor dog. (sbwire.com)
  • Parent-child agreement can be expected to be higher on the level of anxiety criteria compared to specific anxiety diagnoses and diagnostic anxiety category. (frontiersin.org)
  • Parents of children with autism spectrum disorder report elevated parenting stress. (springer.com)
  • Our results show that there was lack of support for children of heart transplantation patients. (diva-portal.org)
  • Support in the shape of information was in most cases provided by the sick or healthy parent. (diva-portal.org)
  • It is of great clinical importance to develop psychosocial support programs for children with a seriously ill parent waiting for heart transplantation (before, during, and after surgery). (diva-portal.org)
  • Where (1) a plaintiff was denied joint legal and physical custody of the child the defendant, her same-sex partner, gave birth to during their relationship, but (2) was found to be a de facto parent and ordered to pay $385 a week as child support, the child support order must be vacated and remanded for further litigation, but otherwise summary judgment for the defendant is proper. (masslawyersweekly.com)
  • Where a divorced father was ordered to pay to his former wife alimony in the amount of $940 a week and child support in the amount of $500 a week, a remand must be ordered because the judge erred in the valuation of the wife's business interests. (masslawyersweekly.com)
  • Provision of early, adequate support to parents who are vulnerable to PTSS will help not only the parents, but also their children with cancer. (mdpi.com)
  • Parenting programmes (e.g. the Positive Parenting Program or Triple P) provide information and support to help parents. (who.int)
  • Parent education efforts can therefore be made to support this direction. (freepatentsonline.com)
  • Consequently, individuals who do not buy into Intensive Parenting norms, including those from different cultural and socio-economic backgrounds, may be subjecting themselves to criminal prosecution for child neglect and endangerment. (ssrn.com)
  • Customized Parenting in a Trending World challenges cultural norms and helps you customize your parenting so your children can thrive. (tradebit.com)
  • But the powerful influence of media has sensationalized the risks to children, skewing popular perceptions of the genuine risks children face and of what constitutes a reasonable or appropriate response to such risks. (ssrn.com)
  • Instead, it could be that their perceptions are skewed towards thinking their parents have more lenient attitudes. (techexplorist.com)
  • An early chapter on strategies and techniques also sets the stage for upcoming discussions of parent-child relations. (pearson.com)
  • Jim Burns, president of HomeWord, lays a positive foundation for parenting with practical strategies and illustrations, teaching how to create. (tradebit.com)
  • Younger physicians were more likely to use a participatory style with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) children. (biomedsearch.com)
  • 2007). Gender differences in physical aggression: A prospective population-based survey of children before and after 2 years of age. (springer.com)
  • Child temperament in the U. S. and China: Similarities and differences. (springer.com)
  • Due to the anonymity of the questionnaire (available online at http://dx.doi.org/10.5402/2012/685302 as supplementary material), written informed consent from parents was waived. (hindawi.com)