Persons functioning as natural, adoptive, or substitute parents. The heading includes the concept of parenthood as well as preparation for becoming a parent.
The interactions between parent and child.
Organized efforts by communities or organizations to improve the health and well-being of the child.
Child with one or more parents afflicted by a physical or mental disorder.
Any observable response or action of a child from 24 months through 12 years of age. For neonates or children younger than 24 months, INFANT BEHAVIOR is available.
Children with mental or physical disabilities that interfere with usual activities of daily living and that may require accommodation or intervention.
The training or bringing-up of children by parents or parent-substitutes. It is used also for child rearing practices in different societies, at different economic levels, in different ethnic groups, etc. It differs from PARENTING in that in child rearing the emphasis is on the act of training or bringing up the child and the interaction between the parent and child, while parenting emphasizes the responsibility and qualities of exemplary behavior of the parent.
Organized services to provide health care for children.
Disturbances considered to be pathological based on age and stage appropriateness, e.g., conduct disturbances and anaclitic depression. This concept does not include psychoneuroses, psychoses, or personality disorders with fixed patterns.
The study of normal and abnormal behavior of children.
A child who is receiving long-term in-patient services or who resides in an institutional setting.
The giving of attention to the special dental needs of children, including the prevention of tooth diseases and instruction in dental hygiene and dental health. The dental care may include the services provided by dental specialists.
Child who has lost both parents through death or desertion.
Predetermined sets of questions used to collect data - clinical data, social status, occupational group, etc. The term is often applied to a self-completed survey instrument.
An aspect of personal behavior or lifestyle, environmental exposure, or inborn or inherited characteristic, which, on the basis of epidemiologic evidence, is known to be associated with a health-related condition considered important to prevent.
Age as a constituent element or influence contributing to the production of a result. It may be applicable to the cause or the effect of a circumstance. It is used with human or animal concepts but should be differentiated from AGING, a physiological process, and TIME FACTORS which refers only to the passage of time.
Studies in which the presence or absence of disease or other health-related variables are determined in each member of the study population or in a representative sample at one particular time. This contrasts with LONGITUDINAL STUDIES which are followed over a period of time.
Nutritional physiology of children aged 2-12 years.
The language and sounds expressed by a child at a particular maturational stage in development.
Disorders caused by nutritional imbalance, either overnutrition or undernutrition, occurring in children ages 2 to 12 years.
An infant during the first month after birth.
Number of deaths of children between one year of age to 12 years of age in a given population.
The total number of cases of a given disease in a specified population at a designated time. It is differentiated from INCIDENCE, which refers to the number of new cases in the population at a given time.
Observation of a population for a sufficient number of persons over a sufficient number of years to generate incidence or mortality rates subsequent to the selection of the study group.
Studies in which variables relating to an individual or group of individuals are assessed over a period of time.
Male parents, human or animal.
Studies in which individuals or populations are followed to assess the outcome of exposures, procedures, or effects of a characteristic, e.g., occurrence of disease.
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
Female parents, human or animal.
Social and economic factors that characterize the individual or group within the social structure.
A social group consisting of parents or parent substitutes and children.
Interaction between a mother and child.
Educational institutions.
Studies which start with the identification of persons with a disease of interest and a control (comparison, referent) group without the disease. The relationship of an attribute to the disease is examined by comparing diseased and non-diseased persons with regard to the frequency or levels of the attribute in each group.
The status during which female mammals carry their developing young (EMBRYOS or FETUSES) in utero before birth, beginning from FERTILIZATION to BIRTH.
Maleness or femaleness as a constituent element or influence contributing to the production of a result. It may be applicable to the cause or effect of a circumstance. It is used with human or animal concepts but should be differentiated from SEX CHARACTERISTICS, anatomical or physiological manifestations of sex, and from SEX DISTRIBUTION, the number of males and females in given circumstances.
The formally authorized guardianship or care of a CHILD.
Studies used to test etiologic hypotheses in which inferences about an exposure to putative causal factors are derived from data relating to characteristics of persons under study or to events or experiences in their past. The essential feature is that some of the persons under study have the disease or outcome of interest and their characteristics are compared with those of unaffected persons.
The interactions between the professional person and the family.
A form of bronchial disorder with three distinct components: airway hyper-responsiveness (RESPIRATORY HYPERSENSITIVITY), airway INFLAMMATION, and intermittent AIRWAY OBSTRUCTION. It is characterized by spasmodic contraction of airway smooth muscle, WHEEZING, and dyspnea (DYSPNEA, PAROXYSMAL).
The distance from the sole to the crown of the head with body standing on a flat surface and fully extended.
Severe distortions in the development of many basic psychological functions that are not normal for any stage in development. These distortions are manifested in sustained social impairment, speech abnormalities, and peculiar motor movements.
Evaluation undertaken to assess the results or consequences of management and procedures used in combating disease in order to determine the efficacy, effectiveness, safety, and practicability of these interventions in individual cases or series.
Procedures for finding the mathematical function which best describes the relationship between a dependent variable and one or more independent variables. In linear regression (see LINEAR MODELS) the relationship is constrained to be a straight line and LEAST-SQUARES ANALYSIS is used to determine the best fit. In logistic regression (see LOGISTIC MODELS) the dependent variable is qualitative rather than continuously variable and LIKELIHOOD FUNCTIONS are used to find the best relationship. In multiple regression, the dependent variable is considered to depend on more than a single independent variable.
Spontaneous or voluntary recreational activities pursued for enjoyment and accessories or equipment used in the activities; includes games, toys, etc.
Size and composition of the family.
A behavior disorder originating in childhood in which the essential features are signs of developmentally inappropriate inattention, impulsivity, and hyperactivity. Although most individuals have symptoms of both inattention and hyperactivity-impulsivity, one or the other pattern may be predominant. The disorder is more frequent in males than females. Onset is in childhood. Symptoms often attenuate during late adolescence although a minority experience the full complement of symptoms into mid-adulthood. (From DSM-V)
Special hospitals which provide care for ill children.
Levels within a diagnostic group which are established by various measurement criteria applied to the seriousness of a patient's disorder.
Behavioral, psychological, and social relations among various members of the nuclear family and the extended family.
The reciprocal interaction of two or more persons.
A status with BODY WEIGHT that is grossly above the acceptable or desirable weight, usually due to accumulation of excess FATS in the body. The standards may vary with age, sex, genetic or cultural background. In the BODY MASS INDEX, a BMI greater than 30.0 kg/m2 is considered obese, and a BMI greater than 40.0 kg/m2 is considered morbidly obese (MORBID OBESITY).
A disorder beginning in childhood. It is marked by the presence of markedly abnormal or impaired development in social interaction and communication and a markedly restricted repertoire of activity and interest. Manifestations of the disorder vary greatly depending on the developmental level and chronological age of the individual. (DSM-V)
The health status of the family as a unit including the impact of the health of one member of the family on the family as a unit and on individual family members; also, the impact of family organization or disorganization on the health status of its members.
Voluntary acceptance of a child of other parents to be as one's own child, usually with legal confirmation.
An indicator of body density as determined by the relationship of BODY WEIGHT to BODY HEIGHT. BMI=weight (kg)/height squared (m2). BMI correlates with body fat (ADIPOSE TISSUE). Their relationship varies with age and gender. For adults, BMI falls into these categories: below 18.5 (underweight); 18.5-24.9 (normal); 25.0-29.9 (overweight); 30.0 and above (obese). (National Center for Health Statistics, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention)
Statistical models which describe the relationship between a qualitative dependent variable (that is, one which can take only certain discrete values, such as the presence or absence of a disease) and an independent variable. A common application is in epidemiology for estimating an individual's risk (probability of a disease) as a function of a given risk factor.
Informed consent given by a parent on behalf of a minor or otherwise incompetent child.
The aggregate of social and cultural institutions, forms, patterns, and processes that influence the life of an individual or community.
The study of NUTRITION PROCESSES as well as the components of food, their actions, interaction, and balance in relation to health and disease of children, infants or adolescents.
Children who have reached maturity or the legal age of majority.
The ability to learn and to deal with new situations and to deal effectively with tasks involving abstractions.
Procedures and programs that facilitate the development or skill acquisition in infants and young children who have disabilities, who are at risk for developing disabilities, or who are gifted. It includes programs that are designed to prevent handicapping conditions in infants and young children and family-centered programs designed to affect the functioning of infants and children with special needs. (From Journal of Early Intervention, Editorial, 1989, vol. 13, no. 1, p. 3; A Discursive Dictionary of Health Care, prepared for the U.S. House of Representatives Committee on Interstate and Foreign Commerce, 1976)
The statistical reproducibility of measurements (often in a clinical context), including the testing of instrumentation or techniques to obtain reproducible results. The concept includes reproducibility of physiological measurements, which may be used to develop rules to assess probability or prognosis, or response to a stimulus; reproducibility of occurrence of a condition; and reproducibility of experimental results.
The number of new cases of a given disease during a given period in a specified population. It also is used for the rate at which new events occur in a defined population. It is differentiated from PREVALENCE, which refers to all cases, new or old, in the population at a given time.
A statistical technique that isolates and assesses the contributions of categorical independent variables to variation in the mean of a continuous dependent variable.
The inhabitants of rural areas or of small towns classified as rural.
A medical specialty concerned with maintaining health and providing medical care to children from birth to adolescence.
The technique that deals with the measurement of the size, weight, and proportions of the human or other primate body.
Knowledge, attitudes, and associated behaviors which pertain to health-related topics such as PATHOLOGIC PROCESSES or diseases, their prevention, and treatment. This term refers to non-health workers and health workers (HEALTH PERSONNEL).
A situation in which the level of living of an individual, family, or group is below the standard of the community. It is often related to a specific income level.
Stress wherein emotional factors predominate.
Persons who provide care to those who need supervision or assistance in illness or disability. They may provide the care in the home, in a hospital, or in an institution. Although caregivers include trained medical, nursing, and other health personnel, the concept also refers to parents, spouses, or other family members, friends, members of the clergy, teachers, social workers, fellow patients.
The inhabitants of a city or town, including metropolitan areas and suburban areas.
A child or adolescent who is deserted by parents or parent substitutes without regard for its future care.
Public attitudes toward health, disease, and the medical care system.
Deviations from the average values for a specific age and sex in any or all of the following: height, weight, skeletal proportions, osseous development, or maturation of features. Included here are both acceleration and retardation of growth.
The mass or quantity of heaviness of an individual. It is expressed by units of pounds or kilograms.
The gradual expansion in complexity and meaning of symbols and sounds as perceived and interpreted by the individual through a maturational and learning process. Stages in development include babbling, cooing, word imitation with cognition, and use of short sentences.
The exposure to potentially harmful chemical, physical, or biological agents in the environment or to environmental factors that may include ionizing radiation, pathogenic organisms, or toxic chemicals.
Conditions characterized by language abilities (comprehension and expression of speech and writing) that are below the expected level for a given age, generally in the absence of an intellectual impairment. These conditions may be associated with DEAFNESS; BRAIN DISEASES; MENTAL DISORDERS; or environmental factors.
A natural, adoptive, or substitute parent of a dependent child, who lives with only one parent. The single parent may live with or visit the child. The concept includes the never-married, as well as the divorced and widowed.
Statistical models in which the value of a parameter for a given value of a factor is assumed to be equal to a + bx, where a and b are constants. The models predict a linear regression.
The range or frequency distribution of a measurement in a population (of organisms, organs or things) that has not been selected for the presence of disease or abnormality.
A set of techniques used when variation in several variables has to be studied simultaneously. In statistics, multivariate analysis is interpreted as any analytic method that allows simultaneous study of two or more dependent variables.
Noises, normal and abnormal, heard on auscultation over any part of the RESPIRATORY TRACT.
The frequency of different ages or age groups in a given population. The distribution may refer to either how many or what proportion of the group. The population is usually patients with a specific disease but the concept is not restricted to humans and is not restricted to medicine.
Conversations with an individual or individuals held in order to obtain information about their background and other personal biographical data, their attitudes and opinions, etc. It includes school admission or job interviews.
A stratum of people with similar position and prestige; includes social stratification. Social class is measured by criteria such as education, occupation, and income.
Gradual increase in the number, the size, and the complexity of cells of an individual. Growth generally results in increase in ORGAN WEIGHT; BODY WEIGHT; and BODY HEIGHT.
A status with BODY WEIGHT that is above certain standard of acceptable or desirable weight. In the scale of BODY MASS INDEX, overweight is defined as having a BMI of 25.0-29.9 kg/m2. Overweight may or may not be due to increases in body fat (ADIPOSE TISSUE), hence overweight does not equal "over fat".
The training or molding of an individual through various relationships, educational agencies, and social controls, which enables him to become a member of a particular society.
Regular course of eating and drinking adopted by a person or animal.
The transmission and reproduction of transient images of fixed or moving objects. An electronic system of transmitting such images together with sound over a wire or through space by apparatus that converts light and sound into electrical waves and reconverts them into visible light rays and audible sound. (From Webster, 3rd ed)
State of the body in relation to the consumption and utilization of nutrients.
An increased liquidity or decreased consistency of FECES, such as running stool. Fecal consistency is related to the ratio of water-holding capacity of insoluble solids to total water, rather than the amount of water present. Diarrhea is not hyperdefecation or increased fecal weight.
Predisposition to react to one's environment in a certain way; usually refers to mood changes.
Damage inflicted on the body as the direct or indirect result of an external force, with or without disruption of structural continuity.
A systematic collection of factual data pertaining to health and disease in a human population within a given geographic area.
The nursing of an infant at the breast.
The ratio of two odds. The exposure-odds ratio for case control data is the ratio of the odds in favor of exposure among cases to the odds in favor of exposure among noncases. The disease-odds ratio for a cohort or cross section is the ratio of the odds in favor of disease among the exposed to the odds in favor of disease among the unexposed. The prevalence-odds ratio refers to an odds ratio derived cross-sectionally from studies of prevalent cases.
The determination and evaluation of personality attributes by interviews, observations, tests, or scales. Articles concerning personality measurement are considered to be within scope of this term.
The qualitative or quantitative estimation of the likelihood of adverse effects that may result from exposure to specified health hazards or from the absence of beneficial influences. (Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 1988)
Divisions of the year according to some regularly recurrent phenomena usually astronomical or climatic. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
The genetic constitution of the individual, comprising the ALLELES present at each GENETIC LOCUS.
The behavior patterns associated with or characteristic of a mother.
Any behavior caused by or affecting another individual, usually of the same species.
Standardized tests that measure the present general ability or aptitude for intellectual performance.
Financial assistance provided by the government to indigent families with dependent children who meet certain requirements as defined by the Social Security Act, Title IV, in the U.S.
Assessment of psychological variables by the application of mathematical procedures.
Localized destruction of the tooth surface initiated by decalcification of the enamel followed by enzymatic lysis of organic structures and leading to cavity formation. If left unchecked, the cavity may penetrate the enamel and dentin and reach the pulp.
Hospital units providing continuous surveillance and care to acutely ill infants and children. Neonates are excluded since INTENSIVE CARE UNITS, NEONATAL is available.
Living facilities for humans.
Personality construct referring to an individual's perception of the locus of events as determined internally by his or her own behavior versus fate, luck, or external forces. (ERIC Thesaurus, 1996).
Conditions characterized by a significant discrepancy between an individual's perceived level of intellect and their ability to acquire new language and other cognitive skills. These disorders may result from organic or psychological conditions. Relatively common subtypes include DYSLEXIA, DYSCALCULIA, and DYSGRAPHIA.
The consequences of exposing the FETUS in utero to certain factors, such as NUTRITION PHYSIOLOGICAL PHENOMENA; PHYSIOLOGICAL STRESS; DRUGS; RADIATION; and other physical or chemical factors. These consequences are observed later in the offspring after BIRTH.
The level of health of the individual, group, or population as subjectively assessed by the individual or by more objective measures.
Any observable response or action of an adolescent.
A generic concept reflecting concern with the modification and enhancement of life attributes, e.g., physical, political, moral and social environment; the overall condition of a human life.
The number of males and females in a given population. The distribution may refer to how many men or women or what proportion of either in the group. The population is usually patients with a specific disease but the concept is not restricted to humans and is not restricted to medicine.
Behavioral responses or sequences associated with eating including modes of feeding, rhythmic patterns of eating, and time intervals.
Subnormal intellectual functioning which originates during the developmental period. This has multiple potential etiologies, including genetic defects and perinatal insults. Intelligence quotient (IQ) scores are commonly used to determine whether an individual has an intellectual disability. IQ scores between 70 and 79 are in the borderline range. Scores below 67 are in the disabled range. (from Joynt, Clinical Neurology, 1992, Ch55, p28)
Preventive health services provided for students. It excludes college or university students.
Adaptation of the person to the social environment. Adjustment may take place by adapting the self to the environment or by changing the environment. (From Campbell, Psychiatric Dictionary, 1996)
Diseases which have one or more of the following characteristics: they are permanent, leave residual disability, are caused by nonreversible pathological alteration, require special training of the patient for rehabilitation, or may be expected to require a long period of supervision, observation, or care. (Dictionary of Health Services Management, 2d ed)
Contamination of the air by tobacco smoke.
A class of statistical methods applicable to a large set of probability distributions used to test for correlation, location, independence, etc. In most nonparametric statistical tests, the original scores or observations are replaced by another variable containing less information. An important class of nonparametric tests employs the ordinal properties of the data. Another class of tests uses information about whether an observation is above or below some fixed value such as the median, and a third class is based on the frequency of the occurrence of runs in the data. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed, p1284; Corsini, Concise Encyclopedia of Psychology, 1987, p764-5)
Refers to the whole process of grieving and mourning and is associated with a deep sense of loss and sadness.
Country located in EUROPE. It is bordered by the NORTH SEA, BELGIUM, and GERMANY. Constituent areas are Aruba, Curacao, Sint Maarten, formerly included in the NETHERLANDS ANTILLES.
Struggle or disagreement between parents, parent and child or other members of a family.
The interactions between individuals of different generations. These interactions include communication, caring, accountability, loyalty, and even conflict between related or non-related individuals.
Disease having a short and relatively severe course.
Intellectual or mental process whereby an organism obtains knowledge.
Success in bringing an effort to the desired end; the degree or level of success attained in some specified area (esp. scholastic) or in general.
Freedom from exposure to danger and protection from the occurrence or risk of injury or loss. It suggests optimal precautions in the workplace, on the street, in the home, etc., and includes personal safety as well as the safety of property.
The behavior patterns associated with or characteristic of a father.
Support systems that provide assistance and encouragement to individuals with physical or emotional disabilities in order that they may better cope. Informal social support is usually provided by friends, relatives, or peers, while formal assistance is provided by churches, groups, etc.
Surgical removal of a tonsil or tonsils. (Dorland, 28th ed)
A state of harmony between internal needs and external demands and the processes used in achieving this condition. (From APA Thesaurus of Psychological Index Terms, 8th ed)
A group of people with a common cultural heritage that sets them apart from others in a variety of social relationships.
Feeling or emotion of dread, apprehension, and impending disaster but not disabling as with ANXIETY DISORDERS.

Family factors affecting child development. (1/2108)

In a large, geographically defined population of children a number of family factors in addition to social class, determined by the father's occupation, were recorded by health visitors and school nurses with routine responsibility for these children. The quality of the children in normal schools was assessed in terms of nonverbal IQ and height at the ages of 5 and 10 years, and of behavior as reported by the teacher at the age of 10 years. By analysis of variance the sum of the independent effects of the other family factors greatly outweighed that of occupational social class, except in the case of the IQ at 10 years. The most important of the other family factors was the quality of the mother's care of her child during the first 3 years of life.  (+info)

Like mother, like daughter: familial patterns of overweight are mediated by mothers' dietary disinhibition. (2/2108)

BACKGROUND: Obese parents are more likely to have obese children. Parents provide both the genes and eating environment for their children and familial patterns of adiposity are the result of gene-environment interactions. Environmental factors are implicated in the rapid increases in prevalence of childhood overweight that have occurred in the past 2 decades. Examination of aspects of the family environment may provide insight into increases in childhood overweight over time. OBJECTIVE: We examined parental characteristics associated with overweight and eating behaviors in preschool children. DESIGN: Seventy-five preschool children and their parents were recruited from local daycare centers. Information was obtained on parents' body mass indexes (BMIs), dietary restraint, and dietary disinhibition. A behavioral index of disinhibited eating in children was used to measure children's eating when given free access to palatable snack foods in the absence of hunger. Children's weight-for-height values were also calculated. RESULTS: Maternal dietary disinhibition (R2 = 0.35, P < 0.01) and maternal BMI (R2 = 0.19, P < 0.05) positively predicted daughters' overweight. Maternal disinhibition (R2 = 0.35, P < 0.05) mediated the relation between mothers' BMI and daughters' overweight when both maternal disinhibition and maternal BMI were used to predict daughters' overweight. Furthermore, when both mothers' disinhibition and daughters' free access intakes were used to predict daughters' overweight, mothers' disinhibition (P < 0.05) showed independent prediction. CONCLUSIONS: These findings suggest that familial influences on child overweight differ according to parent and child sex. Also, these results suggest that mothers' dietary disinhibition mediates familial similarities in degree of overweight for mothers and daughters.  (+info)

An office-based intervention to maintain parent-adolescent teamwork in diabetes management. Impact on parent involvement, family conflict, and subsequent glycemic control. (3/2108)

OBJECTIVE: To design and evaluate an office-based intervention aimed at maintaining parent-adolescent teamwork in diabetes management tasks without increasing diabetes-related family conflict. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: There were 85 patients (aged 10-15 years, mean 12.6 years) with type 1 diabetes (mean duration 5.5 years; mean HbA1c 8.5%) who were randomly assigned to one of three study groups--teamwork, attention control, and standard care--and followed for 24 months. At each visit, parent involvement in insulin administration and blood glucose monitoring was assessed. The teamwork and attention control interventions were integrated into routine ambulatory visits over the first 12 months (four medical visits). Measures of diabetes-related family conflict were collected at baseline and after 12 months. All patients were followed for an additional 12 months with respect to glycemic control. RESULTS: In the teamwork group, there was no major deterioration (0%) in parent involvement in insulin administration, in contrast to 16% major deterioration in the combined comparison (attention control and standard care) group (P < 0.03). Similarly, no teamwork families showed major deterioration in parent involvement with blood glucose monitoring versus 11% in the comparison group (P < 0.07). On both the Diabetes Family Conflict Scale and the Diabetes Family Behavior Checklist, teamwork families reported significantly less conflict at 12 months. An analysis of HbA1c over the 12- to 24-month follow-up period indicated that more adolescents in the teamwork group (68%) than in the comparison group (47%) improved their HbA1c (P < 0.07). CONCLUSIONS: The data demonstrate that parent involvement in diabetes management tasks can be strengthened through a low-intensity intervention integrated into routine follow-up diabetes care. Moreover, despite increased engagement between teen and parent centered around diabetes tasks, the teamwork families showed decreased diabetes-related family conflict. Within the context of a broader cultural recognition of the protective function of parent involvement in the lives of adolescents, the findings of this study reinforce the potential value of a parent-adolescent partnership in managing chronic disease.  (+info)

Teenage partners' communication about sexual risk and condom use: the importance of parent-teenager discussions. (4/2108)

CONTEXT: Teenagers' communication with their partners about sex and their use of condoms may be influenced by the discussions teenagers have with their parents about sex. However, little is known about the process of parent-teenager communication on this topic. Understanding both what parents discuss with their children and how they discuss it may lead to a greater understanding of teenagers' sexual behavior. METHODS: Interviews were conducted with 372 sexually active black and Hispanic youth aged 14-17 from Alabama, New York and Puerto Rico. Regression analyses were used to examine parent-teenager discussions about sexuality and about sexual risk, and parental communication skills as predictors of teenagers' discussions about sexual risk with a partner and teenagers' condom use. RESULTS: Parent-teenager discussions about sexuality and sexual risk were associated with an increased likelihood of teenager-partner discussions about sexual risk and of teenagers' condom use, but only if parents were open, skilled and comfortable in having those discussions. Teenagers' communication with their partner about sexual risk also was associated with greater condom use, but the relationship between parent-teenager communication and teenagers' condom use was independent of this association. CONCLUSIONS: The influence on teenagers of parent-teenager discussions about sexuality and sexual risk depends on both what parents say and how they say it. Programs that foster parent-teenager communication about sexuality and sexual risk must emphasize both of these aspects.  (+info)

Dependence, locus of control, parental bonding, and personality disorders: a study in alcoholics and controls. (5/2108)

Personality traits, socio-cultural factors, and dysfunctional family systems are considered to be important in the aetiology and clinical development of alcoholism. Particularly, conflict and issues involving psychological (emotional) dependence have long been associated with alcohol addiction. The present work, part of a more extensive study to validate a new rating scale to measure emotional dependence, the Dependence Self-rating Scale (DSRS), assesses dependence, orientation of locus of control, parental bonding perceptions, and personality disorders (PDs) in alcoholic and non-alcoholic samples. The alcoholics showed a prevalence of PDs of 31.3%. The most frequent is the Schizoid PD (40%) followed by the Dependent PD (20%). Subjects with antisocial PD were not included in our selection criteria. The alcoholics scored higher on the DSRS than the controls, but this difference was not statistically significant. By making a comparison between subjects with and without PDs, the DSRS scores were significantly higher in alcoholics with PDs. No significant differences between alcoholics and non-alcoholics in the parental perceptions and locus of control were seen. These findings are sufficiently coherent to encourage further studies on psychological emotional dependence in alcoholics using the DSRS.  (+info)

Intellectual outcome at 12 years of age in congenital hypothyroidism. (6/2108)

BACKGROUND: The intellectual outcome in children with congenital hypothyroidism detected by neonatal screening is generally good; however, subtle neurological dysfunctions, subnormal IQ, or both, have been reported. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the intellectual outcome in 12-year-old patients with congenital hypothyroidism, detected by neonatal screening, in an attempt to identify factors that may affect intellectual development. METHODS: The intelligence quotient (IQ) of 40 children with congenital hypothyroidism was evaluated at 12 years of age, using the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children -- Revised, and compared with the IQ of 40 healthy siblings (control group). RESULTS: The mean IQ score (88.4+/-13.1) was not significantly different from that of the control group (93.4+/-10.7). Thirteen patients showed subnormal IQ score (72.4+/-4.9) compared with their siblings (86.7+/-9.6; P<0.0001) and with the other patients (96.1+/-9.6; P<0.0001). The low IQ score was associated with lower serum concentrations of thyroxine at diagnosis, poor treatment compliance during follow-up and lower familial IQ. Interviews with parents of children with congenital hypothyroidism revealed that a refusal to acknowledge the disease was linked to poor attention to the child's emotional life and to poor treatment compliance in some cases (11%). CONCLUSION: Even though the mean IQ score in patients with congenital hypothyroidism falls within normal for the control population, low IQ scores may be present in patients with severe hypothyroidism, inadequate compliance to replacement therapy during follow-up and poor parental pedagogic attitude.  (+info)

Quality of early family relationships and individual differences in the timing of pubertal maturation in girls: a longitudinal test of an evolutionary model. (7/2108)

In an 8-year prospective study of 173 girls and their families, the authors tested predictions from J. Belsky, L. Steinberg, and P. Draper's (1991) evolutionary model of individual differences in pubertal timing. This model suggests that more negative-coercive (or less positive-harmonious) family relationships in early childhood provoke earlier reproductive development in adolescence. Consistent with the model, fathers' presence in the home, more time spent by fathers in child care, greater supportiveness in the parental dyad, more father-daughter affection, and more mother-daughter affection, as assessed prior to kindergarten, each predicted later pubertal timing by daughters in 7th grade. The positive dimension of family relationships, rather than the negative dimension, accounted for these relations. In total, the quality of fathers' investment in the family emerged as the most important feature of the proximal family environment relative to daughters' pubertal timing.  (+info)

Slapping and spanking in childhood and its association with lifetime prevalence of psychiatric disorders in a general population sample. (8/2108)

BACKGROUND: Little information is available in Canada about the prevalence of and outcomes associated with a history of slapping and spanking in childhood. The objectives of this study were to estimate the prevalence of a history of slapping or spanking in a general population sample and to assess the relation between such a history and the lifetime prevalence of psychiatric disorders. METHODS: In this general population survey, a probability sample of 9953 residents of Ontario aged 15 years and older who participated in the Ontario Health Supplement was used to examine the prevalence of a history of slapping and spanking. A subgroup of this sample (n = 4888), which comprised people aged 15 to 64 years who did not report a history of physical or sexual abuse during childhood, was used to assess the relation between a history of slapping or spanking and the lifetime prevalence of 4 categories of psychiatric disorder. The measures included a self-administered questionnaire with a question about frequency of slapping and spanking during childhood, as well as an interviewer-administered questionnaire to measure psychiatric disorder. RESULTS: The majority of respondents indicated that they had been slapped or spanked, or both, by an adult during childhood "sometimes" (33.4%) or "rarely" (40.9%); 5.5% reported that this occurred "often." The remainder (20.2%) reported "never" experiencing these behaviours. Among the respondents without a history of physical or sexual abuse during childhood, those who reported being slapped or spanked "often" or "sometimes" had significantly higher lifetime rates of anxiety disorders (adjusted odds ratio [OR] 1.43, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.04-1.96), alcohol abuse or dependence (adjusted OR 2.02, 95% CI 1.27-3.21) and one or more externalizing problems (adjusted OR 2.08, 95% CI 1.36-3.16), compared with those who reported "never" being slapped or spanked. There was also an association between a history of slapping or spanking and major depression, but it was not statistically significant (adjusted OR 1.64, 95% CI 0.96-2.80). INTERPRETATION: There appears to be a linear association between the frequency of slapping and spanking during childhood and a lifetime prevalence of anxiety disorder, alcohol abuse or dependence and externalizing problems.  (+info)

1. Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD): A neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by symptoms of inattention, hyperactivity, and impulsivity.
2. Oppositional Defiant Disorder (ODD): A disorder marked by a pattern of negative, hostile, and defiant behavior toward authority figures.
3. Conduct Disorder (CD): A disorder characterized by a repetitive and persistent pattern of behavior in which the child violates the rights of others or major age-appropriate societal norms and rules.
4. Anxiety Disorders: A group of disorders that cause excessive fear, worry, or anxiety that interferes with daily life.
5. Mood Disorders: A group of disorders that affect a child's mood, causing them to feel sad, hopeless, or angry for extended periods of time.
6. Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD): A neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by difficulties with social interaction, verbal and nonverbal communication, and repetitive behaviors.
7. Tourette Syndrome: A neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by multiple motor tics and at least one vocal tic, often involving involuntary sounds or words.
8. Selective Mutism: A disorder characterized by a persistent and excessive fear of speaking in certain situations, such as school or social events.
9. Separation Anxiety Disorder: A disorder characterized by excessive and persistent anxiety related to separation from home or loved ones.
10. Disruptive Behavior Disorders: A group of disorders that include ODD, CD, and conduct disorder, which are characterized by a pattern of behavior that violates the rights of others or major age-appropriate societal norms and rules.

These disorders can be challenging to diagnose and treat, but early identification and intervention can make a significant difference in a child's outcome. It is important for parents and caregivers to seek professional help if they notice any signs of these disorders in their child.

Child nutrition disorders refer to a range of conditions that affect the health and development of children, primarily caused by poor nutrition or dietary imbalances. These disorders can have short-term and long-term consequences on a child's physical and mental health, academic performance, and overall quality of life.

Types of Child Nutrition Disorders:

1. Malnutrition: A condition where the body does not receive enough nutrients to maintain proper growth and development. It can be caused by inadequate dietary intake, digestive problems, or other underlying medical conditions.
2. Obesity: Excess body fat that can impair health and increase the risk of various diseases, such as diabetes, cardiovascular disease, and joint problems.
3. Iron Deficiency Anemia: A condition where the body does not have enough red blood cells due to a lack of iron, which is essential for producing hemoglobin.
4. Vitamin D Deficiency: A condition where the body does not have enough vitamin D, which is necessary for bone health and immune system function.
5. Food Allergies: An immune response to specific foods that can cause a range of symptoms, from mild discomfort to life-threatening reactions. Common food allergens include peanuts, tree nuts, fish, shellfish, milk, eggs, wheat, and soy.
6. Coeliac Disease: An autoimmune disorder that causes the immune system to react to gluten, a protein found in wheat, barley, and rye, leading to damage of the small intestine and nutrient deficiencies.
7. Gastroesophageal Reflux Disease (GERD): A condition where stomach acid flows back into the esophagus, causing heartburn, chest pain, and difficulty swallowing.
8. Eosinophilic Gastrointestinal Disorders: A group of conditions characterized by inflammation and eosinophils (a type of white blood cell) in the gastrointestinal tract, which can cause symptoms such as abdominal pain, diarrhea, and difficulty swallowing.
9. Irritable Bowel Syndrome (IBS): A common condition characterized by recurring abdominal pain, bloating, and changes in bowel habits such as constipation or diarrhea.
10. Inflammatory Bowel Disease (IBD): A group of chronic conditions that cause inflammation in the digestive tract, including Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis.
11. Functional Gastrointestinal Disorders: Conditions characterized by symptoms such as abdominal pain, bloating, and changes in bowel habits, but no visible signs of inflammation or structural abnormalities. Examples include functional dyspepsia and irritable bowel syndrome (IBS).
12. Gastrointestinal Motility Disorders: Conditions that affect the movement of food through the digestive system, such as gastroparesis (slowed stomach emptying) and hypermobile gut syndrome (excessively loose joints).
13. Neurogastroenterology: The study of the interaction between the nervous system and the gastrointestinal system, including conditions such as functional dyspepsia and gastroparesis.
14. Pediatric Gastrointestinal Disorders: Conditions that affect children, such as pediatric inflammatory bowel disease (PIBD), gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD), and feeding disorders.
15. Geriatric Gastrointestinal Disorders: Conditions that affect older adults, such as Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease, and dementia, which can impact digestion and nutrition.

These are just a few examples of the many different types of gastrointestinal disorders that exist. Each condition has its unique set of symptoms and characteristics, and may require different treatment approaches.

Asthma can cause recurring episodes of wheezing, coughing, chest tightness, and shortness of breath. These symptoms occur when the muscles surrounding the airways contract, causing the airways to narrow and swell. This can be triggered by exposure to environmental allergens or irritants such as pollen, dust mites, pet dander, or respiratory infections.

There is no cure for asthma, but it can be managed with medication and lifestyle changes. Treatment typically includes inhaled corticosteroids to reduce inflammation, bronchodilators to open up the airways, and rescue medications to relieve symptoms during an asthma attack.

Asthma is a common condition that affects people of all ages, but it is most commonly diagnosed in children. According to the American Lung Association, more than 25 million Americans have asthma, and it is the third leading cause of hospitalization for children under the age of 18.

While there is no cure for asthma, early diagnosis and proper treatment can help manage symptoms and improve quality of life for those affected by the condition.

1. Autism spectrum disorder: Children with autism spectrum disorder struggle with social interaction, communication and repetitive behaviors. They may also have delays or impairments in language development, cognitive and social skills.

2. Rett syndrome: A rare genetic condition that affects girls almost exclusively. Children with Rett syndrome typically develop normally for the first six months of life before losing skills and experiencing difficulties with communication, movement and other areas of functioning.

3. Childhood disintegrative disorder: This is a rare condition in which children develop normally for at least two years before suddenly losing their language and social skills. Children with this disorder may also experience difficulty with eye contact, imitation and imagination.

4. Pervasive developmental disorder-not otherwise specified (PDD-NOS): A diagnosis that is given to children who display some but not all of the characteristic symptoms of autism spectrum disorder. Children with PDD-NOS may have difficulties in social interaction, communication and repetitive behaviors.

5. Other specified and unspecified pervasive developmental disorders: This category includes a range of rare conditions that affect children's development and functioning. Examples include;
a) Fragile X syndrome: A genetic condition associated with intellectual disability, behavioral challenges and physical characteristics such as large ears and a long face.
b) Williams syndrome: A rare genetic condition that affects about one in 10,000 children. It is characterized by heart problems, developmental delays and difficulties with social interaction and communication.

These disorders can have a significant impact on the child's family and caregivers, requiring early intervention and ongoing support to help the child reach their full potential.

Pervasive child development disorder is a broad term used to describe a range of conditions that affect children's social communication and behavioral development. There are five main types of pervasive developmental disorders:
1. Autism spectrum disorder (ASD): A developmental disorder characterized by difficulties in social interaction, verbal and nonverbal communication and repetitive behaviors. Children with ASD may have a hard time understanding other people's perspectives, initiating or maintaining conversations and developing and maintaining relationships. They may also exhibit repetitive behaviors such as hand flapping, rocking or repeating words or phrases.

2. Rett syndrome: A rare genetic disorder that affects girls almost exclusively. It is characterized by difficulties in social interaction, communication and repetitive behaviors, as well as physical symptoms such as seizures, tremors and muscle weakness. Children with Rett syndrome may also experience anxiety, depression and sleep disturbances.

3. Childhood disintegrative disorder: A rare condition in which children develop typically for the first few years of life, but then lose their language and social skills and exhibit autistic-like behaviors.

4. Pervasive developmental disorder-not otherwise specified (PDD-NOS): A diagnosis given to children who exhibit some, but not all, of the symptoms of ASD. Children with PDD-NOS may have difficulty with social interaction and communication, but do not meet the criteria for a full diagnosis of ASD.

5. Asperger's disorder: A milder form of autism that is characterized by difficulties with social interaction and communication, but not with language development. Children with Asperger's disorder may have trouble understanding other people's perspectives, developing and maintaining relationships and exhibiting repetitive behaviors.

it's important to note that these categories are not exhaustive and there is some overlap between them. Additionally, each individual with a pervasive developmental disorder may experience a unique set of symptoms and challenges.

1. Predominantly Inattentive Type: This type is characterized by symptoms of inattention, such as difficulty paying attention to details or making careless mistakes. Individuals with this type may have trouble sustaining their focus during tasks and may appear daydreamy or easily distracted.
2. Predominantly Hyperactive-Impulsive Type: This type is characterized by symptoms of hyperactivity, such as fidgeting, restlessness, and an inability to sit still. Individuals with this type may also exhibit impulsivity, such as interrupting others or speaking out of turn.
3. Combined Type: This type is characterized by both symptoms of inattention and hyperactivity-impulsivity.

The symptoms of ADHD can vary from person to person and may change over time. Some common symptoms include:

* Difficulty sustaining attention during tasks
* Easily distracted or interrupted
* Difficulty completing tasks
* Forgetfulness
* Fidgeting or restlessness
* Difficulty sitting still or remaining quiet
* Interrupting others or speaking out of turn
* Impulsivity, such as acting without thinking

The exact cause of ADHD is not fully understood, but research suggests that it may be related to differences in brain structure and function, as well as genetic factors. There is no cure for ADHD, but medication and behavioral therapy can help manage symptoms and improve functioning.

ADHD can have significant impacts on daily life, including academic and social difficulties. However, with proper treatment and support, many individuals with ADHD are able to lead successful and fulfilling lives.

There are several different types of obesity, including:

1. Central obesity: This type of obesity is characterized by excess fat around the waistline, which can increase the risk of health problems such as type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease.
2. Peripheral obesity: This type of obesity is characterized by excess fat in the hips, thighs, and arms.
3. Visceral obesity: This type of obesity is characterized by excess fat around the internal organs in the abdominal cavity.
4. Mixed obesity: This type of obesity is characterized by both central and peripheral obesity.

Obesity can be caused by a variety of factors, including genetics, lack of physical activity, poor diet, sleep deprivation, and certain medications. Treatment for obesity typically involves a combination of lifestyle changes, such as increased physical activity and a healthy diet, and in some cases, medication or surgery may be necessary to achieve weight loss.

Preventing obesity is important for overall health and well-being, and can be achieved through a variety of strategies, including:

1. Eating a healthy, balanced diet that is low in added sugars, saturated fats, and refined carbohydrates.
2. Engaging in regular physical activity, such as walking, jogging, or swimming.
3. Getting enough sleep each night.
4. Managing stress levels through relaxation techniques, such as meditation or deep breathing.
5. Avoiding excessive alcohol consumption and quitting smoking.
6. Monitoring weight and body mass index (BMI) on a regular basis to identify any changes or potential health risks.
7. Seeking professional help from a healthcare provider or registered dietitian for personalized guidance on weight management and healthy lifestyle choices.

The Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 5th Edition (DSM-5) defines Autistic Disorder as a pervasive developmental disorder that meets the following criteria:

A. Persistent deficits in social communication and social interaction across multiple contexts, including:

1. Deficits in social-emotional reciprocity (e.g., abnormal or absent eye contact, impaired understanding of facial expressions, delayed or lack of response to social overtures).
2. Deficits in developing, maintaining, and understanding relationships (e.g., difficulty initiating or sustaining conversations, impairment in understanding social norms, rules, and expectations).
3. Deficits in using nonverbal behaviors to regulate social interaction (e.g., difficulty with eye contact, facial expressions, body language, gestures).

B. Restricted, repetitive patterns of behavior, interests, or activities, as manifested by at least one of the following:

1. Stereotyped or repetitive motor movements, use of objects, or speech (e.g., hand flapping, head banging, repeating words or phrases).
2. Insistence on sameness, inflexibility, and adherence to routines or rituals.
3. Preoccupation with specific interests or activities that are repeated in a rigid and restricted manner (e.g., preoccupation with a particular topic, excessive focus on a specific activity).

C. Symptoms must be present in the early developmental period and significantly impact social, occupational, or other areas of functioning.

D. The symptoms do not occur exclusively during a medical or neurological condition (e.g., intellectual disability, hearing loss).

It is important to note that Autistic Disorder is a spectrum disorder and individuals with this diagnosis may have varying degrees of severity in their symptoms. Additionally, there are several other Pervasive Developmental Disorders (PDDs) that have similar diagnostic criteria but may differ in severity and presentation. These include:

A. Asperger's Disorder: Characterized by difficulties with social interaction and communication, but without the presence of significant delay or retardation in language development.

B. Rett Syndrome: A rare genetic disorder that is characterized by difficulties with social interaction, communication, and repetitive behaviors.

C. Childhood Disintegrative Disorder: Characterized by a loss of language and social skills that occurs after a period of normal development.

It is important to consult with a qualified professional, such as a psychologist or psychiatrist, for an accurate diagnosis and appropriate treatment.

Some common types of growth disorders include:

1. Growth hormone deficiency (GHD): A condition in which the body does not produce enough growth hormone, leading to short stature and slow growth.
2. Turner syndrome: A genetic disorder that affects females, causing short stature, incomplete sexual development, and other health problems.
3. Prader-Willi syndrome: A rare genetic disorder that causes excessive hunger, obesity, and other physical and behavioral abnormalities.
4. Chronic kidney disease (CKD): A condition in which the kidneys gradually lose function over time, leading to growth retardation and other health problems.
5. Thalassemia: A genetic disorder that affects the production of hemoglobin, leading to anemia, fatigue, and other health problems.
6. Hypothyroidism: A condition in which the thyroid gland does not produce enough thyroid hormones, leading to slow growth and other health problems.
7. Cushing's syndrome: A rare hormonal disorder that can cause rapid growth and obesity.
8. Marfan syndrome: A genetic disorder that affects the body's connective tissue, causing tall stature, long limbs, and other physical abnormalities.
9. Noonan syndrome: A genetic disorder that affects the development of the heart, lungs, and other organs, leading to short stature and other health problems.
10. Williams syndrome: A rare genetic disorder that causes growth delays, cardiovascular problems, and other health issues.

Growth disorders can be diagnosed through a combination of physical examination, medical history, and laboratory tests such as hormone level assessments or genetic testing. Treatment depends on the specific condition and may include medication, hormone therapy, surgery, or other interventions. Early diagnosis and treatment can help manage symptoms and improve quality of life for individuals with growth disorders.

Body weight is an important health indicator, as it can affect an individual's risk for certain medical conditions, such as obesity, diabetes, and cardiovascular disease. Maintaining a healthy body weight is essential for overall health and well-being, and there are many ways to do so, including a balanced diet, regular exercise, and other lifestyle changes.

There are several ways to measure body weight, including:

1. Scale: This is the most common method of measuring body weight, and it involves standing on a scale that displays the individual's weight in kg or lb.
2. Body fat calipers: These are used to measure body fat percentage by pinching the skin at specific points on the body.
3. Skinfold measurements: This method involves measuring the thickness of the skin folds at specific points on the body to estimate body fat percentage.
4. Bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA): This is a non-invasive method that uses electrical impulses to measure body fat percentage.
5. Dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA): This is a more accurate method of measuring body composition, including bone density and body fat percentage.

It's important to note that body weight can fluctuate throughout the day due to factors such as water retention, so it's best to measure body weight at the same time each day for the most accurate results. Additionally, it's important to use a reliable scale or measuring tool to ensure accurate measurements.

There are several types of LDDs, including:

1. Expressive Language Disorder: This condition is characterized by difficulty with verbal expression, including difficulty with word choice, sentence structure, and coherence.
2. Receptive Language Disorder: This condition is characterized by difficulty with understanding spoken language, including difficulty with comprehending vocabulary, grammar, and tone of voice.
3. Mixed Receptive-Expressive Language Disorder: This condition is characterized by both receptive and expressive language difficulties.
4. Language Processing Disorder: This condition is characterized by difficulty with processing language, including difficulty with auditory processing, syntax, and semantics.
5. Social Communication Disorder: This condition is characterized by difficulty with social communication, including difficulty with understanding and using language in social contexts, eye contact, facial expressions, and body language.

Causes of LDDs include:

1. Genetic factors: Some LDDs may be inherited from parents or grandparents.
2. Brain injury: Traumatic brain injury or stroke can damage the areas of the brain responsible for language processing.
3. Infections: Certain infections, such as meningitis or encephalitis, can damage the brain and result in LDDs.
4. Nutritional deficiencies: Severe malnutrition or a lack of certain nutrients, such as vitamin B12, can lead to LDDs.
5. Environmental factors: Exposure to toxins, such as lead, and poverty can increase the risk of developing an LDD.

Signs and symptoms of LDDs include:

1. Difficulty with word retrieval
2. Incomplete or inappropriate sentences
3. Difficulty with comprehension
4. Limited vocabulary
5. Difficulty with understanding abstract concepts
6. Difficulty with social communication
7. Delayed language development compared to peers
8. Difficulty with speech sounds and articulation
9. Stuttering or repetition of words
10. Limited eye contact and facial expressions

Treatment for LDDs depends on the underlying cause and may include:

1. Speech and language therapy to improve communication skills
2. Cognitive training to improve problem-solving and memory skills
3. Occupational therapy to improve daily living skills
4. Physical therapy to improve mobility and balance
5. Medication to manage symptoms such as anxiety or depression
6. Surgery to repair any physical abnormalities or damage to the brain.

It is important to note that each individual with an LDD may have a unique combination of strengths, weaknesses, and challenges, and treatment plans should be tailored to meet their specific needs. Early diagnosis and intervention are key to improving outcomes for individuals with LDDs.

Clinical Significance:
Respiratory sounds can help healthcare providers diagnose and manage respiratory conditions, such as asthma, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), and pneumonia. By listening to the sounds of a patient's breathing, healthcare providers can identify abnormalities in lung function, airway obstruction, or inflammation.

Types of Respiratory Sounds:

1. Vesicular Sounds:
a. Inspiratory wheeze: A high-pitched whistling sound heard during inspiration, usually indicative of bronchial asthma or COPD.
b. Expiratory wheeze: A low-pitched whistling sound heard during expiration, typically seen in patients with chronic bronchitis or emphysema.
c. Decreased vocal fremitus: A decrease in the normal vibratory sounds heard over the lung fields during breathing, which can indicate fluid or consolidation in the lungs.
2. Adventitious Sounds:
a. Crackles (rales): High-pitched, bubbly sounds heard during inspiration and expiration, indicating fluid or air in the alveoli.
b. Rhonchi: Low-pitched, harsh sounds heard during inspiration and expiration, often indicative of bronchitis, pneumonia, or COPD.
c. Stridors: High-pitched, squeaky sounds heard during breathing, commonly seen in patients with inflammatory conditions such as pneumonia or tuberculosis.

It's important to note that the interpretation of lung sounds requires a thorough understanding of respiratory physiology and pathophysiology, as well as clinical experience and expertise. A healthcare professional, such as a nurse or respiratory therapist, should always be consulted for an accurate diagnosis and treatment plan.

Being overweight can increase the risk of various health problems, such as heart disease, type 2 diabetes, high blood pressure, and certain types of cancer. It can also affect a person's mental health and overall quality of life.

There are several ways to assess whether someone is overweight or not. One common method is using the BMI, which is calculated based on height and weight. Another method is measuring body fat percentage, which can be done with specialized tools such as skinfold calipers or bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA).

Losing weight and maintaining a healthy weight can be achieved through a combination of diet, exercise, and lifestyle changes. Some examples of healthy weight loss strategies include:

* Eating a balanced diet that is high in fruits, vegetables, whole grains, and lean protein sources
* Engaging in regular physical activity, such as walking, running, swimming, or weight training
* Avoiding fad diets and quick fixes
* Getting enough sleep and managing stress levels
* Setting realistic weight loss goals and tracking progress over time.

There are several types of diarrhea, including:

1. Acute diarrhea: This type of diarrhea is short-term and usually resolves on its own within a few days. It can be caused by a viral or bacterial infection, food poisoning, or medication side effects.
2. Chronic diarrhea: This type of diarrhea persists for more than 4 weeks and can be caused by a variety of conditions, such as irritable bowel syndrome (IBS), inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), or celiac disease.
3. Diarrhea-predominant IBS: This type of diarrhea is characterized by frequent, loose stools and abdominal pain or discomfort. It can be caused by a variety of factors, including stress, hormonal changes, and certain foods.
4. Infectious diarrhea: This type of diarrhea is caused by a bacterial, viral, or parasitic infection and can be spread through contaminated food and water, close contact with an infected person, or by consuming contaminated food.

Symptoms of diarrhea may include:

* Frequent, loose, and watery stools
* Abdominal cramps and pain
* Bloating and gas
* Nausea and vomiting
* Fever and chills
* Headache
* Fatigue and weakness

Diagnosis of diarrhea is typically made through a physical examination, medical history, and laboratory tests to rule out other potential causes of the symptoms. Treatment for diarrhea depends on the underlying cause and may include antibiotics, anti-diarrheal medications, fluid replacement, and dietary changes. In severe cases, hospitalization may be necessary to monitor and treat any complications.

Prevention of diarrhea includes:

* Practicing good hygiene, such as washing hands frequently and thoroughly, especially after using the bathroom or before preparing food
* Avoiding close contact with people who are sick
* Properly storing and cooking food to prevent contamination
* Drinking safe water and avoiding contaminated water sources
* Avoiding raw or undercooked meat, poultry, and seafood
* Getting vaccinated against infections that can cause diarrhea

Complications of diarrhea can include:

* Dehydration: Diarrhea can lead to a loss of fluids and electrolytes, which can cause dehydration. Severe dehydration can be life-threatening and requires immediate medical attention.
* Electrolyte imbalance: Diarrhea can also cause an imbalance of electrolytes in the body, which can lead to serious complications.
* Inflammation of the intestines: Prolonged diarrhea can cause inflammation of the intestines, which can lead to abdominal pain and other complications.
* Infections: Diarrhea can be a symptom of an infection, such as a bacterial or viral infection. If left untreated, these infections can lead to serious complications.
* Malnutrition: Prolonged diarrhea can lead to malnutrition and weight loss, which can have long-term effects on health and development.

Treatment of diarrhea will depend on the underlying cause, but may include:

* Fluid replacement: Drinking plenty of fluids to prevent dehydration and replace lost electrolytes.
* Anti-diarrheal medications: Over-the-counter or prescription medications to slow down bowel movements and reduce diarrhea.
* Antibiotics: If the diarrhea is caused by a bacterial infection, antibiotics may be prescribed to treat the infection.
* Rest: Getting plenty of rest to allow the body to recover from the illness.
* Dietary changes: Avoiding certain foods or making dietary changes to help manage symptoms and prevent future episodes of diarrhea.

It is important to seek medical attention if you experience any of the following:

* Severe diarrhea that lasts for more than 3 days
* Diarrhea that is accompanied by fever, blood in the stool, or abdominal pain
* Diarrhea that is severe enough to cause dehydration or electrolyte imbalances
* Diarrhea that is not responding to treatment

Prevention of diarrhea includes:

* Good hand hygiene: Washing your hands frequently, especially after using the bathroom or before preparing food.
* Safe food handling: Cooking and storing food properly to prevent contamination.
* Avoiding close contact with people who are sick.
* Getting vaccinated against infections that can cause diarrhea, such as rotavirus.

Overall, while diarrhea can be uncomfortable and disruptive, it is usually a minor illness that can be treated at home with over-the-counter medications and plenty of fluids. However, if you experience severe or persistent diarrhea, it is important to seek medical attention to rule out any underlying conditions that may require more formal treatment.

Acute wounds and injuries are those that occur suddenly and heal within a relatively short period of time, usually within a few days or weeks. Examples of acute wounds include cuts, scrapes, and burns. Chronic wounds and injuries, on the other hand, are those that persist over a longer period of time and may not heal properly, leading to long-term complications. Examples of chronic wounds include diabetic foot ulcers, pressure ulcers, and chronic back pain.

Wounds and injuries can be caused by a variety of factors, including accidents, sports injuries, violence, and medical conditions such as diabetes or circulatory problems. Treatment for wounds and injuries depends on the severity of the injury and may include cleaning and dressing the wound, applying antibiotics, immobilizing broken bones, and providing pain management. In some cases, surgery may be necessary to repair damaged tissues or restore function.

Preventive measures for wounds and injuries include wearing appropriate protective gear during activities such as sports or work, following safety protocols to avoid accidents, maintaining proper hygiene and nutrition to prevent infection, and seeking medical attention promptly if an injury occurs.

Overall, wounds and injuries can have a significant impact on an individual's quality of life, and it is important to seek medical attention promptly if symptoms persist or worsen over time. Proper treatment and management of wounds and injuries can help to promote healing, reduce the risk of complications, and improve long-term outcomes.

Symptoms may include sensitivity, discomfort, visible holes or stains on teeth, bad breath, and difficulty chewing or biting. If left untreated, dental caries can progress and lead to more serious complications such as abscesses, infections, and even tooth loss.

To prevent dental caries, it is essential to maintain good oral hygiene habits, including brushing your teeth at least twice a day with fluoride toothpaste, flossing daily, and using mouthwash regularly. Limiting sugary foods and drinks and visiting a dentist for regular check-ups can also help prevent the disease.

Dental caries is treatable through various methods such as fillings, crowns, root canals, extractions, and preventive measures like fissure sealants and fluoride applications. Early detection and prompt treatment are crucial to prevent further damage and restore oral health.

There are several types of learning disorders, including:

1. Dyslexia: A learning disorder that affects an individual's ability to read and spell words. Individuals with dyslexia may have difficulty recognizing letters, sounds, or word patterns.
2. Dyscalculia: A learning disorder that affects an individual's ability to understand and perform mathematical calculations. Individuals with dyscalculia may have difficulty with numbers, quantities, or mathematical concepts.
3. Dysgraphia: A learning disorder that affects an individual's ability to write and spell words. Individuals with dysgraphia may have difficulty with hand-eye coordination, fine motor skills, or language processing.
4. Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD): A neurodevelopmental disorder that affects an individual's ability to focus, pay attention, and regulate their behavior. Individuals with ADHD may have difficulty with organization, time management, or following instructions.
5. Auditory Processing Disorder: A learning disorder that affects an individual's ability to process and understand auditory information. Individuals with auditory processing disorder may have difficulty with listening, comprehension, or speech skills.
6. Visual Processing Disorder: A learning disorder that affects an individual's ability to process and understand visual information. Individuals with visual processing disorder may have difficulty with reading, writing, or other tasks that require visual processing.
7. Executive Function Deficits: A learning disorder that affects an individual's ability to plan, organize, and execute tasks. Individuals with executive function deficits may have difficulty with time management, organization, or self-regulation.

Learning disorders can be diagnosed by a trained professional, such as a psychologist, neuropsychologist, or learning specialist, through a comprehensive assessment that includes cognitive and academic testing, as well as a review of the individual's medical and educational history. The specific tests and assessments used will depend on the suspected type of learning disorder and the individual's age and background.

There are several approaches to treating learning disorders, including:

1. Accommodations: Providing individuals with accommodations, such as extra time to complete assignments or the option to take a test orally, can help level the playing field and enable them to succeed academically.
2. Modifications: Making modifications to the curriculum or instructional methods can help individuals with learning disorders access the material and learn in a way that is tailored to their needs.
3. Therapy: Cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) and other forms of therapy can help individuals with learning disorders develop strategies for managing their challenges and improving their academic performance.
4. Assistive technology: Assistive technology, such as text-to-speech software or speech-to-text software, can help individuals with learning disorders access information and communicate more effectively.
5. Medication: In some cases, medication may be prescribed to help manage symptoms associated with learning disorders, such as attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD).
6. Multi-sensory instruction: Using multiple senses (such as sight, sound, and touch) to learn new information can be helpful for individuals with learning disorders.
7. Self-accommodations: Teaching individuals with learning disorders how to identify and use their own strengths and preferences to accommodate their challenges can be effective in helping them succeed academically.
8. Parental involvement: Encouraging parents to be involved in their child's education and providing them with information and resources can help them support their child's learning and development.
9. Collaboration: Collaborating with other educators, professionals, and family members to develop a comprehensive treatment plan can help ensure that the individual receives the support they need to succeed academically.

It is important to note that each individual with a learning disorder is unique and may respond differently to different treatments. A comprehensive assessment and ongoing monitoring by a qualified professional is necessary to determine the most effective treatment plan for each individual.

Prenatal Exposure Delayed Effects can affect various aspects of the child's development, including:

1. Physical growth and development: PDEDs can lead to changes in the child's physical growth patterns, such as reduced birth weight, short stature, or delayed puberty.
2. Brain development: Prenatal exposure to certain substances can affect brain development, leading to learning disabilities, memory problems, and cognitive delays.
3. Behavioral and emotional development: Children exposed to PDEDs may exhibit behavioral and emotional difficulties, such as anxiety, depression, or attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD).
4. Immune system functioning: Prenatal exposure to certain substances can affect the immune system's development, making children more susceptible to infections and autoimmune diseases.
5. Reproductive health: Exposure to certain chemicals during fetal development may disrupt the reproductive system, leading to fertility problems or an increased risk of infertility later in life.

The diagnosis of Prenatal Exposure Delayed Effects often requires a comprehensive medical history and physical examination, as well as specialized tests such as imaging studies or laboratory assessments. Treatment for PDEDs typically involves addressing the underlying cause of exposure and providing appropriate interventions to manage any associated symptoms or developmental delays.

In summary, Prenatal Exposure Delayed Effects can have a profound impact on a child's growth, development, and overall health later in life. It is essential for healthcare providers to be aware of the potential risks and to monitor children exposed to substances during fetal development for any signs of PDEDs. With early diagnosis and appropriate interventions, it may be possible to mitigate or prevent some of these effects and improve outcomes for affected children.

There are various causes of intellectual disability, including:

1. Genetic disorders, such as Down syndrome, Fragile X syndrome, and Turner syndrome.
2. Congenital conditions, such as microcephaly and hydrocephalus.
3. Brain injuries, such as traumatic brain injury or hypoxic-ischemic injury.
4. Infections, such as meningitis or encephalitis.
5. Nutritional deficiencies, such as iron deficiency or iodine deficiency.

Intellectual disability can result in a range of cognitive and functional impairments, including:

1. Delayed language development and difficulty with communication.
2. Difficulty with social interactions and adapting to new situations.
3. Limited problem-solving skills and difficulty with abstract thinking.
4. Slow learning and memory difficulties.
5. Difficulty with fine motor skills and coordination.

There is no cure for intellectual disability, but early identification and intervention can significantly improve outcomes. Treatment options may include:

1. Special education programs tailored to the individual's needs.
2. Behavioral therapies, such as applied behavior analysis (ABA) and positive behavior support (PBS).
3. Speech and language therapy.
4. Occupational therapy to improve daily living skills.
5. Medications to manage associated behaviors or symptoms.

It is essential to recognize that intellectual disability is a lifelong condition, but with appropriate support and resources, individuals with ID can lead fulfilling lives and reach their full potential.

The burden of chronic diseases is significant, with over 70% of deaths worldwide attributed to them, according to the World Health Organization (WHO). In addition to the physical and emotional toll they take on individuals and their families, chronic diseases also pose a significant economic burden, accounting for a large proportion of healthcare expenditure.

In this article, we will explore the definition and impact of chronic diseases, as well as strategies for managing and living with them. We will also discuss the importance of early detection and prevention, as well as the role of healthcare providers in addressing the needs of individuals with chronic diseases.

What is a Chronic Disease?

A chronic disease is a condition that lasts for an extended period of time, often affecting daily life and activities. Unlike acute diseases, which have a specific beginning and end, chronic diseases are long-term and persistent. Examples of chronic diseases include:

1. Diabetes
2. Heart disease
3. Arthritis
4. Asthma
5. Cancer
6. Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD)
7. Chronic kidney disease (CKD)
8. Hypertension
9. Osteoporosis
10. Stroke

Impact of Chronic Diseases

The burden of chronic diseases is significant, with over 70% of deaths worldwide attributed to them, according to the WHO. In addition to the physical and emotional toll they take on individuals and their families, chronic diseases also pose a significant economic burden, accounting for a large proportion of healthcare expenditure.

Chronic diseases can also have a significant impact on an individual's quality of life, limiting their ability to participate in activities they enjoy and affecting their relationships with family and friends. Moreover, the financial burden of chronic diseases can lead to poverty and reduce economic productivity, thus having a broader societal impact.

Addressing Chronic Diseases

Given the significant burden of chronic diseases, it is essential that we address them effectively. This requires a multi-faceted approach that includes:

1. Lifestyle modifications: Encouraging healthy behaviors such as regular physical activity, a balanced diet, and smoking cessation can help prevent and manage chronic diseases.
2. Early detection and diagnosis: Identifying risk factors and detecting diseases early can help prevent or delay their progression.
3. Medication management: Effective medication management is crucial for controlling symptoms and slowing disease progression.
4. Multi-disciplinary care: Collaboration between healthcare providers, patients, and families is essential for managing chronic diseases.
5. Health promotion and disease prevention: Educating individuals about the risks of chronic diseases and promoting healthy behaviors can help prevent their onset.
6. Addressing social determinants of health: Social determinants such as poverty, education, and employment can have a significant impact on health outcomes. Addressing these factors is essential for reducing health disparities and improving overall health.
7. Investing in healthcare infrastructure: Investing in healthcare infrastructure, technology, and research is necessary to improve disease detection, diagnosis, and treatment.
8. Encouraging policy change: Policy changes can help create supportive environments for healthy behaviors and reduce the burden of chronic diseases.
9. Increasing public awareness: Raising public awareness about the risks and consequences of chronic diseases can help individuals make informed decisions about their health.
10. Providing support for caregivers: Chronic diseases can have a significant impact on family members and caregivers, so providing them with support is essential for improving overall health outcomes.


Chronic diseases are a major public health burden that affect millions of people worldwide. Addressing these diseases requires a multi-faceted approach that includes lifestyle changes, addressing social determinants of health, investing in healthcare infrastructure, encouraging policy change, increasing public awareness, and providing support for caregivers. By taking a comprehensive approach to chronic disease prevention and management, we can improve the health and well-being of individuals and communities worldwide.

Examples of acute diseases include:

1. Common cold and flu
2. Pneumonia and bronchitis
3. Appendicitis and other abdominal emergencies
4. Heart attacks and strokes
5. Asthma attacks and allergic reactions
6. Skin infections and cellulitis
7. Urinary tract infections
8. Sinusitis and meningitis
9. Gastroenteritis and food poisoning
10. Sprains, strains, and fractures.

Acute diseases can be treated effectively with antibiotics, medications, or other therapies. However, if left untreated, they can lead to chronic conditions or complications that may require long-term care. Therefore, it is important to seek medical attention promptly if symptoms persist or worsen over time.

Physical custody refers to which parent the child lives with. Among divorced parents, "parallel parenting" refers to parenting ... Family Relations. 42 (3): 277-285. doi:10.2307/585557. JSTOR 585557. Risman, Barbara J.; Park, Kyung (November 1988). "Just The ... Single-parent families in New Zealand have fewer children than two-parent families; 56% of single-parent families have only one ... In 2000, 11% of children were living with parents who had never been married, 15.6% of children lived with a divorced parent, ...
"Gaining a Child: Comparing the Experiences of Biological Parents, Adoptive Parents, and Stepparents". Family Relations. ... A study found that although parents did rate their adoptive children higher in negative traits and behaviors like arrogance and ... Research into relative outcomes of parenting by biological and adoptive parents has produced a variety of results. When ... Hamilton, Laura (February 2007). "Adoptive Parents, Adaptive Parents: Evaluating the Importance of Biological Ties for Parental ...
Husband and wife 7181-7197......Parent and child. Guardian and ward 7200-7218.......Property 7222............Trust and trustees ... Sociological jurisprudence 400-474........Natural law 486-487.........Relation of law to other topics 520-5582......... ... Conflict of laws 491...............Civil law (General) 524-530...........Persons 531-619...........Domestic relations. Family ... Domestic relations. Family law 720-792........Property 795-798........Trusts and trustees 805-821........Succession upon death ...
In many cases, orphaned or abandoned children receive parental care from non-parent or non-blood relations. Others may be ... Parenting skills vary, and a parent or surrogate with good parenting skills may be referred to as a good parent. Parenting ... Parenting skills and behaviors assist parents in leading children into healthy adulthood and development of the child's social ... Parent psychosocial health can have a significant impact on the parent-child relationship. Group-based parent training and ...
Severing of the parent-child relation. This grew out of the hostility of families who had been rejected by members of the ... Hitler's Children is now spoken of as "lurid", while Women in Bondage is described as a low-budget exploitation film; the ... The story appeared on the front page of The Washington Post, and was presented to the Senate Foreign Relations Committee by ... In November 1991, a Serbian photographer claimed to have seen the corpses of 41 children, which had allegedly been killed by ...
1999) No substance, no kinship? Procreation, Performativity and Temanambondro parent/child relations. In Conceiving persons: ... given out of love for the child, evoke the child's love for its parents and other kin. Older siblings are very important here. ... Such intimate ties with siblings replace the earlier one with parents as the child grows. (Gow, 1991, 157) Thomas on the ... to its parents changes from one in which the parents take care that their physical connection to the body of the child does not ...
Kuczynski, Leon (December 31, 2003). Handbook of Dynamics in Parent-Child Relations. SAGE. ISBN 9780761923640 - via Google ... "SMU Study Shows Many Parents Still Spank Kids". June 30, 2011. "A Surprising Number of Americans Still Spank Their Kids". ... "Parents can change mind on spanking if told it harms a child". UPI. Pace, Eric (December 3, 1995). "Reuben Holden, 77, College ... "Parenting; a dynamic perspective. - Free Online Library". "Children's Bodies Keep Score: The Adverse ...
For example, if x is the parent of y, the relation may be symbolized as xPy. The converse relation, that y is the child of x, ... Here the relation of siblings is expressed as the composition PTP of the parent relation with its inverse. The relation of ... and her children); or extended family in which parents and children co-reside with other members of one parent's family. ... and whose family name the child uses, may not be the genitor or genitrix of the child, with whom a separate parent-child ...
Kuczynski, Leon (2003). Handbook of Dynamics in Parent-Child Relations. ISBN 9780761923640. "Holden biography". Minnesota State ...
... "needs to be carefully considered in relation to the individual child's experience and needs" for children past this age. They ... Parents should also clearly explain why the child is being put in time out, and what the child needs to do to return to the ... the length of time that the child should remain in time-out should correlate with the child's age - each of year of the child's ... Furthermore, they claim that the parent/child bond can be damaged by forced isolation and withdrawal of love in an effort to ...
Forgotten children : parent-child relations from 1500 to 1900. Cambridge University Press. ISBN 978-0-521-25009-2. OCLC ... This includes protecting children from exploitation such as child labor, child trafficking and child selling, child sexual ... Child actor Child slavery Childlessness Depression in childhood and adolescence One-child policy Outline of children Religion ... including child prostitution and child pornography, military use of children, and child laundering in illegal adoptions. There ...
Dixon, Clarissa (1892). "Relations Between Parents and Children", Liberty. "New York Times (1857-1922), Saturday Review of ... Clarissa was the second of five children born to Samuel and Bethshua. The family moved at some point, to let all the children ... The State uses money robbed from the parents to perpetuate its powers of robbery by instructing their children in its own ... Dixon's second child, Henry Dixon Cowell, was born in 1896, at which point she was forty-six years old. In 1914, Dixon began a ...
A parent or educator may need to employ several techniques before finding the most appropriate method for an individual child. ... Retrieved October 24, 2004 from [6] Weininger O., (1972). Ready or Not: Some Psychological Aspects of Readiness in Relation to ... Read to the child. Have the child "read" to you. Allow the child to create their own story based on the pictures they see ... Allow the child to experiment with words. Point to the words on the page as you read out loud to the child. This enables the ...
Pollock, Linda A. (1983). "5". Forgotten children: parent-child relations from 1500 to 1900. Cambridge University Press. ISBN ... authoritarian parents, indulgent parents, and indifferent parents. Authoritative parents are parents who use warmth, firm ... the parent's job is to teach the child which behaviors are inappropriate. In order to do this, parents should allow the child ... Children are perceived to know what they want but not necessarily what is best for them. Indulgent parents are parents who are ...
Rossi, A. & Rossi, P. (1990). Of Human Bonding: Parent Child Relations Across the Life Course. Chicago: Aldine. ISBN 0-202- ... Father-child bonds also tend to develop with respect to topics such as political views or money, whereas mother-child bonds ... or parents and children. This bond is characterised by emotions such as affection and trust. Any two people who spend time ... created some concern about whether adoptive parents have missed some crucial period for the child's development. However, ...
Exploration into possible contributions of parent-child relations". Journal of Youth and Adolescence. 11 (1): 25-31. doi: ... For example, if someone breaks the child's toy, the child would not forgive the other and the child would not be able to ... Piaget observed that children would talk to themselves during play, and this egocentric speech was merely the child's thoughts ... According to Piaget, "an egocentric child assumes that other people see, hear, and feel exactly the same as the child does."[ ...
PMID 4836843 Freund K, Langevin R, Zajac Y, Steiner B, Zajac A (1974). Parent-child relations in transsexual and non- ... In 1985 she edited Gender Dysphoria, and in 1990, she co-edited Clinical management of gender identity disorders in children ... Toronto Star Kirkwood Leone (January 27, 1973). Work described with children having 2 sexes. The Globe and Mail Haworth, Eric ( ... Blanchard R, Steiner BW (eds.) (1990). Clinical management of gender identity disorders in children and adults. American ...
These values are embedded deeply in Chinese culture, parent-child relations and parents' expectations for their children. For ... Tiger parenting is a form of strict parenting, whereby parents are highly invested in ensuring their children's success. ... Tiger parents may impose choices on their children as to which interests they choose to pursue. Critics of the tiger parenting ... Children of tiger parents who go by these high standards start to make choices that are preferred by tiger parents throughout ...
Her parents are Penny and John Haigh. She knew that she wanted to compete at Olympic Games as a child but had not chosen a ... Haigh has studied public relations at the University of Auckland, the University of Waikato, and Massey University. Haigh was ...
Both parents worked as health care assistants. In the summers, Ellis served as his father's assistant. Ellis attended B.H. ... Ellis, from the Sunnyside neighborhood in Houston, is one of three children of Elijha and Oliver Teresa Ellis. His father ... In previous sessions, Ellis chaired the Senate Finance, Jurisprudence, Government Organization, Intergovernmental Relations, ... Their family includes four children: Nicole, Maria, Leland, and Alena. In 1983, at age 29, Ellis was elected to the Houston ...
Prentice Hall, 1996, (author). Father-Child Relations: Cultural and Biocultural Contexts. Aldine, 1992 (editor). Intimate ... Transcultural Nursing, 2005, 16, 289-297 (co-author). Weaning and parent-offspring conflict in Fofi foragers and farmers. ...
"Hence, the many statements that Ethiopians engaged in relations... with their siblings or parents. In this view, families, a ... wrote that the heathen were never included in the sanction of possessing slaves as the children of Israel were permitted to do ... it bears no relation to Abarbanel's actual thoughts and ideas. The Synagogue Don Isaac Abravanel in Paris, France, was named in ... Towards a History of Black-Jewish Relations in the United States (PDF). New York/Oxford: Oxford University Press. pp. 21-51. ...
As the youngest child in a large family, he was much loved by his parents and siblings. His early years were spent with his two ... Relations between Paul's parents ceased. The family was struck by tragedy in 1865 with the death of Paul's eldest brother, ... In the autumn of 1916, Paul took a three-week holiday in Crimea with his wife and children. On his way back north, in November ... Between 1902 and 1914, he lived in exile in Paris with his second wife, who gave him three children. In the spring of 1914, he ...
... antisocial children: Adapting to a bilateral lens. In L. Kuczynski (Ed.) Handbook of dynamics in parent-child relations. (pp. ... Applied behavior analysis Attachment in children Behaviorism Behavioral cusp Child development Child development stages Child ... Imitating a parent, brother, peer, or a character on TV, a child may engage in the anti-social behavior of swearing. Upon ... For example, a child whose depressive behavior functions for negative reinforcement by stopping fighting between parents could ...
Parent-Child Relations: A Guide to Raising Children, Washington: IIIT, 2013. The Qur'anic Worldview: A Springboard for Cultural ... Ten years later, he was awarded the degree of Doctor of Philosophy in International Relations from the University of ... His doctoral thesis entitled "Towards an Islamic Theory of International Relations: New Directions for Islamic Methodology and ... Towards an Islamic Theory of International Relations, Washington: IIIT, 1993. "IIUM second rector Abdul Hamid dies at 85". ...
Her parents were both first-generation American Jews. Her mother's parents were from Romania, and her father's from Lithuania. ... His language abilities were equivalent to those of a 2-year-old child and he had the problem solving skills of a 5-year-old. ... Irene Maxine Pepperberg (born April 1, 1949) is a scientist noted for her studies in animal cognition, particularly in relation ... When some autistic children were taught using the same methods Pepperberg devised to teach parrots, their response exceeded ...
2007 children's books, 2007 fantasy novels, British fantasy novels, British children's novels, Children's fantasy novels, ... Hayley's parents disappeared when she was a baby. Since then, she has been raised and homeschooled by her grandparents. Grandad ... It explores a young girl's life and her relation to the "Mythosphere." This book pulls heavily from Greek and even some Russian ... Children and Young Adult Literature portal The Game is a children's fantasy novel written by Diana Wynne Jones. ...
Analysis and replication of mother-child relations at two years of age. Child Development, 50, 777-793. Clarke-Stewart, K. A. ( ... such as close ties between child and parent) which may protect children from suggestive questioning. She has also examined ... She is well known for her work on the effects of child care on children's development, and for her research on children's ... Child Development, 49, 466-478. Clarke-Stewart, K. A. (1978). Popular primers for parents. American Psychologist, 33, 359-369 ...
Her parents were Margaret (née Hippisley?) and Arthur J. C. Mitchell. She was their eldest child. In Omaha, her father was the ... Mitchell lived with relations in Drogheda before moving to Dublin. Mitchell attended Princess Helena College, Ealing, London ...
"Some Doubtful Points Incident to the Relation of Parent and Child". Commonwealth Law Review. 4: 57-68. 1906. "Some Modern ... In 1907, John A. married Bessie Robertson (1882-1937). They had four children, George Adie (1910-1998), Margaret Douglas (1912- ... In 1945, John A. married Dorothy Johnston (1916-1995). They had two children, Diana (1947-2022) and Alexander Stuart (1948-). ... precursor to today's Industrial Relations Commission of New South Wales. He was active with that body until 1951 and formally ...
He was particularly moved by the plight of the children living in the penal colony with their parents. For example: On the Amur ... "Olga's relations with Vladimir Nemirovich-Danchenko were more than professional." Harvey Pitcher in Chekhov's Leading Lady, ... At night the child slept with the convicts and soldiers all in a heap together. Chekhov later concluded that charity was not ... He was the third of six surviving children. His father, Pavel Yegorovich Chekhov, the son of a former serf and his wife, was ...
... is defined as activity in relation to the capacity for that work. It is a topic that affects developed and ... In addition, families suffering from poverty are more likely to have both parents work, compounding the amount of labor done by ... Care work includes, but is not limited to, caring for children, the elderly, partners, and oneself. Unpaid work, while it ... children are cared for), however the way in which women workers spend their time can lead to a deterioration in health due to ...
Community and support to equip parents to love their children and each other well through teaching, connection, and support. ... Infobox mapframe without OSM relation ID on Wikidata, Coordinates on Wikidata, Presbyterian churches in Virginia, Pages using ... These Ministries Include: HOPE Kids A fun and safe environment for kids to learn about God and faith. It includes engaging ... An expansion to the campus was completed in 2016 to include an updated and expanded HOPE Kids wing and the Lodge (used for Hope ...
The missionaries separated the children from their parents and placed them into separate dormitories for boys and girls, while ... An ethnological study in man-environment relations (PhD). University of Queensland. pp. 237-335. doi:10.14264/uql.2014.1. ... and by the late 1950s the practice of separating children from parents in dormitories had been abandoned, so many residents of ... It was ten years after the relocation, completed in 1948, before one of the removed Kaiadilt woman gave birth to a child who ...
Major tobacco lobbying companies include Altria Group (the parent company of Philip Morris USA), Philip Morris International, ... Youths; Institute of Medicine (US) Committee on Preventing Nicotine Addiction in Children and Youths (1994). TOBACCO TAXATION ... which challenged the science of smoking's relation to cancer. TIRC's first director was Clarence Cook Little, whose background ... State attorneys general charged the tobacco industry of using misleading marketing, targeting children, and concealing the ...
As a child he was diagnosed with dyslexia and ADHD. After being abused at the age of 6 at the British Columbia Ministry of ... He is the head of insight and emerging technologies at H&M. Wylie was born to parents Kevin Wylie and Joan Carruthers, both ... or to somehow try to interfere with their contractual relations with other employees, or what have you." SCL later claimed that ... Archived 2019-01 ...
... n children were seized by authorities due to the debts of their parents and sold off into slavery when their parents ... Christian-Muslim Relations. A Bibliographical History Volume 18. The Ottoman Empire (1800-1914). Leiden: BRILL. ISBN 978- ... Children born to slave women automatically became slaves themselves, unless some other arrangement had been agreed to. Though ... "Newly Digitised Manuscript Sheds Valuable Light on Assyrian Identity". Assyrian Cultural & Social Youth Association. 23 January ...
Late in the series, Junior is revealed to be the child of two I-jin, Nancy Makuhari and the deceased Ikkyū Sōjun, and the tool ... She remained in Japan, despite her parents' move to the United States, in order to housekeep and tend to Yomiko's personal ... He has a young daughter named Maggie, but with no relation to the aforementioned papermaster. Probably because of his daughter ... Her favourite books are the Harry Potter series, and she has a soft spot for cute things and small children. She is almost ...
I intended to have my Child inoculated.". The child had a bad case of flux diarrhea, and his parents had waited for him to get ... This meeting of several colonies had been requested by the Board of Trade in England to improve relations with the Indians and ... and had ten children with her. Benjamin, their eighth child, was Josiah Franklin's fifteenth child overall, and his tenth and ... Josiah Franklin had a total of seventeen children with his two wives. He married his first wife, Anne Child, in about 1677 in ...
The court in Dillenburg maintained cordial relations with the Reformed court of the Electorate of the Palatinate in Heidelberg ... They had the following children: Albert (1606-1614), buried in the Schlüchtern Monastery. His grave was examined during ... The only sons of his parents to reach adulthood were Albert and his elder brother Philip Louis II. Albert's son John Ernest was ...
T. M. Kelley, Health Realization: A Principle-Based Psychology of Positive Youth Development, Child & Youth Care Forum, Vol. 32 ... J. Pransky, Parenting from the Heart: A Guide to the Essence of Parenting, Authorhouse 2001 ISBN 1-58820-383-2, ISBN 978-1- ... in relation to its results for prevention and education, citing about 20 manuscripts, most of which were conference papers, and ... Kelley, T: "Preventing Youth Violence through Health Realization", Youth Violence and Juvenile Justice, p. 378-80, Vol. 1(4) ...
After the nursery, children can transfer to the Haut-Lac infant school. Special activities and theme-based programmes are ... "Haut-Lac International Bilingual School in Vaud, Switzerland". International School Parent Magazine. Retrieved 7 December 2017 ... Infobox mapframe without OSM relation ID on Wikidata, Pages using infobox school with a linked country, All articles with ... At the same time, a nursery for children aged 18 months to 3 years was established in the original infant school premises in ...
Later that year, his parents divorced. His mother took the children to London, where she studied at Stafford House College in ... Carlos also had relations with the leadership of Armenian Secret Army for the Liberation of Armenia (ASALA). The Stasi asked ... Despite his mother's pleas to give their firstborn child a Christian first name, José called him Ilyich, after Vladimir Ilyich ... Ilyich attended a high school in Liceo Fermin Toro of Caracas and joined the youth movement of the Venezuelan Communist Party ...
Chang said that the system "ensures that each child has a surrogate parent at the school and helps to inculcate the values and ... Infobox mapframe without OSM relation ID on Wikidata, Coordinates on Wikidata, All articles with unsourced statements, Articles ... In October 2010, parents of children with disabilities filed a lawsuit against the school, saying that the school discriminated ... Alternate "Parents: Eastern New Orleans schools overlooked in recovery efforts." New Orleans CityBusiness. June 19, 2006. ...
Section 33 lays down the rules for labour relations. The rights of both employers and workers to form associations and bargain ... or the consent of a parent or guardian if the person is under the age of 18, and "A person must not be compelled to take an ... government might compel their children to receive Christian religious instruction through the school system, as well as fears ...
... for the interests of the child to be viewed as "isolated" from its parents or to come into conflict with the parent's interests ... In November 2013, the Bulgarian Helsinki Committee notified Bulgaria's then-Chief Prosecutor Sotir Tsatsarov in relation to ... for biological parents to have the same status as legal guardians and social services put in care of children. On 26 November ... but did not mention who the child's mother was and stated that he did not wish to discuss his personal life further. On 6 ...
His parents were Eugene Barrows and Florence Emma (Judd) Barrows. He graduated from the University of Kansas with a master's ... Barrows was married to Irene Conley Barrows, with whom he had two children. His son, Leland C. Barrows, was a graduate of ... He served various diplomatic positions including a member of the Council on Foreign Relations; Phi Beta Kappa and foreign ...
This section makes clear that if the adoptive parents of a child are citizens of the United Kingdom, that child will be a ... apply in relation to the infant and the person by whom the notice is given as they apply in relation to an adopted child and an ... The child to be adopted may be from Wales or England and can be adopted by parents in Britain. In order to protect the adoptive ... If it is the parent or guardians wishes to not know who is going to adopt their child, those wishes will be respected. If they ...
Appleton was the third child of nine of his parents and spent most of his childhood in Portland. Appleton studied law at ... His primary instructions were to open economic relations with Bolivia, assure them of United States' goodwill and help secure a ... He married Susan Lovering Dodge in 1840, and their only child, Eben Dodge Appleton, was born in Portland in 1843. In addition ... Despite the failures of his Bolivian post, Appleton continued his interest in international relations by taking up a position ...
Parents Action for Children. Parents' Action Endorses New Clinton-Lieberman-Bayh Bill Banning the Sale of Violent Video Games ... has advised parents in relation to video games to "avoid the violent ones altogether. Although Christian games have been around ... Such characterizations have led to the concern that parents may allow their children to play these games, not realizing that ... The Psychological Effects of Media Violence on Children and Adolescents. 2003. Kirsh. S. J. Mortal Kombat and children's ...
After the Act came into force, it was necessary for at least one parent of a United Kingdom-born child to be a British citizen ... in relation to a person, is that he, or at least one of his parents or grandparents,- (a) was born in the United Kingdom, or (b ... However, because UK-born children of permanent residents are automatically British, the number of non-British children born in ... Special provisions are made for non-British UK born children to acquire British citizenship in certain circumstances. Under ...
Other services include a Tot Time for the under 5s and bookclub catering to intermediate and high school age children. The ... Waverley parents, Wanganui Chronicle "Questions for Oral Answer - Questions to Ministers: Waverley High School-Confidence in ... Infobox mapframe without OSM relation ID on Wikidata, Coordinates on Wikidata, Populated places in Taranaki, South Taranaki ...
The parent stock for this cattery came from their native land and Dr. Thompson made every effort to keep the original ... In 1927, Thompson advertised a public lecture titled "The Psychoanalytic Approach to the Child's Mind" in Hawaii. Thompson ... no relation to Joseph), one of Meyers psychiatric residents. Clara Thompson had been placed in charge of Meyer's private ...
10 percent were young children and teenagers, and two percent were born in Pakistan. They formed the largest refugee group in ... They are generally a young, educated community, supported by their parents who are based in the Middle East. Others receive ... Somalia portal Pakistan portal Pakistanis in Somalia Pakistan-Somalia relations Fakhr, Alhan (15 July 2012). "Insecure once ...
In September 2015, Shah Rukh Khan revealed that Johar "made a special edit" of the film for his children as a favour to him; in ... Aman had previously discovered the truth about Jia's parents and despite Jennifer's objections, he reveals to Lajjo that her ... no relation) and Preity Zinta were cast in the lead roles in December 2002. The first name of Shah Rukh Khan's character, Aman ... "Never shown the ending of 'Kal Ho Naa Ho' to my kids: Shah Rukh Khan". The Indian Express. 19 September 2015. Archived from the ...
"Anglo-Irish Relations, 1939-41: A Study in Multilateral Diplomacy and Military Restraint" in Twentieth Century British History ... Both governments exclude some people born in Northern Ireland, in particular persons born without one parent who is a British ... Unlike most areas of the United Kingdom, in the last year of primary school, many children sit entrance examinations for ... Module:Community Relations. Variable:BRITISH. Archived 10 June 2011 at the Wayback Machine Summary: 78% of Protestants replied ...
They also receive criticism for their non-traditional family structure-Trina's parents were not married when she was born, and ... Though this colonization and subjugation lies in the past, it continues to affect relations between countries and between ... Filipinos were described like children: emotional, maladjusted, and unable to make decisions or contribute meaningfully to ... and children well beyond the plantation fields, as demonstrated by the racial tension threaded through much of Rolling the R's ...
TV); his Giselle is not a sweet country girl, but an unfortunate child of a big modern city; the first episode of Swan Lake ... the story of the Nutcracker is not focused on a liitle daughhter of wealthy parents - it centers round a teenager, a backfisch ... Infobox mapframe without OSM relation ID on Wikidata, Articles containing Ukrainian-language text, Pages using div col with ... Kyiv Modern-ballet company was incorporated into the Kyiv Municipal Academic Opera and Ballet Theatre for Children and Youth, ...
Fonder of children than Gello' is a saying applied to women who die prematurely (aōros), or to those fond of children who ruin ... "N" in ancient and medieval prayers and magic spells stands for nomen, "name"; here the parents' names would be inserted. ... Scholarly discussions of Gello associate her with and analyze the meaning of her narrative traditions in relation to the ... The child was considered at greater risk in the birth mother's sphere of influence at this time, as she would attract the ...
They had no children. After graduating from Harvard, Ganong was appointed an assistant instructor in botany there. He stayed at ... New Relation of Gaspesia Editor (Toronto, 1910) An Organization of the Scientific Investigation of the Indian Place- ... Pages using infobox person with multiple parents, Articles with hCards, Articles with ISNI identifiers, Articles with VIAF ... He was born in Carleton (now West Saint John), New Brunswick, in 1864, the eldest of seven children. He is the brother of Susie ...
Parents of 4530 1-8 year old children (one parent per child) from randomly selected kindergartens in Chongqing, China ... parents CR and AR were related to a number of factors of the home environment. ... Parents of 4530 1-8 year old children (one parent per child) from randomly selected kindergartens in Chongqing, China ... Wang J, Li BZ, Yang Q, Wang H, Sundell J (2013) Sick building syndrome among parents of preschool children in relation to home ...
Parent & Child - Termination of Parental Rights - Abandonment. Domestic Relations - Parent & Child - Termination of Parental ... although the minor childs foster parents allowed respondent to engage in Skype calls with the child, respondent did not make ... at his scheduled child support hearing in January 2018; (5) respondent did not request a single visit with the minor child ... Respondent sought to have his child placed with his sister in California, and he said he was going to allow his sister to ...
The relations of White parents implicit racial attitudes to their childrens differential empathic concern toward White and ... The relations of White parents implicit racial attitudes to their childrens differential empathic concern toward White and ... The relations of White parents implicit racial attitudes to their childrens differential empathic concern toward White and ... The relations of White parents implicit racial attitudes to their childrens differential empathic concern toward White and ...
2 results for child development, clinical psychology, infant development, intergenerational relations, parenting, ...
FIAMENGHI JR., Geraldo A. y MESSA, Alcione A.. Parents, children and disability: studies on family relations. Psicol. cienc. ... Palabras clave : Family; Family relations; Disabled children; Developmental disabilities; Siblings. · resumen en Portugués · ... It also shows that parents wish and deserve to be fairly treated by the professionals who attend their children. ... and that families are fundamental for the childs development. In the case of the presence of a disabled child in the family, ...
Relations with Russia are ... not great. Let this Russian animated series be the bridge that unites us. Masha and the Bear ... Parents, Rejoice! Here Are Netflixs Kid-Friendly August Additions. Theres a whole lot of family-friendly goodness hitting ... Instant access makes streaming content for kids a boon to parents, but it comes with some complications. Favorite shows ... You know how some kid shows do music surprisingly well (I see you, Bubble Guppies) and some are a tortured mess? I dont know ...
Parent-child relationship : post-divorce, a seminar report based on the papers delivered at an American-Scandinavian ... The welfare of children with mentally ill parents : learning from inter-country comparisons / Rachael Hetherington ... [et al ... Child care and the growth of love / by John Bowlby ; abridged and ed. by Margery Fry ; with two new chapters by Mary D. Salter ... Text; Format: print Publication details: México : Fondo de Cultura Economica, 1972Title translated: Child care and the growth ...
Pain in children with CP is common. Clinicians should enquire about pain and consider appropriate physical, therapeutic or ... Results: Data on pain were available from 490 children who could self-report and parents of 806 children (those who could and ... Outcome measures were pain in the previous week among children who could self-report and parents perception of their childs ... and that of parent-reported pain in the previous 4 weeks was 73% (95% CI: 69-76%). In self-reporting children, older children ...
Beyond Theory: Responding to Children and Parents Who Have Experienced Trauma. By alex on December 17, 2020 in ... You are here: Home , Workforce Development , Beyond Theory: Responding to Children and Parents Who Have Experienced Trauma ... improve your ability to notice when parents and children are taking small actions to modify the effects of trauma and encourage ... build your skills in talking to parents about the effects of trauma and how trauma is reflected in childrens behaviours ...
Kosher, H., & Katz, C. (2022). Impairment in parent-child relations in the context of high-intensity parental dispute: ... Impairment in parent-child relations in the context of high-intensity parental dispute: Practitioners perceptions and ... Impairment in parent-child relations in the context of high-intensity parental dispute: Practitioners perceptions and ... The analysis resulted in a process model relating to the impairment in parent-child relations in the context of HIPD. This ...
The findings of this report indicate that a million more children 4-17 years of age had a parent-reported ADHD diagnosis by ... Increasing Prevalence of Parent-Reported Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder Among Children - United States, 2003 and 2007 ... 3. Increasing Prevalence of Parent-Reported Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder Among Children - United States, 2003 and ... Rates of parent-reported ADHD diagnosis are increasing and the patterns of ADHD diagnosis are changing in the United States. We ...
Consistent discipline; Parent-child relationships; Parental rejection; Youth autonomy development; Youth disclosure ... Developmental Changes in the Relation between Youth Disclosure and Parenting Behavior: A Cohort-sequential Analysis. ... Developmental Changes in the Relation between Youth Disclosure and Parenting Behavior: A C ... Regarding trajectories of youth disclosure, results indicate that youth disclose less information to their parents about their ...
Children with exceptional needs. *Preschool programming. *Parent/teacher relations. *Child health. *Specific areas of ... Use the Child Development Permit Worksheet and the Child Development and School-Age Emphasis Matrix for guidance in comparing ... A Child Development Site Supervisor Permit authorizes the holder to supervise a child care and development program operating at ... A Child Development Program Director Permit authorizes the holder to supervise a child care and development program operated in ...
This is a Washington form and can be use in Domestic Relations Statewide. - Justia Forms ... Summons Petition For Residential Schedule Parenting Plan Or Child Support Form. ... Child(ren) SUMMONS (PETITION FOR RESIDENTIAL SCHEDULE/ GREETINGS: PARENTING PLAN OR CHILD SUPPORT) Petitioner and excuses being ... Summons Petition For Residential Schedule Parenting Plan Or Child Support, PS 15.0200, Washington Statewide, Domestic Relations ...
Race relations Children Children & adults Politicians Complaining Night Parenting ... children & adults, children, race relations, Kids, presidents, sleeping, discussion, ignorance (knowledge), complaining, health ... Bed Parents Family Conversation Confused Discussion Racism Taxes Sleep Confidence Political parties Politics Political issues ... Search Results for america, discussion, sleeping & waking up, parents, conversation, concern, talk, ...
The Influence of Adherence to the Mediterranean Diet among Children and Their Parents in Relation to Childhood Overweight/ ... adolescents aging Alzheimer disease basic research breast cancer cancer cardiovascular disease children chronic diseases ...
Parent: The parent is the window that contains the edit.. *Relations: The relations supported by this service are * ... Children: There are no children.. * ... Name: If the relation of type AccessibleRelationType::LABELED_ ...
Parents who are on the verge of pulling out your hair while trying to get misbehaving kids to behave, rejoice - a new study is ... Want your kids to do as theyre told? Try this, a new study says. Parents who are on the verge of pulling out your hair while ... Audience Relations, CBC P.O. Box 500 Station A Toronto, ON Canada, M5W 1E6. ... Naturally, kids being kids, 80 per cent of them cheated and snuck a look, even after agreeing not to. ...
Adaptive Parenting Tools/ADAPT program for military families ... Parent-Child Relations. Parenting--psychology. Publication ... Incorporating mindfulness exercises into a parent training program: Outcomes of the After Deployment, ... of the program on parent self-reported mindfulness and observational measures of parent-child emotion communication and parent ... of the program on parent self-reported mindfulness and observational measures of parent-child emotion communication and parent ...
... categories as parent, exp_categories as child " . "where child.cat_id=$cat_id and child.parent_id=parent.cat_id"; $query = $DB ... to find its parent, then its parents parent, etc., until the query returns no results (at the topmost parent). This gives me a ... Well, this is also a category name, but its not a parent, so one final DB-,query pulls that in and sticks it on the end. This ... "select parent.cat_id, parent.cat_description from " . "exp_ ... Multi Relation saves the day (again)… now, has anyone come up ...
This general outline describes the milestones on the road to reading and the ages at which most kids reach them. ... Parents and teachers can find resources for children as early as pre-kindergarten. Quality childcare centers, pre-kindergarten ... understand relations between objects. *identify parts of speech and devices like similes and metaphors ... 2018 CHOC Childrens. 1201 W La Veta Ave, Orange, CA. Phone: 714-997-3000. , A 501(c)(3) Organization ...
5 Parent-child Relations, Rights and Social Authority. 6 Conclusion. 2 Marital Consent and the Discourse of Womens Freedom. ...
Parent Education: focuses on the practice of parent education, one type of Family Life Education that centers on parenting ... Youth, Family, and Community Services: focuses on development, administration, and management of family and community service ... Development (child, adolescent, human, gerontology, or family): focuses on one of more areas or stages of human development, ... Family Science/Studies/Relations/Ecology/Services: focuses primarily on Family Science curricula. Programs may be titled with ...
She said many parents may not be aware that they are giving up those rights when they use a voucher to enroll their child in a ... "You have a group of parents that are not happy with the system. Theyre sympathetic from a public relations perspective. You ... White Parents Say They Want Diverse Schools, But Will They Send Their Kids?. Racial stereotypes and reluctance to be in a ... When parents use them, they lose their rights to participate actively in their childs education and to object when they ...
Lecture on the Duties and Relations of Parents, Teachers and Pupils. , by Charles Davies (page images at MOA) ... Filed under: Youth -- Periodicals*. The Youths Companion. (partial serial archives). Filed under: Youth -- Poetry*. Young ... Filed under: Youth -- France*. The Dreyfus Case, Four Letters to France: I. To the Youth of France; II. To France; III. To M. ... Filed under: Youth -- Societies and clubs*. Soviet Fronts: Women and Youth. (1984), by United States Department of State (page ...
Pollock, L.A. (1983). Forgotten Children: Parent Child Relations from 1500-1900. Cambridge, Cambridge University Press. ... National Association of Youth Clubs (1981). Submission to the Youth Service Review. Leicester, National Association of Youth ... National Youth Bureau (1975, 1983). Curriculum Development in the Youth Club. Leicester, National Youth Bureau. ... Gillis, J.R. (1974, 1981). Youth and History. Tradition and Change in European Age Relations 1770-Present. New York, Academic ...
Parent Guardian Inform Relation to Child *. Father. Mother. Guardian. Last Name *. First Name *. ... T Shirt Youth Size* Please choose only 1 (Youth or Adult size) * Youth. Adult. ...
We have all learnt relation skills. Parents and teachers already teach children relational skills routinely without even ... To be more specific, a parent will not just teach a child one word for a television set, they may in fact use two. On one ... Any confusion shown by the child is met with assurance from the parent that whenever two words are used for the same thing - ... For example, parents inadvertently teach young children the concept of "sameness" in normal language interaction. ...
Director of Marketing and Public Relations. [email protected]. 519.679.5030 x.229 ... Six children were forced to do this work alongside their parents, including a 12-year-old girl and five boys (ages 5 to 12). At ... "Children were exposed to these precarious living conditions during inclement weather and were undernourished. They were forced ... The lead government official on the case shared, "I am shocked to see children working here. Also, the women laborers have ...
Theyre concerned with their kids in relation to themselves. I mean, they want their kids to please them, not to embarrass them ... Like Dylans parents, it appears, the town was neither rich nor poor, but it was, Dylan has said, "a dyin town." He ran away ... But I am by no means an example for any kid wanting to strike out. I mean, I wouldnt want a young kid to leave home because I ... Another friend of Dylans arrived, with three children, ranging in age from four to ten. The children raced around the studio ...
  • Where the mother relinquished the child to the Department of Social Services, DSS had standing to file the petition to terminate respondent's parental rights. (
  • Respondent's actions do not manifest a willful determination to forego all parental duties and relinquish all parental claims to the child. (
  • The focal analyses explored contemporaneous associations between characteristics of the parent - youth relationship (specifically, parental rejection and parental consistent discipline) and youth disclosure after accounting for person -specific trajectories of disclosure . (
  • In parent reports, severity of child impairment, seizures and parental unemployment were associated with more frequent and severe pain. (
  • One of the consequences of divorce, especially when it involves high-intensity parental dispute (HIPD), is impairment in parent-child relations. (
  • Parental responsibility vested in residential home or in foster parent. (
  • and (6) although the minor child's foster parents allowed respondent to engage in Skype calls with the child, respondent did not make any such calls until after the termination petition was filed. (
  • The app makes it easy for parents to track, support, and celebrate their young child's development. (
  • Outcome measures were pain in the previous week among children who could self-report and parents' perception of their child's pain in the previous 4 weeks. (
  • The first section contains the main body of the child health questionnaire along with items transferred from the sample child's person record. (
  • Child's right to stay with parents and to have education. (
  • Powers of child's parents. (
  • Skills like taking a first step, saying those first words, and waving 'bye-bye' are developmental milestones all parents anticipate and celebrate," said CDC Director Brenda Fitzgerald, M.D. "This CDC Milestone Tracker app gives parents tips to help their child learn and grow, a way to track developmental milestones, recognize delays, and the ability to share this information with their healthcare provider. (
  • program to help parents, early care and education providers, and healthcare providers track developmental milestones in young children. (
  • Through this app and its many other parent-friendly tools, the program aims to improve the early identification of children with developmental delays and disabilities, including autism, so children and families can get the support and services they need as early as possible. (
  • Developmental Changes in the Relation between Youth Disclosure and Parenting Behavior: A Cohort-sequential Analysis. (
  • Results are discussed in terms of implications for understanding youth autonomy development, and the dyadic and developmental impact of parenting behaviors over time . (
  • In self-reporting children, older children reported more pain but pain was not significantly associated with severity of impairment. (
  • The analysis resulted in a process model relating to the impairment in parent-child relations in the context of HIPD. (
  • High levels and health staff, and management of phenylketonuria of phenylalanine in the plasma cause mental retardation, can be time-consuming for both adult patients and seizures, behavioural difficulties, motor delay and slow caregivers of children. (
  • The data analysis revealed six categories: traumatic events during childhood, inappropriate parenting approach, Lack of knowledge and a tolerant attitude toward drug use, turning a blind eye on the threat of drug use, nurses' poor experience of drug use prevention, and the lack of a clear definition of the nurse's role in prevention of drug use. (
  • It has been reported that varied etiological reasons may contribute to the initiation and continuation of drug use, including genetic and social factors (7), family relationships and poor parenting practices (8). (
  • The results offer insights into the experiences, practices, and perspectives of parents, outlining agricul tural ways of life in which safety and relations to risk are shaped by patterns of production, family dynamics, values and habits, and other social and cultural dimensions. (
  • J Youth Adolesc;52(10): 2095-2112, 2023 Oct. (
  • The importance of parents' implicit attitudes in understanding young children's race-based moral emotional responses and the implications for intervention work are discussed. (
  • This paper discusses studies on families and situations that may happen when a disabled child is born. (
  • One-parent families in Europe : trends, experiences, implications , proceedings of the CBGS International Worskhop on One-Parent Families, Brussels, October 8-10, 1985 / edited by F. Deven and R. L. Cliquet. (
  • Incorporating mindfulness exercises into a parent training program : outcomes of the After Deployment, Adaptive Parenting Tools/ADAPT program for military families / Abigail H. Gewirtz. (
  • Their relational skills are not far enough advanced to allow them to deal with abstract and arbitrary relations between symbols. (
  • DSN: CC37.NHIS88.CHLDHLTH GENERAL INFORMATION The data tape for the 1988 National Health Interview Survey on child health is made up of three major sections. (
  • This is a Washington form and can be use in Domestic Relations Statewide. (
  • The United States Criminal Calendar, or An Awful Warning to the Youth of America: Being an Account of the Most Horrid Murders, Piraces, Highway Robberies, &c. &c. (
  • Access and rights of parent as guardian of child. (
  • Although previous studies show the health impacts of child-livestock interactions, less is known about the ways in which farm and ranch parents perceive the benefits and risks of these interactions, and how and why they choose to raise children around livestock. (
  • Parents of 4530 1-8 year old children (one parent per child) from randomly selected kindergartens in Chongqing, China participated. (
  • Dr. Gewirtz' presentation will focus on outcomes of the original ADAPT effectiveness trial, and in particular, mindfulness-related program process and outcome data (use and dosage of mindfulness exercises among fathers and mothers, and outcomes of the program on parent self-reported mindfulness and observational measures of parent-child emotion communication and parent avoidance. (
  • Principles of Pediatric Environmental Health: How Can Parents' Preconception Exposures and In Utero Exposures Affect a Developing Child? (
  • While these "child-livestock interactions" contribute to the burden of agricul turally related inju ries to youth in the United States, they may also result in improved immunological health and other benefits. (
  • This research is part of a larger anthropological study of the benefits and risks of child-livestock interactions involving parents on beef and dairy operations in multiple states, along with agricul tural safety and health professionals. (
  • To address a gap in the literature regarding the development of youth disclosure across the transition to adolescence , the current research uses a cohort-sequential approach to study youth disclosure from middle childhood through adolescence . (
  • Parenting approach and early childhood experiences are thought to be two important factors in the initiation of substance use. (
  • This workshop is an opportunity to put theory-into-practice when undertaking trauma-informed work, by using practical examples, case studies and roleplays about responding to children and parents who have experienced trauma. (
  • Welfare and Youth Work Practice. (
  • Analysis of variance, t-test, Pearson correlation coefficient and multiple linear regression were used to assess the relationship between quality of life domains and sociodemographic characteristics of the parent and child. (
  • Some types are known to be recessive, meaning both parents carry the defective gene. (
  • Child µ-opioid receptor gene variant influences parent-child relations. (
  • Children aged 5-9 years (N = 190) reported how sorry (i.e., sympathy) and nervous (i.e., personal distress) they felt after watching sympathy-inducing videos in which either a White (non-Hispanic) child or a Black child was teased by peers. (
  • Instant access makes streaming content for kids a boon to parents, but it comes with some complications. (
  • The goal of this study was to investigate the relations between White parents' implicit racial attitudes and their children's racially based bias in empathic concern toward White and Black victims of injustice as well as the moderating role of children's age in this relation. (
  • One study noted that children fathered by men exposed to dioxin after the Seveso, Italy accident showed a decrease in the expected male:female ratio [Mocarelli et al. (
  • Provision of consent for self and child to participate in the study. (
  • This study determined the quality of life of parents of children with phenylketonuria in Tehran Province. (
  • The study was conducted in 2015 and included parents of children with phenylketonuria referred to three government children's hospitals in Tehran Province that provide phenylketonuria services. (
  • Dr. Abigail Gewirtz is a Professor in the Department of Family Social Science and Institute of Child Development, University of Minnesota. (
  • Agricul tural upbringings are also widely perceived to improve physical, cognitive, and skill development of children, contributing to a combination of potential benefits and risks known as the " farm kid paradox. (
  • Such findings sufficiently demonstrate that respondent willfully acted in a manner "wholly inconsistent with a desire to maintain custody of the child. (
  • The evidence and findings do not clearly show actions wholly inconsistent with a desire to maintain custody of the child. (
  • The whole reason DSS is able to claim abandonment during a six-month period is because, for 33 months, DSS retained custody of the minor child under void orders including giving DSS discretion to dictate and limit respondent's visitation, which it did. (
  • Guardianship and custody of a child born to a single woman. (
  • Principle on which questions relating to custody, upbringing, etc., of children are to be decided. (
  • Parents and teachers can find resources for children as early as pre-kindergarten. (
  • Teachers and Youth Leaders (The McNair Report). (
  • Parents and teachers already teach children relational skills routinely without even knowing it. (
  • Court in making order to have regard to conduct of parent. (
  • In the case of the presence of a disabled child in the family, that will not necessarily cause disruption in the family life but that will depend on various factors, varying from parents' beliefs to the resources available to cope with the disability. (
  • Milestone checklists for children ages 2 months through 5 years, illustrated with photos and videos. (
  • If humanity was being fruitful and multiplying as God commanded (Genesis 1:28), it is reasonable to assume that Adam and Eve were not waiting many years before conceiving their next child. (
  • If they had a single child every two years (i.e., no twins), and their children began marrying at the age of 19 and immediately began having children as well, there would have been roughly 300 people on the Earth by the time Cain was 100 4 -a plausible age as to when Cain may have killed his brother. (
  • In conclusion, parents' CR and AR were related to a number of factors of the home environment. (
  • Six children were forced to do this work alongside their parents, including a 12-year-old girl and five boys (ages 5 to 12). (
  • Our research addresses this gap by analyzing data from semi-structured interviews with 30 parents of children between the ages of 10-18 who produce beef cattle in Kansas. (
  • Respondent sought to have his child placed with his sister in California, and he said he was going to allow his sister to handle the situation. (
  • The evidence reflects during this time, respondent was advocating for a relative placement of the minor child with his sister in California and was still seeking placement and unification with the minor child. (
  • While awaiting approval of an Interstate Compact on the Placement of Children assessment, respondent moved to California. (
  • Incestuous relations significantly increase the likelihood of birth defects, as well as deleterious psychological problems. (
  • Given the low levels of quality of life in the parents, education and more financial support are recommended. (
  • Programs may be titled with terminology other than Family Science, such as "family studies" or "family relations. (
  • Getting help early is key for helping kids who struggle to read. (
  • Although children with phenylke- intake should be monitored carefully by regular blood tonuria who are treated early have average intelligence, tests. (
  • offspring of Children of alcoholic parents are at increased risk for lifetime de- alcoholics are at heightened risk of depressive mood symptoms pression. (
  • Offence to remove a child from a place of safety without authority. (
  • Depression can lead to the use of splitting and projection as defence mechanisms: this involves that parts with which a depressed person cannot identify are projected onto a baby, and this is likely to result in abuse, neglect or even the death of a child. (
  • With the maturation of perceptive and self- ents whose history included having had a mother with perceptive functions, more realistic object and self-rep- postpartum depression when these children were ba- resentations are established. (
  • The Youth Service and Similar Provision for Young People. (
  • For example, parents inadvertently teach young children the concept of "sameness" in normal language interaction. (
  • Even as we arrived, young children were already at work chopping wood. (
  • Specifically, parents with higher implicit race bias tended to have children with lower levels of sympathy toward Black victims for younger children and higher levels of sympathetic bias for younger and average-aged children but not for older children. (
  • It is also grouped by using the ICD hierarchy so that if the search text matches a parent category and several children, they will appear in a fashion that is easy to identify this relation visually. (
  • Burden of proof as to ability of child to maintain himself. (
  • Older children tended to report relatively high levels of sympathy toward Black victims and low levels of sympathetic bias regardless of their parents' implicit attitudes. (
  • Parents of children with phenylketonuria are at risk of reduced quality of life. (
  • program and other free tools for parents, visit . (
  • Summons Petition For Residential Schedule Parenting Plan Or Child Support Form. (
  • The petitioner has started an action in the above court requesting that the court establish a Your failure to comply with Plan or an Order of Child Support. (
  • 3. Your written response to the summons and petition must Attorney(s) WPF PS 15.0300, Response be on form for to Petition for Residential Schedule/Parenting Plan or Child Support (RSP). (
  • Partnership with parents : report on a workshop, Siblin, Lebanon, 22-24 January 1993 / by Ghanem Bibi. (
  • a further region recruited 75 children from multiple sources. (

No images available that match "parent child relations"