Wasps: Any of numerous winged hymenopterous insects of social as well as solitary habits and having formidable stings.Hymenoptera: An extensive order of highly specialized insects including bees, wasps, and ants.Host-Parasite Interactions: The relationship between an invertebrate and another organism (the host), one of which lives at the expense of the other. Traditionally excluded from definition of parasites are pathogenic BACTERIA; FUNGI; VIRUSES; and PLANTS; though they may live parasitically.Aphids: A family (Aphididae) of small insects, in the suborder Sternorrhyncha, that suck the juices of plants. Important genera include Schizaphis and Myzus. The latter is known to carry more than 100 virus diseases between plants.Wasp Venoms: Venoms produced by the wasp (Vespid) family of stinging insects, including hornets; the venoms contain enzymes, biogenic amines, histamine releasing factors, kinins, toxic polypeptides, etc., and are similar to bee venoms.Oviposition: The process of laying or shedding fully developed eggs (OVA) from the female body. The term is usually used for certain INSECTS or FISHES with an organ called ovipositor where eggs are stored or deposited before expulsion from the body.Biological Control Agents: Organisms, biological agents, or biologically-derived agents used strategically for their positive or adverse effect on the physiology and/or reproductive health of other organisms.Parasites: Invertebrate organisms that live on or in another organism (the host), and benefit at the expense of the other. Traditionally excluded from definition of parasites are pathogenic BACTERIA; FUNGI; VIRUSES; and PLANTS; though they may live parasitically.Diptera: An order of the class Insecta. Wings, when present, number two and distinguish Diptera from other so-called flies, while the halteres, or reduced hindwings, separate Diptera from other insects with one pair of wings. The order includes the families Calliphoridae, Oestridae, Phoridae, SARCOPHAGIDAE, Scatophagidae, Sciaridae, SIMULIIDAE, Tabanidae, Therevidae, Trypetidae, CERATOPOGONIDAE; CHIRONOMIDAE; CULICIDAE; DROSOPHILIDAE; GLOSSINIDAE; MUSCIDAE; TEPHRITIDAE; and PSYCHODIDAE. The larval form of Diptera species are called maggots (see LARVA).Lepidoptera: A large order of insects comprising the butterflies and moths.Larva: Wormlike or grublike stage, following the egg in the life cycle of insects, worms, and other metamorphosing animals.Herbivory: The act of feeding on plants by animals.Pest Control, Biological: Use of naturally-occuring or genetically-engineered organisms to reduce or eliminate populations of pests.Hemiptera: A large order of insects characterized by having the mouth parts adapted to piercing or sucking. It is comprised of four suborders: HETEROPTERA, Auchenorrhyncha, Sternorrhyncha, and Coleorrhyncha.Tephritidae: A large family of fruit flies in the order DIPTERA, comprising over 4,500 species in about 100 genera. They have patterned wings and brightly colored bodies and are found predominantly in the tropical latitudes.Volatile Organic Compounds: Organic compounds that have a relatively high VAPOR PRESSURE at room temperature.Pupa: An inactive stage between the larval and adult stages in the life cycle of insects.Food Chain: The sequence of transfers of matter and energy from organism to organism in the form of FOOD. Food chains intertwine locally into a food web because most organisms consume more than one type of animal or plant. PLANTS, which convert SOLAR ENERGY to food by PHOTOSYNTHESIS, are the primary food source. In a predator chain, a plant-eating animal is eaten by a larger animal. In a parasite chain, a smaller organism consumes part of a larger host and may itself be parasitized by smaller organisms. In a saprophytic chain, microorganisms live on dead organic matter.Solidago: A plant genus of the family ASTERACEAE known for allergenic pollen (ALLERGENS).Moths: Insects of the suborder Heterocera of the order LEPIDOPTERA.Ovum: A mature haploid female germ cell extruded from the OVARY at OVULATION.Butterflies: Slender-bodies diurnal insects having large, broad wings often strikingly colored and patterned.Wiskott-Aldrich Syndrome: A rare, X-linked immunodeficiency syndrome characterized by ECZEMA; LYMPHOPENIA; and, recurrent pyogenic infection. It is seen exclusively in young boys. Typically, IMMUNOGLOBULIN M levels are low and IMMUNOGLOBULIN A and IMMUNOGLOBULIN E levels are elevated. Lymphoreticular malignancies are common.Volatilization: A phase transition from liquid state to gas state, which is affected by Raoult's law. It can be accomplished by fractional distillation.Beetles: INSECTS of the order Coleoptera, containing over 350,000 species in 150 families. They possess hard bodies and their mouthparts are adapted for chewing.Ficus: A plant genus of the family MORACEAE. It is the source of the familiar fig fruit and the latex from this tree contains FICAIN.Heteroptera: A suborder of HEMIPTERA, called true bugs, characterized by the possession of two pairs of wings. It includes the medically important families CIMICIDAE and REDUVIIDAE. (From Dorland, 28th ed)Crotalaria: A plant genus of the family FABACEAE that contains crotalarin.Pinus sylvestris: A plant species of the genus PINUS which is the source of pinosylvin. It is sometimes called Scotch pine or Scots pine, which is also a common name for other species of this genus.Hemocytes: Any blood or formed element especially in invertebrates.Predatory Behavior: Instinctual behavior pattern in which food is obtained by killing and consuming other species.Feeding Behavior: Behavioral responses or sequences associated with eating including modes of feeding, rhythmic patterns of eating, and time intervals.Plantago: A plant genus of the family Plantaginaceae. The small plants usually have a dense tuft of basal leaves and long, leafless stalks bearing a terminal spike of small flowers. The seeds, known as PSYLLIUM, swell in water and are used as laxatives. The leaves have been used medicinally.Brassica: A plant genus of the family Cruciferae. It contains many species and cultivars used as food including cabbage, cauliflower, broccoli, Brussel sprouts, kale, collard greens, MUSTARD PLANT; (B. alba, B. junica, and B. nigra), turnips (BRASSICA NAPUS) and rapeseed (BRASSICA RAPA).Population Density: Number of individuals in a population relative to space.Muscidae: A family of the order DIPTERA with over 700 species. Important species that may be mechanical vectors of disease include Musca domesticus (HOUSEFLIES), Musca autumnalis (face fly), Stomoxys calcitrans (stable fly), Haematobia irritans (horn fly) and Fannia spp.Symbiosis: The relationship between two different species of organisms that are interdependent; each gains benefits from the other or a relationship between different species where both of the organisms in question benefit from the presence of the other.Population Dynamics: The pattern of any process, or the interrelationship of phenomena, which affects growth or change within a population.Quercus: A plant genus of the family FAGACEAE that is a source of TANNINS. Do not confuse with Holly (ILEX).Polydnaviridae: A family of insect viruses isolated from endoparasitic hymenopteran insects belonging to the families Ichneumonidae and Braconidae. The two genera are Ichnovirus and Bracovirus.Sex Ratio: The number of males per 100 females.Insects: The class Insecta, in the phylum ARTHROPODA, whose members are characterized by division into three parts: head, thorax, and abdomen. They are the dominant group of animals on earth; several hundred thousand different kinds having been described. Three orders, HEMIPTERA; DIPTERA; and SIPHONAPTERA; are of medical interest in that they cause disease in humans and animals. (From Borror et al., An Introduction to the Study of Insects, 4th ed, p1)Nymph: The immature stage in the life cycle of those orders of insects characterized by gradual metamorphosis, in which the young resemble the imago in general form of body, including compound eyes and external wings; also the 8-legged stage of mites and ticks that follows the first moult.Biodiversity: The variety of all native living organisms and their various forms and interrelationships.Species Specificity: The restriction of a characteristic behavior, anatomical structure or physical system, such as immune response; metabolic response, or gene or gene variant to the members of one species. It refers to that property which differentiates one species from another but it is also used for phylogenetic levels higher or lower than the species.Ants: Insects of the family Formicidae, very common and widespread, probably the most successful of all the insect groups. All ants are social insects, and most colonies contain three castes, queens, males, and workers. Their habits are often very elaborate and a great many studies have been made of ant behavior. Ants produce a number of secretions that function in offense, defense, and communication. (From Borror, et al., An Introduction to the Study of Insects, 4th ed, p676)Wolbachia: A genus of bacteria comprised of a heterogenous group of gram-negative small rods and coccoid forms associated with arthropods. (From Bergey's Manual of Systematic Bacteriology, vol 1, 1984)Biota: The spectrum of different living organisms inhabiting a particular region, habitat, or biotope.Body Size: The physical measurements of a body.Olfactory Perception: The process by which the nature and meaning of olfactory stimuli, such as odors, are recognized and interpreted by the brain.Crops, Agricultural: Cultivated plants or agricultural produce such as grain, vegetables, or fruit. (From American Heritage Dictionary, 1982)Reproduction: The total process by which organisms produce offspring. (Stedman, 25th ed)Reproduction, Asexual: Reproduction without fusion of two types of cells, mostly found in ALGAE; FUNGI; and PLANTS. Asexual reproduction occurs in several ways, such as budding, fission, or splitting from "parent" cells. Only few groups of ANIMALS reproduce asexually or unisexually (PARTHENOGENESIS).Plants: Multicellular, eukaryotic life forms of kingdom Plantae (sensu lato), comprising the VIRIDIPLANTAE; RHODOPHYTA; and GLAUCOPHYTA; all of which acquired chloroplasts by direct endosymbiosis of CYANOBACTERIA. They are characterized by a mainly photosynthetic mode of nutrition; essentially unlimited growth at localized regions of cell divisions (MERISTEMS); cellulose within cells providing rigidity; the absence of organs of locomotion; absence of nervous and sensory systems; and an alternation of haploid and diploid generations.Oxylipins: Eighteen-carbon cyclopentyl polyunsaturated fatty acids derived from ALPHA-LINOLENIC ACID via an oxidative pathway analogous to the EICOSANOIDS in animals. Biosynthesis is inhibited by SALICYLATES. A key member, jasmonic acid of PLANTS, plays a similar role to ARACHIDONIC ACID in animals.Parasitic Diseases: Infections or infestations with parasitic organisms. They are often contracted through contact with an intermediate vector, but may occur as the result of direct exposure.Phylogeny: The relationships of groups of organisms as reflected by their genetic makeup.Cyclopentanes: A group of alicyclic hydrocarbons with the general formula R-C5H9.Odors: The volatile portions of substances perceptible by the sense of smell. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Pheromones: Chemical substances, excreted by an organism into the environment, that elicit behavioral or physiological responses from other organisms of the same species. Perception of these chemical signals may be olfactory or by contact.Ecosystem: A functional system which includes the organisms of a natural community together with their environment. (McGraw Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Wiskott-Aldrich Syndrome Protein Family: A family of microfilament proteins whose name derives from the fact that mutations in members of this protein family have been associated with WISKOTT-ALDRICH SYNDROME. They are involved in ACTIN polymerization and contain a polyproline-rich region that binds to PROFILIN, and a verprolin homology domain that binds G-ACTIN.Ecology: The branch of science concerned with the interrelationship of organisms and their ENVIRONMENT, especially as manifested by natural cycles and rhythms, community development and structure, interactions between different kinds of organisms, geographic distributions, and population alterations. (Webster's, 3d ed)Spodoptera: A genus of owlet moths of the family Noctuidae. These insects are used in molecular biology studies during all stages of their life cycle.Biological Evolution: The process of cumulative change over successive generations through which organisms acquire their distinguishing morphological and physiological characteristics.Behavior, Animal: The observable response an animal makes to any situation.Insect Proteins: Proteins found in any species of insect.ArgentinaOils, Volatile: Oils which evaporate readily. The volatile oils occur in aromatic plants, to which they give odor and other characteristics. Most volatile oils consist of a mixture of two or more TERPENES or of a mixture of an eleoptene (the more volatile constituent of a volatile oil) with a stearopten (the more solid constituent). The synonym essential oils refers to the essence of a plant, as its perfume or scent, and not to its indispensability.Wiskott-Aldrich Syndrome Protein, Neuronal: A member of the Wiskott-Aldrich syndrome protein family that is found at high levels in NERVE CELLS. It interacts with GRB2 ADAPTOR PROTEIN and with CDC42 PROTEIN.Plant Diseases: Diseases of plants.Actin-Related Protein 2: A PROFILIN binding domain protein that is part of the Arp2-3 complex. It is related in sequence and structure to ACTIN and binds ATP.Zea mays: A plant species of the family POACEAE. It is a tall grass grown for its EDIBLE GRAIN, corn, used as food and animal FODDER.Droughts: Prolonged dry periods in natural climate cycle. They are slow-onset phenomena caused by rainfall deficit combined with other predisposing factors.Plant Leaves: Expanded structures, usually green, of vascular plants, characteristically consisting of a bladelike expansion attached to a stem, and functioning as the principal organ of photosynthesis and transpiration. (American Heritage Dictionary, 2d ed)Actin-Related Protein 3: A component of the Arp2-3 complex that is related in sequence and structure to ACTIN and that binds ATP. It is expressed at higher levels than ARP2 PROTEIN and does not contain a PROFILIN binding domain.
  • The full genome of the virus is integrated into the genome of the wasp and the virus only replicates in a particular part of the ovary, called the calyx, of pupal and adult female wasps. (wikipedia.org)
  • Many parasitoids that do not use PDVs inject proteins that provide many of the same functions, that is, a suppression of the immune response to the parasite egg. (wikipedia.org)
  • The virus and wasp are in a mutualistic symbiotic relationship: expression of viral genes prevents the wasp's host's immune system from killing the wasp's injected egg and causes other physiological alterations that ultimately cause the parasitized host to die. (wikipedia.org)
  • The virus is injected along with the wasp egg into the body cavity of a lepidopteran host caterpillar and infects cells of the caterpillar. (wikipedia.org)
  • Nucleic acid analysis suggests a very long association of the viruses with the wasps (greater than 70 million years). (wikipedia.org)
  • In this exceptional example of host behavioral manipulation, the parasitoid wasp takes advantage of the natural behavior of web waving of its prey to provide the larva with a shelter. (scholarpedia.org)
  • Instead of paralyzing and then burrowing the host, this wasp literately coerces the host to build the shelter for its future larva. (scholarpedia.org)
  • In this safe net, the wasp larva consumes the spider, ultimately killing it, and then pupates in the suspended net. (scholarpedia.org)
  • Interestingly, if the wasp larva is removed just prior to the execution of the death sentence, the spider continues to build the specialized cocoon web. (scholarpedia.org)
  • Hence, the changes in the spider's behavior must be induced chemically rather than by direct physical interference of the wasp larva. (scholarpedia.org)
  • Host eggs parasitized by Trichogramma may turn black as the wasp larva develops within. (umd.edu)
  • The results indicate that Spiroplasma MSRO prevents successful development of both wasps, and confers a small, albeit significant, increase in larva-to-adult survival of flies subjected to wasp attacks. (unboundmedicine.com)
  • When the wasp larva hatches inside the tobacco budworm's body, it slowly consumes the caterpillar as it grows. (lsuagcenter.com)
  • The behavior of the tobacco budworm is gradually modified by the wasp larva. (lsuagcenter.com)
  • This feat is dramatic because the wasp larva does not have direct contact with the spider's nervous system: it is an external parasite, riding on the surface of the spider's abdomen. (phys.org)
  • Now fully developed, the wasp larva proceeds to eat its host spider. (phys.org)
  • These viruses are part of a unique biological system consisting of an endoparasitic wasp ( parasitoid ), a host (usually lepidopteran ) larva, and the virus. (wikipedia.org)
  • Additionally, genes expressed from the polydnavirus in the parasitised host alter host development and metabolism to be beneficial for the growth and survival of the parasitoid larva. (wikipedia.org)
  • Parasitization of silkworm, Bombyx mori by invasive larva of dipteran parasitoid Exorista bombycis caused upto 20% revenue loss in sericulture. (degruyter.com)
  • One of the accompanying photos shows at least six wasps developed from a single midge larva. (msu.edu)
  • After the wasp egg hatches out into a larva, it eats the pupating fly larva, uses the pupa to metamorphose into an adult wasp, and the cycle continues. (reed.edu)
  • Asgari S, Hellers M, Schmidt O (1996) Host haemocyte inactivation by an insect parasitoid: transient expression of a polydnavirus gene. (springer.com)
  • The parasitoid emerald jewel wasp Ampulex compressa induces a compliant state of hypokinesia in its host, the American cockroach Periplaneta americana through direct envenomation of the central nervous system (CNS). (mcponline.org)
  • This team proposes that by injecting the spider host with the molting hormone, ecdysone, the wasp induces the spider to make a special web for the wasp's pupa. (phys.org)
  • We show that in cockroaches stung by a wasp the octopamine receptor agonist chlordimeform induces a significant increase in spontaneous walking. (biologists.org)
  • It seems likely that the observed alteration in the activity of octopaminergic neurons is part of the mechanism by which the wasp induces a change in the behavioral state of its prey. (biologists.org)
  • Naturally occurring predators and parasitoids are known to reduce the abundance of pest invertebrates in arable crops, yet current treatment thresholds do not account for such a contribution to pest management. (guildhe.ac.uk)
  • Aphid predators and parasitoids make an important contribution to aphid pest control within cereal fields, and thresholds for insecticide application should account for this to avoid unnecessary treatments. (guildhe.ac.uk)
  • This session will help you understand habitat needs of pollinators, predators and parasitoids common in our region and ways you can support their conservation with habitat and farm management. (slideshare.net)
  • Parasitic wasps of the genus Scelio play an important role in the regulation of orthopteran populations and are implicated in suppressing numbers of numerous pest locusts and grasshoppers. (publish.csiro.au)
  • Thought to be Canada's most promising potential defense against the brown marmorated stink bug - a globally spreading agricultural pest native to Asia - the samurai wasp (another species from Asia and natural parasitoid of the former) has been considered for future release in the country in recent years. (news-medical.net)
  • Despite the vast body of theoretical and empirical literature dealing with parasitoid learning, this knowledge has thus far rarely been exploited for manipulating the efficacy of augmentative biological pest control. (frontiersin.org)
  • POC can thus result in a "foraging efficacy gain", defined as the difference between the number of naive and conditioned parasitoids that need to be released to reach a certain parasitization level of the target-pest in the crop environment. (frontiersin.org)
  • This "gain" increases with an improved parasitoid learning ability and depends on the interplay between the parasitoid, crop, target-pest species and parasitoid rearing method. (frontiersin.org)
  • Parasitoid olfactory conditioning (POC): defined here as training parasitoids to respond more strongly and/or specifically to odors involved in target-pest-finding or target-pest-acceptance by making use of one or more of the learning mechanisms outlined below. (frontiersin.org)
  • They were then offered to mated female parasitoids for 24 h at different intervals. (pagepressjournals.org)
  • Sex pheromones have rarely been studied in parasitoids, and it remains largely unknown how male and female parasitoids locate each other. (mdpi.com)
  • This hypothesis reflects the general trajectory of host survivorship curves: as a host cohort ages, availability to female parasitoids declines, as can the risk that the host - and the parasitoid offspring it carries - succumbs to extrinsic mortality. (jove.com)
  • When stung by the parasitoid wasp Ampulex compressa , cockroaches Periplaneta americana enter a hypokinetic state that is characterized by little, if any, spontaneous locomotor activity. (biologists.org)
  • Results are discussed in relation to possible ecological risks posed by the transfer of soil As(V) via the plant-arthropod system to parasitoid arthropods in agroecosystems. (elsevier.com)
  • Oak "apples" -a gall induced on oak trees by gall wasps -have historically been useful in ink production. (listverse.com)
  • Charlene thought they might be gall wasps (Cynipidae). (msu.edu)
  • We combined that observation with a previous discovery that, in one genus, spiders that had just built cocoon webs had unusually high concentrations of ecdysone in their bodies, and predicted that the specificity of the wasp larva's effects may already be present in the spider's nervous system , in the form of its specific behavioral responses to the hormone that controls its own molting cycle. (phys.org)
  • The author, however, is certain that the two new wasp species belong to the Pteromalus genus of parasitoids. (phys.org)
  • Provide information and exercises to allow teachers to use the jewel wasp to illustrate biology concepts while meeting the Illinois Learning Goals . (niu.edu)
  • I. Why use the jewel wasp? (niu.edu)
  • Chalcidoidea are a megadiverse group of mostly parasitoid wasps of major ecological and economical importance that are omnipresent in almost all extant terrestrial habitats. (zfmk.de)
  • In this study, we infer the early divergence events within Chalcidoidea and address the question of whether or not ancestral chalcidoids were small egg parasitoids. (zfmk.de)
  • The inferred Chalcidoidea tree suggests a transition from ancestral minute egg parasitoids to larger-bodied parasitoids of other host stages during the early history of chalcidoid evolution. (zfmk.de)
  • Having a haplo-diploid sex determination system, female hymenopteran parasitoids are able to reproduce without mating, but this will result in only male progeny. (mdpi.com)
  • The synthesis capability of some amino acids is lost during the insect evolution, and hymenopteran parasitoids can make up for these deficiencies by altering free amino acid concentrations in host. (elifesciences.org)