Liver Diseases: Pathological processes of the LIVER.Intestinal Diseases, Parasitic: Infections of the INTESTINES with PARASITES, commonly involving PARASITIC WORMS. Infections with roundworms (NEMATODE INFECTIONS) and tapeworms (CESTODE INFECTIONS) are also known as HELMINTHIASIS.Parasitic Diseases: Infections or infestations with parasitic organisms. They are often contracted through contact with an intermediate vector, but may occur as the result of direct exposure.Liver Diseases, Alcoholic: Liver diseases associated with ALCOHOLISM. It usually refers to the coexistence of two or more subentities, i.e., ALCOHOLIC FATTY LIVER; ALCOHOLIC HEPATITIS; and ALCOHOLIC CIRRHOSIS.Protozoan Infections: Infections with unicellular organisms formerly members of the subkingdom Protozoa.Liver Cirrhosis: Liver disease in which the normal microcirculation, the gross vascular anatomy, and the hepatic architecture have been variably destroyed and altered with fibrous septa surrounding regenerated or regenerating parenchymal nodules.Fatty Liver: Lipid infiltration of the hepatic parenchymal cells resulting in a yellow-colored liver. The abnormal lipid accumulation is usually in the form of TRIGLYCERIDES, either as a single large droplet or multiple small droplets. Fatty liver is caused by an imbalance in the metabolism of FATTY ACIDS.Liver: A large lobed glandular organ in the abdomen of vertebrates that is responsible for detoxification, metabolism, synthesis and storage of various substances.Liver Transplantation: The transference of a part of or an entire liver from one human or animal to another.Helminthiasis: Infestation with parasitic worms of the helminth class.Liver Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the LIVER.End Stage Liver Disease: Final stage of a liver disease when the liver failure is irreversible and LIVER TRANSPLANTATION is needed.Helminths: Commonly known as parasitic worms, this group includes the ACANTHOCEPHALA; NEMATODA; and PLATYHELMINTHS. Some authors consider certain species of LEECHES that can become temporarily parasitic as helminths.Liver Function Tests: Blood tests that are used to evaluate how well a patient's liver is working and also to help diagnose liver conditions.Parasitic Diseases, Animal: Infections or infestations with parasitic organisms. The infestation may be experimental or veterinary.Parasites: Invertebrate organisms that live on or in another organism (the host), and benefit at the expense of the other. Traditionally excluded from definition of parasites are pathogenic BACTERIA; FUNGI; VIRUSES; and PLANTS; though they may live parasitically.Isospora: A genus of protozoan parasites found in the intestines of birds, amphibians, reptiles, and mammals, including man. The oocysts produce two sporocysts, each with four sporozoites. Many species are parasitic in wild and domestic animals.Feces: Excrement from the INTESTINES, containing unabsorbed solids, waste products, secretions, and BACTERIA of the DIGESTIVE SYSTEM.Nematode Infections: Infections by nematodes, general or unspecified.Hymenolepiasis: Infection with tapeworms of the genus Hymenolepis.Hepatitis: INFLAMMATION of the LIVER.Liver Cirrhosis, Alcoholic: FIBROSIS of the hepatic parenchyma due to chronic excess ALCOHOL DRINKING.Liver Regeneration: Repair or renewal of hepatic tissue.Giardiasis: An infection of the SMALL INTESTINE caused by the flagellated protozoan GIARDIA LAMBLIA. It is spread via contaminated food and water and by direct person-to-person contact.Microsomes, Liver: Closed vesicles of fragmented endoplasmic reticulum created when liver cells or tissue are disrupted by homogenization. They may be smooth or rough.Cestode Infections: Infections with true tapeworms of the helminth subclass CESTODA.Drug-Induced Liver Injury: A spectrum of clinical liver diseases ranging from mild biochemical abnormalities to ACUTE LIVER FAILURE, caused by drugs, drug metabolites, and chemicals from the environment.Toilet Facilities: Facilities provided for human excretion, often with accompanying handwashing facilities.Trichuris: A genus of nematode worms comprising the whipworms.Sparganosis: Infection of animals, including fish and man, with a developmental stage of Diphyllobothrium. This stage has recently been referred to as a plerocercoid but the name sparganum has persisted. Therefore, infection of fish or other animals with the plerocercoid larvae is sparganosis. Fish-eating mammals, including man, are the final hosts.Prevalence: The total number of cases of a given disease in a specified population at a designated time. It is differentiated from INCIDENCE, which refers to the number of new cases in the population at a given time.Helminthiasis, Animal: Infestation of animals with parasitic worms of the helminth class. The infestation may be experimental or veterinary.Hepatitis, Alcoholic: INFLAMMATION of the LIVER due to ALCOHOL ABUSE. It is characterized by NECROSIS of HEPATOCYTES, infiltration by NEUTROPHILS, and deposit of MALLORY BODIES. Depending on its severity, the inflammatory lesion may be reversible or progress to LIVER CIRRHOSIS.Alanine Transaminase: An enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of L-alanine and 2-oxoglutarate to pyruvate and L-glutamate. (From Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992) EC 2.6.1.2.Parasite Egg Count: Determination of parasite eggs in feces.Ascaris lumbricoides: A species of parasitic nematode that is the largest found in the human intestine. Its distribution is worldwide, but it is more prevalent in areas of poor sanitation. Human infection with A. lumbricoides is acquired by swallowing fully embryonated eggs from contaminated soil.Sparganum: The larval form of the diphyllobothriid tapeworms of the genus DIPHYLLOBOTHRIUM and SPIROMETRA. Fish-eating mammals and man are the final hosts.Anthelmintics: Agents destructive to parasitic worms. They are used therapeutically in the treatment of HELMINTHIASIS in man and animal.Fascioliasis: Liver disease caused by infections with parasitic flukes of the genus FASCIOLA, such as FASCIOLA HEPATICA.Antibodies, Helminth: Immunoglobulins produced in a response to HELMINTH ANTIGENS.Liver Failure: Severe inability of the LIVER to perform its normal metabolic functions, as evidenced by severe JAUNDICE and abnormal serum levels of AMMONIA; BILIRUBIN; ALKALINE PHOSPHATASE; ASPARTATE AMINOTRANSFERASE; LACTATE DEHYDROGENASES; and albumin/globulin ratio. (Blakiston's Gould Medical Dictionary, 4th ed)Trichuriasis: Infection with nematodes of the genus TRICHURIS, formerly called Trichocephalus.Giardia lamblia: A species of parasitic EUKARYOTES that attaches itself to the intestinal mucosa and feeds on mucous secretions. The organism is roughly pear-shaped and motility is somewhat erratic, with a slow oscillation about the long axis.Hepatitis, Chronic: INFLAMMATION of the LIVER with ongoing hepatocellular injury for 6 months or more, characterized by NECROSIS of HEPATOCYTES and inflammatory cell (LEUKOCYTES) infiltration. Chronic hepatitis can be caused by viruses, medications, autoimmune diseases, and other unknown factors.Taenia: A genus of large tapeworms.Mitochondria, Liver: Mitochondria in hepatocytes. As in all mitochondria, there are an outer membrane and an inner membrane, together creating two separate mitochondrial compartments: the internal matrix space and a much narrower intermembrane space. In the liver mitochondrion, an estimated 67% of the total mitochondrial proteins is located in the matrix. (From Alberts et al., Molecular Biology of the Cell, 2d ed, p343-4)Trematode Infections: Infections caused by infestation with worms of the class Trematoda.Hepatocytes: The main structural component of the LIVER. They are specialized EPITHELIAL CELLS that are organized into interconnected plates called lobules.Hygiene: The science dealing with the establishment and maintenance of health in the individual and the group. It includes the conditions and practices conducive to health. (Webster, 3d ed)Saint Lucia: An independent state in the West Indies. Its capital is Castries. It was probably discovered by Columbus in 1502 and first settled by the English in 1605. Contended for by the French and English in the 17th century, it was regarded as neutral in 1748 but changed hands many times in the wars of the 19th century. It became a self-governing state in association with Great Britain in 1967 and achieved independence in 1979. Columbus named it for the day on which he discovered it, the feast of St. Lucy, a Sicilian virgin martyr. (From Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p1051 & Room, Brewer's Dictionary of Names, 1992, p477)Carcinoma, Hepatocellular: A primary malignant neoplasm of epithelial liver cells. It ranges from a well-differentiated tumor with EPITHELIAL CELLS indistinguishable from normal HEPATOCYTES to a poorly differentiated neoplasm. The cells may be uniform or markedly pleomorphic, or form GIANT CELLS. Several classification schemes have been suggested.Isosporiasis: Infection with parasitic protozoa of the genus ISOSPORA, producing intestinal disease. It is caused by ingestion of oocysts and can produce tissue cysts.Liver Failure, Acute: A form of rapid-onset LIVER FAILURE, also known as fulminant hepatic failure, caused by severe liver injury or massive loss of HEPATOCYTES. It is characterized by sudden development of liver dysfunction and JAUNDICE. Acute liver failure may progress to exhibit cerebral dysfunction even HEPATIC COMA depending on the etiology that includes hepatic ISCHEMIA, drug toxicity, malignant infiltration, and viral hepatitis such as post-transfusion HEPATITIS B and HEPATITIS C.Liver Cirrhosis, Biliary: FIBROSIS of the hepatic parenchyma due to obstruction of BILE flow (CHOLESTASIS) in the intrahepatic or extrahepatic bile ducts (BILE DUCTS, INTRAHEPATIC; BILE DUCTS, EXTRAHEPATIC). Primary biliary cirrhosis involves the destruction of small intra-hepatic bile ducts and bile secretion. Secondary biliary cirrhosis is produced by prolonged obstruction of large intrahepatic or extrahepatic bile ducts from a variety of causes.Ethiopia: An independent state in eastern Africa. Ethiopia is located in the Horn of Africa and is bordered on the north and northeast by Eritrea, on the east by Djibouti and Somalia, on the south by Kenya, and on the west and southwest by Sudan. Its capital is Addis Ababa.Ascariasis: Infection by nematodes of the genus ASCARIS. Ingestion of infective eggs causes diarrhea and pneumonitis. Its distribution is more prevalent in areas of poor sanitation and where human feces are used for fertilizer.Schistosomiasis: Infection with flukes (trematodes) of the genus SCHISTOSOMA. Three species produce the most frequent clinical diseases: SCHISTOSOMA HAEMATOBIUM (endemic in Africa and the Middle East), SCHISTOSOMA MANSONI (in Egypt, northern and southern Africa, some West Indies islands, northern 2/3 of South America), and SCHISTOSOMA JAPONICUM (in Japan, China, the Philippines, Celebes, Thailand, Laos). S. mansoni is often seen in Puerto Ricans living in the United States.Hookworm Infections: Infection of humans or animals with hookworms other than those caused by the genus Ancylostoma or Necator, for which the specific terms ANCYLOSTOMIASIS and NECATORIASIS are available.Hymenolepis: A genus of small tapeworms of birds and mammals.Chad: A republic in central Africa, east of NIGER, west of SUDAN and south of LIBYA. Its capital is N'Djamena.Liver Circulation: The circulation of BLOOD through the LIVER.Fatty Liver, Alcoholic: Lipid infiltration of the hepatic parenchymal cells that is due to ALCOHOL ABUSE. The fatty changes in the alcoholic fatty liver may be reversible, depending on the amounts of TRIGLYCERIDES accumulated.Cholestasis: Impairment of bile flow due to obstruction in small bile ducts (INTRAHEPATIC CHOLESTASIS) or obstruction in large bile ducts (EXTRAHEPATIC CHOLESTASIS).Cote d'Ivoire: A republic in western Africa, south of MALI and BURKINA FASO, bordered by GHANA on the east. Its administrative capital is Abidjan and Yamoussoukro has been the official capital since 1983. The country was formerly called Ivory Coast.Antinematodal Agents: Substances used in the treatment or control of nematode infestations. They are used also in veterinary practice.Echinococcosis: An infection caused by the infestation of the larval form of tapeworms of the genus Echinococcus. The liver, lungs, and kidney are the most common areas of infestation.Anisakis: A genus of nematodes of the superfamily ASCARIDOIDEA. Its organisms are found in the stomachs of marine animals and birds. Human infection occurs by ingestion of raw fish that contain larvae.Strongyloidiasis: Infection with nematodes of the genus STRONGYLOIDES. The presence of larvae may produce pneumonitis and the presence of adult worms in the intestine could lead to moderate to severe diarrhea.Neurocysticercosis: Infection of the brain, spinal cord, or perimeningeal structures with the larval forms of the genus TAENIA (primarily T. solium in humans). Lesions formed by the organism are referred to as cysticerci. The infection may be subacute or chronic, and the severity of symptoms depends on the severity of the host immune response and the location and number of lesions. SEIZURES represent the most common clinical manifestation although focal neurologic deficits may occur. (From Joynt, Clinical Neurology, 1998, Ch27, pp46-50)Pyrantel Pamoate: Broad spectrum antinematodal anthelmintic used also in veterinary medicine.Antiparasitic Agents: Drugs used to treat or prevent parasitic infections.Albendazole: A benzimidazole broad-spectrum anthelmintic structurally related to MEBENDAZOLE that is effective against many diseases. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p38)Hepatitis C, Chronic: INFLAMMATION of the LIVER in humans that is caused by HEPATITIS C VIRUS lasting six months or more. Chronic hepatitis C can lead to LIVER CIRRHOSIS.Eimeria: A genus of protozoan parasites of the subclass COCCIDIA. Various species are parasitic in the epithelial cells of the liver and intestines of man and other animals.Fasciola hepatica: A species of helminth commonly called the sheep liver fluke. It occurs in the biliary passages, liver, and gallbladder during various stages of development. Snails and aquatic vegetation are the intermediate hosts. Occasionally seen in man, it is most common in sheep and cattle.Chronic Disease: Diseases which have one or more of the following characteristics: they are permanent, leave residual disability, are caused by nonreversible pathological alteration, require special training of the patient for rehabilitation, or may be expected to require a long period of supervision, observation, or care. (Dictionary of Health Services Management, 2d ed)Liver Extracts: Extracts of liver tissue containing uncharacterized specific factors with specific activities; a soluble thermostable fraction of mammalian liver is used in the treatment of pernicious anemia.Antigens, Helminth: Any part or derivative of a helminth that elicits an immune reaction. The most commonly seen helminth antigens are those of the schistosomes.Cysticercosis: Infection with CYSTICERCUS, the larval form of the various tapeworms of the genus Taenia (usually T. solium in man). In humans they penetrate the intestinal wall and invade subcutaneous tissue, brain, eye, muscle, heart, liver, lung, and peritoneum. Brain involvement results in NEUROCYSTICERCOSIS.Parasitology: The study of parasites and PARASITIC DISEASES.Hepatitis, Autoimmune: A chronic self-perpetuating hepatocellular INFLAMMATION of unknown cause, usually with HYPERGAMMAGLOBULINEMIA and serum AUTOANTIBODIES.Angiostrongylus: A genus of parasitic nematodes of the superfamily METASTRONGYLOIDEA. Two species, ANGIOSTRONGYLUS CANTONENSIS and A. vasorum, infest the lungs of rats and dogs, respectively. A. cantonensis is transmissible to man where it causes frequently fatal infection of the central nervous system.Hepatitis, Viral, Human: INFLAMMATION of the LIVER in humans due to infection by VIRUSES. There are several significant types of human viral hepatitis with infection caused by enteric-transmission (HEPATITIS A; HEPATITIS E) or blood transfusion (HEPATITIS B; HEPATITIS C; and HEPATITIS D).Taenia solium: Species of tapeworm in the genus TAENIA, that infects swine. It is acquired by humans through the ingestion of cured or undercooked pork.Liver Neoplasms, Experimental: Experimentally induced tumors of the LIVER.Central Nervous System Helminthiasis: Infections of the BRAIN; SPINAL CORD; or MENINGES caused by HELMINTHS (parasitic worms).Trematoda: Class of parasitic flukes consisting of three subclasses, Monogenea, Aspidogastrea, and Digenea. The digenetic trematodes are the only ones found in man. They are endoparasites and require two hosts to complete their life cycle.Strongyloides: A genus of parasitic nematodes widely distributed as intestinal parasites of mammals.QatarCentral Nervous System Parasitic Infections: Infections of the brain, spinal cord, and meninges caused by parasites.Dictyocaulus Infections: Infection with nematodes of the genus DICTYOCAULUS. In deer, cattle, sheep, and horses the bronchi are the site of infestation.Entamoeba: A genus of ameboid protozoa characterized by the presence of beaded chromatin on the inner surface of the nuclear membrane. Its organisms are parasitic in invertebrates and vertebrates, including humans.Trypanosomiasis: Infection with protozoa of the genus TRYPANOSOMA.Hepatectomy: Excision of all or part of the liver. (Dorland, 28th ed)Eye Infections, Parasitic: Mild to severe infections of the eye and its adjacent structures (adnexa) by adult or larval protozoan or metazoan parasites.Coccidiosis: Protozoan infection found in animals and man. It is caused by several different genera of COCCIDIA.Risk Factors: An aspect of personal behavior or lifestyle, environmental exposure, or inborn or inherited characteristic, which, on the basis of epidemiologic evidence, is known to be associated with a health-related condition considered important to prevent.Echinococcus: A genus of very small TAPEWORMS, in the family Taeniidae. The adult form is found in various CARNIVORA but not humans. The larval form is seen in humans under certain epidemiologic circumstances.Liver Cirrhosis, Experimental: Experimentally induced chronic injuries to the parenchymal cells in the liver to achieve a model for LIVER CIRRHOSIS.Eosinophilia: Abnormal increase of EOSINOPHILS in the blood, tissues or organs.Anisakiasis: Infection with roundworms of the genus ANISAKIS. Human infection results from the consumption of fish harboring roundworm larvae. The worms may cause acute NAUSEA; VOMITING; or penetrate into the wall of the DIGESTIVE TRACT where they give rise to EOSINOPHILIC GRANULOMA in the STOMACH; INTESTINES; or the OMENTUM.Amoebozoa: A supergroup (some say phylum) of ameboid EUKARYOTES, comprising ARCHAMOEBAE; LOBOSEA; and MYCETOZOA.Leishmaniasis: A disease caused by any of a number of species of protozoa in the genus LEISHMANIA. There are four major clinical types of this infection: cutaneous (Old and New World) (LEISHMANIASIS, CUTANEOUS), diffuse cutaneous (LEISHMANIASIS, DIFFUSE CUTANEOUS), mucocutaneous (LEISHMANIASIS, MUCOCUTANEOUS), and visceral (LEISHMANIASIS, VISCERAL).Cysticercus: The larval form of various tapeworms of the genus Taenia.Euglenozoa Infections: Infections with the protozoa of the phylum EUGLENOZOA.Hepatitis C: INFLAMMATION of the LIVER in humans caused by HEPATITIS C VIRUS, a single-stranded RNA virus. Its incubation period is 30-90 days. Hepatitis C is transmitted primarily by contaminated blood parenterally, and is often associated with transfusion and intravenous drug abuse. However, in a significant number of cases, the source of hepatitis C infection is unknown.Hepatic Encephalopathy: A syndrome characterized by central nervous system dysfunction in association with LIVER FAILURE, including portal-systemic shunts. Clinical features include lethargy and CONFUSION (frequently progressing to COMA); ASTERIXIS; NYSTAGMUS, PATHOLOGIC; brisk oculovestibular reflexes; decorticate and decerebrate posturing; MUSCLE SPASTICITY; and bilateral extensor plantar reflexes (see REFLEX, BABINSKI). ELECTROENCEPHALOGRAPHY may demonstrate triphasic waves. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp1117-20; Plum & Posner, Diagnosis of Stupor and Coma, 3rd ed, p222-5)Hepatitis B: INFLAMMATION of the LIVER in humans caused by a member of the ORTHOHEPADNAVIRUS genus, HEPATITIS B VIRUS. It is primarily transmitted by parenteral exposure, such as transfusion of contaminated blood or blood products, but can also be transmitted via sexual or intimate personal contact.Cestoda: A subclass of segmented worms comprising the tapeworms.Bilirubin: A bile pigment that is a degradation product of HEME.Schistosoma haematobium: A species of trematode blood flukes of the family Schistosomatidae which occurs at different stages in development in veins of the pulmonary and hepatic system and finally the bladder lumen. This parasite causes urinary schistosomiasis.Blastocystis hominis: A species of parasitic protozoa found in the intestines of humans and other primates. It was classified as a yeast in 1912. Over the years, questions arose about this designation. In 1967, many physiological and morphological B. hominis characteristics were reported that fit a protozoan classification. Since that time, other papers have corroborated this work and the organism is now recognized as a protozoan parasite of humans causing intestinal disease with potentially disabling symptoms.Cholestasis, Intrahepatic: Impairment of bile flow due to injury to the HEPATOCYTES; BILE CANALICULI; or the intrahepatic bile ducts (BILE DUCTS, INTRAHEPATIC).Aspartate Aminotransferases: Enzymes of the transferase class that catalyze the conversion of L-aspartate and 2-ketoglutarate to oxaloacetate and L-glutamate. EC 2.6.1.1.Fasciola: A genus of trematode liver flukes of the family Fasciolidae. Two species of this genus are F. hepatica and F. gigantica. The parasites are found in the liver and gallbladder and associated ducts in mammals and occasionally man. F. gigantica occurs rarely in man.Blastocystis: A genus of protozoa of the suborder BLASTOCYSTINA. It was first classified as a yeast but further studies have shown it to be a protozoan.Trichinellosis: An infection with TRICHINELLA. It is caused by eating raw or undercooked meat that is infected with larvae of nematode worms TRICHINELLA genus. All members of the TRICHINELLA genus can infect human in addition to TRICHINELLA SPIRALIS, the traditional etiological agent. It is distributed throughout much of the world and is re-emerging in some parts as a public health hazard and a food safety problem.Toxocariasis: Infection by round worms of the genus TOXOCARA, usually found in wild and domesticated cats and dogs and foxes, except for the larvae, which may produce visceral and ocular larva migrans in man.Cross-Sectional Studies: Studies in which the presence or absence of disease or other health-related variables are determined in each member of the study population or in a representative sample at one particular time. This contrasts with LONGITUDINAL STUDIES which are followed over a period of time.Enterobius: A genus of intestinal nematode worms which includes the pinworm or threadworm Enterobius vermicularis.Host-Parasite Interactions: The relationship between an invertebrate and another organism (the host), one of which lives at the expense of the other. Traditionally excluded from definition of parasites are pathogenic BACTERIA; FUNGI; VIRUSES; and PLANTS; though they may live parasitically.Taeniasis: Infection with tapeworms of the genus Taenia.Hymenolepis nana: The smallest species of TAPEWORMS. It is the only cestode that parasitizes humans without requiring an intermediate host.Liver Abscess: Solitary or multiple collections of PUS within the liver as a result of infection by bacteria, protozoa, or other agents.Spirometra: A genus of tapeworms of the family Diphyllobothriidae, which are parasites of fish-eating cats, dogs, and birds. Infection in man is caused by eating undercooked fish. The larval form is called SPARGANUM.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Sanitation: The development and establishment of environmental conditions favorable to the health of the public.Clonorchiasis: Infection of the biliary passages with CLONORCHIS SINENSIS, also called Opisthorchis sinensis. It may lead to inflammation of the biliary tract, proliferation of biliary epithelium, progressive portal fibrosis, and sometimes bile duct carcinoma. Extension to the liver may lead to fatty changes and cirrhosis. (From Dorland, 27th ed)Echinostomiasis: Infection by flukes of the genus Echinostoma.Strongyloides stercoralis: A species of parasitic nematode widely distributed in tropical and subtropical countries. The females and their larvae inhabit the mucosa of the intestinal tract, where they cause ulceration and diarrhea.Orphanages: Institutions for the housing and care of orphans, foundlings, and abandoned children. They have existed as such since the medieval period but the heading is applicable to such usage also in modern parlance.Larva Migrans: Infections caused by nematode larvae which never develop into the adult stage and migrate through various body tissues. They commonly infect the skin, eyes, and viscera in man. Ancylostoma brasiliensis causes cutaneous larva migrans. Toxocara causes visceral larva migrans.Bile Ducts: The channels that collect and transport the bile secretion from the BILE CANALICULI, the smallest branch of the BILIARY TRACT in the LIVER, through the bile ductules, the bile ducts out the liver, and to the GALLBLADDER for storage.Treatment Outcome: Evaluation undertaken to assess the results or consequences of management and procedures used in combating disease in order to determine the efficacy, effectiveness, safety, and practicability of these interventions in individual cases or series.Coinfection: Simultaneous infection of a host organism by two or more pathogens. In virology, coinfection commonly refers to simultaneous infection of a single cell by two or more different viruses.Echinococcus granulosus: A species of hydatid tapeworm (class CESTODA) in the family Taeniidae, whose adult form infects the DIGESTIVE TRACT of DOGS, other canines, and CATS. The larval form infects SHEEP; PIGS; HORSES; and may infect humans, where it migrates to various organs and forms permanent HYDATID CYSTS.Cyclosporiasis: Infection with parasitic protozoa of the genus CYCLOSPORA. It is distributed globally and causes a diarrheal illness. Transmission is waterborne.Ancylostomatoidea: A superfamily of nematode parasitic hookworms consisting of four genera: ANCYLOSTOMA; NECATOR; Bunostomum; and Uncinaria. ANCYLOSTOMA and NECATOR occur in humans and other mammals. Bunostomum is common in ruminants and Uncinaria in wolves, foxes, and dogs.Malnutrition: An imbalanced nutritional status resulted from insufficient intake of nutrients to meet normal physiological requirement.alpha 1-Antitrypsin Deficiency: Deficiency of the protease inhibitor ALPHA 1-ANTITRYPSIN that manifests primarily as PULMONARY EMPHYSEMA and LIVER CIRRHOSIS.Mansonelliasis: Infection with nematodes of the genus MANSONELLA. Symptoms include pruritus, headache, and articular swelling.Paragonimus westermani: A species of lung fluke infecting humans and other animals, and found chiefly in Asia and the Far East.Hepacivirus: A genus of FLAVIVIRIDAE causing parenterally-transmitted HEPATITIS C which is associated with transfusions and drug abuse. Hepatitis C virus is the type species.Malaysia: A parliamentary democracy with a constitutional monarch in southeast Asia, consisting of 11 states (West Malaysia) on the Malay Peninsula and two states (East Malaysia) on the island of BORNEO. It is also called the Federation of Malaysia. Its capital is Kuala Lumpur. Before 1963 it was the Union of Malaya. It reorganized in 1948 as the Federation of Malaya, becoming independent from British Malaya in 1957 and becoming Malaysia in 1963 as a federation of Malaya, Sabah, Sarawak, and Singapore (which seceded in 1965). The form Malay- probably derives from the Tamil malay, mountain, with reference to its geography. (From Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p715 & Room, Brewer's Dictionary of Names, 1992, p329)Liver, Artificial: Devices for simulating the activities of the liver. They often consist of a hybrid between both biological and artificial materials.Cholangitis, Sclerosing: Chronic inflammatory disease of the BILIARY TRACT. It is characterized by fibrosis and hardening of the intrahepatic and extrahepatic biliary ductal systems leading to bile duct strictures, CHOLESTASIS, and eventual BILIARY CIRRHOSIS.Mebendazole: A benzimidazole that acts by interfering with CARBOHYDRATE METABOLISM and inhibiting polymerization of MICROTUBULES.Cryptosporidium: A genus of coccidian parasites of the family CRYPTOSPORIDIIDAE, found in the intestinal epithelium of many vertebrates including humans.Schistosomiasis haematobia: A human disease caused by the infection of parasitic worms SCHISTOSOMA HAEMATOBIUM. It is endemic in AFRICA and parts of the MIDDLE EAST. Tissue damages most often occur in the URINARY TRACT, specifically the URINARY BLADDER.Dientamoeba: A genus of minute EUKARYOTES that are characterized by the preponderance of binucleate over uninucleate forms, the presence of several distinct granules in the karyosome, and the lack of a cystic stage. It is parasitic in the large intestine of humans and certain monkeys.Gnathostoma: A genus of parasitic nematodes that occurs in mammals including man. Infection in humans is either by larvae penetrating the skin or by ingestion of uncooked fish.Kupffer Cells: Specialized phagocytic cells of the MONONUCLEAR PHAGOCYTE SYSTEM found on the luminal surface of the hepatic sinusoids. They filter bacteria and small foreign proteins out of the blood, and dispose of worn out red blood cells.Disease Models, Animal: Naturally occurring or experimentally induced animal diseases with pathological processes sufficiently similar to those of human diseases. They are used as study models for human diseases.Hidradenitis Suppurativa: A chronic suppurative and cicatricial disease of the apocrine glands occurring chiefly in the axillae in women and in the groin and anal regions in men. It is characterized by poral occlusion with secondary bacterial infection, evolving into abscesses which eventually rupture. As the disease becomes chronic, ulcers appear, sinus tracts enlarge, fistulas develop, and fibrosis and scarring become evident.Toxocara: A genus of ascarid nematodes commonly parasitic in the intestines of cats and dogs.Hypertension, Portal: Abnormal increase of resistance to blood flow within the hepatic PORTAL SYSTEM, frequently seen in LIVER CIRRHOSIS and conditions with obstruction of the PORTAL VEIN.Blastocystis Infections: Infections with organisms of the genus BLASTOCYSTIS. The species B. hominis is responsible for most infections. Parasitologic surveys have generally found small numbers of this species in human stools, but higher positivity rates and organism numbers in AIDS patients and other immunosuppressed patients (IMMUNOCOMPROMISED HOST). Symptoms include ABDOMINAL PAIN; DIARRHEA; CONSTIPATION; VOMITING; and FATIGUE.gamma-Glutamyltransferase: An enzyme, sometimes called GGT, with a key role in the synthesis and degradation of GLUTATHIONE; (GSH, a tripeptide that protects cells from many toxins). It catalyzes the transfer of the gamma-glutamyl moiety to an acceptor amino acid.Ascites: Accumulation or retention of free fluid within the peritoneal cavity.Paragonimiasis: Infection with TREMATODA of the genus PARAGONIMUS.Rural Population: The inhabitants of rural areas or of small towns classified as rural.Severity of Illness Index: Levels within a diagnostic group which are established by various measurement criteria applied to the seriousness of a patient's disorder.Waiting Lists: Prospective patient listings for appointments or treatments.Schistosomiasis mansoni: Schistosomiasis caused by Schistosoma mansoni. It is endemic in Africa, the Middle East, South America, and the Caribbean and affects mainly the bowel, spleen, and liver.Retrospective Studies: Studies used to test etiologic hypotheses in which inferences about an exposure to putative causal factors are derived from data relating to characteristics of persons under study or to events or experiences in their past. The essential feature is that some of the persons under study have the disease or outcome of interest and their characteristics are compared with those of unaffected persons.Cryptosporidiosis: Intestinal infection with organisms of the genus CRYPTOSPORIDIUM. It occurs in both animals and humans. Symptoms include severe DIARRHEA.Entamoebiasis: Infection with amoebae of the genus ENTAMOEBA. Infection with E. histolytica causes DYSENTERY, AMEBIC and LIVER ABSCESS, AMEBIC.Biopsy: Removal and pathologic examination of specimens in the form of small pieces of tissue from the living body.Carbon Tetrachloride: A solvent for oils, fats, lacquers, varnishes, rubber waxes, and resins, and a starting material in the manufacturing of organic compounds. Poisoning by inhalation, ingestion or skin absorption is possible and may be fatal. (Merck Index, 11th ed)Malaria: A protozoan disease caused in humans by four species of the PLASMODIUM genus: PLASMODIUM FALCIPARUM; PLASMODIUM VIVAX; PLASMODIUM OVALE; and PLASMODIUM MALARIAE; and transmitted by the bite of an infected female mosquito of the genus ANOPHELES. Malaria is endemic in parts of Asia, Africa, Central and South America, Oceania, and certain Caribbean islands. It is characterized by extreme exhaustion associated with paroxysms of high FEVER; SWEATING; shaking CHILLS; and ANEMIA. Malaria in ANIMALS is caused by other species of plasmodia.Eukaryota: One of the three domains of life (the others being BACTERIA and ARCHAEA), also called Eukarya. These are organisms whose cells are enclosed in membranes and possess a nucleus. They comprise almost all multicellular and many unicellular organisms, and are traditionally divided into groups (sometimes called kingdoms) including ANIMALS; PLANTS; FUNGI; and various algae and other taxa that were previously part of the old kingdom Protista.Hepatitis B, Chronic: INFLAMMATION of the LIVER in humans caused by HEPATITIS B VIRUS lasting six months or more. It is primarily transmitted by parenteral exposure, such as transfusion of contaminated blood or blood products, but can also be transmitted via sexual or intimate personal contact.Sensitivity and Specificity: Binary classification measures to assess test results. Sensitivity or recall rate is the proportion of true positives. Specificity is the probability of correctly determining the absence of a condition. (From Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)Ethanol: A clear, colorless liquid rapidly absorbed from the gastrointestinal tract and distributed throughout the body. It has bactericidal activity and is used often as a topical disinfectant. It is widely used as a solvent and preservative in pharmaceutical preparations as well as serving as the primary ingredient in ALCOHOLIC BEVERAGES.Opisthorchiasis: Infection with flukes of the genus Opisthorchis.Korea: Former kingdom, located on Korea Peninsula between Sea of Japan and Yellow Sea on east coast of Asia. In 1948, the kingdom ceased and two independent countries were formed, divided by the 38th parallel.Mansonella: A genus of parasitic nematodes whose organisms are distributed in Central and South America. Characteristics include a smooth cuticle and an enlarged anterior end.Trichinella spiralis: A parasite of carnivorous mammals that causes TRICHINELLOSIS. It is especially common in rats and in swine fed uncooked garbage. Human infection is initiated by the consumption of raw or insufficiently cooked pork or other meat containing the encysted larvae.VenezuelaEnzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay: An immunoassay utilizing an antibody labeled with an enzyme marker such as horseradish peroxidase. While either the enzyme or the antibody is bound to an immunosorbent substrate, they both retain their biologic activity; the change in enzyme activity as a result of the enzyme-antibody-antigen reaction is proportional to the concentration of the antigen and can be measured spectrophotometrically or with the naked eye. Many variations of the method have been developed.Dysentery, Amebic: DYSENTERY caused by intestinal amebic infection, chiefly with ENTAMOEBA HISTOLYTICA. This condition may be associated with amebic infection of the LIVER and other distant sites.Paramecium caudatum: The most widely distributed species of PARAMECIUM. It is elongated and possesses a bluntly pointed posterior.Echinococcosis, Pulmonary: Helminth infection of the lung caused by Echinococcus granulosus or Echinococcus multilocularis.Hepatic Stellate Cells: Perisinusoidal cells of the liver, located in the space of Disse between HEPATOCYTES and sinusoidal endothelial cells.Holosporaceae: A family of bacteria comprised of endosymbionts of protozoa.Drug-Induced Liver Injury, Chronic: Liver disease lasting six months or more, caused by an adverse drug effect. The adverse effect may result from a direct toxic effect of a drug or metabolite, or an idiosyncratic response to a drug or metabolite.Diarrhea: An increased liquidity or decreased consistency of FECES, such as running stool. Fecal consistency is related to the ratio of water-holding capacity of insoluble solids to total water, rather than the amount of water present. Diarrhea is not hyperdefecation or increased fecal weight.Thiabendazole: 2-Substituted benzimidazole first introduced in 1962. It is active against a variety of nematodes and is the drug of choice for STRONGYLOIDIASIS. It has CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM side effects and hepatototoxic potential. (From Smith and Reynard, Textbook of Pharmacology, 1992, p919)Hepatomegaly: Enlargement of the liver.Toxoplasma: A genus of protozoa parasitic to birds and mammals. T. gondii is one of the most common infectious pathogenic animal parasites of man.Praziquantel: An anthelmintic used in most schistosome and many cestode infestations.Schistosoma mansoni: A species of trematode blood flukes of the family Schistosomatidae. It is common in the Nile delta. The intermediate host is the planorbid snail. This parasite causes schistosomiasis mansoni and intestinal bilharziasis.Biological Markers: Measurable and quantifiable biological parameters (e.g., specific enzyme concentration, specific hormone concentration, specific gene phenotype distribution in a population, presence of biological substances) which serve as indices for health- and physiology-related assessments, such as disease risk, psychiatric disorders, environmental exposure and its effects, disease diagnosis, metabolic processes, substance abuse, pregnancy, cell line development, epidemiologic studies, etc.Hepatopulmonary Syndrome: A syndrome characterized by the clinical triad of advanced chronic liver disease, pulmonary vascular dilatations, and reduced arterial oxygenation (HYPOXEMIA) in the absence of intrinsic cardiopulmonary disease. This syndrome is common in the patients with LIVER CIRRHOSIS or portal hypertension (HYPERTENSION, PORTAL).Hepatitis B virus: The type species of the genus ORTHOHEPADNAVIRUS which causes human HEPATITIS B and is also apparently a causal agent in human HEPATOCELLULAR CARCINOMA. The Dane particle is an intact hepatitis virion, named after its discoverer. Non-infectious spherical and tubular particles are also seen in the serum.Hepatic Veins: Veins which drain the liver.Hepatic Insufficiency: Conditions in which the LIVER functions fall below the normal ranges. Severe hepatic insufficiency may cause LIVER FAILURE or DEATH. Treatment may include LIVER TRANSPLANTATION.Intestines: The section of the alimentary canal from the STOMACH to the ANAL CANAL. It includes the LARGE INTESTINE and SMALL INTESTINE.Toxocara canis: A species of parasitic nematode found in the intestine of dogs. Lesions in the brain, liver, eye, kidney, and lung are caused by migrating larvae. In humans, these larvae do not follow normal patterns and may produce visceral larva migrans (LARVA MIGRANS, VISCERAL).Opisthorchis: A genus of trematode liver flukes of the family Opisthorchidae. It consists of the following species: O. felineus, O. noverca (Amphimerus noverca), and O. viverrini. The intermediate hosts are snails, fish, and AMPHIBIANS.Ascaridoidea: A superfamily of polymyarian nematode worms. An important characteristic of this group is the presence of three prominent lips around the mouth of the organism.
... is a medication used to treat a number of parasitic worm infections. This includes ascariasis, hookworm infections, ... A lower dose should be used in people with liver disease. While it does not appear to be harmful during pregnancy, it has not ... enterobiasis (pinworm infection), trichostrongyliasis, and trichinellosis. It is taken by mouth. Side effects include nausea, ...
... autoimmune liver disease, drug induced syndromes and parasitic infections. Atypical ANCA is associated with drug-induced ... The presence or absence of ANCA cannot indicate presence or absence of disease and results are correlated with clinical ... In addition, in patients with active disease, treated with Rituximab, an anti-CD20 antibody which remove circulating B-cells, ... Falk, RJ; Jennette, JC (May 2010). "ANCA disease: where is this field heading?". Journal of the American Society of Nephrology ...
"Schistosomiasis Infection: Laboratory Diagnosis" by Global Health - Division of Parasitic Diseases and Malaria. Retrieved on 5 ... live in areas where the disease is common. In tropical countries, schistosomiasis is second only to malaria among parasitic ... The disease is endemic in about 75 developing countries and mainly affects people living in rural agricultural and peri-urban ... If symptoms do appear, they usually take from four to six weeks from the time of infection. The first symptom of the disease ...
Usually, many bites are required before infection occurs. These flies live near rivers, hence the common name of the disease. ... Onchocerciasis, also known as river blindness, is a disease caused by infection with the parasitic worm Onchocerca volvulus. ... The disease, commonly called the "filarial blinding disease", and later referred to as "Robles disease", was common among ... Infection reduces the host's immunity and resistance to other diseases, which results in an estimated reduction in life ...
Coccidians in the genus Aggregata living in the gut cause severe disease to the host. Octopuses have an innate immune system, ... It was described in 1829 by the French zoologist Georges Cuvier, who supposed it to be a parasitic worm, naming it as a new ... and the haemocytes respond to infection by phagocytosis, encapsulation, infiltration or cytotoxic activities to destroy or ... "Live Science. Retrieved 26 April 2017.. *^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m Ruppert, Edward E.; Fox, Richard S.; Barnes, Robert D. ( ...
... parasitic infection, as a laxative, and a treatment of liver diseases, and as a hangover treatment. Methods have been developed ... In a trial of sixty patients with fatty liver disease dihydromyricetin improved glucose and lipid metabolism and exerted anti- ... "Dihydromyricetin improves glucose and lipid metabolism and exerts anti-inflammatory effects in nonalcoholic fatty liver disease ...
... parasitic infection, as a laxative, and a treatment of liver diseases, and as a hangover treatment. In Thailand Hovenia dulcis ... "Treatment of chronic liver injuries in mice by oral administration of ethanolic extract of the fruit of Hovenia dulcis. ...
... it can indicate a number of underlying diseases, including bacterial infections, parasitic infections, or liver dysfunction. ... Dropsy is a disease in fish caused by the buildup of fluid inside the body cavity or tissues. As a symptom rather than a ...
Evidence from autopsies on Egyptian mummies suggests that liver damage from the parasitic infection bilharziasis was widespread ... commonly due to liver disease but can be from other diseases like heart failure All patients with advanced liver disease e.g. ... blood test suggesting liver disease Enzyme defects leading to bigger liver in children commonly named storage disease of liver ... C06.552 Liver Diseases C06.130 Biliary Tract Diseases C06.689 Pancreatic diseases 3. National Library of Medicine Catalogue WI ...
These are some of the most common: Fascioliasis, a parasitic infection of liver caused by a Liver fluke of the Fasciola genus, ... Liver disease (also called hepatic disease) is a type of damage to or disease of the liver. There are more than a hundred ... Model for end-stage liver disease (MELD) "Liver Diseases: MedlinePlus". www.nlm.nih.gov. Retrieved 2015-06-20. "Liver function ... alcoholic fatty liver disease, cirrhosis, and liver cancer. In the earlier stages of alcoholic liver disease, fat builds up in ...
Seitz HM (1995). "[Parasitic diseases of the liver]". Verh Dtsch Ges Pathol (German). Cilt 79, s. 241-8. PMID 8600687.. KB1 ... "Nocardia infection in patients with liver transplants or chronic liver disease: radiologic findings". Radiology. 174 (3 Pt 1), ... Cook GC (December 1997). "Liver involvement in systemic infection". Eur J Gastroenterol Hepatol. 9 (12), s. 1239-47. PMID ... Tandon BN, Acharya SK (April 1987). "Viral diseases involving the liver". Baillieres Clin. Gastroenterol. 1 (2), s. 211-30. ...
"Chronic bacterial and parasitic infections and cancer: a review". Journal of infection in developing countries. 4 (5): 267-81. ... Digestive and Liver Disease. 37 (4): 219-26. doi:10.1016/j.dld.2005.01.003. PMID 15788203. Carbone, Antonino; Gloghini, ... The history of infection and disease were observed in the 1800s and related to the one of the tick-borne diseases, Rocky ... COMMON INFECTIONS AND UNCOMMON DISEASE: ELUSIVE ASSOCIATIONS OF ENTEROVIRUSES AND TYPE I DIABETES MELLITUS". In Knobler, Stacey ...
The ensuing destruction of host red blood cells can result in disease, called malaria. During this infection, some parasites ... Vaughan, Ashley M.; Kappe, Stefan H. I. (2017). "Malaria Parasite Liver Infection and Exoerythrocytic Biology". Cold Spring ... Plasmodium is a member of the phylum Apicomplexa, a large group of parasitic eukaryotes. Within Apicomplexa, Plasmodium is in ... "The History of Malaria, an Ancient Disease". U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Retrieved 31 May 2016.. ...
... depositing the parasitic eggs. As the eggs hatch, the parasite infects those near the soil where it lives. Unlike some diseases ... The Hookworm infections were first seen in 1845 Florida and 1850 Louisiana. This disease is thought to have been introduced ... The procedure involved injecting the infection into the patient, which resulted in a mild form of the disease. This led to a ... The method was crude due to a lack of knowledge about infection and disease among medical practitioners. There was little ...
Harms G, Feldmeier H (June 2002). "HIV infection and tropical parasitic diseases - deleterious interactions in both directions ... The disease is closely tied to poverty and poor living conditions. Asthma is also prevalent in children in low income countries ... Gum disease has been linked to diseases such as cardiovascular disease. Diseases of poverty reflect the dynamic relationship ... Malaria, a disease still rampant in Africa also increases the risk of contracting HIV. These parasitic diseases, affect the ...
Parasitic diseases can affect practically all living organisms, including plants and mammals. The study of parasitic diseases ... "Parasite Infection and Parasite Treatment". Retrieved 2010-07-07. "Parasitic Diseases". Retrieved 2010-07-07. "Hookworm disease ... "Parasitic Diseases". Retrieved 2010-07-07. "Disease Burden". Retrieved 2010-07-07. "Parasitic diseases". Retrieved 2010-07-07. ... Another medication administered to kill worm infections has been pyrantel pamoate. For some parasitic diseases, there is no ...
... is a parasitic blood-borne piroplasm transmitted by deer ticks. T. microti is responsible for the disease ... T. microti lives in red blood cells, and is an important transfusion-transmitted infectious organism. Between 2010 and 2014 it ... caused four out of fifteen (27%) of transfusion-transmitted microbial infections[where?] (the highest of any single organism). ... Additionally, the piroplasm is spread by tick bites (Ixodes scapularis, the same tick that spreads Lyme disease), while the ...
Thus the disease manifestations can be both local and systemic. The geohelminths together present an enormous infection burden ... USAID's Neglected Tropical Diseases Programme Types of soil-transmitted helminths at Shinpoong Parasitic Roundworm Diseases ... are the infective forms and they undergo tissue-migratory stages during which they invade vital organs such as lungs and liver ... Even though the disease is principally a soil-transmitted helminthiasis, the infection being mediated through contaminated soil ...
... and regions such as Mexico still deal with these infections from parasitic worms. This use of health campaigns by political ... Foundation's hookworm campaign in the 1920s was supposed to focus on the eradication of hookworm infections for those living in ... Dracunculiasis, also called Guinea worm disease, is a painful and disabling parasitic disease caused by a worm, Dracunculus ... Medicine portal Drugs for Neglected Diseases Initiative Globalization and disease List of diseases eliminated from the United ...
IgG4-related disease Parasitic infections Addison's disease and stress-induced suppression of adrenal gland function Some forms ... Specific test for causative conditions are performed, often including chest x-ray, urinalysis, liver and kidney function tests ... A parasitic infection of nearly any bodily tissue can cause eosinophilia. Diseases that feature eosinophilia as a sign include ... Several causes are known, with the most common being some form of allergic reaction or parasitic infection. Diagnosis of ...
Certain parasitic liver diseases may be risk factors as well. Colonization with the liver flukes Opisthorchis viverrini (found ... infection with the parasitic liver flukes Opisthorchis viverrini or Clonorchis sinensis, some congenital liver malformations, ... Patients with chronic liver disease, whether in the form of viral hepatitis (e.g. hepatitis B or hepatitis C), alcoholic liver ... Infection with the bacteria Helicobacter bilis and Helicobacter hepaticus species can cause biliary cancer. Congenital liver ...
... , also known as the common liver fluke or sheep liver fluke, is a parasitic trematode (fluke or flatworm, a ... For more information on the epidemiology - see the disease page, fasciolosis Infection begins when cyst-covered aquatic ... It infects the livers of various mammals, including humans. The disease caused by the fluke is called fasciolosis or ... Currently, F. hepatica has one of the widest geographical spread of any parasitic and vector-borne disease. Originating in ...
Infection risk of anisakis is particularly higher in fishes which may live in a river such as salmon (shake) in Salmonidae, ... The fish responds by walling off the parasitic infection into a number of cysts that contain milky fluid. This fluid is an ... Disease Journal of Fish Diseases The European Union puts in place a framework of measures to combat certain fish diseases ... ISAv, a viral disease, is now a major threat to the viability of Atlantic salmon farming. It is now the first of the diseases ...
... acetaminophen can cause liver disease, ibuprofen can cause kidney disease, and naproxen can cause ulcers in the stomach, which ... Infection can spread to humans. There are several fungal diseases that are systemic in nature, meaning they are affecting ... Some of the most important zoonoses are parasitic. Zoonotic intestinal parasites transmitted through contact with feces include ... Other diseases affecting dogs include endocrine diseases, immune-mediated diseases, and reproductive diseases. Diabetes ...
Certain parasitic liver diseases may be risk factors as well. Colonization with the liver flukes Opisthorchis viverrini (found ... Primary sclerosing cholangitis, ulcerative colitis, infection with certain liver flukes, some congenital liver malformations[1] ... infection with certain liver fluke, and some congenital liver malformations.[1][3][8] However, most people have no identifiable ... alcoholic liver disease, or cirrhosis of the liver due to other causes, are at significantly increased risk of ...
... (PLD) usually describes the presence of multiple cysts scattered throughout normal liver tissue, in association with polycystic kidney disease. Associations with PRKCSH and SEC63 have been described. Polycystic liver disease comes in two forms as autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (with kidney cysts) and autosomal dominant polycystic liver disease (liver cysts only). Online Mendelian Inheritance in Man (OMIM) 174050 Everson, Gregory T. "Polycystic Liver Disease". Gastroenterology & Hepatology. 4 (3): 179-181. ISSN 1554-7914. Retrieved 18 December 2017. http://www.pkdcure.org/site/PageServer?pagename=pkdabt_patientsartic6 http://www.hdcn.com/symp/01pkd/per/per1.htm (requires free account, register at http://www.hdcn.com/reg.htm) http://www.pkdiet.com/pld.php http://www.polycysticliverdisease.com/html/about_pld.html http://polycysticliverdisease.weebly.com ...
... in the clinical context is a disease process of the liver that involves a process of progressive destruction and regeneration of the liver parenchyma leading to fibrosis and cirrhosis. "Chronic liver disease" refers to disease of the liver which lasts over a period of six months. It consists of a wide range of liver pathologies which include inflammation (chronic hepatitis), liver cirrhosis, and hepatocellular carcinoma. The entire spectrum need not be experienced. Signs of chronic liver disease detectable on clinical examination can be divided into those that are associated with the diagnosis of chronic liver disease, associated with decompensation and associated with the cause. Nail clubbing Palmar erythema Spider nevi (angiomata) Gynaecomastia Feminising hair distribution Testicular atrophy Small irregular shrunken liver Anaemia Caput medusae ...
... (also called hepatic disease) is a type of damage to or disease of the liver. There are more than a hundred different kinds of liver disease. Symptoms may include jaundice and weight loss. These are some of the most common: Fascioliasis, a parasitic infection of liver caused by a Liver fluke of the Fasciola genus, mostly the Fasciola hepatica. Hepatitis, inflammation of the liver, is caused by various viruses (viral hepatitis) also by some liver toxins (e.g. alcoholic hepatitis), autoimmunity (autoimmune hepatitis) or hereditary conditions. Alcoholic liver disease is a hepatic manifestation of alcohol overconsumption, including fatty liver disease, alcoholic hepatitis, and cirrhosis. Analogous terms such as "drug-induced" or "toxic" liver disease are also used to refer to disorders caused by various drugs. Fatty ...
The United Kingdom Model for End-Stage Liver Disease or UKELD is a medical scoring system used to predict the prognosis of patients with chronic liver disease. It is used in the United Kingdom to help determine the need for liver transplantation. It was developed from the MELD score, incorporating the serum sodium level. The UKELD score is calculated from the patient's INR, serum creatinine, serum bilirubin and serum sodium, according to the formula: ( 5.395 × ln ⁡ I N R ) + ( 1.485 × ln ⁡ c r e a t i n i n e ) + ( 3.13 × ln ⁡ b i l i r u b i n ) − ( 81.565 × ln ⁡ N a ) + 435 {\displaystyle (5.395\times \ln INR)+(1.485\times \ln creatinine)+(3.13\times \ln bilirubin)-(81.565\times \ln Na)+435} Higher UKELD scores equate to higher one-year mortality risk. A UKELD score of 49 indicates a 9% one-year risk of mortality, and is the minimum score required to be added to the liver transplant waiting list in the U.K. A UKELD score of 60 indicates a ...
... is a term that encompasses the liver manifestations of alcohol overconsumption, including fatty liver, alcoholic hepatitis, and chronic hepatitis with liver fibrosis or cirrhosis. It is the major cause of liver disease in Western countries. Although steatosis (fatty liver) will develop in any individual who consumes a large quantity of alcoholic beverages over a long period of time, this process is transient and reversible. Of all chronic heavy drinkers, only 15-20% develop hepatitis or cirrhosis, which can occur concomitantly or in succession. The mechanism behind this is not completely understood. 80% of alcohol passes through the liver to be detoxified. Chronic consumption of alcohol results in the secretion of pro-inflammatory cytokines (TNF-alpha, Interleukin 6 [IL6] and Interleukin 8 [IL8]), oxidative stress, lipid peroxidation, and acetaldehyde toxicity. These factors cause inflammation, ...
... or hepatic transplantation is the replacement of a diseased liver with the healthy liver from another person (allograft). Liver transplantation is a treatment option for end-stage liver disease and acute liver failure, although availability of donor organs is a major limitation. The most common technique is orthotopic transplantation, in which the native liver is removed and replaced by the donor organ in the same anatomic position as the original liver. The surgical procedure is complex, requiring careful harvest of the donor organ and meticulous implantation into the recipient. Liver transplantation is highly regulated, and only performed at designated transplant medical centers by highly trained transplant physicians and supporting medical team. The duration of the surgery ranges from 4 to 18 hours depending on outcome.[medical citation needed] Favorable outcomes ...
... (LFTs or LFs) are groups of blood tests that give information about the state of a patient's liver. These tests include prothrombin time (PT/INR), aPTT, albumin, bilirubin (direct and indirect), and others. Liver transaminases (AST or SGOT and ALT or SGPT) are useful biomarkers of liver injury in a patient with some degree of intact liver function. Most liver diseases cause only mild symptoms initially, but these diseases must be detected early. Hepatic (liver) involvement in some diseases can be of crucial importance. This testing is performed on a patient's blood sample. Some tests are associated with functionality (e.g., albumin), some with cellular integrity (e.g., transaminase), and some with conditions linked to the biliary tract (gamma-glutamyl transferase and alkaline phosphatase). Several biochemical tests are useful in the evaluation and ...
The American Liver Foundation is a non-profit organization that promotes liver health and disease prevention. The mission of the ALF is to facilitate, advocate and promote education, support and research for the prevention, treatment, and cure of liver disease. Although liver disease is among the ten major causes of death in the United States, there was no national voluntary health agency devoted exclusively to combating liver diseases until 1976, when the American Liver Foundation was created by the American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases (AASLD). This organization of scientists and healthcare professionals was concerned with the rising incidence of liver disease and the lack of awareness among both the general public and the medical community. The mission, the programs and the services provided by American ...
... , formerly called lupoid hepatitis, is a chronic, autoimmune disease of the liver that occurs when the body's immune system attacks liver cells causing the liver to be inflamed. Common initial symptoms include fatigue or muscle aches or signs of acute liver inflammation including fever, jaundice, and right upper quadrant abdominal pain. Individuals with autoimmune hepatitis often have no initial symptoms and the disease is detected by abnormal liver function tests. Anomalous presentation of MHC class II receptors on the surface of liver cells,[citation needed] possibly due to genetic predisposition or acute liver infection, causes a cell-mediated immune response against the body's own liver, resulting in autoimmune hepatitis. This abnormal immune response results in inflammation of the liver, which can lead to further symptoms and complications such as ...
The Foundation for Liver Research is a UK medical research charity dedicated to hepatology. It funds the Institute of Hepatology in central London. The website of the Foundation for Liver Research mentions the following: "The Foundation for Liver Research was established in 1974 to develop and extend research into diseases of the human liver and to enhance medical research generally." "For over 30 years the Foundation has supported ground-breaking research programmes into liver disease under the direction of Professor Roger Williams, CBE. This work is carried out within the purpose-built Institute of Hepatology located in central London. The Institute provides laboratory space for up to 40 scientists and is affiliated to Birkbeck College, University of London. Research is organised around major research projects within the overall theme of Liver Cell Injury and Repair. Current areas of ...
Hepatitis, including hepatitis A, hepatitis B, and hepatitis C, the latter two of which cause chronic liver disease including Cirrhosis ...
... , also known as nutmeg liver and chronic passive congestion of the liver, is liver dysfunction due to venous congestion, usually due to congestive heart failure. The gross pathological appearance of a liver affected by chronic passive congestion is "speckled" like a grated nutmeg kernel; the dark spots represent the dilated and congested hepatic venules and small hepatic veins. The paler areas are unaffected surrounding liver tissue. When severe and longstanding, hepatic congestion can lead to fibrosis; if congestion is due to right heart failure, it is called cardiac cirrhosis. Signs and symptoms depend largely upon the primary lesions giving rise to the condition. In addition to the heart or lung symptoms, there will be a sense of fullness and tenderness in the right hypochondriac region. Gastrointestinal catarrh is usually present, and vomiting of blood may occur. There is usually more or less jaundice. Owing to ...
The liver span is a measurement performed during physical examination to determine the size of the liver and identify possible hepatomegaly. It can be described as the distance between the lower border of the liver in the mid-clavicular line obtained by palpation, and the upper border of the liver in the mid-clavicular line detected by percussion ( i.e., as the upper border of the liver lies behind the ribs and can not be palpated.) One technique to measure the span involves percussion. Normal liver span is 6-12 cm. "The Abdomen - Liver Span". Retrieved 2009-04-05. "Evidence Base - Liver & Ascites Exam - Physical Diagnosis Skills - University of Washington School of Medicine". Retrieved 2009-04-05. http://stanfordmedicine25.stanford.edu/the25/liver.html https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK421 ...
Legg-Calve-Perthes disease Listeria infection Lyme disease, Legionnaires disease Liver cancer Lymphedema, Leukemia Liver ... syndrome We will address in this site diseases AZ kinds of diseases rankings diseases incurable diseases treatment of diseases ... Constipation in children Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease Cytomegalovirus (CMV) infection, Contact dermatitis Crohns disease Dandruff ... Infectious diseases Interstitial lung disease Itchy skin (pruritus) Jellyfish stings Jock itch Kawasaki disease Kidney cysts ...
Parasitic nematode infections. In: Cherry JD, Harrison GJ, Kaplan SL, Steinbach WJ, Hotez PJ, eds. Feigin and Cherrys Textbook ... Sleisenger and Fordtrans Gastrointestinal and Liver Disease: Pathophysiology/Diagnosis/Management. 10th ed. Philadelphia, PA: ... Parasitic diseases. In: Marcdante KJ, Kliegman RM, eds. Nelson Essentials of Pediatrics. 8th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier; ... Pinworms are the most common worm infection in the United States. School-age children are most often affected. ...
Immune System Diseases. Digestive System Diseases. Parasitic Diseases. Hepadnaviridae Infections. DNA Virus Infections. ... HIV Infections. Liver Diseases. Coinfection. Hepatitis B. Lentivirus Infections. Retroviridae Infections. RNA Virus Infections ... HIV-HBV Co-Infection and Liver Disease. The safety and scientific validity of this study is the responsibility of the study ... Liver diseases associated with HBV are affected by the antiviral drugs used for HIV infection (toxic side effects), the current ...
Immune System Diseases. Digestive System Diseases. Parasitic Diseases. Hepadnaviridae Infections. DNA Virus Infections. ... HIV Infections. Liver Diseases. Coinfection. Hepatitis B. Lentivirus Infections. Retroviridae Infections. RNA Virus Infections ... HIV-HBV Co-Infection and Liver Disease. The recruitment status of this study is unknown. The completion date has passed and the ... Liver diseases associated with HBV are affected by the antiviral drugs used for HIV infection (toxic side effects), the current ...
Parasitic infections. *Pathology and laboratory medicine. *Patient confidentiality. *Patient education. *Patient enrolment ... The primary study outcome was the subsequent development of serious liver disease, namely, liver cirrhosis, liver failure and ... yet little is known about the effect of this disease on the liver, an organ susceptible to nonalcoholic fatty liver disease ... Whether this reflects nonalcoholic fatty liver disease or direct glycemic injury of the liver remains to be determined. ...
Infection (viral, bacterial, or parasitic). *Neoplasia. *Dietary allergy or intolerance. *Non-gastrointestinal systemic disease ... such as liver, kidney, or heart disease). While some types of dog diarrhea will resolve naturally in 24 hours, dogs that ... or parasitic infection. Often acute diarrhea in dogs can be self-limiting and appropriately managed by consulting your ... Diagnosed with a pre-existing condition such as diabetes, kidney disease etc. ...
This topic contains 20 study abstracts on Parasitic Diseases indicating that the following substances may be helpful: Myrrh, ... Myrrh successfully cured Dicrocoelium dendriticum (Lancel Liver Fluke) infection in humans and sheep.Aug 01, 2004. ... Cardiovascular Diseases, Diabetes Mellitus: Type 2, Fungus Diseases, HIV Infections, Inflammation, Parasitic Diseases ... Diseases : DNA damage, Flukes, Oxidative Stress, Parasitic Diseases. Pharmacological Actions : Antimutagenic Agents, ...
Liver disease (insufficient production related to damaged liver cells). *SLE. C3 *Chronic infection (bacterial, parasitic, ... infection and in 59 SLE patients without infection and found that the levels of complement C3 in SLE patients with infection ... Immune complex diseases, cryoglobulinemia, C4 deficiency, hereditary angioedema. Decreased C4 and decreased C3. Immune complex ... Evaluate immunological diseases Potential diagnosis. Normal C4 and decreased C3. Acute glomerulonephritis, membranous ...
liver or kidney disease.. Long-term use of steroids may lead to bone loss (osteoporosis), especially if you smoke, if you do ... any type of infection (bacterial, fungal, viral, or parasitic);. *osteoporosis;. *a thyroid disorder; or ... Fluticasone can weaken your immune system, making it easier for you to get an infection or worsening an infection you already ... Tell your doctor about any illness or infection you have had within the past several weeks. ...
Purchase Sleisenger and Fordtrans Gastrointestinal and Liver Disease- 2 Volume Set - 10th Edition. Print Book & E-Book. ISBN ... Bacterial, Parasitic, and Fungal Infections of the Liver, including Liver Abscess. 85. Vascular Diseases of the Liver ... Hepatic Drug Metabolism and Liver Disease Caused by Drugs. 89. Liver Disease Caused by Anesthetics, Chemicals, Toxins, and ... Oral Disease and Oral-Cutaneous Manifestations of Gastrointestinal and Liver Disease. 25. Diverticula of the Pharynx, Esophagus ...
Diseases and Conditions. * Malaria * Parasitic Infections of the Skin Pediatric Diseases and Conditions. * Parasitic Skin ... "This could provide a noninvasive way of screening for the disease at ports of entry in a similar way to how sniffer dogs are ... Malaria-Sniffing Pooches Might Help Save Lives. MONDAY, Oct. 29, 2018 (HealthDay News) -- With their keen sense of smell, dogs ... The study included two dogs -- a Labrador retriever and a Labrador-Golden retriever -- that were trained to detect the disease ...
Pyogenic liver abscess is a pus-filled area in the liver. Pyogenic means producing pus. ... Bacterial, parasitic, and fungal infections of the liver, including liver abscesses. In: Feldman M, Friedman LS, Brandt LJ, eds ... Sleisenger and Fordtrans Gastrointestinal and Liver Disease. 10th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Saunders; 2016:chap 84. ... Infections of the liver and biliary system (liver abscess, cholangitis, cholecystitis). In: Bennett JE, Dolin R, Blaser MJ, eds ...
Bile duct system problems that cause digestive issues or jaundice and develop into a chronic disease are considered risk ... Parasitic infections: A water-borne parasite called liver fluke (Clonorchis sinensis and Opisthorchis viverrini) that is ... Liver or bile duct diseases: Some diseases of the liver or bile duct, such as polycystic liver disease, pancreatitis ( ... Excessive alcohol use and/or cirrhosis of the liver: Alcohol abuse is a common cause of cirrhosis of the liver, which increases ...
Obesity, liver disease, & cognitive outcomes. Take Quiz. Alzheimers disease onset & personality changes. Take Quiz. ... Alzheimer disease neurodegeneration & amyloid predictors. Take Quiz. Traumatic brain injury, Alzheimers disease, & dementia. ... Deep brain stimulation in Parkinsons disease. Take Quiz. Dystrophinopathy & dilated cardiomyopathy: Surgical considerations. ... Diet modification for Alzheimers disease risk reduction. Take Quiz. ...
... liver,transplants,provide,metabolic,cure,for,rare,genetic,disease,biological,biology news articles,biology news today,latest ... MSUD is a metabolic disease which causes amino acids from proteins to ...Before transplant the only treatment was strict ... Liver transplants cured the metabolic symptoms of 11 patients with a r...All patients from the study (ranging in age from 1-20 ... adherence to a diet a...In 1997 an MSUD patient at another hospital received a liver transpla...,Pennsylvania,researchers,find, ...
It is also used to prevent flare-ups or worsening of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) associated with chronic ... liver disease.. Long-term use of steroids may lead to bone loss (osteoporosis), especially if you smoke, if you do not exercise ... any type of infection (bacterial, fungal, viral, or parasitic);. *osteoporosis;. *a thyroid disorder; or ... Fluticasone can weaken your immune system, making it easier for you to get an infection or worsening an infection you already ...
any type of infection (bacterial, fungal, viral, or parasitic);*liver disease;*osteoporosis;*an electrolyte imbalance (such as ... heart disease or high blood pressure;*epilepsy or other seizure disorder;*diabetes;*glaucoma, cataracts, or herpes infection of ... Budesonide can weaken your immune system, making it easier for you to get an infection or worsening an infection you already ... Tell your doctor about any illness or infection you have had within the past several weeks.. To make sure budesonide and ...
Gut microbes influence severity of intestinal parasitic infections 03/07/2018 Digestive System ... The journal publishes clinical and basic science studies of all aspects of the digestive system, including the liver and ... Parkinsons disease. 03/21/2018 Parkinsons disease Systems Approaches to Optimizing Deep Brain Stimulation Therapies in ... The two major illnesses that are recognized most often as inflammatory bowel disease are ulcerative colitis and Crohns disease ...
Gut microbes influence severity of intestinal parasitic infections 03/07/2018 Digestive System ... Gastrointestinal Hormone Measurably Improved Symptoms of Non-Alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease 03/09/2018 Digestive System ... are increasingly correlated not only to GI diseases such as inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) and colitis, but also to insulin ... to find disease-specific markers and explore possible roles for these metabolites in disease progression. ...
Treatment for parasitic infections caused by worms. New approved drug details including side effects, uses and general ... Albenza has been approved for the treatment of two parasitic infections caused by worms:. *Hydatid cyst disease of the liver, ... In both diseases, infection with the larva is accidental and transmission from human-to-human does not normally occur. ... The most frequently reported side effects by hydatid disease subjects included abnormal liver function, abdominal pain, nausea ...
Parasitic Infection. *Peptic Ulcer. *Pyloric Stenosis. *Rectal Bleeding. *Rectal Diseases. *Reflux Esophagitis ... I love living in Wausau. I grew up in Rhinelander and am excited to be back in the northwoods with my wife and children so they ... I practice all aspects of gastroenterology and hepatology, but have a special interest in pancreatic and biliary diseases. I ...
vectorborne diseases acquired through the bite of an infected arthropod:. Malaria - caused by single-cell parasitic protozoa ... Leptospirosis - bacterial disease that affects animals and humans; infection occurs through contact with water, food, or soil ... Hepatitis A - viral disease that interferes with the functioning of the liver; spread through consumption of food or water ... Major infectious diseases This entry lists major infectious diseases likely to be encountered in countries where the risk of ...
You should not receive tigecycline if your infection is not caused by bacteria. Viral, fungal and parasitic infections cannot ... You should not use tigecycline if you have diarrhea or liver disease. You should not receive tigecycline if you are allergic to ... An Anti-Inflammatory Diet PlanDiabetes Smart TipsLiving Well with Rheumatoid ArthritisLiving Well with Colitis or CrohnsManage ... An Anti-Inflammatory Diet PlanDiabetes Smart TipsLiving Well with Rheumatoid ArthritisLiving Well with Colitis or CrohnsManage ...
  • It is also used to prevent flare-ups or worsening of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease ( COPD ) associated with chronic bronchitis and/or emphysema . (rxlist.com)
  • Budesonide and formoterol inhalation is a combination medicine used to prevent bronchospasm in people with asthma or chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). (everydayhealth.com)
  • NGS is a powerful tool for studying new and emerging diseases because it can provide information about viruses and other pathogens that have not previously been described. (usgs.gov)
  • While the modern-day United States has been relatively unscathed by vector-borne disease, it is not immune to a host of new and emerging pathogens, the researchers warn. (redorbit.com)
  • The expression of disease on any fish farm involves four controllable factors: the species, farm management, the environment and the pathogens present. (thefishsite.com)
  • With consistent, disease-free quality seed stock, emphasis should be placed on biosecurity to prevent or limit the transfer of pathogens onto the site and between locations. (thefishsite.com)
  • Malaysia is facing many challenges caused by various parasitic pathogens. (news-medical.net)
  • 5 - 7 As result, patients are unable to cope with infections caused by common pathogens because of insufficient killing of the infected cells and also of antigen-presenting cells. (haematologica.org)
  • U.S. are infected with leading cause of in 2016, and millions that cause blindness, Chagas disease, and 300 foodborne illness, become ill each year, malnutrition, anemia, infected babies are born affects more than 40 including almost 2,000 and disfigurement. (cdc.gov)
  • According to the CDC, the bugs were first reported in the state of Georgia in 1855 and have been reported in many states across the southern United States ever since," Paula Eggers , RN, an infectious disease epidemiologist for the Delaware Division of Public Health, told Healthline. (healthline.com)
  • An infectious disease transmissible (as from person to person) by direct contact with an affected individual or the individual's discharges or by indirect means (as by a vector). (nap.edu)
  • Some, because there is an animal reservoir, like plague, or long-term carriers of the disease who can excrete the organism -- tuberculosis and leprosy -- or diseases for which the vaccine is inadequate to accomplish what we would like to achieve -- diphtheria and, to some degree, polio. (go.com)
  • I have no doubt that this will prove to be a valuable reference text for all clinicians involved in the surgical care of children with disorders of the liver, biliary tract and pancreas, and for hepatobiliary specialists themselves. (routledge.com)
  • Digestive diseases involve issues related to the gastrointestinal (GI) tract and the organs related to digestion-esophagus, liver, pancreas, stomach, small intestine, large intestine (colon), and biliary tract. (osu.edu)
  • The second most common form of liver disease which is caused by a number of related inflammatory and or infectious disorders of the liver and/or the biliary tract. (cat-world.com.au)
  • Pennsylvania researchers find liver transplants provide metabolic cure for rare genetic disease ( Liver transplants cured the metabolic s. (bio-medicine.org)
  • What does it mean to be a member of a family that is affected by a genetic disease? (cam.ac.uk)
  • One of the biggest projects ever undertaken to identify genetic variants that predispose some people to certain diseases was begun in 2005, thanks to £9 million funding from the Wellcome Trust. (cam.ac.uk)
  • Triggering factors such as the genetic composition of a person can be a cause for this disease. (hubpages.com)
  • We also describe the clinical features of liver disease in some monogenic forms of PID included in the clinical spectrum of CVID as ICOS, NFKB1, NFKB2, CTLA-4, PI3Kδ pathway, ADA2, and IL21-R genetic defects. (frontiersin.org)
  • Indeed, various genetic defects initially linked to CVID are now recognized as distinct disease entities. (frontiersin.org)
  • Although there is considerable effort to distinguish the 2 forms of the disease, for obvious genetic reasons, there are cases, in the young, in which the imaging features of the 2 forms are present in the same child, making it impossible to allocate confidently the disorder to a particular category. (appliedradiology.com)
  • The third genetic locus, yet unmapped, is a rare cause of the disease. (appliedradiology.com)
  • Insight into the worldwide epidemiology of inflammatory bowel disease is important for the identification of geographic patterns and time trends," said Gilaad G. Kaplan, MD, MPH, of the University of Calgary and lead author of this study. (healthcanal.com)
  • Our findings will help researchers estimate the global public health burden of inflammatory bowel disease so that appropriate health-care resources are allocated, and targeted research is conducted in specific geographic regions," added Dr. Kaplan, an Alberta Innovates - Health Solutions population health investigator. (healthcanal.com)
  • The two major illnesses that are recognized most often as inflammatory bowel disease are ulcerative colitis and Crohn's disease. (healthcanal.com)
  • For more information on IBD, please read the AGA brochure " Understanding Inflammatory Bowel Disease . (healthcanal.com)
  • Disruptions in the microbiota composition, and subsequently the metabolites derived from the microbiota, are increasingly correlated not only to GI diseases such as inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) and colitis, but also to insulin resistance and Type 2 diabetes. (healthcanal.com)
  • Despite knowledge about the role of the polyreactive natural IgM in pathogen elimination, B cell survival and homeostasis, inflammatory diseases, and autoimmunity, there is a lack of clarity about the physiological role of natural IgG and natural IgA because they appear incapable of recognizing Ags on their own and are perceived as nonreactive. (jimmunol.org)
  • Infections are most common in tropical regions of Asia, Africa, South America and Eastern Europe ( 1 ). (healthline.com)
  • When The Carter Center began spearheading the international campaign to eradicate Guinea worm disease in 1986, there were an estimated 3.5 million cases in 20 countries in Africa and Asia. (cartercenter.org)
  • The disease is very prevalent in parts of Africa, and is spread by a certain type of mosquito. (ucsb.edu)
  • Another applied line of work aims to exploit nanomedical approaches for the development of biomimetic drug carriers with improved gastric retention, for intracellular drug or nucleic acid delivery, or as a therapeutic option for the treatment for allergic lung disease. (nottingham.ac.uk)
  • It is decreased in patients with immunological diseases, in whom it is consumed at an increased rate. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • All patients from the study (ranging in age from 1-20) are alive and well with normal liver function, according to the researchers. (bio-medicine.org)
  • This was a retrospective and descriptive study, based on records of patients hospitalized for abscess of the liver over a period of 8 years, from January 1, 2008 to December 31, 2015. (scirp.org)
  • It was a retrospective and descriptive study based on records of patients hospitalized at the Infectious Diseases Unit for liver abscess over an 8-year period, from January 1, 2008 to December 31, 2015. (scirp.org)
  • Salluh JI, Bozza FA, Pinto TS, Toscano L, Weller PF, Soares M. Cutaneous periumbilical purpura in disseminated strongyloidiasis in cancer patients: a pathognomonic feature of potentially lethal disease? (harvard.edu)
  • Although about 50% CVID patients present persistently deranged liver function, burden, and nature of liver involvement have not been systematically investigated in most cohort studies published in the last decades. (frontiersin.org)
  • The congenital variants are rare, autosomal dominant, and 50% of the patients may have polycystic kidney disease. (appliedradiology.com)
  • The aim of this Register Trial is to systematically study the epidemiology, risk factors, liver function as well prognosis of patients with vascular liver diseases. (bioportfolio.com)
  • The aims of this study are to assess the performance of the non-invasive Electrical Impedance Technology (EIT) in evaluating the liver fibrosis stage in patients with chronic liver disease. (bioportfolio.com)
  • Patients with solitary liver lesions less than 5 cm located in segments 2-6 are good candidates for laparoscopic resections. (blogs.com)
  • Background - The negative impact of diabetes mellitus is well recognized, yet little is known about the effect of this disease on the liver, an organ susceptible to nonalcoholic fatty liver disease related to insulin resistance. (ices.on.ca)
  • Whether this reflects nonalcoholic fatty liver disease or direct glycemic injury of the liver remains to be determined. (ices.on.ca)
  • Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease is a spectrum of disease associated with obesity and metabolic syndrome. (wikipedia.org)
  • As the liver is responsible for processing toxins from household cleaners, insecticides, plants, drugs and other toxins, it is vulnerable to damage when the cat consumes or is exposed to toxic substances ( hepatotoxins ). (cat-world.com.au)
  • Americans from Chagas disease and neurocysticercosis. (cdc.gov)
  • What Are 'Kissing Bugs' and How Do They Give You Chagas Disease? (healthline.com)
  • Experts stress, however, that the risk of Chagas infection remains low. (healthline.com)
  • Chagas disease can also be transmitted in several other ways, including via blood transfusions, organ transplants, from infected pregnant women to their babies, and by consuming uncooked food that's contaminated with triatomine feces. (healthline.com)
  • Epidemiologists reported the first-ever documented case of a kissing bug bite in the state of Delaware, although the young victim tested negative for Chagas disease. (healthline.com)
  • Rather, increased awareness about the bugs and about Chagas disease likely has resulted in an increase of bugs recognized as or thought to be triatomines," she said. (healthline.com)
  • It's not an emerging disease, just a neglected disease," Paula Stigler-Granados , PhD, an assistant professor at the Texas State University School of Health Administration and leader of the Texas Chagas Task Force, told Healthline. (healthline.com)
  • In Texas, the Chagas Task Force was convened after officials at Lackland Air Force Base reported that dogs on the base were getting infected and dying from Chagas disease. (healthline.com)
  • Stigler-Granados said veterinarians are more aware of Chagas disease than medical doctors. (healthline.com)
  • The Daily Mail reported that the assassin bug - also known as the "kissing bug" - spreads Chagas disease, which can be deadly. (sj-r.com)
  • In 2014, a team of researchers led by a paleobiologist from the University of Missouri found that clams from the Holocene Epoch (that began 11,700 years ago) contained clues about how sea level rise due to climate change could foreshadow a rise in parasitic trematodes, or flatworms. (wattsupwiththat.com)
  • We found that pulses in sea-level rise occurred on the scale of hundreds of years, and that correlated to rises in parasitic trematodes in the core samples," Huntley said. (wattsupwiththat.com)
  • Those that start in the liver are termed primary while those that originate elsewhere are considered secondary. (hillspet.com)
  • Many liver malignancies are secondary lesions that have metastasized from primary cancers in the gastrointestinal tract and other organs, such as the kidneys, lungs. (wikipedia.org)
  • Obesity is associated with higher risk of primary liver cancer. (wikipedia.org)