Parasitic Diseases: Infections or infestations with parasitic organisms. They are often contracted through contact with an intermediate vector, but may occur as the result of direct exposure.Skin Diseases, Parasitic: Skin diseases caused by ARTHROPODS; HELMINTHS; or other parasites.Protozoan Infections: Infections with unicellular organisms formerly members of the subkingdom Protozoa.Antiparasitic Agents: Drugs used to treat or prevent parasitic infections.Schistosomiasis: Infection with flukes (trematodes) of the genus SCHISTOSOMA. Three species produce the most frequent clinical diseases: SCHISTOSOMA HAEMATOBIUM (endemic in Africa and the Middle East), SCHISTOSOMA MANSONI (in Egypt, northern and southern Africa, some West Indies islands, northern 2/3 of South America), and SCHISTOSOMA JAPONICUM (in Japan, China, the Philippines, Celebes, Thailand, Laos). S. mansoni is often seen in Puerto Ricans living in the United States.Amoebida: An order of ameboid protozoa that is commonly uninucleate and possess mitochondria. Most organisms are nonpathogenic.Helminthiasis: Infestation with parasitic worms of the helminth class.Eimeriida: An order of parasitic organisms in the class COCCIDIA. Families include CRYPTOSPORIDIIDAE; EIMERIIDAE; and SARCOCYSTIDAE.Neurocysticercosis: Infection of the brain, spinal cord, or perimeningeal structures with the larval forms of the genus TAENIA (primarily T. solium in humans). Lesions formed by the organism are referred to as cysticerci. The infection may be subacute or chronic, and the severity of symptoms depends on the severity of the host immune response and the location and number of lesions. SEIZURES represent the most common clinical manifestation although focal neurologic deficits may occur. (From Joynt, Clinical Neurology, 1998, Ch27, pp46-50)Intestinal Diseases, Parasitic: Infections of the INTESTINES with PARASITES, commonly involving PARASITIC WORMS. Infections with roundworms (NEMATODE INFECTIONS) and tapeworms (CESTODE INFECTIONS) are also known as HELMINTHIASIS.Antiprotozoal Agents: Substances that are destructive to protozoans.Leishmaniasis: A disease caused by any of a number of species of protozoa in the genus LEISHMANIA. There are four major clinical types of this infection: cutaneous (Old and New World) (LEISHMANIASIS, CUTANEOUS), diffuse cutaneous (LEISHMANIASIS, DIFFUSE CUTANEOUS), mucocutaneous (LEISHMANIASIS, MUCOCUTANEOUS), and visceral (LEISHMANIASIS, VISCERAL).Helminthiasis, Animal: Infestation of animals with parasitic worms of the helminth class. The infestation may be experimental or veterinary.Anthelmintics: Agents destructive to parasitic worms. They are used therapeutically in the treatment of HELMINTHIASIS in man and animal.Digestive System Diseases: Diseases in any part of the GASTROINTESTINAL TRACT or the accessory organs (LIVER; BILIARY TRACT; PANCREAS).Lung Diseases, Parasitic: Infections of the lungs with parasites, most commonly by parasitic worms (HELMINTHS).Antibodies, Helminth: Immunoglobulins produced in a response to HELMINTH ANTIGENS.Parasitology: The study of parasites and PARASITIC DISEASES.Echinococcosis: An infection caused by the infestation of the larval form of tapeworms of the genus Echinococcus. The liver, lungs, and kidney are the most common areas of infestation.Tropical Medicine: The branch of medicine concerned with diseases, mainly of parasitic origin, common in tropical and subtropical regions.Antigens, Helminth: Any part or derivative of a helminth that elicits an immune reaction. The most commonly seen helminth antigens are those of the schistosomes.Trypanosomiasis: Infection with protozoa of the genus TRYPANOSOMA.Iodoquinol: One of the halogenated 8-quinolinols widely used as an intestinal antiseptic, especially as an antiamebic agent. It is also used topically in other infections and may cause CNS and eye damage. It is known by very many similar trade names world-wide.Amebiasis: Infection with any of various amebae. It is an asymptomatic carrier state in most individuals, but diseases ranging from chronic, mild diarrhea to fulminant dysentery may occur.Nematode Infections: Infections by nematodes, general or unspecified.Taenia solium: Species of tapeworm in the genus TAENIA, that infects swine. It is acquired by humans through the ingestion of cured or undercooked pork.Parasites: Invertebrate organisms that live on or in another organism (the host), and benefit at the expense of the other. Traditionally excluded from definition of parasites are pathogenic BACTERIA; FUNGI; VIRUSES; and PLANTS; though they may live parasitically.Echinococcus: A genus of very small TAPEWORMS, in the family Taeniidae. The adult form is found in various CARNIVORA but not humans. The larval form is seen in humans under certain epidemiologic circumstances.Schistosoma: A genus of trematode flukes belonging to the family Schistosomatidae. There are over a dozen species. These parasites are found in man and other mammals. Snails are the intermediate hosts.Dracunculiasis: Infection with nematodes of the genus Dracunculus. One or more worms may be seen at a time, with the legs and feet being the most commonly infected areas. Symptoms include pruritus, nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, or asthmatic attacks.Cysticercus: The larval form of various tapeworms of the genus Taenia.Giardiasis: An infection of the SMALL INTESTINE caused by the flagellated protozoan GIARDIA LAMBLIA. It is spread via contaminated food and water and by direct person-to-person contact.Neglected Diseases: Diseases that are underfunded and have low name recognition but are major burdens in less developed countries. The World Health Organization has designated six tropical infectious diseases as being neglected in industrialized countries that are endemic in many developing countries (HELMINTHIASIS; LEPROSY; LYMPHATIC FILARIASIS; ONCHOCERCIASIS; SCHISTOSOMIASIS; and TRACHOMA).Cysticercosis: Infection with CYSTICERCUS, the larval form of the various tapeworms of the genus Taenia (usually T. solium in man). In humans they penetrate the intestinal wall and invade subcutaneous tissue, brain, eye, muscle, heart, liver, lung, and peritoneum. Brain involvement results in NEUROCYSTICERCOSIS.Filariasis: Infections with nematodes of the superfamily FILARIOIDEA. The presence of living worms in the body is mainly asymptomatic but the death of adult worms leads to granulomatous inflammation and permanent fibrosis. Organisms of the genus Elaeophora infect wild elk and domestic sheep causing ischemic necrosis of the brain, blindness, and dermatosis of the face.Schistosoma japonicum: A species of trematode blood flukes belonging to the family Schistosomatidae whose distribution is confined to areas of the Far East. The intermediate host is a snail. It occurs in man and other mammals.Schistosoma mansoni: A species of trematode blood flukes of the family Schistosomatidae. It is common in the Nile delta. The intermediate host is the planorbid snail. This parasite causes schistosomiasis mansoni and intestinal bilharziasis.Leishmaniasis, Visceral: A chronic disease caused by LEISHMANIA DONOVANI and transmitted by the bite of several sandflies of the genera Phlebotomus and Lutzomyia. It is commonly characterized by fever, chills, vomiting, anemia, hepatosplenomegaly, leukopenia, hypergammaglobulinemia, emaciation, and an earth-gray color of the skin. The disease is classified into three main types according to geographic distribution: Indian, Mediterranean (or infantile), and African.Toxocariasis: Infection by round worms of the genus TOXOCARA, usually found in wild and domesticated cats and dogs and foxes, except for the larvae, which may produce visceral and ocular larva migrans in man.Chagas Disease: Infection with the protozoan parasite TRYPANOSOMA CRUZI, a form of TRYPANOSOMIASIS endemic in Central and South America. It is named after the Brazilian physician Carlos Chagas, who discovered the parasite. Infection by the parasite (positive serologic result only) is distinguished from the clinical manifestations that develop years later, such as destruction of PARASYMPATHETIC GANGLIA; CHAGAS CARDIOMYOPATHY; and dysfunction of the ESOPHAGUS or COLON.Schistosomiasis japonica: Schistosomiasis caused by Schistosoma japonicum. It is endemic in the Far East and affects the bowel, liver, and spleen.Central Nervous System Infections: Pathogenic infections of the brain, spinal cord, and meninges. DNA VIRUS INFECTIONS; RNA VIRUS INFECTIONS; BACTERIAL INFECTIONS; MYCOPLASMA INFECTIONS; SPIROCHAETALES INFECTIONS; fungal infections; PROTOZOAN INFECTIONS; HELMINTHIASIS; and PRION DISEASES may involve the central nervous system as a primary or secondary process.Entamoebiasis: Infection with amoebae of the genus ENTAMOEBA. Infection with E. histolytica causes DYSENTERY, AMEBIC and LIVER ABSCESS, AMEBIC.Schistosoma haematobium: A species of trematode blood flukes of the family Schistosomatidae which occurs at different stages in development in veins of the pulmonary and hepatic system and finally the bladder lumen. This parasite causes urinary schistosomiasis.Gnathostoma: A genus of parasitic nematodes that occurs in mammals including man. Infection in humans is either by larvae penetrating the skin or by ingestion of uncooked fish.Hookworm Infections: Infection of humans or animals with hookworms other than those caused by the genus Ancylostoma or Necator, for which the specific terms ANCYLOSTOMIASIS and NECATORIASIS are available.Communicable DiseasesEchinococcus multilocularis: A north temperate species of tapeworm (CESTODA) whose adult form infects FOXES and wild RODENTS. The larval form can infect humans producing HEPATIC HYDATID CYSTS.Host-Parasite Interactions: The relationship between an invertebrate and another organism (the host), one of which lives at the expense of the other. Traditionally excluded from definition of parasites are pathogenic BACTERIA; FUNGI; VIRUSES; and PLANTS; though they may live parasitically.Albendazole: A benzimidazole broad-spectrum anthelmintic structurally related to MEBENDAZOLE that is effective against many diseases. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p38)Trematode Infections: Infections caused by infestation with worms of the class Trematoda.Scabies: A contagious cutaneous inflammation caused by the bite of the mite SARCOPTES SCABIEI. It is characterized by pruritic papular eruptions and burrows and affects primarily the axillae, elbows, wrists, and genitalia, although it can spread to cover the entire body.Leishmania: A genus of flagellate protozoa comprising several species that are pathogenic for humans. Organisms of this genus have an amastigote and a promastigote stage in their life cycles. As a result of enzymatic studies this single genus has been divided into two subgenera: Leishmania leishmania and Leishmania viannia. Species within the Leishmania leishmania subgenus include: L. aethiopica, L. arabica, L. donovani, L. enrietti, L. gerbilli, L. hertigi, L. infantum, L. major, L. mexicana, and L. tropica. The following species are those that compose the Leishmania viannia subgenus: L. braziliensis, L. guyanensis, L. lainsoni, L. naiffi, and L. shawi.Leishmania donovani: A parasitic hemoflagellate of the subgenus Leishmania leishmania that infects man and animals and causes visceral leishmaniasis (LEISHMANIASIS, VISCERAL). The sandfly genera Phlebotomus and Lutzomyia are the vectors.Trichinellosis: An infection with TRICHINELLA. It is caused by eating raw or undercooked meat that is infected with larvae of nematode worms TRICHINELLA genus. All members of the TRICHINELLA genus can infect human in addition to TRICHINELLA SPIRALIS, the traditional etiological agent. It is distributed throughout much of the world and is re-emerging in some parts as a public health hazard and a food safety problem.Trypanosoma cruzi: The agent of South American trypanosomiasis or CHAGAS DISEASE. Its vertebrate hosts are man and various domestic and wild animals. Insects of several species are vectors.Abdomen, Acute: A clinical syndrome with acute abdominal pain that is severe, localized, and rapid in onset. Acute abdomen may be caused by a variety of disorders, injuries, or diseases.Paragonimiasis: Infection with TREMATODA of the genus PARAGONIMUS.Schistosomiasis mansoni: Schistosomiasis caused by Schistosoma mansoni. It is endemic in Africa, the Middle East, South America, and the Caribbean and affects mainly the bowel, spleen, and liver.Taenia: A genus of large tapeworms.Parasitic Sensitivity Tests: Tests that demonstrate the relative effectiveness of chemotherapeutic agents against specific parasites.Entamoeba histolytica: A species of parasitic protozoa causing ENTAMOEBIASIS and amebic dysentery (DYSENTERY, AMEBIC). Characteristics include a single nucleus containing a small central karyosome and peripheral chromatin that is finely and regularly beaded.Parasite Egg Count: Determination of parasite eggs in feces.Parasitic Diseases, Animal: Infections or infestations with parasitic organisms. The infestation may be experimental or veterinary.Disease Vectors: Invertebrates or non-human vertebrates which transmit infective organisms from one host to another.Helminth Proteins: Proteins found in any species of helminth.Leishmania infantum: A parasitic hemoflagellate of the subgenus Leishmania leishmania that infects man and animals and causes visceral leishmaniasis (LEISHMANIASIS, VISCERAL). Human infections are confined almost entirely to children. This parasite is commonly seen in dogs, other Canidae, and porcupines with humans considered only an accidental host. Transmission is by Phlebotomus sandflies.Malaria: A protozoan disease caused in humans by four species of the PLASMODIUM genus: PLASMODIUM FALCIPARUM; PLASMODIUM VIVAX; PLASMODIUM OVALE; and PLASMODIUM MALARIAE; and transmitted by the bite of an infected female mosquito of the genus ANOPHELES. Malaria is endemic in parts of Asia, Africa, Central and South America, Oceania, and certain Caribbean islands. It is characterized by extreme exhaustion associated with paroxysms of high FEVER; SWEATING; shaking CHILLS; and ANEMIA. Malaria in ANIMALS is caused by other species of plasmodia.Eosinophilia: Abnormal increase of EOSINOPHILS in the blood, tissues or organs.Praziquantel: An anthelmintic used in most schistosome and many cestode infestations.Trypanosomiasis, African: A disease endemic among people and animals in Central Africa. It is caused by various species of trypanosomes, particularly T. gambiense and T. rhodesiense. Its second host is the TSETSE FLY. Involvement of the central nervous system produces "African sleeping sickness." Nagana is a rapidly fatal trypanosomiasis of horses and other animals.Saudi ArabiaCommunicable Disease Control: Programs of surveillance designed to prevent the transmission of disease by any means from person to person or from animal to man.Travel: Aspects of health and disease related to travel.Coccidiosis: Protozoan infection found in animals and man. It is caused by several different genera of COCCIDIA.Elephantiasis, Filarial: Parasitic infestation of the human lymphatic system by WUCHERERIA BANCROFTI or BRUGIA MALAYI. It is also called lymphatic filariasis.Ivermectin: A mixture of mostly avermectin H2B1a (RN 71827-03-7) with some avermectin H2B1b (RN 70209-81-3), which are macrolides from STREPTOMYCES avermitilis. It binds glutamate-gated chloride channel to cause increased permeability and hyperpolarization of nerve and muscle cells. It also interacts with other CHLORIDE CHANNELS. It is a broad spectrum antiparasitic that is active against microfilariae of ONCHOCERCA VOLVULUS but not the adult form.BrazilSchistosomiasis haematobia: A human disease caused by the infection of parasitic worms SCHISTOSOMA HAEMATOBIUM. It is endemic in AFRICA and parts of the MIDDLE EAST. Tissue damages most often occur in the URINARY TRACT, specifically the URINARY BLADDER.Strongylida Infections: Infections with nematodes of the order STRONGYLIDA.Protozoan Proteins: Proteins found in any species of protozoan.Antibodies, Protozoan: Immunoglobulins produced in a response to PROTOZOAN ANTIGENS.Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay: An immunoassay utilizing an antibody labeled with an enzyme marker such as horseradish peroxidase. While either the enzyme or the antibody is bound to an immunosorbent substrate, they both retain their biologic activity; the change in enzyme activity as a result of the enzyme-antibody-antigen reaction is proportional to the concentration of the antigen and can be measured spectrophotometrically or with the naked eye. Many variations of the method have been developed.China: A country spanning from central Asia to the Pacific Ocean.Zoonoses: Diseases of non-human animals that may be transmitted to HUMANS or may be transmitted from humans to non-human animals.Antigens, Protozoan: Any part or derivative of any protozoan that elicits immunity; malaria (Plasmodium) and trypanosome antigens are presently the most frequently encountered.Leishmaniasis, Cutaneous: An endemic disease that is characterized by the development of single or multiple localized lesions on exposed areas of skin that typically ulcerate. The disease has been divided into Old and New World forms. Old World leishmaniasis is separated into three distinct types according to epidemiology and clinical manifestations and is caused by species of the L. tropica and L. aethiopica complexes as well as by species of the L. major genus. New World leishmaniasis, also called American leishmaniasis, occurs in South and Central America and is caused by species of the L. mexicana or L. braziliensis complexes.Gastrointestinal Diseases: Diseases in any segment of the GASTROINTESTINAL TRACT from ESOPHAGUS to RECTUM.Plasmodium falciparum: A species of protozoa that is the causal agent of falciparum malaria (MALARIA, FALCIPARUM). It is most prevalent in the tropics and subtropics.Feces: Excrement from the INTESTINES, containing unabsorbed solids, waste products, secretions, and BACTERIA of the DIGESTIVE SYSTEM.Developing Countries: Countries in the process of change with economic growth, that is, an increase in production, per capita consumption, and income. The process of economic growth involves better utilization of natural and human resources, which results in a change in the social, political, and economic structures.Sensitivity and Specificity: Binary classification measures to assess test results. Sensitivity or recall rate is the proportion of true positives. Specificity is the probability of correctly determining the absence of a condition. (From Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)Dog Diseases: Diseases of the domestic dog (Canis familiaris). This term does not include diseases of wild dogs, WOLVES; FOXES; and other Canidae for which the heading CARNIVORA is used.Insect Vectors: Insects that transmit infective organisms from one host to another or from an inanimate reservoir to an animate host.Toxoplasma: A genus of protozoa parasitic to birds and mammals. T. gondii is one of the most common infectious pathogenic animal parasites of man.Prevalence: The total number of cases of a given disease in a specified population at a designated time. It is differentiated from INCIDENCE, which refers to the number of new cases in the population at a given time.Mice, Inbred BALB C

Candidate parasitic diseases. (1/422)

This paper discusses five parasitic diseases: American trypanosomiasis (Chagas disease), dracunculiasis, lymphatic filariasis, onchocerciasis and schistosomiasis. The available technology and health infrastructures in developing countries permit the eradication of dracunculiasis and the elimination of lymphatic filariasis due to Wuchereria bancrofti. Blindness due to onchocerciasis and transmission of this disease will be prevented in eleven West African countries; transmission of Chagas disease will be interrupted. A well-coordinated international effort is required to ensure that scarce resources are not wasted, efforts are not duplicated, and planned national programmes are well supported.  (+info)

Preventing zoonotic diseases in immunocompromised persons: the role of physicians and veterinarians. (2/422)

We surveyed physicians and veterinarians in Wisconsin about the risk for and prevention of zoonotic diseases in immunocompromised persons. We found that physicians and veterinarians hold significantly different views about the risks posed by certain infectious agents and species of animals and communicate very little about zoonotic issues; moreover, physicians believe that veterinarians should be involved in many aspects of zoonotic disease prevention, including patient education.  (+info)

NK cells and apoptosis. (3/422)

Natural killer (NK) cells are a cell of the innate immune system that play an important role in the early response to viral infections and tumours. Natural killer cells are cytolytic, and secrete cytokines that influence the developing antigen-specific immune response. In the present article the NK cell surface molecules regulating effector function, the NK cell effector mechanisms involved in apoptosis, and the role of NK cell effector mechanisms in immune responses are reviewed.  (+info)

Glycosaminoglycan-binding microbial proteins in tissue adhesion and invasion: key events in microbial pathogenicity. (4/422)

Glycosaminoglycans such as heparin, heparan sulphate and dermatan sulphate, are distributed widely in the human body. Several glycosaminoglycans form part of the extracellular matrix and heparan sulphate is expressed on all eukaryotic surfaces. The identification of specific binding to different glycosaminoglycan molecules by bacteria (e.g., Helicobacter pylori, Bordetella pertussis and Chlamydia trachomatis), viruses (e.g., herpes simplex and dengue virus), and protozoa (e.g., Plasmodium and Leishmania), is therefore of great interest. Expression of glycosaminoglycan-binding proteins depends on growth and culture conditions in bacteria, and differs in various phases of parasite development. Glycosaminoglycan-binding microbial proteins may mediate adhesion of microbes to eukaryotic cells, which may be a primary mechanism in mucosal infections, and are also involved in secondary effects such as adhesion to cerebral endothelia in cerebral malaria or to synovial membranes in arthritis caused by Borrelia burgdorferi. It has been suggested that they may enhance intracellular survival in macrophages. Microbial binding of heparin may interfere with heparin-dependent growth factors. Whether or not glycosaminoglycan-binding proteins mediate invasion of epithelial cells is a matter of controversy. Heparin and other glycosaminoglycans may have potential uses as therapeutic agents in microbial infections and could form part of future vaccines against such infections.  (+info)

Ocular linguatuliasis in Ecuador: case report and morphometric study of the larva of Linguatula serrata. (5/422)

Linguatula serrata is a pentastomid, a cosmopolitan parasite belonging to the Phylum Pentastomida. Humans may act as an intermediate or accidental definitive host of this parasite, manifesting the nasopharyngeal or visceral form, with the latter having been described more frequently. The occurrence of ocular linguatuliasis is extremely rare, but it has been reported in the United States and Israel. The objective of the present paper was to report the first case of ocular linguatuliasis in Ecuador and to extend the morphologic study of L. serrata by morphometric analysis. The patient studied was a 34-year old woman from Guayaquil, Ecuador who complained of ocular pain with conjunctivitis and visual difficulties of two-months duration. Biomicroscopic examination revealed a mobile body in the anterior chamber of the eye. The mobile body was surgically removed. The specimen was fixed in alcohol, cleared using the technique of Loos, stained with acetic carmine, and mounted on balsam between a slide and a coverslip. It was observed with stereoscopic and common light microscopes in combination with an automatic system for image analysis and processing. The morphologic and morphometric characteristics corresponded to the third-instar larval form of L. serrata. To our knowledge, ocular linguatuliasis has not been previously described in South America, with this being the first report for Ecuador and South America. The present study shows that computer morphometry can adequately contribute both to the morphologic study and to the systematic classification of Pentastomids, and L. serrata in particular.  (+info)

Assessing morbidity in the paediatric community. (6/422)

INTRODUCTION: Morbidity information is easily available from medical records but its scope is limited to the population attended by the health services. Information on the prevalence of diseases requires community surveys, which are not always feasible. These two sources of information represent two alternative assessments of disease occurrence, namely demand morbidity and perceived morbidity. The present study was conceived so as to elicit a potential relationship between them so that the former could be used in the absence of the latter. METHODS: A community of 13,365 families on the outskirts of S. Paulo, Brazil, was studied during the period from 15/Nov/1994 to 15/Jan/1995. Data regarding children less than 5 years old were collected from a household survey and from the 2 basic health units in the area. Prevalence of diseases was ascertained from perceived morbidity and compared to estimates computed from demand morbidity. RESULTS: Data analysis distinguished 2 age groups, infants less than 1 year old and children 1 to less than 5. The most important groups of diseases were respiratory diseases, diarrhoea, skin problems and infectious & parasitical diseases. Basic health units presented a better coverage for infants. Though disease frequencies were not different within or outside these units, a better coverage was found for diarrhoea and infectious & parasitical diseases in the infant group, and for diarrhoea in the older age group. Equivalence between the two types of morbidity was found to be limited to the infant group and concerned only the best covered diseases. The odds of a disease being seen at the health service should be of at least 4:10 to ensure this equivalence. CONCLUSION: It was concluded that, provided that health service coverage is good, demand morbidity can be taken as a reliable estimate of community morbidity.  (+info)

Anaemia and iron deficiency disease in children. (7/422)

Iron deficiency is the single most common nutritional disorder world-wide and the main cause of anaemia in infancy, childhood and pregnancy. It is prevalent in most of the developing world and it is probably the only nutritional deficiency of consideration in industrialised countries. In the developing world the prevalence of iron deficiency is high, and is due mainly to a low intake of bioavailable iron. However, in this setting, iron deficiency often co-exists with other conditions such as, malnutrition, vitamin A deficiency, folate deficiency, and infection. In tropical regions, parasitic infestation and haemoglobinopathies are also a common cause of anaemia. In the developed world iron deficiency is mainly a single nutritional problem. The conditions previously mentioned might contribute to the development of iron deficiency or they present difficulties in the laboratory diagnosis of iron deficiency.  (+info)

Economic evaluation of parasitic diseases: a critique of the internal and external validity of published studies. (8/422)

It was estimated that in 1990, major parasitic diseases accounted for 11.7% of the disease burden from communicable disease. As advances in the prevention, diagnosis and treatment of parasitic diseases are made and implemented, there is a growing economic literature to help decision-makers choose the most efficient control method. The aim of this paper is to identify, describe and analyse the available published data on the efficiency of control strategies against parasitic diseases. Internal validity is assessed through the quality of economic evaluations over time using a series of standard questions, and external validity is assessed in terms of the potential to extrapolate results to other settings. This leads to a discussion of the legitimacy and feasibility of pooling data or results from studies for priority setting in the health sector, resulting in three recommendations: to increase the coverage of economic evaluations for parasitic diseases and types of interventions; to improve the internal validity of studies through guidelines and review procedures; and to explore the external validity of research results by examining their predictive validity across settings.  (+info)

  • For some parasitic diseases, there is no treatment and, in the case of serious symptoms, medication intended to kill the parasite is administered, whereas, in other cases, symptom relief options are used. (wikipedia.org)
  • A number of linkage and association studies on susceptibility/resistance to parasitic diseases, including malaria and schistosomiasis, overlap with associations that have been identified for susceptibility to atopy and asthma. (elsevier.com)
  • Their chosen topic of conversation would deprive many people of an appetite, but the scientist and his guest shared an intellectual hunger for a stomach-churning subject: gut worms-specifically, tiny worm-like parasitic organisms called helminths that live nestled in the gastrointestinal tracts of their hosts. (scientificamerican.com)
  • LONDON - Mali has eliminated Guinea worm disease bringing the world a step closer to eradicating the debilitating parasitic disease that is now only endemic in three African countries, the U.S.-based Carter Center said, citing provisional government figures. (japantimes.co.jp)
  • Last November, the doctor leading the fight against the disease which can cause worms up to a meter long to grow before emerging through the skin, said the world had never been so close to eradicating Guinea worm. (japantimes.co.jp)
  • The progress we have seen in restricting Guinea worm disease to these few cases in only three countries is testament to the dedication of people in endemic areas to caring for their health and that of their communities," said Dean Sienko, the Carter Center's vice president of health programs. (japantimes.co.jp)
  • The World Health Organization (WHO) has said the battle to eradicate Guinea worm is being hampered by insecurity in countries where the disease is endemic with health workers and volunteers often venturing hundreds of miles into lawless areas. (japantimes.co.jp)
  • The idea of having a worm grow inside you is awful," says Meta Roestenberg, an infectious disease physician at Leiden University Medical Center, who is directing the research. (nytimes.com)
  • Onchocerciasis a parasitic disease is caused by the filarial worm Onchocerca volvulus. (medindia.net)
  • By inhibiting this protein kinase, the worm would quickly die and the disease would be treated. (montclair.edu)
  • Researchers are urging WHO to recommend broader and more frequent treatment of parasitic-worm diseases, which affect 1.5 billion people worldwide. (stanford.edu)
  • Stanford University School of Medicine researchers and their colleagues are calling for an urgent re-evaluation of global guidelines for the treatment of parasitic-worm diseases in light of a new study showing that large-scale treatment programs are highly cost-effective. (stanford.edu)
  • Parasitic-worm diseases afflict some 1.5 billion people in the developing world, causing gastrointestinal problems, anemia, wasting, and cognitive and growth deficits in children, and in some cases, liver, bladder and intestinal problems that can be fatal. (stanford.edu)
  • Parasitic worm diseases are among the most prevalent ailments in the developing world. (stanford.edu)
  • A new animal study suggests that parasitic worm infestations may be able to restore balance to the erratic gut microbiomes of people with Crohn's Disease. (medicaldaily.com)
  • A worm in the gut may help people living with certain types of Crohn's disease get out of their rut, suggests a new study published Wednesday in Science . (medicaldaily.com)
  • Understanding how that connection works may help us put our parasitic freeloaders to good use or even devise worm-free ways to treat Crohn's. (medicaldaily.com)
  • Dr. Weinstock says he began wondering about the possibility of there being a link between eating foods that have been cleansed of all bacteria and worm eggs and autoimmune diseases , while sitting trapped on a runway waiting for hours for his flight to take off back in the mid 1990's. (medicalxpress.com)
  • Years of work by researchers from three San Antonio institutions-the Health Science Center, The University of Texas at San Antonio and Texas Biomedical Research Institute-is resulting in modified drugs that promise to more effectively treat the world's second-most-common parasitic disease. (healthcanal.com)
  • Furthermore, recent data indicate that 10% of the 4,617 outbreaks of foodborne disease of unconfirmed etiology reported from 1973 to 1987 met at least two of the clinical criteria for outbreaks of acute viral gastroenteritis ( 8 , 9 ). (cdc.gov)
  • The apparent failure to confirm a viral etiology in such outbreaks has been due largely to the lack of available tests and the reluctance of public health officials to use epidemiologic criteria in the classification of foodborne viral disease ( 9 - 11 ). (cdc.gov)
  • This grant funding further builds a vigorous research program on viral and parasitic diseases at Texas Biomed. (eurekalert.org)
  • We discuss new methods of investigating foodborne viral and parasitic disease and the future of these methods in recognizing, identifying, and controlling disease agents. (cdc.gov)
  • Contact and competition among different animals within a community matters when it comes to the possibility of parasitic disease outbreak, according to new research from the National Institute for Mathematical and Biological Synthesis and the University of Georgia, Athens. (nsf.gov)
  • Toxoplasmosis is one of a group of five parasitic diseases that have been targeted by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) for public health action. (abcbirds.org)
  • Toxoplasmosis is a protozoal disease caused by the sporozoan Toxoplasma gondii. (coursehero.com)
  • Entomopathogenic fungi may be a safe and efficient means of controlling Triatoma infestans, the bug that helps spread Chagas disease, according to new research conducted in Argentina. (medindia.net)
  • Wellcome-funded researchers at the Genomics Institute of the Novartis Research Foundation (GNF) have identified a chemical that can cure all of these diseases in mice. (eurekalert.org)
  • Dr Stephen Caddick, Director of Innovation at Wellcome, said: "These three diseases lead to more than 50,000 deaths annually, yet they receive relatively little funding for research and drug development. (eurekalert.org)
  • Zoetis is accepting grant proposals for research into innovative approaches to help protect dogs, cattle, sheep, and poultry from parasitic diseases and to extend the efficacy of therapeutics through new formulations. (veterinarypracticenews.com)
  • Through this grant program, we aim to energize investigation into anti-parasitic therapeutics research and advance science in this area of high need in animal health. (veterinarypracticenews.com)
  • Biologists at the University of York have played a key role in research that has increased the understanding of one of the world's deadliest diseases. (york.ac.uk)
  • Our research in parasitic diseases is led by Professor Graham Le Gros . (malaghan.org.nz)
  • We have a strong research programmes that examines the basic biology of parasitic and non-parasitic worms. (malaghan.org.nz)
  • One of the main goals in the basic research of these diseases is the deployment of accurate, reliable and feasible methods for the diagnosis of the etiological agents. (omicsonline.org)
  • Until recent years, however, parasitic diseases had received scant attention and little research funding, either in the U.S. or internationally. (macfound.org)
  • The Consortium's work was augmented by grants for equipment, problem-solving workshops, a summer course at the Marine Biological Laboratory at Woods Hole, and the World Health Organization's Special Programme for Research and Training in Tropical Diseases. (macfound.org)
  • In 1989 the Foundation established a network of research centers charged with building knowledge about the molecular biological and genetic bases of parasitic disease transmission by insects. (macfound.org)
  • Over the course of ten years, the Network transformed the field of research on parasitic diseases. (macfound.org)
  • Recently published research from Iowa State University biomedical scientists details new methods for studying a parasitic nematode that sickens millions worldwide, a development that could lead to improved therapies. (infectioncontroltoday.com)
  • This work, together with previously published observations, will now enable the research teams to assess pharmacological inhibitors of the TGFß signalling pathway for the treatment of cardiac fibrosis associated with the chronic forms of Chagas disease. (cea.fr)
  • aims to bring together leading academic scientists, researchers and research scholars to exchange and share their experiences and research results on all aspects of Breeding for Disease Resistance and Parasitic Weeds. (waset.org)
  • Also, high quality research contributions describing original and unpublished results of conceptual, constructive, empirical, experimental, or theoretical work in all areas of Breeding for Disease Resistance and Parasitic Weeds are cordially invited for presentation at the conference. (waset.org)
  • UNDP/World Bank/WHO Special Programme for Research and Training in Tropical Diseases. (who.int)
  • The third section on parasitic tropical lung disease highlights the growing importance of neglected tropical diseases due to increased traffic across the continents and migration of the population. (intechopen.com)
  • In tropical countries, dracunculiasis is widespread, and relief from the disease consists of removing the roundworms through openings made in the lesions. (cliffsnotes.com)
  • where, when and why the goals may not be met, and how frequently re-evaluation should now be performed as we aim beyond with the help of the new Neglected Tropical Diseases roadmap. (rvc.ac.uk)
  • Now Shkreli is in the eye of another storm over a similar effort involving a treatment for Chagas disease, a tropical parasitic malady that is potentially fatal. (ibtimes.com)
  • PLOS Neglected Tropical Diseases is the top Open Access tropical medicine journal, featuring an International Editorial Board and increased support for developing country authors. (plos.org)
  • His primary contribution to military medicine, it seems to me, in addition to a remarkable diversity of publications on both bacterial and parasitic diseases, was to stress the importance and development of diagnostic laboratory procedures for tropical diseases. (ajtmh.org)
  • Hernández C, Ramírez JD (2013) Molecular Diagnosis of Vector- Borne Parasitic Diseases. (omicsonline.org)
  • Vector-borne diseases still represent a serious problem in public health despite of the efforts of the surveillance and public health systems to mitigate these pathologies. (omicsonline.org)
  • by Kifaya Azmi, Gabriele Schonian, Ziad Abdeen Since leishmaniases are zoonotic vector-borne diseases transmitted through the bites of infected female sand flies, identification of the sources of imbibed blood meals and the detection and identification of leishmanial DNA in them are important in discerning animal reservoirs, clarifying the epi demiology and facilitating control of local leishmaniases. (medworm.com)
  • Developed ground-breaking genetic methods for interrupting the transmission of vector-borne disease. (macfound.org)
  • But they may be useful in treating lung disease and healing wounds, according to a new study. (jagran.com)
  • As well-known therapeutic targets in mammals, nuclear receptors have begun to be studied in parasitic worms, where they are widely distributed and play key roles in governing metabolic and developmental transcriptional networks. (jci.org)
  • The conclusions of this new book give suggestions for further non-empirical drug development and discuss perspectives of alternative approaches to therapy of parasitic diseases. (springer.com)
  • The second diagram in the link I've attached illustrates the % increase in health spending, by disease, for the ONE-YEAR period from 2013 to 2014 (so before the 2016 Zika spending). (healingwell.com)