Infections or infestations with parasitic organisms. They are often contracted through contact with an intermediate vector, but may occur as the result of direct exposure.
Skin diseases caused by ARTHROPODS; HELMINTHS; or other parasites.
Infections with unicellular organisms formerly members of the subkingdom Protozoa.
Drugs used to treat or prevent parasitic infections.
Infection with flukes (trematodes) of the genus SCHISTOSOMA. Three species produce the most frequent clinical diseases: SCHISTOSOMA HAEMATOBIUM (endemic in Africa and the Middle East), SCHISTOSOMA MANSONI (in Egypt, northern and southern Africa, some West Indies islands, northern 2/3 of South America), and SCHISTOSOMA JAPONICUM (in Japan, China, the Philippines, Celebes, Thailand, Laos). S. mansoni is often seen in Puerto Ricans living in the United States.
An order of ameboid protozoa that is commonly uninucleate and possess mitochondria. Most organisms are nonpathogenic.
Infestation with parasitic worms of the helminth class.
An order of parasitic organisms in the class COCCIDIA. Families include CRYPTOSPORIDIIDAE; EIMERIIDAE; and SARCOCYSTIDAE.
Infection of the brain, spinal cord, or perimeningeal structures with the larval forms of the genus TAENIA (primarily T. solium in humans). Lesions formed by the organism are referred to as cysticerci. The infection may be subacute or chronic, and the severity of symptoms depends on the severity of the host immune response and the location and number of lesions. SEIZURES represent the most common clinical manifestation although focal neurologic deficits may occur. (From Joynt, Clinical Neurology, 1998, Ch27, pp46-50)
Infections of the INTESTINES with PARASITES, commonly involving PARASITIC WORMS. Infections with roundworms (NEMATODE INFECTIONS) and tapeworms (CESTODE INFECTIONS) are also known as HELMINTHIASIS.
Substances that are destructive to protozoans.
A disease caused by any of a number of species of protozoa in the genus LEISHMANIA. There are four major clinical types of this infection: cutaneous (Old and New World) (LEISHMANIASIS, CUTANEOUS), diffuse cutaneous (LEISHMANIASIS, DIFFUSE CUTANEOUS), mucocutaneous (LEISHMANIASIS, MUCOCUTANEOUS), and visceral (LEISHMANIASIS, VISCERAL).
Infestation of animals with parasitic worms of the helminth class. The infestation may be experimental or veterinary.
Agents destructive to parasitic worms. They are used therapeutically in the treatment of HELMINTHIASIS in man and animal.
Diseases in any part of the GASTROINTESTINAL TRACT or the accessory organs (LIVER; BILIARY TRACT; PANCREAS).
Infections of the lungs with parasites, most commonly by parasitic worms (HELMINTHS).
Immunoglobulins produced in a response to HELMINTH ANTIGENS.
The study of parasites and PARASITIC DISEASES.
An infection caused by the infestation of the larval form of tapeworms of the genus Echinococcus. The liver, lungs, and kidney are the most common areas of infestation.
The branch of medicine concerned with diseases, mainly of parasitic origin, common in tropical and subtropical regions.
Any part or derivative of a helminth that elicits an immune reaction. The most commonly seen helminth antigens are those of the schistosomes.
Infection with protozoa of the genus TRYPANOSOMA.
One of the halogenated 8-quinolinols widely used as an intestinal antiseptic, especially as an antiamebic agent. It is also used topically in other infections and may cause CNS and eye damage. It is known by very many similar trade names world-wide.
Infection with any of various amebae. It is an asymptomatic carrier state in most individuals, but diseases ranging from chronic, mild diarrhea to fulminant dysentery may occur.
Infections by nematodes, general or unspecified.
Species of tapeworm in the genus TAENIA, that infects swine. It is acquired by humans through the ingestion of cured or undercooked pork.
Invertebrate organisms that live on or in another organism (the host), and benefit at the expense of the other. Traditionally excluded from definition of parasites are pathogenic BACTERIA; FUNGI; VIRUSES; and PLANTS; though they may live parasitically.
A genus of very small TAPEWORMS, in the family Taeniidae. The adult form is found in various CARNIVORA but not humans. The larval form is seen in humans under certain epidemiologic circumstances.
A genus of trematode flukes belonging to the family Schistosomatidae. There are over a dozen species. These parasites are found in man and other mammals. Snails are the intermediate hosts.
Infection with nematodes of the genus Dracunculus. One or more worms may be seen at a time, with the legs and feet being the most commonly infected areas. Symptoms include pruritus, nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, or asthmatic attacks.
The larval form of various tapeworms of the genus Taenia.
An infection of the SMALL INTESTINE caused by the flagellated protozoan GIARDIA LAMBLIA. It is spread via contaminated food and water and by direct person-to-person contact.
Diseases that are underfunded and have low name recognition but are major burdens in less developed countries. The World Health Organization has designated six tropical infectious diseases as being neglected in industrialized countries that are endemic in many developing countries (HELMINTHIASIS; LEPROSY; LYMPHATIC FILARIASIS; ONCHOCERCIASIS; SCHISTOSOMIASIS; and TRACHOMA).
Infection with CYSTICERCUS, the larval form of the various tapeworms of the genus Taenia (usually T. solium in man). In humans they penetrate the intestinal wall and invade subcutaneous tissue, brain, eye, muscle, heart, liver, lung, and peritoneum. Brain involvement results in NEUROCYSTICERCOSIS.
Infections with nematodes of the superfamily FILARIOIDEA. The presence of living worms in the body is mainly asymptomatic but the death of adult worms leads to granulomatous inflammation and permanent fibrosis. Organisms of the genus Elaeophora infect wild elk and domestic sheep causing ischemic necrosis of the brain, blindness, and dermatosis of the face.
A species of trematode blood flukes belonging to the family Schistosomatidae whose distribution is confined to areas of the Far East. The intermediate host is a snail. It occurs in man and other mammals.
A species of trematode blood flukes of the family Schistosomatidae. It is common in the Nile delta. The intermediate host is the planorbid snail. This parasite causes schistosomiasis mansoni and intestinal bilharziasis.
A chronic disease caused by LEISHMANIA DONOVANI and transmitted by the bite of several sandflies of the genera Phlebotomus and Lutzomyia. It is commonly characterized by fever, chills, vomiting, anemia, hepatosplenomegaly, leukopenia, hypergammaglobulinemia, emaciation, and an earth-gray color of the skin. The disease is classified into three main types according to geographic distribution: Indian, Mediterranean (or infantile), and African.
Infection by round worms of the genus TOXOCARA, usually found in wild and domesticated cats and dogs and foxes, except for the larvae, which may produce visceral and ocular larva migrans in man.
Infection with the protozoan parasite TRYPANOSOMA CRUZI, a form of TRYPANOSOMIASIS endemic in Central and South America. It is named after the Brazilian physician Carlos Chagas, who discovered the parasite. Infection by the parasite (positive serologic result only) is distinguished from the clinical manifestations that develop years later, such as destruction of PARASYMPATHETIC GANGLIA; CHAGAS CARDIOMYOPATHY; and dysfunction of the ESOPHAGUS or COLON.
Schistosomiasis caused by Schistosoma japonicum. It is endemic in the Far East and affects the bowel, liver, and spleen.
Pathogenic infections of the brain, spinal cord, and meninges. DNA VIRUS INFECTIONS; RNA VIRUS INFECTIONS; BACTERIAL INFECTIONS; MYCOPLASMA INFECTIONS; SPIROCHAETALES INFECTIONS; fungal infections; PROTOZOAN INFECTIONS; HELMINTHIASIS; and PRION DISEASES may involve the central nervous system as a primary or secondary process.
Infection with amoebae of the genus ENTAMOEBA. Infection with E. histolytica causes DYSENTERY, AMEBIC and LIVER ABSCESS, AMEBIC.
A species of trematode blood flukes of the family Schistosomatidae which occurs at different stages in development in veins of the pulmonary and hepatic system and finally the bladder lumen. This parasite causes urinary schistosomiasis.
A genus of parasitic nematodes that occurs in mammals including man. Infection in humans is either by larvae penetrating the skin or by ingestion of uncooked fish.
Infection of humans or animals with hookworms other than those caused by the genus Ancylostoma or Necator, for which the specific terms ANCYLOSTOMIASIS and NECATORIASIS are available.
A north temperate species of tapeworm (CESTODA) whose adult form infects FOXES and wild RODENTS. The larval form can infect humans producing HEPATIC HYDATID CYSTS.
The relationship between an invertebrate and another organism (the host), one of which lives at the expense of the other. Traditionally excluded from definition of parasites are pathogenic BACTERIA; FUNGI; VIRUSES; and PLANTS; though they may live parasitically.
A benzimidazole broad-spectrum anthelmintic structurally related to MEBENDAZOLE that is effective against many diseases. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p38)
Infections caused by infestation with worms of the class Trematoda.
A contagious cutaneous inflammation caused by the bite of the mite SARCOPTES SCABIEI. It is characterized by pruritic papular eruptions and burrows and affects primarily the axillae, elbows, wrists, and genitalia, although it can spread to cover the entire body.
A genus of flagellate protozoa comprising several species that are pathogenic for humans. Organisms of this genus have an amastigote and a promastigote stage in their life cycles. As a result of enzymatic studies this single genus has been divided into two subgenera: Leishmania leishmania and Leishmania viannia. Species within the Leishmania leishmania subgenus include: L. aethiopica, L. arabica, L. donovani, L. enrietti, L. gerbilli, L. hertigi, L. infantum, L. major, L. mexicana, and L. tropica. The following species are those that compose the Leishmania viannia subgenus: L. braziliensis, L. guyanensis, L. lainsoni, L. naiffi, and L. shawi.
A parasitic hemoflagellate of the subgenus Leishmania leishmania that infects man and animals and causes visceral leishmaniasis (LEISHMANIASIS, VISCERAL). The sandfly genera Phlebotomus and Lutzomyia are the vectors.
An infection with TRICHINELLA. It is caused by eating raw or undercooked meat that is infected with larvae of nematode worms TRICHINELLA genus. All members of the TRICHINELLA genus can infect human in addition to TRICHINELLA SPIRALIS, the traditional etiological agent. It is distributed throughout much of the world and is re-emerging in some parts as a public health hazard and a food safety problem.
The agent of South American trypanosomiasis or CHAGAS DISEASE. Its vertebrate hosts are man and various domestic and wild animals. Insects of several species are vectors.
A clinical syndrome with acute abdominal pain that is severe, localized, and rapid in onset. Acute abdomen may be caused by a variety of disorders, injuries, or diseases.
Infection with TREMATODA of the genus PARAGONIMUS.
Schistosomiasis caused by Schistosoma mansoni. It is endemic in Africa, the Middle East, South America, and the Caribbean and affects mainly the bowel, spleen, and liver.
A genus of large tapeworms.
Tests that demonstrate the relative effectiveness of chemotherapeutic agents against specific parasites.
A species of parasitic protozoa causing ENTAMOEBIASIS and amebic dysentery (DYSENTERY, AMEBIC). Characteristics include a single nucleus containing a small central karyosome and peripheral chromatin that is finely and regularly beaded.
Determination of parasite eggs in feces.
Infections or infestations with parasitic organisms. The infestation may be experimental or veterinary.
Invertebrates or non-human vertebrates which transmit infective organisms from one host to another.
Proteins found in any species of helminth.
A parasitic hemoflagellate of the subgenus Leishmania leishmania that infects man and animals and causes visceral leishmaniasis (LEISHMANIASIS, VISCERAL). Human infections are confined almost entirely to children. This parasite is commonly seen in dogs, other Canidae, and porcupines with humans considered only an accidental host. Transmission is by Phlebotomus sandflies.
A protozoan disease caused in humans by four species of the PLASMODIUM genus: PLASMODIUM FALCIPARUM; PLASMODIUM VIVAX; PLASMODIUM OVALE; and PLASMODIUM MALARIAE; and transmitted by the bite of an infected female mosquito of the genus ANOPHELES. Malaria is endemic in parts of Asia, Africa, Central and South America, Oceania, and certain Caribbean islands. It is characterized by extreme exhaustion associated with paroxysms of high FEVER; SWEATING; shaking CHILLS; and ANEMIA. Malaria in ANIMALS is caused by other species of plasmodia.
Abnormal increase of EOSINOPHILS in the blood, tissues or organs.
An anthelmintic used in most schistosome and many cestode infestations.
A disease endemic among people and animals in Central Africa. It is caused by various species of trypanosomes, particularly T. gambiense and T. rhodesiense. Its second host is the TSETSE FLY. Involvement of the central nervous system produces "African sleeping sickness." Nagana is a rapidly fatal trypanosomiasis of horses and other animals.
Programs of surveillance designed to prevent the transmission of disease by any means from person to person or from animal to man.
Aspects of health and disease related to travel.
Protozoan infection found in animals and man. It is caused by several different genera of COCCIDIA.
Parasitic infestation of the human lymphatic system by WUCHERERIA BANCROFTI or BRUGIA MALAYI. It is also called lymphatic filariasis.
A mixture of mostly avermectin H2B1a (RN 71827-03-7) with some avermectin H2B1b (RN 70209-81-3), which are macrolides from STREPTOMYCES avermitilis. It binds glutamate-gated chloride channel to cause increased permeability and hyperpolarization of nerve and muscle cells. It also interacts with other CHLORIDE CHANNELS. It is a broad spectrum antiparasitic that is active against microfilariae of ONCHOCERCA VOLVULUS but not the adult form.
A human disease caused by the infection of parasitic worms SCHISTOSOMA HAEMATOBIUM. It is endemic in AFRICA and parts of the MIDDLE EAST. Tissue damages most often occur in the URINARY TRACT, specifically the URINARY BLADDER.
Infections with nematodes of the order STRONGYLIDA.
Proteins found in any species of protozoan.
Immunoglobulins produced in a response to PROTOZOAN ANTIGENS.
An immunoassay utilizing an antibody labeled with an enzyme marker such as horseradish peroxidase. While either the enzyme or the antibody is bound to an immunosorbent substrate, they both retain their biologic activity; the change in enzyme activity as a result of the enzyme-antibody-antigen reaction is proportional to the concentration of the antigen and can be measured spectrophotometrically or with the naked eye. Many variations of the method have been developed.
A country spanning from central Asia to the Pacific Ocean.
Diseases of non-human animals that may be transmitted to HUMANS or may be transmitted from humans to non-human animals.
Any part or derivative of any protozoan that elicits immunity; malaria (Plasmodium) and trypanosome antigens are presently the most frequently encountered.
An endemic disease that is characterized by the development of single or multiple localized lesions on exposed areas of skin that typically ulcerate. The disease has been divided into Old and New World forms. Old World leishmaniasis is separated into three distinct types according to epidemiology and clinical manifestations and is caused by species of the L. tropica and L. aethiopica complexes as well as by species of the L. major genus. New World leishmaniasis, also called American leishmaniasis, occurs in South and Central America and is caused by species of the L. mexicana or L. braziliensis complexes.
Diseases in any segment of the GASTROINTESTINAL TRACT from ESOPHAGUS to RECTUM.
A species of protozoa that is the causal agent of falciparum malaria (MALARIA, FALCIPARUM). It is most prevalent in the tropics and subtropics.
Excrement from the INTESTINES, containing unabsorbed solids, waste products, secretions, and BACTERIA of the DIGESTIVE SYSTEM.
Countries in the process of change with economic growth, that is, an increase in production, per capita consumption, and income. The process of economic growth involves better utilization of natural and human resources, which results in a change in the social, political, and economic structures.
Binary classification measures to assess test results. Sensitivity or recall rate is the proportion of true positives. Specificity is the probability of correctly determining the absence of a condition. (From Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)
Diseases of the domestic dog (Canis familiaris). This term does not include diseases of wild dogs, WOLVES; FOXES; and other Canidae for which the heading CARNIVORA is used.
Insects that transmit infective organisms from one host to another or from an inanimate reservoir to an animate host.
A genus of protozoa parasitic to birds and mammals. T. gondii is one of the most common infectious pathogenic animal parasites of man.
The total number of cases of a given disease in a specified population at a designated time. It is differentiated from INCIDENCE, which refers to the number of new cases in the population at a given time.

Candidate parasitic diseases. (1/422)

This paper discusses five parasitic diseases: American trypanosomiasis (Chagas disease), dracunculiasis, lymphatic filariasis, onchocerciasis and schistosomiasis. The available technology and health infrastructures in developing countries permit the eradication of dracunculiasis and the elimination of lymphatic filariasis due to Wuchereria bancrofti. Blindness due to onchocerciasis and transmission of this disease will be prevented in eleven West African countries; transmission of Chagas disease will be interrupted. A well-coordinated international effort is required to ensure that scarce resources are not wasted, efforts are not duplicated, and planned national programmes are well supported.  (+info)

Preventing zoonotic diseases in immunocompromised persons: the role of physicians and veterinarians. (2/422)

We surveyed physicians and veterinarians in Wisconsin about the risk for and prevention of zoonotic diseases in immunocompromised persons. We found that physicians and veterinarians hold significantly different views about the risks posed by certain infectious agents and species of animals and communicate very little about zoonotic issues; moreover, physicians believe that veterinarians should be involved in many aspects of zoonotic disease prevention, including patient education.  (+info)

NK cells and apoptosis. (3/422)

Natural killer (NK) cells are a cell of the innate immune system that play an important role in the early response to viral infections and tumours. Natural killer cells are cytolytic, and secrete cytokines that influence the developing antigen-specific immune response. In the present article the NK cell surface molecules regulating effector function, the NK cell effector mechanisms involved in apoptosis, and the role of NK cell effector mechanisms in immune responses are reviewed.  (+info)

Glycosaminoglycan-binding microbial proteins in tissue adhesion and invasion: key events in microbial pathogenicity. (4/422)

Glycosaminoglycans such as heparin, heparan sulphate and dermatan sulphate, are distributed widely in the human body. Several glycosaminoglycans form part of the extracellular matrix and heparan sulphate is expressed on all eukaryotic surfaces. The identification of specific binding to different glycosaminoglycan molecules by bacteria (e.g., Helicobacter pylori, Bordetella pertussis and Chlamydia trachomatis), viruses (e.g., herpes simplex and dengue virus), and protozoa (e.g., Plasmodium and Leishmania), is therefore of great interest. Expression of glycosaminoglycan-binding proteins depends on growth and culture conditions in bacteria, and differs in various phases of parasite development. Glycosaminoglycan-binding microbial proteins may mediate adhesion of microbes to eukaryotic cells, which may be a primary mechanism in mucosal infections, and are also involved in secondary effects such as adhesion to cerebral endothelia in cerebral malaria or to synovial membranes in arthritis caused by Borrelia burgdorferi. It has been suggested that they may enhance intracellular survival in macrophages. Microbial binding of heparin may interfere with heparin-dependent growth factors. Whether or not glycosaminoglycan-binding proteins mediate invasion of epithelial cells is a matter of controversy. Heparin and other glycosaminoglycans may have potential uses as therapeutic agents in microbial infections and could form part of future vaccines against such infections.  (+info)

Ocular linguatuliasis in Ecuador: case report and morphometric study of the larva of Linguatula serrata. (5/422)

Linguatula serrata is a pentastomid, a cosmopolitan parasite belonging to the Phylum Pentastomida. Humans may act as an intermediate or accidental definitive host of this parasite, manifesting the nasopharyngeal or visceral form, with the latter having been described more frequently. The occurrence of ocular linguatuliasis is extremely rare, but it has been reported in the United States and Israel. The objective of the present paper was to report the first case of ocular linguatuliasis in Ecuador and to extend the morphologic study of L. serrata by morphometric analysis. The patient studied was a 34-year old woman from Guayaquil, Ecuador who complained of ocular pain with conjunctivitis and visual difficulties of two-months duration. Biomicroscopic examination revealed a mobile body in the anterior chamber of the eye. The mobile body was surgically removed. The specimen was fixed in alcohol, cleared using the technique of Loos, stained with acetic carmine, and mounted on balsam between a slide and a coverslip. It was observed with stereoscopic and common light microscopes in combination with an automatic system for image analysis and processing. The morphologic and morphometric characteristics corresponded to the third-instar larval form of L. serrata. To our knowledge, ocular linguatuliasis has not been previously described in South America, with this being the first report for Ecuador and South America. The present study shows that computer morphometry can adequately contribute both to the morphologic study and to the systematic classification of Pentastomids, and L. serrata in particular.  (+info)

Assessing morbidity in the paediatric community. (6/422)

INTRODUCTION: Morbidity information is easily available from medical records but its scope is limited to the population attended by the health services. Information on the prevalence of diseases requires community surveys, which are not always feasible. These two sources of information represent two alternative assessments of disease occurrence, namely demand morbidity and perceived morbidity. The present study was conceived so as to elicit a potential relationship between them so that the former could be used in the absence of the latter. METHODS: A community of 13,365 families on the outskirts of S. Paulo, Brazil, was studied during the period from 15/Nov/1994 to 15/Jan/1995. Data regarding children less than 5 years old were collected from a household survey and from the 2 basic health units in the area. Prevalence of diseases was ascertained from perceived morbidity and compared to estimates computed from demand morbidity. RESULTS: Data analysis distinguished 2 age groups, infants less than 1 year old and children 1 to less than 5. The most important groups of diseases were respiratory diseases, diarrhoea, skin problems and infectious & parasitical diseases. Basic health units presented a better coverage for infants. Though disease frequencies were not different within or outside these units, a better coverage was found for diarrhoea and infectious & parasitical diseases in the infant group, and for diarrhoea in the older age group. Equivalence between the two types of morbidity was found to be limited to the infant group and concerned only the best covered diseases. The odds of a disease being seen at the health service should be of at least 4:10 to ensure this equivalence. CONCLUSION: It was concluded that, provided that health service coverage is good, demand morbidity can be taken as a reliable estimate of community morbidity.  (+info)

Anaemia and iron deficiency disease in children. (7/422)

Iron deficiency is the single most common nutritional disorder world-wide and the main cause of anaemia in infancy, childhood and pregnancy. It is prevalent in most of the developing world and it is probably the only nutritional deficiency of consideration in industrialised countries. In the developing world the prevalence of iron deficiency is high, and is due mainly to a low intake of bioavailable iron. However, in this setting, iron deficiency often co-exists with other conditions such as, malnutrition, vitamin A deficiency, folate deficiency, and infection. In tropical regions, parasitic infestation and haemoglobinopathies are also a common cause of anaemia. In the developed world iron deficiency is mainly a single nutritional problem. The conditions previously mentioned might contribute to the development of iron deficiency or they present difficulties in the laboratory diagnosis of iron deficiency.  (+info)

Economic evaluation of parasitic diseases: a critique of the internal and external validity of published studies. (8/422)

It was estimated that in 1990, major parasitic diseases accounted for 11.7% of the disease burden from communicable disease. As advances in the prevention, diagnosis and treatment of parasitic diseases are made and implemented, there is a growing economic literature to help decision-makers choose the most efficient control method. The aim of this paper is to identify, describe and analyse the available published data on the efficiency of control strategies against parasitic diseases. Internal validity is assessed through the quality of economic evaluations over time using a series of standard questions, and external validity is assessed in terms of the potential to extrapolate results to other settings. This leads to a discussion of the legitimacy and feasibility of pooling data or results from studies for priority setting in the health sector, resulting in three recommendations: to increase the coverage of economic evaluations for parasitic diseases and types of interventions; to improve the internal validity of studies through guidelines and review procedures; and to explore the external validity of research results by examining their predictive validity across settings.  (+info)

1. Malaria: A disease caused by a parasite that is transmitted through the bite of an infected mosquito. It can cause fever, chills, and flu-like symptoms.
2. Giardiasis: A disease caused by a parasite that is found in contaminated food and water. It can cause diarrhea, abdominal cramps, and weight loss.
3. Toxoplasmosis: A disease caused by a parasite that is transmitted through the consumption of contaminated meat or cat feces. It can cause fever, headache, and swollen lymph nodes.
4. Leishmaniasis: A group of diseases caused by a parasite that is transmitted through the bite of an infected sandfly. It can cause skin sores, fatigue, and weight loss.
5. Chagas disease: A disease caused by a parasite that is transmitted through the bite of an infected triatomine bug. It can cause heart problems, digestive issues, and brain damage.
6. Trichomoniasis: A disease caused by a parasite that is transmitted through sexual contact with an infected person. It can cause vaginal itching, burning during urination, and abnormal vaginal discharge.
7. Cryptosporidiosis: A disease caused by a parasite that is found in contaminated water and food. It can cause diarrhea, vomiting, and stomach cramps.
8. Amoebiasis: A disease caused by a parasite that is found in contaminated water and food. It can cause diarrhea, abdominal pain, and rectal bleeding.
9. Babesiosis: A disease caused by a parasite that is transmitted through the bite of an infected blacklegged tick. It can cause fever, chills, and fatigue.
10. Angiostrongyliasis: A disease caused by a parasite that is transmitted through the ingestion of raw or undercooked snails or slugs. It can cause eosinophilic meningitis, which is an inflammation of the membranes covering the brain and spinal cord.

It's important to note that these are just a few examples of parasitic diseases, and there are many more out there. Additionally, while some of these diseases can be treated with antiparasitic medications, others may require long-term management and supportive care. It's important to seek medical attention if you suspect that you have been infected with a parasite or if you experience any symptoms that could be related to a parasitic infection.

Terms related to 'Skin Diseases, Parasitic'

Scabies: A highly contagious skin disease caused by the mite Sarcoptes scabiei. It is characterized by intense itching, particularly at night, and a rash with small blisters or bumps.

Rosacea: A chronic skin condition that causes redness, inflammation, and visible blood vessels on the face. It may be caused by a combination of genetic and environmental factors.

Eczema: A general term for conditions that cause dry, itchy skin. It is also known as atopic dermatitis.

Treatment of Skin Diseases, Parasitic'

The treatment of skin diseases caused by parasites depends on the specific disease and may include medication, topical creams or lotions, or lifestyle changes such as avoiding scratching or using protective clothing. In some cases, surgery may be necessary to remove infected tissue. It is important to consult a healthcare professional for proper diagnosis and treatment.

Prevention of Skin Diseases, Parasitic'

Preventing skin diseases caused by parasites can be challenging, but there are several steps you can take to reduce your risk. These include:

Avoiding contact with known parasites or infected individuals
Wearing protective clothing when outdoors, such as long sleeves and pants tucked into socks
Using insect repellents containing DEET or picaridin
Keeping your home clean and hygienic, particularly in areas where parasites are likely to be found, such as carpets and upholstered furniture.

Some common types of protozoan infections include:

1. Malaria: Caused by the Plasmodium parasite, which is transmitted through the bite of an infected mosquito.
2. Giardiasis: Caused by the Giardia parasite, which can be found in contaminated food and water or spread through close contact with an infected person.
3. Amoebiasis: Caused by the Entamoeba parasite, which can infect the intestines and cause symptoms such as diarrhea and abdominal pain.
4. Toxoplasmosis: Caused by the Toxoplasma parasite, which can be spread through contact with contaminated soil or cat feces.
5. Cryptosporidiosis: Caused by the Cryptosporidium parasite, which can be found in contaminated water and can cause symptoms such as diarrhea and stomach cramps.

Protozoan infections are typically treated with antiparasitic medications, and early diagnosis and treatment can help prevent complications and improve outcomes.

There are two main types of schistosomiasis:

1. Schistosoma haematobium: This type is most commonly found in Africa and the Middle East, and affects the urinary tract, causing bleeding, kidney damage, and bladder problems.
2. Schistosoma japonicum: This type is found in Asia, and affects the intestines, causing abdominal pain, diarrhea, and rectal bleeding.
3. Schistosoma mansoni: This type is found in sub-Saharan Africa, and affects both the intestines and the liver, causing abdominal pain, diarrhea, and liver damage.

Symptoms of schistosomiasis can include:

* Bloody urine
* Abdominal pain
* Diarrhea
* Rectal bleeding
* Fatigue
* Anemia
* Weight loss

If left untreated, schistosomiasis can lead to serious complications such as kidney damage, bladder cancer, and infertility.

Treatment of schistosomiasis typically involves the use of praziquantel, an antiparasitic drug that is effective against all species of Schistosoma. In addition to treatment, preventive measures such as avoiding contact with contaminated water and using protective clothing when swimming or bathing in areas where the disease is common can help reduce the risk of infection.

Preventive measures for schistosomiasis include:

* Avoiding contact with contaminated water
* Using protective clothing such as long sleeves and pants when swimming or bathing in areas where the disease is common
* Avoiding activities that involve exposure to water, such as swimming or fishing, in areas where the disease is common
* Using clean water for drinking, cooking, and personal hygiene
* Implementing sanitation measures such as building latrines and improving sewage systems in areas where the disease is common

It is important to note that schistosomiasis is a preventable and treatable disease, but it requires awareness and action from individuals, communities, and governments to control and eliminate the disease.

The most common types of helminthiasis include:

1. Ascariasis: caused by the roundworm Ascaris lumbricoides, this is one of the most common intestinal parasitic infections worldwide. Symptoms include abdominal pain, diarrhea, and weight loss.
2. Trichuriasis: caused by the whipworm Trichuris trichiura, this infection can cause symptoms such as abdominal pain, diarrhea, and rectal bleeding.
3. Hookworm infection: caused by the hookworm Ancylostoma duodenale or Necator americanus, this infection can cause symptoms such as anemia, abdominal pain, and diarrhea.
4. Strongyloidiasis: caused by the threadworm Strongyloides stercoralis, this infection can cause symptoms such as abdominal pain, diarrhea, and skin rashes.
5. Filariasis: caused by the filarial worms Wuchereria bancrofti, Brugia malayi, and Loa loa, this infection can cause symptoms such as swelling of the limbs, scrotum, and breasts, as well as skin rashes and fever.

Diagnosis of helminthiasis typically involves a physical examination, medical history, and laboratory tests such as stool samples or blood tests to detect the presence of parasites or their eggs. Treatment usually involves antiparasitic drugs, and in some cases, surgery may be necessary to remove worms that have migrated to other parts of the body. Prevention measures include improving sanitation and hygiene, wearing protective clothing when working or traveling in areas with high prevalence of helminthiasis, and using insecticides to prevent mosquito bites.

In conclusion, helminthiasis is a group of diseases caused by parasitic worms that can affect humans and other animals. The most common types of helminthiasis include ascariasis, trichuriasis, hookworm infection, strongyloidiasis, and filariasis. Diagnosis and treatment involve laboratory tests and antiparasitic drugs, respectively. Prevention measures include improving sanitation and hygiene, wearing protective clothing, and using insecticides. Understanding the causes, symptoms, diagnosis, treatment, and prevention of helminthiasis is essential for effective control and management of these diseases.

The infection occurs when the parasite migrates through the body and reaches the CNS, where it forms cysticerci, which are fluid-filled structures that can cause inflammation and damage to brain tissue. The symptoms of neurocysticercosis can vary depending on the location and size of the cysts, but they often include seizures, headaches, weakness, and vision problems.

Diagnosis of neurocysticercosis is based on a combination of clinical findings, imaging studies (such as CT or MRI scans), and serological tests to detect antibodies against the parasite. Treatment typically involves antiparasitic drugs to kill the parasites, as well as supportive care to manage symptoms and prevent complications.

Prevention of neurocysticercosis primarily involves controlling the transmission of the parasite, which can be done by improving food hygiene and avoiding consumption of undercooked or raw pork. In areas where the infection is common, mass drug administration programs have also been implemented to reduce the prevalence of the parasite.

In summary, neurocysticercosis is a severe and potentially debilitating parasitic infection that affects the central nervous system, with symptoms ranging from seizures to vision problems. Diagnosis is based on a combination of clinical findings and imaging studies, and treatment involves antiparasitic drugs and supportive care. Prevention primarily involves controlling the transmission of the parasite through improved food hygiene and mass drug administration programs.

Some common types of intestinal diseases, parasitic include:

1. Amoebiasis: This is an infection caused by the amoeba Entamoeba histolytica, which can cause diarrhea, abdominal pain, and fever.
2. Giardiasis: This is an infection caused by the parasite Giardia duodenalis, which can cause diarrhea, abdominal cramps, and weight loss.
3. Cryptosporidiosis: This is an infection caused by the parasite Cryptosporidium parvum, which can cause diarrhea, abdominal pain, and fever.
4. Isosporiasis: This is an infection caused by the parasite Isospora belli, which can cause diarrhea, abdominal cramps, and weight loss.
5. Tapeworm infections: These are infections caused by tapeworms, such as Taenia saginata (beef tapeworm) and Dipylidium caninum (dog tapeworm), which can cause abdominal pain, diarrhea, and weight loss.
6. Strongyloidiasis: This is an infection caused by the parasite Strongyloides stercoralis, which can cause diarrhea, abdominal pain, and fatigue.

Intestinal diseases, parasitic can be diagnosed through a combination of physical examination, medical history, and laboratory tests such as stool samples or blood tests. Treatment depends on the specific type of infection and may include antiparasitic medications, anti-diarrheal medications, and supportive care to manage symptoms.

There are several different forms of leishmaniasis, including:

* Cutaneous leishmaniasis: This form of the disease causes skin sores, which can be painful and disfiguring.
* Visceral leishmaniasis: Also known as kala-azar, this form of the disease affects the internal organs and can be fatal if left untreated.
* Mucocutaneous leishmaniasis: This form of the disease causes sores on the skin and mucous membranes.
*Diffuse cutaneous leishmaniasis: This form of the disease causes widespread skin lesions.

Leishmaniasis can be diagnosed through a variety of methods, including:

* Physical examination and medical history: A doctor may look for signs of the disease, such as skin sores or swelling, and ask about the patient's travel history and exposure to sandflies.
* Laboratory tests: Blood and skin samples can be tested for the presence of the parasite using techniques such as microscopy, PCR, and serology.
* Imaging studies: X-rays, CT scans, and MRI scans can be used to visualize the spread of the disease in the body.

Treatment for leishmaniasis typically involves antiparasitic drugs, such as pentavalent antimonials, miltefosine, and amphotericin B. The specific treatment regimen will depend on the severity and location of the disease, as well as the patient's age, health status, and other factors. In some cases, surgery may be necessary to remove affected tissue.

Prevention measures for leishmaniasis include:

* Avoiding sandfly bites: Using insecticides, wearing protective clothing, and staying in well-screened areas can help prevent sandfly bites.
* Eliminating sandfly breeding sites: Removing debris and vegetation, and using insecticides to kill sandflies and their eggs can help reduce the risk of infection.
* Vaccination: There is currently no effective vaccine against leishmaniasis, but research is ongoing to develop one.
* Public education: Raising awareness about the disease and how it is transmitted can help prevent infections and reduce the burden on healthcare systems.

Overall, early diagnosis and treatment are key to preventing complications and improving outcomes for patients with leishmaniasis. In addition, public health measures such as insecticide use and vaccination may help reduce the incidence of the disease.

There are many different types of helminths that can infect animals, including:

* Roundworms (Toxocara canis, Toxocara cati)
* Hookworms (Ancylostoma caninum, Ancylostoma braziliense)
* Whipworms (Trichuris vulpis)
* Tapeworms (Taenia pisiformis, Taenia serialis)
* Liver flukes (Fasciola hepatica)
* Intestinal flukes (Fasciola gigantica)

Animals can become infected with helminths through a variety of means, including:

* Ingestion of contaminated food or water
* Contact with infected animals or their feces
* Insect vectors, such as mosquitoes or fleas

The symptoms of helminthiasis can vary depending on the type of worm and the severity of the infection. Some common symptoms include:

* Diarrhea
* Vomiting
* Abdominal pain
* Weight loss
* Anemia
* Inflammation of various organs, such as the liver or kidneys

In severe cases, helminthiasis can lead to more serious complications, such as intestinal blockages or abscesses.

Diagnosis of helminthiasis typically involves a combination of physical examination, laboratory tests, and imaging studies. Treatment usually involves the use of antiparasitic drugs to kill the worms, and may also include supportive care to manage symptoms and prevent complications.

Prevention of helminthiasis is important for both animal and human health, and can be achieved through a variety of measures, including:

* Regular deworming of animals
* Proper disposal of animal feces
* Safe handling and cooking of food
* Avoiding contact with contaminated water or soil
* Using insecticides to control vectors, such as mosquitoes and fleas.

Some common examples of digestive system diseases include:

1. Irritable Bowel Syndrome (IBS): This is a chronic condition characterized by abdominal pain, bloating, and changes in bowel habits such as constipation or diarrhea.
2. Inflammatory Bowel Disease (IBD): This includes conditions such as Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis, which cause chronic inflammation in the digestive tract.
3. Gastroesophageal Reflux Disease (GERD): This is a condition where stomach acid flows back up into the esophagus, causing heartburn and other symptoms.
4. Peptic Ulcer: This is a sore on the lining of the stomach or duodenum (the first part of the small intestine) that can cause pain, nausea, and vomiting.
5. Diverticulosis: This is a condition where small pouches form in the wall of the colon, which can become inflamed and cause symptoms such as abdominal pain and changes in bowel habits.
6. Constipation: This is a common condition where the stool is hard and difficult to pass, which can be caused by a variety of factors such as poor diet, dehydration, or certain medications.
7. Diabetes: This is a chronic condition that affects how the body regulates blood sugar levels, which can also affect the digestive system and cause symptoms such as nausea, vomiting, and abdominal pain.
8. Celiac Disease: This is an autoimmune disorder where the immune system reacts to gluten, a protein found in wheat, barley, and rye, causing inflammation and damage to the small intestine.
9. Lipidosis: This is a condition where there is an abnormal accumulation of fat in the body, which can cause symptoms such as abdominal pain, nausea, and vomiting.
10. Sarcoidosis: This is a chronic inflammatory disease that can affect various organs in the body, including the digestive system, causing symptoms such as abdominal pain, diarrhea, and weight loss.

It's important to note that this list is not exhaustive and there are many other conditions that can cause abdominal pain. If you are experiencing persistent or severe abdominal pain, it's important to seek medical attention to determine the underlying cause and receive proper treatment.

Some common types of lung diseases, parasitic include:

1. Aspergillosis: This is a fungal infection that can affect the lungs and other parts of the body. It is caused by the Aspergillus fungus and can lead to chronic inflammation and scarring in the lungs.
2. Pneumocystis pneumonia (PCP): This is a type of pneumonia that is caused by the Pneumocystis jirovecii fungus and is more common in people with weakened immune systems, such as those with HIV/AIDS or cancer.
3. Cryptococcosis: This is a fungal infection that can affect the lungs and central nervous system. It is caused by the Cryptococcus neoformans fungus and can lead to chronic inflammation and scarring in the lungs.
4. Histoplasmosis: This is a fungal infection that can affect the lungs and other parts of the body. It is caused by the Histoplasma capsulatum fungus and can lead to chronic inflammation and scarring in the lungs.
5. Chagas disease: This is a parasitic infection that is caused by the Trypanosoma cruzi parasite and can affect the heart and lungs, among other organs. It is more common in Latin America and can lead to chronic inflammation and scarring in the lungs.
6. Leishmaniasis: This is a parasitic infection that can affect various parts of the body, including the lungs. It is caused by the Leishmania parasite and can lead to chronic inflammation and scarring in the lungs.
7. Strongyloidiasis: This is a parasitic infection that is caused by the Strongyloides stercoralis parasite and can affect the lungs and other parts of the body. It can lead to chronic inflammation and scarring in the lungs.
8. Schistosomiasis: This is a parasitic infection that is caused by the Schistosoma parasite and can affect various parts of the body, including the lungs. It can lead to chronic inflammation and scarring in the lungs.
9. Lymphatic filariasis: This is a parasitic infection that is caused by the Wuchereria bancrofti or Brugia malayi parasites and can affect the lymph nodes and other parts of the body, including the lungs. It can lead to chronic inflammation and scarring in the lungs.
10. Tuberculosis: This is a bacterial infection that primarily affects the lungs and can lead to chronic inflammation and scarring in the lungs. It is caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis and can be spread through the air when an infected person coughs or sneezes.

It is important to note that these conditions are not mutually exclusive, and individuals may have more than one condition affecting their lungs at the same time. It is also important to note that other factors such as smoking, exposure to environmental pollutants, and underlying medical conditions can increase the risk of developing chronic lung disease.

A healthcare professional should be consulted for an accurate diagnosis and appropriate treatment of any suspected lung conditions.

There are two main forms of echinococcosis: cystic and alveolar. Cystic echinococcosis is the most common form and is characterized by the formation of fluid-filled cysts in the liver, lungs, or other organs. Alveolar echinococcosis is a more aggressive form of the disease and is characterized by the formation of solid tumor-like masses in the liver, lungs, or other organs.

The symptoms of echinococcosis vary depending on the location and size of the cysts or tumors. They may include abdominal pain, weight loss, fever, fatigue, and difficulty breathing. The disease is diagnosed through a combination of imaging tests such as CT scans, MRI scans, and ultrasound, and by examining a sample of the cyst contents under a microscope.

Treatment for echinococcosis usually involves surgery to remove the cysts or tumors, followed by antiparasitic medication to kill any remaining parasites. In some cases, chemotherapy may be necessary to treat the disease. Prevention of echinococcosis primarily involves controlling the spread of dog tapeworms, which can be done through measures such as regularly deworming dogs and avoiding contact with dog feces.

Echinococcosis is a serious and potentially life-threatening disease, but with timely diagnosis and appropriate treatment, many people are able to recover fully or partially.

There are two forms of trypanosomiasis, depending on the stage of the parasite:

1. Acute trypanosomiasis: This form of the disease occurs in the early stages of infection and is characterized by fever, headache, muscle pain, and joint swelling.
2. Chronic trypanosomiasis: This form of the disease occurs in the later stages of infection and is characterized by progressive neurological symptoms, including confusion, slurred speech, and difficulty walking.

If left untreated, trypanosomiasis can be fatal. Treatment typically involves the use of antiparasitic drugs, such as melarsoprol or eflornithine.

In addition to its medical significance, trypanosomiasis has also had significant social and economic impacts on affected communities, particularly in rural areas where the disease is more common. The stigma associated with the disease can lead to social isolation and marginalization of infected individuals and their families, while the financial burden of treatment can be a significant source of poverty.

Overall, trypanosomiasis is a serious and potentially deadly disease that requires prompt diagnosis and treatment to prevent complications and improve outcomes for affected individuals.

The most common symptoms of amebiasis are:

1. Diarrhea
2. Abdominal pain
3. Fever
4. Blood in the stool
5. Rectal pain
6. Tenesmus (a feeling of needing to have a bowel movement even when the bowels are empty)
7. Weakness and fatigue
8. Loss of appetite
9. Nausea and vomiting
10. Constipation

The infection is usually caused by ingesting food or water contaminated with feces, or by direct contact with someone who has the infection.

The disease is more common in areas with poor sanitation and hygiene, and can be diagnosed through a combination of physical examination, medical history, and laboratory tests such as stool samples or blood tests.

Treatment typically involves antiparasitic medications such as metronidazole or tinidazole, and supportive care to manage symptoms such as hydration, pain management, and nutritional support. In severe cases, hospitalization may be necessary to monitor and treat complications such as perforation of the colon, peritonitis, or abscesses.

Prevention measures include proper hand washing, avoiding consumption of contaminated food or water, and good sanitation and hygiene practices. Vaccines are not available for amebiasis, but research is ongoing to develop one.

Nematode infections are parasitic infections caused by nematodes, a type of worm. Nematodes are helminths, which are parasites that infect the body and feed on its tissues and fluids. There are several types of nematode infections, including:

1. Ascariasis: This is an infection caused by the roundworm Ascaris lumbricoides. It is one of the most common intestinal parasitic infections in the world and can cause symptoms such as abdominal pain, diarrhea, and weight loss.
2. Trichinellosis: This is an infection caused by the parasite Trichinella. It can be transmitted through the consumption of undercooked meat, particularly pork or wild game. Symptoms include fever, muscle pain, and diarrhea.
3. Strongyloidiasis: This is an infection caused by the roundworm Strongyloides. It can affect people with weakened immune systems, such as those with HIV/AIDS or cancer patients undergoing chemotherapy. Symptoms include diarrhea, abdominal pain, and fatigue.
4. Hookworm infection: This is an infection caused by the hookworm Ancylostoma duodenale. It can be transmitted through contact with contaminated feces or soil. Symptoms include abdominal pain, diarrhea, and anemia.
5. Trichuriasis: This is an infection caused by the whipworm Trichuris trichiura. It can affect people of all ages and can cause symptoms such as diarrhea, abdominal pain, and weight loss.

Nematode infections can be diagnosed through a variety of tests, including stool samples, blood tests, and imaging studies. Treatment depends on the type of infection and may involve medication to kill the parasites, as well as supportive care to manage symptoms. Prevention includes avoiding exposure to contaminated food and water, practicing good hygiene, and using insecticides to control the spread of hookworms.

Overall, nematode infections can have a significant impact on human health, especially in areas with poor sanitation and hygiene. It is important to be aware of these infections and seek medical attention if symptoms persist or worsen over time.

The disease is transmitted through the ingestion of contaminated water or food that contains the infective larvae of the worm. The symptoms of dracunculiasis usually develop within one to two months after infection and can include fever, headache, weakness, joint pain, and a skin rash.

The most distinctive feature of dracunculiasis is the presence of a painful skin lesion at the site of infection, which eventually develops into a blister-like swelling that contains the mature worm. The worm can grow up to 60 cm in length and can live for several months within the human host.

Dracunculiasis is diagnosed through the observation of the characteristic skin lesion and the presence of the worm in the blister. Treatment typically involves the surgical removal of the worm, which can be done using a fine-tipped needle or by applying heat to the blister to stimulate the worm's exit.

Prevention of dracunculiasis primarily involves improving access to safe drinking water and promoting good hygiene practices, such as washing hands before eating and avoiding consumption of uncooked or undercooked fish and other animals that may be infected with the parasite.

While dracunculiasis is generally not fatal, it can cause significant morbidity and disability, particularly in areas where the disease is common and treatment is limited. Therefore, efforts to control and eliminate this disease are important for improving public health outcomes in affected regions.

Giardiasis is a disease caused by the protozoan parasite Giardia duodenalis, which is found in contaminated water, food, or direct contact with infected individuals. The parasite enters the small intestine and feeds on the mucosal lining, causing inflammation, diarrhea, and abdominal cramps.

Prevalence:

Giardiasis is a common disease worldwide, affecting approximately 500 million people annually, with higher prevalence in developing countries. In the United States, it is estimated that over 1.5 million people are infected each year, with the highest incidence rates found among children and travelers to endemic areas.

Symptoms:

The symptoms of giardiasis can vary in severity but typically include:

* Diarrhea (sometimes bloody)
* Abdominal cramps
* Weight loss
* Fatigue
* Nausea and vomiting
* Fever
* Headache

In some cases, the infection can lead to more severe complications such as:

* Malabsorption (deficiency of essential nutrients)
* Inflammation of the intestine
* Rectal prolapse

Diagnosis:

The diagnosis of giardiasis is based on a combination of clinical symptoms, laboratory tests, and medical history. The most common diagnostic techniques include:

* Microscopic examination of stool samples for the presence of Giardia eggs or trophozoites
* Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) to detect antigens or antibodies against Giardia in stool or blood samples
* Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) to detect the parasite's DNA in stool samples

Treatment:

The treatment of giardiasis typically involves the use of antiparasitic drugs, such as metronidazole or tinidazole. These medications are effective against the parasite and can be administered orally or intravenously, depending on the severity of the infection. The duration of treatment varies depending on the individual case, but it is generally between 5-10 days.

Prevention:

Preventing giardiasis involves avoiding exposure to contaminated water or food sources. Some measures that can be taken to prevent the infection include:

* Avoiding consumption of untreated water, especially when traveling to areas with poor sanitation
* Avoiding contact with people who have diarrhea or are infected with Giardia
* Properly storing and cooking food to kill any parasites that may be present
* Avoiding raw or undercooked meat, especially pork and wild game
* Washing hands frequently, especially before eating or preparing food

It is important to note that giardiasis can be a recurring infection, so it is important to take preventive measures consistently.

Examples of neglected diseases include:

1. Dengue fever: A mosquito-borne viral disease that affects millions of people worldwide, particularly in urban slums and other areas with poor sanitation and hygiene.
2. Chagas disease: A parasitic disease caused by the Trypanosoma cruzi parasite, which is transmitted through the bite of an infected triatomine bug. It affects millions of people in Latin America and can cause serious heart and gastrointestinal complications.
3. Leishmaniasis: A parasitic disease caused by several species of the Leishmania parasite, which is transmitted through the bite of an infected sandfly. It affects millions of people worldwide, particularly in Africa, Asia, and Latin America.
4. Onchocerciasis (river blindness): A parasitic disease caused by the Onchocerca volvulus parasite, which is transmitted through the bite of an infected blackfly. It affects millions of people in Africa and can cause blindness, skin lesions, and other serious complications.
5. Schistosomiasis: A parasitic disease caused by the Schistosoma parasite, which is transmitted through contact with contaminated water. It affects hundreds of millions of people worldwide, particularly in sub-Saharan Africa and Latin America.
6. Lymphatic filariasis: A parasitic disease caused by the Wuchereria bancrofti, Brugia malayi, and Loa loa parasites, which are transmitted through the bite of an infected mosquito. It affects millions of people worldwide, particularly in Africa and Asia, and can cause severe swelling of the limbs and other serious complications.
7. Chagas disease: A parasitic disease caused by the Trypanosoma cruzi parasite, which is transmitted through the bite of an infected triatomine bug. It affects millions of people in Latin America and can cause heart failure, digestive problems, and other serious complications.

These diseases are often chronic and debilitating, and can have a significant impact on the quality of life of those affected. In addition to the physical symptoms, they can also cause social and economic burdens, such as lost productivity and reduced income.

In terms of public health, these diseases pose a significant challenge for healthcare systems, particularly in developing countries where resources may be limited. They require sustained efforts to control and eliminate, including disease surveillance, vector control, and treatment.

In addition, these diseases are often interconnected with other health issues, such as poverty, poor sanitation, and lack of access to healthcare. Therefore, addressing these diseases requires a comprehensive approach that takes into account the social and economic factors that contribute to their spread.

Overall, the impact of these diseases on public health is significant, and sustained efforts are needed to control and eliminate them.

The parasite forms cysts in various organs of the body, including the brain, liver, lungs, and muscles. Symptoms of cysticercosis can vary depending on the location and size of the cysts, and may include seizures, headaches, vision problems, and movement disorders.

Diagnosis of cysticercosis is typically made through a combination of physical examination, imaging studies such as CT or MRI scans, and laboratory tests to detect the presence of antibodies or parasitic elements in the body. Treatment generally involves surgical removal of the cysts, and may also involve antiparasitic drugs to kill any remaining parasites.

In some cases, cysticercosis can lead to serious complications such as inflammation of the brain (meningitis) or blockage of blood vessels, which can be life-threatening. Therefore, early diagnosis and treatment are essential to prevent these complications and improve outcomes for patients with this condition.

Overall, cysticercosis is a significant health problem in many parts of the world, particularly in areas where sanitation and hygiene are poor, and can have serious consequences if left untreated.

The symptoms of filariasis can vary depending on the type of infection and the severity of the disease. In lymphatic filariasis, the most common symptoms are swelling of the limbs, known as elephantiasis, and skin thickening, which can lead to severe social stigma and disability. Other symptoms may include fever, joint pain, and fatigue.

Filariasis is diagnosed through a combination of physical examination, medical history, and laboratory tests such as blood smears or polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Treatment for filariasis typically involves antiparasitic drugs, which can help to reduce the symptoms and prevent complications. However, these drugs do not cure the infection, and repeated treatments may be necessary to control the disease.

Prevention of filariasis primarily involves reducing the population of infected mosquitoes through vector control measures such as insecticide spraying, use of bed nets, and elimination of standing water around homes and communities. Personal protective measures such as wearing protective clothing and applying insect repellents can also help to reduce the risk of infection.

In addition to these measures, there is ongoing research into new diagnostic tools and treatments for filariasis, as well as efforts to eliminate the disease through mass drug administration and other public health interventions.

Keywords: filariasis, lymphatic filariasis, onchocerciasis, loiasis, elephantiasis, swelling, joint pain, fatigue, antiparasitic drugs, vector control, personal protective measures, diagnostic tools, treatments, public health interventions.

The symptoms of visceral leishmaniasis can vary depending on the severity of the infection, but may include:

* Fever
* Fatigue
* Loss of appetite
* Weight loss
* Enlargement of the liver and spleen
* Pain in the abdomen
* Anemia
* Low blood platelet count
* Low white blood cell count

If left untreated, visceral leishmaniasis can be fatal. Treatment is typically with antiparasitic drugs, such as miltefosine or amphotericin B, and supportive care to manage symptoms and prevent complications.

It is important to note that visceral leishmaniasis is a serious and potentially life-threatening condition, and prompt medical attention is necessary for effective treatment and management.

The symptoms of toxocariasis can vary depending on the location of the parasite in the body, but they may include:

* Eye problems, such as blurred vision, eye pain, and inflammation of the retina
* Skin rashes or lesions
* Joint pain and swelling
* Neurological symptoms, such as headaches, seizures, and loss of coordination
* Diarrhea and abdominal pain

Toxocariasis is diagnosed through a combination of physical examination, medical history, and laboratory tests, such as blood tests and imaging studies. Treatment typically involves antiparasitic medications, which can help to eliminate the parasites from the body. In severe cases, hospitalization may be necessary to manage complications such as eye inflammation or neurological problems.

Preventive measures for toxocariasis include:

* Avoiding contact with contaminated soil or feces
* Washing hands and food thoroughly
* Keeping pets free of parasites through regular deworming and proper sanitation
* Avoiding eating undercooked meat, especially pork and wild game

While toxocariasis is generally not life-threatening, it can cause significant morbidity and vision loss if left untreated. Therefore, it is important to seek medical attention if symptoms persist or worsen over time.

The symptoms of Chagas disease can vary depending on the severity of the infection and the location of the parasites in the body. In the acute phase, which typically lasts for weeks to months after infection, symptoms may include fever, fatigue, headache, joint pain, and swelling of the eyelids and neck. In some cases, the infection can spread to the heart and digestive system, leading to life-threatening complications such as heart failure, arrhythmias, and intestinal obstruction.

If left untreated, Chagas disease can enter a chronic phase, which can last for years or even decades. During this phase, symptoms may be less severe but can still include fatigue, joint pain, and cardiac problems. In some cases, the infection can reactivate during pregnancy or after exposure to stress, leading to relapses of acute symptoms.

Chagas disease is diagnosed through a combination of physical examination, medical history, and laboratory tests such as blood tests and imaging studies. Treatment typically involves antiparasitic drugs, which can be effective in reducing the severity of symptoms and preventing complications. However, the disease can be difficult to diagnose and treat, particularly in remote areas where medical resources are limited.

Prevention is an important aspect of managing Chagas disease. This includes controlling the population of triatomine bugs through measures such as insecticide spraying and sealing homes, as well as educating people about the risks of the disease and how to avoid infection. In addition, blood banks in areas where Chagas disease is common screen donated blood for the parasite to prevent transmission through blood transfusions.

Overall, Chagas disease is a significant public health problem in Latin America and can have severe consequences if left untreated. Early diagnosis and treatment are important to prevent complications and improve outcomes for those infected with this disease.

Schistosomiasis japonica is caused by the Schistosoma japonicum parasite, which is transmitted through contact with infected freshwater snails. Once infected, individuals can experience a range of symptoms including abdominal pain, diarrhea, fatigue, and weight loss. If left untreated, the infection can lead to serious complications such as kidney damage and bladder cancer.

The diagnosis of schistosomiasis japonica is based on a combination of clinical symptoms, laboratory tests, and the identification of the parasite in stool samples or tissue biopsies. Treatment typically involves the use of praziquantel, an antiparasitic drug that is effective against schistosomiasis japonica.

Preventive measures for schistosomiasis japonica include avoiding contact with infected freshwater snails and wearing protective clothing when working or playing in areas where the parasite is present. In endemic regions, community-based interventions such as snail control programs and health education campaigns can also help reduce the risk of infection.

Overall, schistosomiasis japonica is a significant public health problem in many parts of Asia, and continues to be an important focus of research and control efforts globally.

The most common types of CNS infections include:

1. Meningitis: Inflammation of the protective membranes (meninges) that cover the brain and spinal cord, often caused by bacteria or viruses.
2. Encephalitis: Inflammation of the brain tissue itself, usually caused by a virus.
3. Abscesses: Pockets of pus that form in the brain or spinal cord, typically caused by bacterial infections.
4. Cryptococcal infections: Caused by a fungus called Cryptococcus neoformans, often affecting people with weakened immune systems.
5. Toxoplasmosis: A parasitic infection caused by the Toxoplasma gondii parasite, which can affect the CNS in people with compromised immune systems.

Symptoms of CNS infections can vary depending on the specific type and severity of the infection, but may include fever, headache, confusion, seizures, weakness, and stiff neck. Diagnosis is typically made through a combination of physical examination, laboratory tests, and imaging studies such as CT or MRI scans.

Treatment of CNS infections depends on the underlying cause, but may involve antibiotics, antiviral medications, or antifungal drugs. In severe cases, hospitalization and supportive care such as intravenous fluids, oxygen therapy, and respiratory support may be necessary.

Prevention of CNS infections includes good hygiene practices such as frequent handwashing, avoiding close contact with people who are sick, and getting vaccinated against certain viruses that can cause CNS infections. Early diagnosis and prompt treatment are critical to preventing long-term complications of CNS infections and improving outcomes for patients.



Entamoebiasis is typically spread through the fecal-oral route, where the parasite is ingested from contaminated food or water. Risk factors for developing entamoebiasis include poor sanitation, lack of access to clean water, and poor hygiene practices.

The diagnosis of entamoebiasis typically involves a combination of clinical symptoms, laboratory tests such as stool samples, and imaging studies such as X-rays or CT scans. Treatment typically involves the use of antiparasitic medications such as metronidazole or tinidazole, which can effectively cure the infection.

Prevention measures for entamoebiasis include avoiding contaminated food and water, practicing good hygiene and sanitation, and avoiding close contact with individuals who are infected with the parasite. Vaccines are also being developed to prevent entamoebiasis, but they are not yet widely available.

Entamoebiasis is a significant public health problem in many developing countries, where it is a leading cause of gastrointestinal illness and death. According to the World Health Organization (WHO), approximately 50 million people worldwide are infected with Entamoeba histolytica each year, resulting in an estimated 4-8% mortality rate.

In summary, entamoebiasis is a serious gastrointestinal disease caused by the parasitic protozoan Entamoeba histolytica, which can lead to severe complications and death if left untreated. Prevention measures include avoiding contaminated food and water, practicing good hygiene and sanitation, and developing vaccines to prevent infection.

1. Types of Hookworms: There are two main types of hookworms that can infect humans: Ancylostoma duodenale and Necator americanus. A. duodenale is more common in temperate climates, while N. americanus is found in tropical and subtropical regions.
2. Transmission: Hookworms are typically spread through contact with contaminated feces or soil. This can happen when someone ingests food or water that has been contaminated with hookworm eggs or larvae. In rare cases, hookworms can also be transmitted through blood transfusions or organ transplants.
3. Symptoms: The symptoms of hookworm infections can vary depending on the severity of the infection and the number of worms present. Common symptoms include diarrhea, abdominal pain, fatigue, weight loss, and anemia. In severe cases, hookworms can cause inflammation of the intestines, which can lead to complications such as bowel obstruction or perforation.
4. Diagnosis: Hookworm infections are typically diagnosed through a stool sample or blood test. A doctor may also perform a physical examination and take a medical history to help determine the presence of hookworms.
5. Treatment: Hookworm infections can be treated with antiparasitic medications, such as albendazole or mebendazole. These medications work by killing the worms in the intestines, which helps to relieve symptoms and prevent complications. In some cases, treatment may also involve addressing any underlying conditions that have been exacerbated by the hookworm infection, such as anemia or malnutrition.
6. Prevention: The best way to prevent hookworm infections is to practice good hygiene and avoid contact with contaminated feces or soil. This includes washing your hands frequently, especially after using the bathroom or before handling food. Additionally, wearing shoes when outdoors can help reduce the risk of contracting a hookworm infection through contact with contaminated soil.


Examples of communicable diseases include:

1. Influenza (the flu)
2. Measles
3. Tuberculosis (TB)
4. HIV/AIDS
5. Malaria
6. Hepatitis B and C
7. Chickenpox
8. Whooping cough (pertussis)
9. Meningitis
10. Pneumonia

Communicable diseases can be spread through various means, including:

1. Direct contact with an infected person: This includes touching, hugging, shaking hands, or sharing food and drinks with someone who is infected.
2. Indirect contact with contaminated surfaces or objects: Pathogens can survive on surfaces for a period of time and can be transmitted to people who come into contact with those surfaces.
3. Airborne transmission: Some diseases, such as the flu and TB, can be spread through the air when an infected person talks, coughs, or sneezes.
4. Infected insect or animal bites: Diseases such as malaria and Lyme disease can be spread through the bites of infected mosquitoes or ticks.

Prevention and control of communicable diseases are essential to protect public health. This includes:

1. Vaccination: Vaccines can prevent many communicable diseases, such as measles, mumps, and rubella (MMR), and influenza.
2. Personal hygiene: Frequent handwashing, covering the mouth when coughing or sneezing, and avoiding close contact with people who are sick can help prevent the spread of diseases.
3. Improved sanitation and clean water: Proper disposal of human waste and adequate water treatment can reduce the risk of disease transmission.
4. Screening and testing: Identifying and isolating infected individuals can help prevent the spread of disease.
5. Antibiotics and antiviral medications: These drugs can treat and prevent some communicable diseases, such as bacterial infections and viral infections like HIV.
6. Public education: Educating the public about the risks and prevention of communicable diseases can help reduce the spread of disease.
7. Contact tracing: Identifying and monitoring individuals who have been in close contact with someone who has a communicable disease can help prevent further transmission.
8. Quarantine and isolation: Quarantine and isolation measures can be used to control outbreaks by separating infected individuals from those who are not infected.
9. Improved healthcare infrastructure: Adequate healthcare facilities, such as hospitals and clinics, can help diagnose and treat communicable diseases early on, reducing the risk of transmission.
10. International collaboration: Collaboration between countries and global organizations is crucial for preventing and controlling the spread of communicable diseases that are a threat to public health worldwide, such as pandemic flu and SARS.

The most common types of trematode infections include:

1. Schistosomiasis: This is a parasitic disease caused by Schistosoma worms that affects over 200 million people worldwide, primarily in developing countries. It is spread through contact with contaminated freshwater snails.
2. Fascioliasis (also known as liver fluke): This is a parasitic disease caused by Fasciola worms that affects humans and various animals, including sheep, cattle, and pigs. It is spread through consumption of contaminated water or food.
3. Clonorchiasis: This is a parasitic disease caused by Clonorchis sinensis worms that affects humans in parts of Asia, particularly in China and Korea. It is spread through consumption of raw or undercooked fish.
4. Opisthorchiasis: This is a parasitic disease caused by Opisthorchis viverrini worms that affects humans in parts of Southeast Asia, particularly in Thailand and Laos. It is spread through consumption of raw or undercooked fish.

The symptoms of trematode infections vary depending on the type of parasite and the organs affected, but they can include:

* Abdominal pain
* Diarrhea
* Fatigue
* Weakness
* Loss of appetite
* Nausea and vomiting
* Jaundice (yellowing of the skin and eyes)
* Inflammation of the liver, lung, or other organs

Trematode infections can be diagnosed through various techniques, including:

1. Microscopic examination of stool samples for parasite eggs or larvae.
2. Serological tests such as ELISA or immunochromatography to detect antibodies against the parasite in the blood.
3. Imaging techniques such as ultrasound, CT scan, or MRI to visualize the parasites or their effects on organs.
4. Endoscopy to examine the digestive tract for parasites or inflammation.

Treatment of trematode infections depends on the type of parasite and the severity of the infection, but it often involves anti-parasitic drugs such as praziquantel, triclabendazole, or oxfendazole, which are effective against most trematodes. In severe cases, hospitalization may be required to manage complications such as liver inflammation or respiratory failure. Prevention measures include:

1. Avoiding consumption of raw or undercooked fish and other aquatic animals.
2. Properly cooking fish and other seafood before eating them.
3. Using clean water for drinking, cooking, and washing.
4. Avoiding contact with contaminated water or snails that may carry trematodes.
5. Implementing sanitation and hygiene measures in areas where trematode infections are common.

Trematodes are a diverse group of parasites that can infect humans and other animals, causing a range of diseases with varying severity. Diagnosis is based on serological or imaging techniques, and treatment involves anti-parasitic drugs. Prevention measures include avoiding raw or undercooked seafood, properly cooking fish and other seafood, using clean water, and implementing sanitation and hygiene measures in areas where trematode infections are common.

The symptoms of scabies can include intense itching, especially at night, as well as a rash, skin irritation, and blisters. In severe cases, scabies can lead to infections and other complications.

Scabies is typically diagnosed through a physical examination of the skin and a review of medical history. A skin scraping may also be performed to collect mites or eggs for laboratory testing.

Treatment for scabies involves applying topical creams or lotions that contain permethrin or crotamiton to the entire body, from the neck down. These medications kill the mites and their eggs, but they do not provide immediate relief from itching.

It is important to treat all members of a household or close contacts at the same time as the infected person to prevent re-infestation. In addition, it is recommended to wash and dry clothing, bedding, and towels in hot water and dry them in a hot dryer to kill any mites or eggs that may have fallen off the body.

Preventive measures for scabies include avoiding close contact with people who have the infection, wearing protective clothing and gloves when caring for infected individuals, and regularly washing and drying items that come into contact with the skin.

The symptoms of trichinellosis can vary depending on the severity of the infection and the number of parasites consumed. Mild cases may not exhibit any symptoms at all, while more severe cases can cause a range of symptoms including:

* Abdominal pain
* Diarrhea
* Fever
* Headache
* Muscle pain
* Skin rash
* Swelling of the face and eyelids

In severe cases, trichinellosis can lead to complications such as inflammation of the heart, brain, and liver, and can be fatal if left untreated.

Trichinellosis is diagnosed through a combination of physical examination, medical history, and laboratory tests such as blood tests or biopsies. Treatment typically involves antiparasitic drugs to kill the parasite, and supportive care to manage symptoms.

Prevention of trichinellosis primarily involves proper food handling and cooking practices, such as cooking meat to an internal temperature of at least 165°F (74°C) to kill any Trichinella parasites that may be present. Avoiding the consumption of raw or undercooked meat, particularly from wild game animals, can also help prevent the infection.

Example of how 'Abdomen, Acute' might be used in a medical setting:

"The patient presents with acute abdominal pain and fever, which suggests a possible infection or blockage in the abdominal cavity."

The parasite enters the body through contaminated food, usually raw or undercooked freshwater fish or crustaceans. Once ingested, the parasite migrates to the lungs, where it causes inflammation and damage. Symptoms of paragonimiasis can include coughing, fever, chest pain, and difficulty breathing. If left untreated, the disease can lead to serious complications such as respiratory failure, pneumonia, and lung cancer.

Diagnosis of paragonimiasis is based on a combination of clinical findings, laboratory tests, and imaging studies. Treatment typically involves the use of antiparasitic drugs, such as triclabendazole or praziquantel, to kill the parasites. In severe cases, hospitalization may be necessary to manage complications.

Prevention of paragonimiasis primarily involves avoiding the consumption of raw or undercooked freshwater fish and crustaceans, as well as ensuring that food is properly cooked and stored. In areas where the disease is common, it is also important to avoid contact with contaminated water and to practice good hygiene.

Overall, paragonimiasis is a serious and potentially life-threatening disease that requires prompt diagnosis and treatment. While prevention measures can help reduce the risk of infection, it is important to be aware of the risks associated with consuming raw or undercooked freshwater fish and crustaceans in areas where the disease is common.

The infection occurs when the parasitic worm enters the body through the skin, usually during contact with infected water. The schistosomes migrate to the liver and intestines, where they cause inflammation and damage to the host tissues.

Symptoms of schistosomiasis mansoni can include abdominal pain, diarrhea, fatigue, and weight loss. If left untreated, it can lead to serious complications such as anemia, liver and kidney damage, and even death.

Diagnosis is based on the presence of schistosome eggs in the urine or stool, and treatment typically involves a combination of antiparasitic drugs and supportive care to manage symptoms. Prevention measures include avoiding contact with contaminated water and using snail-killing agents to reduce the number of intermediate hosts.

1. Heartworms: A parasite that infects the heart and lungs of dogs and cats, causing respiratory problems and potentially leading to heart failure.
2. Tapeworms: A type of parasite that can infect the digestive system of animals, causing weight loss, diarrhea, and other symptoms.
3. Mites: Small, eight-legged parasites that can cause skin irritation and allergic reactions in animals.
4. Lice: Small, wingless parasites that feed on the blood of animals, causing itching and scratching.
5. Hookworms: A type of parasite that can infect the digestive system of animals, causing weight loss, anemia, and other symptoms.
6. Roundworms: A common type of parasite that can infect animals, causing a range of symptoms including diarrhea, vomiting, and weight loss.
7. Ticks: Blood-sucking parasites that can transmit diseases to animals, such as Lyme disease and anaplasmosis.
8. Fleas: Small, wingless insects that feed on the blood of animals, causing itching and scratching.
9. Leishmaniasis: A parasitic disease caused by a protozoan parasite that can infect dogs and other animals, causing skin lesions and other symptoms.
10. Babesiosis: A parasitic disease caused by a protozoan parasite that can infect dogs and other animals, causing fever, anemia, and other symptoms.

Parasitic diseases in animals are often diagnosed through physical examination, laboratory tests, and imaging studies. Treatment options vary depending on the specific disease and the severity of the infection, but may include antiparasitic medications, antibiotics, and supportive care such as fluid therapy and nutritional support. Prevention is key in avoiding parasitic diseases in animals, and this can be achieved through regular deworming and vaccination programs, as well as taking measures to reduce exposure to parasites such as fleas and ticks.

There are several different types of malaria, including:

1. Plasmodium falciparum: This is the most severe form of malaria, and it can be fatal if left untreated. It is found in many parts of the world, including Africa, Asia, and Latin America.
2. Plasmodium vivax: This type of malaria is less severe than P. falciparum, but it can still cause serious complications if left untreated. It is found in many parts of the world, including Africa, Asia, and Latin America.
3. Plasmodium ovale: This type of malaria is similar to P. vivax, but it can cause more severe symptoms in some people. It is found primarily in West Africa.
4. Plasmodium malariae: This type of malaria is less common than the other three types, and it tends to cause milder symptoms. It is found primarily in parts of Africa and Asia.

The symptoms of malaria can vary depending on the type of parasite that is causing the infection, but they typically include:

1. Fever
2. Chills
3. Headache
4. Muscle and joint pain
5. Fatigue
6. Nausea and vomiting
7. Diarrhea
8. Anemia (low red blood cell count)

If malaria is not treated promptly, it can lead to more severe complications, such as:

1. Seizures
2. Coma
3. Respiratory failure
4. Kidney failure
5. Liver failure
6. Anemia (low red blood cell count)

Malaria is typically diagnosed through a combination of physical examination, medical history, and laboratory tests, such as blood smears or polymerase chain reaction (PCR) tests. Treatment for malaria typically involves the use of antimalarial drugs, such as chloroquine or artemisinin-based combination therapies. In severe cases, hospitalization may be necessary to manage complications and provide supportive care.

Prevention is an important aspect of managing malaria, and this can include:

1. Using insecticide-treated bed nets
2. Wearing protective clothing and applying insect repellent when outdoors
3. Eliminating standing water around homes and communities to reduce the number of mosquito breeding sites
4. Using indoor residual spraying (IRS) or insecticide-treated wall lining to kill mosquitoes
5. Implementing malaria control measures in areas where malaria is common, such as distribution of long-lasting insecticidal nets (LLINs) and indoor residual spraying (IRS)
6. Improving access to healthcare services, particularly in rural and remote areas
7. Providing education and awareness about malaria prevention and control
8. Encouraging the use of preventive medications, such as intermittent preventive treatment (IPT) for pregnant women and children under the age of five.

Early diagnosis and prompt treatment are critical in preventing the progression of malaria and reducing the risk of complications and death. In areas where malaria is common, it is essential to have access to reliable diagnostic tools and effective antimalarial drugs.

Causes:

There are many possible causes of eosinophilia, including:

* Allergies
* Parasitic infections
* Autoimmune disorders
* Cancer
* Medications

Symptoms:

The symptoms of eosinophilia can vary depending on the underlying cause, but may include:

* Swelling of the skin, lips, and eyes
* Hives or itchy skin
* Shortness of breath or wheezing
* Abdominal pain
* Diarrhea

Diagnosis:

Eosinophilia is typically diagnosed through a blood test that measures the number of eosinophils in the blood. Other tests such as imaging studies, skin scrapings, and biopsies may also be used to confirm the diagnosis and identify the underlying cause.

Treatment:

The treatment of eosinophilia depends on the underlying cause, but may include medications such as antihistamines, corticosteroids, and chemotherapy. In some cases, removal of the causative agent or immunomodulatory therapy may be necessary.

Complications:

Eosinophilia can lead to a number of complications, including:

* Anaphylaxis (a severe allergic reaction)
* Asthma
* Eosinophilic granulomas (collections of eosinophils that can cause organ damage)
* Eosinophilic gastrointestinal disorders (conditions where eosinophils invade the digestive tract)

Prognosis:

The prognosis for eosinophilia depends on the underlying cause, but in general, the condition is not life-threatening. However, if left untreated, complications can arise and the condition can have a significant impact on quality of life.

In conclusion, eosinophilia is a condition characterized by an abnormal increase in eosinophils in the body. While it can be caused by a variety of factors, including allergies, infections, and autoimmune disorders, the underlying cause must be identified and treated in order to effectively manage the condition and prevent complications.

There are two main forms of the disease, depending on the species of parasite and the location where the infection is acquired:

* T. b. rhodesiense infection is found primarily in East and Southern Africa, and is characterized by a more severe form of the disease. Symptoms can include fever, headache, joint pain, and skin rashes, as well as swelling of the lymph nodes and spleen. If left untreated, the disease can progress to a more advanced stage, characterized by neurological symptoms such as confusion, seizures, and coma.
* T. b. gambiense infection is found primarily in West and Central Africa, and is characterized by a milder form of the disease. Symptoms can include fever, joint pain, and skin rashes, as well as swelling of the lymph nodes and spleen.

Both forms of the disease are treatable with antiparasitic drugs, but if left untreated, they can be fatal. Diagnosis is typically made through a combination of physical examination, laboratory tests, and imaging studies such as ultrasound or CT scans. Treatment is usually with melarsoprol or eflornithine, and in some cases, surgery may be necessary to remove affected tissue or organs.

Prevention of trypanosomiasis involves controlling the population of tsetse flies through the use of insecticides, traps, and other methods, as well as educating people about how to avoid being bitten by infected flies. There is also ongoing research into the development of a vaccine against trypanosomiasis.

Eimeria species are obligate intracellular parasites that infect the epithelial cells lining the intestinal tract of animals, causing damage to the gut mucosa and leading to diarrhea, vomiting, weight loss, and even death. The disease can be acute or chronic, depending on the severity of the infection and the host's immune response.

There are several species of Eimeria that can infect ruminants, with different species affecting different parts of the intestinal tract. For example, Eimeria bovis and Eimeria zuernii infect the caecum and abomasum, respectively, while Eimeria ellipsoidalis and Eimeria falciformis infect the small intestine.

Coccidiosis is typically diagnosed through fecal examination, where the presence of oocysts (eggs) in the feces is indicative of an infection. Treatment options include anticoccidial drugs, which can be administered orally or parenterally, and supportive care to manage symptoms such as diarrhea and dehydration.

Prevention is key to managing coccidiosis, and this includes the use of vaccines, cleanliness and hygiene practices, and controlling the parasite's environmental survival. In some cases, a combination of these methods may be necessary to effectively prevent and control coccidiosis in ruminant populations.

Symptoms of filarial elephantiasis include swelling and thickening of the skin, especially in the legs, feet, and hands, as well as a loss of sensation in the affected areas. Treatment typically involves the use of antiparasitic drugs to kill the worms, but surgery may be necessary in some cases to remove severely affected tissue.

Preventive measures include avoiding mosquito bites by using insect repellents and wearing protective clothing, as well as taking antiparasitic medications to prevent infection. Early diagnosis and treatment can help prevent the development of severe complications and improve quality of life for individuals with filarial elephantiasis.

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Schistosomiasis haematobia is a parasitic disease caused by the blood fluke worm Schistosoma haematobium. It is one of the two main types of schistosomiasis, with the other being schistosomiasis mansoni. The disease is most commonly found in Africa and the Middle East, where it affects millions of people each year.

The symptoms of schistosomiasis haematobia can vary depending on the severity of the infection and the location of the parasites in the body. Some common symptoms include:

* Blood in the urine
* Abdominal pain
* Diarrhea
* Vaginal bleeding in women
* Rectal bleeding in men
* Weakness and fatigue
* Fever

If left untreated, schistosomiasis haematobia can lead to complications such as kidney damage, bladder cancer, and infertility. In severe cases, it can be fatal.

The diagnosis of schistosomiasis haematobia is typically made through a combination of physical examination, medical history, and laboratory tests such as blood tests or urine tests. Treatment typically involves the use of praziquantel, a drug that is effective against all species of Schistosoma worms.

Prevention measures for schistosomiasis haematobia include avoiding contact with contaminated water and using appropriate sanitation and hygiene practices, such as washing hands after using the bathroom or before handling food. In areas where the disease is common, snail control measures can also be effective in reducing the risk of infection.

Overall, schistosomiasis haematobia is a serious and debilitating disease that can have severe consequences if left untreated. It is important to take preventive measures to avoid infection and to seek medical attention if symptoms persist or worsen over time.

Strongylidae is a family of parasitic nematodes that includes several genera, such as Strongyloides, Ollulanus, and Habronema. These nematodes have a worldwide distribution and can infect a wide range of animals, including humans, cattle, sheep, goats, and horses.

Infection with strongyles can occur through the ingestion of contaminated food or water, or through direct contact with infected animals or their feces. The parasites migrate to the intestines, where they feed on the host's blood and tissues, causing a range of symptoms.

The most common species of strongyles to infect humans are S. stercoralis and S. fuellebornii. Infection with these parasites can lead to a condition known as strongyloidiasis, which can cause a range of symptoms, including:

* Diarrhea
* Weight loss
* Anemia
* Poor appetite
* Abdominal pain
* Fatigue

Strongyloidiasis is typically diagnosed through the detection of parasite eggs in stool samples or through the use of serological tests. Treatment typically involves the use of anthelmintic drugs, which can kill the parasites and alleviate symptoms.

Preventive measures against strongyles include:

* Avoiding contact with infected animals or their feces
* Properly cooking meat before consumption
* Avoiding consumption of raw or undercooked meat
* Maintaining good personal hygiene
* Using clean water and sanitation facilities.

Zoonoses (zoonosis) refers to infectious diseases that can be transmitted between animals and humans. These diseases are caused by a variety of pathogens, including bacteria, viruses, parasites, and fungi, and can be spread through contact with infected animals or contaminated animal products.

Examples of Zoonoses

Some common examples of zoonoses include:

1. Rabies: a viral infection that can be transmitted to humans through the bite of an infected animal, typically dogs, bats, or raccoons.
2. Lyme disease: a bacterial infection caused by Borrelia burgdorferi, which is spread to humans through the bite of an infected blacklegged tick (Ixodes scapularis).
3. Toxoplasmosis: a parasitic infection caused by Toxoplasma gondii, which can be transmitted to humans through contact with contaminated cat feces or undercooked meat.
4. Leptospirosis: a bacterial infection caused by Leptospira interrogans, which is spread to humans through contact with contaminated water or soil.
5. Avian influenza (bird flu): a viral infection that can be transmitted to humans through contact with infected birds or contaminated surfaces.

Transmission of Zoonoses

Zoonoses can be transmitted to humans in a variety of ways, including:

1. Direct contact with infected animals or contaminated animal products.
2. Contact with contaminated soil, water, or other environmental sources.
3. Through vectors such as ticks, mosquitoes, and fleas.
4. By consuming contaminated food or water.
5. Through close contact with an infected person or animal.

Prevention of Zoonoses

Preventing the transmission of zoonoses requires a combination of personal protective measures, good hygiene practices, and careful handling of animals and animal products. Some strategies for preventing zoonoses include:

1. Washing hands frequently, especially after contact with animals or their waste.
2. Avoiding direct contact with wild animals and avoiding touching or feeding stray animals.
3. Cooking meat and eggs thoroughly to kill harmful bacteria.
4. Keeping pets up to date on vaccinations and preventative care.
5. Avoiding consumption of raw or undercooked meat, particularly poultry and pork.
6. Using insect repellents and wearing protective clothing when outdoors in areas where vectors are prevalent.
7. Implementing proper sanitation and hygiene practices in animal housing and husbandry.
8. Implementing strict biosecurity measures on farms and in animal facilities to prevent the spread of disease.
9. Providing education and training to individuals working with animals or in areas where zoonoses are prevalent.
10. Monitoring for and reporting cases of zoonotic disease to help track and control outbreaks.

Conclusion

Zoonoses are diseases that can be transmitted between animals and humans, posing a significant risk to human health and animal welfare. Understanding the causes, transmission, and prevention of zoonoses is essential for protecting both humans and animals from these diseases. By implementing appropriate measures such as avoiding contact with wild animals, cooking meat thoroughly, keeping pets up to date on vaccinations, and implementing proper sanitation and biosecurity practices, we can reduce the risk of zoonotic disease transmission and protect public health and animal welfare.

A parasitic disease caused by a protozoan of the genus Leishmania, which is transmitted to humans by the bite of an infected sandfly. The most common form of the disease is characterized by skin lesions, which may be painful and disfiguring.

Other forms of leishmaniasis include:

1. Visceral leishmaniasis (kala-azar): A severe and potentially fatal form of the disease that affects several internal organs, including the spleen, liver, and bone marrow.
2. Mucocutaneous leishmaniasis: A form of the disease characterized by skin lesions and mucosal involvement, such as nose ulcers and mouth sores.
3. Diffuse cutaneous leishmaniasis: A form of the disease characterized by widespread skin involvement, often with a diffuse, papular rash.
4. Recidivans leishmaniasis: A form of the disease characterized by repeated episodes of skin lesions, often triggered by exposure to sandflies.

Symptoms of cutaneous leishmaniasis may include:

* Skin lesions, which may be painful and disfiguring
* Swelling of the affected limb
* Fever
* Fatigue
* Weight loss

Diagnosis is made by identifying the parasite in a skin scraping or biopsy specimen. Treatment typically involves antiparasitic medications, such as pentavalent antimonials or amphotericin B.

Preventive measures include avoiding sandfly bites, wearing protective clothing and insect repellents, and using screens on windows and doors to prevent sandflies from entering homes.

Types of Gastrointestinal Diseases:

1. Irritable Bowel Syndrome (IBS): A common condition characterized by abdominal pain, bloating, and changes in bowel movements.
2. Inflammatory Bowel Disease (IBD): A group of chronic conditions that cause inflammation in the digestive tract, including Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis.
3. Gastroesophageal Reflux Disease (GERD): A condition in which stomach acid flows back into the esophagus, causing heartburn and other symptoms.
4. Peptic Ulcer Disease: A condition characterized by ulcers in the lining of the stomach or duodenum.
5. Diverticulitis: A condition in which small pouches form in the wall of the colon and become inflamed.
6. Gastritis: Inflammation of the stomach lining, often caused by infection or excessive alcohol consumption.
7. Esophagitis: Inflammation of the esophagus, often caused by acid reflux or infection.
8. Rectal Bleeding: Hemorrhage from the rectum, which can be a symptom of various conditions such as hemorrhoids, anal fissures, or inflammatory bowel disease.
9. Functional Dyspepsia: A condition characterized by recurring symptoms of epigastric pain, bloating, nausea, and belching.
10. Celiac Disease: An autoimmune disorder that causes the immune system to react to gluten, leading to inflammation and damage in the small intestine.

Causes of Gastrointestinal Diseases:

1. Infection: Viral, bacterial, or parasitic infections can cause gastrointestinal diseases.
2. Autoimmune Disorders: Conditions such as Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis occur when the immune system mistakenly attacks healthy tissue in the GI tract.
3. Diet: Consuming a diet high in processed foods, sugar, and unhealthy fats can contribute to gastrointestinal diseases.
4. Genetics: Certain genetic factors can increase the risk of developing certain gastrointestinal diseases.
5. Lifestyle Factors: Smoking, excessive alcohol consumption, stress, and lack of physical activity can all contribute to gastrointestinal diseases.
6. Radiation Therapy: Exposure to radiation therapy can damage the GI tract and increase the risk of developing certain gastrointestinal diseases.
7. Medications: Certain medications such as nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) and corticosteroids can cause gastrointestinal side effects.

1. Parvovirus (Parvo): A highly contagious viral disease that affects dogs of all ages and breeds, causing symptoms such as vomiting, diarrhea, and severe dehydration.
2. Distemper: A serious viral disease that can affect dogs of all ages and breeds, causing symptoms such as fever, coughing, and seizures.
3. Rabies: A deadly viral disease that affects dogs and other animals, transmitted through the saliva of infected animals, and causing symptoms such as aggression, confusion, and paralysis.
4. Heartworms: A common condition caused by a parasitic worm that infects the heart and lungs of dogs, leading to symptoms such as coughing, fatigue, and difficulty breathing.
5. Ticks and fleas: These external parasites can cause skin irritation, infection, and disease in dogs, including Lyme disease and tick-borne encephalitis.
6. Canine hip dysplasia (CHD): A genetic condition that affects the hip joint of dogs, causing symptoms such as arthritis, pain, and mobility issues.
7. Osteosarcoma: A type of bone cancer that affects dogs, often diagnosed in older dogs and causing symptoms such as lameness, swelling, and pain.
8. Allergies: Dog allergies can cause skin irritation, ear infections, and other health issues, and may be triggered by environmental factors or specific ingredients in their diet.
9. Gastric dilatation-volvulus (GDV): A life-threatening condition that occurs when a dog's stomach twists and fills with gas, causing symptoms such as vomiting, pain, and difficulty breathing.
10. Cruciate ligament injuries: Common in active dogs, these injuries can cause joint instability, pain, and mobility issues.

It is important to monitor your dog's health regularly and seek veterinary care if you notice any changes or abnormalities in their behavior, appetite, or physical condition.

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This disease is the leading cause of acquired epilepsy. Cysticercus was discovered in the late 17th century CE as a parasitic ... p. 4. ISBN 978-90-265-1513-2. Hulland, T.J. (1997). "Parasitic diseases: Cysticersosis". In Jubb, K.V.F.; Kennedy, P.C.; Palmer ... Articles with short description, Short description is different from Wikidata, Cestoda, Larvae, Parasitic animals of mammals). ... PLOS Neglected Tropical Diseases. 9 (8): e0003980. doi:10.1371/journal.pntd.0003980. PMC 4529300. PMID 26252878. Pawlowski, Z ...
"Schistosomiasis-Disease". CDC, Division of Parasitic Diseases. Archived from the original on 2 December 2016. Retrieved 17 ... Neglected Diseases Initiative Eradication of infectious diseases Global Network for Neglected Tropical Diseases Orphan diseases ... and infectious disease experts over which diseases are classified as neglected tropical diseases. Feasey, a researcher in ... malaria and neglected tropical diseases and combat hepatitis, water-borne diseases and other communicable diseases." In 2012, ...
"Parasitic Infectious/ Parasitic diseases Bronchitis in cattle" (PDF). May 2014.{{cite web}}: CS1 maint: url-status (link) " ... Parasitic bronchitis, also known as hoose, husk, or verminous bronchitis, is a disease of sheep, cattle, goats, and swine ... "Worm bronchitis, a parasitic and respiratory disease cattle". in.virbac.com. Retrieved 2021-11-30. "Sputum: Definition, colors ... When diagnosing parasitic bronchitis, it is mainly based on the symptoms and grazing habits. There are multiple methods to ...
Journal of Parasitic Diseases. 43 (4): 549-553. doi:10.1007/s12639-019-01125-3. PMC 6841868. PMID 31749523. Das, PK; Pani, SP; ... The disease is timeless and present throughout Indian history. Indian physicians in the 500s wrote about the disease. In the ... For the patient, one of the major costs of treating the disease is having to take a lot of time off work. A year 2000 survey ... To eliminate the disease neither humans nor mosquitos should have the parasite. The usual way to determine whether filariasis ...
in commercial marine crabs". Journal of Parasitic Diseases. 38 (3): 337-339. doi:10.1007/s12639-013-0247-z. PMC 4087306. PMID ... Mature female externa releases eggs into its mantle cavity where eggs are fertilised by sperm from the hyper-parasitic male(s ... Their body plan is uniquely reduced in an extreme adaptation to their parasitic lifestyle, and makes their relationship to ... Hoeg, J. T. (24 September 1987). "Male Cypris Metamorphosis and a New Male Larval Form, The Trichogon, in the Parasitic ...
It is one of the most common parasitic human diseases. Infection rates are as high as 7% in the developed world and 30% in the ... Protozoal diseases, Waterborne diseases, Animal diseases, Tropical diseases, Zoonoses, Feces, Wikipedia medicine articles ready ... Giardiasis is a parasitic disease caused by Giardia duodenalis (also known as G. lamblia and G. intestinalis). Infected ... Eukaryotic Parasites". Parasitic Diseases (6 ed.). NY: Parasites Without Borders. pp. 11-17. Archived from the original on 7 ...
Despommier DD, Griffin DO, Gwadz RW, Hotez PJ, Knirsch CA (2019). "Giardia lamblia". Parasitic Diseases (7 ed.). Parasites ... Parasitic excavates, Pathogenic microbes, Waterborne diseases, Conditions diagnosed by stool test, Veterinary protozoology, ... Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) Giardia Information United States Environmental Protection Agency fact sheet ... Giardia duodenalis, also known as Giardia intestinalis and Giardia lamblia, is a flagellated parasitic microorganism of the ...
Journal of Parasitic Diseases. 42 (2): 303-314. doi:10.1007/s12639-018-1001-3. PMC 5962485. PMID 29844637. Machado-Filho, 1950 ...
Journal of Parasitic Diseases. 40 (1): 205-207. doi:10.1007/s12639-014-0451-5. PMC 4815833. PMID 27065627. "Roundworm in Cats ... Like many diseases, changes in behavior can also be attributed to toxocariasis. Decreased appetite will result in a scrawny, ... Depending on the location and number of the larva in the human host, the disease can either be asymptomatic or cause conditions ... The two more severe forms of the disease are visceral toxocariasis and ocular toxocariasis. Visceral toxocariasis typically ...
... or piroplasmosis is a malaria-like parasitic disease caused by infection with a eukaryotic parasite in the order ... Berger, Stephen A.; Marr, John S. (2006). Human Parasitic Diseases Sourcebook. Jones & Bartlett Learning. ISBN 978-0-7637-2962- ... In cattle the disease is known as Texas cattle fever or redwater. Half of all children and a quarter of previously healthy ... A similar disease in cattle, commonly known as tick fever, is spread by Babesia bovis and B. bigemina in the introduced cattle ...
Trichinellosis Fact Sheet , Division of Parasitic Diseases , CDC Senaste veckan, MMS MediaMätning i Skandinavien. "Ica varnades ...
Datz, Craig (2011). "Parasitic and Protozoal Diseases". Small Animal Pediatrics. pp. 154-160. doi:10.1016/B978-1-4160-4889- ...
Journal of Parasitic Diseases. 31 (2): 103-107. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2016-11-09. Retrieved 2018-12-24. Bennett, ...
Parasitic Diseases. 27 (3): 232-6. PMID 19852366. Radha T; Satyaprema VA; Ramalingam K; Indumathi SP; Venkatesh C (2006). " ... Journal of Parasitic Diseases. 30 (2): 153-162. Isamu, Sawada (15 May 1954). "Morphological studies on the chicken tapeworm, ... The parasite is responsible for 'nodular tapeworm disease' in poultry. The body of an adult R. echinobothrida is a ... Raillietina echinobothrida is a parasitic tapeworm belonging to the class Cestoda. It is the most prevalent and pathogenic ...
Many bacteria are parasitic, though they are more generally thought of as pathogens causing disease. Parasitic bacteria are ... Division of Parasitic Diseases, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention KSU: Parasitology Research-parasitology articles and ... Cox, Francis E. G. (June 2004). "History of human parasitic diseases". Infectious Disease Clinics of North America. 18 (2): 173 ... The first and as of 2015 the only licensed vaccine for any parasitic disease of humans is RTS,S for Plasmodium falciparum ...
"Trends in parasitic diseases in the Republic of Korea." Trends in Parasitology. Vol. 24: 143-150. 2008. "The Medical Letter." ... Despommier D.; Gwadz R.; Hotez P.; Knirsch C. Parasitic Diseases. Fifth Edition. New York: Apple Trees Productions. 2006. ... Pawlowski, Zbigniew S. "Intestinal Helminthiases and Human Health: Recent Advances and Future Needs." Parasitic Disease ... Drugs for Parasitic Infections. 2005. www.medicalletter.org/parasitic_cdc. Uppal, B. and V. Wadhwal. "Rare Case of Metagonimus ...
"Journal of parasitic diseases". J Parasit Dis. ISSN 0971-7196. List of Fellows of the institute updated to 2010 Parasitology ... "Journal of parasitic diseases". J Parasit Dis. ISSN 0971-7196. "Sciencescape". Sciencescape. 2014. Archived from the original ... The society, besides a quarterly newsletter, publishes a bi-annual journal, Journal of Parasitic Diseases (JPD), the services ...
Atkinson, Carter (2008). Parasitic Diseases of Wild Birds. Ames, Iowa: Wiley-Blackwell. p. 543. ISBN 978-0-8138-0462-0. Spicer ... Journal of Parasitic Diseases. American Society of Parasitologists. 73 (2): 259-264. Retrieved December 18, 2016. (CS1 German- ...
Division of Parasitic Diseases, National Center for Infectious Diseases. Retrieved 2020-04-11. The majority of the decline in ... Parasitic nematodes of humans, Parasitic nematodes of mammals, Parasites of rodents, Animal diseases, Trichocephalida, ... Despommier DD, Gwadz RG, Hotez P, Knirsch C (2002). Parasitic Diseases (5th ed.). New York: Apple Trees Pub. 14 "Microbiology: ... Parasitic Diseases (5th ed.). Apple Trees Productions LLC. ISBN 0-9700027-7-7. Archived from the original on 2018-09-06. ...
Human Parasitic Diseases Sourcebook. Jones and Bartlett Publishers: Sudbury, Massachusetts, 2006. v t e (Articles with short ... Capillariasis is a disease caused by nematodes in the genus Capillaria. The two principal forms of the disease are: Intestinal ...
Journal of Parasitic Diseases. 41 (3): 687-688. doi:10.1007/s12639-016-0867-1. ISSN 0971-7196. PMC 5555913. PMID 28848260. " ... The OIE reports that A. bovis does not cause disease, however case reports of clinical illness do exist. Clinical disease is ... A. bovis is not currently considered zoonotic, and does not frequently cause serious clinical disease in its host (although ... Anaplasmosis is also known to be a production limiting disease resulting in decreased milk production and weight loss. Other ...
Journal of Parasitic Diseases. 31 (2): 152-154. Wang, Y.H. & W.C. Yang (February 2001). "Rhinebothrium xiamenensis n. sp. ( ...
... at eMedicine "Fact Sheet: Toxocariasis". Division of Parasitic diseases. Centers for Disease Control and ... Division of Parasitic diseases. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. 19 January 2009. Archived (PDF) from the original ... Division of Parasitic diseases. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. 27 September 2004. Archived from the original on 21 ... Dog diseases, Cat diseases, Foodborne illnesses, Tropical diseases, Zoonoses). ...
Journal of Parasitic Diseases. 34 (2): 97-98. doi:10.1007/s12639-010-0014-3. PMC 3081733. PMID 21966129. Shimek, Ronald L. ( ... Members are mostly carnivorous or parasitic. Includes the family Gnathiidae, the juveniles of which are parasitic on fishes. ... Parasitic species are mostly external parasites of fish or crustaceans and feed on blood. The larvae of the Gnathiidae family ... In reef aquariums, parasitic isopods can become a pest, endangering the fish and possibly injuring the aquarium keeper. Some ...
Parasitic deer ticks (which are known to carry Lyme disease) are a potential hazard. The trail is adjacent to, or is on lands ...
... parasitic protists, trypanosomatids, and stramenopiles). Moreover, other eukaryotic groups, such as Fungi, conserve both ... Prostate Cancer and Prostatic Diseases. 8 (3): 260-5. doi:10.1038/sj.pcan.4500817. PMID 15999119. Ochiai T, Sugitani M, ...
... is the study of parasitic worms (helminths). The field studies the taxonomy of helminths and their effects on ... 1910). "Oxyuris vermicularis (the threadworm). A treatise on the parasite and the disease in children and adults, together with ...
... (also known as cauliflower mushroom) is a genus of parasitic and saprobic mushroom characterised by its unique shape ... Fungal tree pathogens and diseases, Taxa named by Elias Magnus Fries, Polyporales genera). ...
"DPDx - Laboratory Identification of Parasitic Diseases of Public Health Concern - Hymenolepiasis". Centers for Disease Control ... The family Hymenolepididae has only two species which infects humans: the disease hymenolepiasis is caused by Hymenolepis nana ...
Parasitic infestations, stings, and bites of the skin, Tick-borne diseases, Arthropod infestations). ... Bush, Larry M.; Vazquez-Pertejo, Maria T. (May 2018). "Tick borne illness-Lyme disease". Disease-a-Month. 64 (5): 195-212. doi: ... Bush, Larry M.; Vazquez-Pertejo, Maria T. (May 2018). "Tick borne illness-Lyme disease". Disease-a-Month. 64 (5): 195-212. doi: ... An example of these concepts can be found in the Deer Tick, known to transmit Lyme Disease to humans in the US. The larval ...
Malaria, a disease still rampant in Africa also increases the risk of contracting HIV. These parasitic diseases, affect the ... Gum disease has been linked to diseases such as cardiovascular disease. Diseases of poverty reflect the dynamic relationship ... These diseases produced in part by poverty are in contrast to diseases of affluence, which are diseases thought to be a result ... Schistosomiasis (bilharzia) is a parasitic disease caused by the parasitic flatworm trematodes. Moreover, more than 80 percent ...
Though the disease targets Ceará the hardest because of its conditions, migration has spread the disease to larger cities, as ... Parasitic excavates, Trypanosomatida). ... The disease is easily and mostly transmitted on plantations in ... An unknown disease is also mentioned by Herbert Huntington Smith, to which he attributes the death of 430 thousand people out ... It is also possible that in combination with a lack of general information and knowledge of the disease to the public plus the ...
Common parasitic worm infections, such as ascariasis, in these countries are linked to night soil use in agriculture, because ... The use of unprocessed human feces as fertilizer is a risky practice as it may contain disease-causing pathogens. Nevertheless ... fecal-oral transmission of disease). These risks are reduced by proper fecal sludge management, e.g. via composting. The safe ...
Chagas disease is caused by the parasitic protozoan Trypanosoma cruzi. Infection with Chagas disease occurs after Rhodnius ... William C Marquardt et al (2004), Chapter 5: Kissing Bugs and Bedbugs the Heteroptera, Biology of Disease Vectors (2nd edition ... C. J .Schofield (2000). "Challenges of Chagas disease vector control in Central America : position paper". World Health ... Chagas disease, Insects described in 1859, Insects of South America). ...
... which is a severe disease that affects internal organs, including the spleen, liver, and bone marrow. The parasitic pathogen is ... Although chickens cannot serve as host reservoirs for the disease, chickens may play a crucial role in sustaining populations ... Transmission and development of the disease are consequently dependent upon the sandfly's access to multiple blood meals. Dogs ... The direct bite of an infected sandfly during blood feeding allows for the parasitic transmission of Visceral leishmaniasis ...
... assisting with his research on sickle cell disease, a genetic disease in which a mutation in hemoglobin causes it to form ... she aided in his exploration of the nervous system of the parasitic nematode Ascaris lumbricoides using light microscopy. When ... and investigating the causes of sickle cell disease with Vernon Ingram. Southgate spent her entire career as a laboratory ...
Competition and disease have possibly led to fewer baboons in closed forests. Like most other baboon species, it is routinely ... The swelling makes it difficult to move and increases the female's chance of microbial or parasitic infection. Females with ...
The reason you're aging so rapidly isn't because of disease, or faulty research, or FOXDIE. It's how you were born. It's your ... Following this, he was taken to the Soviet Union and subject to an early form of "parasite therapy" whereby parasitic organisms ...
In addition, parasitic (cuckoo) bumblebees resemble their hosts more closely than would be expected by chance, at least in ... The workers remove dead bees or larvae from the nest and deposit them outside the nest entrance, helping to prevent disease. ... Cuckoo bumblebees are brood parasitic and do not make nests or form colonies; their queens aggressively invade the nests of ... Zimma, B. O.; Ayasse, M.; Tengo, J.; Ibarra, F.; Schulz, C. & Francke, W. (2003). "Do social parasitic bumblebees use chemical ...
... is a fungus that causes the disease chytridiomycosis in amphibians. Since its discovery in 1998 by Lee Berger, the disease ... or a parasitic form of the fungus that is non-pathogenic. The fungus grows on amphibian skin and produces aquatic zoospores. It ... The bullfrog often escapes captivity and can establish feral populations where it may introduce the disease to new areas. It ... The fungal pathogens that cause the disease chytridiomycosis ravage the skin of frogs, toads, and other amphibians, throwing ...
Parasitic Diseases: Treatment & Control - Max J. Miller, Edgar Love. p. 227. v t e (Rivers of Cameroon, Cameroon articles ...
ISBN 978-0-7112-2609-8. Stefan Buczacki; Keith Harris (1998). "Diseases". Pests, Diseases & Disorders of Garden Plants (2nd ed ... They are a host species for the parasitic fungus Uromyces muscari, which causes bluebell rust. The ability of H. non-scripta to ...
Animal fungal diseases, Mycosis-related cutaneous conditions, Oral mucosal pathology, Fungal diseases). ... parasitic state) is not completely understood. Several Candida species are polymorphogenic, that is, capable of growing in ... It is often described as being "a disease of the diseased", occurring in the very young, the very old, or the very sick. ... Candidiasis can be a marker for underlying disease, so the overall prognosis may also be dependent upon this. For example, a ...
This provides an evolutionarily path by which the parasitic SINEs were co-opted and utilized to form RNA-genes (such as ... There are >50 human diseases associated with SINEs. When inserted near or within the exon, SINEs can cause improper splicing, ... SINEs are also implicated in certain types of genetic disease in humans and other eukaryotes. In essence, short interspersed ... Short-interspersed nuclear elements are believed to have parasitic origins in eukaryotic genomes. These SINEs have mutated and ...
Knottenbelt and Pascoe's color atlas of diseases and disorders of the horse. McAuliffe, Siobhan B.,, Knottenbelt, Derek C. ([ ... Parascaris univalens is a parasitic ascaridoid nematode that infects the gastrointestinal tracts of equines. P. univalens is ...
Parasitic deer ticks (which are known to carry Lyme disease) are a potential hazard. Encounter with small wildlife is always ... possible and hikers should be alert to signs of erratic behavior or other disease symptoms and take evasive action if warranted ...
ISBN 0-521-70928-8. Greenberg, Bernard (1971). Flies and Disease, Volume I: Ecology, Classification, and Biotic Associations. ... Parasitic flies, Coprophagous insects, Insects described in 1794, Cosmopolitan arthropods). ...
... the first to suggest the theory of contagium vivum that minute invisible parasitic living organisms were a cause of disease. ... Wilkinson, Lise (1984). "Rinderpest and mainstream infectious disease concepts in the eighteenth century". Medical History. 28 ... New theory of the contagious disease of the oxen) published in 1714. Cogrossi was born in Crema, son of Marcantonio of ... knowledge of mange and mites involved which made him suggest that there might be smaller parasites that could cause disease. ...
... diseases of animals caused by parasitic fungus). Her supervisor A. Sarkisov [ru] directed her doctoral project to the study of ... As an example, through using LTF-130 trichophytosis in Norway has gone from an endemic notifiable disease affecting 1.7% new ... Her studies showed that animals that had recovered from the disease did not become ill after reinfection and therefore ... This was a very significant improvement in disease control and replaced the used of topical and oral antimycotic treatments. ...
... particularly in the fields of viral and parasitic diseases, cardiovascular and behavioral research, and reproductive ...
A loss of tolerance to antigens that appear in the environment cause inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) and Crohn's disease (CD) ... It has been discovered that the tuft cells in the intestines of mice are activated by parasitic infections. This leads to a ... Ordinarily there are very few tuft cells present but they have been shown to greatly increase at times of a parasitic infection ... This shows that the modulation of tuft cell function may be effective in the treatment of Crohn's Disease. Tuft cells have been ...
All members are exclusively parasitic, found primarily in insects. A few genera have life-cycles involving a secondary host, ... These include several species that cause major diseases in humans. Trypanosomatida are intracellular parasites. The three major ... Chagas disease, caused by Trypanosoma cruzi and transmitted by triatomine bugs), and leishmaniasis (a set of trypanosomal ... Vector-Borne and Zoonotic Diseases. 5 (1): 72-81. doi:10.1089/vbz.2005.5.72. PMID 15815152. [1] "A new lineage of trypanosome ...
"Polycystic Kidney Disease". www.vet.cornell.edu. Retrieved 2016-07-08. Tave D (1999). Inbreeding and brood stock management. ... but instead are having this done by a parasitic tissue that infects them at birth,' says Laura Ross of Oxford University's ... There may also be other deleterious effects besides those caused by recessive diseases. Thus, similar immune systems may be ... Moreover, there is an increased risk for congenital heart disease depending on the inbreeding coefficient (See coefficient of ...
Cloning of Bti bacterial genes into the Anabaena cyanobacteria for eradication of tropical diseases: The Bacillus thuringiensis ... parasitic on the green alga Haematococcus". Mycological Res. 112 (Pt 1): 70-81. doi:10.1016/j.mycres.2007.09.002. PMID 18222678 ... sometimes fatal diseases. This subspecies produces a crystal composed of four main proteins encoded by four genes which are ... "Evidence for the involvement of surface carbohydrates in the recognition of Haematococcus pluvialis by the parasitic blastoclad ...

No data available that match "parasitic diseases"


  • The accuracy of clinical diagnosis, the most commonly employed method, is poor, even in countries with high incidence rates of malaria due to overlapping clinical symptoms with other tropical diseases and the fact that coinfections can occur [ 4 - 11 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • Strategies to improve the impact of malaria RDT have included The Special Programme for Research and Training in Tropical Diseases which has introduced principles for development and evaluation of diagnostic tests for infectious diseases [ 32 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (cdc.gov)
  • The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) cannot attest to the accuracy of a non-federal website. (cdc.gov)
  • The conclusions, findings, and opinions expressed by authors contributing to this journal do not necessarily reflect the official position of the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, the Public Health Service, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, or the authors' affiliated institutions. (cdc.gov)
  • Image reproduced from the Division of Parasitic Diseases, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), Atlanta, GA. (medscape.com)
  • Assessment of the quality of laboratory diagnosis of intestinal parasitic diseases by the laboratories participating in the Federal System of External Quality Assessment of Clinical Laboratory Testing]. (bvsalud.org)
  • Flukes that cause schistosomiasis, paragonimiasis, fascioliasis, clonorchiasis, and opisthorchiasis are included in the World Health Organization (WHO) list of neglected tropical diseases (NTD) to which interventions for poor and marginalized populations are prioritized given the significant health burden. (medscape.com)
  • The majority of patients with sickle-cell anaemia live in the underdeveloped nations where endemic parasitic diseases are prevalent and this may exacerbate the severity of steady-state anaemia in infected patients. (who.int)
  • The disease is caused by parasites of the genus Leishmania and spreads through sandfly bites in countries across Asia, Africa, the Americas, and the Mediterranean . (deepmind.com)
  • When Perry joined the organisation seven years ago, based in Geneva, Switzerland, his goal was to speed up the discovery of new treatments for two potentially fatal parasitic illnesses, Chagas disease and leishmaniasis . (deepmind.com)
  • Chagas' disease: an ecological appraisal with special emphasis on its insect vectors. (cdc.gov)
  • The impact of Chagas disease control in Latin America: a review. (cdc.gov)
  • The Southern Cone Initiative against Chagas disease. (cdc.gov)
  • Chagas disease. (cdc.gov)
  • Silveira A , Vinhaes M . Elimination of vector-borne transmission of Chagas disease. (cdc.gov)
  • Chagas disease in an area of recent occupation in Cochabamba, Bolivia. (cdc.gov)
  • Ramsey JM , Alvear AL , Ordonez R , Munoz G , Garcia A , Lopez R , Risk factors associated with house infestation by the Chagas disease vector Triatoma pallidipennis in Cuernavaca metropolitan area, Mexico. (cdc.gov)
  • It improves our understanding of fish-parasite interactions and develops innovative solutions and tools for the prevention, control and mitigation of the most harmful parasitic species affecting the main European farmed fish species. (europa.eu)
  • The market report organizes information from diverse sources into a cohesive unit that includes an overview, global implications of infectious diseases, infectious diseases by type, treatment and prevention, emerging pharmaceutical and diagnostic products and an applicable patents section. (bccresearch.com)
  • Because its half-life is longer than somatostatin, pasireotide can be used clinically to treat neuroendocrine pituitary tumors that secrete excessive amounts of growth hormone causing acromegaly, or adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) causing Cushing disease. (nih.gov)
  • There are no vaccines for parasitic diseases. (medlineplus.gov)
  • An overview of the global market for infectious disease treatments, with a focus on the growth in demand for newer pharmaceutical treatments, vaccines, and environmental products. (bccresearch.com)
  • Assessments of the current state of infectious diseases on a global basis, broken down by type of disease (i.e., bacterial, viral, parasitic, and fungal) and appropriate treatments, both current and anticipated, and by geographic region. (bccresearch.com)
  • Information is organized by type of infectious disease (i.e., bacterial, viral, parasitic) and appropriate treatments, both current and anticipated. (bccresearch.com)
  • The specific disease agent no longer exists in nature or the laboratory . (cdc.gov)
  • Human Parasitic Diseases: A Diagnostic Atlas is a comprehensive and invaluable resource for parasitologists, microbiologists, pathologists, and infectious disease practitioners. (cdc.gov)
  • The global market for infectious disease diagnostic, vaccine, and treatment products reached $108.4 billion in 2015. (bccresearch.com)
  • Some medicines are available to treat parasitic infections. (medlineplus.gov)
  • A hookworm is any of a number of small, parasitic nematodes (roundworms) of the order Strongiloidae and family Ancylostomatidae that have hooked mouthparts to attach themselves to the intestine wall of the host. (newworldencyclopedia.org)
  • Shauna Devine, Ph.D., discusses 19th Century microscopes and parasitic diseases and their treatments during the Civil War. (pbs.org)
  • Profiles of major players in the field of infectious disease treatments. (bccresearch.com)
  • The third annual World NTD Day is Jan. 30, 2022, highlighting the global commitment to ending neglected tropical diseases (NTDs), which cause immeasurable suffering among the world's most marginalized communities. (cartercenter.org)
  • I'm interested in neglected tropical disease research, primarily parasitic diseases. (mcw.edu)
  • Therefore, this book is a compelling reference volume for pathologists and microbiology or clinical infectious disease training programs. (cdc.gov)
  • The health programs of The Carter Center have surpassed a major milestone: The organization on Nov. 4 celebrated assisting with the distribution of 500 million doses of donated medication to combat five neglected tropical diseases in 14 countries in Africa and Latin America. (cartercenter.org)
  • Available at https://www.who.int/neglected_diseases/diseases/scabies/en/ . (medscape.com)
  • The epidemiology of scabies in an impoverished community in rural Brazil: presence and severity of disease are associated with poor living conditions and illiteracy. (medscape.com)
  • Chief among these is the 30-year campaign that may soon eradicate Guinea worm disease, positioning it to become only the second human disease ever eradicated, after smallpox. (cartercenter.org)
  • Skin disorders and disease profile of poverty: analysis of medical records in Tigray, northern Ethiopia, 2005-2007. (medscape.com)
  • The Carter Center and The Global Institute for Disease Elimination (GLIDE) announced an exciting new partnership to support the Carter Center's innovative disease elimination efforts in the Americas. (cartercenter.org)
  • Organized by phylum, genera, and species, this book provides detailed yet practical assistance in identifying and diagnosing human parasitic diseases. (cdc.gov)
  • About 20 species belonging to 10 genera have been reported to cause human disease. (medscape.com)
  • This Web site is provided by the Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry (ATSDR) ONLY as an historical reference for the public health community. (cdc.gov)
  • Millions of Nigerians no longer are at risk of a disfiguring tropical disease, thanks to a pioneering partnership between the Federal Ministry of Health and The Carter Center. (cartercenter.org)
  • This combined nationwide strategy is the first of its kind in Africa and will allow the Federal and State Ministries of Health to efficiently protect all Nigerians from the two mosquito transmitted parasitic diseases. (cartercenter.org)
  • Now, using a combination of scientific detective work and AI, the researchers have cleared a path towards turning the molecule into a real treatment for a devastating disease. (deepmind.com)
  • Pasireotide was approved for use in treating Cushing disease in the United States in 2012 and a long acting form for as treatment of acromegaly in 2014. (nih.gov)
  • Control measures can be discontinued when the risk of disease importation is no longer present . (cdc.gov)
  • The absence of a disease agent in nature in a defined geographic area . (cdc.gov)
  • Is the Subject Area "Parasitic diseases" applicable to this article? (plos.org)
  • Particularly useful for today's clinical infectious diseases practitioners is the last section of the book, which covers artifacts for which macroscopic or microscopic appearance could be easily confused even by an experienced pathologist. (cdc.gov)
  • The key difference is that the MEPS Account and Blended Account use different methodologies and data sources to allocate expenditures across different diseases within the medical services by disease category. (stlouisfed.org)
  • The exhibition, developed in collaboration with The Carter Center, focuses on several global efforts that have been able to contain, eliminate, or eradicate disease. (cartercenter.org)
  • The Carter Center congratulates Nasarawa and Plateau states for becoming the first Nigerian states to stop transmission of lymphatic filariasis (LF), a parasitic disease most commonly known for causing elephantiasis. (cartercenter.org)
  • Ancyostoma and Necator enter through the feet, and thus wearing shoes in likely areas harboring the larva can protect against infestations, as can measures such as not using raw sewage for fertilizer , practicing good hygiene, and checking pets for diseases. (newworldencyclopedia.org)