The presence of parasites (especially malarial parasites) in the blood. (Dorland, 27th ed)
A protozoan disease caused in humans by four species of the PLASMODIUM genus: PLASMODIUM FALCIPARUM; PLASMODIUM VIVAX; PLASMODIUM OVALE; and PLASMODIUM MALARIAE; and transmitted by the bite of an infected female mosquito of the genus ANOPHELES. Malaria is endemic in parts of Asia, Africa, Central and South America, Oceania, and certain Caribbean islands. It is characterized by extreme exhaustion associated with paroxysms of high FEVER; SWEATING; shaking CHILLS; and ANEMIA. Malaria in ANIMALS is caused by other species of plasmodia.
Malaria caused by PLASMODIUM FALCIPARUM. This is the severest form of malaria and is associated with the highest levels of parasites in the blood. This disease is characterized by irregularly recurring febrile paroxysms that in extreme cases occur with acute cerebral, renal, or gastrointestinal manifestations.
A species of protozoa that is the causal agent of falciparum malaria (MALARIA, FALCIPARUM). It is most prevalent in the tropics and subtropics.
Infection with the protozoan parasite TRYPANOSOMA CRUZI, a form of TRYPANOSOMIASIS endemic in Central and South America. It is named after the Brazilian physician Carlos Chagas, who discovered the parasite. Infection by the parasite (positive serologic result only) is distinguished from the clinical manifestations that develop years later, such as destruction of PARASYMPATHETIC GANGLIA; CHAGAS CARDIOMYOPATHY; and dysfunction of the ESOPHAGUS or COLON.
A protozoan parasite of rodents transmitted by the mosquito Anopheles stephensi.
The agent of South American trypanosomiasis or CHAGAS DISEASE. Its vertebrate hosts are man and various domestic and wild animals. Insects of several species are vectors.
Infection with protozoa of the genus TRYPANOSOMA.
Agents used in the treatment of malaria. They are usually classified on the basis of their action against plasmodia at different stages in their life cycle in the human. (From AMA, Drug Evaluations Annual, 1992, p1585)
A group of tick-borne diseases of mammals including ZOONOSES in humans. They are caused by protozoa of the genus BABESIA, which parasitize erythrocytes, producing hemolysis. In the U.S., the organism's natural host is mice and transmission is by the deer tick IXODES SCAPULARIS.
A protozoan parasite of rodents transmitted by the mosquito Anopheles dureni.
A genus of protozoa that comprise the malaria parasites of mammals. Four species infect humans (although occasional infections with primate malarias may occur). These are PLASMODIUM FALCIPARUM; PLASMODIUM MALARIAE; PLASMODIUM OVALE, and PLASMODIUM VIVAX. Species causing infection in vertebrates other than man include: PLASMODIUM BERGHEI; PLASMODIUM CHABAUDI; P. vinckei, and PLASMODIUM YOELII in rodents; P. brasilianum, PLASMODIUM CYNOMOLGI; and PLASMODIUM KNOWLESI in monkeys; and PLASMODIUM GALLINACEUM in chickens.
Malaria caused by PLASMODIUM VIVAX. This form of malaria is less severe than MALARIA, FALCIPARUM, but there is a higher probability for relapses to occur. Febrile paroxysms often occur every other day.
The co-occurrence of pregnancy and parasitic diseases. The parasitic infection may precede or follow FERTILIZATION.
Immunoglobulins produced in a response to PROTOZOAN ANTIGENS.
A species of PLASMODIUM causing malaria in rodents.
A protozoan parasite that causes vivax malaria (MALARIA, VIVAX). This species is found almost everywhere malaria is endemic and is the only one that has a range extending into the temperate regions.
A genus of tick-borne protozoan parasites that infests the red blood cells of mammals, including humans. There are many recognized species, and the distribution is world-wide.
A species of protozoa infecting humans via the intermediate tick vector IXODES scapularis. The other hosts are the mouse PEROMYSCUS leucopus and meadow vole MICROTUS pennsylvanicus, which are fed on by the tick. Other primates can be experimentally infected with Babesia microti.
A disease endemic among people and animals in Central Africa. It is caused by various species of trypanosomes, particularly T. gambiense and T. rhodesiense. Its second host is the TSETSE FLY. Involvement of the central nervous system produces "African sleeping sickness." Nagana is a rapidly fatal trypanosomiasis of horses and other animals.
A species of Trypanosome hemoflagellates that is carried by tsetse flies and causes severe anemia in cattle. These parasites are also found in horses, sheep, goats, and camels.
A condition characterized by somnolence or coma in the presence of an acute infection with PLASMODIUM FALCIPARUM (and rarely other Plasmodium species). Initial clinical manifestations include HEADACHES; SEIZURES; and alterations of mentation followed by a rapid progression to COMA. Pathologic features include cerebral capillaries filled with parasitized erythrocytes and multiple small foci of cortical and subcortical necrosis. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p136)
Any part or derivative of any protozoan that elicits immunity; malaria (Plasmodium) and trypanosome antigens are presently the most frequently encountered.
A reduction in the number of circulating ERYTHROCYTES or in the quantity of HEMOGLOBIN.
A group of SESQUITERPENES and their analogs that contain a peroxide group (PEROXIDES) within an oxepin ring (OXEPINS).
Red blood cells. Mature erythrocytes are non-nucleated, biconcave disks containing HEMOGLOBIN whose function is to transport OXYGEN.
The prototypical antimalarial agent with a mechanism that is not well understood. It has also been used to treat rheumatoid arthritis, systemic lupus erythematosus, and in the systemic therapy of amebic liver abscesses.
A species in the family AOTIDAE, inhabiting the forested regions of Central and South America (from Panama to the Amazon). Vocalizations occur primarily at night when they are active, thus they are also known as Northern night monkeys.
A republic in eastern Africa, south of ETHIOPIA, west of SOMALIA with TANZANIA to its south, and coastline on the Indian Ocean. Its capital is Nairobi.
A protozoan parasite that occurs primarily in subtropical and temperate areas. It is the causal agent of quartan malaria. As the parasite grows it exhibits little ameboid activity.
Vaccines made from antigens arising from any of the four strains of Plasmodium which cause malaria in humans, or from P. berghei which causes malaria in rodents.
A genus of flagellate protozoans found in the blood and lymph of vertebrates and invertebrates, both hosts being required to complete the life cycle.
One of the FOLIC ACID ANTAGONISTS that is used as an antimalarial or with a sulfonamide to treat toxoplasmosis.
A country consisting of the eastern half of the island of New Guinea and adjacent islands, including New Britain, New Ireland, the Admiralty Islands, and New Hanover in the Bismarck Archipelago; Bougainville and Buka in the northern Solomon Islands; the D'Entrecasteaux and Trobriand Islands; Woodlark (Murua) Island; and the Louisiade Archipelago. It became independent on September 16, 1975. Formerly, the southern part was the Australian Territory of Papua, and the northern part was the UN Trust Territory of New Guinea, administered by Australia. They were administratively merged in 1949 and named Papua and New Guinea, and renamed Papua New Guinea in 1971.
A long acting sulfonamide that is used, usually in combination with other drugs, for respiratory, urinary tract, and malarial infections.
Proteins found in any species of protozoan.
A republic in southern Africa east of ZAMBIA and MOZAMBIQUE. Its capital is Lilongwe. It was formerly called Nyasaland.
A protozoan parasite that occurs naturally in the macaque. It is similar to PLASMODIUM VIVAX and produces a type of malaria similar to vivax malaria (MALARIA, VIVAX). This species has been found to give rise to both natural and experimental human infections.
A family of the New World monkeys inhabiting the forests of South and Central America. There is a single genus and several species occurring in this family, including AOTUS TRIVIRGATUS (Northern night monkeys).
A trypanosome found in the blood of adult rats and transmitted by the rat flea. It is generally non-pathogenic in adult rats but can cause lethal infection in suckling rats.
A surface protein found on Plasmodium species which induces a T-cell response. The antigen is polymorphic, sharing amino acid sequence homology among PLASMODIUM FALCIPARUM; PLASMODIUM CHABAUDI; PLASMODIUM VIVAX; and PLASMODIUM YOELII.
Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of protozoa.
Single preparations containing two or more active agents, for the purpose of their concurrent administration as a fixed dose mixture.
Agents destructive to the protozoal organisms belonging to the suborder TRYPANOSOMATINA.
A republic in west equatorial Africa, south of CAMEROON and west of the CONGO. Its capital is Libreville.
Infection in cattle caused by various species of trypanosomes.
A family of diphenylenemethane derivatives.
An active blood parasite that is present in practically all domestic animals in Africa, the West Indies, and parts of Central and South America. In Africa, the insect vector is the tsetse fly. In other countries, infection is by mechanical means indicating that the parasites have been introduced to these countries and have been able to maintain themselves in spite of the lack of a suitable intermediate host. It is a cause of nagana, the severity of which depends on the species affected.
The number of pregnancies, complete or incomplete, experienced by a female. It is different from PARITY, which is the number of offspring borne. (From Stedman, 26th ed)
Measure of the number of the PARASITES present in a host organism.
A phospholipid-interacting antimalarial drug (ANTIMALARIALS). It is very effective against PLASMODIUM FALCIPARUM with very few side effects.
An alkaloid derived from the bark of the cinchona tree. It is used as an antimalarial drug, and is the active ingredient in extracts of the cinchona that have been used for that purpose since before 1633. Quinine is also a mild antipyretic and analgesic and has been used in common cold preparations for that purpose. It was used commonly and as a bitter and flavoring agent, and is still useful for the treatment of babesiosis. Quinine is also useful in some muscular disorders, especially nocturnal leg cramps and myotonia congenita, because of its direct effects on muscle membrane and sodium channels. The mechanisms of its antimalarial effects are not well understood.
A disease of the CARDIAC MUSCLE developed subsequent to the initial protozoan infection by TRYPANOSOMA CRUZI. After infection, less than 10% develop acute illness such as MYOCARDITIS (mostly in children). The disease then enters a latent phase without clinical symptoms until about 20 years later. Myocardial symptoms of advanced CHAGAS DISEASE include conduction defects (HEART BLOCK) and CARDIOMEGALY.
A hydroxynaphthoquinone that has antimicrobial activity and is being used in antimalarial protocols.
An effective trypanocidal agent.
A republic stretching from the Indian Ocean east to New Guinea, comprising six main islands: Java, Sumatra, Bali, Kalimantan (the Indonesian portion of the island of Borneo), Sulawesi (formerly known as the Celebes) and Irian Jaya (the western part of New Guinea). Its capital is Djakarta. The ethnic groups living there are largely Chinese, Arab, Eurasian, Indian, and Pakistani; 85% of the peoples are of the Islamic faith.
Inbred BALB/c mice are a strain of laboratory mice that have been selectively bred to be genetically identical to each other, making them useful for scientific research and experiments due to their consistent genetic background and predictable responses to various stimuli or treatments.
A biguanide compound which metabolizes in the body to form cycloguanil, an anti-malaria agent.
Infections of the central nervous system caused by TREPONEMA PALLIDUM which present with a variety of clinical syndromes. The initial phase of infection usually causes a mild or asymptomatic meningeal reaction. The meningovascular form may present acutely as BRAIN INFARCTION. The infection may also remain subclinical for several years. Late syndromes include general paresis; TABES DORSALIS; meningeal syphilis; syphilitic OPTIC ATROPHY; and spinal syphilis. General paresis is characterized by progressive DEMENTIA; DYSARTHRIA; TREMOR; MYOCLONUS; SEIZURES; and Argyll-Robertson pupils. (Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp722-8)
The study of parasites and PARASITIC DISEASES.
A country in western Africa, east of MAURITANIA and south of ALGERIA. Its capital is Bamako. From 1904-1920 it was known as Upper Senegal-Niger; prior to 1958, as French Sudan; 1958-1960 as the Sudanese Republic and 1959-1960 it joined Senegal in the Mali Federation. It became an independent republic in 1960.
The product of meiotic division of zygotes in parasitic protozoa comprising haploid cells. These infective cells invade the host and undergo asexual reproduction producing MEROZOITES (or other forms) and ultimately gametocytes.
The oxygen-carrying proteins of ERYTHROCYTES. They are found in all vertebrates and some invertebrates. The number of globin subunits in the hemoglobin quaternary structure differs between species. Structures range from monomeric to a variety of multimeric arrangements.
An abnormal elevation of body temperature, usually as a result of a pathologic process.
A plant genus of the family SIMAROUBACEAE. Members contain quassinoids. There is Malaysian folk use of these plants for male virility.
Tests that demonstrate the relative effectiveness of chemotherapeutic agents against specific parasites.
Inbred C57BL mice are a strain of laboratory mice that have been produced by many generations of brother-sister matings, resulting in a high degree of genetic uniformity and homozygosity, making them widely used for biomedical research, including studies on genetics, immunology, cancer, and neuroscience.
Nitroimidazoles are a class of antibacterial and antiprotozoal drugs, which, upon reduction, interact with bacterial or protozoal DNA leading to inhibition of nucleic acid synthesis and ultimately cell death, used primarily in the treatment of anaerobic infections and certain parasitic diseases.
The number of RED BLOOD CELLS per unit volume in a sample of venous BLOOD.
A species of protozoan parasite causing MALARIA. It is the rarest of the four species of PLASMODIUM infecting humans, but is common in West African countries and neighboring areas.
Suspensions of attenuated or killed protozoa administered for the prevention or treatment of infectious protozoan disease.
The constant presence of diseases or infectious agents within a given geographic area or population group. It may also refer to the usual prevalence of a given disease with such area or group. It includes holoendemic and hyperendemic diseases. A holoendemic disease is one for which a high prevalent level of infection begins early in life and affects most of the child population, leading to a state of equilibrium such that the adult population shows evidence of the disease much less commonly than do children (malaria in many communities is a holoendemic disease). A hyperendemic disease is one that is constantly present at a high incidence and/or prevalence rate and affects all groups equally. (Last, A Dictionary of Epidemiology, 3d ed, p53, 78, 80)
The use of instrumentation and techniques for visualizing material and details that cannot be seen by the unaided eye. It is usually done by enlarging images, transmitted by light or electron beams, with optical or magnetic lenses that magnify the entire image field. With scanning microscopy, images are generated by collecting output from the specimen in a point-by-point fashion, on a magnified scale, as it is scanned by a narrow beam of light or electrons, a laser, a conductive probe, or a topographical probe.
A genus of mosquitoes (CULICIDAE) that are known vectors of MALARIA.
An encapsulated lymphatic organ through which venous blood filters.
Pathological processes or abnormal functions of the PLACENTA.
An order of parasitic protozoa found in blood cells and epithelial cells of vertebrates and invertebrates. Life cycles involve both sexual and asexual phases.
The condition of being heterozygous for hemoglobin S.
A hemoflagellate subspecies of parasitic protozoa that causes nagana in domestic and game animals in Africa. It apparently does not infect humans. It is transmitted by bites of tsetse flies (Glossina).
Diminished or failed response of an organism, disease or tissue to the intended effectiveness of a chemical or drug. It should be differentiated from DRUG TOLERANCE which is the progressive diminution of the susceptibility of a human or animal to the effects of a drug, as a result of continued administration.
Sesquiterpenes are a class of terpenes consisting of three isoprene units, forming a 15-carbon skeleton, which can be found in various plant essential oils and are known for their diverse chemical structures and biological activities, including anti-inflammatory, antimicrobial, and cytotoxic properties.
Bites and stings inflicted by insects.
The status during which female mammals carry their developing young (EMBRYOS or FETUSES) in utero before birth, beginning from FERTILIZATION to BIRTH.
The volume of packed RED BLOOD CELLS in a blood specimen. The volume is measured by centrifugation in a tube with graduated markings, or with automated blood cell counters. It is an indicator of erythrocyte status in disease. For example, ANEMIA shows a low value; POLYCYTHEMIA, a high value.
A republic in eastern Africa, south of UGANDA and north of MOZAMBIQUE. Its capital is Dar es Salaam. It was formed in 1964 by a merger of the countries of TANGANYIKA and ZANZIBAR.
Surgical procedure involving either partial or entire removal of the spleen.
A republic in western Africa, south of BURKINA FASO and west of TOGO. Its capital is Accra.
The major interferon produced by mitogenically or antigenically stimulated LYMPHOCYTES. It is structurally different from TYPE I INTERFERON and its major activity is immunoregulation. It has been implicated in the expression of CLASS II HISTOCOMPATIBILITY ANTIGENS in cells that do not normally produce them, leading to AUTOIMMUNE DISEASES.
A republic in western Africa, south of NIGER and between TOGO and NIGERIA. Its capital is Porto-Novo. It was formerly called Dahomey. In the 17th century it was a kingdom in the southern area of Africa. Coastal footholds were established by the French who deposed the ruler by 1892. It was made a French colony in 1894 and gained independence in 1960. Benin comes from the name of the indigenous inhabitants, the Bini, now more closely linked with southern Nigeria (Benin City, a town there). Bini may be related to the Arabic bani, sons. (From Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p136, 310 & Room, Brewer's Dictionary of Names, 1992, p60)
A genus of tick-borne protozoa parasitic in the lymphocytes, erythrocytes, and endothelial cells of mammals. Its organisms multiply asexually and then invade erythrocytes, where they undergo no further reproduction until ingested by a transmitting tick.
The relationship between an invertebrate and another organism (the host), one of which lives at the expense of the other. Traditionally excluded from definition of parasites are pathogenic BACTERIA; FUNGI; VIRUSES; and PLANTS; though they may live parasitically.
A protozoan parasite from Southeast Asia that causes monkey malaria. It is naturally acquired by man in Malaysia and can also be transmitted experimentally to humans.
The body fluid that circulates in the vascular system (BLOOD VESSELS). Whole blood includes PLASMA and BLOOD CELLS.
Naturally occurring or experimentally induced animal diseases with pathological processes sufficiently similar to those of human diseases. They are used as study models for human diseases.
Quinolinium compounds are organic salts formed by the protonation of quinoline, characterized by a positively charged nitrogen atom surrounded by an aromatic ring, which have been used in various applications including as antimicrobial agents and chemical research.
A republic in eastern Africa, south of SUDAN and west of KENYA. Its capital is Kampala.
In vitro method for producing large amounts of specific DNA or RNA fragments of defined length and sequence from small amounts of short oligonucleotide flanking sequences (primers). The essential steps include thermal denaturation of the double-stranded target molecules, annealing of the primers to their complementary sequences, and extension of the annealed primers by enzymatic synthesis with DNA polymerase. The reaction is efficient, specific, and extremely sensitive. Uses for the reaction include disease diagnosis, detection of difficult-to-isolate pathogens, mutation analysis, genetic testing, DNA sequencing, and analyzing evolutionary relationships.
AMINO ALCOHOLS containing the ETHANOLAMINE; (-NH2CH2CHOH) group and its derivatives.
Arthropods, other than insects and arachnids, which transmit infective organisms from one host to another or from an inanimate reservoir to an animate host.
Enlargement of the spleen.
A highly vascularized mammalian fetal-maternal organ and major site of transport of oxygen, nutrients, and fetal waste products. It includes a fetal portion (CHORIONIC VILLI) derived from TROPHOBLASTS and a maternal portion (DECIDUA) derived from the uterine ENDOMETRIUM. The placenta produces an array of steroid, protein and peptide hormones (PLACENTAL HORMONES).
A commonly occurring abnormal hemoglobin in which lysine replaces a glutamic acid residue at the sixth position of the beta chains. It results in reduced plasticity of erythrocytes.
A republic in western Africa, south of NIGER between BENIN and CAMEROON. Its capital is Abuja.
Substances that are destructive to protozoans.
The capacity of a normal organism to remain unaffected by microorganisms and their toxins. It results from the presence of naturally occurring ANTI-INFECTIVE AGENTS, constitutional factors such as BODY TEMPERATURE and immediate acting immune cells such as NATURAL KILLER CELLS.
'Benzoxazoles' are heterocyclic organic compounds, consisting of a benzene ring fused to an oxazole ring, which have been studied for their potential pharmacological activities including anti-inflammatory, analgesic, and antipyretic effects.
I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Bolivia" is not a medical term that has a definition in the field of medicine. It is actually the name of a country, specifically the Plurinational State of Bolivia, located in South America. If you have any questions related to medicine or health, I would be happy to try and help answer those for you!
The major immunoglobulin isotype class in normal human serum. There are several isotype subclasses of IgG, for example, IgG1, IgG2A, and IgG2B.
A republic in western Africa, south and east of MALI and west of NIGER. Its capital is Ouagadougou. It was formerly called Upper Volta until 1984.
A method for diagnosing a disease in one organism by inoculating the putative causative organism in a second animal of a different species. It has been used for the detection of parasites (Trypanosoma cruzi and Trichinella spiralis) when peripheral blood smears are negative. (Segen, Current Med Talk, 1995)
A republic of southeast Asia, northwest of Thailand, long familiar as Burma. Its capital is Yangon, formerly Rangoon. Inhabited by people of Mongolian stock and probably of Tibetan origin, by the 3d century A.D. it was settled by Hindus. The modern Burmese state was founded in the 18th century but was in conflict with the British during the 19th century. Made a crown colony of Great Britain in 1937, it was granted independence in 1947. In 1989 it became Myanmar. The name comes from myanma, meaning the strong, as applied to the Burmese people themselves. (From Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p192 & Room, Brewer's Dictionary of Names, 1992, p367)
Infection of cattle, sheep, or goats with protozoa of the genus THEILERIA. This infection results in an acute or chronic febrile condition.
I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Colombia" is not a medical term that can be defined in a medical context; rather, it's a country located in South America. If you have any questions related to medical terminology or health-related topics, I would be happy to help with those instead!
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
Formerly known as Siam, this is a Southeast Asian nation at the center of the Indochina peninsula. Bangkok is the capital city.
A 4-aminoquinoline compound with anti-inflammatory properties.
An infant during the first month after birth.
A genus of the family CEBIDAE consisting of four species: S. boliviensis, S. orstedii (red-backed squirrel monkey), S. sciureus (common squirrel monkey), and S. ustus. They inhabit tropical rain forests in Central and South America. S. sciureus is used extensively in research studies.
A constitution or condition of the body which makes the tissues react in special ways to certain extrinsic stimuli and thus tends to make the individual more than usually susceptible to certain diseases.
Uninuclear cells or a stage in the life cycle of sporozoan protozoa. Merozoites, released from ruptured multinucleate SCHIZONTS, enter the blood stream and infect the ERYTHROCYTES.
The continuous sequence of changes undergone by living organisms during the post-embryonic developmental process, such as metamorphosis in insects and amphibians. This includes the developmental stages of apicomplexans such as the malarial parasite, PLASMODIUM FALCIPARUM.
Drugs used to treat or prevent parasitic infections.
Transfer of immunity from immunized to non-immune host by administration of serum antibodies, or transplantation of lymphocytes (ADOPTIVE TRANSFER).
An infant having a birth weight of 2500 gm. (5.5 lb.) or less but INFANT, VERY LOW BIRTH WEIGHT is available for infants having a birth weight of 1500 grams (3.3 lb.) or less.
Diseases of domestic and wild horses of the species Equus caballus.
Strains of mice in which certain GENES of their GENOMES have been disrupted, or "knocked-out". To produce knockouts, using RECOMBINANT DNA technology, the normal DNA sequence of the gene being studied is altered to prevent synthesis of a normal gene product. Cloned cells in which this DNA alteration is successful are then injected into mouse EMBRYOS to produce chimeric mice. The chimeric mice are then bred to yield a strain in which all the cells of the mouse contain the disrupted gene. Knockout mice are used as EXPERIMENTAL ANIMAL MODELS for diseases (DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL) and to clarify the functions of the genes.
The transmission of infectious disease or pathogens from one generation to another. It includes transmission in utero or intrapartum by exposure to blood and secretions, and postpartum exposure via breastfeeding.
Any of a group of infections of fowl caused by protozoa of the genera PLASMODIUM, Leucocytozoon, and Haemoproteus. The life cycles of these parasites and the disease produced bears strong resemblance to those observed in human malaria.
The return of a sign, symptom, or disease after a remission.
Therapy with two or more separate preparations given for a combined effect.

Malaria prophylaxis using azithromycin: a double-blind, placebo-controlled trial in Irian Jaya, Indonesia. (1/1555)

New drugs are needed for preventing drug-resistant Plasmodium falciparum malaria. The prophylactic efficacy of azithromycin against P. falciparum in malaria-immune Kenyans was 83%. We conducted a double-blind, placebo-controlled trial to determine the prophylactic efficacy of azithromycin against multidrug-resistant P. falciparum malaria and chloroquine-resistant Plasmodium vivax malaria in Indonesian adults with limited immunity. After radical cure therapy, 300 randomized subjects received azithromycin (148 subjects, 750-mg loading dose followed by 250 mg/d), placebo (77), or doxycycline (75, 100 mg/d). The end point was slide-proven parasitemia. There were 58 P. falciparum and 29 P. vivax prophylaxis failures over 20 weeks. Using incidence rates, the protective efficacy of azithromycin relative to placebo was 71.6% (95% confidence interval [CI], 50.3-83.8) against P. falciparum malaria and 98.9% (95% CI, 93.1-99.9) against P. vivax malaria. Corresponding figures for doxycycline were 96.3% (95% CI, 85.4-99.6) and 98% (95% CI, 88.0-99.9), respectively. Daily azithromycin offered excellent protection against P. vivax malaria but modest protection against P. falciparum malaria.  (+info)

gammadelta T cells contribute to control of chronic parasitemia in Plasmodium chabaudi infections in mice. (2/1555)

During a primary infection of mice with Plasmodium chabaudi, gammadelta T cells are stimulated and their expansion coincides with recovery from the acute phase of infection in normal mice or with chronic infections in B cell-deficient mice (mu-MT). To determine whether the large gammadelta T cell pool observed in female B cell-deficient mice is responsible for controlling the chronic infection, studies were done using double-knockout mice deficient in both B and gammadelta cells (mu-MT x delta-/-TCR) and in gammadelta T cell-depleted mu-MT mice. In both types of gammadelta T cell-deficient mice, the early parasitemia following the peak of infection was exacerbated, and the chronic parasitemia was maintained at significantly higher levels in the absence of gammadelta T cells. The majority of gammadelta T cells in C57BL/6 and mu-MT mice responding to infection belonged predominantly to a single family of gammadelta T cells with TCR composed of Vgamma2Vdelta4 chains and which produced IFN-gamma rather than IL-4.  (+info)

Host haematological factors influencing the transmission of Plasmodium falciparum gametocytes to Anopheles gambiae s.s. mosquitoes. (3/1555)

We investigated the relationship between selected host haematological and parasitological parameters and the density and infectivity of Plasmodium falciparum gametocytes. 143 individuals (age range 1-62 years) attending an outpatient clinic in Farafenni, The Gambia, who had peripheral blood gametocytaemia were recruited (mean gametocyte density 123.7/microl, range 5-17,000/microl). Of the parameters measured, packed cell volume (PCV), reticulocyte count (RetC) and lymphocyte count (LyC) were significantly associated with gametocyte density (r = - 0.17, P < 0.05; r = 0.21, P < 0.01; r = 0.18, P < 0.05, respectively). Data from membrane feeding experiments in which 15 or more mosquitoes were dissected showed that 60.7% (53/87) of gametocyte carriers infected one or more mosquitoes. Gametocyte density was strongly correlated with transmission success (TS) (r = 0.3, P < 0.005) and, in successful infections, with both mosquito prevalence (MP) (r = 0.36, P < 0.005) and mean oocyst burden (MOB) (r = 0.65, P < 0.0001). None of the other factors measured were significantly associated with any of these indices in bivariate analysis. Regression modelling showed that both gametocyte density and PCV were positively associated with gametocyte carrier infectivity to mosquitoes (LRchi2 = 100.7 and 47.2, respectively) and, in successful infections, with MOB (beta = 0.16, t = 4.9, P < 0.001; beta = 0.02, t = 2.3, P < 0.05, respectively). The positive association with PCV suggests that blood meal quality influences infection probably as a nutritional requirement, however, as this effect was most apparent at high gametocyte densities, its epidemiological significance is questionable. Though the haematological parameters associated with gametocyte density are a direct consequence of asexual infection, they may also represent an adaptive mechanism for optimization of sexual stage development.  (+info)

Gamma interferon production is critical for protective immunity to infection with blood-stage Plasmodium berghei XAT but neither NO production nor NK cell activation is critical. (4/1555)

We have examined the roles of gamma interferon (IFN-gamma), nitric oxide (NO), and natural killer (NK) cells in the host resistance to infection with the blood-stage malarial parasite Plasmodium berghei XAT, an irradiation-induced attenuated variant of the lethal strain P. berghei NK65. Although the infection with P. berghei XAT enhanced NK cell lytic activity of splenocytes, depletion of NK1.1(+) cells caused by the treatment of mice with anti-NK1.1 antibody affected neither parasitemia nor IFN-gamma production by their splenocytes. The P. berghei XAT infection induced a large amount of NO production by splenocytes during the first peak of parasitemia, while P. berghei NK65 infection induced a small amount. Unexpectedly, however, mice deficient in inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS-/-) cleared P. berghei XAT after two peaks of parasitemia were observed, as occurred for wild-type control mice. Although the infected iNOS-/- mouse splenocytes did not produce a detectable level of NO, they produced an amount of IFN-gamma comparable to that produced by wild-type control mouse splenocytes, and treatment of these mice with neutralizing anti-IFN-gamma antibody led to the progression of parasitemia and fatal outcome. CD4(-/-) mice infected with P. berghei XAT could not clear the parasite, and all these mice died with apparently reduced IFN-gamma production. Furthermore, treatment with carrageenan increased the susceptibility of mice to P. berghei XAT infection. These results suggest that neither NO production nor NK cell activation is critical for the resistance to P. berghei XAT infection and that IFN-gamma plays an important role in the elimination of malarial parasites, possibly by the enhancement of phagocytic activity of macrophages.  (+info)

Interference of natural mouse hepatitis virus infection with cytokine production and susceptibility to Trypanosoma cruzi. (5/1555)

Mouse hepatitis virus (MHV) infection can have a pronounced impact on several investigation areas. Reports on natural MHV outbreaks are rare and most studies have been conducted by deliberately infecting mice with MHV laboratory strains that cause moderate to severe disturbances to the immune system. We have investigated the effects of a natural acute outbreak of MHV in our otherwise specific-pathogen-free (SPF) inbred mouse colonies, and of enzootic chronic MHV infection on cytokine production and resistance to the intracellular pathogen Trypanosoma cruzi. We found that BALB/c and/or C57BL/6 SPF mice that had been injected with T. cruzi blood trypomastigotes from recently MHV-contaminated (MHV+) mice developed significantly higher parasite blood counts, accelerated death, and showed higher IL-10 production by spleen cells than their counterparts whose T. cruzi inoculum was derived from MHV-negative (MHV-) donors. Interferon-gamma (IFN-gamma) production by MHV+ and MHV- mice was not significantly different. In contrast, T. cruzi infection of chronically MHV-infected mice did not result in major changes in the course of infection when compared with that observed in mice from MHV- colonies, although a trend to higher parasitaemia levels was observed in BALB/c MHV+ mice. Nevertheless, both BALB/c and C57BL/6 T. cruzi-infected MHV+ mice had diminished IFN-gamma production to parasite-antigen stimulation in comparison with similarly infected MHV- mice. Interleukin-10 (IL-10) production levels by spleen cells did not differ between chronic MHV+ and MHV- mice, but IFN-gamma neutralization by monoclonal antibody treatment of anti-CD3-stimulated spleen cell cultures showed higher levels of IL-10 synthesis in MHV+ BALB/c mice.  (+info)

Modulation of experimental blood stage malaria through blockade of the B7/CD28 T-cell costimulatory pathway. (6/1555)

Recent studies have implicated cytokines associated with CD4+ T lymphocytes of both T helper (Th)1 and Th2 subsets in resistance to experimental blood stage malaria. As the B7/CD28 costimulatory pathway has been shown to influence the differentiation of Th cell subsets, we investigated the contribution of the B7 molecules CD80 and CD86 to Th1/Th2 cytokine and immunoglobulin isotype profiles and to the development of a protective immune response to malaria in NIH mice infected with Plasmodium chabaudi. Effective blockade of CD86/CD28 interaction was demonstrated by elimination of interleukin (IL)-4 and up-regulation of interferon (IFN)-gamma responses by P. chabaudi-specific T cells and by reduction of P. chabaudi-specific immunoglobulin G1 (IgG1). The shift towards a Th1 cytokine pattern corresponded with efficient control of acute parasitaemia but an inability to resolve chronic infection. Moreover, combined CD80/CD86 blockade by using anti-CD80 and anti-CD86 monoclonal antibodies raised IFN-gamma production over that seen with CD86 blockade alone, with augmentation of this Th1-associated cytokine reducing levels of peak primary parasitaemia. These results demonstrate that IL-4 production by T cells in P. chabaudi-infected NIH mice is dependent upon CD86/CD28 interaction and that IL-4 and IFN-gamma contribute significantly, at different times of infection, to host resistance to blood stage malaria. In addition, combined CD80/CD86 blockade resulted in preferential expansion of IFN-gamma-producing T cells during P. chabaudi infection, suggesting that costimulatory pathways other than B7/CD28 may contribute to T-cell activation during continuous antigen stimulation. This study indicates a role for B7/CD28 costimulation in modulating the CD4+ T-cell response during malaria, and further suggests involvement of this pathway in other infectious and autoimmune diseases in which the Th cell immune response is also skewed.  (+info)

Induction of the trypanosome lymphocyte-triggering factor (TLTF) and neutralizing antibodies to the TLTF in experimental african trypanosomiasis. (7/1555)

We have demonstrated that African trypanosomes secrete a novel trypanokine, the trypanosome-derived lymphocyte-triggering factor (TLTF), which activates CD8+ cells to produce interferon-gamma (IFN-gamma) that in turn stimulates parasite growth. The gene for TLTF was recently cloned, and recombinant TLTF (rTLTF) showed bioactivity that was similar to native TLTF. In this work, we employed two anti-TLTF monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) to detect levels of TLTF during Trypanosoma brucei brucei (T. b. brucei ) infections in mice. Furthermore, rTLTF was utilized to assess levels of anti-TLTF antibodies. Mice with intact genes (wild type), and knockout mice with disrupted IFN-gamma (IFN-gamma-/-) or IFN-gammaR (IFN-gammaR-/-) genes were studied. The knockout mice were used in order to illustrate the role of IFN-gamma in the production of antibodies to TLTF. While wild-type mice showed high parasitaemia accompanied by high TLTF levels and low anti-TLTF antibodies at day 3 postinfection (p.i.), low TLTF was measured together with increased anti-TLTF antibodies at day 21 p.i. IFN-gamma-/- mice exhibited very low parasitaemia, TLTF and anti-TLTF antibody levels. In contrast, IFN-gammaR-/- mice revealed very high parasitaemia, increased TLTF levels, but decreased anti-TLTF antibodies. In a biological assay for TLTF, Fab' fragments of anti-TLTF antibodies dose dependently inhibited the TLTF-induced IFN-gamma production by splenocytes, suggesting a regulatory importance of these antibodies. Our data demonstrate a role of IFN-gamma in the generation of neutralizing antibodies to TLTF. Furthermore, the induction of TLTF and its antibodies may constitute a new approach for future diagnosis of African trypanosomiasis.  (+info)

Occurrence of Leishmania infantum parasitemia in asymptomatic blood donors living in an area of endemicity in southern France. (8/1555)

Visceral leishmaniosis (VL) due to Leishmania infantum (L. chagasi) is a lethal disease if untreated, but asymptomatic L. infantum infections have been reported previously. A better understanding of parasite transmission, dissemination, and survival in the human host is needed. The purpose of this study was to assess whether L. infantum circulated in peripheral blood of subjects with no history of VL. Sera from 565 blood donors were screened by Western blotting to detect Leishmania-specific antibodies and identify individuals with probable past exposure to Leishmania. Seropositivity was found in 76 donors whose buffy coats were examined by PCR and direct culture. The parasite minicircle kinetoplast DNA was amplified from blood samples of nine donors. Promastigotes were detected by culture in blood samples from nine donors. Only two donors were PCR and culture positive. These results indicate that L. infantum circulates intermittently and at low density in the blood of healthy seropositive individuals, who thus appear to be asymptomatic carriers. Implications for the safety of blood transfusion are discussed.  (+info)

Parasitemia is a medical term that refers to the presence of parasites, particularly malaria-causing Plasmodium species, in the bloodstream. It is the condition where red blood cells are infected by these parasites, which can lead to various symptoms such as fever, chills, anemia, and organ damage in severe cases. The level of parasitemia is often used to assess the severity of malaria infection and to guide treatment decisions.

Malaria is not a medical definition itself, but it is a disease caused by parasites that are transmitted to people through the bites of infected female Anopheles mosquitoes. Here's a simple definition:

Malaria: A mosquito-borne infectious disease caused by Plasmodium parasites, characterized by cycles of fever, chills, and anemia. It can be fatal if not promptly diagnosed and treated. The five Plasmodium species known to cause malaria in humans are P. falciparum, P. vivax, P. ovale, P. malariae, and P. knowlesi.

Malaria, Falciparum is defined as a severe and often fatal form of malaria caused by the parasite Plasmodium falciparum. It is transmitted to humans through the bites of infected Anopheles mosquitoes. This type of malaria is characterized by high fever, chills, headache, muscle and joint pain, and vomiting. If left untreated, it can cause severe anemia, kidney failure, seizures, coma, and even death. It is a major public health problem in many tropical and subtropical regions of the world, particularly in Africa.

'Plasmodium falciparum' is a specific species of protozoan parasite that causes malaria in humans. It is transmitted through the bites of infected female Anopheles mosquitoes and has a complex life cycle involving both human and mosquito hosts.

In the human host, the parasites infect red blood cells, where they multiply and cause damage, leading to symptoms such as fever, chills, anemia, and in severe cases, organ failure and death. 'Plasmodium falciparum' malaria is often more severe and life-threatening than other forms of malaria caused by different Plasmodium species. It is a major public health concern, particularly in tropical and subtropical regions of the world where access to prevention, diagnosis, and treatment remains limited.

Chagas disease, also known as American trypanosomiasis, is a tropical parasitic disease caused by the protozoan *Trypanosoma cruzi*. It is primarily transmitted to humans through the feces of triatomine bugs (also called "kissing bugs"), which defecate on the skin of people while they are sleeping. The disease can also be spread through contaminated food or drink, during blood transfusions, from mother to baby during pregnancy or childbirth, and through organ transplantation.

The acute phase of Chagas disease can cause symptoms such as fever, fatigue, body aches, headache, rash, loss of appetite, diarrhea, and vomiting. However, many people do not experience any symptoms during the acute phase. After several weeks or months, most people enter the chronic phase of the disease, which can last for decades or even a lifetime. During this phase, many people do not have any symptoms, but about 20-30% of infected individuals will develop serious cardiac or digestive complications, such as heart failure, arrhythmias, or difficulty swallowing.

Chagas disease is primarily found in Latin America, where it is estimated that around 6-7 million people are infected with the parasite. However, due to increased travel and migration, cases of Chagas disease have been reported in other parts of the world, including North America, Europe, and Asia. There is no vaccine for Chagas disease, but medications are available to treat the infection during the acute phase and to manage symptoms during the chronic phase.

"Plasmodium chabaudi" is a species of parasitic protozoa belonging to the genus Plasmodium, which includes the causative agents of malaria in various animals and humans. "P. chabaudi" primarily infects rodents, particularly mice, and serves as a model organism for studying the fundamental biology and pathogenesis of malaria.

The life cycle of "P. chabaudi" involves both sexual and asexual reproduction, similar to other Plasmodium species. The parasite is transmitted through the bite of an infected Anopheles mosquito, which injects sporozoites into the host's bloodstream. These sporozoites then infect liver cells, where they undergo schizogony (asexual reproduction) and produce merozoites.

Merozoites released from the liver invade red blood cells, initiating the erythrocytic stage of the life cycle. Within the red blood cells, the parasites multiply by schizogony, forming new merozoites that are eventually released to infect other red blood cells. Some of these parasites differentiate into male and female gametocytes, which can be taken up by a mosquito during a blood meal, completing the life cycle.

"P. chabaudi" infections in mice can lead to various pathological changes, including anemia, splenomegaly (enlarged spleen), and immune responses that contribute to disease progression. Researchers use this model organism to investigate aspects of malaria biology, such as host-parasite interactions, immunity, drug development, and vaccine design.

Trypanosoma cruzi is a protozoan parasite that causes Chagas disease, also known as American trypanosomiasis. It's transmitted to humans and other mammals through the feces of triatomine bugs, often called "kissing bugs." The parasite can also be spread through contaminated food, drink, or from mother to baby during pregnancy or birth.

The life cycle of Trypanosoma cruzi involves two main forms: the infective metacyclic trypomastigote that is found in the bug's feces and the replicative intracellular amastigote that resides within host cells. The metacyclic trypomastigotes enter the host through mucous membranes or skin lesions, where they invade various types of cells and differentiate into amastigotes. These amastigotes multiply by binary fission and then differentiate back into trypomastigotes, which are released into the bloodstream when the host cell ruptures. The circulating trypomastigotes can then infect other cells or be taken up by another triatomine bug during a blood meal, continuing the life cycle.

Clinical manifestations of Chagas disease range from an acute phase with non-specific symptoms like fever, swelling, and fatigue to a chronic phase characterized by cardiac and gastrointestinal complications, which can develop decades after the initial infection. Early detection and treatment of Chagas disease are crucial for preventing long-term health consequences.

Trypanosomiasis is a parasitic disease caused by various species of the protozoan genus Trypanosoma. It is transmitted through the bite of an infected tsetse fly (in African trypanosomiasis or sleeping sickness) or reduviid bug (in American trypanosomiasis or Chagas disease). The parasites enter the bloodstream and lymphatic system, causing symptoms such as fever, swollen lymph nodes, skin lesions, and muscle pain. Untreated, it can lead to severe neurological complications and death in both forms of the disease. Prevention measures include avoiding insect bites, using insect repellents, and sleeping under insecticide-treated bed nets.

Antimalarials are a class of drugs that are used for the prevention, treatment, and elimination of malaria. They work by targeting the malaria parasite at various stages of its life cycle, particularly the erythrocytic stage when it infects red blood cells. Some commonly prescribed antimalarials include chloroquine, hydroxychloroquine, quinine, mefloquine, and artemisinin-based combinations. These drugs can be used alone or in combination with other antimalarial agents to increase their efficacy and prevent the development of drug resistance. Antimalarials are also being investigated for their potential use in treating other diseases, such as autoimmune disorders and cancer.

Babesiosis is a disease caused by microscopic parasites of the genus Babesia that infect red blood cells. It is typically transmitted to humans through the bite of infected black-legged ticks (Ixodes scapularis). The incubation period for babesiosis can range from one to several weeks, and symptoms may include fever, chills, headache, body aches, fatigue, and nausea or vomiting. In severe cases, babesiosis can cause hemolytic anemia, jaundice, and acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). Babesiosis is most common in the northeastern and midwestern United States, but it has been reported in other parts of the world as well. It is treated with antibiotics and, in severe cases, may require hospitalization and supportive care.

"Plasmodium berghei" is a species of protozoan parasites belonging to the genus Plasmodium, which are the causative agents of malaria. This particular species primarily infects rodents and is not known to naturally infect humans. However, it is widely used in laboratory settings as a model organism to study malaria and develop potential interventions, such as drugs and vaccines, due to its similarities with human-infecting Plasmodium species.

The life cycle of P. berghei involves two hosts: an Anopheles mosquito vector and a rodent host. The parasite undergoes asexual reproduction in the red blood cells of the rodent host, leading to the symptoms of malaria, such as fever, anemia, and organ damage. When an infected mosquito bites another rodent, the parasites are transmitted through the saliva and infect the new host, continuing the life cycle.

While P. berghei is not a direct threat to human health, studying this species has contributed significantly to our understanding of malaria biology and the development of potential interventions against this devastating disease.

"Plasmodium" is a genus of protozoan parasites that are the causative agents of malaria in humans and other animals. There are several species within this genus, including Plasmodium falciparum, P. vivax, P. ovale, P. malariae, and P. knowlesi, among others.

These parasites have a complex life cycle that involves two hosts: an Anopheles mosquito and a vertebrate host (such as humans). When a person is bitten by an infected mosquito, the parasites enter the bloodstream and infect red blood cells, where they multiply and cause the symptoms of malaria.

Plasmodium species are transmitted through the bites of infected female Anopheles mosquitoes, which become infected after taking a blood meal from an infected person. The parasites then develop in the mosquito's midgut, eventually making their way to the salivary glands, where they can be transmitted to another human through the mosquito's bite.

Malaria is a serious and sometimes fatal disease that affects millions of people worldwide, particularly in tropical and subtropical regions. It is characterized by fever, chills, headache, muscle and joint pain, and anemia, among other symptoms. Prompt diagnosis and treatment are essential to prevent severe illness and death from malaria.

Malaria, Vivax:

A type of malaria caused by the parasite Plasmodium vivax. It is transmitted to humans through the bites of infected Anopheles mosquitoes. Malaria, Vivax is characterized by recurring fevers, chills, and flu-like symptoms, which can occur every other day or every third day. This type of malaria can have mild to severe symptoms and can sometimes lead to complications such as anemia and splenomegaly (enlarged spleen). One distinguishing feature of Malaria, Vivax is its ability to form dormant stages in the liver (called hypnozoites), which can reactivate and cause relapses even after years of apparent cure. Effective treatment includes medication to kill both the blood and liver stages of the parasite. Preventive measures include using mosquito nets, insect repellents, and antimalarial drugs for prophylaxis in areas with high transmission rates.

Parasitic pregnancy complications refer to a rare condition where a parasitic twin takes over the development of the dominant twin's reproductive system and becomes pregnant. This condition is also known as fetus in fetu or vanishing twin syndrome with a parasitic twin. The parasitic twin may have some organs developed, but it is not fully formed and relies on the dominant twin for survival. The pregnancy can pose risks to the dominant twin, such as abnormal growth patterns, organ damage, and complications during childbirth. This condition is usually detected during prenatal ultrasound examinations.

Antibodies, protozoan, refer to the immune system's response to an infection caused by a protozoan organism. Protozoa are single-celled microorganisms that can cause various diseases in humans, such as malaria, giardiasis, and toxoplasmosis.

When the body is infected with a protozoan, the immune system responds by producing specific proteins called antibodies. Antibodies are produced by a type of white blood cell called a B-cell, and they recognize and bind to specific antigens on the surface of the protozoan organism.

There are five main types of antibodies: IgA, IgD, IgE, IgG, and IgM. Each type of antibody has a different role in the immune response. For example, IgG is the most common type of antibody and provides long-term immunity to previously encountered pathogens. IgM is the first antibody produced in response to an infection and is important for activating the complement system, which helps to destroy the protozoan organism.

Overall, the production of antibodies against protozoan organisms is a critical part of the immune response and helps to protect the body from further infection.

'Plasmodium yoelii' is a species of protozoan parasite belonging to the genus Plasmodium, which causes malaria in rodents. It is primarily used as a model organism in malaria research due to its similarity to the human malaria parasites, Plasmodium falciparum and Plasmodium vivax. The life cycle of P. yoelii involves two hosts: an Anopheles mosquito vector and a rodent host. The parasite undergoes asexual reproduction in the red blood cells of the rodent host, leading to the symptoms of malaria such as fever, anemia, and organ failure if left untreated. P. yoelii is not known to infect humans.

"Plasmodium vivax" is a species of protozoan parasite that causes malaria in humans. It's one of the five malaria parasites that can infect humans, with P. falciparum being the most deadly.

P. vivax typically enters the human body through the bite of an infected Anopheles mosquito. Once inside the human host, the parasite travels to the liver where it multiplies and matures. After a period of development that can range from weeks to several months, the mature parasites are released into the bloodstream, where they infect red blood cells and continue to multiply.

The symptoms of P. vivax malaria include fever, chills, headache, muscle and joint pain, and fatigue. One distinctive feature of P. vivax is its ability to form dormant stages (hypnozoites) in the liver, which can reactivate and cause relapses of the disease months or even years after the initial infection.

P. vivax malaria is treatable with medications such as chloroquine, but resistance to this drug has been reported in some parts of the world. Prevention measures include using insecticide-treated bed nets and indoor residual spraying to reduce mosquito populations, as well as taking prophylactic medications for travelers visiting areas where malaria is common.

Babesia is a genus of protozoan parasites that infect red blood cells and can cause a disease known as babesiosis in humans and animals. These parasites are transmitted to their hosts through the bite of infected ticks, primarily Ixodes species. Babesia microti is the most common species found in the United States, while Babesia divergens and Babesia venatorum are more commonly found in Europe.

Infection with Babesia can lead to a range of symptoms, from mild to severe, including fever, chills, fatigue, headache, muscle and joint pain, and hemolytic anemia (destruction of red blood cells). Severe cases can result in complications such as acute respiratory distress syndrome, disseminated intravascular coagulation, and renal failure. Babesiosis can be particularly severe or even fatal in individuals with weakened immune systems, the elderly, and those without a spleen.

Diagnosis of babesiosis typically involves microscopic examination of blood smears to identify the presence of Babesia parasites within red blood cells, as well as various serological tests and PCR assays. Treatment usually consists of a combination of antibiotics, such as atovaquone and azithromycin, along with anti-malarial drugs like clindamycin or quinine. In severe cases, exchange transfusions may be required to remove infected red blood cells and reduce parasitemia (the proportion of red blood cells infected by the parasite).

Preventive measures include avoiding tick-infested areas, using insect repellents, wearing protective clothing, and performing regular tick checks after spending time outdoors. Removing ticks promptly and properly can help prevent transmission of Babesia and other tick-borne diseases.

'Babesia microti' is a species of intracellular parasites that infect red blood cells and can cause babesiosis, a type of tick-borne disease. The transmission of this parasite to humans usually occurs through the bite of infected black-legged ticks (Ixodes scapularis).

The life cycle of 'Babesia microti' involves two hosts: the tick and the mammalian host (such as a mouse or human). In the tick, the parasite undergoes development in the midgut, salivary glands, and ovaries. When an infected tick bites a mammalian host, it injects sporozoites into the skin, which then enter the bloodstream and invade red blood cells. Inside the red blood cells, the parasites multiply asexually, leading to their rupture and release of merozoites that infect other red blood cells.

The symptoms of babesiosis can range from mild to severe, depending on the patient's age, immune status, and the presence of other medical conditions. Mild cases may present with flu-like symptoms such as fever, chills, headache, fatigue, and muscle aches. Severe cases can lead to complications such as hemolytic anemia, thrombocytopenia, jaundice, acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS), and even death in immunocompromised individuals or those with underlying medical conditions.

Diagnosis of babesiosis typically involves microscopic examination of blood smears for the presence of parasites, as well as serological tests such as enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and indirect fluorescent antibody (IFA) tests. Molecular methods such as polymerase chain reaction (PCR) can also be used to detect the genetic material of 'Babesia microti' in blood samples.

Treatment of babesiosis usually involves a combination of antiparasitic drugs such as atovaquone and azithromycin or clindamycin and quinine, along with supportive care to manage symptoms and complications. Preventive measures include avoiding tick-infested areas, using insect repellents, wearing protective clothing, and performing regular tick checks after outdoor activities.

African trypanosomiasis, also known as sleeping sickness, is a vector-borne parasitic disease caused by the protozoan Trypanosoma brucei. It is transmitted to humans through the bite of an infected tsetse fly (Glossina spp.). The disease has two stages: an early hemolymphatic stage characterized by fever, swollen lymph nodes, and skin rashes; and a late neurological stage characterized by sleep disturbances, personality changes, and motor abnormalities. If left untreated, it can be fatal. The disease is endemic in sub-Saharan Africa, where an estimated 65 million people are at risk of infection.

Trypanosoma congolense is a species of protozoan parasite that belongs to the genus Trypanosoma. It is the primary causative agent of African animal trypanosomiasis (AAT), also known as Nagana, which affects both wild and domestic animals in sub-Saharan Africa.

The life cycle of T. congolense involves two main hosts: the tsetse fly (Glossina spp.) and a mammalian host, such as cattle, sheep, goats, or wild animals. The parasite is transmitted to the mammalian host through the bite of an infected tsetse fly. Once inside the host's body, T. congolense multiplies in various bodily fluids, including blood, lymph, and cerebrospinal fluid, causing a range of symptoms such as fever, anemia, weight loss, and weakness.

In severe cases, AAT can lead to death, particularly in young or debilitated animals. The disease has significant economic impacts on agriculture and livestock production in affected regions, making it a major public health concern.

Cerebral malaria is a severe form of malaria that affects the brain. It is caused by Plasmodium falciparum parasites, which are transmitted to humans through the bites of infected Anopheles mosquitoes. In cerebral malaria, the parasites infect and destroy red blood cells, leading to their accumulation in small blood vessels in the brain. This can cause swelling of the brain, impaired consciousness, seizures, coma, and even death if left untreated.

The medical definition of cerebral malaria is:

A severe form of malaria caused by Plasmodium falciparum parasites that affects the brain and results in altered mental status, seizures, coma, or other neurological symptoms. It is characterized by the sequestration of infected red blood cells in the cerebral microvasculature, leading to inflammation, endothelial activation, and disruption of the blood-brain barrier. Cerebral malaria can cause long-term neurological deficits or death if not promptly diagnosed and treated with appropriate antimalarial therapy.

Antigens are substances (usually proteins) found on the surface of cells, or viruses, that can be recognized by the immune system and stimulate an immune response. In the context of protozoa, antigens refer to the specific proteins or other molecules found on the surface of these single-celled organisms that can trigger an immune response in a host organism.

Protozoa are a group of microscopic eukaryotic organisms that include a diverse range of species, some of which can cause diseases in humans and animals. When a protozoan infects a host, the host's immune system recognizes the protozoan antigens as foreign and mounts an immune response to eliminate the infection. This response involves the activation of various types of immune cells, such as T-cells and B-cells, which recognize and target the protozoan antigens.

Understanding the nature of protozoan antigens is important for developing vaccines and other immunotherapies to prevent or treat protozoan infections. For example, researchers have identified specific antigens on the surface of the malaria parasite that are recognized by the human immune system and have used this information to develop vaccine candidates. However, many protozoan infections remain difficult to prevent or treat, and further research is needed to identify new targets for vaccines and therapies.

Anemia is a medical condition characterized by a lower than normal number of red blood cells or lower than normal levels of hemoglobin in the blood. Hemoglobin is an important protein in red blood cells that carries oxygen from the lungs to the rest of the body. Anemia can cause fatigue, weakness, shortness of breath, and a pale complexion because the body's tissues are not getting enough oxygen.

Anemia can be caused by various factors, including nutritional deficiencies (such as iron, vitamin B12, or folate deficiency), blood loss, chronic diseases (such as kidney disease or rheumatoid arthritis), inherited genetic disorders (such as sickle cell anemia or thalassemia), and certain medications.

There are different types of anemia, classified based on the underlying cause, size and shape of red blood cells, and the level of hemoglobin in the blood. Treatment for anemia depends on the underlying cause and may include dietary changes, supplements, medication, or blood transfusions.

Artemisinins are a class of antimalarial drugs derived from the sweet wormwood plant (Artemisia annua). They are highly effective against Plasmodium falciparum, the most deadly species of malaria parasite. Artemisinins have become an essential component in the treatment of malaria and are often used in combination therapy regimens to reduce the risk of drug resistance.

The artemisinin compounds contain a unique peroxide bridge that is responsible for their antimalarial activity. They work by generating free radicals that can damage the parasite's membranes, leading to its rapid death. Artemisinins have a fast action and can significantly reduce the parasite biomass in the first few days of treatment.

Some commonly used artemisinin-based combination therapies (ACTs) include:

* Artemether-lumefantrine (Coartem)
* Artesunate-amodiaquine (Coarsucam)
* Artesunate-mefloquine (Artequin)
* Dihydroartemisinin-piperaquine (Eurartesim, Duo-Cotecxin)

Artemisinins have also shown potential in treating other conditions, such as certain types of cancer and viral infections. However, more research is needed to establish their safety and efficacy for these indications.

Erythrocytes, also known as red blood cells (RBCs), are the most common type of blood cell in circulating blood in mammals. They are responsible for transporting oxygen from the lungs to the body's tissues and carbon dioxide from the tissues to the lungs.

Erythrocytes are formed in the bone marrow and have a biconcave shape, which allows them to fold and bend easily as they pass through narrow blood vessels. They do not have a nucleus or mitochondria, which makes them more flexible but also limits their ability to reproduce or repair themselves.

In humans, erythrocytes are typically disc-shaped and measure about 7 micrometers in diameter. They contain the protein hemoglobin, which binds to oxygen and gives blood its red color. The lifespan of an erythrocyte is approximately 120 days, after which it is broken down in the liver and spleen.

Abnormalities in erythrocyte count or function can lead to various medical conditions, such as anemia, polycythemia, and sickle cell disease.

Chloroquine is an antimalarial and autoimmune disease drug. It works by increasing the pH or making the environment less acidic in the digestive vacuoles of malaria parasites, which inhibits the polymerization of heme and the formation of hemozoin. This results in the accumulation of toxic levels of heme that are harmful to the parasite. Chloroquine is also used as an anti-inflammatory agent in the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis, discoid or systemic lupus erythematosus, and photodermatitis.

The chemical name for chloroquine is 7-chloro-4-(4-diethylamino-1-methylbutylamino)quinoline, and it has a molecular formula of C18H26ClN3. It is available in the form of phosphate or sulfate salts for oral administration as tablets or solution.

Chloroquine was first synthesized in 1934 by Bayer scientists, and it has been widely used since the 1940s as a safe and effective antimalarial drug. However, the emergence of chloroquine-resistant strains of malaria parasites has limited its use in some areas. Chloroquine is also being investigated for its potential therapeutic effects on various viral infections, including COVID-19.

'Aotus trivirgatus' is a species of New World monkey, also known as the owl monkey or the white-bellied night monkey. It is native to South America, particularly in countries like Colombia, Ecuador, Peru, and Brazil. This nocturnal primate is notable for being one of the few monogamous species of monkeys, and it has a diet that mainly consists of fruits, flowers, and insects.

The medical community may study 'Aotus trivirgatus' due to its use as a model organism in biomedical research. Its genetic similarity to humans makes it a valuable subject for studies on various diseases and biological processes, including infectious diseases, reproductive biology, and aging. However, the use of this species in research has been controversial due to ethical concerns regarding animal welfare.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Kenya" is not a medical term. It is the name of a country located in East Africa, known for its diverse wildlife and geography, including savannas, lakelands, the dramatic Great Rift Valley, and mountain highlands. It is also where you can find the Maasai Mara Reserve, known for its annual wildebeest migrations, and vast Nairobi National Park. The capital city of Kenya is Nairobi. If you have any questions about medical terms or concepts, I would be happy to help with those!

"Plasmodium malariae" is a species of protozoan parasite that causes malaria in humans. It's one of the five Plasmodium species known to cause malaria in humans, with the other four being P. falciparum, P. vivax, P. ovale, and P. knowlesi.

P. malariae is transmitted through the bites of infected Anopheles mosquitoes. Once inside the human body, the parasites travel to the liver where they multiply and then infect red blood cells. The infection caused by P. malariae can persist for several years, even a lifetime, if not treated properly.

The symptoms of P. malariae infection include fever, chills, headache, muscle and joint pain, and anemia. However, the severity of these symptoms is generally less than that caused by P. falciparum, which is the most deadly form of malaria.

It's worth noting that while P. malariae can be effectively treated with antimalarial drugs such as chloroquine and primaquine, drug resistance has been reported in some areas, making accurate diagnosis and treatment even more critical for controlling the spread of this disease.

Malaria vaccines are biological preparations that induce immunity against malaria parasites, thereby preventing or reducing the severity of malaria disease. They typically contain antigens (proteins or other molecules derived from the parasite) that stimulate an immune response in the recipient, enabling their body to recognize and neutralize the pathogen upon exposure.

The most advanced malaria vaccine candidate is RTS,S/AS01 (Mosquirix), which targets the Plasmodium falciparum parasite's circumsporozoite protein (CSP). This vaccine has shown partial protection in clinical trials, reducing the risk of severe malaria and hospitalization in young children by about 30% over four years. However, it does not provide complete immunity, and additional research is ongoing to develop more effective vaccines against malaria.

Trypanosoma is a genus of flagellated protozoan parasites belonging to the family Trypanosomatidae. These microscopic single-celled organisms are known to cause various tropical diseases in humans and animals, including Chagas disease (caused by Trypanosoma cruzi) and African sleeping sickness (caused by Trypanosoma brucei).

The life cycle of Trypanosoma involves alternating between an insect vector (like a tsetse fly or kissing bug) and a mammalian host. The parasites undergo complex morphological changes as they move through the different hosts and developmental stages, often exhibiting distinct forms in the insect vector compared to the mammalian host.

Trypanosoma species have an undulating membrane and a single flagellum that helps them move through their environment. They can be transmitted through various routes, including insect vectors, contaminated food or water, or congenital transmission from mother to offspring. The diseases caused by these parasites can lead to severe health complications and may even be fatal if left untreated.

Pyrimethamine is an antiparasitic medication that is primarily used to treat and prevent protozoan infections, such as toxoplasmosis and malaria. It works by inhibiting the dihydrofolate reductase enzyme, which is essential for the parasite's survival. By doing so, it interferes with the synthesis of folate, a vital component for the growth and reproduction of the parasite.

Pyrimethamine is often used in combination with other medications, such as sulfonamides or sulfones, to increase its effectiveness and prevent the development of drug-resistant strains. Common side effects of pyrimethamine include nausea, vomiting, loss of appetite, and headache. It is important to note that pyrimethamine should only be used under the supervision of a healthcare professional due to its potential for serious side effects and interactions with other medications.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Papua New Guinea" is not a medical term or concept. It is the name of a country located in the southwest Pacific Ocean, made up of the eastern half of the island of New Guinea and numerous offshore islands. If you have any questions about medical topics or definitions, I would be happy to help with those!

Sulfadoxine is an antimicrobial drug, specifically a sulfonamide. It is defined in medical terms as a long-acting synthetic antibacterial that is used to treat and prevent various bacterial infections. Sulfadoxine works by inhibiting the growth of bacteria through interfering with their ability to synthesize folic acid, an essential component for their survival.

It is often combined with pyrimethamine (a dihydrofolate reductase inhibitor) to treat and prevent malaria caused by Plasmodium falciparum, particularly in areas where there is resistance to other antimalarial drugs. The combination of sulfadoxine and pyrimethamine is known as a "sulfonamide-pyrimidine" or "SP" treatment.

Sulfadoxine should be used with caution, as it can cause serious side effects such as severe skin reactions, blood disorders, and allergic reactions. It is also not recommended for use in people who have an allergy to sulfonamides or who are breastfeeding infants younger than two months of age.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Protozoan Proteins" is not a specific medical or scientific term. Protozoa are single-celled eukaryotic organisms, and proteins are large biological molecules consisting of one or more chains of amino acid residues. Therefore, "Protozoan Proteins" generally refers to the various types of proteins found in protozoa.

However, if you're looking for information about proteins specific to certain protozoan parasites with medical relevance (such as Plasmodium falciparum, which causes malaria), I would be happy to help! Please provide more context or specify the particular protozoan of interest.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Malawi" is not a medical term. It is the name of a country located in southeastern Africa. If you have any questions about medical terminology or health-related topics, I would be happy to help with those!

"Plasmodium cynomolgi" is a species of protozoan parasite belonging to the genus Plasmodium, which causes malaria in certain primates. It's primarily found in macaque monkeys in Southeast Asia and is transmitted through the bite of infected mosquitoes.

While it mainly affects non-human primates, it can occasionally infect humans through a process called zoonosis. In rare cases, it can cause mild to severe malaria-like symptoms in humans, similar to those caused by Plasmodium vivax or Plasmodium falciparum, the species that commonly infect humans.

The life cycle of Plasmodium cynomolgi involves two hosts: the mosquito and the primate. The parasite reproduces asexually in the liver cells and red blood cells of the infected host, leading to the characteristic symptoms of malaria such as fever, chills, anemia, and splenomegaly (enlarged spleen).

Research on Plasmodium cynomolgi is important for understanding the biology and epidemiology of malaria parasites, as well as for developing new strategies for preventing and treating this widespread infectious disease.

Aotidae is a family of nocturnal primates also known as lorises or slow lorises. They are native to Southeast Asia and are characterized by their small size, round head, large eyes, and a wet-nosed face. Slow lorises have a toxic bite, which they use to defend themselves against predators. They are currently listed as vulnerable or endangered due to habitat loss and hunting.

Trypanosoma lewisi is a species of protozoan parasites belonging to the family Trypanosomatidae. It is primarily found in rats and is transmitted through the bite of fleas. This parasite typically infects the erythrocytes (red blood cells) of rats, causing a benign infection known as "rat trypanosomiasis" or "lewisi disease."

In a medical context, Trypanosoma lewisi is not considered a significant pathogen for humans. However, rare cases of human infections have been reported, usually due to accidental laboratory exposure or through the consumption of contaminated water or food. In these instances, the infection typically resolves on its own without causing severe symptoms or complications.

It's worth noting that Trypanosoma lewisi is often used as a model organism in scientific research related to trypanosomatid biology and parasitology due to its relatively simple life cycle and ease of cultivation in the laboratory.

Merozoite Surface Protein 1 (MSP1) is a malarial antigen, which is a protein present on the surface of merozoites, which are the invasive forms of the Plasmodium parasites that cause malaria. MSP1 plays a crucial role in the invasion of red blood cells by the merozoites during the erythrocytic stage of the parasite's life cycle.

The MSP1 protein is synthesized and processed through several stages, resulting in multiple fragments, including the C-terminal 42 kDa fragment (MSP1-42) that is further cleaved into four smaller fragments (MSP1-19, MSP1-33, MSP1-38, and MSP1-42). These fragments are involved in the recognition and attachment of merozoites to the red blood cells, followed by the formation of a tight junction between the parasite and the host cell membranes.

MSP1 is one of the most abundant and immunogenic proteins on the surface of the merozoites, making it an attractive vaccine candidate. However, despite extensive research, a successful MSP1-based malaria vaccine has yet to be developed due to challenges in eliciting a protective immune response against this complex antigen.

There doesn't seem to be a specific medical definition for "DNA, protozoan" as it is simply a reference to the DNA found in protozoa. Protozoa are single-celled eukaryotic organisms that can be found in various environments such as soil, water, and the digestive tracts of animals.

Protozoan DNA refers to the genetic material present in these organisms. It is composed of nucleic acids, including deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) and ribonucleic acid (RNA), which contain the instructions for the development, growth, and reproduction of the protozoan.

The DNA in protozoa, like in other organisms, is made up of two strands of nucleotides that coil together to form a double helix. The four nucleotide bases that make up protozoan DNA are adenine (A), thymine (T), guanine (G), and cytosine (C). These bases pair with each other to form the rungs of the DNA ladder, with A always pairing with T and G always pairing with C.

The genetic information stored in protozoan DNA is encoded in the sequence of these nucleotide bases. This information is used to synthesize proteins, which are essential for the structure and function of the organism's cells. Protozoan DNA also contains other types of genetic material, such as regulatory sequences that control gene expression and repetitive elements with no known function.

Understanding the DNA of protozoa is important for studying their biology, evolution, and pathogenicity. It can help researchers develop new treatments for protozoan diseases and gain insights into the fundamental principles of genetics and cellular function.

A drug combination refers to the use of two or more drugs in combination for the treatment of a single medical condition or disease. The rationale behind using drug combinations is to achieve a therapeutic effect that is superior to that obtained with any single agent alone, through various mechanisms such as:

* Complementary modes of action: When different drugs target different aspects of the disease process, their combined effects may be greater than either drug used alone.
* Synergistic interactions: In some cases, the combination of two or more drugs can result in a greater-than-additive effect, where the total response is greater than the sum of the individual responses to each drug.
* Antagonism of adverse effects: Sometimes, the use of one drug can mitigate the side effects of another, allowing for higher doses or longer durations of therapy.

Examples of drug combinations include:

* Highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) for HIV infection, which typically involves a combination of three or more antiretroviral drugs to suppress viral replication and prevent the development of drug resistance.
* Chemotherapy regimens for cancer treatment, where combinations of cytotoxic agents are used to target different stages of the cell cycle and increase the likelihood of tumor cell death.
* Fixed-dose combination products, such as those used in the treatment of hypertension or type 2 diabetes, which combine two or more active ingredients into a single formulation for ease of administration and improved adherence to therapy.

However, it's important to note that drug combinations can also increase the risk of adverse effects, drug-drug interactions, and medication errors. Therefore, careful consideration should be given to the selection of appropriate drugs, dosing regimens, and monitoring parameters when using drug combinations in clinical practice.

Trypanocidal agents are a type of medication specifically used for the treatment and prevention of trypanosomiasis, which is a group of diseases caused by various species of protozoan parasites belonging to the genus Trypanosoma. These agents work by killing or inhibiting the growth of the parasites in the human body.

There are two main types of human trypanosomiasis: African trypanosomiasis, also known as sleeping sickness, which is caused by Trypanosoma brucei gambiense and Trypanosoma brucei rhodesiense; and American trypanosomiasis, also known as Chagas disease, which is caused by Trypanosoma cruzi.

Trypanocidal agents can be divided into two categories:

1. Drugs used to treat African trypanosomiasis: These include pentamidine, suramin, melarsoprol, and eflornithine. Pentamidine and suramin are used for the early stages of the disease, while melarsoprol and eflornithine are used for the later stages.
2. Drugs used to treat American trypanosomiasis: The main drug used for Chagas disease is benznidazole, which is effective in killing the parasites during the acute phase of the infection. Another drug, nifurtimox, can also be used, although it has more side effects than benznidazole.

It's important to note that trypanocidal agents have limited availability and are often associated with significant toxicity, making their use challenging in some settings. Therefore, prevention measures such as avoiding insect vectors and using vector control methods remain crucial in controlling the spread of these diseases.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Gabon" is not a medical term. It is the name of a country located in Central Africa, known officially as the Gabonese Republic. If you have any questions about medical terminology or health-related topics, I would be happy to help with those!

Bovine trypanosomiasis, also known as Nagana, is a parasitic disease that affects cattle and other animals. It is caused by various species of the protozoan parasite Trypanosoma, which are transmitted through the bite of tsetse flies (Glossina spp.).

The disease is characterized by fever, anemia, weight loss, decreased milk production, abortion in pregnant animals, and eventually death if left untreated. The parasites invade the bloodstream and lymphatic system, causing damage to various organs and tissues.

Bovine trypanosomiasis is a major constraint to livestock production in sub-Saharan Africa, where it affects millions of animals and causes significant economic losses to farmers and pastoralists. Control measures include the use of trypanocidal drugs, insecticide-treated cattle, and the reduction or elimination of tsetse fly populations through various methods such as trapping and habitat modification.

I believe there may be some confusion in your question. "Fluorenes" is not a medical term, but rather a chemical term referring to organic compounds that contain a fluorene moiety, which is a bicyclic compound made up of two benzene rings fused to a five-membered ring containing two carbon atoms and one double bond.

Fluorenes have various applications in the field of materials science, including organic light-emitting diodes (OLEDs), organic photovoltaics (OPVs), and organic field-effect transistors (OFETs). They are not typically used in a medical context, although some fluorene derivatives have been explored for potential therapeutic applications.

Therefore, I cannot provide a medical definition of "Fluorenes." However, if you have any questions about the chemical properties or applications of fluorenes, I would be happy to try and answer them.

Trypanosoma vivax is a species of protozoan parasite that causes the disease surra in horses, mules, and donkeys, as well as other animals such as camels, dogs, and cats. It belongs to the family Trypanosomatidae and the order Kinetoplastida.

The parasite is transmitted through the bite of infected tsetse flies (Glossina spp.) and occurs in parts of Africa and Asia. The parasites multiply in the bloodstream and lymphatic system of the host, causing symptoms such as fever, anemia, weakness, and edema.

In advanced stages, surra can lead to severe neurological signs, coma, and death if left untreated. Diagnosis is typically made through microscopic examination of blood or tissue samples, and treatment involves the use of drugs such as diminazene accurate or suramin. Prevention measures include avoiding exposure to tsetse flies and using insect repellents or protective clothing.

Gravidity is a medical term that refers to the number of times a woman has been pregnant, regardless of the outcome of the pregnancies. It's a way to quantify a woman's childbearing experience and is often used in obstetrics and gynecology to assess potential risks and complications during pregnancy and childbirth.

For example, a woman who has been pregnant once before would have a gravidity of 1, while a woman who has been pregnant twice would have a gravidity of 2. This term is distinct from parity, which refers to the number of pregnancies that have reached a viable gestational age and resulted in a live birth.

Parasite load, in medical terms, refers to the total number or quantity of parasites (such as worms, protozoa, or other infectious agents) present in a host organism's body. It is often used to describe the severity of a parasitic infection and can be an important factor in determining the prognosis and treatment plan for the infected individual.

Parasite load can vary widely depending on the type of parasite, the route of infection, the immune status of the host, and other factors. In some cases, even a small number of parasites may cause significant harm if they are highly virulent or located in critical areas of the body. In other cases, large numbers of parasites may be necessary to produce noticeable symptoms.

Measuring parasite load can be challenging, as it often requires specialized laboratory techniques and equipment. However, accurate assessment of parasite load is important for both research and clinical purposes, as it can help researchers develop more effective treatments and allow healthcare providers to monitor the progression of an infection and evaluate the effectiveness of treatment.

Mefloquine is an antimalarial medication that is used to prevent and treat malaria caused by the Plasmodium falciparum parasite. It works by interfering with the growth of the parasite in the red blood cells of the body. Mefloquine is a synthetic quinoline compound, and it is available under the brand name Lariam, among others.

Mefloquine is typically taken once a week, starting one to two weeks before traveling to an area where malaria is common, and continuing for four weeks after leaving the area. It may also be used to treat acute malaria infection in conjunction with other antimalarial medications.

It's important to note that mefloquine has been associated with serious neuropsychiatric side effects, including anxiety, depression, hallucinations, and seizures. Therefore, it is usually reserved for use in situations where other antimalarial drugs cannot be used or have failed. Before taking mefloquine, individuals should discuss their medical history and potential risks with their healthcare provider.

Quinine is defined as a bitter crystalline alkaloid derived from the bark of the Cinchona tree, primarily used in the treatment of malaria and other parasitic diseases. It works by interfering with the reproduction of the malaria parasite within red blood cells. Quinine has also been used historically as a muscle relaxant and analgesic, but its use for these purposes is now limited due to potential serious side effects. In addition, quinine can be found in some beverages like tonic water, where it is present in very small amounts for flavoring purposes.

Chagas cardiomyopathy is a specific type of heart disease that is caused by infection with the parasite Trypanosoma cruzi, which is spread through the feces of infected triatomine bugs (also known as "kissing bugs"). The disease is named after Carlos Chagas, who discovered the parasite in 1909.

In Chagas cardiomyopathy, the infection can lead to inflammation of the heart muscle (myocarditis), which can cause damage to the heart over time. This damage can lead to a range of complications, including:

* Dilated cardiomyopathy: This is a condition in which the heart muscle becomes weakened and stretched, leading to an enlarged heart chamber and reduced pumping ability.
* Arrhythmias: These are abnormal heart rhythms that can cause symptoms such as palpitations, dizziness, and fainting.
* Heart failure: This is a condition in which the heart is unable to pump blood effectively, leading to symptoms such as shortness of breath, fatigue, and fluid buildup in the body.
* Cardiac arrest: In severe cases, Chagas cardiomyopathy can lead to sudden cardiac arrest, which is a medical emergency that requires immediate treatment.

Chagas cardiomyopathy is most commonly found in Latin America, where the parasite that causes the disease is endemic. However, due to increased travel and migration, cases of Chagas cardiomyopathy have been reported in other parts of the world, including the United States. Treatment for Chagas cardiomyopathy typically involves medications to manage symptoms and prevent further complications, as well as lifestyle changes such as diet and exercise modifications. In some cases, more invasive treatments such as surgery or implantable devices may be necessary to treat severe complications of the disease.

Atovaquone is an antiprotozoal medication used for the treatment and prevention of certain parasitic infections. It works by inhibiting the mitochondria of the parasites, disrupting their energy production and ultimately leading to their death. Atovaquone is available as a oral suspension or coated tablets and is often prescribed for conditions such as Pneumocystis pneumonia (PCP), Toxoplasma gondii encephalitis, and babesiosis. It is also used for the prevention of PCP in people with weakened immune systems due to HIV/AIDS or other causes.

The medical definition of Atovaquone can be stated as:

"Atovaquone is an antiprotozoal medication (synthetic hydroxynaphthoquinone) that exhibits activity against a variety of protozoa, including Plasmodium falciparum (the parasite responsible for malaria), Pneumocystis jirovecii (the causative agent of PCP), Toxoplasma gondii, and Babesia microti. It is used primarily for the treatment and prevention of PCP in individuals with compromised immune systems, as well as for the treatment of babesiosis and toxoplasmosis."

Diminazene is an antiparasitic drug, primarily used in veterinary medicine to treat and prevent infections caused by trypanosomes, which are protozoan parasites that can affect both animals and humans. The drug works by inhibiting the protein synthesis of the parasite, leading to its death.

In human medicine, diminazene is used as an alternative treatment for acute African trypanosomiasis (sleeping sickness) caused by Trypanosoma brucei gambiense in areas where other treatments are not available or have failed. It is usually given by intramuscular injection and is often used in combination with suramin.

It's important to note that the use of diminazene in human medicine is limited due to its potential toxicity, and it should only be administered under the supervision of a healthcare professional.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Indonesia" is not a medical term. It is a country located in Southeast Asia and Oceania, between the Indian and Pacific oceans. It is the world's largest island country, with more than thirteen thousand islands. If you have any questions about medical terms or concepts, I would be happy to help with those!

BALB/c is an inbred strain of laboratory mouse that is widely used in biomedical research. The strain was developed at the Institute of Cancer Research in London by Henry Baldwin and his colleagues in the 1920s, and it has since become one of the most commonly used inbred strains in the world.

BALB/c mice are characterized by their black coat color, which is determined by a recessive allele at the tyrosinase locus. They are also known for their docile and friendly temperament, making them easy to handle and work with in the laboratory.

One of the key features of BALB/c mice that makes them useful for research is their susceptibility to certain types of tumors and immune responses. For example, they are highly susceptible to developing mammary tumors, which can be induced by chemical carcinogens or viral infection. They also have a strong Th2-biased immune response, which makes them useful models for studying allergic diseases and asthma.

BALB/c mice are also commonly used in studies of genetics, neuroscience, behavior, and infectious diseases. Because they are an inbred strain, they have a uniform genetic background, which makes it easier to control for genetic factors in experiments. Additionally, because they have been bred in the laboratory for many generations, they are highly standardized and reproducible, making them ideal subjects for scientific research.

Proguanil is an antimalarial medication that is primarily used to prevent and treat malaria caused by the Plasmodium falciparum parasite. It works by blocking the development of the parasite in the red blood cells, thereby preventing the disease from progressing. Proguanil is often used in combination with other antimalarial drugs such as chloroquine or atovaquone to increase its effectiveness and reduce the risk of drug resistance.

Proguanil is available under various brand names, including Paludrine and Malarona. It is typically taken daily in tablet form, starting before travel to a malaria-endemic area and continuing for several weeks after leaving the area. Proguanil may also be used off-label for other indications, such as treating certain types of cancer or preventing recurrent urinary tract infections. However, its use for these conditions is not well-established and should be discussed with a healthcare provider.

Like all medications, proguanil can have side effects, including nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, headache, and mouth ulcers. It may also interact with other drugs, such as warfarin and metoclopramide, so it is important to inform a healthcare provider of all medications being taken before starting proguanil. Women who are pregnant or breastfeeding should consult their healthcare provider before taking proguanil, as its safety in these populations has not been well-studied.

Neurosyphilis is a term used to describe the invasion and infection of the nervous system by the spirochetal bacterium Treponema pallidum, which is the causative agent of syphilis. This serious complication can occur at any stage of syphilis, although it's more common in secondary or tertiary stages if left untreated. Neurosyphilis can cause a variety of neurological and psychiatric symptoms, such as:

1. Meningitis: Inflammation of the meninges (the protective membranes covering the brain and spinal cord) leading to headaches, stiff neck, and fever.
2. Meningovascular syphilis: Affects the blood vessels in the brain causing strokes, transient ischemic attacks (TIAs), or small-vessel disease, which can lead to cognitive decline.
3. General paresis (also known as tertiary general paresis): Progressive dementia characterized by memory loss, personality changes, disorientation, and psychiatric symptoms like delusions or hallucinations.
4. Tabes dorsalis: A degenerative disorder affecting the spinal cord, leading to ataxia (loss of coordination), muscle weakness, pain, sensory loss, and bladder and bowel dysfunction.
5. Argyll Robertson pupils: Small, irregularly shaped pupils that react poorly or not at all to light but constrict when focusing on near objects. This is a rare finding in neurosyphilis.

Diagnosis of neurosyphilis typically involves a combination of clinical evaluation, cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) analysis, and serological tests for syphilis. Treatment usually consists of intravenous penicillin G, which can halt the progression of the disease if initiated early enough. However, any neurological damage that has already occurred may be irreversible. Regular follow-up evaluations are essential to monitor treatment response and potential complications.

Parasitology is a branch of biology that deals with the study of parasites, their life cycles, the relationship between parasites and their hosts, the transmission of parasitic diseases, and the development of methods for their control and elimination. It involves understanding various types of parasites including protozoa, helminths, and arthropods that can infect humans, animals, and plants. Parasitologists also study the evolution, genetics, biochemistry, and ecology of parasites to develop effective strategies for their diagnosis, treatment, and prevention.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Mali" is not a medical term or condition in English. Mali is the name of a country located in West Africa, and its capital city is Bamako. If you have any questions about Mali or anything else, please let me know!

Sporozoites are a stage in the life cycle of certain parasitic protozoans, including Plasmodium species that cause malaria. They are infective forms that result from the sporulation of oocysts, which are produced in the vector's midgut after the ingestion of gametocytes during a blood meal.

Once mature, sporozoites are released from the oocyst and migrate to the salivary glands of the vector, where they get injected into the host during subsequent feedings. In the host, sporozoites infect liver cells, multiply within them, and eventually rupture the cells, releasing merozoites that invade red blood cells and initiate the erythrocytic stage of the parasite's life cycle.

Sporozoites are typically highly motile and possess a unique gliding motility, which enables them to traverse various host tissues during their invasion process. This invasive ability is facilitated by an actin-myosin motor system and secretory organelles called micronemes and rhoptries, which release adhesive proteins that interact with host cell receptors.

In summary, sporozoites are a crucial stage in the life cycle of Plasmodium parasites, serving as the infective forms responsible for transmitting malaria between hosts via an insect vector.

Hemoglobin (Hb or Hgb) is the main oxygen-carrying protein in the red blood cells, which are responsible for delivering oxygen throughout the body. It is a complex molecule made up of four globin proteins and four heme groups. Each heme group contains an iron atom that binds to one molecule of oxygen. Hemoglobin plays a crucial role in the transport of oxygen from the lungs to the body's tissues, and also helps to carry carbon dioxide back to the lungs for exhalation.

There are several types of hemoglobin present in the human body, including:

* Hemoglobin A (HbA): This is the most common type of hemoglobin, making up about 95-98% of total hemoglobin in adults. It consists of two alpha and two beta globin chains.
* Hemoglobin A2 (HbA2): This makes up about 1.5-3.5% of total hemoglobin in adults. It consists of two alpha and two delta globin chains.
* Hemoglobin F (HbF): This is the main type of hemoglobin present in fetal life, but it persists at low levels in adults. It consists of two alpha and two gamma globin chains.
* Hemoglobin S (HbS): This is an abnormal form of hemoglobin that can cause sickle cell disease when it occurs in the homozygous state (i.e., both copies of the gene are affected). It results from a single amino acid substitution in the beta globin chain.
* Hemoglobin C (HbC): This is another abnormal form of hemoglobin that can cause mild to moderate hemolytic anemia when it occurs in the homozygous state. It results from a different single amino acid substitution in the beta globin chain than HbS.

Abnormal forms of hemoglobin, such as HbS and HbC, can lead to various clinical disorders, including sickle cell disease, thalassemia, and other hemoglobinopathies.

Fever, also known as pyrexia or febrile response, is a common medical sign characterized by an elevation in core body temperature above the normal range of 36.5-37.5°C (97.7-99.5°F) due to a dysregulation of the body's thermoregulatory system. It is often a response to an infection, inflammation, or other underlying medical conditions, and it serves as a part of the immune system's effort to combat the invading pathogens or to repair damaged tissues.

Fevers can be classified based on their magnitude:

* Low-grade fever: 37.5-38°C (99.5-100.4°F)
* Moderate fever: 38-39°C (100.4-102.2°F)
* High-grade or severe fever: above 39°C (102.2°F)

It is important to note that a single elevated temperature reading does not necessarily indicate the presence of a fever, as body temperature can fluctuate throughout the day and can be influenced by various factors such as physical activity, environmental conditions, and the menstrual cycle in females. The diagnosis of fever typically requires the confirmation of an elevated core body temperature on at least two occasions or a consistently high temperature over a period of time.

While fevers are generally considered beneficial in fighting off infections and promoting recovery, extremely high temperatures or prolonged febrile states may necessitate medical intervention to prevent potential complications such as dehydration, seizures, or damage to vital organs.

Eurycoma is a genus of flowering plants in the family Simaroubaceae, which contains only one species, Eurycoma longifolia. It is also known as Tongkat Ali or Longjack and is native to Southeast Asia. The roots and bark of this plant have been used in traditional medicine for centuries to treat a variety of health conditions, including malaria, fever, and sexual dysfunction. Some studies suggest that Eurycoma extract may help to increase testosterone levels, reduce body fat, and improve muscle mass, but more research is needed to confirm these effects.

Parasitic sensitivity tests, also known as parasite drug susceptibility tests, refer to laboratory methods used to determine the effectiveness of specific antiparasitic medications against a particular parasitic infection. These tests help healthcare providers identify which drugs are most likely to be effective in treating an individual's infection and which ones should be avoided due to resistance or increased risk of side effects.

There are several types of parasitic sensitivity tests, including:

1. In vitro susceptibility testing: This involves culturing the parasite in a laboratory setting and exposing it to different concentrations of antiparasitic drugs. The growth or survival of the parasite is then observed and compared to a control group that was not exposed to the drug. This helps identify the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of the drug, which is the lowest concentration required to prevent the growth of the parasite.
2. Molecular testing: This involves analyzing the genetic material of the parasite to detect specific mutations or gene variations that are associated with resistance to certain antiparasitic drugs. This type of testing can be performed using a variety of methods, including polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and DNA sequencing.
3. Phenotypic testing: This involves observing the effects of antiparasitic drugs on the growth or survival of the parasite in a laboratory setting. For example, a parasite may be grown in a culture medium and then exposed to different concentrations of a drug. The growth of the parasite is then monitored over time to determine the drug's effectiveness.

Parasitic sensitivity tests are important for guiding the treatment of many parasitic infections, including malaria, tuberculosis, and leishmaniasis. These tests can help healthcare providers choose the most effective antiparasitic drugs for their patients, reduce the risk of drug resistance, and improve treatment outcomes.

C57BL/6 (C57 Black 6) is an inbred strain of laboratory mouse that is widely used in biomedical research. The term "inbred" refers to a strain of animals where matings have been carried out between siblings or other closely related individuals for many generations, resulting in a population that is highly homozygous at most genetic loci.

The C57BL/6 strain was established in 1920 by crossing a female mouse from the dilute brown (DBA) strain with a male mouse from the black strain. The resulting offspring were then interbred for many generations to create the inbred C57BL/6 strain.

C57BL/6 mice are known for their robust health, longevity, and ease of handling, making them a popular choice for researchers. They have been used in a wide range of biomedical research areas, including studies of cancer, immunology, neuroscience, cardiovascular disease, and metabolism.

One of the most notable features of the C57BL/6 strain is its sensitivity to certain genetic modifications, such as the introduction of mutations that lead to obesity or impaired glucose tolerance. This has made it a valuable tool for studying the genetic basis of complex diseases and traits.

Overall, the C57BL/6 inbred mouse strain is an important model organism in biomedical research, providing a valuable resource for understanding the genetic and molecular mechanisms underlying human health and disease.

Nitroimidazoles are a class of antibiotic drugs that contain a nitro group (-NO2) attached to an imidazole ring. These medications have both antiprotozoal and antibacterial properties, making them effective against a range of anaerobic organisms, including bacteria and parasites. They work by being reduced within the organism, which leads to the formation of toxic radicals that interfere with DNA function and ultimately kill the microorganism.

Some common examples of nitroimidazoles include:

* Metronidazole: used for treating infections caused by anaerobic bacteria and protozoa, such as bacterial vaginosis, amebiasis, giardiasis, and pseudomembranous colitis.
* Tinidazole: similar to metronidazole, it is used to treat various infections caused by anaerobic bacteria and protozoa, including trichomoniasis, giardiasis, and amebiasis.
* Secnidazole: another medication in this class, used for the treatment of bacterial vaginosis, trichomoniasis, and amebiasis.

Nitroimidazoles are generally well-tolerated, but side effects can include gastrointestinal symptoms like nausea, vomiting, or diarrhea. Rare but serious side effects may include peripheral neuropathy (nerve damage) and central nervous system toxicity, particularly with high doses or long-term use. It is essential to follow the prescribed dosage and duration closely to minimize potential risks while ensuring effective treatment.

Erythrocyte count, also known as red blood cell (RBC) count, is a laboratory test that measures the number of red blood cells in a sample of blood. Red blood cells are important because they carry oxygen from the lungs to the rest of the body. A low erythrocyte count may indicate anemia, while a high count may be a sign of certain medical conditions such as polycythemia. The normal range for erythrocyte count varies depending on a person's age, sex, and other factors.

"Plasmodium ovale" is a species of protozoan parasites that are transmitted to humans through the bites of infected female Anopheles mosquitoes. This parasite causes a type of malaria known as "ovale malaria," which is generally milder than other forms of malaria caused by Plasmodium falciparum or Plasmodium vivax.

The life cycle of Plasmodium ovale involves two hosts: the mosquito and humans. When an infected mosquito bites a human, the parasites are injected into the skin along with the mosquito's saliva. The parasites then enter the liver where they multiply and form dormant stages called hypnozoites. After a period of time (usually several weeks to months), the hypnozoites become activated and begin to infect red blood cells, leading to the symptoms of malaria.

The symptoms of ovale malaria are similar to those of other forms of malaria and include fever, chills, headache, muscle and joint pain, and fatigue. However, ovale malaria is less likely to cause severe complications or death than falciparum malaria. Diagnosis of ovale malaria is typically made through microscopic examination of blood smears or by using rapid diagnostic tests (RDTs) that detect parasite antigens in the blood. Treatment usually involves the use of antimalarial drugs such as chloroquine or primaquine.

There is no medical definition for "Protozoan Vaccines" as such because there are currently no licensed vaccines available for human protozoan diseases. Protozoa are single-celled microorganisms that can cause various diseases in humans, such as malaria, toxoplasmosis, and leishmaniasis.

Researchers have been working on developing vaccines against some of these diseases, but none have yet been approved for use in humans. Therefore, it is not possible to provide a medical definition for "Protozoan Vaccines" as a recognized category of vaccines.

An endemic disease is a type of disease that is regularly found among particular people or in a certain population, and is spread easily from person to person. The rate of infection is consistently high in these populations, but it is relatively stable and does not change dramatically over time. Endemic diseases are contrasted with epidemic diseases, which suddenly increase in incidence and spread rapidly through a large population.

Endemic diseases are often associated with poverty, poor sanitation, and limited access to healthcare. They can also be influenced by environmental factors such as climate, water quality, and exposure to vectors like mosquitoes or ticks. Examples of endemic diseases include malaria in some tropical countries, tuberculosis (TB) in many parts of the world, and HIV/AIDS in certain populations.

Effective prevention and control measures for endemic diseases typically involve improving access to healthcare, promoting good hygiene and sanitation practices, providing vaccinations when available, and implementing vector control strategies. By addressing the underlying social and environmental factors that contribute to the spread of these diseases, it is possible to reduce their impact on affected populations and improve overall health outcomes.

Microscopy is a technical field in medicine that involves the use of microscopes to observe structures and phenomena that are too small to be seen by the naked eye. It allows for the examination of samples such as tissues, cells, and microorganisms at high magnifications, enabling the detection and analysis of various medical conditions, including infections, diseases, and cellular abnormalities.

There are several types of microscopy used in medicine, including:

1. Light Microscopy: This is the most common type of microscopy, which uses visible light to illuminate and magnify samples. It can be used to examine a wide range of biological specimens, such as tissue sections, blood smears, and bacteria.
2. Electron Microscopy: This type of microscopy uses a beam of electrons instead of light to produce highly detailed images of samples. It is often used in research settings to study the ultrastructure of cells and tissues.
3. Fluorescence Microscopy: This technique involves labeling specific molecules within a sample with fluorescent dyes, allowing for their visualization under a microscope. It can be used to study protein interactions, gene expression, and cell signaling pathways.
4. Confocal Microscopy: This type of microscopy uses a laser beam to scan a sample point by point, producing high-resolution images with reduced background noise. It is often used in medical research to study the structure and function of cells and tissues.
5. Scanning Probe Microscopy: This technique involves scanning a sample with a physical probe, allowing for the measurement of topography, mechanical properties, and other characteristics at the nanoscale. It can be used in medical research to study the structure and function of individual molecules and cells.

'Anopheles' is a genus of mosquitoes that are known for their role in transmitting malaria parasites to humans. These mosquitoes have a distinctive resting posture, with their abdomens raised and heads down, and they typically feed on human hosts at night. Only female Anopheles mosquitoes transmit the malaria parasite, as they require blood meals to lay eggs.

There are over 400 species of Anopheles mosquitoes worldwide, but only about 30-40 of these are considered significant vectors of human malaria. The distribution and behavior of these mosquitoes can vary widely depending on the specific species and geographic location.

Preventing and controlling the spread of malaria involves a variety of strategies, including the use of insecticide-treated bed nets, indoor residual spraying, antimalarial drugs, and vaccines. Public health efforts to reduce the burden of malaria have made significant progress in recent decades, but the disease remains a major global health challenge, particularly in sub-Saharan Africa.

The spleen is an organ in the upper left side of the abdomen, next to the stomach and behind the ribs. It plays multiple supporting roles in the body:

1. It fights infection by acting as a filter for the blood. Old red blood cells are recycled in the spleen, and platelets and white blood cells are stored there.
2. The spleen also helps to control the amount of blood in the body by removing excess red blood cells and storing platelets.
3. It has an important role in immune function, producing antibodies and removing microorganisms and damaged red blood cells from the bloodstream.

The spleen can be removed without causing any significant problems, as other organs take over its functions. This is known as a splenectomy and may be necessary if the spleen is damaged or diseased.

Placental diseases, also known as placental pathologies, refer to a group of conditions that affect the development and function of the placenta during pregnancy. The placenta is an organ that develops in the uterus during pregnancy and provides oxygen and nutrients to the developing fetus while removing waste products.

Placental diseases can have serious consequences for both the mother and the fetus, including preterm labor, growth restriction, stillbirth, and long-term health problems for the child. Some common placental diseases include:

1. Placental abruption: This occurs when the placenta separates from the uterine wall before delivery, causing bleeding and potentially harming the fetus.
2. Placental previa: This is a condition where the placenta implants in the lower part of the uterus, covering the cervix. It can cause bleeding and may require cesarean delivery.
3. Preeclampsia: This is a pregnancy-related disorder characterized by high blood pressure and damage to organs such as the liver and kidneys. Placental dysfunction is thought to play a role in its development.
4. Intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR): This occurs when the fetus does not grow properly due to poor placental function, leading to low birth weight and potential health problems.
5. Chorioamnionitis: This is an infection of the membranes surrounding the fetus, which can lead to preterm labor and other complications.
6. Placental infarction: This occurs when a portion of the placenta dies due to a lack of blood flow, which can lead to growth restriction or stillbirth.

Prompt diagnosis and treatment of placental diseases are essential for ensuring the best possible outcomes for both the mother and the fetus.

Eucoccidiida is an order of single-celled, parasitic microorganisms known as protozoa, which belong to the phylum Apicomplexa. These organisms have a complex life cycle that includes both sexual and asexual reproduction stages, and they infect a wide range of hosts, including humans, animals, and birds.

Eucoccidiida species are known to cause various diseases, such as coccidiosis in animals and cryptosporidiosis and toxoplasmosis in humans. These diseases can result in a variety of symptoms, depending on the specific Eucoccidiida species and the location of the infection within the host's body.

Some common examples of Eucoccidiida species include Toxoplasma gondii, Cryptosporidium parvum, and Eimeria spp. These organisms are typically transmitted through the fecal-oral route, either through direct contact with infected hosts or through contaminated food or water sources.

Preventing infection with Eucoccidiida species often involves practicing good hygiene, such as washing hands thoroughly after using the bathroom or handling animals, and avoiding consumption of contaminated food or water. In some cases, medications may be used to treat infections caused by these organisms, although resistance to certain drugs has been reported in some Eucoccidiida species.

Sickle cell trait is a genetic condition where an individual inherits one abnormal gene for hemoglobin S (HbS) from one parent and one normal gene for hemoglobin A (HbA) from the other parent. Hemoglobin is a protein in red blood cells that carries oxygen throughout the body.

People with sickle cell trait do not have sickle cell disease, but they can pass the abnormal HbS gene on to their children. In certain situations, such as high altitude, low oxygen levels, or intense physical exertion, individuals with sickle cell trait may experience symptoms similar to those of sickle cell disease, such as fatigue, pain, and shortness of breath. However, these symptoms are typically milder and less frequent than in people with sickle cell disease.

It is important for individuals who know they have sickle cell trait to inform their healthcare providers, especially if they become pregnant or plan to engage in activities that may cause low oxygen levels, such as scuba diving or high-altitude climbing.

Trypanosoma brucei brucei is a species of protozoan flagellate parasite that causes African trypanosomiasis, also known as sleeping sickness in humans and Nagana in animals. This parasite is transmitted through the bite of an infected tsetse fly (Glossina spp.). The life cycle of T. b. brucei involves two main stages: the insect-dwelling procyclic trypomastigote stage and the mammalian-dwelling bloodstream trypomastigote stage.

The distinguishing feature of T. b. brucei is its ability to change its surface coat, which helps it evade the host's immune system. This allows the parasite to establish a long-term infection in the mammalian host. However, T. b. brucei is not infectious to humans; instead, two other subspecies, Trypanosoma brucei gambiense and Trypanosoma brucei rhodesiense, are responsible for human African trypanosomiasis.

In summary, Trypanosoma brucei brucei is a non-human-infective subspecies of the parasite that causes African trypanosomiasis in animals and serves as an essential model organism for understanding the biology and pathogenesis of related human-infective trypanosomes.

Drug resistance, also known as antimicrobial resistance, is the ability of a microorganism (such as bacteria, viruses, fungi, or parasites) to withstand the effects of a drug that was originally designed to inhibit or kill it. This occurs when the microorganism undergoes genetic changes that allow it to survive in the presence of the drug. As a result, the drug becomes less effective or even completely ineffective at treating infections caused by these resistant organisms.

Drug resistance can develop through various mechanisms, including mutations in the genes responsible for producing the target protein of the drug, alteration of the drug's target site, modification or destruction of the drug by enzymes produced by the microorganism, and active efflux of the drug from the cell.

The emergence and spread of drug-resistant microorganisms pose significant challenges in medical treatment, as they can lead to increased morbidity, mortality, and healthcare costs. The overuse and misuse of antimicrobial agents, as well as poor infection control practices, contribute to the development and dissemination of drug-resistant strains. To address this issue, it is crucial to promote prudent use of antimicrobials, enhance surveillance and monitoring of resistance patterns, invest in research and development of new antimicrobial agents, and strengthen infection prevention and control measures.

Sesquiterpenes are a class of terpenes that consist of three isoprene units, hence the name "sesqui-" meaning "one and a half" in Latin. They are composed of 15 carbon atoms and have a wide range of chemical structures and biological activities. Sesquiterpenes can be found in various plants, fungi, and insects, and they play important roles in the defense mechanisms of these organisms. Some sesquiterpenes are also used in traditional medicine and have been studied for their potential therapeutic benefits.

Insect bites and stings refer to the penetration of the skin by insects, such as mosquitoes, fleas, ticks, or bees, often resulting in localized symptoms including redness, swelling, itching, and pain. The reaction can vary depending on the individual's sensitivity and the type of insect. In some cases, systemic reactions like anaphylaxis may occur, which requires immediate medical attention. Treatment typically involves relieving symptoms with topical creams, antihistamines, or in severe cases, epinephrine. Prevention measures include using insect repellent and protective clothing.

Pregnancy is a physiological state or condition where a fertilized egg (zygote) successfully implants and grows in the uterus of a woman, leading to the development of an embryo and finally a fetus. This process typically spans approximately 40 weeks, divided into three trimesters, and culminates in childbirth. Throughout this period, numerous hormonal and physical changes occur to support the growing offspring, including uterine enlargement, breast development, and various maternal adaptations to ensure the fetus's optimal growth and well-being.

Hematocrit is a medical term that refers to the percentage of total blood volume that is made up of red blood cells. It is typically measured as part of a complete blood count (CBC) test. A high hematocrit may indicate conditions such as dehydration, polycythemia, or living at high altitudes, while a low hematocrit may be a sign of anemia, bleeding, or overhydration. It is important to note that hematocrit values can vary depending on factors such as age, gender, and pregnancy status.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Tanzania" is not a medical term. It is the name of a country located in East Africa. If you have any questions about medical terms or conditions, I would be happy to help clarify those for you.

A splenectomy is a surgical procedure in which the spleen is removed from the body. The spleen is an organ located in the upper left quadrant of the abdomen, near the stomach and behind the ribs. It plays several important roles in the body, including fighting certain types of infections, removing old or damaged red blood cells from the circulation, and storing platelets and white blood cells.

There are several reasons why a splenectomy may be necessary, including:

* Trauma to the spleen that cannot be repaired
* Certain types of cancer, such as Hodgkin's lymphoma or non-Hodgkin's lymphoma
* Sickle cell disease, which can cause the spleen to enlarge and become damaged
* A ruptured spleen, which can be life-threatening if not treated promptly
* Certain blood disorders, such as idiopathic thrombocytopenic purpura (ITP) or hemolytic anemia

A splenectomy is typically performed under general anesthesia and may be done using open surgery or laparoscopically. After the spleen is removed, the incision(s) are closed with sutures or staples. Recovery time varies depending on the individual and the type of surgery performed, but most people are able to return to their normal activities within a few weeks.

It's important to note that following a splenectomy, individuals may be at increased risk for certain types of infections, so it's recommended that they receive vaccinations to help protect against these infections. They should also seek medical attention promptly if they develop fever, chills, or other signs of infection.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Ghana" is not a medical term. It is the name of a country located in West Africa, known officially as the Republic of Ghana. If you have any questions about medical terms or conditions, I would be happy to help with those!

Interferon-gamma (IFN-γ) is a soluble cytokine that is primarily produced by the activation of natural killer (NK) cells and T lymphocytes, especially CD4+ Th1 cells and CD8+ cytotoxic T cells. It plays a crucial role in the regulation of the immune response against viral and intracellular bacterial infections, as well as tumor cells. IFN-γ has several functions, including activating macrophages to enhance their microbicidal activity, increasing the presentation of major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class I and II molecules on antigen-presenting cells, stimulating the proliferation and differentiation of T cells and NK cells, and inducing the production of other cytokines and chemokines. Additionally, IFN-γ has direct antiproliferative effects on certain types of tumor cells and can enhance the cytotoxic activity of immune cells against infected or malignant cells.

I'm not aware of any medical definitions associated with the term "Benin." Benin is a country located in West Africa, and its name is used in medical literature to describe conditions or issues related to that country, such as diseases prevalent there. However, without additional context, it's difficult to provide a specific medical definition for 'Benin.'

"Theileria" is a genus of intracellular parasitic protozoans belonging to the phylum Apicomplexa. These parasites are primarily transmitted by ticks and infect various species of mammals, including cattle, sheep, and humans. Theileria species are known to cause significant economic losses in the livestock industry due to the diseases they cause, which can result in severe anemia, fever, and even death in infected animals.

Theileria parasites have a complex life cycle that involves two hosts: the tick vector and the mammalian host. The parasites infect and multiply within the tick's salivary glands and are transmitted to the mammalian host during feeding. Once inside the host, the parasites invade and multiply within the host's white blood cells, causing a variety of clinical symptoms depending on the species of Theileria involved.

One of the most well-known species of Theileria is Theileria parva, which causes East Coast fever in cattle. This disease is highly fatal and can result in mortality rates of up to 90% in infected animals if left untreated. Other notable species include Theileria annulata, which causes Tropical Theileriosis in cattle, and Theileria lestoquardi, which infects sheep and goats.

The diagnosis of Theileria infections typically involves the examination of blood smears or other clinical samples using microscopy, as well as molecular techniques such as PCR to identify the specific species of parasite involved. Treatment options for Theileria infections include the use of antiprotozoal drugs such as buparvaquone and halofuginone, as well as supportive care such as fluid therapy and blood transfusions in severe cases. Preventive measures include the use of tick control strategies such as acaricides and vaccination.

Host-parasite interactions refer to the relationship between a parasitic organism (the parasite) and its host, which can be an animal, plant, or human body. The parasite lives on or inside the host and derives nutrients from it, often causing harm in the process. This interaction can range from relatively benign to severe, depending on various factors such as the species of the parasite, the immune response of the host, and the duration of infection.

The host-parasite relationship is often categorized based on the degree of harm caused to the host. Parasites that cause little to no harm are called commensals, while those that cause significant damage or disease are called parasitic pathogens. Some parasites can even manipulate their hosts' behavior and physiology to enhance their own survival and reproduction, leading to complex interactions between the two organisms.

Understanding host-parasite interactions is crucial for developing effective strategies to prevent and treat parasitic infections, as well as for understanding the ecological relationships between different species in natural ecosystems.

"Plasmodium knowlesi" is a species of protozoan parasite that causes malaria in certain primates, particularly macaques. It can also infect humans, and has been identified as a significant cause of malaria in Southeast Asia. The life cycle of P. knowlesi involves two hosts: anopheline mosquitoes and primates. The parasite is transmitted to the host through the bite of an infected mosquito, and then invades and reproduces within the host's red blood cells, leading to symptoms such as fever, chills, headache, and muscle and joint pain. In severe cases, P. knowlesi infections can lead to complications such as respiratory distress, kidney failure, and coma.

It is important to note that "Plasmodium knowlesi" malaria is different from the more common forms of human malaria caused by Plasmodium falciparum, Plasmodium vivax, Plasmodium ovale, and Plasmodium malariae. P. knowlesi infections can be effectively treated with antimalarial drugs, but early diagnosis and prompt treatment are crucial to prevent severe disease and complications.

Blood is the fluid that circulates in the body of living organisms, carrying oxygen and nutrients to the cells and removing carbon dioxide and other waste products. It is composed of red and white blood cells suspended in a liquid called plasma. The main function of blood is to transport oxygen from the lungs to the body's tissues and carbon dioxide from the tissues to the lungs. It also transports nutrients, hormones, and other substances to the cells and removes waste products from them. Additionally, blood plays a crucial role in the body's immune system by helping to fight infection and disease.

Animal disease models are specialized animals, typically rodents such as mice or rats, that have been genetically engineered or exposed to certain conditions to develop symptoms and physiological changes similar to those seen in human diseases. These models are used in medical research to study the pathophysiology of diseases, identify potential therapeutic targets, test drug efficacy and safety, and understand disease mechanisms.

The genetic modifications can include knockout or knock-in mutations, transgenic expression of specific genes, or RNA interference techniques. The animals may also be exposed to environmental factors such as chemicals, radiation, or infectious agents to induce the disease state.

Examples of animal disease models include:

1. Mouse models of cancer: Genetically engineered mice that develop various types of tumors, allowing researchers to study cancer initiation, progression, and metastasis.
2. Alzheimer's disease models: Transgenic mice expressing mutant human genes associated with Alzheimer's disease, which exhibit amyloid plaque formation and cognitive decline.
3. Diabetes models: Obese and diabetic mouse strains like the NOD (non-obese diabetic) or db/db mice, used to study the development of type 1 and type 2 diabetes, respectively.
4. Cardiovascular disease models: Atherosclerosis-prone mice, such as ApoE-deficient or LDLR-deficient mice, that develop plaque buildup in their arteries when fed a high-fat diet.
5. Inflammatory bowel disease models: Mice with genetic mutations affecting intestinal barrier function and immune response, such as IL-10 knockout or SAMP1/YitFc mice, which develop colitis.

Animal disease models are essential tools in preclinical research, but it is important to recognize their limitations. Differences between species can affect the translatability of results from animal studies to human patients. Therefore, researchers must carefully consider the choice of model and interpret findings cautiously when applying them to human diseases.

Quinolinium compounds are a class of organic compounds that contain a quaternary ammonium cation with a quinolinium core. Quinoline is a heterocyclic aromatic organic compound similar to benzene and pyridine, containing two nitrogen atoms at positions 1 and 2 of the six-member ring. When one of the hydrogen atoms in the quinoline is replaced by a positively charged group (such as a methyl or ethyl group), it forms a quaternary ammonium salt, known as a quinolinium compound.

Quinolinium compounds are often used as antimicrobial agents, particularly against gram-positive bacteria and some fungi. They can also be used as building blocks in organic synthesis, catalysts, and dyes. Some examples of quinolinium compounds include quinoline yellow, a food coloring agent, and chloroquine and hydroxychloroquine, drugs used to treat malaria and certain autoimmune diseases.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Uganda" is not a medical term or concept. It is the name of a country located in East Africa, known officially as the Republic of Uganda. If you have any questions about medical terms or concepts, I would be happy to help with those!

Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) is a laboratory technique used to amplify specific regions of DNA. It enables the production of thousands to millions of copies of a particular DNA sequence in a rapid and efficient manner, making it an essential tool in various fields such as molecular biology, medical diagnostics, forensic science, and research.

The PCR process involves repeated cycles of heating and cooling to separate the DNA strands, allow primers (short sequences of single-stranded DNA) to attach to the target regions, and extend these primers using an enzyme called Taq polymerase, resulting in the exponential amplification of the desired DNA segment.

In a medical context, PCR is often used for detecting and quantifying specific pathogens (viruses, bacteria, fungi, or parasites) in clinical samples, identifying genetic mutations or polymorphisms associated with diseases, monitoring disease progression, and evaluating treatment effectiveness.

Ethanolamines are a class of organic compounds that contain an amino group (-NH2) and a hydroxyl group (-OH) attached to a carbon atom. They are derivatives of ammonia (NH3) in which one or two hydrogen atoms have been replaced by a ethanol group (-CH2CH2OH).

The most common ethanolamines are:

* Monethanolamine (MEA), also called 2-aminoethanol, with the formula HOCH2CH2NH2.
* Diethanolamine (DEA), also called 2,2'-iminobisethanol, with the formula HOCH2CH2NHCH2CH2OH.
* Triethanolamine (TEA), also called 2,2',2''-nitrilotrisethanol, with the formula N(CH2CH2OH)3.

Ethanolamines are used in a wide range of industrial and consumer products, including as solvents, emulsifiers, detergents, pharmaceuticals, and personal care products. They also have applications as intermediates in the synthesis of other chemicals. In the body, ethanolamines play important roles in various biological processes, such as neurotransmission and cell signaling.

Arthropod vectors are living organisms, specifically arthropods such as mosquitoes, ticks, fleas, and lice, that can transmit infectious agents (such as viruses, bacteria, or parasites) from one host to another. This process is called vector-borne transmission. The arthropod vectors become infected with the pathogen while taking a blood meal from an infected host, then transmit the pathogen to another host during subsequent feedings. The transmission can occur through various means, including biting, stinging, or even mechanical contact. It's important to note that not all arthropods are vectors, and only certain species within each group are capable of transmitting diseases.

Splenomegaly is a medical term that refers to an enlargement or expansion of the spleen beyond its normal size. The spleen is a vital organ located in the upper left quadrant of the abdomen, behind the stomach and below the diaphragm. It plays a crucial role in filtering the blood, fighting infections, and storing red and white blood cells and platelets.

Splenomegaly can occur due to various underlying medical conditions, including infections, liver diseases, blood disorders, cancer, and inflammatory diseases. The enlarged spleen may put pressure on surrounding organs, causing discomfort or pain in the abdomen, and it may also lead to a decrease in red and white blood cells and platelets, increasing the risk of anemia, infections, and bleeding.

The diagnosis of splenomegaly typically involves a physical examination, medical history, and imaging tests such as ultrasound, CT scan, or MRI. Treatment depends on the underlying cause and may include medications, surgery, or other interventions to manage the underlying condition.

The placenta is an organ that develops in the uterus during pregnancy and provides oxygen and nutrients to the growing baby through the umbilical cord. It also removes waste products from the baby's blood. The placenta attaches to the wall of the uterus, and the baby's side of the placenta contains many tiny blood vessels that connect to the baby's circulatory system. This allows for the exchange of oxygen, nutrients, and waste between the mother's and baby's blood. After the baby is born, the placenta is usually expelled from the uterus in a process called afterbirth.

Hemoglobin C is a type of hemoglobin variant, which is the oxygen-carrying protein in red blood cells. Hemoglobin C is caused by a specific genetic mutation that results in the substitution of lysine for glutamic acid at position 6 on the beta globin chain of the hemoglobin molecule.

This variant is often associated with a benign condition known as hemoglobin C trait, where an individual inherits one copy of the mutated gene from one parent and one normal gene from the other parent. People with this trait usually have no symptoms or only mild anemia, if any. However, if an individual inherits two copies of the Hemoglobin C gene (one from each parent), they will have a more severe form of hemoglobin disorder called Hemoglobin CC disease, which can cause mild to moderate hemolytic anemia and other complications.

It's important to note that Hemoglobin C is most commonly found in people of West African descent, but it can also occur in other populations with African ancestry.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Nigeria" is not a medical term. It is a country located in West Africa, and it is the most populous country in Africa. If you have any questions about medical conditions or terms, I would be happy to help clarify those for you.

Antiprotozoal agents are a type of medication used to treat protozoal infections, which are infections caused by microscopic single-celled organisms called protozoa. These agents work by either killing the protozoa or inhibiting their growth and reproduction. They can be administered through various routes, including oral, topical, and intravenous, depending on the type of infection and the severity of the illness.

Examples of antiprotozoal agents include:

* Metronidazole, tinidazole, and nitazoxanide for treating infections caused by Giardia lamblia and Entamoeba histolytica.
* Atovaquone, clindamycin, and pyrimethamine-sulfadoxine for treating malaria caused by Plasmodium falciparum or other Plasmodium species.
* Pentamidine and suramin for treating African trypanosomiasis (sleeping sickness) caused by Trypanosoma brucei gambiense or T. b. rhodesiense.
* Nitroimidazoles, such as benznidazole and nifurtimox, for treating Chagas disease caused by Trypanosoma cruzi.
* Sodium stibogluconate and paromomycin for treating leishmaniasis caused by Leishmania species.

Antiprotozoal agents can have side effects, ranging from mild to severe, depending on the drug and the individual patient's response. It is essential to follow the prescribing physician's instructions carefully when taking these medications and report any adverse reactions promptly.

Innate immunity, also known as non-specific immunity or natural immunity, is the inherent defense mechanism that provides immediate protection against potentially harmful pathogens (like bacteria, viruses, fungi, and parasites) without the need for prior exposure. This type of immunity is present from birth and does not adapt to specific threats over time.

Innate immune responses involve various mechanisms such as:

1. Physical barriers: Skin and mucous membranes prevent pathogens from entering the body.
2. Chemical barriers: Enzymes, stomach acid, and lysozyme in tears, saliva, and sweat help to destroy or inhibit the growth of microorganisms.
3. Cellular responses: Phagocytic cells (neutrophils, monocytes, macrophages) recognize and engulf foreign particles and pathogens, while natural killer (NK) cells target and eliminate virus-infected or cancerous cells.
4. Inflammatory response: When an infection occurs, the innate immune system triggers inflammation to increase blood flow, recruit immune cells, and remove damaged tissue.
5. Complement system: A group of proteins that work together to recognize and destroy pathogens directly or enhance phagocytosis by coating them with complement components (opsonization).

Innate immunity plays a crucial role in initiating the adaptive immune response, which is specific to particular pathogens and provides long-term protection through memory cells. Both innate and adaptive immunity work together to maintain overall immune homeostasis and protect the body from infections and diseases.

Benzoxazoles are a class of heterocyclic organic compounds that consist of a benzene ring fused to an oxazole ring. The term "benzoxazoles" generally refers to the parent compound, but it can also refer to its derivatives that contain various functional groups attached to the benzene and/or oxazole rings.

Benzoxazoles have a wide range of applications in the pharmaceutical industry, as they are used in the synthesis of several drugs with anti-inflammatory, antifungal, and antiviral properties. They also have potential uses in materials science, such as in the development of organic light-emitting diodes (OLEDs) and organic photovoltaic cells (OPVs).

It is worth noting that benzoxazoles themselves are not used in medical treatments or therapies. Instead, their derivatives with specific functional groups and structures are designed and synthesized to have therapeutic effects on various diseases and conditions.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Bolivia" is not a medical term or concept. It is the name of a country located in South America, known officially as the Plurinational State of Bolivia. If you have any questions related to geography, history, or culture, I would be happy to try and help with those. However, for medical advice or information, it's always best to consult a qualified healthcare professional.

Immunoglobulin G (IgG) is a type of antibody, which is a protective protein produced by the immune system in response to foreign substances like bacteria or viruses. IgG is the most abundant type of antibody in human blood, making up about 75-80% of all antibodies. It is found in all body fluids and plays a crucial role in fighting infections caused by bacteria, viruses, and toxins.

IgG has several important functions:

1. Neutralization: IgG can bind to the surface of bacteria or viruses, preventing them from attaching to and infecting human cells.
2. Opsonization: IgG coats the surface of pathogens, making them more recognizable and easier for immune cells like neutrophils and macrophages to phagocytose (engulf and destroy) them.
3. Complement activation: IgG can activate the complement system, a group of proteins that work together to help eliminate pathogens from the body. Activation of the complement system leads to the formation of the membrane attack complex, which creates holes in the cell membranes of bacteria, leading to their lysis (destruction).
4. Antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity (ADCC): IgG can bind to immune cells like natural killer (NK) cells and trigger them to release substances that cause target cells (such as virus-infected or cancerous cells) to undergo apoptosis (programmed cell death).
5. Immune complex formation: IgG can form immune complexes with antigens, which can then be removed from the body through various mechanisms, such as phagocytosis by immune cells or excretion in urine.

IgG is a critical component of adaptive immunity and provides long-lasting protection against reinfection with many pathogens. It has four subclasses (IgG1, IgG2, IgG3, and IgG4) that differ in their structure, function, and distribution in the body.

I apologize for any confusion, but "Burkina Faso" is not a medical term or concept. It is the name of a country located in West Africa. The name "Burkina Faso" translates to "Land of Incorruptible People" in Mossi and Dioula, two languages spoken in the region. The country was known as Upper Volta when it gained independence from France in 1960. It was renamed Burkina Faso in 1984 by then-President Thomas Sankara, who aimed to promote a sense of national identity and unity among the diverse population.

Burkina Faso is a landlocked country with a population of around 21 million people (as of 2021). It shares borders with six countries: Mali to the northwest, Niger to the northeast, Benin to the southeast, Togo and Ghana to the south, and Côte d'Ivoire to the southwest. The capital city is Ouagadougou.

The primary languages spoken in Burkina Faso are French (the official language), Mooré, Dioula, Fula, and Gourmanchéma. The country has a diverse cultural heritage with numerous ethnic groups, including the Mossi, Fulani, Bobo, Gurunsi, Senufo, and Lobi.

Burkina Faso faces various challenges, such as poverty, food insecurity, limited access to education, and health issues like malaria, HIV/AIDS, and neglected tropical diseases. The country also struggles with political instability and security threats from extremist groups operating in the Sahel region.

Xenodiagnosis is a medical diagnostic technique whereby a parasite or other infectious agent is detected in an alternative host species that has been exposed to a patient's sample. This method is particularly useful in identifying the causative agents of certain diseases, especially those with obscure or unknown etiology, when traditional diagnostic methods have failed.

For example, in the case of Chagas disease, which is caused by the parasite Trypanosoma cruzi and transmitted mainly through triatomine bugs (also known as "kissing bugs"), xenodiagnosis involves allowing uninfected bugs to feed on a patient's blood. After an incubation period, the bugs are examined for the presence of T. cruzi in their gut, which would confirm the patient's infection.

It is important to note that xenodiagnosis has limited use in modern medicine due to the development of more sensitive and specific diagnostic methods, such as PCR and serological tests. However, it can still be a valuable tool in certain research and clinical settings where traditional diagnostics may not be feasible or conclusive.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Myanmar" is not a medical term or condition. It is the name of a country in Southeast Asia, also known as Burma. If you have any questions about medical conditions or terminology, I would be happy to help clarify those for you.

Theileriasis is a disease caused by the intracellular parasitic protozoa of the genus Theileria, which primarily infects and affects the erythrocytes (red blood cells) and lymphocytes (white blood cells) of various animals, including domestic and wild ruminants. This disease is mainly transmitted through the bite of infected ticks.

Infection with Theileria parasites can lead to a wide range of clinical signs in affected animals, depending on the specific Theileria species involved and the immune status of the host. Some common symptoms include fever, anemia, weakness, weight loss, lymphadenopathy (swelling of the lymph nodes), jaundice, and abortion in pregnant animals.

Two major Theileria species that cause significant economic losses in livestock are:

1. Theileria parva: This species is responsible for East Coast fever in cattle, which is a severe and often fatal disease endemic to Eastern and Southern Africa.
2. Theileria annulata: This species causes Tropical theileriosis or Mediterranean coast fever in cattle and buffaloes, primarily found in regions around the Mediterranean basin, Middle East, and Asia.

Preventive measures for theileriasis include tick control, use of live vaccines, and management practices that reduce exposure to infected ticks. Treatment options are limited but may involve chemotherapeutic agents such as buparvaquone or parvaquone, which can help control parasitemia (parasite multiplication in the blood) and alleviate clinical signs. However, these treatments do not provide complete immunity against reinfection.

I apologize for any confusion, but "Colombia" is not a medical term. It is the name of a country located in South America, known officially as the Republic of Colombia. If you are looking for medical information related to Colombia or its healthcare system, I would be happy to try to help you with that.

In the field of medicine, "time factors" refer to the duration of symptoms or time elapsed since the onset of a medical condition, which can have significant implications for diagnosis and treatment. Understanding time factors is crucial in determining the progression of a disease, evaluating the effectiveness of treatments, and making critical decisions regarding patient care.

For example, in stroke management, "time is brain," meaning that rapid intervention within a specific time frame (usually within 4.5 hours) is essential to administering tissue plasminogen activator (tPA), a clot-busting drug that can minimize brain damage and improve patient outcomes. Similarly, in trauma care, the "golden hour" concept emphasizes the importance of providing definitive care within the first 60 minutes after injury to increase survival rates and reduce morbidity.

Time factors also play a role in monitoring the progression of chronic conditions like diabetes or heart disease, where regular follow-ups and assessments help determine appropriate treatment adjustments and prevent complications. In infectious diseases, time factors are crucial for initiating antibiotic therapy and identifying potential outbreaks to control their spread.

Overall, "time factors" encompass the significance of recognizing and acting promptly in various medical scenarios to optimize patient outcomes and provide effective care.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Thailand" is not a medical term. It is a country located in Southeast Asia. If you have any questions about medical terms or concepts, I would be happy to help answer those for you!

Amodiaquine is an antimalarial medication used to prevent and treat malaria caused by the Plasmodium falciparum parasite. It works by inhibiting the growth of the parasite in red blood cells. Amodiaquine is often used in combination with other antimalarial drugs, such as artesunate or chloroquine.

The chemical name for amodiaquine is 4-[(7-chloro-4-quinolinyl)methyl]-1-(4-amino-1-methylbutyl)piperazine and it has the molecular formula C18H24ClN3O. It is available in the form of tablets for oral administration.

Like all medications, amodiaquine can cause side effects, including nausea, vomiting, loss of appetite, and headache. In rare cases, it can cause more serious side effects such as liver damage, abnormal heart rhythms, and blood disorders. It is important to take amodiaquine exactly as directed by a healthcare provider and to report any unusual symptoms or side effects promptly.

It's important to note that Amodiaquine is not available in all countries and it's use is limited due to the risk of severe side effects, especially when used alone. It should be used only under the supervision of a healthcare provider and with regular monitoring of blood cells, liver function and heart activity.

A newborn infant is a baby who is within the first 28 days of life. This period is also referred to as the neonatal period. Newborns require specialized care and attention due to their immature bodily systems and increased vulnerability to various health issues. They are closely monitored for signs of well-being, growth, and development during this critical time.

"Saimiri" is the genus name for the group of primates known as squirrel monkeys. These small, agile New World monkeys are native to Central and South America and are characterized by their slim bodies, long limbs, and distinctive hairless faces with large eyes. They are omnivorous and known for their active, quick-moving behavior in the trees. There are several species of squirrel monkey, including the Central American squirrel monkey (Saimiri oerstedii) and the much more widespread common squirrel monkey (Saimiri sciureus).

Disease susceptibility, also known as genetic predisposition or genetic susceptibility, refers to the increased likelihood or risk of developing a particular disease due to inheriting specific genetic variations or mutations. These genetic factors can make an individual more vulnerable to certain diseases compared to those who do not have these genetic changes.

It is important to note that having a genetic predisposition does not guarantee that a person will definitely develop the disease. Other factors, such as environmental exposures, lifestyle choices, and additional genetic variations, can influence whether or not the disease will manifest. In some cases, early detection and intervention may help reduce the risk or delay the onset of the disease in individuals with a known genetic susceptibility.

Merozoites are infective forms of certain protozoan parasites, including those that cause malaria. They are produced during the asexual reproduction of these parasites within the red blood cells of their hosts. Merozoites are released from the infected red blood cells when they rupture and can then invade other red blood cells to continue the cycle of infection. These organisms have an outer membrane that allows them to interact with and invade host cells, and they contain proteins on their surface that help them evade the host's immune system. Merozoites are typically small, oval-shaped structures that measure around 1 micrometer in diameter.

'Life cycle stages' is a term used in the context of public health and medicine to describe the different stages that an organism goes through during its lifetime. This concept is particularly important in the field of epidemiology, where understanding the life cycle stages of infectious agents (such as bacteria, viruses, parasites) can help inform strategies for disease prevention and control.

The life cycle stages of an infectious agent may include various forms such as spores, cysts, trophozoites, schizonts, or vectors, among others, depending on the specific organism. Each stage may have different characteristics, such as resistance to environmental factors, susceptibility to drugs, and ability to transmit infection.

For example, the life cycle stages of the malaria parasite include sporozoites (the infective form transmitted by mosquitoes), merozoites (the form that infects red blood cells), trophozoites (the feeding stage inside red blood cells), schizonts (the replicating stage inside red blood cells), and gametocytes (the sexual stage that can be taken up by mosquitoes to continue the life cycle).

Understanding the life cycle stages of an infectious agent is critical for developing effective interventions, such as vaccines, drugs, or other control measures. For example, targeting a specific life cycle stage with a drug may prevent transmission or reduce the severity of disease. Similarly, designing a vaccine to elicit immunity against a particular life cycle stage may provide protection against infection or disease.

Antiparasitic agents are a type of medication used to treat parasitic infections. These agents include a wide range of drugs that work to destroy, inhibit the growth of, or otherwise eliminate parasites from the body. Parasites are organisms that live on or inside a host and derive nutrients at the host's expense.

Antiparasitic agents can be divided into several categories based on the type of parasite they target. Some examples include:

* Antimalarial agents: These drugs are used to treat and prevent malaria, which is caused by a parasite that is transmitted through the bites of infected mosquitoes.
* Antiprotozoal agents: These drugs are used to treat infections caused by protozoa, which are single-celled organisms that can cause diseases such as giardiasis, amoebic dysentery, and sleeping sickness.
* Antihelminthic agents: These drugs are used to treat infections caused by helminths, which are parasitic worms that can infect various organs of the body, including the intestines, lungs, and skin. Examples include roundworms, tapeworms, and flukes.

Antiparasitic agents work in different ways to target parasites. Some disrupt the parasite's metabolism or interfere with its ability to reproduce. Others damage the parasite's membrane or exoskeleton, leading to its death. The specific mechanism of action depends on the type of antiparasitic agent and the parasite it is targeting.

It is important to note that while antiparasitic agents can be effective in treating parasitic infections, they can also have side effects and potential risks. Therefore, it is essential to consult with a healthcare provider before starting any antiparasitic medication to ensure safe and appropriate use.

Passive immunization is a type of temporary immunity that is transferred to an individual through the injection of antibodies produced outside of the body, rather than through the active production of antibodies in the body in response to vaccination or infection. This can be done through the administration of preformed antibodies, such as immune globulins, which contain a mixture of antibodies that provide immediate protection against specific diseases.

Passive immunization is often used in situations where individuals have been exposed to a disease and do not have time to develop their own active immune response, or in cases where individuals are unable to produce an adequate immune response due to certain medical conditions. It can also be used as a short-term measure to provide protection until an individual can receive a vaccination that will confer long-term immunity.

Passive immunization provides immediate protection against disease, but the protection is typically short-lived, lasting only a few weeks or months. This is because the transferred antibodies are gradually broken down and eliminated by the body over time. In contrast, active immunization confers long-term immunity through the production of memory cells that can mount a rapid and effective immune response upon re-exposure to the same pathogen in the future.

Low birth weight is a term used to describe babies who are born weighing less than 5 pounds, 8 ounces (2,500 grams). It's often defined as a birth weight of 2,499 grams or less. This can be further categorized into very low birth weight (less than 1,500 grams) and extremely low birth weight (less than 1,000 grams). Low birth weight is most commonly caused by premature birth, but it can also be caused by growth restriction in the womb. These babies are at risk for numerous health complications, both in the short and long term.

I understand you are asking for a medical definition of "Horse Diseases." However, it's important to note that there isn't a specific medical field dedicated to horse diseases as we typically categorize medical fields by human diseases and conditions. Veterinary medicine is the field responsible for studying, diagnosing, and treating diseases in animals, including horses.

Here's a general definition of 'Horse Diseases':

Horse diseases are health issues or medical conditions that affect equine species, particularly horses. These diseases can be caused by various factors such as bacterial, viral, fungal, or parasitic infections; genetic predispositions; environmental factors; and metabolic disorders. Examples of horse diseases include Strangles (Streptococcus equi), Equine Influenza, Equine Herpesvirus, West Nile Virus, Rabies, Potomac Horse Fever, Lyme Disease, and internal or external parasites like worms and ticks. Additionally, horses can suffer from musculoskeletal disorders such as arthritis, laminitis, and various injuries. Regular veterinary care, preventative measures, and proper management are crucial for maintaining horse health and preventing diseases.

A "knockout" mouse is a genetically engineered mouse in which one or more genes have been deleted or "knocked out" using molecular biology techniques. This allows researchers to study the function of specific genes and their role in various biological processes, as well as potential associations with human diseases. The mice are generated by introducing targeted DNA modifications into embryonic stem cells, which are then used to create a live animal. Knockout mice have been widely used in biomedical research to investigate gene function, disease mechanisms, and potential therapeutic targets.

Vertical transmission of infectious diseases refers to the spread of an infection from an infected mother to her offspring during pregnancy, childbirth, or breastfeeding. This mode of transmission can occur through several pathways:

1. Transplacental transmission: The infection crosses the placenta and reaches the fetus while it is still in the womb. Examples include HIV, syphilis, and toxoplasmosis.
2. Intrauterine infection: The mother's infection causes direct damage to the developing fetus or its surrounding tissues, leading to complications such as congenital defects. Examples include rubella and cytomegalovirus (CMV).
3. Perinatal transmission: This occurs during childbirth when the infant comes into contact with the mother's infected genital tract or bodily fluids. Examples include group B streptococcus, herpes simplex virus (HSV), and hepatitis B.
4. Postnatal transmission: This occurs after birth, often through breastfeeding, when the infant ingests infected milk or comes into contact with the mother's contaminated bodily fluids. Examples include HIV and HTLV-I (human T-lymphotropic virus type I).

Vertical transmission is a significant concern in public health, as it can lead to severe complications, congenital disabilities, or even death in newborns. Preventive measures, such as prenatal screening, vaccination, and antimicrobial treatment, are crucial for reducing the risk of vertical transmission and ensuring better outcomes for both mothers and their offspring.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but there seems to be a mistake in your question. Avian malaria is a disease that affects birds, not humans. It is caused by parasites from the genus Plasmodium, which are different than the ones causing human malaria (Plasmodium falciparum, Plasmodium vivax, Plasmodium ovale, and Plasmodium malariae).

Avian malaria is not a significant public health concern, and it's not transmitted to humans through mosquitoes or any other means. However, it can have serious impacts on bird populations.

Recurrence, in a medical context, refers to the return of symptoms or signs of a disease after a period of improvement or remission. It indicates that the condition has not been fully eradicated and may require further treatment. Recurrence is often used to describe situations where a disease such as cancer comes back after initial treatment, but it can also apply to other medical conditions. The likelihood of recurrence varies depending on the type of disease and individual patient factors.

Combination drug therapy is a treatment approach that involves the use of multiple medications with different mechanisms of action to achieve better therapeutic outcomes. This approach is often used in the management of complex medical conditions such as cancer, HIV/AIDS, and cardiovascular diseases. The goal of combination drug therapy is to improve efficacy, reduce the risk of drug resistance, decrease the likelihood of adverse effects, and enhance the overall quality of life for patients.

In combining drugs, healthcare providers aim to target various pathways involved in the disease process, which may help to:

1. Increase the effectiveness of treatment by attacking the disease from multiple angles.
2. Decrease the dosage of individual medications, reducing the risk and severity of side effects.
3. Slow down or prevent the development of drug resistance, a common problem in chronic diseases like HIV/AIDS and cancer.
4. Improve patient compliance by simplifying dosing schedules and reducing pill burden.

Examples of combination drug therapy include:

1. Antiretroviral therapy (ART) for HIV treatment, which typically involves three or more drugs from different classes to suppress viral replication and prevent the development of drug resistance.
2. Chemotherapy regimens for cancer treatment, where multiple cytotoxic agents are used to target various stages of the cell cycle and reduce the likelihood of tumor cells developing resistance.
3. Cardiovascular disease management, which may involve combining medications such as angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors, beta-blockers, diuretics, and statins to control blood pressure, heart rate, fluid balance, and cholesterol levels.
4. Treatment of tuberculosis, which often involves a combination of several antibiotics to target different aspects of the bacterial life cycle and prevent the development of drug-resistant strains.

When prescribing combination drug therapy, healthcare providers must carefully consider factors such as potential drug interactions, dosing schedules, adverse effects, and contraindications to ensure safe and effective treatment. Regular monitoring of patients is essential to assess treatment response, manage side effects, and adjust the treatment plan as needed.

... for low parasitemias) or thin film blood smear (for high parasitemias). The use of molecular biology techniques, such as PCR ... when cure depends on ascertaining a parasitemia of zero. The methods to be used for quantifying parasitemia depends on the ... Parasitemia is the quantitative content of parasites in the blood. It is used as a measurement of parasite load in the organism ... Systematic measurement of parasitemia is important in many phases of the assessment of disease, such as in diagnosis and in the ...
Other findings include parasitemia and anemia. Large megaloschizonts may be present in skeletal muscles, particularly those of ...
The number of parasites increased by a factor 5 approximately every 48 hours (one cycle). The parasitemia can be determined via ... "Synchronous culture of Plasmodium falciparum at high parasitemia levels". Nat. Protoc. 4 (11): 1899-915. doi:10.1038/nprot. ...
Fever and low grade parasitemia were apparent at 15 days. The volunteer (Dr Bennett) had previously been infected by Plasmodium ...
2009). "Synchronous culture of Plasmodium falciparum at high parasitemia levels". Nature Protocols. 4 (12): 1828-1844. doi: ...
Infections thereafter may exhibit little or no symptomatology in spite of parasitemia. The next stage is resistance to ...
P. vivax gametocytes are commonly found in human peripheral blood at about the end of the first week of parasitemia. Gametes: ... However, such recurrent parasitemia is probably being over-attributed to hypnozoite activation. Two newly recognized, non- ... this might explain how a single infection can be responsible for a series of waves of parasitaemia or "relapses". It has been ... hypnozoite, probable contributing sources to recurrent peripheral P. vivax parasitemia are erythrocytic forms in bone marrow ...
Median parasitaemia rates in infections tend to be low (. ...
17 December 2013). "High Prevalence of Malaria Parasitemia and Anemia among Hospitalized Children in Rakai, Uganda". PLOS ONE. ...
The course of the parasitemia showed low levels initially and reaching a peak after 15 days; trophozoites were the most ... Laboratory findings included parasitemia, splenomegaly, pulmonary oedema and schizonts in the reticuloendothelial system. This ... Clinical findings associated with high parasitemia are anemia, diarrhea and weight loss that may lead to death. Body ...
The antigenic variation causes cyclical waves of parasitemia, which is one of the characteristics of human African ... The clinical effect of this cycle is successive 'waves' of parasitaemia (trypanosomes in the blood). Variable surface ... This antigenic variation creates cyclical waves of parasitemia characteristic of Human African Trypanosomiasis. Antigen ' ...
Increased parasitemia in chicken malaria (Plasmodium gallinaceum and Plasmodium lophurae) following X-irradiation. J. Infect. ...
In a mouse model the compound caused a reduction of parasitemia of 92% in comparison to the control. The toxicity of ... Cynaropicrin shows a reduction in parasitemia in murine models and has potent antitrypanosomal activity. It lowers ...
... infected and rising parasitemia, and infection past the peak. Besides immunological expression they find transcription of cell ...
Earlier peak parasitemias, higher parasite densities and higher mortality were noted. It is thought that CD36 is involved in ...
"Geographic variation in prevalence and parasitemia of Haemoproteus paruli in the cerulean warbler (Dendroica cerulea)". ...
The clinical effect of this cycle is successive 'waves' of parasitemia (trypanosomes in the blood). Expression of VSG genes ... 2013 find a lower dose reduces parasitemia by this subspecies and a higher dose is curative and prevents injury. T. brucei is ... controlling parasitemia aids in increasing the total transmitting duration of any particular infested host. Unlike anopheline ...
"Evidence for an Age-Dependent Pyrogenic Threshold of Plasmodium falciparum Parasitemia in Highly Endemic Populations". The ...
It clinically improves the anemia and parasitemia of the pregnant women, and birthweight in their infants. If the mother has ...
By using increasing volumes of culture medium, P.falciparum was grown to higher parasitemia levels (above 10%). The use of ... effective against parasitemia in animals. The first successful trials of artemisinin were in 1979. Artemisinin is a ...
"Hemoglobin C is associated with reduced Plasmodium falciparum parasitemia and low risk of mild attack" (PDF). Hum Mol Genet. 13 ... a balanced polymorphism protective against high parasitemias and thus severe P. falciparum malaria". Blood. 100 (4): 1172-6. ...
Parasitemia peaks on the 12th and 16th day of infection, with up to 130,000 parasites per milliliter of blood. Parasite load ... It can also infect the Black crested gibbon (Hylobates concolor), although it causes only moderate parasitemia. In experimental ...
Placental Malaria Parasitemia". Scientific Reports. 8 (1): 169. Bibcode:2018NatSR...8..169T. doi:10.1038/s41598-017-18574-6. ...
Women experienced a reduction in malaria episodes, anemia, parasitaemia and low birth weight. While these results cannot be ... there were still significant differences for parasitaemia, reported malaria episodes and birth weight, indicating the ...
"Comparison of PCR with blood smear and inoculation of small animals for diagnosis of Babesia microti parasitemia". J. Clin. ...
... parasitemia, biological cycle, clinical-pathological aspects and treatment". Exp. Parasitol. 128 (4): 347-52. doi:10.1016/j. ...
Partial protection against sporozoite challenge was achieved, and mean parasitemia was significantly reduced, compared to ...
Galeotti, Paolo; Sacchi, Roberto (2003). "Differential parasitaemia in the tawny owl (Strix aluco): effects of colour morph and ...
... et al 1993 experimented with rhesus macaques and produced increased glucose and lactate correlated with increased parasitemia. ...
... a balanced polymorphism protective against high parasitemias and thus severe P falciparum malaria". Blood. 100 (4): 1172-1176. ...
... for low parasitemias) or thin film blood smear (for high parasitemias). The use of molecular biology techniques, such as PCR ... when cure depends on ascertaining a parasitemia of zero. The methods to be used for quantifying parasitemia depends on the ... Parasitemia is the quantitative content of parasites in the blood. It is used as a measurement of parasite load in the organism ... Systematic measurement of parasitemia is important in many phases of the assessment of disease, such as in diagnosis and in the ...
Mansonella perstans is one of the most prevalent and poorly understood parasites known to cause parasitemias in humans (1-3). ... Molecular Verification of New World Mansonella perstans Parasitemias. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2017;23(3):545-547. doi: ... We obtained ribosomal and mitochondrial DNA sequences from residents of Amazonas state, Brazil, with Mansonella parasitemias. ... Molecular Verification of New World Mansonella perstans Parasitemias. Volume 23, Number 3-March 2017 ...
Housing structure was also significantly associated with parasitemia and anemia. Bed net use was protective against parasitemia ... Parasitemia was not associated with malaria disease severity. In univariate logistic regression, fever was significantly ... The association of clinical, nutritional, demographic, and socioeconomic factors with parasitemia, anemia, and MA was ... Caretakers level of education and occupation were significantly correlated with parasitemia, anemia, and MA. ...
Author summary The world needs a protective malaria vaccine. One approach is to repeatedly administer whole sporozoites, the parasite form that is transmitted from mosquitos to humans. Without treatment, sporozoites enter the liver, grow for a week, and then infect red blood cells, causing clinical disease. Here, we gave a vaccine consisting of sporozoites with a drug that prevents red blood cell infections to eliminate clinical illness. This approach was protective in other studies so we initially evaluated a faster schedule where the vaccine was given weekly. Surprisingly, there was no protection observed. We determined that weekly intervals led the second and third vaccine doses to be administered just as the previous dose of sporozoites was transitioning from the liver to the blood stage. Even though blood stage infection was stopped in this study by the co-administered drug (chloroquine), we hypothesized that it was problematic to administer a vaccine during blood stage infection. Therefore, we
Additional file 1 of Vivax malaria in Duffy-negative patients shows invariably low asexual parasitaemia: implication towards ... Distribution of the P. vivax parasitemia deduced from qPCR Ct values. The median (range) P. vivax asexual parasitemia of the ... Passing-Bablok regression: scatter diagram and regression line of P. vivax parasitemia defined by microscopy and parasitemia ... Additional file 1 of Vivax malaria in Duffy-negative patients shows invariably low asexual parasitaemia: implication towards ...
... because of the use of a log scale for parasitaemia, negative smears are shown as 0.0001% parasitaemia). Both monkeys became ... Determination of parasitaemia via light microscopy. Thick and thin film smears were prepared with 5 µL of packed red blood ... Parasitaemia was monitored through Giemsa-stained thin smears. Female An. stephensi mosquitoes were fed with infected monkey ... Briefly, 50 µL of the P. cynomolgi culture were dispensed manually into the 384-well plate at both final parasitaemia of 0.5% ( ...
In the rapid method for testing in vivo T. cruzi susceptibility, DFO also induced lower parasitemia. In regard to its direct ... TRYPANOSOMA CRUZI: DESFERRIOXAMINE DECREASES MORTALITY AND PARASITEMIA IN INFECTED MICE THROUGH A TRYPANOSTATIC EFFECT. Arantes ... Trypanosoma cruzi: Desferrioxamine decreases mortality and parasitemia in infected mice through a trypanostatic effect. Exp ... presented lower parasitemia and lower cumulative mortality rate. No significant effect was observed on iron metabolism markers ...
Conclusions In this meta-analysis, we found a high risk of P. vivax parasitaemia after treatment of P. falciparum malaria that ... At day 42, the cumulative risk of vivax parasitaemia following treatment of P. falciparum was 31.1% (95% CI 28.9-33.4) after AL ... In multivariable analyses, the highest rate of P. vivax parasitaemia over 42 days of follow-up was in patients residing in ... The risk of P. vivax parasitaemia at days 42 and 63 and associated risk factors were investigated by multivariable Cox ...
Infection probability and parasitaemia both increased with host age, and parasitaemia was higher in individuals investing more ... Both infection status and parasitaemia showed marked temporal and spatial variation within this population. However, ... Although infection status and parasitaemia were somewhat repeatable within individuals, infections were clearly dynamic: patent ... Molecular epidemiology of malaria prevalence and parasitaemia in a wild bird population ...
The host response may reach full strength at lower parasitemia in Plasmodium vivax or ovale, than in P. falciparum malaria. ... Objective and methods: Fever tends to start at a lower level of parasitemia in Plasmodium vivax or ovale than in P. falciparum ... Conclusion: The host response may reach full strength at lower parasitemia in Plasmodium vivax or ovale, than in P. falciparum ... Results: In both types of malaria, parasitemia correlated with blood levels of tumour necrosis factor alpha (TNF-alpha), ...
Why did the parasitemia rise 26, 30 and 34 days after challenge? Between the inoculation and the time of rise in parasitemia, ... a-c Time course of parasitemia after challenge with 104 Pf FVO strain infected RBCs for animals in the control, adjuvant only ( ... Parasitemia was measured everyday on thin smears (Fig. 1a-c) and hematocrit was followed every other day (Supplementary Fig. S ... Parasitemia was measured by daily thin-film blood smears and hematocrit measurements were conducted on alternate days. Animals ...
... at the same time points of the parasitemia peaks. In animals infected with Be-78 (parasitemia peak: 28 days), the reduction in ... Our results showed that the parasitemia peak was correlated with the erythrocyte count (r = -0.645, p = 0.011) (Figure 2a), ... No correlations were observed between parasitemia and the erythrocyte sedimentation rate (r = 0.269, p = 0.198) (Figure 2d), ... The parasitemia was monitored daily from the fifth day of infection until 50 days after infection, as described by Brener (1965 ...
The A581G mutation was associated with ≥ 3 SP doses evident only among sub-microscopic parasitaemia (P = 0.027) and ... Microscopic and sub-microscopic parasitaemia were diagnosed using peripheral blood microscopy and nested polymerase chain ... This study assessed the occurrence of microscopic and sub-microscopic P. falciparum parasitaemia, dihydropteroate synthase ... Sub-microscopic Plasmodium falciparum parasitaemia, dihydropteroate synthase (dhps) resistance mutations to sulfadoxine- ...
b Elimination of parasitemia with no recurrent parasitemia during follow‑up for 28 days.. c Patients hospitalized only for ... A response of RI resistance (elimination of parasitemia but with recurrent parasitemia between 7 and 28 days after starting ... An adequate clinical response (elimination of parasitemia with no recurrent parasitemia during follow‑up for 28 days) was ... Among 156 evaluable patients, the parasitological cure rate (elimination of parasitemia with no recurrent parasitemia during ...
Blood parasitaemia in a high latitude flexible breeder, the white-winged crossbill, Loxia leucoptera: Contribution of seasonal ... Blood parasitaemia in a high latitude flexible breeder, the white-winged crossbill, Loxia leucoptera: Contribution of seasonal ... Deviche P, Fokidis HB, Lerbour B, Greiner E. Blood parasitaemia in a high latitude flexible breeder, the white-winged crossbill ... title = "Blood parasitaemia in a high latitude flexible breeder, the white-winged crossbill, Loxia leucoptera: Contribution of ...
Tyler, K. M., Higgs, P. G., Matthews, K. R., & Gull, K. (2001). Limitation of Trypanosoma brucei parasitaemia results from a ... Tyler KM, Higgs PG, Matthews KR, Gull K. Limitation of Trypanosoma brucei parasitaemia results from a combination of density- ... Tyler, KM, Higgs, PG, Matthews, KR & Gull, K 2001, Limitation of Trypanosoma brucei parasitaemia results from a combination of ... T1 - Limitation of Trypanosoma brucei parasitaemia results from a combination of density-dependent parasite differentiation and ...
M. Kokori, J. M. Turaki, "Eosinophilic Responses to the Parasitaemia of Plasmodium Falciparum Treated Malaria In Children, Lake ... The effect of parasitaemia on eosinophils was generally low for both drugs which ranged from 7.12 % for AT+SP to 12.07 % for AQ ... Keywords: Eosinophils, Parasitaemia, Plasmodium falciparum, Artesunate, Amodiaquine, Lake-Alau. Edition: Volume 5 Issue 9, ... Body Temperature Trends and Fever Risk in the Parasitaemia of Plasmodium Falciparum Treated Children at Lake-Alau, Borno State ...
Plasmodium falciparum parasitaemia in the first half of pregnancy, uterine and umbilical artery blood flow, and foetal growth: ... Early pregnancy malaria parasitaemia affects uterine and umbilical artery blood flow, possibly due to alterations in ... The objective of this analysis was to examine the effect of malaria parasitaemia prior to 20 weeks gestation on subsequent ... Linear mixed effect models estimated the effect of early pregnancy malaria parasitaemia on uterine and umbilical artery ...
Capsazepine treatment did not affect parasitaemia. Overall, TRPV1 antagonism modulates the innate immune response to malaria. ... Capsazepine Does Not Affect Parasitaemia. Figure 1 shows parasitaemia levels up to day 7 after infection, in mice treated with ... Parasitaemia progressively increased in both groups. Repeated treatment with capsazepine had no effect on parasitaemia. ... Effect of capsazepine on parasitaemia levels. Parasitaemia was measured daily, from day 5 to day 7 after infection in blood ...
Epistatic Interactions between apolipoprotein E and hemoglobin S Genes in regulation of malaria parasitemia.. Rougeron V, Woods ...
Categories: Parasitemia Image Types: Photo, Illustrations, Video, Color, Black&White, PublicDomain, CopyrightRestricted 3 ...
... challenged mice was unrelated to TNF-mediated parasitemia control. The improved parasitemia control did also not coincide with ... A) Parasitemia in DTPa-vaccinated and non-vaccinated mice was recorded at 2- to 3-day intervals during the first two weeks of ... A) Parasitemia in DTPa-vaccinated and non-vaccinated mice was recorded at 2- to 3-day intervals during the first two weeks of ... During the execution of the experimental setup outlined above, the parasitemia development of T. b. brucei AnTat 1.1, as well ...
Asymptomatic parasitemia may occur among immune persons. Laboratory criteria for diagnosis * Demonstration of malaria parasites ... Relapsing: renewed manifestation (of clinical symptoms and/or parasitemia) of malarial infection that is separated from ...
Parasitemia 07/05/1986 - "[Plasmodium falciparum malaria attacks with low or negative parasitemia on returning from areas of ... 07/05/1986 - "[Plasmodium falciparum malaria attacks with low or negative parasitemia on returning from areas of endemic ...
Parasitemia often increases dramatically in late April and early May (called spring rise), just before arthropod vectors, black ... Treatment may reduce parasitemia but does not eliminate the parasite. Preventive medication and limiting insect vectors help ... Acute disease is seen more often in the young with high parasitemia and when black flies or biting midges are most abundant. ... Subacute or chronic disease is seen in the young outside fly season and in older birds at any season; parasitemia is usually ...
School parasitemia survey. The findings from the school-based parasitemia survey are summarized in Table 1. Overall, 366 ... Table 1 Major characteristics of the school-based parasitemia surveys from 6 communities in western Tajikistan, September 2007 ... It consists of a literature review; collection of health statistics; risk mapping; school parasitemia surveys; health facility- ... A limitation of the rapid appraisal methodology was related to the school-based malaria parasitemia survey. Malariological ...
  • Effect of Plasmodium falciparum parasitemia density on hemoglobin concentrations among full-term, normal birth weight children in western Kenya, IV. (ajtmh.org)
  • Background There is a high risk of Plasmodium vivax parasitaemia following treatment of falciparum malaria. (ox.ac.uk)
  • Fever tends to start at a lower level of parasitemia in Plasmodium vivax or ovale than in P. falciparum malaria, but hyperparasitemia and complications are more likely to occur in P. falciparum malaria. (nih.gov)
  • The host response may reach full strength at lower parasitemia in Plasmodium vivax or ovale, than in P. falciparum malaria. (nih.gov)
  • Sub-microscopic Plasmodium falciparum parasitaemia, dihydropteroate synthase (dhps) resistance mutations to sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine, transmission intensity and risk of malaria infection in pregnancy in Mount Cameroon Region. (bvsalud.org)
  • Plasmodium falciparum parasitaemia in the first half of pregnancy, uterine and umbilical artery blood flow, and foetal growth: a longitudinal Doppler ultrasound study. (espkinshasa.net)
  • Short report: Positive correlation between rosetting and parasitemia in Plasmodium falciparum clinical isolates. (kemri-wellcome.org)
  • Thomas, Bolaji N. "Genetic Diversity of CD14 Promoter Gene Polymorphism (rs2569190) is Associated With Regulation of Malaria Parasitemia and Susceptibility to Plasmodium falciparum Infection. (rit.edu)
  • A thick smear allows medical laboratory technologists to identify even low levels of parasitemia. (bcmj.org)
  • this inability results in higher levels of parasitemia, eventually leading to hypoxemia and subsequent risk of cardiopulmonary arrest. (medscape.com)
  • Summarized statistics of the regression equations (weighted least-squares regression) tested as the best-fitting regression model between P. vivax parasitemia estimated by microscopy and qPCR Ct values. (figshare.com)
  • Passing-Bablok regression: scatter diagram and regression line of P. vivax parasitemia defined by microscopy and parasitemia deduced from qPCR Ct values. (figshare.com)
  • Distribution of the P. vivax parasitemia deduced from qPCR Ct values. (figshare.com)
  • The median (range) P. vivax asexual parasitemia of the 138 infected study participants was 4804 (38-26,278) parasites/µL. (figshare.com)
  • The risk of P. vivax parasitaemia at days 42 and 63 and associated risk factors were investigated by multivariable Cox regression analyses. (ox.ac.uk)
  • At day 42, the cumulative risk of vivax parasitaemia following treatment of P. falciparum was 31.1% (95% CI 28.9-33.4) after AL, 14.1% (95% CI 10.8-18.3) after AA, 7.4% (95% CI 6.7-8.1) after AM, and 4.5% (95% CI 3.9-5.3) after DP. (ox.ac.uk)
  • Conclusions In this meta-analysis, we found a high risk of P. vivax parasitaemia after treatment of P. falciparum malaria that varied significantly between studies. (ox.ac.uk)
  • Therefore, we compared the relationship between parasitemia and host response parameters before therapy in 97 patients with P. faciparum malaria (18 with complications), and 28 with P. vivax or ovale malaria. (nih.gov)
  • In both types of malaria, parasitemia correlated with blood levels of tumour necrosis factor alpha (TNF-alpha), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), Thrombin-antithrombin III (TAT) and elastase, and these parameters were higher in P. falciparum malaria than in P. vivax or ovale malaria. (nih.gov)
  • Trypanosoma cruzi: Desferrioxamine decreases mortality and parasitemia in infected mice through a trypanostatic effect. (fiocruz.br)
  • Human Trypanosoma cruzi chronic infection leads to individual level steady-state parasitemia: Implications for drug-trial optimization in Chagas disease. (harvard.edu)
  • In order to establish the course of infection, virulence and pathogenicity, a Paraguayan Trypanosoma cruzi strain isolated from a 12 year old patient in 1989, Balb/c mice were inoculated, and the number of parasites were determined by direct parasitemia (micromethod). (bvsalud.org)
  • Three Cabus apella monkeys were infected with 3.5 x 10 sobre 5 cells of Trypanosoma cruzi Y strian in order to evaluate the parasitemia and to study the behavior of the parasites in the mammalian host for a one-year period. (bvsalud.org)
  • Microscopic and sub-microscopic parasitaemia were diagnosed using peripheral blood microscopy and nested polymerase chain reaction ( PCR ) respectively. (bvsalud.org)
  • Infected animals treated with DFO (5 mg/animal/day) for 35 days, beginning 14 days prior to infection, presented lower parasitemia and lower cumulative mortality rate. (fiocruz.br)
  • Field studies of these parasites commonly use two traits in hypothesis testing: infection status (or prevalence at the population level) and parasitaemia, yet the causes of variation in these traits remain poorly understood. (glos.ac.uk)
  • Here, we use quantitative PCR to investigate fine-scale environmental and host predictors of malaria infection status and parasitaemia in a large 4-year data set from a well-characterized population of blue tits (Cyanistes caeruleus). (glos.ac.uk)
  • Both infection status and parasitaemia showed marked temporal and spatial variation within this population. (glos.ac.uk)
  • Infection probability and parasitaemia both increased with host age, and parasitaemia was higher in individuals investing more in reproduction (those with larger clutch sizes). (glos.ac.uk)
  • Although infection status and parasitaemia were somewhat repeatable within individuals, infections were clearly dynamic: patent infections frequently disappeared from the bloodstream, with up to 26% being lost between years, and parasitaemia also fluctuated within individuals across years in a pattern that mirrored annual population-level changes. (glos.ac.uk)
  • Also,we describe hematological alterations and clinical signs that were positively correlated with the parasitemia during the experimental infection with the three strains of T.cruzi, and demonstrate that experimental infection of Beagle is a trustworthy model for Chagas disease. (scielo.br)
  • Objective: This study aimed to investigate the variation of ESR in malarial infection and find out the variation of ESR in related to the degree of parasitemia. (researchgate.net)
  • However, in contrast to the situation in Africa, where only 1 parasitemia-causing Mansonella parasite occurs, reports of M. perstans in South America have been limited to equatorial rainforest regions, where other Mansonella parasitemia-causing parasites also commonly occur ( 1 - 4 ). (cdc.gov)
  • Treatment may reduce parasitemia but does not eliminate the parasite. (merckvetmanual.com)
  • In the rapid method for testing in vivo T. cruzi susceptibility, DFO also induced lower parasitemia. (fiocruz.br)
  • Chemoprophylaxis has been shown to reduce the risk of severe anemia, placental parasitemia, and low-birth weight Footnote 19 Footnote 20 Footnote 21 . (canada.ca)
  • The objective of this analysis was to examine the effect of malaria parasitaemia prior to 20 weeks' gestation on subsequent changes in uterine and umbilical artery blood flow and intrauterine growth restriction. (espkinshasa.net)
  • Multivariate regression analysis confirmed that parasitemia did not affect these differences. (nih.gov)
  • Therefore, microscopy-based Mansonella parasitemia diagnoses in Latin America can be regarded as more prone to error than those made in Africa ( 1 - 6 ). (cdc.gov)
  • Determination of parasitemia can be done using both thick and thin smears. (cdc.gov)
  • To confirm that Beagle dogs are a good experimental model for Chagas disease, we evaluated hematological alterations during the acute and chronic phases in Beagle dogs infected with the Y, Berenice-78 (Be-78) and ABC strains of Trypanosomacruzi, correlating clinical signs with the parasitemia curve. (scielo.br)
  • Para confirmar que cães Beagle são um bom modelo para doença de Chagas, foram avaliadas as alterações hematológicas durante as fases aguda e crônica em cães Beagle infectados com as cepas Y, Berenice-78 (Be-78) e ABC de Trypanosomacruzi, correlacionando os sinais clínicos com a curva de parasitemia. (scielo.br)
  • Ainda, foram descritas alterações hematológicas e sinais clínicos positivamente correlacionados com a parasitemia durante a infecção experimental com as três cepas de T.cruzi estudadas, demonstrando que a infecção em cães Beagle constitui um modelo fidedigno para a doença de Chagas. (scielo.br)
  • An estimated 114 million persons are infected with M. perstans parasites in Africa alone, and M. perstans parasitemias have also been repeatedly reported to occur in continental South America ( 1 , 2 ). (cdc.gov)
  • This study assessed the occurrence of microscopic and sub-microscopic P. falciparum parasitaemia, dihydropteroate synthase mutations associated with resistance to SP and maternal anaemia in the Mount Cameroon area. (bvsalud.org)
  • Linear mixed effect models estimated the effect of early pregnancy malaria parasitaemia on uterine and umbilical artery resistance indices. (espkinshasa.net)
  • There were differential effects of early pregnancy malaria parasitaemia on uterine artery resistance by nutritional status, with decreased uterine artery resistance among nourished women with early pregnancy malaria and increased uterine artery resistance among undernourished women with early pregnancy malaria. (espkinshasa.net)
  • Among primigravidae, early pregnancy malaria parasitaemia decreased umbilical artery resistance in the late third trimester, likely reflecting adaptive villous angiogenesis. (espkinshasa.net)
  • Among primigravidae, early pregnancy malaria parasitaemia increases the risk of intrauterine growth restriction. (espkinshasa.net)
  • Parasitemia often increases dramatically in late April and early May (called spring rise), just before arthropod vectors, black flies ( Simulium spp), or biting midges ( Culicoides spp) increase. (merckvetmanual.com)
  • Systematic measurement of parasitemia is important in many phases of the assessment of disease, such as in diagnosis and in the follow-up of therapy, particularly in the chronic phase, when cure depends on ascertaining a parasitemia of zero. (wikipedia.org)
  • The methods to be used for quantifying parasitemia depends on the parasitic species and its life cycle. (wikipedia.org)
  • Confirmation of the diagnosis depends on the degree of parasitemia and the expertise and experience of laboratory personnel. (medscape.com)
  • For instance, in malaria, the number of blood-stage parasites can be counted using an optical microscope, on a special thick film (for low parasitemias) or thin film blood smear (for high parasitemias). (wikipedia.org)
  • Acute disease is seen more often in the young with high parasitemia and when black flies or biting midges are most abundant. (merckvetmanual.com)
  • The level of parasitemia is relatively high, particularly in the first stage of disease, and trypanosomes can be found in blood. (cdc.gov)
  • Treatment rapidly cleared parasitemia and fever. (bvsalud.org)
  • The use of molecular biology techniques, such as PCR has been used increasingly as a tool to measure parasitemia, especially in patients in the chronic phase of disease. (wikipedia.org)
  • If used in patients who are vomiting, parasitemia should be closely monitored and the use of an antiemetic considered. (nih.gov)
  • The effect of parasitaemia on eosinophils was generally low for both drugs which ranged from 7.12 % for AT+SP to 12.07 % for AQ+SP patients. (ijsr.net)
  • Organización molecular del complejo II y su rol en la anaerobiosis. (bvsalud.org)
  • Log-binomial models with generalized estimating equations estimated the effect of early pregnancy malaria parasitaemia on the risk of intrauterine growth restriction. (espkinshasa.net)
  • In fully adjusted models, primigravidae with early pregnancy malaria parasitaemia had 3.6 times the risk of subsequent intrauterine growth restriction (95% CI: 2.1, 6.2) compared to the referent group of multigravidae with no early pregnancy malaria parasitaemia. (espkinshasa.net)
  • Capsazepine treatment did not affect parasitaemia. (hindawi.com)
  • Subjects in all treatment groups tolerated the therapies well without untoward events and cleared parasitemia within three days. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Parasitemia is the quantitative content of parasites in the blood. (wikipedia.org)
  • Symptoms are related to the degree of red blood cell (RBC) parasitemia. (medscape.com)
  • However, spatiotemporal patterns of prevalence and parasitaemia were non-parallel, suggesting that different biological processes underpin variation in these two traits at this scale. (glos.ac.uk)