The presence of parasites (especially malarial parasites) in the blood. (Dorland, 27th ed)
A protozoan disease caused in humans by four species of the PLASMODIUM genus: PLASMODIUM FALCIPARUM; PLASMODIUM VIVAX; PLASMODIUM OVALE; and PLASMODIUM MALARIAE; and transmitted by the bite of an infected female mosquito of the genus ANOPHELES. Malaria is endemic in parts of Asia, Africa, Central and South America, Oceania, and certain Caribbean islands. It is characterized by extreme exhaustion associated with paroxysms of high FEVER; SWEATING; shaking CHILLS; and ANEMIA. Malaria in ANIMALS is caused by other species of plasmodia.
Malaria caused by PLASMODIUM FALCIPARUM. This is the severest form of malaria and is associated with the highest levels of parasites in the blood. This disease is characterized by irregularly recurring febrile paroxysms that in extreme cases occur with acute cerebral, renal, or gastrointestinal manifestations.
A species of protozoa that is the causal agent of falciparum malaria (MALARIA, FALCIPARUM). It is most prevalent in the tropics and subtropics.
Infection with the protozoan parasite TRYPANOSOMA CRUZI, a form of TRYPANOSOMIASIS endemic in Central and South America. It is named after the Brazilian physician Carlos Chagas, who discovered the parasite. Infection by the parasite (positive serologic result only) is distinguished from the clinical manifestations that develop years later, such as destruction of PARASYMPATHETIC GANGLIA; CHAGAS CARDIOMYOPATHY; and dysfunction of the ESOPHAGUS or COLON.
A protozoan parasite of rodents transmitted by the mosquito Anopheles stephensi.
The agent of South American trypanosomiasis or CHAGAS DISEASE. Its vertebrate hosts are man and various domestic and wild animals. Insects of several species are vectors.
Infection with protozoa of the genus TRYPANOSOMA.
Agents used in the treatment of malaria. They are usually classified on the basis of their action against plasmodia at different stages in their life cycle in the human. (From AMA, Drug Evaluations Annual, 1992, p1585)
A group of tick-borne diseases of mammals including ZOONOSES in humans. They are caused by protozoa of the genus BABESIA, which parasitize erythrocytes, producing hemolysis. In the U.S., the organism's natural host is mice and transmission is by the deer tick IXODES SCAPULARIS.
A protozoan parasite of rodents transmitted by the mosquito Anopheles dureni.
A genus of protozoa that comprise the malaria parasites of mammals. Four species infect humans (although occasional infections with primate malarias may occur). These are PLASMODIUM FALCIPARUM; PLASMODIUM MALARIAE; PLASMODIUM OVALE, and PLASMODIUM VIVAX. Species causing infection in vertebrates other than man include: PLASMODIUM BERGHEI; PLASMODIUM CHABAUDI; P. vinckei, and PLASMODIUM YOELII in rodents; P. brasilianum, PLASMODIUM CYNOMOLGI; and PLASMODIUM KNOWLESI in monkeys; and PLASMODIUM GALLINACEUM in chickens.
Malaria caused by PLASMODIUM VIVAX. This form of malaria is less severe than MALARIA, FALCIPARUM, but there is a higher probability for relapses to occur. Febrile paroxysms often occur every other day.
The co-occurrence of pregnancy and parasitic diseases. The parasitic infection may precede or follow FERTILIZATION.
Immunoglobulins produced in a response to PROTOZOAN ANTIGENS.
A species of PLASMODIUM causing malaria in rodents.
A protozoan parasite that causes vivax malaria (MALARIA, VIVAX). This species is found almost everywhere malaria is endemic and is the only one that has a range extending into the temperate regions.
A genus of tick-borne protozoan parasites that infests the red blood cells of mammals, including humans. There are many recognized species, and the distribution is world-wide.
A species of protozoa infecting humans via the intermediate tick vector IXODES scapularis. The other hosts are the mouse PEROMYSCUS leucopus and meadow vole MICROTUS pennsylvanicus, which are fed on by the tick. Other primates can be experimentally infected with Babesia microti.
A disease endemic among people and animals in Central Africa. It is caused by various species of trypanosomes, particularly T. gambiense and T. rhodesiense. Its second host is the TSETSE FLY. Involvement of the central nervous system produces "African sleeping sickness." Nagana is a rapidly fatal trypanosomiasis of horses and other animals.
A species of Trypanosome hemoflagellates that is carried by tsetse flies and causes severe anemia in cattle. These parasites are also found in horses, sheep, goats, and camels.
A condition characterized by somnolence or coma in the presence of an acute infection with PLASMODIUM FALCIPARUM (and rarely other Plasmodium species). Initial clinical manifestations include HEADACHES; SEIZURES; and alterations of mentation followed by a rapid progression to COMA. Pathologic features include cerebral capillaries filled with parasitized erythrocytes and multiple small foci of cortical and subcortical necrosis. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p136)
Any part or derivative of any protozoan that elicits immunity; malaria (Plasmodium) and trypanosome antigens are presently the most frequently encountered.
A reduction in the number of circulating ERYTHROCYTES or in the quantity of HEMOGLOBIN.
A group of SESQUITERPENES and their analogs that contain a peroxide group (PEROXIDES) within an oxepin ring (OXEPINS).
Red blood cells. Mature erythrocytes are non-nucleated, biconcave disks containing HEMOGLOBIN whose function is to transport OXYGEN.
The prototypical antimalarial agent with a mechanism that is not well understood. It has also been used to treat rheumatoid arthritis, systemic lupus erythematosus, and in the systemic therapy of amebic liver abscesses.
A species in the family AOTIDAE, inhabiting the forested regions of Central and South America (from Panama to the Amazon). Vocalizations occur primarily at night when they are active, thus they are also known as Northern night monkeys.
A republic in eastern Africa, south of ETHIOPIA, west of SOMALIA with TANZANIA to its south, and coastline on the Indian Ocean. Its capital is Nairobi.
A protozoan parasite that occurs primarily in subtropical and temperate areas. It is the causal agent of quartan malaria. As the parasite grows it exhibits little ameboid activity.
Vaccines made from antigens arising from any of the four strains of Plasmodium which cause malaria in humans, or from P. berghei which causes malaria in rodents.
A genus of flagellate protozoans found in the blood and lymph of vertebrates and invertebrates, both hosts being required to complete the life cycle.
One of the FOLIC ACID ANTAGONISTS that is used as an antimalarial or with a sulfonamide to treat toxoplasmosis.
A country consisting of the eastern half of the island of New Guinea and adjacent islands, including New Britain, New Ireland, the Admiralty Islands, and New Hanover in the Bismarck Archipelago; Bougainville and Buka in the northern Solomon Islands; the D'Entrecasteaux and Trobriand Islands; Woodlark (Murua) Island; and the Louisiade Archipelago. It became independent on September 16, 1975. Formerly, the southern part was the Australian Territory of Papua, and the northern part was the UN Trust Territory of New Guinea, administered by Australia. They were administratively merged in 1949 and named Papua and New Guinea, and renamed Papua New Guinea in 1971.
A long acting sulfonamide that is used, usually in combination with other drugs, for respiratory, urinary tract, and malarial infections.
Proteins found in any species of protozoan.
A republic in southern Africa east of ZAMBIA and MOZAMBIQUE. Its capital is Lilongwe. It was formerly called Nyasaland.
A protozoan parasite that occurs naturally in the macaque. It is similar to PLASMODIUM VIVAX and produces a type of malaria similar to vivax malaria (MALARIA, VIVAX). This species has been found to give rise to both natural and experimental human infections.
A family of the New World monkeys inhabiting the forests of South and Central America. There is a single genus and several species occurring in this family, including AOTUS TRIVIRGATUS (Northern night monkeys).
A trypanosome found in the blood of adult rats and transmitted by the rat flea. It is generally non-pathogenic in adult rats but can cause lethal infection in suckling rats.
A surface protein found on Plasmodium species which induces a T-cell response. The antigen is polymorphic, sharing amino acid sequence homology among PLASMODIUM FALCIPARUM; PLASMODIUM CHABAUDI; PLASMODIUM VIVAX; and PLASMODIUM YOELII.
Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of protozoa.
Single preparations containing two or more active agents, for the purpose of their concurrent administration as a fixed dose mixture.
Agents destructive to the protozoal organisms belonging to the suborder TRYPANOSOMATINA.
A republic in west equatorial Africa, south of CAMEROON and west of the CONGO. Its capital is Libreville.
Infection in cattle caused by various species of trypanosomes.
A family of diphenylenemethane derivatives.
An active blood parasite that is present in practically all domestic animals in Africa, the West Indies, and parts of Central and South America. In Africa, the insect vector is the tsetse fly. In other countries, infection is by mechanical means indicating that the parasites have been introduced to these countries and have been able to maintain themselves in spite of the lack of a suitable intermediate host. It is a cause of nagana, the severity of which depends on the species affected.
The number of pregnancies, complete or incomplete, experienced by a female. It is different from PARITY, which is the number of offspring borne. (From Stedman, 26th ed)
Measure of the number of the PARASITES present in a host organism.
A phospholipid-interacting antimalarial drug (ANTIMALARIALS). It is very effective against PLASMODIUM FALCIPARUM with very few side effects.
An alkaloid derived from the bark of the cinchona tree. It is used as an antimalarial drug, and is the active ingredient in extracts of the cinchona that have been used for that purpose since before 1633. Quinine is also a mild antipyretic and analgesic and has been used in common cold preparations for that purpose. It was used commonly and as a bitter and flavoring agent, and is still useful for the treatment of babesiosis. Quinine is also useful in some muscular disorders, especially nocturnal leg cramps and myotonia congenita, because of its direct effects on muscle membrane and sodium channels. The mechanisms of its antimalarial effects are not well understood.
A disease of the CARDIAC MUSCLE developed subsequent to the initial protozoan infection by TRYPANOSOMA CRUZI. After infection, less than 10% develop acute illness such as MYOCARDITIS (mostly in children). The disease then enters a latent phase without clinical symptoms until about 20 years later. Myocardial symptoms of advanced CHAGAS DISEASE include conduction defects (HEART BLOCK) and CARDIOMEGALY.
A hydroxynaphthoquinone that has antimicrobial activity and is being used in antimalarial protocols.
An effective trypanocidal agent.
A republic stretching from the Indian Ocean east to New Guinea, comprising six main islands: Java, Sumatra, Bali, Kalimantan (the Indonesian portion of the island of Borneo), Sulawesi (formerly known as the Celebes) and Irian Jaya (the western part of New Guinea). Its capital is Djakarta. The ethnic groups living there are largely Chinese, Arab, Eurasian, Indian, and Pakistani; 85% of the peoples are of the Islamic faith.
A biguanide compound which metabolizes in the body to form cycloguanil, an anti-malaria agent.
Infections of the central nervous system caused by TREPONEMA PALLIDUM which present with a variety of clinical syndromes. The initial phase of infection usually causes a mild or asymptomatic meningeal reaction. The meningovascular form may present acutely as BRAIN INFARCTION. The infection may also remain subclinical for several years. Late syndromes include general paresis; TABES DORSALIS; meningeal syphilis; syphilitic OPTIC ATROPHY; and spinal syphilis. General paresis is characterized by progressive DEMENTIA; DYSARTHRIA; TREMOR; MYOCLONUS; SEIZURES; and Argyll-Robertson pupils. (Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp722-8)
The study of parasites and PARASITIC DISEASES.
A country in western Africa, east of MAURITANIA and south of ALGERIA. Its capital is Bamako. From 1904-1920 it was known as Upper Senegal-Niger; prior to 1958, as French Sudan; 1958-1960 as the Sudanese Republic and 1959-1960 it joined Senegal in the Mali Federation. It became an independent republic in 1960.
The product of meiotic division of zygotes in parasitic protozoa comprising haploid cells. These infective cells invade the host and undergo asexual reproduction producing MEROZOITES (or other forms) and ultimately gametocytes.
The oxygen-carrying proteins of ERYTHROCYTES. They are found in all vertebrates and some invertebrates. The number of globin subunits in the hemoglobin quaternary structure differs between species. Structures range from monomeric to a variety of multimeric arrangements.
An abnormal elevation of body temperature, usually as a result of a pathologic process.
A plant genus of the family SIMAROUBACEAE. Members contain quassinoids. There is Malaysian folk use of these plants for male virility.
Tests that demonstrate the relative effectiveness of chemotherapeutic agents against specific parasites.
The number of RED BLOOD CELLS per unit volume in a sample of venous BLOOD.
A species of protozoan parasite causing MALARIA. It is the rarest of the four species of PLASMODIUM infecting humans, but is common in West African countries and neighboring areas.
Suspensions of attenuated or killed protozoa administered for the prevention or treatment of infectious protozoan disease.
The constant presence of diseases or infectious agents within a given geographic area or population group. It may also refer to the usual prevalence of a given disease with such area or group. It includes holoendemic and hyperendemic diseases. A holoendemic disease is one for which a high prevalent level of infection begins early in life and affects most of the child population, leading to a state of equilibrium such that the adult population shows evidence of the disease much less commonly than do children (malaria in many communities is a holoendemic disease). A hyperendemic disease is one that is constantly present at a high incidence and/or prevalence rate and affects all groups equally. (Last, A Dictionary of Epidemiology, 3d ed, p53, 78, 80)
The use of instrumentation and techniques for visualizing material and details that cannot be seen by the unaided eye. It is usually done by enlarging images, transmitted by light or electron beams, with optical or magnetic lenses that magnify the entire image field. With scanning microscopy, images are generated by collecting output from the specimen in a point-by-point fashion, on a magnified scale, as it is scanned by a narrow beam of light or electrons, a laser, a conductive probe, or a topographical probe.
A genus of mosquitoes (CULICIDAE) that are known vectors of MALARIA.
An encapsulated lymphatic organ through which venous blood filters.
Pathological processes or abnormal functions of the PLACENTA.
An order of parasitic protozoa found in blood cells and epithelial cells of vertebrates and invertebrates. Life cycles involve both sexual and asexual phases.
The condition of being heterozygous for hemoglobin S.
A hemoflagellate subspecies of parasitic protozoa that causes nagana in domestic and game animals in Africa. It apparently does not infect humans. It is transmitted by bites of tsetse flies (Glossina).
Diminished or failed response of an organism, disease or tissue to the intended effectiveness of a chemical or drug. It should be differentiated from DRUG TOLERANCE which is the progressive diminution of the susceptibility of a human or animal to the effects of a drug, as a result of continued administration.
Bites and stings inflicted by insects.
The status during which female mammals carry their developing young (EMBRYOS or FETUSES) in utero before birth, beginning from FERTILIZATION to BIRTH.
The volume of packed RED BLOOD CELLS in a blood specimen. The volume is measured by centrifugation in a tube with graduated markings, or with automated blood cell counters. It is an indicator of erythrocyte status in disease. For example, ANEMIA shows a low value; POLYCYTHEMIA, a high value.
A republic in eastern Africa, south of UGANDA and north of MOZAMBIQUE. Its capital is Dar es Salaam. It was formed in 1964 by a merger of the countries of TANGANYIKA and ZANZIBAR.
Surgical procedure involving either partial or entire removal of the spleen.
A republic in western Africa, south of BURKINA FASO and west of TOGO. Its capital is Accra.
The major interferon produced by mitogenically or antigenically stimulated LYMPHOCYTES. It is structurally different from TYPE I INTERFERON and its major activity is immunoregulation. It has been implicated in the expression of CLASS II HISTOCOMPATIBILITY ANTIGENS in cells that do not normally produce them, leading to AUTOIMMUNE DISEASES.
A republic in western Africa, south of NIGER and between TOGO and NIGERIA. Its capital is Porto-Novo. It was formerly called Dahomey. In the 17th century it was a kingdom in the southern area of Africa. Coastal footholds were established by the French who deposed the ruler by 1892. It was made a French colony in 1894 and gained independence in 1960. Benin comes from the name of the indigenous inhabitants, the Bini, now more closely linked with southern Nigeria (Benin City, a town there). Bini may be related to the Arabic bani, sons. (From Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p136, 310 & Room, Brewer's Dictionary of Names, 1992, p60)
A genus of tick-borne protozoa parasitic in the lymphocytes, erythrocytes, and endothelial cells of mammals. Its organisms multiply asexually and then invade erythrocytes, where they undergo no further reproduction until ingested by a transmitting tick.
The relationship between an invertebrate and another organism (the host), one of which lives at the expense of the other. Traditionally excluded from definition of parasites are pathogenic BACTERIA; FUNGI; VIRUSES; and PLANTS; though they may live parasitically.
A protozoan parasite from Southeast Asia that causes monkey malaria. It is naturally acquired by man in Malaysia and can also be transmitted experimentally to humans.
The body fluid that circulates in the vascular system (BLOOD VESSELS). Whole blood includes PLASMA and BLOOD CELLS.
Naturally occurring or experimentally induced animal diseases with pathological processes sufficiently similar to those of human diseases. They are used as study models for human diseases.
A republic in eastern Africa, south of SUDAN and west of KENYA. Its capital is Kampala.
In vitro method for producing large amounts of specific DNA or RNA fragments of defined length and sequence from small amounts of short oligonucleotide flanking sequences (primers). The essential steps include thermal denaturation of the double-stranded target molecules, annealing of the primers to their complementary sequences, and extension of the annealed primers by enzymatic synthesis with DNA polymerase. The reaction is efficient, specific, and extremely sensitive. Uses for the reaction include disease diagnosis, detection of difficult-to-isolate pathogens, mutation analysis, genetic testing, DNA sequencing, and analyzing evolutionary relationships.
AMINO ALCOHOLS containing the ETHANOLAMINE; (-NH2CH2CHOH) group and its derivatives.
Arthropods, other than insects and arachnids, which transmit infective organisms from one host to another or from an inanimate reservoir to an animate host.
Enlargement of the spleen.
A highly vascularized mammalian fetal-maternal organ and major site of transport of oxygen, nutrients, and fetal waste products. It includes a fetal portion (CHORIONIC VILLI) derived from TROPHOBLASTS and a maternal portion (DECIDUA) derived from the uterine ENDOMETRIUM. The placenta produces an array of steroid, protein and peptide hormones (PLACENTAL HORMONES).
A commonly occurring abnormal hemoglobin in which lysine replaces a glutamic acid residue at the sixth position of the beta chains. It results in reduced plasticity of erythrocytes.
A republic in western Africa, south of NIGER between BENIN and CAMEROON. Its capital is Abuja.
Substances that are destructive to protozoans.
The capacity of a normal organism to remain unaffected by microorganisms and their toxins. It results from the presence of naturally occurring ANTI-INFECTIVE AGENTS, constitutional factors such as BODY TEMPERATURE and immediate acting immune cells such as NATURAL KILLER CELLS.
The major immunoglobulin isotype class in normal human serum. There are several isotype subclasses of IgG, for example, IgG1, IgG2A, and IgG2B.
A republic in western Africa, south and east of MALI and west of NIGER. Its capital is Ouagadougou. It was formerly called Upper Volta until 1984.
A method for diagnosing a disease in one organism by inoculating the putative causative organism in a second animal of a different species. It has been used for the detection of parasites (Trypanosoma cruzi and Trichinella spiralis) when peripheral blood smears are negative. (Segen, Current Med Talk, 1995)
A republic of southeast Asia, northwest of Thailand, long familiar as Burma. Its capital is Yangon, formerly Rangoon. Inhabited by people of Mongolian stock and probably of Tibetan origin, by the 3d century A.D. it was settled by Hindus. The modern Burmese state was founded in the 18th century but was in conflict with the British during the 19th century. Made a crown colony of Great Britain in 1937, it was granted independence in 1947. In 1989 it became Myanmar. The name comes from myanma, meaning the strong, as applied to the Burmese people themselves. (From Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p192 & Room, Brewer's Dictionary of Names, 1992, p367)
Infection of cattle, sheep, or goats with protozoa of the genus THEILERIA. This infection results in an acute or chronic febrile condition.
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
Formerly known as Siam, this is a Southeast Asian nation at the center of the Indochina peninsula. Bangkok is the capital city.
A 4-aminoquinoline compound with anti-inflammatory properties.
An infant during the first month after birth.
A genus of the family CEBIDAE consisting of four species: S. boliviensis, S. orstedii (red-backed squirrel monkey), S. sciureus (common squirrel monkey), and S. ustus. They inhabit tropical rain forests in Central and South America. S. sciureus is used extensively in research studies.
A constitution or condition of the body which makes the tissues react in special ways to certain extrinsic stimuli and thus tends to make the individual more than usually susceptible to certain diseases.
Uninuclear cells or a stage in the life cycle of sporozoan protozoa. Merozoites, released from ruptured multinucleate SCHIZONTS, enter the blood stream and infect the ERYTHROCYTES.
The continuous sequence of changes undergone by living organisms during the post-embryonic developmental process, such as metamorphosis in insects and amphibians. This includes the developmental stages of apicomplexans such as the malarial parasite, PLASMODIUM FALCIPARUM.
Drugs used to treat or prevent parasitic infections.
Transfer of immunity from immunized to non-immune host by administration of serum antibodies, or transplantation of lymphocytes (ADOPTIVE TRANSFER).
An infant having a birth weight of 2500 gm. (5.5 lb.) or less but INFANT, VERY LOW BIRTH WEIGHT is available for infants having a birth weight of 1500 grams (3.3 lb.) or less.
Diseases of domestic and wild horses of the species Equus caballus.
Strains of mice in which certain GENES of their GENOMES have been disrupted, or "knocked-out". To produce knockouts, using RECOMBINANT DNA technology, the normal DNA sequence of the gene being studied is altered to prevent synthesis of a normal gene product. Cloned cells in which this DNA alteration is successful are then injected into mouse EMBRYOS to produce chimeric mice. The chimeric mice are then bred to yield a strain in which all the cells of the mouse contain the disrupted gene. Knockout mice are used as EXPERIMENTAL ANIMAL MODELS for diseases (DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL) and to clarify the functions of the genes.
The transmission of infectious disease or pathogens from one generation to another. It includes transmission in utero or intrapartum by exposure to blood and secretions, and postpartum exposure via breastfeeding.
Any of a group of infections of fowl caused by protozoa of the genera PLASMODIUM, Leucocytozoon, and Haemoproteus. The life cycles of these parasites and the disease produced bears strong resemblance to those observed in human malaria.
The return of a sign, symptom, or disease after a remission.
Therapy with two or more separate preparations given for a combined effect.

Malaria prophylaxis using azithromycin: a double-blind, placebo-controlled trial in Irian Jaya, Indonesia. (1/1555)

New drugs are needed for preventing drug-resistant Plasmodium falciparum malaria. The prophylactic efficacy of azithromycin against P. falciparum in malaria-immune Kenyans was 83%. We conducted a double-blind, placebo-controlled trial to determine the prophylactic efficacy of azithromycin against multidrug-resistant P. falciparum malaria and chloroquine-resistant Plasmodium vivax malaria in Indonesian adults with limited immunity. After radical cure therapy, 300 randomized subjects received azithromycin (148 subjects, 750-mg loading dose followed by 250 mg/d), placebo (77), or doxycycline (75, 100 mg/d). The end point was slide-proven parasitemia. There were 58 P. falciparum and 29 P. vivax prophylaxis failures over 20 weeks. Using incidence rates, the protective efficacy of azithromycin relative to placebo was 71.6% (95% confidence interval [CI], 50.3-83.8) against P. falciparum malaria and 98.9% (95% CI, 93.1-99.9) against P. vivax malaria. Corresponding figures for doxycycline were 96.3% (95% CI, 85.4-99.6) and 98% (95% CI, 88.0-99.9), respectively. Daily azithromycin offered excellent protection against P. vivax malaria but modest protection against P. falciparum malaria.  (+info)

gammadelta T cells contribute to control of chronic parasitemia in Plasmodium chabaudi infections in mice. (2/1555)

During a primary infection of mice with Plasmodium chabaudi, gammadelta T cells are stimulated and their expansion coincides with recovery from the acute phase of infection in normal mice or with chronic infections in B cell-deficient mice (mu-MT). To determine whether the large gammadelta T cell pool observed in female B cell-deficient mice is responsible for controlling the chronic infection, studies were done using double-knockout mice deficient in both B and gammadelta cells (mu-MT x delta-/-TCR) and in gammadelta T cell-depleted mu-MT mice. In both types of gammadelta T cell-deficient mice, the early parasitemia following the peak of infection was exacerbated, and the chronic parasitemia was maintained at significantly higher levels in the absence of gammadelta T cells. The majority of gammadelta T cells in C57BL/6 and mu-MT mice responding to infection belonged predominantly to a single family of gammadelta T cells with TCR composed of Vgamma2Vdelta4 chains and which produced IFN-gamma rather than IL-4.  (+info)

Host haematological factors influencing the transmission of Plasmodium falciparum gametocytes to Anopheles gambiae s.s. mosquitoes. (3/1555)

We investigated the relationship between selected host haematological and parasitological parameters and the density and infectivity of Plasmodium falciparum gametocytes. 143 individuals (age range 1-62 years) attending an outpatient clinic in Farafenni, The Gambia, who had peripheral blood gametocytaemia were recruited (mean gametocyte density 123.7/microl, range 5-17,000/microl). Of the parameters measured, packed cell volume (PCV), reticulocyte count (RetC) and lymphocyte count (LyC) were significantly associated with gametocyte density (r = - 0.17, P < 0.05; r = 0.21, P < 0.01; r = 0.18, P < 0.05, respectively). Data from membrane feeding experiments in which 15 or more mosquitoes were dissected showed that 60.7% (53/87) of gametocyte carriers infected one or more mosquitoes. Gametocyte density was strongly correlated with transmission success (TS) (r = 0.3, P < 0.005) and, in successful infections, with both mosquito prevalence (MP) (r = 0.36, P < 0.005) and mean oocyst burden (MOB) (r = 0.65, P < 0.0001). None of the other factors measured were significantly associated with any of these indices in bivariate analysis. Regression modelling showed that both gametocyte density and PCV were positively associated with gametocyte carrier infectivity to mosquitoes (LRchi2 = 100.7 and 47.2, respectively) and, in successful infections, with MOB (beta = 0.16, t = 4.9, P < 0.001; beta = 0.02, t = 2.3, P < 0.05, respectively). The positive association with PCV suggests that blood meal quality influences infection probably as a nutritional requirement, however, as this effect was most apparent at high gametocyte densities, its epidemiological significance is questionable. Though the haematological parameters associated with gametocyte density are a direct consequence of asexual infection, they may also represent an adaptive mechanism for optimization of sexual stage development.  (+info)

Gamma interferon production is critical for protective immunity to infection with blood-stage Plasmodium berghei XAT but neither NO production nor NK cell activation is critical. (4/1555)

We have examined the roles of gamma interferon (IFN-gamma), nitric oxide (NO), and natural killer (NK) cells in the host resistance to infection with the blood-stage malarial parasite Plasmodium berghei XAT, an irradiation-induced attenuated variant of the lethal strain P. berghei NK65. Although the infection with P. berghei XAT enhanced NK cell lytic activity of splenocytes, depletion of NK1.1(+) cells caused by the treatment of mice with anti-NK1.1 antibody affected neither parasitemia nor IFN-gamma production by their splenocytes. The P. berghei XAT infection induced a large amount of NO production by splenocytes during the first peak of parasitemia, while P. berghei NK65 infection induced a small amount. Unexpectedly, however, mice deficient in inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS-/-) cleared P. berghei XAT after two peaks of parasitemia were observed, as occurred for wild-type control mice. Although the infected iNOS-/- mouse splenocytes did not produce a detectable level of NO, they produced an amount of IFN-gamma comparable to that produced by wild-type control mouse splenocytes, and treatment of these mice with neutralizing anti-IFN-gamma antibody led to the progression of parasitemia and fatal outcome. CD4(-/-) mice infected with P. berghei XAT could not clear the parasite, and all these mice died with apparently reduced IFN-gamma production. Furthermore, treatment with carrageenan increased the susceptibility of mice to P. berghei XAT infection. These results suggest that neither NO production nor NK cell activation is critical for the resistance to P. berghei XAT infection and that IFN-gamma plays an important role in the elimination of malarial parasites, possibly by the enhancement of phagocytic activity of macrophages.  (+info)

Interference of natural mouse hepatitis virus infection with cytokine production and susceptibility to Trypanosoma cruzi. (5/1555)

Mouse hepatitis virus (MHV) infection can have a pronounced impact on several investigation areas. Reports on natural MHV outbreaks are rare and most studies have been conducted by deliberately infecting mice with MHV laboratory strains that cause moderate to severe disturbances to the immune system. We have investigated the effects of a natural acute outbreak of MHV in our otherwise specific-pathogen-free (SPF) inbred mouse colonies, and of enzootic chronic MHV infection on cytokine production and resistance to the intracellular pathogen Trypanosoma cruzi. We found that BALB/c and/or C57BL/6 SPF mice that had been injected with T. cruzi blood trypomastigotes from recently MHV-contaminated (MHV+) mice developed significantly higher parasite blood counts, accelerated death, and showed higher IL-10 production by spleen cells than their counterparts whose T. cruzi inoculum was derived from MHV-negative (MHV-) donors. Interferon-gamma (IFN-gamma) production by MHV+ and MHV- mice was not significantly different. In contrast, T. cruzi infection of chronically MHV-infected mice did not result in major changes in the course of infection when compared with that observed in mice from MHV- colonies, although a trend to higher parasitaemia levels was observed in BALB/c MHV+ mice. Nevertheless, both BALB/c and C57BL/6 T. cruzi-infected MHV+ mice had diminished IFN-gamma production to parasite-antigen stimulation in comparison with similarly infected MHV- mice. Interleukin-10 (IL-10) production levels by spleen cells did not differ between chronic MHV+ and MHV- mice, but IFN-gamma neutralization by monoclonal antibody treatment of anti-CD3-stimulated spleen cell cultures showed higher levels of IL-10 synthesis in MHV+ BALB/c mice.  (+info)

Modulation of experimental blood stage malaria through blockade of the B7/CD28 T-cell costimulatory pathway. (6/1555)

Recent studies have implicated cytokines associated with CD4+ T lymphocytes of both T helper (Th)1 and Th2 subsets in resistance to experimental blood stage malaria. As the B7/CD28 costimulatory pathway has been shown to influence the differentiation of Th cell subsets, we investigated the contribution of the B7 molecules CD80 and CD86 to Th1/Th2 cytokine and immunoglobulin isotype profiles and to the development of a protective immune response to malaria in NIH mice infected with Plasmodium chabaudi. Effective blockade of CD86/CD28 interaction was demonstrated by elimination of interleukin (IL)-4 and up-regulation of interferon (IFN)-gamma responses by P. chabaudi-specific T cells and by reduction of P. chabaudi-specific immunoglobulin G1 (IgG1). The shift towards a Th1 cytokine pattern corresponded with efficient control of acute parasitaemia but an inability to resolve chronic infection. Moreover, combined CD80/CD86 blockade by using anti-CD80 and anti-CD86 monoclonal antibodies raised IFN-gamma production over that seen with CD86 blockade alone, with augmentation of this Th1-associated cytokine reducing levels of peak primary parasitaemia. These results demonstrate that IL-4 production by T cells in P. chabaudi-infected NIH mice is dependent upon CD86/CD28 interaction and that IL-4 and IFN-gamma contribute significantly, at different times of infection, to host resistance to blood stage malaria. In addition, combined CD80/CD86 blockade resulted in preferential expansion of IFN-gamma-producing T cells during P. chabaudi infection, suggesting that costimulatory pathways other than B7/CD28 may contribute to T-cell activation during continuous antigen stimulation. This study indicates a role for B7/CD28 costimulation in modulating the CD4+ T-cell response during malaria, and further suggests involvement of this pathway in other infectious and autoimmune diseases in which the Th cell immune response is also skewed.  (+info)

Induction of the trypanosome lymphocyte-triggering factor (TLTF) and neutralizing antibodies to the TLTF in experimental african trypanosomiasis. (7/1555)

We have demonstrated that African trypanosomes secrete a novel trypanokine, the trypanosome-derived lymphocyte-triggering factor (TLTF), which activates CD8+ cells to produce interferon-gamma (IFN-gamma) that in turn stimulates parasite growth. The gene for TLTF was recently cloned, and recombinant TLTF (rTLTF) showed bioactivity that was similar to native TLTF. In this work, we employed two anti-TLTF monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) to detect levels of TLTF during Trypanosoma brucei brucei (T. b. brucei ) infections in mice. Furthermore, rTLTF was utilized to assess levels of anti-TLTF antibodies. Mice with intact genes (wild type), and knockout mice with disrupted IFN-gamma (IFN-gamma-/-) or IFN-gammaR (IFN-gammaR-/-) genes were studied. The knockout mice were used in order to illustrate the role of IFN-gamma in the production of antibodies to TLTF. While wild-type mice showed high parasitaemia accompanied by high TLTF levels and low anti-TLTF antibodies at day 3 postinfection (p.i.), low TLTF was measured together with increased anti-TLTF antibodies at day 21 p.i. IFN-gamma-/- mice exhibited very low parasitaemia, TLTF and anti-TLTF antibody levels. In contrast, IFN-gammaR-/- mice revealed very high parasitaemia, increased TLTF levels, but decreased anti-TLTF antibodies. In a biological assay for TLTF, Fab' fragments of anti-TLTF antibodies dose dependently inhibited the TLTF-induced IFN-gamma production by splenocytes, suggesting a regulatory importance of these antibodies. Our data demonstrate a role of IFN-gamma in the generation of neutralizing antibodies to TLTF. Furthermore, the induction of TLTF and its antibodies may constitute a new approach for future diagnosis of African trypanosomiasis.  (+info)

Occurrence of Leishmania infantum parasitemia in asymptomatic blood donors living in an area of endemicity in southern France. (8/1555)

Visceral leishmaniosis (VL) due to Leishmania infantum (L. chagasi) is a lethal disease if untreated, but asymptomatic L. infantum infections have been reported previously. A better understanding of parasite transmission, dissemination, and survival in the human host is needed. The purpose of this study was to assess whether L. infantum circulated in peripheral blood of subjects with no history of VL. Sera from 565 blood donors were screened by Western blotting to detect Leishmania-specific antibodies and identify individuals with probable past exposure to Leishmania. Seropositivity was found in 76 donors whose buffy coats were examined by PCR and direct culture. The parasite minicircle kinetoplast DNA was amplified from blood samples of nine donors. Promastigotes were detected by culture in blood samples from nine donors. Only two donors were PCR and culture positive. These results indicate that L. infantum circulates intermittently and at low density in the blood of healthy seropositive individuals, who thus appear to be asymptomatic carriers. Implications for the safety of blood transfusion are discussed.  (+info)

If participating in sexual activity that could lead to pregnancy, all study volunteers must agree to use two reliable forms of contraceptive simultaneously while receiving protocol-specified medications. One form of contraceptive must be a barrier method if a participant receives EFV. Participants must agree to continue the use of two contraceptives for 6 months after stopping EFV and 6 weeks after stopping all other protocol-specified medications.. Note: Female participants who are unable to meet the contraception requirements for EFV should be encouraged to consider NVP.. ...
If participating in sexual activity that could lead to pregnancy, all study volunteers must agree to use two reliable forms of contraceptive simultaneously while receiving protocol-specified medications. One form of contraceptive must be a barrier method if a participant receives EFV. Participants must agree to continue the use of two contraceptives for 6 months after stopping EFV and 6 weeks after stopping all other protocol-specified medications.. Note: Female participants who are unable to meet the contraception requirements for EFV should be encouraged to consider NVP.. ...
Parasitemia is the quantitative content of parasites in the blood.[1] It is used as a measurement of parasite load in the organism and an indication of the degree of an active parasitic infection. Systematic measurement of parasitemia is important in many phases of the assessment of disease, such as in diagnosis and in the follow-up of therapy, particularly in the chronic phase, when cure depends on ascertaining a parasitemia of zero. The methods to be used for quantifying parasitemia depends on the parasitic species and its life cycle. For instance, in malaria, the number of blood-stage parasites can be counted using an optical microscope, on a special thick film (for low parasitemias) or thin film blood smear (for high parasitemias). The use of molecular biology techniques, such as PCR has been used increasingly as a tool to measure parasitemia, especially in patients in the chronic phase of disease. In this technique, blood samples are obtained from the patient, and specific DNA of the ...
This website uses cookies to improve your experience while you navigate through the website. Out of these cookies, the cookies that are categorized as necessary are stored on your browser as they are essential for the working of basic functionalities of the website. We also use third-party cookies that help us analyze and understand how you use this website. These cookies will be stored in your browser only with your consent. You also have the option to opt-out of these cookies. But opting out of some of these cookies may have an effect on your browsing experience ...
Peripheral blood smears were examined for asymptomatic malaria parasitemia among 406 objectively healthy subjects in North Mara, Tanzania. A total of 33(8.1%) of subjects were found to have asymptomat
The association between malaria parasitemia, erythrocyte polymorphisms, malnutrition and anaemia in children less than 10 years in Senegal: a case control study ...
We found differences between the parasite clones that are consistent with previous studies (Mackinnon and Read 1999). Clone CW reached overall higher parasitemia (Table 1), but clone AS had its peak parasitemia earlier than clone CW (time × clone in Table 1; Figure 1C). This corresponds to a similar pattern in the time course of the blood cell counts (time × clone in Table 1; Figure 1D). The two clones caused different disease patterns not only because of intrinsic clone-specific characteristics but also depending on host characteristics: the two sexes react differently to the parasite clones (significant clone × gender interaction, Table 1). Gender-specific virulence is common in vertebrates (Zuk and McKean 1996), but here we show an interaction between gender and parasite clone. Specifically, clone CW reached higher parasitemia than clone AS only in female hosts, while in male hosts, the two clones differed in the time course of their parasitemia, with clone AS reaching its peak parasitemia ...
LMALP : Detection of Plasmodium DNA and identification of the infecting species, with reflex percent parasitemia calculated using thin blood films for positive cases   An adjunct to conventional microscopy of Giemsa-stained films   Detection and confirmatory identification of Plasmodium species: P falciparum, P vivax, P ovale, P malariae, and P knowlesi
Probably the first AMP from Scorpion. Active against B. subtilis (MIC 1 uM), K. pneumoniae (MIC ~10 uM). Recombinant form also produced 98% mortality in sexual stages of (rodent malaria P. berghei) at 15 uM and 100% reduction in (human malaria P. falciparum) parasitemia at 5 uM (Carballar-Lejaraz R et al. Cell Mol Life Sci. 2008 Oct;65(19):3081-92 ...
The L3s exsheath in the small intestine then enter the mucosa of any part of the small or large intestines. In some species (Oe. columbianum, Oe. quadrispinulatum and Oe. radiatum) L3s become enclosed in obvious nodules in which they moult to L4s . These L4s then emerge on to the mucosal surface, migrate to the colon (A), and develop to the adult stage. The prepatent period is 32 to 45 days, depending on the species. On reinfection with most species, the larvae may remain arrested as L4s, in nodules, for up to one year.. ...
Our investigations reveal that cGAS contributes to parasite control, which is essential for the formation of GC-derived humoral immunity. The ability to simultaneously identify and analyze endogenous polyclonal antigen-specific CD4+ T cells and B cells responding to Plasmodium has revealed a profound effect of innate immune control of parasitemia. Control of parasitemia is important for timely development of the GC response, a response critical for both the efficient generation of high-affinity antibodies and durable immune memory (59-62). Furthermore, our ability to track parasitemia throughout the course of infection combined with the potential to rapidly clear blood-stage infection with atovaquone provided us with an elegant system in which the effects of innate control of parasite burden could be disentangled from the effects of early innate signals on the adaptive immune response. Specifically, the collapse of the GC response in cGAS-/- mice as parasitemia persisted could be abolished with ...
The mutant showed a different (delayed) course of parasitemia in BALB/c mice and BALB/c mice showed a delayed death from infection. Mutant blood stages showed a restricted host cell range ...
B-cell, Blood, Cell, Cell-mediated Immunity, Cells, Hamster, Immunity, Immunoglobulin, Infection, Infections, Interferon, Interleukin, Interleukin-10, Killing, Macrophage, Mice, Nk Cell, Nk Cells, Nkt Cells, Parasitemia
Female and male mice deficient in IL-10 production by targeted disruption of the IL-10 gene were infected with Plasmodium chabaudi chabaudi (AS) blood-stage parasites. Both male and female mutant mice exhibited more severe signs of disease than did +/+ or heterozygous control mice. Female defective mice also displayed an increased mortality; 56% of mice died within 20 days of infection. Mortality did not appear to be due to a fulminating parasitemia as death occurred at different levels of parasitemia in the individual mice. The acute infection was accompanied by an enhanced Th1 IFN-gamma response. This response was retained in the chronic phase of infection of both male and female mutant mice, whereas in controls the responding CD4+ T cells were predominantly Th2 cells secreting IL-4. The data suggest that IL-10 regulates the inflammatory response to the parasite and that in its absence the combined effects of malaria toxins and the sustained or enhanced IFN-gamma response lead to increased ...
Pregnant women participating in a longitudinal immuno-epidemiologic survey in Lambaréné, Gabon, and presenting with Plasmodium falciparum parasitemia at monthly blood smear examinations were offered treatment with oral 7-day quinine monotherapy according to national health guidelines. A total of 50 pregnant women were offered 7-day oral quinine sulfate 10 mg/kg thrice daily. Clinical examinations and laboratory tests were performed on Days 28 and 56 to assess the effectiveness of this standard regimen. By Day 28, the effectiveness of the 7-day quinine regimen was 60% (95% confidence interval: 46-72%). We conclude that a 7-day course of quinine has a poor effectiveness and that alternative treatment regimens for malaria in pregnant women should be assessed.
ICAM-1 and CD36 are strong candidate receptors for interactions with iRBC containing mature Plasmodium parasites within the microvasculature at the time of sequestration, in both human infections and rodent model infections, and for the associated development of severe malaria pathologies. As species-specific differences in human malaria manifest themselves in distinctions in the nature and severity of the pathological syndromes developed, such differences are also seen in experimental models of malaria where the different host and parasite combinations exert similar influences [9].. The data presented here suggest that the ICAM-1 molecule is an important cytoadherence receptor for P. chabaudi in the spleen and liver, and further supports the hypothesis that cytoadherence is important for the development of pathology. Infected mice lacking the ICAM-1 receptor are less anaemic and lose less weight than mice with control infections, despite developing a higher peripheral blood parasitaemia which ...
Investigation of host responses to blood stages of Plasmodium spp, and the immunopathology associated with this phase of the life cycle are often performed on mice infected directly with infected red blood cells. Thus, the effects of mosquito bites and the pre-erythrocytic stages of the parasite, which would be present in natural infection, are ignored In this paper, Plasmodium chabaudi chabaudi infections of mice injected directly with infected red blood cells were compared with those of mice infected by the bites of infected mosquitoes, in order to determine whether the courses of primary infection and splenic CD4 T cell responses are similar. C57Bl/6 mice were injected with red blood cells infected with P. chabaudi (ER) or infected via the bite of Anopheles stephensi mosquitoes. Parasitaemia were monitored by Giemsa-stained thin blood films. Total spleen cells, CD4+ T cells, and cytokine production (IFN-γ, IL-2, IL-4, IL-10) were analysed by flow cytometry. In some experiments, mice were subjected
Abstract Plasmodium schwetzi, a tertian malaria parasite that naturally infects chimpanzees and gorillas, was transmitted through the bites of Anopheles balabacensis balabacensis mosquitoes from the chimpanzee to man. Two of three volunteers exposed to infection by the bites of infected mosquitoes became infected, with prepatent periods of 24 and 104 days. The infection was passed successfully to nine of 10 additional volunteers by the intravenous inoculation of parasitized human blood. The two volunteers in whom patent parasitemia did not develop were Negroes. Patent infections persisted for up to 145 days with a maximum count of 2,750 parasites per cmm of blood. Maximum temperature observed in any of the volunteers was 105.6°F. The characteristics of the infections were compared with those observed in other simian malaria infections in man. The fact that P. schwetzi can be successfully transmitted to man by mosquito bite establishes its potentiality as a zoonosis for Africa.
Cambridge, UK, 15th April 2013 ... Lumora, a provider of state-of-the-art molecular diagnostic products for the clinical and industrial market, has partnered with The Foundation for Innovative New Diagnostics (FIND) to develop a rapid, high-throughput malaria diagnostic assay for screening patients in the developing world.. The partnership will allow FIND to access Lumoras technologies such as BART (Bioluminescent Assay in Real Time) and the companys expertise to develop a novel test that will allow rapid screening on a large scale.. Strategies for the elimination of malaria are held back by lack of screening technologies for use in the field that can detect hidden or low parasitemia malaria infections, and thus stamp out the final cases. Such screening would also then help to keep these populations malaria free. The first field test with sufficient sensitivity to detect as few as one malaria parasite in a finger-prick blood sample has recently been developed and released by FIND and Eiken ...
Malaria infection is still to be considered a major public health problem in those 106 countries where the risk of contracting the infection with one or more of the Plasmodium species exists. According to estimates from the World Health Organization, over 200 million cases and about 655.000 deaths have occurred in 2010. Estimating the real health and social burden of the disease is a difficult task, because many of the malaria endemic countries have limited diagnostic resources, especially in rural settings where conditions with similar clinical picture may coexist in the same geographical areas. Moreover, asymptomatic parasitaemia may occur in high transmission areas after childhood, when anti-malaria semi-immunity occurs. Malaria endemicity and control activities are very complex issues, that are influenced by factors related to the host, to the parasite, to the vector, to the environment and to the health system capacity to fully implement available anti-malaria weapons such as rapid ...
Free word lists and quizzes from Cambridge. Word lists shared by our community of dictionary fans. Four groups of four sheep were formed, depending upon the average number of eggs deposited per gram of faeces after the prepatent period.. The flood left a thick deposit of mud over the entire ground floor of the house. The flood left a thick deposit of mud Google Play Guthaben Transferieren the floor.. I deposited my luggage in a locker at the station. Limited Input Mode - Mehr als Expertentipp Portugal Wales Übersetzungen!. The flood Meister Spanien felldepositing Runen Im Vergessenen Tempel over the whole area.. English alluviation bank bank deposit depositary deposition depository down payment fix lodge posit repository sediment sedimentation situate stick.. The government closed banks for a weektrying to prevent 21 3 Blackjack run on deposits.. Tähän mennessä 42 AKT-valtiota on jättänyt ratifioimiskirjansa. Your feedback will be reviewed. The flood left a thick deposit of mud over the ...
This pigment is formed as the infecting Plasmodium species feeds on the hosts hemoglobin in the red blood cells. This young girl had previously been diagnosed with a heavy Plasmodium falciparum infection (3.5% parasitemia). Here are some images of her previous thick and thin blood films ...
Therefore, in the present sample an increase in temper- of cortisol are more important in pregnant woman, where ature was not an acute stimulus for the release of ACTH the immunomodulation is mediated others hormones as estrogen, progesterone and prolactin ( There was also no significant correlation between DHEA and axillary temperature at the time of collection DHEA levels were also correlated with parasitemia to on Day 0, indicating that temperature did not interfere determine the possible existence of a negative correlation with this variable. However, the association between cor- between these two variables due to the antimalarial activ- tisol, DHEA and temperature showed that cortisol levels did not interfere with the correlation between DHEA and temperature, and that DHEA levels did not interfere with the correlation between cortisol and temperature, cant correlation was observed between DHEA on Day 0 but that temperature had a significant positive effect and parasitemia on Day 0. ...
The Malaria disease made its first appearance more than 4000 years ago. It used to be one of the diseases that people feared the most. About 655,000 people
De malariaparasiet binnenvalt en herhalingen binnen de rode bloedcellen. Nauwkeurige vaststelling van de merozoïet invasie en...
Part of phase 6 of the DHS series, a comprehensive, nationally representative household survey. This special DHS focused on anemia testing and malaria parasitemia testing.. ...
After 2 minutes, add twice the amount of distilled water or Phosphate buffer solution and mix the content by swirling or by blowing gently. Keep the same angle all the way to the end of the smear. Wipe away the first drop of blood with clean gauze. Stain only one set of smears, and leave the duplicates unstained. An atlas of instructive blood smears is included as a set of slides. Clean the area to be punctured with 70% alcohol; allow to dry. Coagulation Studies . Thin Blood Smear Preparation. Examination of PeripheralBlood Smear A well Made and well Stained Smearcan provide Estimates of cell count. An expert examination of the blood smear can identify errors, establish a diagnosis, or lead to a useful fortuitous finding. Failure to keep the entire edge of the spreader slide against the slide while making the smear. It is vital to keep in mind sterility, quality control and proper technique in handling your blood smear. 1 Blood Smear - Free download as Powerpoint Presentation (.ppt), PDF File ...
Doctors give unbiased, trusted information on whether Clexane can cause or treat Bruising: Dr. Webber on clexane heparin thin blood bruises prevent: Heparin keeps the blood from clotting both insider the body as well as for blood in a tube.
Used to treat certain blood vessel, heart and lung conditions.. If you take Coumaden, you must remember to monitor your stool color and seek medical attention if stools become black or tarry-appearing.The Pill, Hormone Therapy Safe for Women Taking Blood Thinners: Study.. Blood thinners must be taken exactly as directed to prevent blood clots.Xarelto may also be used for purposes not. or if you are also using other drugs that can affect blood.Bad mix: Blood thinners and NSAIDs. Talk to your doctor before taking any of these drugs in addition to your blood thinner.. ...
Download the blood smear medical background. 940069 royalty-free Stock Photo from Vecteezy for your project and explore over a million other images and backgrounds.
TY - JOUR. T1 - Malaria-specific antibody responses and parasite persistence after infection of mice with Plasmodium chabaudi chabaudi. AU - Achtman, A. H.. AU - Stephens, Robin. AU - Cadman, E. T.. AU - Harrison, V.. AU - Langhorne, J.. PY - 2007/9. Y1 - 2007/9. N2 - While it is known that antibodies are critical for clearance of malaria infections, it is not clear whether adequate antibody responses are maintained and what effect chronic infection has on this response. Here we show that mice with low-grade chronic primary infections of Plasmodium chabaudi or infections very recently eliminated have reduced second infections when compared with the second infection of parasite-free mice. We also show that parasite-specific antibody responses induced by infection of mice with Plasmodium chabaudi contain both short- and long-lived components as well as memory B cells responsible for a faster antibody response during re-infection. Furthermore, parasite-specific antibodies to the C-terminal fragment ...
Imported malaria is relatively rare in industrialized countries. Obtaining a correct diagnosis of malaria may be troublesome in centers where laboratory staff are less skilled in the proper identification and quantification of causative Plasmodium species, as may occur in countries in which malaria is not endemic. These centers often use commercially available rapid diagnostic tests to diagnose malaria. In contrast to our case, Bronner et al. reported that the BinaxNOW Malaria test did not detect a P. knowlesi infection in a traveler from Sweden who had a P. knowlesi infection acquired in Malaysian Borneo (2). Low parasitemia (0.1%) in this patient may have caused the lack of reactivity with the pan-malarial antigen aldolase (2).. We evaluated the BinaxNOW Malaria and the OptiMAL Rapid Malaria (Diamed, Cressier, Switzerland) tests for detection of P. knowlesi in human blood by analysis of consecutive blood samples taken after admission. These samples were stored at -20°C for 2 weeks until tests ...
Preparation of thick and thin blood films Thick blood films Thin blood films Combination thick and thin blood films (on the same slide) Combination thick and thin blood films (can be stained as either) Buffy coat blood films Staining blood films Giemsa stain Wright's stain General notes on staining procedures Proper examination of thin and thick blood films Thin blood films Thick blood films Determination of parasitemia Diagnosis of malaria: review of alternatives to conventional microscopy QBC microhematocrit centrifugation method ParaSight F test NOW malaria test Flow anti-pLDH Plasmodium monoclonal antibodies Molecular testing Automated blood cell analyzers Diagnosis of leishmaniasis: review of alternatives to conventional microscopy ICT for detection of anti-rK-39 antibodies Concentration procedures Cytocentrifugation technique Knott concentration procedure Membrane filtration technique Gradient centrifugation technique Triple-centrifugation method for trypanosomes Special stain for
BACKGROUND:Malaria and anaemia (Haemoglobin= 11 g/dl. For each participant, a physical examination was done and anthropometric data collected prior to a biological assessment which included: malaria parasitaemia infection, intestinal worm carriage, G6PD deficiency, sickle cell disorders, and alpha-talassaemia.RESULTS:Three hundred and fifty two children 5 years (aOR=0.03, 95%CI0.01-0.08]). Stratified by age group, anaemia was significantly associated with stunting in children less than 5 years (aOR=3.1 95%CI1.4 -- 6.8]), with, sickle cell disorders (aOR=3.5 95%CI 1.4 -- 9.0]), alpha-thalassemia (or=2.4 95%CI1.1--5.3]) and stunting (aOR=3.6 95%CI 1.6--8.2]) for children above 5 years. No association was found between G6PD deficiency, intestinal worm carriage and childrens gender.CONCLUSION:Malaria parasitaemia, stunting and haemoglobin genetic disorders represented the major causes of anaemia among study participants. Anaemia control in this area could be achieved by developing integrated ...
African trypanosomes are extracellular parasitic protozoa, predominantly transmitted by the bite of the haematophagic tsetse fly. The main mechanism considered to mediate parasitemia control in a mammalian host is the continuous interaction between antibodies and the parasite surface, covered by variant-specific surface glycoproteins. Early experimental studies have shown that B-cell responses can be strongly protective but are limited by their VSG-specificity. We have used B-cell (microMT) and IgM-deficient (IgM(-/-)) mice to investigate the role of B-cells and IgM antibodies in parasitemia control and the in vivo induction of trypanosomiasis-associated anemia. These infection studies revealed that that the initial setting of peak levels of parasitemia in Trypanosoma brucei-infected microMT and IgM(-/-) mice occurred independent of the presence of B-cells. However, B-cells helped to periodically reduce circulating parasites levels and were required for long term survival, while IgM antibodies ...
The Role of Calcium and Glucose on the Increasing of Parasitemia Value and Hemolysis into Plasmodium falciparum-infected Erythrocyte
Malaria remains a public health issue, particularly in sub-Saharan Africa with special features of seriousness in young children and pregnant women. Adolescents and adults are reported to have acquired a semi-immune status and, therefore, present with low parasitaemia. Children are understood to present with a much higher parasitaemia and severe malaria. It is a concern that effective malaria control programmes targeting young children may lead to a delay in the acquisition of acquired immunity and, therefore, causing a shift in the epidemiology of malaria. Prevalence and parasitaemia were explored in adolescents and adults with Plasmodium falciparum infections compared to young children in the area of Lambaréné, Gabon as an indicator for semi-immunity. ...
In some cases (especially malaria) quantification of parasites yields clinically useful information. If this information is needed by the physician, malaria parasites can be quantified against blood elements such as RBCs or WBCs.. To quantify malaria parasites against RBCs, count the parasitized RBCs among 500-2,000 RBCs on the thin smear and express the results as % parasitemia.. % parasitemia = (parasitized RBCs/total RBCs) × 100. If the parasitemia is high (e.g., , 10%) examine 500 RBCs; if it is low (e.g., ,1%) examine 2,000 RBCs (or more); count asexual blood stage parasites and gametocytes separately. Only the former are clinically important and gametocytes of P. falciparum can persist after elimination of asexual stages by drug treatment.. To quantify malaria parasites against WBCs: on the thick smear, tally the parasites against WBCs, until you have counted 500 parasites or 1,000 WBCs, whichever comes first; express the results as parasites per microliter of blood, using the WBC count ...
Splenocyte apoptosis in Plasmodium berghei ANKA infection: possible role of TNF-α and TGF-β.: Cerebral malaria is associated with the circulating levels of tumo
Background: Given the central importance of anti-malarial drugs in the treatment of malaria, there is a need to understand the effect of Plasmodium infection on the broad spectrum of drug metabolizing enzymes. Previous studies have shown reduced clearance of quinine, a treatment for Plasmodium infection, in individuals with malaria. Methods: The hepatic expression of a large panel of drug metabolizing enzymes was studied in the livers of mice infected with the AS strain of Plasmodium chabaudi chabaudi, a nonlethal parasite in most strains of mice with several features that model human Plasmodium infections. C57BL/6J mice were infected with P. chabaudi by intraperitoneal injection of infected erythrocytes and sacrificed at different times after infection. Relative hepatic mRNA levels of various drug metabolizing enzymes, cytokines and acute phase proteins were measured by reverse transcriptase-real time PCR. Relative levels of cytochrome P450 proteins were measured by Western blotting with IR-dye ...
Ascaridia sp. are nematode worm parasites, stout white worms up to 12 cms in length, seen worldwide. The parasite species vary: A. galli in fowl; A. dissimilis in turkeys; and A. columbae in pigeons. The route of infection is oral usually by direct ingestion of the embryonated egg and there is a 5-10-week prepatent period, shorter in young birds ...
BACKGROUND: The reported case-fatality rate associated with severe malaria varies widely. Whether age is an independent risk factor is uncertain. METHODS: In a large, multicenter treatment trial conducted in Asia, the presenting manifestations and outcome of severe malaria were analyzed in relation to age. RESULTS: Among 1050 patients with severe malaria, the mortality increased stepwise, from 6.1% in children (age, |10 years) to 36.5% in patients aged |50 years (P|0.001). Compared with adults aged 21-50 years, the decreased risk of death among children (adjusted odds ratio, 0.06; 95% confidence interval, 0.01-0.23; P|0.001) and the increased risk of death among patients aged |50 years (adjusted odds ratio, 1.88; 95% confidence interval, 1.01-3.52; P|0.001) was independent of the variation in presenting manifestations. The incidence of anemia and convulsions decreased with age, whereas the incidence of hyperparasitemia, jaundice, and renal insufficiency increased with age. Coma and metabolic acidosis
What are the Causes of Malaria Disease It is by nature that the male mosquitoes are so innocent that they just feed on the plant nector while the female
Franks, S; Koram, KA; Wagner, GE; Tetteh, K; McGuinness, D; Wheeler, JG; Nkrumah, F; Ranford-Cartwright, L; Riley, EM; (2001) Frequent and persistent, asymptomatic Plasmodium falciparum infections in African infants, characterized by multilocus genotyping. The Journal of infectious diseases, 183 (5). pp. 796-804. ISSN 0022-1899 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1086/318834 Full text not available from this repository ...
1) The presence of bacteria in the blood. Bacteremia is diagnosed by growing organisms from a blood sample and treatment is with antibiotics. See: Infections Associated with Lymphedema (2) The presence of live bacteria in the bloodstream. Bacteremia is analogous to viremia (the presence of a virus in the blood) and parasitemia (the presence of a parasite in the blood). Bacteremia, viremia and parasitemia are all forms of sepsis (bloodstream infection). The term bacteremia was compounded from bacteria and -emia (in the blood). Also called bacillemia. ...
The presence of a virus in the blood. Viremia is analogous to bacteremia (the presence of bacteria in the blood) and parasitemia (the presence of a parasite in the blood). Viremia, bacteremia and parasitemia are all forms of sepsis (bloodstream infection). The term viremia was compounded from virus and -emia (in the blood). ...
DI-fusion, le Dépôt institutionnel numérique de lULB, est loutil de référencementde la production scientifique de lULB.Linterface de recherche DI-fusion permet de consulter les publications des chercheurs de lULB et les thèses qui y ont été défendues.
Malaria constitutes one of the biggest health problems in tropical and sub-tropical zones such as Africa, South America, Asia and Southeast Asia includi..
The JHU drug library is stocked in ninety six nicely plates at 10 mM in 100% DMSO. In buy to attain dispensable focus we diluted compounds in incomplete RPMI to
This article gives an account of how blood smear can be prepared on a slide, the various steps to be followed for preparing the mount and to observe the three different types of blood corpuscles under the microscope. It also provides an account of the ...
Hulsebos LH, Choromanski L, Kuhn RE (1989). "The effect of interleukin-2 on parasitemia and myocarditis in experimental Chagas ...
... a balanced polymorphism protective against high parasitemias and thus severe P. falciparum malaria". Blood. 100 (4): 1172-6. ... "Hemoglobin C is associated with reduced Plasmodium falciparum parasitemia and low risk of mild attack" (PDF). Hum Mol Genet ...
Galeotti, Paolo; Sacchi, Roberto (2003). "Differential parasitaemia in the SNOWY OWLS ®(Strix aluco): effects of colour morph ...
In many endemic areas of tropical Africa, however, the quantitative assessment of parasitaemia is important, as a large ... These antigens persist in the circulating blood after the parasitaemia has cleared or has been greatly reduced. It generally ...
"Comparison of PCR with blood smear and inoculation of small animals for diagnosis of Babesia microti parasitemia" (PDF). J. ...
... it can rapidly result in very high levels of parasitemia with fatal consequences. Anyone with a severe and rapidly ...
Other findings include parasitemia and anemia. Large megaloschizonts may be present in skeletal muscles, particularly those of ...
Parasitemia averages 2.5% and seldom surpassed 20-30%. Infections cause significant anemia, and parasites in active infections ...
The number of parasites increased by a factor 5 approximately every 48 hours (one cycle). The parasitemia can be determined via ... "Synchronous culture of Plasmodium falciparum at high parasitemia levels". Nat. Protoc. 4 (11): 1899-915. doi:10.1038/nprot. ...
Fever and low grade parasitemia were apparent at 15 days. The volunteer (Dr Bennett) had previously been infected by Plasmodium ...
2009). "Synchronous culture of Plasmodium falciparum at high parasitemia levels". Nature Protocols. 4 (12): 1828-1844. doi: ...
... is the quantitative content of parasites in the blood.[1] It is used as a measurement of parasite load in the ... for low parasitemias) or thin film blood smear (for high parasitemias). ... Systematic measurement of parasitemia is important in many phases of the assessment of disease, such as in diagnosis and in the ... The use of molecular biology techniques, such as PCR has been used increasingly as a tool to measure parasitemia, especially in ...
Infections thereafter may exhibit little or no symptomatology in spite of parasitemia. The next stage is resistance to ...
Median parasitaemia rates in infections tend to be low (. ...
17 December 2013). "High Prevalence of Malaria Parasitemia and Anemia among Hospitalized Children in Rakai, Uganda". PLoS One. ...
The course of the parasitemia showed low levels initially and reaching a peak after 15 days; trophozoites were the most ... Laboratory findings included parasitemia, splenomegaly, pulmonary oedema and schizonts in the reticuloendothelial system. This ... Clinical findings associated with high parasitemia are anemia, diarrhea and weight loss that may lead to death. Body ...
The antigenic variation causes cyclical waves of parasitemia, which is one of the characteristics of Human African ... The clinical effect of this cycle is successive 'waves' of parasitaemia (trypanosomes in the blood). Variable surface ... This antigenic variation creates cyclical waves of parasitemia characteristic of Human African Trypanosomiasis. Antigen ' ...
Increased parasitemia in chicken malaria (Plasmodium gallinaceum and Plasmodium lophurae) following X-irradiation. J. Infect. ...
In a mouse model the compound caused a reduction of parasitemia of 92% in comparison to the control. The toxicity of ... Cynaropicrin shows a reduction in parasitemia in murine models and has potent antitrypanosomal activity. It lowers ...
The clinical effect of this cycle is successive 'waves' of parasitemia (trypanosomes in the blood). Expression of VSG genes ...
"Evidence for an Age-Dependent Pyrogenic Threshold of Plasmodium falciparum Parasitemia in Highly Endemic Populations". The ...
P. vivax gametocytes are commonly found in human peripheral blood at about the end of the first week of parasitemia. Gametes: ... However, such recurrent parasitaemia is probably being over-attributed to hypnozoite activation. One newly recognized, non- ... this might explain how a single infection can be responsible for a series of waves of parasitaemia or "relapses". It has been ... hypnozoite, possible contributing source to recurrent peripheral P. vivax parasitaemia is erythrocytic forms in bone marrow. P ...
It clinically improves the anemia and parasitemia of the pregnant women, and birthweight in their infants. If the mother has ...
By using increasing volumes of culture medium, P.falciparum was grown to higher parasitemia levels (above 10%). The use of ... effective against parasitemia in animals. The first successful trials of artemisinin were in 1979. Artemisinin is a ...
Parasitemia peaks on the 12th and 16th day of infection, with up to 130,000 parasites per milliliter of blood. Parasite load ... It can also infect the Black crested gibbon (Hylobates concolor), although it causes only moderate parasitemia. In experimental ...
Placental Malaria Parasitemia". Scientific Reports. 8 (1): 169. doi:10.1038/s41598-017-18574-6. ISSN 2045-2322. PMC 5760570. ...
Women experienced a reduction in malaria episodes, anemia, parasitaemia and low birth weight. While these results cannot be ... there were still significant differences for parasitaemia, reported malaria episodes and birth weight, indicating the ...
... parasitemia, biological cycle, clinical-pathological aspects and treatment". Exp. Parasitol. 128 (4): 347-52. doi:10.1016/j. ...
Partial protection against sporozoite challenge was achieved, and mean parasitemia was significantly reduced, compared to ...
... a balanced polymorphism protective against high parasitemias and thus severe P falciparum malaria". Blood. 100 (4): 1172-1176. ...
Parasitemia is the quantitative content of parasites in the blood.[1] It is used as a measurement of parasite load in the ... for low parasitemias) or thin film blood smear (for high parasitemias). ... Systematic measurement of parasitemia is important in many phases of the assessment of disease, such as in diagnosis and in the ... The use of molecular biology techniques, such as PCR has been used increasingly as a tool to measure parasitemia, especially in ...
Plasmodium Parasitemia Associated With Increased Survival in Ebola Virus-Infected Patients.. Rosenke K1, Adjemian J2, Munster ... Is Plasmodium Species Parasitemia Really Associated With Increased Survival in Ebola Virus-Infected Patients? [Clin Infect Dis ... Plasmodium Parasitemia Associated With Increased Survival in Ebola Virus-Infected Patients. Clin Infect Dis. 2016 Oct 15;63(8): ... Plasmodium Parasitemia Associated With Increased Survival in Ebola Virus-Infected Patients. Clin Infect Dis. 2016 Oct 15;63(8): ...
Peripheral blood smears were examined for asymptomatic malaria parasitemia among 406 objectively healthy subjects in North Mara ... A total of 33(8.1%) of subjects were found to have asymptomatic malaria parasitemia. Prevalence rates for parasitemia were ... General population surveys for asymptomatic malaria parasitemia in North Mara have shown much higher prevalence rates than ... Peripheral blood smears were examined for asymptomatic malaria parasitemia among 406 objectively healthy subjects in North Mara ...
Prevalence of asymptomatic parasitemia and gametocytemia among HIV-infected Ugandan children randomized to receive different ... The prevalence of asymptomatic parasitemia did not differ between the two ART treatment arms. The PI-based arm was associated ... Prevalence of Asymptomatic Parasitemia and Gametocytemia among HIV-Infected Ugandan Children Randomized to Receive Different ... In this report, we compared the prevalence of asymptomatic parasitemia and gametocytemia using data from the same cohort. ...
f Asymptomatic Plasmodium parasitemia and the ecology of malaria transmission. * Joseph M Vinetz and Robert H Gilman ...
Comparing PI-Based to a nNRTI-based ART for Clearance of Plasmodium Falciparum Parasitemia in HIV-Infected. The safety and ... Pf SCP confirmed in a laboratory approved to conduct parasitemia microscopy.. Note: Pf SCP will be defined as meeting all three ... HIV-1 Infection Pf Subclinical Parasitemia Drug: Lopinavir/ritonavir Drug: Emtricitabine/tenofovir disoproxil fumarate Drug: ... Parasitemia. Parasitic Diseases. Sepsis. Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome. Inflammation. Pathologic Processes. Ritonavir ...
Am J Trop Med Hyg 2009 Sept;81(3):516-518) Slides are used to determine percentage of parasitemia if PCR is positive. ... Slides are used to determine percentage of parasitemia if PCR is positive. ...
18 cleared parasitemia spontaneously within five days postpartum, and 2 had a strong decrease in parasitemia before being ... Women infected at delivery were tested for parasitemia in the early postpartum period; they had not received treatment unless ... 18 cleared parasitemia spontaneously within five days postpartum, and 2 had a strong decrease in parasitemia before being ... f Spontaneous Postpartum Clearance of Plasmodium falciparum Parasitemia in Pregnant Women, Benin * Julie Bottero, Valérie ...
... with Mansonella parasitemias. Phylogenetic analysis of these sequences confirm that M. ozzardi and M. perstans parasites occur ... Mansonella perstans is one of the most prevalent and poorly understood parasites known to cause parasitemias in humans (1-3). ... Molecular Verification of New World Mansonella perstans Parasitemias. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2017;23(3):545-547. doi: ... We obtained ribosomal and mitochondrial DNA sequences from residents of Amazonas state, Brazil, with Mansonella parasitemias. ...
... cruzi parasitemia by PCR. Results. Our data revealed association between a cytokine gene polymorphism and parasitemia never ... cruzi parasitemia by PCR.ResultsOur data revealed association between a cytokine gene polymorphism and parasitemia never ... The IL6 rs1800795 CG genotype lowered the risk of positive parasitemia (OR=0.45, 95% CI 0.24-0.86, P=0.015). Original findings ... The IL6 rs1800795 CG genotype lowered the risk of positive parasitemia (OR = 0.45, 95% CI 0.24-0.86, P = 0.015). Original ...
Prevalence of malaria parasitemia and purchase of artemisinin-based combination therapies (ACTs) among drug shop clients in two ...
Results Malarial parasitaemia was detected in children between 2-12 months and between 12-60 months of age with a prevalence of ... The CART-model revealed age-dependent differences in the ability of the variables to predict parasitaemia. While palmar pallor ... This study traced for age-dependent signs and symptoms predictive for P. falciparum parasitaemia. Methods In total, 5447 visits ... Conclusions Use of age-derived algorithms increases the specificity of the prediction for P. falciparum parasitaemia. The ...
Ownership of LLIN is very high, and parasitaemia among the children was very low. Low parasitaemia may be attributed to high ... which showed that parasitemia was 19.1%. The low parasitaemia in our study may be attributed to consistent use of bed nets ... This level of parasitemia is comparable to what was reported in a study conducted among children in the same age bracket for ... Parasitaemia among children under five is very low and may be partly attributed to use of LLINs. Programs will need to develop ...
בVivo ההערכה של מכרסמים Plasmodium Parasitemia וMerozoite פלישה על ידי cytometry הזרימה ... בVivo ההערכה של מכרסמים Plasmodium Parasitemia וMerozoite פלישה על ידי cytometry הזרימה ...
... vilket beräknas som parasitemia av den behandlade märkta befolkningen dividerat med parasitemia av kontrollmärkta befolkningen ... För mätning av parasitemia ska blodkroppar först väljas, och buller, skräp och trombocyter uteslutas, baserat på FSC / SSC ... Vi har beskrivit en metod för mätning av både parasitemia och merozoite invasion av in vivo prover. När det gäller parasitemi ... Lelliott, P. M., McMorran, B. J., Foote, S. J., Burgio, G. In Vivo Assessment of Rodent Plasmodium Parasitemia and Merozoite ...
Prevalence of parasitemia at baseline was 40.70% in the sprayed, 25.3% in the unsprayed area and remains high over the entire ... The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of IRS on malaria incidence, parasitemia and parasite density among children ... At inclusion, finger prick blood samples were used to assess baseline parasitemia by microscopy and rapid diagnostic tests (RDT ... Key words: Effects indoor residual spraying, malaria incidence, parasitemia, parasite density, children less than 5 years, ...
Download Free Full-Text of an article THE STUDY ON CORRELATION AMONG PARASITEMIA RATE AND HEMATOLOGICAL PARAMETERS IN BOVINE ... SOD activity had negative correlation with parasitemia rate in cattle with parasitemia, being lower than 10%, but no ... parasitemia rate. There was no significant correlation between parasitemia rate and serum haptoglobin. In addition to ... Based on parasitemia rates, the infected animals were divided into 3 subgroups (,10%, 10-20% and 20-30%). PCV, Hb, RBC count, ...
Will the High Rates of Post-Treatment Sexual Stage Parasitaemia Seen in Malaria-Endemic Areas Make the OptiMAL Antigen Test ... Tjitra, E. and Anstey, N.M. (2001) Will the High Rates of Post-Treatment Sexual Stage Parasitaemia Seen in Malaria-Endemic ... Parasitemias were calculated using WHO standard protocols. Main outcomes were test efficiency; sensitivity; specificity; PVP ... Sensitivities for Paracheck and SD Bioline RDTs reduced from 99.2% [97.7 - 100.0] at parasitemias above 1000/μl each to 33.3% [ ...
Inference for malaria parasitemia attributable fraction for coma among Ret- CM Cases. The malaria parasitemia attributable ... be the factor by which the trait t multiplies the risk of malaria parasitemia (i.e., relative risk of malaria parasitemia for ... It also suggests to me that rather more prominence should be given to the estimated lower bound on the malaria parasitemia ... 3) The work rests on the assumption that HbAS has no effect on asymptomatic parasitemia (if it did, different prevalences of ...
Risk progression to chronic Chagas cardiomyopathy: influence of male sex and of parasitaemia detected by polymerase chain ... Risk progression to chronic Chagas cardiomyopathy: influence of male sex and of parasitaemia detected by polymerase chain ...
Inhibition of nitric oxide synthesis leads to reduced parasitemia in murine Trypanosoma brucei infection.. J Sternberg, N ... Inhibition of nitric oxide synthesis leads to reduced parasitemia in murine Trypanosoma brucei infection. ... Inhibition of nitric oxide synthesis leads to reduced parasitemia in murine Trypanosoma brucei infection. ... Inhibition of nitric oxide synthesis leads to reduced parasitemia in murine Trypanosoma brucei infection. ...
... women with low baseline parasitemia, versus none, had higher viral loads at both time points. Any baseline parasitemia ... Malaria Parasitemia and CD4 T Cell Count, Viral Load, and Adverse HIV Outcomes Among HIV-Infected Pregnant Women in Tanzania. ... "Malaria Parasitemia and CD4 T Cell Count, Viral Load, and Adverse HIV Outcomes Among HIV-Infected Pregnant Women in Tanzania." ... We then followed women to investigate whether or not baseline parasitemia predicted CD4 T cell counts or viral loads , 90 days ...
Towards the establishment of a consensus real-time qPCR to monitor Trypanosoma cruzi parasitemia in patients with chronic ... The median parasitemia found in patients from Argentina and Colombia (1.93 and 2.31 parasite equivalents/mL, respectively) was ... In addition, its sensitivity and reproducibility are shown to be adequate to detect low parasitemia burden in patients with ... Towards the establishment of a consensus real-time qPCR to monitor Trypanosoma cruzi parasitemia in patients with chronic ...
We measured malaria parasitemia and anemia (hemoglobin level < 11 g/dL) in 899 children less than five years of age and used ... We evaluated the impact of IRS on parasitemia and anemia prevalence in children less than five years of age by using a cross- ... Impact of Indoor Residual Spraying with Lambda-Cyhalothrin on Malaria Parasitemia and Anemia Prevalence among Children Less ... reduction in parasitemia and a 21% (95% CI = 4-34%) and 30% (95% CI = 12-45%) reduction in anemia prevalence, respectively. ...
Results between antigen and microsatellite loci for the 30 day 0 and day of recurrent parasitaemia samples were the same for 80 ... The objective here was to assess the utility of neutral microsatellite loci to reconcile cases of recurrent parasitaemia in ... A total of 30 day 0 and day of recurrent parasitaemia samples were characterized at microsatellite loci and five polymorphic ... From: Genetic variation and recurrent parasitaemia in Peruvian Plasmodium vivax populations. Locus 14.185 12.335 7.67 6.34 3.35 ...
... were significant predictors of asymptomatic malaria parasitaemia. Asymptomatic malaria parasitaemia is a health challenge among ... This study examined asymptomatic malaria parasitaemia among pregnant women in the antenatal clinic in General Hospital, ... Home » Research: Asymptomatic Plasmodium falciparum parasitaemia among pregnant women: a health facility based survey in ... Research: Asymptomatic Plasmodium falciparum parasitaemia among pregnant women: a health facility based survey in Nassarawa- ...
Antiplasmodial activity against Plasmodium falciparum NF54 infected in human erythrocytes assessed as decrease in parasitemia ...
The disposition of oral and intramuscular pyrimethamine/sulphadoxine in Kenyan children with high parasitaemia but clinically ... was given by mouth and by intramuscular injection to children with uncomplicated falciparum malaria but with high parasitaemia ...
  • Peripheral blood smears were examined for asymptomatic malaria parasitemia among 406 objectively healthy subjects in North Mara, Tanzania. (springer.com)
  • Plasmodium species parasitemia is associated with an increase in the probability of surviving Ebola virus infection. (nih.gov)
  • Herein we investigated potential associations between IL1B , IL6 , IL17A , or IL18 polymorphism profiles and cardiomyopathy or T. cruzi parasitemia, as well as the impact of HIV infection on cardiopathy. (frontiersin.org)
  • Inhibition of nitric oxide synthesis leads to reduced parasitemia in murine Trypanosoma brucei infection. (asm.org)
  • This study confirms the contrasting transmission patterns of P. vivax and P. falciparum in the Peruvian Amazon, with stable local transmission for P. vivax and the source of P. falciparum to the study villages dominated by very low parasitaemia carriers, age 10 years and older, who had travelled away from home for work and brought P. falciparum infection with them. (biomedcentral.com)
  • When promptly and effectively treated, malaria illness is of short duration, but if untreated, a single Plasmodium falciparum malaria infection can last for many months, causing recurring clinical attacks interspersed with asymptomatic periods [3] during which parasitaemia is often sub-patent. (nih.gov)
  • In this figure, the single (untreated) infection gives rise to five periods of high parasitaemia. (nih.gov)
  • We aimed to investigate the impact of small-quantity lipid-based nutrient supplement (SQ-LNS) on the occurrence of Plasmodium falciparum parasitaemia during pregnancy and trichomoniasis, vaginal candidiasis and urinary tract infection (UTI) after delivery. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Physical exercise protects myenteric neurons and reduces parasitemia in Trypanosoma cruzi infection. (bvsalud.org)
  • In comparison to wildtype littermates, IL-13 tg mice were highly susceptible to T. cruzi infection with enhanced parasitemia and impaired survival. (frontiersin.org)
  • Two of the dogs showed acute disease and died in the first wave of parasitaemia on days 7 and 8 post infection (PI) while the other two died from the sub-acute disease on days 24 and 28 PI corresponding to the second wave of parasitaemia. (edu.ng)
  • The great majority of enzyme mRNAs were down-regulated, with the greatest effects occurring at the peak of parasitaemia 8 days post infection. (springer.com)
  • PCR was used to evaluate the occurrence of Toxoplasma gondii parasitemia by detection of the B1 gene in blood samples in two groups of immunosuppressed patients (148 subjects) suspected of having cerebral or extracerebral infection, respectively. (asu.edu.eg)
  • Parasitemia was detected by PCR in only two of these patients (13.3%), both showing evidence of disseminated infection. (asu.edu.eg)
  • Since most cases of cerebral toxoplasmosis result from the local reactivation of latent brain cysts, detection of parasitemia by PCR is useful only in cases associated with severe cerebral infection or dissemination of this disease. (asu.edu.eg)
  • Hence, when parasitemia develops in hamsters, babesial infection can be confirmed in humans. (medindia.net)
  • These infection studies revealed that that the initial setting of peak levels of parasitemia in Trypanosoma brucei-infected microMT and IgM(-/-) mice occurred independent of the presence of B-cells. (ac.be)
  • Collectively, these results demonstrated that in murine experimental T. brucei trypanosomiasis, B-cells were crucial for periodic peak parasitemia clearance, whereas parasite-induced IgM antibodies played only a limited role in the outcome of the infection. (ac.be)
  • pacifica and mosquito infection acquired from a patient with low level parasitemia. (univ-antilles.fr)
  • We found that B. microti reaches high parasitemia levels during the first week of infection in all three mice strains before resolving spontaneously. (jimmunol.org)
  • The present study aimed to precisely quantify the rate of very-low parasitaemia carriers in two sites of the Peruvian Amazon in relation to transmission patterns of P. vivax and P. falciparum in this area. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Erythrocyte survival times were measured in healthy Thai controls and in patients following clearance of asexual P. falciparum or P. vivax parasitaemia. (ox.ac.uk)
  • Figure 1 shows the time pattern of parasitaemia and fever in a neurosyphilis patient treated with P. falciparum. (nih.gov)
  • Moyano M, Méndez F. Erythrocyte defects and parasitemia density in patients with Plasmodium falciparum malaria in Buenaventura, Colombia. (healthdata.org)
  • The prevalence of P. falciparum parasitaemia was 10.7% at 32 gw, 9% at 36 gw, and 8.3% by RDT and 20.2% by PCR at delivery. (biomedcentral.com)
  • In this population, SQ-LNS did not influence the occurrence of maternal P. falciparum parasitaemia, trichomoniasis, vaginal candidiasis or UTI. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Towards the establishment of a consensus real-time qPCR to monitor Trypanosoma cruzi parasitemia in patients with chronic Chagas disease cardiomyopathy: a substudy from the BENEFIT trial. (curehunter.com)
  • To evaluate the parasitemia , nitrergic neurons , and cytokines in Trypanosoma cruzi -infected mice subjected to moderate physical exercise , forty male Swiss mice , 30days of age, were divided Trained Control (TC), Trained Infected (TI), Sedentary Control (SC), and Sedentary Infected (SI). (bvsalud.org)
  • The role of B-cells and IgM antibodies in parasitemia, anemia, and VSG switching in Trypanosoma brucei-infected mice. (ac.be)
  • Our data support a protective role of IL17A AA, IL18 AA, and IL1B TC genotypes against development/progression of cardiomyopathy and a modulatory effect of the IL6 CG genotype on the risk of parasitemia in Chagas disease. (frontiersin.org)
  • In addition, its sensitivity and reproducibility are shown to be adequate to detect low parasitemia burden in patients with chronic Chagas disease . (curehunter.com)
  • This study evaluates if levels of T. cruzi antigens in urine, determined by Chunap (Chagas urine nanoparticle test), are correlated with parasitemia levels in T. cruzi/HIV co-infected patients. (edu.pe)
  • Parasitemia levels in patients with serology positive for Chagas disease were classified as follows: High parasitemia or reactivation of Chagas disease (detectable parasitemia by microscopy), moderate parasitemia (undetectable by microscopy but detectable by qPCR), and negative parasitemia (undetectable by microscopy and qPCR). (edu.pe)
  • Parasitemia is the quantitative content of parasites in the blood . (wikipedia.org)
  • For instance, in malaria , the number of blood-stage parasites can be counted using an optical microscope , on a special thick film (for low parasitemias) or thin film blood smear (for high parasitemias). (wikipedia.org)
  • Mansonella perstans is one of the most prevalent and poorly understood parasites known to cause parasitemias in humans ( 1 - 3 ). (cdc.gov)
  • An estimated 114 million persons are infected with M. perstans parasites in Africa alone, and M. perstans parasitemias have also been repeatedly reported to occur in continental South America ( 1 , 2 ). (cdc.gov)
  • However, in contrast to the situation in Africa, where only 1 parasitemia-causing Mansonella parasite occurs, reports of M. perstans in South America have been limited to equatorial rainforest regions, where other Mansonella parasitemia-causing parasites also commonly occur ( 1 - 4 ). (cdc.gov)
  • More than 40% of infections had parasitaemia under 5 parasites/μL. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Hemosporidians are a diverse group of blood parasites that infect terrestrial vertebrates worldwide, but there is variability in parasite prevalence and parasitemia with infections ranging from virtually inconsequential to lethal. (allenpress.com)
  • There were no significant differences in prevalence and parasitemia between the two bird species infected with the parasites. (beds.ac.uk)
  • In addition to autoimmune mechanisms in anemia, there is lower activity of SOD and higher RBC fragility only in cattle with parasitemia rate being lower than 10% and not for cattle with higher parasitemia rate. (sid.ir)
  • Areas with highly degraded shrublands and villages showed higher parasitemia relative to areas with moderately degraded shrublands. (beds.ac.uk)
  • A SNVs were analyzed by real-time PCR and T. cruzi parasitemia by PCR. (frontiersin.org)
  • This difference could be in part due to the complexity of T. cruzi genetic diversity, which is a factor possibly implicated in different clinical presentations of the disease and/or influencing parasitemia levels in infected individuals from different regions of Latin America. (curehunter.com)
  • Three days after completing the moderate physical exercise program, the TI and SI groups were inoculated with 1300 blood trypomastigotes of the Y strain of T. cruzi, and parasitemia was evaluated from day 4 to day 22 after inoculation. (bvsalud.org)
  • Among the 35 of 1,346 infected women, parasitologic follow-up results could not be interpreted in 15 because they were treated for symptoms, 18 cleared parasitemia spontaneously within five days postpartum, and 2 had a strong decrease in parasitemia before being treated. (ajtmh.org)
  • Seasonally, parasite prevalence varied significantly, although prevalence and parasitemia were not associated with host sex, age, or health. (allenpress.com)
  • If positive, percent parasitemia will be performed at an additional charge. (mayocliniclabs.com)
  • 1. When monitoring percent parasitemia for patient response to therapy, order MAL / Rapid Malaria/ Babesia Smear (conventional blood film exam) instead of this test. (testcatalog.org)
  • If positive, percent parasitemia will be calculated and reported. (testcatalog.org)
  • Reduced erythrocyte survival following clearance of malarial parasitaemia in Thai patients. (ox.ac.uk)
  • IMSEAR at SEARO: Asymptomatic malarial parasitaemia in Tamil Nadu. (who.int)
  • AIM: The aim of the study was to determine the community prevalence of asymptomatic malarial parasitaemia in the state of Tamil Nadu. (who.int)
  • The objective here was to assess the utility of neutral microsatellite loci to reconcile cases of recurrent parasitaemia in Amazonian P. vivax populations in Peru. (cdc.gov)
  • A total of 30 day 0 and day of recurrent parasitaemia samples were characterized at microsatellite loci and five polymorphic antigen loci for haplotype classification. (cdc.gov)
  • Results between antigen and microsatellite loci for the 30 day 0 and day of recurrent parasitaemia samples were the same for 80% of the pairs. (cdc.gov)
  • Our data revealed association between a cytokine gene polymorphism and parasitemia never previously reported. (frontiersin.org)
  • Thus, although homozygosity for the R131 allele protects against high-density parasitemia, FcγRIIa-131 polymorphism does not protect against malaria anemia. (ac.ke)
  • Here, we aimed to investigate the proportion of α-thalassemia including the impact of α-thalassemia and HbE on the parasitemia of P. vivax in Southeast Asian malaria patients in Thailand. (mjhid.org)
  • HbE did not affect P. vivax parasitemia. (mjhid.org)
  • Alpha-thalassemia trait is associated with high levels of P. vivax parasitemia in malaria patients in Southeast Asia. (mjhid.org)
  • This study examined asymptomatic malaria parasitaemia among pregnant women in the antenatal clinic in General Hospital, Nassarawa-Eggon, Nasarawa State, Nigeria. (malariaworld.org)
  • Asymptomatic Plasmodium parasitemia and the ecology of malaria transmission. (ajtmh.org)
  • This study tested the hypothesis that the maintenance and emergence of malaria in hypoendemic regions such as Amazonia is determined by submicroscopic and asymptomatic Plasmodium parasitaemia carriers. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The use of molecular biology techniques, such as PCR has been used increasingly as a tool to measure parasitemia, especially in patients in the chronic phase of disease. (wikipedia.org)
  • Plasmodium Parasitemia Associated With Increased Survival in Ebola Virus-Infected Patients. (nih.gov)
  • Clinical outcome in laboratory-confirmed Ebola virus-infected patients was analyzed as a function of age, sex, Ebola viremia, and Plasmodium species parasitemia. (nih.gov)
  • The results achieved from Bayesian transmutability analysis elected the primer sets Cruzi1/Cruzi2 (p=0.0031) and Diaz7/Diaz8 (p=0.0023) coupled to the QIAamp DNA Kit extraction protocol ( silica gel column), as the most suitable for monitoring parasitemia in these patients. (curehunter.com)
  • The median parasitemia found in patients from Argentina and Colombia (1.93 and 2.31 parasite equivalents/mL, respectively) was around 20 times higher than the one estimated for the Brazilian patients (0.1 parasite equivalents/mL). (curehunter.com)
  • This can be clearly seen in the time courses of parasitaemia and fever observed among neurosyphilis patients treated with malaria therapy. (nih.gov)
  • Patients with parasitemia tended to have significantly lower platelets, hemoglobin, white blood cell and red blood cell counts, blood indices and hematocrit than normal. (iranpath.org)
  • Malaria parasitemia was assessed in 37 known sickle cell anemia patients attending the routine hematological clinic of the University of Benin Teaching Hospital, Benin-City, Edo State. (tjh.com.tr)
  • Asymptomatic malaria parasitaemia in sickle-cell disease patients: how effective is chemoprophylaxis? (bvsalud.org)
  • The use of malaria chemoprophylaxis and asymptomatic parasitaemia were studied in SCD and non-SCD patients . (bvsalud.org)
  • There was no significant difference between level of parasitaemia in patients and controls (p = 0.1), a positive smear was found in equal numbers of patients on chemoprophylaxis and those not on chemoprophylaxis (p = 0.3). (bvsalud.org)
  • Aim: To use C-Reactive Protein (CRP) in assessing` malaria and malaria parasitemia among out-patients in the University of Port Harcourt Teaching Hospital (UPTH).Study Design:Cross-sectional descriptive study.Place and Duration of Study:This study was carried out at the Out Patients Department (OPD) of the University of Port Harcourt Teaching Hospital, Port Harcourt, Rivers State, Nigeria. (who.int)
  • Patients with recrudescent malaria may have low levels of parasitemia and usually have increased malaria immunoglobulin G (IgG) titers. (medscape.com)
  • better survival rates among patients with severe malaria, particularly those with high parasitemia levels, treated with intravenous (IV) artesunate than among those treated with quinine. (psu.edu)
  • In 6 patients at 5 treatment centers, a self-limiting episode of unexplained hemolysis occurred after reduction of parasitemia levels. (psu.edu)
  • Among children with severe anemia 76.8% had malaria parasitemia, of whom 93.1% received blood transfusion. (elsevier.com)
  • Conclusion: There was a high prevalence of malaria parasitemia and anemia among inpatient children under five years. (elsevier.com)
  • We have used B-cell (microMT) and IgM-deficient (IgM(-/-)) mice to investigate the role of B-cells and IgM antibodies in parasitemia control and the in vivo induction of trypanosomiasis-associated anemia. (ac.be)
  • The aim of the present studyis determination of probable correlation between parasitemia rate and hemolysis in cattle infected with Anaplasma marginale. (sid.ir)
  • Per cent parasitemia of ovalocytes counted at least 100 ovalocytes of the blood films of malaria infected individuals was significantly reduced when compared with that of discocytes which revealed at least 100 discocytes in the same blood smears. (bvsalud.org)
  • Shrubland habitat degradation associated to the establishment of small villages, as well as tree extraction and overgrazing in the surroundings of these villages, significantly enhances parasitemia of birds by haemosporidians. (beds.ac.uk)
  • The methods to be used for quantifying parasitemia depends on the parasitic species and its life cycle. (wikipedia.org)
  • Considering the importance of the highland Plateau of Mexico as part of the North American bird migratory route and as a region containing important habitat for numerous bird species, the purpose of this study was to document haemosporidian species richness and how habitat degradation, bird body condition, and distance from water sources correlate with bird parasitemia. (beds.ac.uk)
  • Average parasitemia was estimated in each species, and its relationship with habitat degradation through grazing, bird body condition and distance from water bodies was assessed. (beds.ac.uk)
  • High levels of parasitemia were recorded in two of the three bird species included in this study. (beds.ac.uk)
  • The aim at the study is to find out the effect vaccine on parasitemia level of Swiss mice inoculated with Plasmodium berghei ,ANKA, a lethal strain of in urine plasmodium. (mediamedika.net)
  • Mice that were injected with TT vacine developed parasitemia sooner and higher than the control group. (mediamedika.net)
  • reduced parasitemia by 57.7% compared to untreated control mice. (greenmedinfo.com)
  • We obtained ribosomal and mitochondrial DNA sequences from residents of Amazonas state, Brazil, with Mansonella parasitemias. (cdc.gov)
  • Therefore, microscopy-based Mansonella parasitemia diagnoses in Latin America can be regarded as more prone to error than those made in Africa ( 1 - 6 ). (cdc.gov)
  • In a longitudinal study, we investigated whether the 11 most frequent and informative polymorphisms were associated with mild malaria attack and maximum parasitemia, which was the highest parasitemia in each individual over 2 years. (cgiar.org)
  • Mild malaria attack and maximum parasitemia were positively correlated. (cgiar.org)
  • Transmission disequilibrium tests showed nominal evidence for association between TNF-1031, TNF-308, TNF851 and TNF1304 polymorphisms, and mild malaria attack on the one hand, and between TNF-238, TNF851 and TNF1304 polymorphisms, and maximum parasitemia on the other hand. (cgiar.org)
  • After accounting for multiple tests, we confirmed the association of TNF-238 with maximum parasitemia and the association of TNF1304 and TNF851 with maximum parasitemia and mild malaria attack. (cgiar.org)
  • In conclusion, our study suggests that several TNF variants may be part of the genetic determinants for maximum parasitemia and/or mild malaria attack. (cgiar.org)
  • Several TNF polymorphisms that are located within non-coding regions have been associated with parasitaemia, mild malaria or severe malaria. (archives-ouvertes.fr)
  • We investigated the association of TNF1304 (rs3093664), TNF-308 (rs1800629), TNF-238 (rs361525) and TNF-244 (rs673) with mild malaria and symptomatic maximum parasitaemia in a population-based design (n=310). (archives-ouvertes.fr)
  • We obtained nominal evidence for an association between symptomatic maximum parasitaemia and TNF-308, TNF-238, and TNF-244 on the one hand, and between the number of mild malaria attacks and TNF-244 on the other hand. (archives-ouvertes.fr)
  • Low parasitaemia may be attributed to high LLIN utilization. (hindawi.com)
  • Tjitra, E. and Anstey, N.M. (2001) Will the High Rates of Post-Treatment Sexual Stage Parasitaemia Seen in Malaria-Endemic Areas Make the OptiMAL Antigen Test Unreliable in Predicting Malaria Treatment Outcome British Journal of Haematology, 113, 255-257. (scirp.org)
  • Tjitra, E. and Anstey, N.M. (2001) Will the High Rates of Post-Treatment Sexual Stage Parasitaemia Seen in Malaria-Endemic Areas Make the OptiMAL Antigen Test Unreliable in Predicting Malaria Treatment Outcome? (scirp.org)
  • Further study is warranted to determine whether or not parasitemia is especially detrimental to individuals with lower levels of immunosuppression or chronic low parasitemia. (harvard.edu)
  • Effective treatment of asexual parasitaemia in the dry season reduces gametocyte carriage to very low levels after 4 wk. (nih.gov)
  • Results: The results revealed no significant difference in parasitemia levels between the positive control and the two combination groups (p=0.136 and 0.289, respectively). (ui.ac.id)
  • Treatment with IV artesunate rapidly reduced parasitemia levels. (psu.edu)
  • Determination of parasitemia can be done using both thick and thin smears. (cdc.gov)
  • Plasmodium berghei 2% was injected into each mouse, and blood smears were prepared after 8 days to assess parasitemia. (ui.ac.id)
  • Kombinasi artesunat injeksi dan ekstrak brotowali terbukti dapat menurunkan derajat parasitemia lebih baik dari pemberian terapi tunggal artesunat dan meningkatkan ekspresi HSP70 dan endoglin. (ub.ac.id)
  • In this study, evidence is presented that NO has no detectable trypanocidal activity under simulated in vivo conditions and that inhibition of NO production in vivo results in reduced parasitemia. (asm.org)
  • Kesimpulannya, kombinasi terapi malaria menggunakan artesunat dan brotowali terbukti berpotensi sebagai terapi kombinasi yang efektif terhadap malaria karena mampu menurunkan derajat parasitemia sampai 0% dan meningkatkan ekspresi HSP70 dan endoglin pada otak mencit C57BL/6J secara signifikan. (ub.ac.id)
  • 2017. https://nursing.unboundmedicine.com/nursingcentral/view/Tabers-Dictionary/759698/all/parasitemia. (unboundmedicine.com)
  • Prevalence of Asexual Parasitaemia and Gametocytes after Treatment(A) Prevalence of asexual parasitaemia over the 2 mo following treatment. (nih.gov)
  • Systematic measurement of parasitemia is important in many phases of the assessment of disease, such as in diagnosis and in the follow-up of therapy, particularly in the chronic phase, when cure depends on ascertaining a parasitemia of zero. (wikipedia.org)
  • Conclusion: These results illustrate that combination therapy is superior to propolis monotherapy in inhibiting parasitemia. (ui.ac.id)
  • An interviewer-administered semi-structured questionnaire was used to obtain information on socio-demographic data and possible risk factors for asymptomatic malaria parasitaemia. (malariaworld.org)
  • Conclusion This optimized sWGA approach is a reliable method to obtain WGS data from non-leukocyte depleted, low parasitaemia samples. (researchsquare.com)

No images available that match "parasitemia"