Parasite Load: Measure of the number of the PARASITES present in a host organism.Parasites: Invertebrate organisms that live on or in another organism (the host), and benefit at the expense of the other. Traditionally excluded from definition of parasites are pathogenic BACTERIA; FUNGI; VIRUSES; and PLANTS; though they may live parasitically.Leishmaniasis, Visceral: A chronic disease caused by LEISHMANIA DONOVANI and transmitted by the bite of several sandflies of the genera Phlebotomus and Lutzomyia. It is commonly characterized by fever, chills, vomiting, anemia, hepatosplenomegaly, leukopenia, hypergammaglobulinemia, emaciation, and an earth-gray color of the skin. The disease is classified into three main types according to geographic distribution: Indian, Mediterranean (or infantile), and African.Host-Parasite Interactions: The relationship between an invertebrate and another organism (the host), one of which lives at the expense of the other. Traditionally excluded from definition of parasites are pathogenic BACTERIA; FUNGI; VIRUSES; and PLANTS; though they may live parasitically.Leishmania infantum: A parasitic hemoflagellate of the subgenus Leishmania leishmania that infects man and animals and causes visceral leishmaniasis (LEISHMANIASIS, VISCERAL). Human infections are confined almost entirely to children. This parasite is commonly seen in dogs, other Canidae, and porcupines with humans considered only an accidental host. Transmission is by Phlebotomus sandflies.Leishmaniasis, Cutaneous: An endemic disease that is characterized by the development of single or multiple localized lesions on exposed areas of skin that typically ulcerate. The disease has been divided into Old and New World forms. Old World leishmaniasis is separated into three distinct types according to epidemiology and clinical manifestations and is caused by species of the L. tropica and L. aethiopica complexes as well as by species of the L. major genus. New World leishmaniasis, also called American leishmaniasis, occurs in South and Central America and is caused by species of the L. mexicana or L. braziliensis complexes.Parasitic Diseases, Animal: Infections or infestations with parasitic organisms. The infestation may be experimental or veterinary.Antiprotozoal Agents: Substances that are destructive to protozoans.Leishmania major: A parasitic hemoflagellate of the subgenus Leishmania leishmania that infects man and animals and causes cutaneous leishmaniasis (LEISHMANIASIS, CUTANEOUS) of the Old World. Transmission is by Phlebotomus sandflies.Parasite Egg Count: Determination of parasite eggs in feces.Leishmania: A genus of flagellate protozoa comprising several species that are pathogenic for humans. Organisms of this genus have an amastigote and a promastigote stage in their life cycles. As a result of enzymatic studies this single genus has been divided into two subgenera: Leishmania leishmania and Leishmania viannia. Species within the Leishmania leishmania subgenus include: L. aethiopica, L. arabica, L. donovani, L. enrietti, L. gerbilli, L. hertigi, L. infantum, L. major, L. mexicana, and L. tropica. The following species are those that compose the Leishmania viannia subgenus: L. braziliensis, L. guyanensis, L. lainsoni, L. naiffi, and L. shawi.Leishmaniasis Vaccines: Vaccines or candidate vaccines used to prevent infection with LEISHMANIA.Leishmaniasis: A disease caused by any of a number of species of protozoa in the genus LEISHMANIA. There are four major clinical types of this infection: cutaneous (Old and New World) (LEISHMANIASIS, CUTANEOUS), diffuse cutaneous (LEISHMANIASIS, DIFFUSE CUTANEOUS), mucocutaneous (LEISHMANIASIS, MUCOCUTANEOUS), and visceral (LEISHMANIASIS, VISCERAL).Leishmania donovani: A parasitic hemoflagellate of the subgenus Leishmania leishmania that infects man and animals and causes visceral leishmaniasis (LEISHMANIASIS, VISCERAL). The sandfly genera Phlebotomus and Lutzomyia are the vectors.DNA, Protozoan: Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of protozoa.Platyhelminths: A phylum of acoelomate, bilaterally symmetrical flatworms, without a definite anus. It includes three classes: Cestoda, Turbellaria, and Trematoda.Trypanosoma cruzi: The agent of South American trypanosomiasis or CHAGAS DISEASE. Its vertebrate hosts are man and various domestic and wild animals. Insects of several species are vectors.Parasitemia: The presence of parasites (especially malarial parasites) in the blood. (Dorland, 27th ed)Chagas Disease: Infection with the protozoan parasite TRYPANOSOMA CRUZI, a form of TRYPANOSOMIASIS endemic in Central and South America. It is named after the Brazilian physician Carlos Chagas, who discovered the parasite. Infection by the parasite (positive serologic result only) is distinguished from the clinical manifestations that develop years later, such as destruction of PARASYMPATHETIC GANGLIA; CHAGAS CARDIOMYOPATHY; and dysfunction of the ESOPHAGUS or COLON.Protozoan Proteins: Proteins found in any species of protozoan.Hawks: Common name for many members of the FALCONIFORMES order, family Accipitridae, generally smaller than EAGLES, and containing short, rounded wings and a long tail.Ectoparasitic Infestations: Infestations by PARASITES which live on, or burrow into, the surface of their host's EPIDERMIS. Most ectoparasites are ARTHROPODS.Sulfadimethoxine: A sulfanilamide that is used as an anti-infective agent.Toxoplasma: A genus of protozoa parasitic to birds and mammals. T. gondii is one of the most common infectious pathogenic animal parasites of man.Plasmodium falciparum: A species of protozoa that is the causal agent of falciparum malaria (MALARIA, FALCIPARUM). It is most prevalent in the tropics and subtropics.Mice, Inbred BALB CAntibodies, Protozoan: Immunoglobulins produced in a response to PROTOZOAN ANTIGENS.Leishmania braziliensis: A parasitic hemoflagellate of the subgenus Leishmania viannia that infects man and animals. It causes cutaneous (LEISHMANIASIS, CUTANEOUS), diffuse cutaneous (LEISHMANIASIS, DIFFUSE CUTANEOUS), and mucocutaneous leishmaniasis (LEISHMANIASIS, MUCOCUTANEOUS) depending on the subspecies of this organism. The sandfly, Lutzomyia, is the vector. The Leishmania braziliensis complex includes the subspecies braziliensis and peruviana. Uta, a form of cutaneous leishmaniasis in the New World, is caused by the subspecies peruviana.Malaria: A protozoan disease caused in humans by four species of the PLASMODIUM genus: PLASMODIUM FALCIPARUM; PLASMODIUM VIVAX; PLASMODIUM OVALE; and PLASMODIUM MALARIAE; and transmitted by the bite of an infected female mosquito of the genus ANOPHELES. Malaria is endemic in parts of Asia, Africa, Central and South America, Oceania, and certain Caribbean islands. It is characterized by extreme exhaustion associated with paroxysms of high FEVER; SWEATING; shaking CHILLS; and ANEMIA. Malaria in ANIMALS is caused by other species of plasmodia.Leishmania mexicana: A parasitic hemoflagellate of the subgenus Leishmania leishmania that infects man and animals including rodents. The Leishmania mexicana complex causes both cutaneous (LEISHMANIASIS, CUTANEOUS) and diffuse cutaneous leishmaniasis (LEISHMANIASIS, DIFFUSE CUTANEOUS) and includes the subspecies amazonensis, garnhami, mexicana, pifanoi, and venezuelensis. L. m. mexicana causes chiclero ulcer, a form of cutaneous leishmaniasis (LEISHMANIASIS, CUTANEOUS) in the New World. The sandfly, Lutzomyia, appears to be the vector.Protozoan Vaccines: Suspensions of attenuated or killed protozoa administered for the prevention or treatment of infectious protozoan disease.Antigens, Protozoan: Any part or derivative of any protozoan that elicits immunity; malaria (Plasmodium) and trypanosome antigens are presently the most frequently encountered.Parasitology: The study of parasites and PARASITIC DISEASES.DNA, Kinetoplast: DNA of kinetoplasts which are specialized MITOCHONDRIA of trypanosomes and related parasitic protozoa within the order KINETOPLASTIDA. Kinetoplast DNA consists of a complex network of numerous catenated rings of two classes; the first being a large number of small DNA duplex rings, called minicircles, approximately 2000 base pairs in length, and the second being several dozen much larger rings, called maxicircles, approximately 37 kb in length.Dog Diseases: Diseases of the domestic dog (Canis familiaris). This term does not include diseases of wild dogs, WOLVES; FOXES; and other Canidae for which the heading CARNIVORA is used.Meglumine: 1-Deoxy-1-(methylamino)-D-glucitol. A derivative of sorbitol in which the hydroxyl group in position 1 is replaced by a methylamino group. Often used in conjunction with iodinated organic compounds as contrast medium.Malaria, Falciparum: Malaria caused by PLASMODIUM FALCIPARUM. This is the severest form of malaria and is associated with the highest levels of parasites in the blood. This disease is characterized by irregularly recurring febrile paroxysms that in extreme cases occur with acute cerebral, renal, or gastrointestinal manifestations.Chagas Cardiomyopathy: A disease of the CARDIAC MUSCLE developed subsequent to the initial protozoan infection by TRYPANOSOMA CRUZI. After infection, less than 10% develop acute illness such as MYOCARDITIS (mostly in children). The disease then enters a latent phase without clinical symptoms until about 20 years later. Myocardial symptoms of advanced CHAGAS DISEASE include conduction defects (HEART BLOCK) and CARDIOMEGALY.Poecilia: A genus of livebearing cyprinodont fish comprising the guppy and molly. Some species are virtually all female and depend on sperm from other species to stimulate egg development. Poecilia is used in carcinogenicity studies as well as neurologic and physiologic research.Toxoplasmosis, Animal: Acquired infection of non-human animals by organisms of the genus TOXOPLASMA.Cryptosporidiosis: Intestinal infection with organisms of the genus CRYPTOSPORIDIUM. It occurs in both animals and humans. Symptoms include severe DIARRHEA.Psychodidae: Small, hairy, moth-like flies which are of considerable public health importance as vectors of certain pathogenic organisms. Important disease-related genera are PHLEBOTOMUS, Lutzomyia, and Sergentomyia.Spleen: An encapsulated lymphatic organ through which venous blood filters.LizardsFish Diseases: Diseases of freshwater, marine, hatchery or aquarium fish. This term includes diseases of both teleosts (true fish) and elasmobranchs (sharks, rays and skates).Blood: The body fluid that circulates in the vascular system (BLOOD VESSELS). Whole blood includes PLASMA and BLOOD CELLS.Feces: Excrement from the INTESTINES, containing unabsorbed solids, waste products, secretions, and BACTERIA of the DIGESTIVE SYSTEM.Polymerase Chain Reaction: In vitro method for producing large amounts of specific DNA or RNA fragments of defined length and sequence from small amounts of short oligonucleotide flanking sequences (primers). The essential steps include thermal denaturation of the double-stranded target molecules, annealing of the primers to their complementary sequences, and extension of the annealed primers by enzymatic synthesis with DNA polymerase. The reaction is efficient, specific, and extremely sensitive. Uses for the reaction include disease diagnosis, detection of difficult-to-isolate pathogens, mutation analysis, genetic testing, DNA sequencing, and analyzing evolutionary relationships.Apicomplexa: A phylum of unicellular parasitic EUKARYOTES characterized by the presence of complex apical organelles generally consisting of a conoid that aids in penetrating host cells, rhoptries that possibly secrete a proteolytic enzyme, and subpellicular microtubules that may be related to motility.Life Cycle Stages: The continuous sequence of changes undergone by living organisms during the post-embryonic developmental process, such as metamorphosis in insects and amphibians. This includes the developmental stages of apicomplexans such as the malarial parasite, PLASMODIUM FALCIPARUM.Intestinal Diseases, Parasitic: Infections of the INTESTINES with PARASITES, commonly involving PARASITIC WORMS. Infections with roundworms (NEMATODE INFECTIONS) and tapeworms (CESTODE INFECTIONS) are also known as HELMINTHIASIS.Mice, Inbred C57BLSkin: The outer covering of the body that protects it from the environment. It is composed of the DERMIS and the EPIDERMIS.Plasmodium berghei: A protozoan parasite of rodents transmitted by the mosquito Anopheles dureni.Antimalarials: Agents used in the treatment of malaria. They are usually classified on the basis of their action against plasmodia at different stages in their life cycle in the human. (From AMA, Drug Evaluations Annual, 1992, p1585)Parasitic Diseases: Infections or infestations with parasitic organisms. They are often contracted through contact with an intermediate vector, but may occur as the result of direct exposure.Interferon-gamma: The major interferon produced by mitogenically or antigenically stimulated LYMPHOCYTES. It is structurally different from TYPE I INTERFERON and its major activity is immunoregulation. It has been implicated in the expression of CLASS II HISTOCOMPATIBILITY ANTIGENS in cells that do not normally produce them, leading to AUTOIMMUNE DISEASES.Dogs: The domestic dog, Canis familiaris, comprising about 400 breeds, of the carnivore family CANIDAE. They are worldwide in distribution and live in association with people. (Walker's Mammals of the World, 5th ed, p1065)Cytokines: Non-antibody proteins secreted by inflammatory leukocytes and some non-leukocytic cells, that act as intercellular mediators. They differ from classical hormones in that they are produced by a number of tissue or cell types rather than by specialized glands. They generally act locally in a paracrine or autocrine rather than endocrine manner.Disease Models, Animal: Naturally occurring or experimentally induced animal diseases with pathological processes sufficiently similar to those of human diseases. They are used as study models for human diseases.BrazilTrematoda: Class of parasitic flukes consisting of three subclasses, Monogenea, Aspidogastrea, and Digenea. The digenetic trematodes are the only ones found in man. They are endoparasites and require two hosts to complete their life cycle.Disease Susceptibility: A constitution or condition of the body which makes the tissues react in special ways to certain extrinsic stimuli and thus tends to make the individual more than usually susceptible to certain diseases.Erythrocytes: Red blood cells. Mature erythrocytes are non-nucleated, biconcave disks containing HEMOGLOBIN whose function is to transport OXYGEN.Genes, Protozoan: The functional hereditary units of protozoa.Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction: Methods used for detecting the amplified DNA products from the polymerase chain reaction as they accumulate instead of at the end of the reaction.Mesocricetus: A genus of the family Muridae having three species. The present domesticated strains were developed from individuals brought from Syria. They are widely used in biomedical research.Cestoda: A subclass of segmented worms comprising the tapeworms.Protozoan Infections: Infections with unicellular organisms formerly members of the subkingdom Protozoa.Interleukin-10: A cytokine produced by a variety of cell types, including T-LYMPHOCYTES; MONOCYTES; DENDRITIC CELLS; and EPITHELIAL CELLS that exerts a variety of effects on immunoregulation and INFLAMMATION. Interleukin-10 combines with itself to form a homodimeric molecule that is the biologically active form of the protein.Protozoan Infections, Animal: Infections with unicellular organisms formerly members of the subkingdom Protozoa. The infections may be experimental or veterinary.Macrophages: The relatively long-lived phagocytic cell of mammalian tissues that are derived from blood MONOCYTES. Main types are PERITONEAL MACROPHAGES; ALVEOLAR MACROPHAGES; HISTIOCYTES; KUPFFER CELLS of the liver; and OSTEOCLASTS. They may further differentiate within chronic inflammatory lesions to EPITHELIOID CELLS or may fuse to form FOREIGN BODY GIANT CELLS or LANGHANS GIANT CELLS. (from The Dictionary of Cell Biology, Lackie and Dow, 3rd ed.)Haemosporida: An order of heteroxenous protozoa in which the macrogamete and microgamont develop independently. A conoid is usually absent.Genome, Protozoan: The complete genetic complement contained in a set of CHROMOSOMES in a protozoan.Sensitivity and Specificity: Binary classification measures to assess test results. Sensitivity or recall rate is the proportion of true positives. Specificity is the probability of correctly determining the absence of a condition. (From Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)Helminths: Commonly known as parasitic worms, this group includes the ACANTHOCEPHALA; NEMATODA; and PLATYHELMINTHS. Some authors consider certain species of LEECHES that can become temporarily parasitic as helminths.Helminthiasis, Animal: Infestation of animals with parasitic worms of the helminth class. The infestation may be experimental or veterinary.Genetic Load: The relative amount by which the average fitness of a POPULATION is lowered, due to the presence of GENES that decrease survival, compared to the GENOTYPE with maximum or optimal fitness. (From Rieger et al., Glossary of Genetics: Classical and Molecular, 5th ed)Immunoglobulin G: The major immunoglobulin isotype class in normal human serum. There are several isotype subclasses of IgG, for example, IgG1, IgG2A, and IgG2B.Parasitic Sensitivity Tests: Tests that demonstrate the relative effectiveness of chemotherapeutic agents against specific parasites.Schistosoma mansoni: A species of trematode blood flukes of the family Schistosomatidae. It is common in the Nile delta. The intermediate host is the planorbid snail. This parasite causes schistosomiasis mansoni and intestinal bilharziasis.Liver: A large lobed glandular organ in the abdomen of vertebrates that is responsible for detoxification, metabolism, synthesis and storage of various substances.Sporozoites: The product of meiotic division of zygotes in parasitic protozoa comprising haploid cells. These infective cells invade the host and undergo asexual reproduction producing MEROZOITES (or other forms) and ultimately gametocytes.Drug Resistance: Diminished or failed response of an organism, disease or tissue to the intended effectiveness of a chemical or drug. It should be differentiated from DRUG TOLERANCE which is the progressive diminution of the susceptibility of a human or animal to the effects of a drug, as a result of continued administration.Nematode Infections: Infections by nematodes, general or unspecified.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Th1 Cells: Subset of helper-inducer T-lymphocytes which synthesize and secrete interleukin-2, gamma-interferon, and interleukin-12. Due to their ability to kill antigen-presenting cells and their lymphokine-mediated effector activity, Th1 cells are associated with vigorous delayed-type hypersensitivity reactions.Plasmodium yoelii: A species of PLASMODIUM causing malaria in rodents.Trematode Infections: Infections caused by infestation with worms of the class Trematoda.Plasmodium vivax: A protozoan parasite that causes vivax malaria (MALARIA, VIVAX). This species is found almost everywhere malaria is endemic and is the only one that has a range extending into the temperate regions.Chloroquine: The prototypical antimalarial agent with a mechanism that is not well understood. It has also been used to treat rheumatoid arthritis, systemic lupus erythematosus, and in the systemic therapy of amebic liver abscesses.Trophozoites: Cells or feeding stage in the life cycle of sporozoan protozoa. In the malarial parasite, the trophozoite develops from the MEROZOITE and then splits into the SCHIZONT. Trophozoites that are left over from cell division can go on to form gametocytes.Trypanosoma brucei brucei: A hemoflagellate subspecies of parasitic protozoa that causes nagana in domestic and game animals in Africa. It apparently does not infect humans. It is transmitted by bites of tsetse flies (Glossina).Mice, Knockout: Strains of mice in which certain GENES of their GENOMES have been disrupted, or "knocked-out". To produce knockouts, using RECOMBINANT DNA technology, the normal DNA sequence of the gene being studied is altered to prevent synthesis of a normal gene product. Cloned cells in which this DNA alteration is successful are then injected into mouse EMBRYOS to produce chimeric mice. The chimeric mice are then bred to yield a strain in which all the cells of the mouse contain the disrupted gene. Knockout mice are used as EXPERIMENTAL ANIMAL MODELS for diseases (DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL) and to clarify the functions of the genes.Anopheles: A genus of mosquitoes (CULICIDAE) that are known vectors of MALARIA.Acanthocephala: A phylum of parasitic worms, closely related to tapeworms and containing two genera: Moniliformis, which sometimes infects man, and Macracanthorhynchus, which infects swine.Cricetinae: A subfamily in the family MURIDAE, comprising the hamsters. Four of the more common genera are Cricetus, CRICETULUS; MESOCRICETUS; and PHODOPUS.Oocysts: Zygote-containing cysts of sporozoan protozoa. Further development in an oocyst produces small individual infective organisms called SPOROZOITES. Then, depending on the genus, the entire oocyst is called a sporocyst or the oocyst contains multiple sporocysts encapsulating the sporozoites.Schizonts: Multinucleate cells or a stage in the development of sporozoan protozoa. It is exemplified by the life cycle of PLASMODIUM FALCIPARUM in the MALARIA infection cycle.Merozoites: Uninuclear cells or a stage in the life cycle of sporozoan protozoa. Merozoites, released from ruptured multinucleate SCHIZONTS, enter the blood stream and infect the ERYTHROCYTES.Bacterial Load: Measurable quantity of bacteria in an object, organism, or organism compartment.Trypanosoma: A genus of flagellate protozoans found in the blood and lymph of vertebrates and invertebrates, both hosts being required to complete the life cycle.Microsporidia: A phylum of fungi comprising minute intracellular PARASITES with FUNGAL SPORES of unicellular origin. It has two classes: Rudimicrosporea and MICROSPOREA.Giardia lamblia: A species of parasitic EUKARYOTES that attaches itself to the intestinal mucosa and feeds on mucous secretions. The organism is roughly pear-shaped and motility is somewhat erratic, with a slow oscillation about the long axis.RNA, Protozoan: Ribonucleic acid in protozoa having regulatory and catalytic roles as well as involvement in protein synthesis.Cestode Infections: Infections with true tapeworms of the helminth subclass CESTODA.Coccidiosis: Protozoan infection found in animals and man. It is caused by several different genera of COCCIDIA.Eukaryota: One of the three domains of life (the others being BACTERIA and ARCHAEA), also called Eukarya. These are organisms whose cells are enclosed in membranes and possess a nucleus. They comprise almost all multicellular and many unicellular organisms, and are traditionally divided into groups (sometimes called kingdoms) including ANIMALS; PLANTS; FUNGI; and various algae and other taxa that were previously part of the old kingdom Protista.Artemisinins: A group of SESQUITERPENES and their analogs that contain a peroxide group (PEROXIDES) within an oxepin ring (OXEPINS).Entamoeba histolytica: A species of parasitic protozoa causing ENTAMOEBIASIS and amebic dysentery (DYSENTERY, AMEBIC). Characteristics include a single nucleus containing a small central karyosome and peripheral chromatin that is finely and regularly beaded.Toxoplasmosis: The acquired form of infection by Toxoplasma gondii in animals and man.Malaria Vaccines: Vaccines made from antigens arising from any of the four strains of Plasmodium which cause malaria in humans, or from P. berghei which causes malaria in rodents.Insect Vectors: Insects that transmit infective organisms from one host to another or from an inanimate reservoir to an animate host.Nematoda: A class of unsegmented helminths with fundamental bilateral symmetry and secondary triradiate symmetry of the oral and esophageal structures. Many species are parasites.Eimeria: A genus of protozoan parasites of the subclass COCCIDIA. Various species are parasitic in the epithelial cells of the liver and intestines of man and other animals.

1NM-PP1 treatment of mice infected with Toxoplasma gondii. (1/207)

Bumped kinase inhibitors (BKIs) target analog-sensitive kinases, which the genomes of mammals rarely encode. Previously, we demonstrated that a BKI effectively suppressed the in vitro replication of Toxoplasma gondii, the causative pathogen of toxoplasmosis, by targeting T. gondii calcium-dependent protein kinase 1 (TgCDPK1) (Eukaryotic Cell, 9: 667-670). Here, we examined whether the BKI 1NM-PP1 reduced parasite replication in vivo. A high dose of 1NM-PP1, by intraperitoneal injection, just before the parasite inoculation effectively reduced the parasite load in the brains, livers, and lungs of T. gondii-infected mice, however, a low dose of 1NM-PP1 with oral administration didn't change the survival rates of infected mice.  (+info)

Comparative histological and immunohistochemical changes of dry type cutaneous leishmaniasis after administration of meglumine antimoniate, imiquimod or combination therapy. (2/207)

 (+info)

Long-term cleaner fish presence affects growth of a coral reef fish. (3/207)

 (+info)

In vitro and in vivo antileishmanial efficacy of a combination therapy of diminazene and artesunate against Leishmania donovani in BALB/c mice. (4/207)

 (+info)

In vitro and in vivo studies of the utility of dimethyl and diethyl carbaporphyrin ketals in treatment of cutaneous leishmaniasis. (5/207)

 (+info)

Accelerated healing of cutaneous leishmaniasis in non-healing BALB/c mice using water soluble amphotericin B-polymethacrylic acid. (6/207)

 (+info)

Analysis of the expression of toll-like receptors 2 and 4 and cytokine production during experimental Leishmania chagasi infection. (7/207)

 (+info)

Melarsoprol cyclodextrin inclusion complexes as promising oral candidates for the treatment of human African trypanosomiasis. (8/207)

 (+info)

  • Parasite load is a measure of the number and virulence of the parasites that a host organism harbours. (wikipedia.org)
  • Despite this clear reciprocity, we lack a coevolutionary theory of mate choice and parasite virulence. (pnas.org)
  • Here we develop a general coevolutionary model between host mate preference and the virulence of a sexually transmitted parasite. (pnas.org)
  • We show when the characteristics of both the host and parasite lead to coevolutionarily stable strategies or runaway selection, and when coevolutionary cycling between high and low levels of host mate choosiness and virulence is possible. (pnas.org)
  • The present study, however, demonstrates that coevolution can maintain stable host mate choosiness and parasite virulence or indeed coevolutionary cycling of both traits. (pnas.org)
  • We predict that choosiness should vary inversely with parasite virulence and that both relatively long and short life spans select against choosy behavior in the host. (pnas.org)
  • Virulence differed among parasite strains but was similar between migratory and sedentary populations, potentially owing to high gene flow or insufficient time for evolutionary divergence. (royalsocietypublishing.org)
  • Theory predicts that parasites could evolve virulence (i.e., parasite-induced reductions in host fitness) by balancing the transmission benefits of parasite replication with the costs of host death. (pnas.org)
  • We studied a protozoan parasite of monarch butterflies and found that higher levels of within-host replication resulted in both higher virulence and greater transmission, thus lending support to the idea that selection for parasite transmission can favor parasite genotypes that cause substantial harm. (pnas.org)
  • A separate experiment confirmed genetic relationships between parasite replication and virulence, and showed that parasite genotypes from two monarch populations caused different virulence. (pnas.org)
  • These results show that selection on parasite transmission can explain why parasites harm their hosts, and suggest that constraints imposed by host ecology can lead to population divergence in parasite virulence. (pnas.org)
  • By definition, parasites cause harm to their hosts (i.e., they cause virulence), but explaining why they do so remains a challenge for evolutionary biologists. (pnas.org)
  • The most popular evolutionary explanation asserts that virulence is an unavoidable consequence of selection to maximize parasite fitness ( 9 ⇓ ⇓ ⇓ ⇓ ⇓ ⇓ ⇓ - 17 ). (pnas.org)
  • Parasites thus face a trade-off between the benefits of increased replication (i.e., increased transmission rate) and the costs (i.e., virulence or immune clearance), resulting in highest fitness at intermediate levels of parasite replication. (pnas.org)
  • A small number of studies have shown positive relationships between within-host replication and virulence ( 21 ) and between virulence and parasite transmission potential ( 22 ⇓ - 24 ), or have shown optimal transmission at an intermediate level of virulence ( 25 ). (pnas.org)
  • However, no studies have simultaneously quantified the relationships between within-host parasite replication, virulence, and transmission to examine support for a maximum attainable parasite fitness owing to a trade-off between the costs and benefits of parasite replication. (pnas.org)
  • Depending on the parasitic species in question, various methods of quantification allow scientists to measure the numbers of parasites present and determine the parasite load of an organism. (wikipedia.org)
  • In a study performed at the University of Georgia, it was found that beetles with higher parasite loads won more fights than those with lower parasitic loads. (wikipedia.org)
  • We hope to extract information about: parasitic load and diversity within each amphipod and amphipod and trematode population structure of as measured by SNPs. (brown.edu)
  • Many models of parasitic infections lead to an approximately Poisson distribution of parasites among hosts, in stark contrast to the highly over-dispersed distributions that are usually encountered in practice. (uzh.ch)
  • The effectiveness of diatomaceous earth (DE) as a treatment against parasites and to increase feed efficiency and egg production of organically raised free-range layer hens was evaluated in 2 breeds of commercial egg layers [Bovan Brown (BB) and Lowmann Brown (LB)] that differ in their resistance to internal parasitic infections. (fao.org)
  • some facultative (i.e., occasionally parasitic) parasites also produce them. (britannica.com)
  • Quantitative parasitology deals with measures to quantify parasite loads in samples of hosts and to make statistical comparisons of parasitism across host samples. (wikipedia.org)
  • A single parasite species usually has an aggregated distribution across host individuals, which means that most hosts harbor few parasites, while a few hosts carry the vast majority of parasite individuals. (wikipedia.org)
  • Hosts coevolve with parasites and thus generate heritable resistance to parasites, which have a net negative effect on host viability. (wikipedia.org)
  • Using a Bayesian phylogenetic comparative framework, we tested evolutionary associations between five key host traits (body size, gut length, diet breadth, habitat complexity and number of sympatric hosts) predicted to influence parasitism, together with multiple measures of parasite load. (lu.se)
  • The deterministic system describes the evolution over time of the proportions of the population with different parasite loads, and its equilibria are interpreted as typical distributions of parasites among hosts. (uzh.ch)
  • The model also reveals that hosts can evolve different behavioral responses from the same initial conditions, which highlights difficulties in using comparative analysis to detect parasite-mediated sexual selection. (pnas.org)
  • Two case studies involving trematode parasites and their freshwater hosts are used to provide empirical illustrations of the above scenarios. (biologists.org)
  • In many situations, the behavioural decisions that benefit the host may differ from those that would benefit its parasites, i.e. those behavioural choices by the host that would facilitate parasite transmission to other hosts. (biologists.org)
  • Why do parasites harm their hosts? (pnas.org)
  • Conventional wisdom holds that because parasites depend on their hosts for survival and transmission, they should evolve to become benign, yet many parasites cause harm. (pnas.org)
  • A fundamental question is why parasites that depend on hosts for their own survival and transmission cause disease or even kill their hosts. (pnas.org)
  • Parasites must replicate within hosts to produce transmission stages, but this also consumes host resources, damages host tissues, and provokes immune clearance, thereby shortening the infectious period over which transmission can take place. (pnas.org)
  • It is becoming increasingly clear that an appreciation of tolerance as a defence strategy can provide significant insights into how hosts coexist with parasites. (fu-berlin.de)
  • Theoretical studies have shown that demographic stochasticity produces aggregated distributions of parasites in infected hosts [ 3 - 5 ]. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • Here, we examine aggregation levels for aquatic parasites reported in the literature to see if, indeed, there is a general association between aggregation and the presence or absence of earlier hosts in the life cycle. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • Resource availability can drive epidemics via traits of hosts and parasites that govern disease spread. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • Thirdly, resources should fuel parasite reproduction within hosts. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • The principles they describe, however, could apply to any organism that hosts parasites, including humans. (ucsd.edu)
  • This parasite has two developmental stages, an extracellular promastigote form present in the insect vector and an intracellular amastigote form predominantly located inside phagolysosomes of macrophages in mammalian hosts. (asm.org)
  • For all we know, the nicotine and other chemicals in the cigarette butt fluff were able to drive away parasites by killing off their hosts--the nestlings themselves. (scientificamerican.com)
  • This mRNA population provides the developing ookinete with coding potential for key molecules required for life-cycle progression, and that are likely to be critical for the transmission of the malaria parasite from the rodent and the human host to the mosquito vector. (nih.gov)
  • This results in a lessened parasite load in the animal, and less eggs put back into the pasture from the animal. (ncsu.edu)
  • When animals have a heavy parasite load, they shed eggs through their feces. (ncsu.edu)
  • With too many animals defecating in one area, the amount of eggs on the pasture has the potential to skyrocket, and if animals are grazed on this pasture when these eggs hatch, so will the parasite load in these animals. (ncsu.edu)
  • If you want a pasture that it totally 'clean' to graze your animals, the pasture needs to rest for roughly 12 months to allow all of the parasite eggs and larvae to die off. (ncsu.edu)
  • The aim of this study is to present the PCR reamplification (Re- PCR ) protocol for the detection of Schistosoma mansoni in samples with low parasite load (with less than 100 eggs per gram (epg) of feces ). (bvsalud.org)
  • Goats come into contact with parasite eggs through field grazing. (tractorsupply.com)
  • This is where the parasite eggs live, and an un-wormed goat is highly susceptible to intestinal parasites. (tractorsupply.com)
  • A new analysis of a medieval cesspit in the Christian quarter of the old city of Jerusalem has revealed the presence of a number of ancient parasite eggs, providing a window into the nature and spread of infectious diseases in the Middle East during the 15th century. (eurekalert.org)
  • The team used a combination of microscopy and biomolecular analysis (ELISA) - to uncover parasite eggs - on 12 'coprolites': fossilised faeces, and some cesspit sediment. (eurekalert.org)
  • The researchers also found quantities of Taenia parasite eggs, indicating pork or beef tapeworm. (eurekalert.org)
  • This research highlights how we can use preserved parasite eggs in ancient toilets to spot past migrations and the spread of ancient diseases. (eurekalert.org)
  • They are picked up by drinking or eating something that has nearly invisible parasite eggs on them, like contaminated food or water. (aplaceformom.com)
  • Fecal (stool) exam called an ova and parasite test that looks for eggs or live parasites in your stool. (aplaceformom.com)
  • Whether the nest held eggs, chicks, or nothing, the unsmoked traps collected more parasites, suggesting that the desire to stay away from smoked cigarette filters outweighed the urge to move towards the heat in the experimental nests. (scientificamerican.com)
  • To gain more insight into the biology of T. vivax , its interactions with the host and consequently its pathogenesis, we have developed a number of reproducible murine models using a parasite isolate that is infectious for rodents. (plos.org)
  • Coevolution also leads to new predictions for the role of several host and parasite traits on selection for mate choice that will guide future experimental and comparative work. (pnas.org)
  • The multidimensional nature of host manipulation has only recently been recognised: parasites do not target single host traits, but instead suites of interrelated traits. (biologists.org)
  • Structural equation modelling revealed that resource availability stimulated all three traits (host fecundity, host size and parasite load). (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • The digestive manifestations of CD are quite diverse, and this diversity is related to the host immune response, environmental and genetic factors, and the parasite itself. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Some parasites that survive undergo stage conversion to BZs, a process that may be induced by the immune response itself ( 4 ). (jimmunol.org)
  • Another characteristic of Toxoplasma persistence is that the parasite persists in the face of a long-lasting anti- Toxoplasma immune response. (jimmunol.org)
  • How does parasite cleansing boost your immune system? (microbeformulas.com)
  • A panel of 192 candidate and control SNPs were then typed in 960 individual Soay sheep to examine whether they individually explained variation in parasite burden, as measured as faecal egg count, as well as two immune measures (Teladorsagia circumcincta-specific antibodies and antinuclear antibodies). (nih.gov)
  • Furthermore, no significant difference was found between the proportions of candidate or control SNPs that were found to be significantly associated with parasite burden/immune measures. (nih.gov)
  • Various infectious diseases, such as acquired immune deficiency syndrome and hepatitis C, have a clear correlation between microorganism load and disease outcome (Ghany et al. (fiocruz.br)
  • Parasites have evolved host-specific molecular mechanisms to dampen or condition the excessive immune responses against them and thus survive. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • Our elders can be at an increased risk for complications from intestinal parasites because of their weakened immune systems. (aplaceformom.com)
  • The elderly can be at an increased risk for complications from parasites because of their weakened immune systems. (aplaceformom.com)
  • Therefore, we highlight the importance of host population density and habitat composition in shaping the role of introduced parakeets in the spread of both native and introduced parasites, recommending the monitoring of urban populations of birds and their parasites to assess and manage the potential occurrence of parasite-mediated competition dynamics as well as potential spread of vector-borne diseases. (springer.com)
  • Two of the parasites detected, Entamoeba dysentery and fish tapeworm, were common in northern Europe in the medieval period, but either very rare or almost completely absent among the populations of the medieval Middle East. (eurekalert.org)
  • Parasites are arguably the most common life form on earth ( 1 ), and understanding their evolution has increasing relevance for predicting their effects on human, agricultural, and wild populations ( 2 ⇓ ⇓ ⇓ ⇓ ⇓ - 8 ). (pnas.org)
  • This results in populations with lower parasite loads. (wikipedia.org)
  • Wolinska, Justyna 2018-01-01 00:00:00 According to the Red Queen hypothesis, clonal diversity in asexual populations could be maintained by negative frequency‐dependant selection by coevolving parasites. (deepdyve.com)
  • Significant differences in the clonal composition between random and infected subsamples of Daphnia populations were detected on six of seven tested occasions, confirming genetic specificity of the host-parasite interaction in this system. (deepdyve.com)
  • Most free-living organisms are aggregated in the environment, but parasites are an extreme case, almost always highly aggregated in their host populations. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • Parasites can profoundly affect host populations and ecological communities. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • In insects, susceptibility to parasite load has been linked to genetic variation in the insect colony. (wikipedia.org)
  • Adler says results may have implications for growers who depend on pollinators, who may want to think about planting pollinator-friendly hedgerows and gardens containing plants that produce natural herbal remedies for some of the common parasites and diseases that ail bees and other pollinating insects. (eurekalert.org)
  • Seven days later, they measured the parasite load in the insects' intestines. (eurekalert.org)
  • Coccidian parasites are protozoans belonging to the phylum Apicomplexa 6 and were known historically to be pathogenic mainly to some animal species, including insects, birds and non-human primates. (scielo.org.za)
  • Alternatively, the " nest protection " hypothesis suggests that the plant chemicals act as insecticides, driving parasites and other harmful insects from the nest. (scientificamerican.com)
  • Numerous studies have been done looking at the effects of number of parasites present in a host and how this correlates with behaviors such as foraging, migration, and competitive behavior. (wikipedia.org)
  • Hamilton and Zuk (1982) suggested that females of species could base their choice of mates on heritable resistance to parasites. (wikipedia.org)
  • Less parasites mean less resistance to dewormers, and a more efficient and effective deworming system. (ncsu.edu)
  • Several treatment options are available, and these either show severe side effects (pentavalent antimonials, miltefosine, amphotericin B [AMB]), are unaffordable (liposomal amphotericin B), or lead to parasite resistance (pentavalent antimonials) ( 2 ). (asm.org)
  • Comparative studies of parasite load have largely examined measures of parasite species richness and are predominantly based on records obtained from published data. (lu.se)
  • Meanwhile, understanding of parasite species richness may be clouded by limitations associated with data collation from multiple independent sources. (lu.se)
  • These cells secrete IFN-γ, which activates phagocytic cells, such as neutrophils, macrophages, and dendritic cells (DCs), to release reactive oxygen species (ROS) and nitric oxide (NO). These mediators lead to the death of the parasites ( 5 , 6 ). (frontiersin.org)
  • Moreover, contact-dependent mechanisms that enable parasite elimination during the interaction of Lb-infected macrophages with live neutrophils are associated with TNF-α and superoxide production. (jimmunol.org)
  • Here, we investigated whether a deficit in early maturation of inflammatory monocytes into macrophages in BALB/c mice underlies increased susceptibility to L. major versus L. braziliensis parasites. (frontiersin.org)
  • Nonetheless, more mature macrophages from B6 mice expressed inducible NO synthase (iNOS) and higher NO production in response to L. braziliensis parasites, whereas BALB/c mice developed macrophages expressing an incomplete M1 phenotype. (frontiersin.org)
  • Unexpectedly, treatment with ATRA reduced proinflammatory cytokines, iNOS expression, and parasite killing by macrophages. (frontiersin.org)
  • High parasite load-bearing mice more rapidly and strongly developed parasitemia. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Blood parasite load (parasitemia) has been considered the main determinant of outward transmission potential and as a surrogate measure of host infectiousness in VL 8 . (nature.com)
  • The median parasitemia found in patients from Argentina and Colombia (1.93 and 2.31 parasite equivalents/mL, respectively) was around 20 times higher than the one estimated for the Brazilian patients (0.1 parasite equivalents/mL). (curehunter.com)
  • UMass Amherst evolutionary ecologist Lynn Adler says, "We found that eating some of these compounds reduced pathogen load in the bumblebee's gut, which not only may help the individual bees, but likely reduced the pathogen Crithidia spore load in their feces, which in turn should lead to a lower likelihood of transmitting the disease to other bees. (eurekalert.org)
  • The clinical progression in leishmaniasis is associated with the occurrence of hemorrhagic diathesis , which depends not only on the presence of the parasite but also the inflammatory process, compromised immunological response, hepatic and renal failure in symptomatic dogs . (bvsalud.org)
  • Variable gene expression and parasite load predict treatment outcome in cutaneous leishmaniasis. (nih.gov)
  • Disease control relies heavily on the early diagnosis and treatment of the active cases (relevant for anthroponotic disease), although it is widely accepted that a prophylactic vaccine for human leishmaniasis is the way to achieve the successful elimination of human disease (taking in consideration the vast list of non-human reservoirs that enable the perpetuation of parasites all around the globe). (intechopen.com)
  • These findings indicate that there is ample time for host and parasite to interact at the inoculation site and are of relevance to the pre-erythrocytic stage malaria vaccine effort. (wiley.com)
  • We show how coevolution leads to a wide range of dynamics, including cycling and stable strategies, and that this resolves a key criticism of the role of parasites in mate choice: that parasites will evolve to be avirulent, thus reducing their impact on mating strategies. (pnas.org)
  • The hour of the day exerted a very strong effect on propagule counts, excretion of both types of parasites showing a clear and constant increase from dawn to dusk. (cambridge.org)
  • Make sure that you and your parent or senior loved one are aware of common types of parasites and how they are spread. (aplaceformom.com)
  • It is well understood that parasitism may help to explain the evolution of mating strategies, but host behavior is, in turn, critical to the transmission and therefore the evolution of parasites. (pnas.org)
  • Parasites are thought to play an important role in sexual selection and the evolution of mating strategies, which in turn are likely to be critical to the transmission and therefore the evolution of parasites. (pnas.org)
  • This gap in empirical data from naturally occurring host-parasite systems has led some authors to conclude that the trade-off theory may be too narrow a view of the evolution of parasites ( 20 , 26 ). (pnas.org)
  • In evolutionary biology, parasite load has important implications for sexual selection and the evolution of sex, as well as openness to experience. (wikipedia.org)
  • One important question to be addressed concerns the effectiveness of BZ in reducing overall parasite load in CCC patients, even in the absence of parasitological cure. (curehunter.com)
  • Although much about the pathophysiological process of Chagas disease is already known, the influence of the parasite burden on the inflammatory process and disease progression remains uncertain. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Similarly, in bird species with long caeca, consistent collection of one type of faeces may avoid significant errors in parasite burden estimates. (cambridge.org)
  • Here, we test the application of the candidate gene approach to identify the loci involved in variation in gastrointestinal parasite burden, a complex trait likely to be controlled by many loci, in a wild population of Soay sheep. (nih.gov)
  • Comparison between the parasite burden of 150 GEB samples of BENEFIT patients from Argentina, Brazil and Colombia, prior to drug/placebo administration, was performed using Cruzi1/Cruzi2 primers in a SYBR Green approach. (curehunter.com)
  • Although the public health importance of P. vivax is overshadowed by P. falciparum , it is the most important parasite in Asia and South America. (hindawi.com)
  • 2010). Both studies used microscopic methods for parasite quantification, which have limitations due to the invasive procedures required to obtain the spleen and BM aspirates and the excessive time required for the analysis of these samples (da Silva et al. (fiocruz.br)
  • We analysed the effect of the hour of sample collection on propagule counts of 2 intestinal parasites infecting the red-legged partridge: the capillarid nematode Aonchoteca caudinflata and coccidia of the genus Eimeria (Protozoa). (cambridge.org)
  • Hechinger describes parasites as the "dark matter" of ecosystems: they are ubiquitous and a key component of energy flow through those systems, but their ecological function is often overlooked. (ucsd.edu)
  • Some bacteria are obligate parasites and grow only within a living host cell. (britannica.com)
  • Obligate parasite s, which require living cytoplasm and have extremely specialized nutritional requirements, are exceptionally difficult, and often impossible, to grow in a culture dish in a laboratory. (britannica.com)
  • Enhanced transmission of drug-resistant parasites to mosquitoes following drug treatment in rodent malaria. (nih.gov)
  • Experiments also suggest that parasites and diseases may directly affect song characteristics such as song rate, which thereby act as reliable indicators of health. (wikipedia.org)
  • If establishing a new herd for organic production, breeding stock with high health status will prevent the depressed pig performance typically caused by diseases and parasites. (umn.edu)
  • The liver parasite load of 30 dogs L. infantum chagasi naturally-infected was evaluated by quantitative real- time PCR and the results were compared with serum biochemistry and primary and secondary hemostasis findings. (bvsalud.org)
  • While this method is not as practical for those that have only one species on the farm, or have no desire to add another species on the pasture, multi-species grazing can lessen the parasite load on pastures. (ncsu.edu)
  • The parasite load on the pasture is spread out over multiple animals of multiple species. (ncsu.edu)
  • Best practice is keeping livestock off of a pasture for 4-6 weeks before grazing, as the life span of parasites vary between species, and with temperature and conditions. (ncsu.edu)
  • Pasture rotation to minimize parasite load on pigs. (umn.edu)
  • We tend to scratch our heads about what new combo of dewormer to use, when the best time to deworm is, how to make our dewormers more effective, but maybe our thinking should focus more on "how can I adjust my management practices to decrease the parasite load on the farm in addition to dewormer? (ncsu.edu)
  • Strong dewormers may cause a massive die-off of parasites, which can lead to an impaction and colic. (equisearch.com)
  • Apart from these, studies from Indonesia, Papua New Guinea, Latine America Guyana, India, and Ethiopia show a strong association of this parasite with severe malaria symptoms [ 6 - 11 ]. (hindawi.com)