Parasite Egg Count: Determination of parasite eggs in feces.Hymenolepis: A genus of small tapeworms of birds and mammals.Schistosoma mansoni: A species of trematode blood flukes of the family Schistosomatidae. It is common in the Nile delta. The intermediate host is the planorbid snail. This parasite causes schistosomiasis mansoni and intestinal bilharziasis.Nematode Infections: Infections by nematodes, general or unspecified.Schistosomiasis mansoni: Schistosomiasis caused by Schistosoma mansoni. It is endemic in Africa, the Middle East, South America, and the Caribbean and affects mainly the bowel, spleen, and liver.Ovum: A mature haploid female germ cell extruded from the OVARY at OVULATION.Trichuris: A genus of nematode worms comprising the whipworms.Schistosomiasis: Infection with flukes (trematodes) of the genus SCHISTOSOMA. Three species produce the most frequent clinical diseases: SCHISTOSOMA HAEMATOBIUM (endemic in Africa and the Middle East), SCHISTOSOMA MANSONI (in Egypt, northern and southern Africa, some West Indies islands, northern 2/3 of South America), and SCHISTOSOMA JAPONICUM (in Japan, China, the Philippines, Celebes, Thailand, Laos). S. mansoni is often seen in Puerto Ricans living in the United States.Parasites: Invertebrate organisms that live on or in another organism (the host), and benefit at the expense of the other. Traditionally excluded from definition of parasites are pathogenic BACTERIA; FUNGI; VIRUSES; and PLANTS; though they may live parasitically.Antigens, Helminth: Any part or derivative of a helminth that elicits an immune reaction. The most commonly seen helminth antigens are those of the schistosomes.Intestinal Diseases, Parasitic: Infections of the INTESTINES with PARASITES, commonly involving PARASITIC WORMS. Infections with roundworms (NEMATODE INFECTIONS) and tapeworms (CESTODE INFECTIONS) are also known as HELMINTHIASIS.Toxocara: A genus of ascarid nematodes commonly parasitic in the intestines of cats and dogs.Feces: Excrement from the INTESTINES, containing unabsorbed solids, waste products, secretions, and BACTERIA of the DIGESTIVE SYSTEM.Paleopathology: The study of disease in prehistoric times as revealed in bones, mummies, and archaeologic artifacts.Ascaris: A genus of nematodes of the superfamily ASCARIDOIDEA whose species usually inhabit the intestine.Haemonchiasis: Infection with nematodes of the genus HAEMONCHUS, characterized by digestive abnormalities and anemia similar to that from hookworm infestation.Granuloma: A relatively small nodular inflammatory lesion containing grouped mononuclear phagocytes, caused by infectious and noninfectious agents.Haemonchus: A genus of parasitic nematode worms which infest the duodenum and stomach of domestic and wild herbivores, which ingest it with the grasses (POACEAE) they eat. Infestation of man is accidental.Trichostrongyloidiasis: Infection by roundworms of the superfamily TRICHOSTRONGYLOIDEA, including the genera TRICHOSTRONGYLUS; OSTERTAGIA; Cooperia, HAEMONCHUS; Nematodirus, Hyostrongylus, and DICTYOCAULUS.Helminthiasis, Animal: Infestation of animals with parasitic worms of the helminth class. The infestation may be experimental or veterinary.Anthelmintics: Agents destructive to parasitic worms. They are used therapeutically in the treatment of HELMINTHIASIS in man and animal.Hookworm Infections: Infection of humans or animals with hookworms other than those caused by the genus Ancylostoma or Necator, for which the specific terms ANCYLOSTOMIASIS and NECATORIASIS are available.Sheep Diseases: Diseases of domestic and mountain sheep of the genus Ovis.Parasitic Diseases, Animal: Infections or infestations with parasitic organisms. The infestation may be experimental or veterinary.Ostertagia: A genus of parasitic nematodes occurring in the stomach of ruminants.Ostertagiasis: A disease of herbivorous mammals, particularly cattle and sheep, caused by stomach worms of the genus OSTERTAGIA.Antinematodal Agents: Substances used in the treatment or control of nematode infestations. They are used also in veterinary practice.Strongyloidea: A superfamily of strongyles or roundworms which are parasites in the intestinal tract of equines, pigs, rodents, and primates (including man). It includes the genera Cyasthostomum, Ransomus, Globocephalus, OESOPHAGOSTOMUM, and STRONGYLUS.Schistosomiasis haematobia: A human disease caused by the infection of parasitic worms SCHISTOSOMA HAEMATOBIUM. It is endemic in AFRICA and parts of the MIDDLE EAST. Tissue damages most often occur in the URINARY TRACT, specifically the URINARY BLADDER.Trichostrongyloidea: A superfamily of nematodes. Most are intestinal parasites of ruminants and accidentally in humans. This superfamily includes seven genera: DICTYOCAULUS; HAEMONCHUS; Cooperia, OSTERTAGIA; Nematodirus, TRICHOSTRONGYLUS; and Hyostrongylus.Egg Yolk: Cytoplasm stored in an egg that contains nutritional reserves for the developing embryo. It is rich in polysaccharides, lipids, and proteins.Trichuriasis: Infection with nematodes of the genus TRICHURIS, formerly called Trichocephalus.Host-Parasite Interactions: The relationship between an invertebrate and another organism (the host), one of which lives at the expense of the other. Traditionally excluded from definition of parasites are pathogenic BACTERIA; FUNGI; VIRUSES; and PLANTS; though they may live parasitically.Ancylostomatoidea: A superfamily of nematode parasitic hookworms consisting of four genera: ANCYLOSTOMA; NECATOR; Bunostomum; and Uncinaria. ANCYLOSTOMA and NECATOR occur in humans and other mammals. Bunostomum is common in ruminants and Uncinaria in wolves, foxes, and dogs.Nematoda: A class of unsegmented helminths with fundamental bilateral symmetry and secondary triradiate symmetry of the oral and esophageal structures. Many species are parasites.Schistosomicides: Agents that act systemically to kill adult schistosomes.Trichostrongylosis: Infestation with nematode worms of the genus TRICHOSTRONGYLUS. Man and animals become infected by swallowing larvae, usually with contaminated food or drink, although the larvae may penetrate human skin.Strongyle Infections, Equine: Infection of horses with parasitic nematodes of the superfamily STRONGYLOIDEA. Characteristics include the development of hemorrhagic nodules on the abdominal peritoneum.Parasite Load: Measure of the number of the PARASITES present in a host organism.Ascariasis: Infection by nematodes of the genus ASCARIS. Ingestion of infective eggs causes diarrhea and pneumonitis. Its distribution is more prevalent in areas of poor sanitation and where human feces are used for fertilizer.Strongylida: An order of nematodes of the subclass SECERNENTEA. Characteristics include an H-shaped excretory system with two subventral glands.Praziquantel: An anthelmintic used in most schistosome and many cestode infestations.Ivermectin: A mixture of mostly avermectin H2B1a (RN 71827-03-7) with some avermectin H2B1b (RN 70209-81-3), which are macrolides from STREPTOMYCES avermitilis. It binds glutamate-gated chloride channel to cause increased permeability and hyperpolarization of nerve and muscle cells. It also interacts with other CHLORIDE CHANNELS. It is a broad spectrum antiparasitic that is active against microfilariae of ONCHOCERCA VOLVULUS but not the adult form.Oesophagostomiasis: Infection of the intestinal tract with worms of the genus OESOPHAGOSTOMUM. This condition occurs mainly in animals other than man.Plasmodium falciparum: A species of protozoa that is the causal agent of falciparum malaria (MALARIA, FALCIPARUM). It is most prevalent in the tropics and subtropics.Schistosoma japonicum: A species of trematode blood flukes belonging to the family Schistosomatidae whose distribution is confined to areas of the Far East. The intermediate host is a snail. It occurs in man and other mammals.Ascaris lumbricoides: A species of parasitic nematode that is the largest found in the human intestine. Its distribution is worldwide, but it is more prevalent in areas of poor sanitation. Human infection with A. lumbricoides is acquired by swallowing fully embryonated eggs from contaminated soil.Leukocyte Count: The number of WHITE BLOOD CELLS per unit volume in venous BLOOD. A differential leukocyte count measures the relative numbers of the different types of white cells.Protozoan Proteins: Proteins found in any species of protozoan.Trichostrongylus: A genus of parasitic nematodes found in the digestive tract of herbivorous animals. They cause incidental infections in humans from the following species: Trichostrongylus colubriformis, T. orientalis, T. axei, and T. probolurus.Egg Proteins: Proteins which are found in eggs (OVA) from any species.Antibodies, Helminth: Immunoglobulins produced in a response to HELMINTH ANTIGENS.Albendazole: A benzimidazole broad-spectrum anthelmintic structurally related to MEBENDAZOLE that is effective against many diseases. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p38)Helminths: Commonly known as parasitic worms, this group includes the ACANTHOCEPHALA; NEMATODA; and PLATYHELMINTHS. Some authors consider certain species of LEECHES that can become temporarily parasitic as helminths.Cellophane: A generic name for film produced from wood pulp by the viscose process. It is a thin, transparent sheeting of regenerated cellulose, moisture-proof and sometimes dyed, and used chiefly as food wrapping or as bags for dialysis. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed & McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Schistosomiasis japonica: Schistosomiasis caused by Schistosoma japonicum. It is endemic in the Far East and affects the bowel, liver, and spleen.Clonorchis sinensis: A species of trematode flukes of the family Opisthorchidae. Many authorities consider this genus belonging to Opisthorchis. It is common in China and other Asiatic countries. Snails and fish are the intermediate hosts.Egg Shell: A hard or leathery calciferous exterior covering of an egg.Goat Diseases: Diseases of the domestic or wild goat of the genus Capra.Egg White: The white of an egg, especially a chicken's egg, used in cooking. It contains albumin. (Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed)Ancylostoma: A genus of nematode intestinal parasites that consists of several species. A. duodenale is the common hookworm in humans. A. braziliense, A. ceylonicum, and A. caninum occur primarily in cats and dogs, but all have been known to occur in humans.CD4 Lymphocyte Count: The number of CD4-POSITIVE T-LYMPHOCYTES per unit volume of BLOOD. Determination requires the use of a fluorescence-activated flow cytometer.Clonorchiasis: Infection of the biliary passages with CLONORCHIS SINENSIS, also called Opisthorchis sinensis. It may lead to inflammation of the biliary tract, proliferation of biliary epithelium, progressive portal fibrosis, and sometimes bile duct carcinoma. Extension to the liver may lead to fatty changes and cirrhosis. (From Dorland, 27th ed)Hepatomegaly: Enlargement of the liver.Parasitology: The study of parasites and PARASITIC DISEASES.Platelet Count: The number of PLATELETS per unit volume in a sample of venous BLOOD.Helminthiasis: Infestation with parasitic worms of the helminth class.Helminth Proteins: Proteins found in any species of helminth.Fascioliasis: Liver disease caused by infections with parasitic flukes of the genus FASCIOLA, such as FASCIOLA HEPATICA.Senegal: A republic in western Africa, southwest of MAURITANIA and east of MALI. Its capital is Dakar.Malaria: A protozoan disease caused in humans by four species of the PLASMODIUM genus: PLASMODIUM FALCIPARUM; PLASMODIUM VIVAX; PLASMODIUM OVALE; and PLASMODIUM MALARIAE; and transmitted by the bite of an infected female mosquito of the genus ANOPHELES. Malaria is endemic in parts of Asia, Africa, Central and South America, Oceania, and certain Caribbean islands. It is characterized by extreme exhaustion associated with paroxysms of high FEVER; SWEATING; shaking CHILLS; and ANEMIA. Malaria in ANIMALS is caused by other species of plasmodia.Goats: Any of numerous agile, hollow-horned RUMINANTS of the genus Capra, in the family Bovidae, closely related to the SHEEP.Schistosoma: A genus of trematode flukes belonging to the family Schistosomatidae. There are over a dozen species. These parasites are found in man and other mammals. Snails are the intermediate hosts.Toxoplasma: A genus of protozoa parasitic to birds and mammals. T. gondii is one of the most common infectious pathogenic animal parasites of man.Strongyloides: A genus of parasitic nematodes widely distributed as intestinal parasites of mammals.Malaria, Falciparum: Malaria caused by PLASMODIUM FALCIPARUM. This is the severest form of malaria and is associated with the highest levels of parasites in the blood. This disease is characterized by irregularly recurring febrile paroxysms that in extreme cases occur with acute cerebral, renal, or gastrointestinal manifestations.Life Cycle Stages: The continuous sequence of changes undergone by living organisms during the post-embryonic developmental process, such as metamorphosis in insects and amphibians. This includes the developmental stages of apicomplexans such as the malarial parasite, PLASMODIUM FALCIPARUM.Apicomplexa: A phylum of unicellular parasitic EUKARYOTES characterized by the presence of complex apical organelles generally consisting of a conoid that aids in penetrating host cells, rhoptries that possibly secrete a proteolytic enzyme, and subpellicular microtubules that may be related to motility.Oxamniquine: An anthelmintic with schistosomicidal activity against Schistosoma mansoni, but not against other Schistosoma spp. Oxamniquine causes worms to shift from the mesenteric veins to the liver where the male worms are retained; the female worms return to the mesentery, but can no longer release eggs. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 31st ed, p121)Abomasum: The fourth stomach of ruminating animals. It is also called the "true" stomach. It is an elongated pear-shaped sac lying on the floor of the abdomen, on the right-hand side, and roughly between the seventh and twelfth ribs. It leads to the beginning of the small intestine. (From Black's Veterinary Dictionary, 17th ed)Sheep: Any of the ruminant mammals with curved horns in the genus Ovis, family Bovidae. They possess lachrymal grooves and interdigital glands, which are absent in GOATS.DNA, Protozoan: Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of protozoa.Cattle Diseases: Diseases of domestic cattle of the genus Bos. It includes diseases of cows, yaks, and zebus.Mebendazole: A benzimidazole that acts by interfering with CARBOHYDRATE METABOLISM and inhibiting polymerization of MICROTUBULES.Fasciola: A genus of trematode liver flukes of the family Fasciolidae. Two species of this genus are F. hepatica and F. gigantica. The parasites are found in the liver and gallbladder and associated ducts in mammals and occasionally man. F. gigantica occurs rarely in man.Egypt: A country in northern Africa, bordering the Mediterranean Sea, between Libya and the Gaza Strip, and the Red Sea north of Sudan, and includes the Asian Sinai Peninsula Its capital is Cairo.Antigens, Protozoan: Any part or derivative of any protozoan that elicits immunity; malaria (Plasmodium) and trypanosome antigens are presently the most frequently encountered.Trypanosoma cruzi: The agent of South American trypanosomiasis or CHAGAS DISEASE. Its vertebrate hosts are man and various domestic and wild animals. Insects of several species are vectors.Parasitic Diseases: Infections or infestations with parasitic organisms. They are often contracted through contact with an intermediate vector, but may occur as the result of direct exposure.Antimalarials: Agents used in the treatment of malaria. They are usually classified on the basis of their action against plasmodia at different stages in their life cycle in the human. (From AMA, Drug Evaluations Annual, 1992, p1585)Trematoda: Class of parasitic flukes consisting of three subclasses, Monogenea, Aspidogastrea, and Digenea. The digenetic trematodes are the only ones found in man. They are endoparasites and require two hosts to complete their life cycle.

Strongyle infections in ponies. I. Response to intermittent thiabendazole treatments. (1/925)

A group of seven ponies naturally infected with large numbers of small strongyles and raised under conditions to minimize reinfection were treated periodically over a three year span with thiabendazole at the rate of 44 mg/kg body weight. Based on the absence of worm eggs in the feces following each treatment, thiabendazole removed the adult strongyles present with a new population subsequently developing by maturation of inhibited larvae. It took as many as four or five treatments to eliminate or reduce significantly the worm burdens present in the ponies under the conditions of this study. Strongyle eggs started to reappear in the feces about six weeks after treatment and following the first treatment the mean egg counts rose to the pretreatment level. On successive treatments the interval for worm eggs to appear in the feces lengthened and mean egg counts never rose quite as high as immediate pretreatment levels. Hematological changes were not marked, although a small steady increase in the mean hemoglobin values and an equivalent small decrease in the mean eosinophil counts occurred in all ponies following each successive treatment. The study supports the rationale of regular anthelmintic treatment of horses in that even in the absence of reinfection, new burdens of adult worms develop following treatment.  (+info)

Strongyle infections in ponies. II. Reinfection of treated animals. (2/925)

Five of seven ponies whose strongyle worm burdens had previously been removed or markedly reduced by repeated thiabendazole treatments were reinfected with doses ranging from 100,000 to 500,000 small strongyle infective larvae. Reinfection of ponies resulted in the development of clinical signs characterized by abnormal feces, marked loss of weight and delayed shedding of winter hair coats. An abrupt increase in circulating eosinophils occurred during the first three weeks following reinfection. Patent infections developed in all ponies with worm eggs appearing in the feces from 12 to 15 weeks after receiving infective larvae. Worm egg outputs followed a cyclic pattern with approximately four to five peaks in egg output per year. There was an abrupt drop in the high worm egg counts in two untreated ponies approximately two and a half years after reinfection. No worms were recovered in the feces of these animals when they were subsequently treated, suggesting that a depletion in the number of inhibited larvae present in these ponies might have occurred.  (+info)

Congenital transmission of Schistosoma japonicum in pigs. (3/925)

Congenital transmission of Schistosoma japonicum in pigs was investigated by experimentally infecting sows at four weeks gestation (n = 3), 10 weeks gestation (n = 3), or a few weeks prior to insemination (n = 2). None of the piglets born to sows infected prior to insemination or in early pregnancy were found to be infected. However, all of the piglets (n = 26) born to sows infected at 10 weeks gestation were found to harbor schistosomes with S. japonicum eggs recovered from both their feces and livers. The findings show that congenital S. japonicum infection of pigs can occur if sows are infected during mid-to-late pregnancy and may have important implications not only for pigs but also for other mammalian hosts of schistosomes, including humans.  (+info)

Enterotoxin-producing bacteria and parasites in stools of Ethiopian children with diarrhoeal disease. (4/925)

Enterotoxinogenic bacteria were isolated from 131 (37%) of 354 Ethiopian infants and children with acute gastrointestinal symptoms. Only one of these isolates belonged to the classical enteropathogenic serotypes of Esch. coli. Two colonies from each patient were isolated and tested for production of enterotoxin by the rabbit ileal loop test, the rabbit skin test, and an adrenal cell assay. However, only 38% of the isolated enterotoxinogenic strains were Esch. coli; the others belonged to Klebsiella, Enterobacter, Proteus, Citrobacter, Serratia, and Aeromonas. In 18 patients both isolates were toxinogenic and belonged to different species. The incidence of intestinal parasites was 35% with no apparent correlation to the occurrence of toxinogenic bacteria in the stools.  (+info)

Effects of in vitro culture methods on morphological development and infectivity of Strongyloides venezuelensis filariform larvae. (5/925)

The effects of in vitro culture methods on morphological development and infectivity of Strongyloides venezuelensis filariform larvae (L3) to rats were investigated. A significantly higher body length was observed in L3 from filter paper culture (597.3 +/- 32.2 microns) than those in fecal (509.9 +/- 35.0 microns) and nutrient broth culture (503.3 +/- 31.0 microns) (P < 0.05). Larval infectivity was assessed by exposing rats to 1,000 L3 from each culture and worms were recovered from the lungs and small intestines. Recovery rate of these worms did not show any significant difference. A significantly greater body length of adults was recorded in those corresponding to the L3 harvested from filter paper (2,777.5 +/- 204.4 microns) and nutrient broth culture (2,732.5 +/- 169.8 microns) than those corresponding to the L3 obtained from fecal culture (2,600.5 +/- 172.4 microns) (P < 0.05). Although worm fecundity and EPG counts differed among culture methods but worm burdens and course of infection did not. These findings suggest that the methods of cultures have a significant effect on the morphological development of the larvae to the L3 stage, but do not influence the infectivity to rats.  (+info)

Survey of Fascioloides magna in farmed wapiti in Alberta. (6/925)

The formalin-ethyl acetate sedimentation procedure was used to detect ova of the giant liver fluke, Fascioloides magna, in feces of farmed wapiti in Alberta. Twenty (3.2%) of the 629 fecal samples examined contained ova of F. magna. Thirteen (33.3%) of the 39 farms surveyed had wapiti positive for F. magna. The presence of F. magna in farmed wapiti north of the North Saskatchewan River is confirmed, and 3 areas where the infection has become endemic are identified.  (+info)

Independent evaluation of the Nigrosin-Eosin modification of the Kato-Katz technique. (7/925)

A new modified quantitative Kato-Katz thick-smear technique for the detection of helminth eggs in faeces preserves hookworm eggs unaltered for a long time, while with the classic Kato-Katz technique, they disappear after approximately 2 h in tropical climates and thus slides must be read within hours after sample collection. For an independent comparison of these two laboratory techniques, faecal smears from 263 school children were examined in two surveys and prevalence, intensity of infection and costs of surveys calculated. There was no statistical difference between the methods in detecting prevalence and stratification of the sample in different classes of intensity. While there was no statistical difference for the arithmetic mean of the epg for T. trichiura and only a small difference for A. lumbricoides (P=0.04), we observed a highly significant difference for hookworm mean intensities of infections (P<0.001). From the public health viewpoint both methods provided similar results, but due to its simplicity and widespread use the classical Kato-Katz technique remains first choice for community investigation of soil-transmitted nematodes. However, the Nigrosin-Eosin approach has several advantages and can be a valuable alternative in certain circumstances.  (+info)

Effect of anthelmintic treatment on sexual maturation in prepubertal beef heifers. (8/925)

Heifers treated with ivermectin at weaning have been reported to reach puberty at a younger age and lighter weight than untreated heifers. We tested the hypothesis that heifers administered ivermectin would respond with earlier follicular development and a greater LH response to a 1-mg estradiol-17beta challenge (E2C) than untreated heifers. Fall-born Angus heifers (n = 32) were randomly assigned on 284 +/- 9 d of age (215.5 +/- 20.8 kg) to receive ivermectin (IVR) or albendazole (ALB), IVR + ALB, or to remain as untreated controls (CONT). Each group (n = 8) was housed separately in adjacent pens throughout the trial and managed to gain .8 kg/heifer on a ration containing 13.2% CP, 58.8% TDN, and 49.9% DM. The CONT heifers received an additional 2.27 kg/heifer of corn silage and 1.59 kg/heifer of corn daily to maintain ADG at comparable levels. Individual body weight was recorded weekly, and nematode eggs per gram (EPG) of feces were measured every 21 d. Ultrasonography was performed on alternate days starting 2 wk prior to E2C to characterize follicular wave patterns. Follicles were separated into classes (C1 [3 to 5 mm], C2 [6 to 9 mm], and C3 [10 mm]) and sizes (largest [LF], second [SLF], third [TLF], and fourth largest follicles [FLF]). The sizes of the regressing dominant follicle 1 (DF1) and the progressing dominant follicle 2 (DF2) were also determined. Serum concentrations of LH were determined from hourly jugular blood samples collected 8 to 24 h after injection of E2C. The IVR + ALB treatment group had more C3 follicles than ALB and CONT (P < .07). The IVR-treated heifers had larger TLF than ALB and CONT (P < .04). The IVR- and IVR + ALB-treated heifers had larger FLF and DF2 than ALB and CONT (P < .1). Least squares means for DF2 were 9.5 +/- .5, 8.0 +/- .4, 9.5 +/- .3 and 8.3 +/- .3 mm, for IVR, ALB, IVR + ALB and CONT, respectively (P = .02 for treatment effect). The E2C-induced serum LH concentration did not differ with respect to treatment. We conclude that heifers administered IVR display increased follicular development, supporting our earlier investigations regarding reduced age at puberty in heifers treated with IVR near weaning.  (+info)

  • In SACs, the burden of GINs can be assessed using various coprological methods originally developed for domestic ruminants [ 4 ], with estimation of the number of GIN eggs per gram of faeces (faecal egg count, FEC). (
  • Here, we test the application of the candidate gene approach to identify the loci involved in variation in gastrointestinal parasite burden, a complex trait likely to be controlled by many loci, in a wild population of Soay sheep. (
  • A panel of 192 candidate and control SNPs were then typed in 960 individual Soay sheep to examine whether they individually explained variation in parasite burden, as measured as faecal egg count, as well as two immune measures (Teladorsagia circumcincta-specific antibodies and antinuclear antibodies). (
  • Furthermore, no significant difference was found between the proportions of candidate or control SNPs that were found to be significantly associated with parasite burden/immune measures. (
  • An understanding of these interactions is essential for the development of sustainable strategies to minimise the impact of the parasite burden on the host. (
  • The number of parasite eggs present in a horse's fecal sample reflects its parasite burden. (
  • Worming during June strategically reduces the parasite burden. (
  • For a long time, people assumed that if you knew an individual's parasite burden, you could perfectly predict its health and survival prospects," Graham said. (
  • During the summers of 2009 and 2010, funding provided by an NCR-SARE Research and Education grant permitted the investigation of the use of some nontraditional forages within a managed grazing system as a strategy to reduce the parasite burden in lambs. (
  • Interpretation of serum antibody response to Anoplocephala perfoliata in relation to parasite burden and faecal egg count. (
  • After 14 to 21 days, the eggs mature and enter an infective stage. (
  • The egg of the whipworm is the infective stage, and favorable conditions for its maturation are warm and humid climate. (
  • In domesticated animals, parasitism is also very common, but it can become a serious issue when the delicate host/parasite balance is upset. (
  • In Australia, it is estimated that the direct and indirect effects of parasite infestation cost the animal production industries hundreds of millions of dollars each year. (
  • During this period, there may be no signs of an infestation and the stools may not show evidence of any eggs or shedding. (
  • The study of host-parasite relationships usually requires reliable estimates of parasite intensity, which is often estimated from parasite propagule concentration in faeces. (
  • However, no studies have simultaneously quantified the relationships between within-host parasite replication, virulence, and transmission to examine support for a maximum attainable parasite fitness owing to a trade-off between the costs and benefits of parasite replication. (
  • This gap in empirical data from naturally occurring host-parasite systems has led some authors to conclude that the trade-off theory may be too narrow a view of the evolution of parasites ( 20 , 26 ). (
  • Rich Linhart, Zoetis managing veterinarian of beef technical services, says it's very important to identify parasites that effect your herd, but it's also important to consider what stages of a parasite's lifecycle a parasiticide is effective against. (
  • Further detailed analysis of transcriptomic data and their comparison with genomic data will provide more depth insights about parasite lifecycle and what different genes are important in the free living and parasitic stages. (
  • It can pick up parasite activity early on in the lifecycle. (
  • Also, certain types of parasites are thought to contribute to colic, anemia, and nutritional deficiencies. (
  • The hour of the day exerted a very strong effect on propagule counts, excretion of both types of parasites showing a clear and constant increase from dawn to dusk. (
  • Lice, mites and ticks are the major types of external parasites. (
  • This means it kills parasites such as mites that feed on the skin of animals. (
  • It works by interfering with the way that signals are passed between nerve cells (neurotransmission) in the nervous system of parasites, resulting in paralysis and death of the mites. (
  • To eliminate mites , pesticides and medications are used to kill the parasites both on the reptile's body and within the terrarium. (
  • CiteScore values are based on citation counts in a range of four years (e.g. 2016-2019) to peer-reviewed documents (articles, reviews, conference papers, data papers and book chapters) published in the same four calendar years, divided by the number of these documents in these same four years (e.g. 2016 - 19). (
  • To calculate the five year Impact Factor, citations are counted in 2019 to the previous five years and divided by the source items published in the previous five years. (
  • External parasites, aka exoparasites, live outside the host animal, usually on the skin or in the ears, at whose expense they obtain nutrition. (
  • A large part of the population of external parasites and their eggs are removed with the lost hair. (
  • A reptile with external parasites that is treated in a timely manner and is otherwise in good condition can be expected to recover fully. (
  • If the drug has worked effectively one would expect to see at least a 95 percent reduction in the average fecal egg count from the treatment group. (
  • They detected significant QTL for average fecal egg count and packed-cell volume on chromosomes 3, 6, 14, and 22. (
  • Adults can be found on flowers, laying eggs that hatch into little bee-grabbing grubs for transportation back to the unwitting bee's nest. (
  • At the end of May and beginning of June it was really dry and warm, but towards the middle to end of June it got wetter providing perfect conditions for the eggs to hatch. (
  • The grasshopper embryo remains in a state of arrested development, or diapause, until spring when a combination of temperature and moisture stimulates egg hatch, or eclosion. (
  • Such eggs hatch immediately or soon after evacuation from the definitive host ( Asymphilodora tincae - Van den Broek and de Jong, 1979). (
  • Fully embryonated eggs of Ophistorchiidae do not hatch, but infect snail hosts upon being swallowed. (
  • There is a possibility that the immune-compromise associated with extreme age could put a horse more at risk for parasite-related disease. (
  • These trematodes also stand apart from other parasites in that they cause negligible disease for their highest trophic level hosts, usually birds. (
  • they are also useful for identifying parasites not only in large animal hosts but smaller insect vectors. (
  • Why do parasites harm their hosts? (
  • Conventional wisdom holds that because parasites depend on their hosts for survival and transmission, they should evolve to become benign, yet many parasites cause harm. (
  • These results show that selection on parasite transmission can explain why parasites harm their hosts, and suggest that constraints imposed by host ecology can lead to population divergence in parasite virulence. (
  • By definition, parasites cause harm to their hosts (i.e., they cause virulence), but explaining why they do so remains a challenge for evolutionary biologists. (
  • A fundamental question is why parasites that depend on hosts for their own survival and transmission cause disease or even kill their hosts. (
  • Parasites must replicate within hosts to produce transmission stages, but this also consumes host resources, damages host tissues, and provokes immune clearance, thereby shortening the infectious period over which transmission can take place. (
  • The generalist brown-headed cowbird may have evolved an egg coloration mimicking a number of their hosts. (
  • The eggshells of brood parasites are often thicker than those of the hosts. (