A contact herbicide used also to produce desiccation and defoliation. (From Merck Index, 11th ed)
A poisonous dipyridilium compound used as contact herbicide. Contact with concentrated solutions causes irritation of the skin, cracking and shedding of the nails, and delayed healing of cuts and wounds.
Pesticides used to destroy unwanted vegetation, especially various types of weeds, grasses (POACEAE), and woody plants. Some plants develop HERBICIDE RESISTANCE.
The rights of the individual to cultural, social, economic, and educational opportunities as provided by society, e.g., right to work, right to education, and right to social security.
Systems of medicine based on cultural beliefs and practices handed down from generation to generation. The concept includes mystical and magical rituals (SPIRITUAL THERAPIES); PHYTOTHERAPY; and other treatments which may not be explained by modern medicine.
An interactive process whereby members of a community are concerned for the equality and rights of all.
Use of plants or herbs to treat diseases or to alleviate pain.
Deliberate maltreatment of groups of humans beings including violations of generally-accepted fundamental rights as stated by the Universal Declaration of Human Rights, adopted and proclaimed by the United Nations General Assembly resolution 217 A (III) of 10 December 1948.
A group of adenine ribonucleotides in which the phosphate residues of each adenine ribonucleotide act as bridges in forming diester linkages between the ribose moieties.
The guidelines and policy statements set forth by the editor(s) or editorial board of a publication.
A publication issued at stated, more or less regular, intervals.
A plant genus of the family POLYGONACEAE that is used as an EDIBLE GRAIN. Although the seeds are used as cereal, the plant is not one of the cereal grasses (POACEAE).
The profession of writing. Also the identity of the writer as the creator of a literary production.
The portion of an interactive computer program that issues messages to and receives commands from a user.
"The business or profession of the commercial production and issuance of literature" (Webster's 3d). It includes the publisher, publication processes, editing and editors. Production may be by conventional printing methods or by electronic publishing.
The thin, horny plates that cover the dorsal surfaces of the distal phalanges of the fingers and toes of primates.
A fungal infection of the nail, usually caused by DERMATOPHYTES; YEASTS; or nondermatophyte MOLDS.
Diseases of the nail plate and tissues surrounding it. The concept is limited to primates.
A condition in which albumin level in blood (SERUM ALBUMIN) is below the normal range. Hypoalbuminemia may be due to decreased hepatic albumin synthesis, increased albumin catabolism, altered albumin distribution, or albumin loss through the urine (ALBUMINURIA).
Deformities in nail structure or appearance, including hypertrophy, splitting, clubbing, furrowing, etc. Genetic diseases such as PACHYONYCHIA CONGENITA can result in malformed nails.
Skin diseases of the foot, general or unspecified.
A mass spectrometric technique that is used for the analysis of large biomolecules. Analyte molecules are embedded in an excess matrix of small organic molecules that show a high resonant absorption at the laser wavelength used. The matrix absorbs the laser energy, thus inducing a soft disintegration of the sample-matrix mixture into free (gas phase) matrix and analyte molecules and molecular ions. In general, only molecular ions of the analyte molecules are produced, and almost no fragmentation occurs. This makes the method well suited for molecular weight determinations and mixture analysis.
Derivatives of ammonium compounds, NH4+ Y-, in which all four of the hydrogens bonded to nitrogen have been replaced with hydrocarbyl groups. These are distinguished from IMINES which are RN=CR2.
A naturally occurring compound that has been of interest for its role in osmoregulation. As a drug, betaine hydrochloride has been used as a source of hydrochloric acid in the treatment of hypochlorhydria. Betaine has also been used in the treatment of liver disorders, for hyperkalemia, for homocystinuria, and for gastrointestinal disturbances. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p1341)
High molecular weight insoluble polymers which contain functional anionic groups that are capable of undergoing exchange reactions with cations.
The clear, watery fluid which fills the anterior and posterior chambers of the eye. It has a refractive index lower than the crystalline lens, which it surrounds, and is involved in the metabolism of the cornea and the crystalline lens. (Cline et al., Dictionary of Visual Science, 4th ed, p319)
Chemical compounds which pollute the water of rivers, streams, lakes, the sea, reservoirs, or other bodies of water.
A plant genus of the family ASTERACEAE. Members contain alkenynes, daucosterol, friedelinol, conyzasaponins and other TRITERPENES.
An order of ungulates having an odd number of toes, including the horse, tapir, and rhinoceros. (Dorland, 27th ed)
Diminished or failed response of PLANTS to HERBICIDES.
An enzyme of the shikimate pathway of AROMATIC AMINO ACID biosynthesis, it generates 5-enolpyruvylshikimate 3-phosphate and ORTHOPHOSPHATE from PHOSPHOENOLPYRUVATE and shikimate-3-phosphate. The shikimate pathway is present in BACTERIA and PLANTS but not in MAMMALS.
The encapsulated embryos of flowering plants. They are used as is or for animal feed because of the high content of concentrated nutrients like starches, proteins, and fats. Rapeseed, cottonseed, and sunflower seed are also produced for the oils (fats) they yield.
"Paraquat and Diquat". IPCS INCHEM. v t e. ... known as paraquat. This species is electroactive, and its ... 4,4'-Bipyridine is an intermediate in the production of paraquat, a widely-used herbicide. In this process, pyridine is ... oxidized to 4,4'-bipyridine in a coupling reaction, followed by dimethylation to form paraquat. Biradha, K.; Sarkar, M.; Rajput ...
The main use of pyridine is as a precursor to the herbicides paraquat and diquat. The first synthesis step of insecticide ... ISBN 978-3-8351-0167-8. "Environmental and health criteria for paraquat and diquat". Geneva: World Health Organization. 1984. ...
In paraquat and diquat poisoning, however, oxygen is contraindicated. Ramesh C. Gupta (28 April 2011). Toxicology of ...
These compounds are known as Paraquat-Gramoxone and Diquat, being released onto the market in 1958. He was awarded the Mullard ... known for developing the herbicide paraquat. He was educated at St Dunstan's College and King's College London (BSc; PhD). He ...
The herbicides paraquat and diquat are toxic not only to plants, but also to humans and livestock. Bipyridines with charged ... Lethal webcaps Cortinarius Diquat Oubrahim H.; Richard J.-M.; Cantin-Esnault D.; Seigle-Murandi F.; Trecourt F (1997). "Novel ... Structurally, it is a bipyridine N-oxide compound somewhat related to the herbicide diquat. Orellanine first came to people's ...
Diquat is an isomer of viologens, being derived from 2,2'-bipyridine (instead of the 4,4'-isomer). It also is a potent ... The viologen paraquat (R = methyl), is a widely used herbicide. Other viologens have been commercialized because they can ... Bus, J S; Aust, S D; Gibson, J E (1 August 1976). "Paraquat toxicity: proposed mechanism of action involving lipid peroxidation ... The widely used herbicide paraquat is a viologen. This application is the largest consumer of this class of compounds. ...
End-users initially deployed it in a similar way to paraquat and diquat - as a non-selective herbicide. Attempts were made[by ...
... were initially used in a similar way to paraquat and diquat, as non-selective herbicides. Attempts ...
... such as paraquat and diquat (herbicides). Drosophila lacking SOD1 have a dramatically shortened lifespan, whereas flies lacking ...
In contrast, Photosystem I inhibitors such as Diquat and paraquat work by entering plant cells and immediately diverting ... Contact herbicides used for desiccation include: carfentrazone-ethyl, cyclanilide, diquat, endothall, glufosinate, paraquat, ... The most common and widely used contact desiccant is diquat (Reglone®). For potatoes, sulfuric acid is sometimes used as a non- ...
2,2′-Bipyridine is used in the manufacture of diquat. 4,4′-Bipyridine (4,4′-bipy) is mainly used as a precursor to the N,N′- ... 4,4'-Bipyridine is a precursor to the commercial herbicide paraquat. The bipyridines are all colourless solids, which are ... dimethyl-4,4′-bipyridinium dication commonly known as paraquat. This species is redox active, and its toxicity arises from its ...
... paraquat/diquat, organophosphorus, quintozene, and glyphosate-rose in those years. Chemical burns from calcium polysulfide were ...
Bipyridine compounds (Paraquat-Gramoxone and Diquat) were discovered for herbicide use in 1954 by William Boon at ICI's Plant ...
... diquat MeSH D03.383.725.762.500 - isodesmosine MeSH D03.383.725.762.550 - 1-methyl-4-phenylpyridinium MeSH D03.383.725.762.600 ... obidoxime chloride MeSH D03.383.725.762.621 - paraquat MeSH D03.383.725.762.740 - pyridostigmine bromide MeSH D03.383.725.762. ...
Bipyridinium herbicides (such as diquat and paraquat) inhibit the FeS to Fdx step of that chain, while diphenyl ether ... The herbicide paraquat is suspected to be one such factor. All commercially sold, organic and non-organic herbicides must be ... Paraquat is a nonselective contact herbicide used for no-till burndown and in aerial destruction of marijuana and coca ... Dinis-Oliveira, R.J.; Remião, F.; Carmo, H.; Duarte, J.A.; Navarro, A. Sánchez; Bastos, M.L.; Carvalho, F. (2006). "Paraquat ...
"Paraquat and Diquat". IPCS INCHEM. Weidel, H.; Russo, M. (1882). "Studien über das Pyridin" [Studies of pyridine]. Monatshefte ... paraquat]0: [paraquat]•+ + e− ↽ − ⇀ {\displaystyle {\ce {<=>>}}} [paraquat]0 As an herbicide, paraquat acts by inhibiting ... The indiscriminate paraquat murders, which occurred in Japan in 1985, were carried out using paraquat as a poison. Paraquat was ... Pratt, I. S.; Keeling, P. L.; Smith, L. L. (1980). "The effect of high concentrations of oxygen on paraquat and diquat toxicity ...
doi:10.1007/978-1-4613-8850-0_2. ISBN 978-1-4613-8852-4. "Paraquat and Diquat". IPCS INCHEM. Retrieved 2020-02-02. Summers, ... Mixing of diquat with other herbicides is also feasible. The estimated annual use of diquat in US agriculture is mapped by the ... "Diquat dibromide". U.S. National Library of Medicine. Diquat dibromide in the Pesticide Properties DataBase (PPDB). ... World Health Organization (1985). Paraquat and Diquat (Environmental Health Criteria). ISBN 9789241540995. Kaloyanova, Fina P ...
All the beverages were poisoned with the herbicide paraquat except for one which was poisoned with diquat. The first poisoning ... The paraquat murders were a series of indiscriminate poisonings carried out in Japan in 1985. Police were unable to gather any ... It was established that at least one other unknown person attempted to imitate the paraquat murders by putting lime sulfur into ...
diquat • MPP • paraquat. Triaziny. ametryn • atrazin • kyanazin • hexazinon • prometon • prometryn • propazin • simazin • ...
3-Difluoro-2-propanol Dimethenamid Dinoseb Dioxathion Diphenylamine Diquat Disodium methyl arsenate Disulfoton Dithiopyr Dow ... Nematicide Neonicotinoid Nitisinone Non-pesticide management Norbormide Paradox of the pesticides Paraquat Paris Green ...
... (also known as 2,4,5-T), a synthetic auxin, is a chlorophenoxy acetic acid herbicide used to defoliate broad-leafed plants. It was developed in the late 1940s and was widely used in the agricultural industry until being phased out, starting in the late 1970s due to toxicity concerns. Agent Orange, a defoliant used by the British in the Malayan Emergency and the U.S. in the Vietnam War, was equal parts 2,4,5-T and 2,4-D (2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid). 2,4,5-T itself is toxic with a NOAEL of 3 mg/kg/day and a LOAEL of 10 mg/kg/day.[3][medical citation needed] Additionally, the manufacturing process for 2,4,5-T contaminates this chemical with trace amounts of 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD). TCDD is a carcinogenic persistent organic pollutant with long-term effects on the environment. With proper temperature control during production of 2,4,5-T, TCDD levels can be held to about .005 ppm.[citation needed] Before the TCDD risk was well understood, early ...
Bipyridinium herbicides (such as diquat and paraquat) inhibit the FeS to Fdx step of that chain, while diphenyl ether ... Paraquat, glufosinate, and glyphosate are non-selective herbicides.[9]. Timing of applicationEdit. *Preplant: Preplant ... Paraquat is a nonselective contact herbicide used for no-till burndown and in aerial destruction of marijuana and coca ... Dinis-Oliveira, R.J.; Remião, F.; Carmo, H.; Duarte, J.A.; Navarro, A. Sánchez; Bastos, M.L.; Carvalho, F. (2006). "Paraquat ...
Pyridine derivatives are found in both well-known Diquat and Chlorpyrifos herbicides, and in modern nicotinoid insecticides, ... Syngenta's cyclohexadione-type mesotrione and paraquat dichloride. Within insecticides, the traditional organophosphates, like ...
... such as paraquat and diquat (herbicides). Drosophila lacking SOD1 have a dramatically shortened lifespan, whereas flies lacking ...
This application note describes an optimized method for determination of paraquat and diquat in drinking water using an Oasis ... Diquat/paraquat recovery data (n=7) for three types of water spiked at 40 ng/L. Figure 4. Typical LC-MS/MS Calibration Curves. ... Paraquat and diquat are quaternary ammonium herbicides used in great quantities worldwide for defoliation and weed control (see ... The paraquat/diquat SPE method is effective for enrichment and cleanup from various types of drinking water. ...
This application note presents the analysis of diquat and paraquat herbicides in drinking water by direct injection using a ... Diquat and paraquat standards were purchased from Sigma Alrich (St-Louis, MO, USA). HFBA (HPLC grade) was purchased from Thermo ... Direct Quantification of Diquat and Paraquat in Drinking Water Samples Using Ultra-Sensitive UPLC-MS/MS Analysis. Direct ... The TrendPlot profile report for diquat and paraquat are shown in Figure 7. As it can be seen in Figure 7, the TrendPlot shows ...
Diquat D4 and Paraquat D6 internal standards were added to the test portions prior to extraction. A small-scale inter- ... A new sensitive, fast and robust method for the determination of paraquat and diquat residues in potatoes, cereals and pulses ... Development and independent laboratory validation of a simple method for the determination of paraquat and diquat in potato, ... laboratory validation of the developed method for diquat and paraquat using potato and barley samples was conducted by three ...
Paraquat Diquat Separation in Non-aqueous Mobile Phase. *Home. *Paraquat Diquat Separation in Non-aqueous Mobile Phase ...
Diquat. Diquat deaths have been reported after ingestions of 15, 20, and 50 mL of 20% diquat, and after 30 mL ... ... Paraquat and Diquat. In: Olson KR. Olson K.R. Ed. Kent R. Olson.eds. Poisoning & Drug Overdose, 6e New York, NY: McGraw-Hill; ... Paraquat and Diquat." Poisoning & Drug Overdose, 6e Olson KR. Olson K.R. Ed. Kent R. Olson. New York, NY: McGraw-Hill, 2012, ... Toxic dose. Diquat is slightly less toxic than paraquat. However, this distinction may be of little comfort, as both compounds ...
diquat morfamquat paraquat thiocarbamate herbicides butylate cycloate di-allate EPTC esprocarb ethiolate ...
... paraquat is normally manufactured an sold as paraquat dichloride while diquat is manufactured and sold as diquat dibromide.. ... Diquat is the common name of the l,r-ethylene-2,2-bipyridylium cation. Salts of paraquat and diquat necessarily contain anions ... If desired the paraquat or diquat may be used in the formulation of the present invention in combination with another ... "COMPOSITION CONTAINING PARAQUAT AND / -0R DIQUAT AN ALGINATE AND AN EMETIC AND/OR PURGATIVE". SYNGENTA LIMITED, of European ...
Organophosphates accounted for 36% of poisonings and bipyridylium herbicides (paraquat and diquat) for 20%. Paraquat products ... 2013) Acute kidney injury following paraquat poisoning in India Paraquat is a widely used contact herbicide in India. Paraquat ... The patient, a 69-year-old man, a farmer, applied a toxic mix of paraquat/diquat by knapsack sprayers, under a high-temperature ... Peiró AM et al (2007): Hepatotoxicity Related to Paraquat and Diquat Absorption Through Intact Skin. Digestive Diseases and ...
CIS 86-214 Paraquat and Diquat In humans the minimum lethal dose for paraquat is about 35mg/kg of body weight and 6-12 grams ... Paraquat Paraquat [en franc s]. This encyclopaedia article provides up-to-date information on paraquat, one of the most widely ... Paraquat Paraquat [en franc s]. Synonyms, use, physical and chemical properties, storage, methods for detection and ... Successful treatment of paraquat poisoning: Activated charcoal per os and continuous hemoperfusion In the treatment of paraquat ...
Paraquat & Diquat Calibration Mix (2 components) Restek. Compound List Diquat dibromide (6385-62-2) Paraquat dichloride (1910- ...
doi:10.1007/978-1-4613-8850-0_2. ISBN 978-1-4613-8852-4. "Paraquat and Diquat". IPCS INCHEM. Retrieved 2020-02-02. Summers, ... Mixing of diquat with other herbicides is also feasible. The estimated annual use of diquat in US agriculture is mapped by the ... "Diquat dibromide". U.S. National Library of Medicine. Diquat dibromide in the Pesticide Properties DataBase (PPDB). ... World Health Organization (1985). Paraquat and Diquat (Environmental Health Criteria). ISBN 9789241540995. Kaloyanova, Fina P ...
"Paraquat and Diquat". IPCS INCHEM. Weidel, H.; Russo, M. (1882). "Studien über das Pyridin" [Studies of pyridine]. Monatshefte ... paraquat]0: [paraquat]•+ + e− ↽ − ⇀ {\displaystyle {\ce {<=>>}}} [paraquat]0 As an herbicide, paraquat acts by inhibiting ... The indiscriminate paraquat murders, which occurred in Japan in 1985, were carried out using paraquat as a poison. Paraquat was ... Pratt, I. S.; Keeling, P. L.; Smith, L. L. (1980). "The effect of high concentrations of oxygen on paraquat and diquat toxicity ...
Allander, K. 1998. The effects of an ectoparasite on reproductive success in the great tit: a 3-year experimental study. Canadian Journal of Zoology 76, 19-25.. Berny, P. 2007. Pesticides and the intoxication of wild animals. Journal of Veterinary Pharmacology and Therapy 30, 93-100.. Best, L.B., and Gionfriddo, G.P. 1991. Characterization of grit use by cornfield birds. Wilson Bulletin 103, 68-81.. Brewer, L.W., McQuillen Jr., H.L., Mayes, M.A., Stafford, J.M., and Tank, S.L. 2003. Chlorpyrifos residue levels in avian food items following applications of a commercial EC formulation to alfalfa and citrus. Pest Management Science 59, 1179-1190.. Capinera, J.L. 2010. Insects and wildlife: arthropods and their relationships with wild vertebrate animals. Wiley-Blackwell, Oxford, UK. 487 pp.. Cox, C. 1991. Pesticides and birds: from DDT to todays poisons. Journal of Pesticide Reform 11 (4), 2-6.. Davidson, C., and Knapp, R.A. 2007. Multiple stressors and amphibian declines: dual impacts of ...
Bipyridinium herbicides (paraquat, diquat and difenzoquat). Iron and copper. Korbashi et al. (1986) [248]. Kohen and Chevion ( ... Bipyridylium herbicides (paraquat, diquat and difenzoquat). Production of superoxide anions and singlet oxygen. Bus et al. ( ... 149] reported that paraquat pulmonary toxicity results from the cyclic reduction and oxidation of paraquat. The results of a ... Iron and copper have been reported to aggravate the toxicity of paraquat in E. coli. Treatment with ferrous iron in a study by ...
The dipyridylium herbicides, paraquat and diquat A. A. Akhavein, D. L. Linscott ...
Nail Damage Associated with Handling of Paraquat and Diquat Br Med J 1969; 1 :818 (Published 29 March 1969) ...
Featured Application: Paraquat and Diquat on Raptor HILIC-Si - LC-MS/MS Analysis of Paraquat and Diquat without Ion-Pairing ... The LC-MS/MS analysis of paraquat and diquat presented here provides complete separation and good peak response for both target ... LC-MS/MS analysis of paraquat and diquat herbicides is an important tool for protecting human and environmental health. However ...
Paraquat and Diquat on Raptor HILIC-Si. LC_FS0512. LC_FS. 0512. ...
Nail damage associated with handling of paraquat and diquat. Br Med J. 1969 Mar 29. 1(5647):818-9. [Medline]. ...
Nail damage associated with handling of paraquat and diquat. Br Med J. 1969 Mar 29. 1(5647):818-9. [Medline]. ...
diquat + paraquat. - + 0.01. Comments:. No Codex MRL is listed for diquat, therefore no detectable residue is permitted. The ... paraquat. 0.01. Comments:. The MRL is for berries and applies to grapes.. MRL Notes:. The residue for paraquat is determined as ... amitrole + paraquat. 0.05 + 0.01. Comments:. The MRL for paraquat is at or near the limits of analytical determination.. MRL ... The residue for paraquat is determined as the paraquat cation. 07/10/2009. 11/07/2018. ...
SPE Method Development Recommendations for Extraction of Diquat or Paraquat from Water Tags: Application Notes ...
SPE Method Development Recommendations for Extraction of Diquat or Paraquat from Water Tags: Application Notes ...
diquat, and paraquat 25. PSI Electron Diverter (D/22). 65. Conyza sumatrensis. Sumatran Fleabane. 126. ... Antioxidant activity of paraquat-resistant biotype of tall fleabane (Conyza sumatrensis). Crop, Environment & Bioinformatics 6 ... Role of antioxidative system in paraquat resistance of tall fleabane (Conyza sumatrensis). Weed Science 56 : 350 - 355. ... cycle is critical to paraquat resistance of tall fleabane. The decisive contribution of a functional GSH/GSSG cycle to paraquat ...
diquat, and paraquat 25. PSI Electron Diverter (D/22). 60. Conyza bonariensis. Hairy Fleabane. 128. ... glyphosate, and paraquat 45. Multiple Resistance: 2 Sites of Action PSI Electron Diverter (D/22). EPSP synthase inhibitors (G/9 ... paraquat 1. PSI Electron Diverter (D/22). 60. Conyza bonariensis. Hairy Fleabane. 13045. ... paraquat 15. PSI Electron Diverter (D/22). 60. Conyza bonariensis. Hairy Fleabane. 383. ...
... bromoides were sprayed with paraquat at concn of 12.5-800 g and diquat at 25-800 g. Applications of paraquat at 50 g killed all ... diquat, and paraquat 1. PSI Electron Diverter (D/22). 97. Hordeum murinum ssp. glaucum. Smooth Barley. 19. ... diquat, and paraquat 1. PSI Electron Diverter (D/22). 97. Hordeum murinum ssp. glaucum. Smooth Barley. 5031. ... However, when grown and treated with paraquat in summer these biotypes are markedly less resistant to paraquat. This reduced ...
  • Paraquat and diquat are quaternary ammonium herbicides used in great quantities worldwide for defoliation and weed control (see Figure 1). (waters.com)
  • This application note presents the analysis of diquat and paraquat herbicides in drinking water by direct injection using a volatile ion pairing reagent (heptafluorobutyric acid-HFBA), RP-UPLC, and the highly sensitive Xevo TQ-S. (waters.com)
  • Paraquat dichloride (CAS # 1910-42-5) and diquat dibromide (CAS # 85-00-7) are dipyridyl herbicides used for weed control and as preharvest (desiccant) defoliants. (mhmedical.com)
  • However, the auxin herbicides including ICI's MCPA were more selective and hence this use of diquat was unattractive. (wikipedia.org)
  • Paraquat was first manufactured and sold by ICI in early 1962 under the trade name Gramoxone, and is today among the most commonly used herbicides. (wikipedia.org)
  • Background: Paraquat and diquat are among the most commonly used herbicides in the world. (cdc.gov)
  • Herbicides containing paraquat and diquat are also photosystem I inhibitors. (gardenguides.com)
  • The near-fatal poisoning of a NSW Central Coast man with severe autism who drank a cocktail of highly toxic herbicides left in an unmarked drink bottle has sparked fresh calls for a nationwide ban on Paraquat. (abc.net.au)
  • Thus, the combination of Ebselen and NAC may provide an effective antidote in cases of overexposure to bipyridylium herbicides, such as diquat and paraquat. (nih.gov)
  • viologen dyes ( bipyridylium dyes ) A group of organic compounds based on two linked pyridine rings and including certain agricultural herbicides, notably Paraquat and Diquat . (encyclopedia.com)
  • Paraquat (N,N′-dimethyl-4,4′-bipyridinium dichloride) is one of the most widely used herbicides in the world. (chemicalbook.com)
  • Diquat resistant duckweed is also resistant to paraquat because both these herbicides kill the plants by stopping the same biochemical process. (ufl.edu)
  • The two most important herbicides in this group are paraquat and diquat, both of which are contact herbicides that damage plant tissues quickly, causing the plants to appear frostbitten because of cell membrane destruction. (fsu.edu)
  • Glyphosate and paraquat are the main desiccants used as herbicides, but only paraquat is registered with Brazil s Ministry of Agriculture, Livestock and Supply for use as a desiccant in crops such as potatoes, sugar cane, corn and soybeans, but not wheat crops, though (Agrofit, 2013). (scielo.br)
  • In particular, paraquat was the most used herbicide in South Korea in both frequency and volume and has been a major causative agent leading to acute poisoning death [Lee et al 2013]. (publiceye.ch)
  • Paraquat is a widely used contact herbicide in India. (publiceye.ch)
  • Diquat is the ISO common name for an organic dication that, as a salt with counterions such as bromide or chloride is used as a contact herbicide that produces desiccation and defoliation. (wikipedia.org)
  • It was found that only those quaternary salts which were capable of being converted by reducing agents to radical cations had herbicidal activity and another of these was paraquat, which was more effective as a non-selective herbicide than diquat. (wikipedia.org)
  • When acting as a herbicide, diquat inhibits photosynthesis. (wikipedia.org)
  • Diquat is an unusual herbicide because it is often not used for weed control but is instead applied directly on mature crops. (wikipedia.org)
  • When used as a conventional herbicide for weed control, diquat must be applied after the weeds have emerged since it is only effective on contact with green tissue. (wikipedia.org)
  • Paraquat is classified as a non-selective contact herbicide. (wikipedia.org)
  • paraquat]0 As an herbicide, paraquat acts by inhibiting photosynthesis. (wikipedia.org)
  • Paraquat, with its distinctive mode of action, is one of few chemical options that can be used to prevent and mitigate problems with weeds that have become resistant to the very widely used non-selective herbicide glyphosate. (wikipedia.org)
  • When herbicide application site was known, the vast majority of acute paraquat-related illnesses (81%) arose from agricultur al applications. (cdc.gov)
  • 4. The herbicide composition of claim 1, wherein said bipyridylium diquaternary salt comprises paraguat, diquat or the mixture thereof. (freepatentsonline.com)
  • The herbicide Paraquat was left in an unmarked drink bottle. (abc.net.au)
  • Damien Terry is lucky to be alive after swallowing the herbicide Paraquat which was left in an unmarked drink bottle. (abc.net.au)
  • Paraquat dichloride is a dark blue liquid, non-combustible, stable herbicide chemical. (chemicalbook.com)
  • Paraquat dichloride is a herbicide currently registered to control weeds and grasses in many agricultural and non-agricultural areas. (chemicalbook.com)
  • Paraquat is a quaternary ammonium compound with herbicide properties, as diquat. (chemicalbook.com)
  • A herbicide, chemically related to paraquat, that releases hydrogen peroxide and oxygen radicals when consumed. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • We describe the clinical appearance and progress of bilateral ocular chemical injury caused by paraquat, a herbicide. (bmj.com)
  • Photocatalytic degradation of paraquat dichloride a poisonous dipyridilium herbicide present as a pollutant in surface water has been studied in a batch photoreactor using P25 TiO 2 and tungsten (W)-doped TiO 2 . (springer.com)
  • Dhaouadi A, Adhoum N (2009) Degradation of paraquat herbicide by electrochemical advanced oxidation methods. (springer.com)
  • Paraquat is a post-emergence, non-selective, contact herbicide used as an electron acceptor in photosystem I. It forms free radicals that lead to lipid peroxidation and membrane disruption, causing desiccation of plants within a short time period (Vargas and Roman, 2006). (scielo.br)
  • This application note presents the versatility of direct injection using the ACQUITY I-Class UPLC System with the Xevo TQ-S Mass Spectrometer for the analysis of diquat and paraquat in tap water and bottled water. (waters.com)
  • V. A. Simon and A. Taylor, "High-sensitivity high-performance liquid chromatographic analysis of diquat and paraquat with confirmation," Journal of Chromatography A , vol. 479, no. (hindawi.com)
  • The authors discuss an LC method for the direct analysis of diquat and paraquat in lake water. (chromatographyonline.com)
  • In the United States, Syngenta currently markets Gramoxone Inteon (30.1% paraquat dichloride) and Reward (37.3% diquat dibromide). (mhmedical.com)
  • Paraquat dichloride is a Bipyridylium compound. (pesticideinfo.org)
  • Paraquat dichloride contact and storage destroys metal. (chemicalbook.com)
  • Paraquat dichloride hydrolyses in alkaline media and reacts with aluminium to produce hydrogen gas. (chemicalbook.com)
  • It has been reported that about seven pesticide products are registered which contain the active ingredient paraquat dichloride and classified as restricted use pesticides (RUPs). (chemicalbook.com)
  • Paraquat dichloride is stable in acidic media, but unstable in alkaline media. (chemicalbook.com)
  • Paraquat dichloride is photochemically decomposed by UV irradiation in aqueous solutions and is rapidly inactivated by soil. (chemicalbook.com)
  • Paraquat dichloride is corrosive to metal and Paraquat dichloride can react with strong acids, bases, and oxidizing agents. (chemicalbook.com)
  • Paraquat dichloride is hydrolyzed by alkali compounds and Paraquat dichloride is inactivated by inert clays and anionic surfactants. (chemicalbook.com)
  • Eleburuike NA, Bakar WAWA, Rusmidah A et al (2016) Photocatalytic degradation of paraquat dichloride over CeO 2 -modified TiO 2 nanotubes and the optimization of parameters by response surface methodology. (springer.com)
  • Roundup QuikPro is a water-soluble granular formulation (73.3% glyphosate and 2.9% diquat). (mhmedical.com)
  • I know to watch out for diquat and paraquat, which are commonly mixed in) I found out that glyphosate is an aminophosphonic analogue of glycine. (biology-online.org)
  • This study aimed to evaluate the yield and seed quality of wheat, cultivar Quartzo , harvested after desiccation with two desiccants (glyphosate and paraquat) at two reproductive stages (11.2 and 11.3). (scielo.br)
  • Objetivou-se nesse trabalho avaliar a produtividade e qualidade fisiológica de sementes de trigo, cultivar Quartzo , colhidas após a dessecação com dois dessecantes (glyphosate e paraquat) em dois estádios reprodutivos (11.2 e 11.3). (scielo.br)
  • Ghana, for example, reported that application of various hazardous pesticides such as paraquat (WHO class II) and aluminum phosphide (a toxic fumigant) by farm workers without adequate protective clothing was a key cause of pesticide poisoning in the country. (publiceye.ch)
  • Among the selected 24 pesticides, paraquat was canceled to reregistration by the Korean government, and a few pesticides (i.e., endosulfan, EPN, methidathion, methomyl, and trichlorfon) have been voluntarily withdrawal by pesticide companies in 2011. (publiceye.ch)
  • Although some pesticides such as paraquat, pendimethalin, benomyl, and chlorpyrifos were not categorized into a specific toxicity classification, they have been reported in epidemiological studies to be related to cancer or neurologic diseases. (publiceye.ch)
  • Methods: Illnesses associated with paraquat or diquat exposure occurring from 1998 through 2011 were identified from the Sentinel Event Notification System for Occupational Risks (SENSOR)-Pesticides Program, the California Department of Pesticide Regulation (CDPR) Pesticide Illness Surveill ance Program (PISP), and the Incident Data System (IDS). (cdc.gov)
  • A recent report from Unearthed and Public Eye exposed the shocking export levels of Paraquat among one of a great number of pesticides, synthetic fertilisers, hormones and other chemical growth agent, banned in the countries where they are produced for health and safety reasons. (waronwant.org)
  • However, Paraquat is one of a number of pesticides, synthetic fertilisers, hormones and other chemical growth agents banned in the countries that produce them for health and safety reasons, but exported to countries with looser regulations and where communities and farmers lack the resources to protect themselves against exposure to potentially fatal chemicals. (waronwant.org)
  • In addition, the responses of phase I enzymes were more sensitive than that of phase II enzymes and they may be served as the acceptable biomarkers for evaluating the toxicity effects of both lead and paraquat. (deepdyve.com)
  • An aqueous herbicidal composition comprising an alginate pH triggered gelling agent, a salt of paraquat, a salt of diquat or a mixture thereof, the composition further comprising an emetic and/or purgative such that a pH-triggered gel effect takes place at the acid pH of human gastric juice. (allindianpatents.com)
  • In EP 0467529 there is described a liquid aqueous herbicidal composition comprising a salt of paraquat or diquat or a mixture thereof, in a concentration of at least 50 grams per litre, in admixture with a suspension of from 10 to 400 grams per litre, of a magnesium trisilicate, the composition further comprising an emetic and/or purgative. (allindianpatents.com)
  • Initial attempts to commercialize diquat focused on its ability to control broadleaved annual weeds while damage to cereal crops was, by comparison, minor. (wikipedia.org)
  • Diquat Distribution in Water after Application to Submersed Weeds," JAWRA Journal of the American Water Resources Association , vol. 30, no. 1, pp. 93-97, 1994. (hindawi.com)
  • Paraquat and diquat are rapidly (but incompletely) absorbed from the GI tract, and peak serum levels are reached within 2 hours of ingestion. (mhmedical.com)
  • Ingestion of as little as 2-4 g, or 10-20 mL, of concentrated 20% paraquat solution has resulted in death. (mhmedical.com)
  • Nineteen paraquat-related deaths were due to ingestion, seven of which were unintentional, often due to improper storage in beverage bottles. (cdc.gov)
  • Paraquat was detected in 20 patients and 7 of these died between 18 h and 20 days post-ingestion. (biomedsearch.com)
  • Zhang, Su 2018-04-30 00:00:00 As the producer of reactive oxygen species (ROS), both lead (Pb) and paraquat (PQ) can generate serious oxidative stress in target organs which result in irreversible toxic effects on organisms. (deepdyve.com)
  • haven't any proof mind) except that Paraquat is a bipyridylium compound, toxic in the lung principally probably therfore metabolised similarly. (bio.net)
  • The redox-cycling bipyridylium compound diquat generates active oxygen species, depletes intracellular glutathione, and is cytotoxic in isolated hepatocytes pretreated with the glutathione reductase inhibitor 1,3-bis(Z-chloro-ethyl)-1-nitrosourea (BCNU). (nih.gov)
  • Paraquat is used more commonly in developing countries and it has been associated with severe and prolonged ocular surface abnormalities due to the nature of the chemical. (bmj.com)
  • Diquat and Paraquat (commonly called as Viologens) block the transfer of electrons between Q and PQ in PS II. (zpfp.pl)
  • This application note describes an optimized method for determination of paraquat and diquat in drinking water using an Oasis WCX cartridge for SPE prior to fast and sensitive UPLC-MS/MS analysis. (waters.com)
  • A new sensitive, fast and robust method for the determination of paraquat and diquat residues in potatoes, cereals and pulses is presented. (wur.nl)
  • The MRL for paraquat is at or near the limits of analytical determination. (awri.com.au)
  • S. A. Malaysia, "Paraquat: another scourge from the merchants of death," Journal of Pesticide Reform , pp. 13-15, 1986. (hindawi.com)
  • That residues of pesticide and other "foreign" chemicals in foodstuffs are of concern to everyone everywhere is amply attested by the reception accorded previous volumes of "Residue Reviews" and by the gratifying en- thusiasm, sincerity, and efforts shown by all the individuals from whom manuscripts have been solicited. (springer.com)
  • Paraquat is one such pesticide. (waronwant.org)
  • Acute kidney injury is the common complication of paraquat poisoning and needs to be recognized and treated promptly. (publiceye.ch)
  • Pavan M. (2013): Acute kidney injury following paraquat poisoning in India. (publiceye.ch)
  • Magnitude and characteristics of acute paraquat- and diquat-related illnesses in the US: 1998-2013. (cdc.gov)
  • Objectives: Determine the magnitude, characteristics, and root causes for acute paraquat- and diquat-related illnesses in the US. (cdc.gov)
  • Results: A total of 300 paraquat- and 144 diquat-related acute illnesses were identified by SENSOR, PISP, and IDS. (cdc.gov)
  • NPDS identified 693 paraquat- and 2128 diquat-related acute illnesses. (cdc.gov)
  • In SENSOR/PISP/IDS, paraquat and diquat-related acute illnesses were work-related in 68% (n=203) and 29% (n=42) of cases, respectively. (cdc.gov)
  • Conclusions: Although the magnitude of acute paraquat/diquat-related illnesses was relatively low, several fatalities were identified. (cdc.gov)
  • Changes in the concentrations of creatinine, cystatin C and NGAL in patients with acute paraquat self-poisoning. (biomedsearch.com)
  • 3 μmol/L/h has been suggested to predict death in patients with paraquat self-poisoning and the value of other plasma biomarkers of acute kidney injury has not been assessed. (biomedsearch.com)
  • The aim of this study was to validate the predictive value of serial creatinine concentrations and to study the utility of cystatin C and neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin (NGAL) as predictors of outcome in patients with acute paraquat poisoning. (biomedsearch.com)
  • Death due to acute paraquat poisoning is associated with changes in creatinine and cystatin concentrations. (biomedsearch.com)
  • The present report describes two cases of paraquat poisoning by skin absorption. (publiceye.ch)
  • Six cases of paraquat poisoning were treated in a center in India. (publiceye.ch)
  • The authors concluded: "Paraquat consumption is a common agent of suicidal poisoning in this part of India, resulting in very high morbidity and mortality. (publiceye.ch)
  • There is no specific antidote for paraquat poisoning and the mainstay of treatment is supportive. (publiceye.ch)
  • According to National Poison Centre, the number of paraquat poisoning cases has been rising in recent years. (publiceye.ch)
  • Since 2006 when the ban was lifted, the number of paraquat poisoning cases reported has more than doubled up till the year 2008 where there was 7 times the number of cases reported compared to the years when it was banned(18). (publiceye.ch)
  • This shows that over the last few decades, suicide remains the leading cause for paraquat poisoning and the lifting of its sales ban is not addressing the issue but facilitating it. (publiceye.ch)
  • Diquat does not cause progressive pulmonary fibrosis as seen after paraquat poisoning. (nih.gov)
  • Davidson JK, MacPherson P (1972) Pulmonary changes in paraquat poisoning. (springer.com)
  • Florêncio MH, Pires E, Castro AL et al (2004) Photodegradation of diquat and paraquat in aqueous solutions by titanium dioxide: evolution of degradation reactions and characterization of intermediates. (springer.com)
  • Additionally, paraquat is selectively taken up and concentrated by pulmonary alveolar cells, leading to cell necrosis followed by connective tissue proliferation and pulmonary fibrosis. (mhmedical.com)
  • Diquat is not taken up by pulmonary alveolar cells and does not cause pulmonary fibrosis, but it has been associated with CNS hemorrhagic infarctions. (mhmedical.com)
  • Different extraction conditions (solvent, time and temperature) have been evaluated using barley grain, potatoes and dry lentils containing incurred residues of diquat and paraquat. (wur.nl)
  • Diquat D4 and Paraquat D6 internal standards were added to the test portions prior to extraction. (wur.nl)
  • 3 Due to their high efficiency as pre-harvest desiccants and defoliants, diquat and paraquat are also classified as highly toxic. (waters.com)
  • Paraquat and diquat are strong di-cations whose toxic effects are similar. (mhmedical.com)
  • Diquat is slightly less toxic than paraquat. (mhmedical.com)
  • On contact with fire paraquat decomposes gives off irritating or toxic fumes (or gases), nitrogen oxides, and hydrogen chloride. (chemicalbook.com)
  • Paraquat is a highly toxic weed killer. (waronwant.org)
  • Although diquat was used in many European countries from the 1960s, an EU directive has removed its approval for any use, effective from 12 October 2018. (wikipedia.org)
  • Paraquat is made in Huddersfield - and 28,185 tonnes of mixtures containing paraquat were exported from the UK in 2018. (waronwant.org)
  • In 2007, the court annulled the directive authorizing paraquat as an active plant protection substance stating that the 2004 decision was wrong in finding that there were no indications of neurotoxicity associated with paraquat and that the studies about the link between paraquat and Parkinson's disease should have been considered. (wikipedia.org)
  • A small group of countries, including India and Guatemala and supported by manufacturers, have blocked the listing of paraquat as a hazardous chemical for the purposes of the Rotterdam Convention. (wikipedia.org)
  • Occupational exposure of Sri Lankan tea plantation workers to paraquat. (who.int)
  • The results showed that the activities of EROD and BFCOD in fish were significantly inhibited in response to paraquat at all exposure levels during the whole experiment. (deepdyve.com)
  • Furthermore, lead showed stronger inhibition on GST activity than paraquat when the concentrations of the two toxicants were more than 0.5mg/L. However, the similar dose and time-dependent manners of UGT activity were found under lead and paraquat exposure. (deepdyve.com)
  • Our results indicated that higher exposure levels and longer accumulations caused inhibitory effects on the four enzymes regardless of lead or paraquat stress. (deepdyve.com)
  • Chester J, Woolen BH (1981) Studies on the occupational exposure of Malaysian plantation workers to paraquat. (springer.com)
  • In the United States, paraquat poisonings greatly outnumber diquat poisonings. (mhmedical.com)
  • In forming these, the diquat dication is regenerated and is again available to shunt electrons from photosystem I to restart the cycle. (wikipedia.org)
  • Oasis WCX SPE cartridges incorporate a mixed-mode weak cation-exchange sorbent that is ideal for retention of quaternary ammonium compounds such as paraquat and diquat. (waters.com)
  • however, SENSOR/PISP/IDS identified 24 deaths caused by paraquat and 5 deaths associated with diquat. (cdc.gov)
  • Paraquat has caused thousands of deaths worldwide and is banned in more than 30 countries including China, Cambodia and across the European Union. (abc.net.au)
  • Paraquat is eliminated renally, with more than 90% excreted unchanged within 12-24 hours if renal function is normal. (mhmedical.com)
  • The U.S. EPA method 549.2 utilizes reversed-phase chromatography with ion pairing for the separation of diquat and paraquat using UV detection. (waters.com)
  • The reason Paraquat and Diquat have generated interest is because they are chemically very similar -- but, as far as I know, this isn't very interesting because they dont produce Parkison's in animal models the way MPTP (and MPP+, which is the active metabolite) does. (bio.net)
  • For drinking water, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (U.S. EPA) has established a maximum contaminant level of 20 ppb for diquat and a desired goal of 3 ppb for paraquat 6 (not EPA regulated). (waters.com)
  • Other, less concentrated formulations of diquat are also marketed. (mhmedical.com)
  • Diaquat is sometimes used in aquatic weed control, and paraquat applications include stubble clearing, pasture renovation, inter-row weed control in vegetable crops, and weed control in plantation crops. (fsu.edu)
  • 12. The method of claim 9, wherein said bipyridylium diquaternary salt comprises paraguat, diquat or a mixture thereof. (freepatentsonline.com)
  • Paraquat sprayed on marijuana is destroyed in the combustion process. (mhmedical.com)
  • Paraquat earned a degree of notoriety several years ago when the United States government collaborated with the Mexican government to treat marijuana fields with the defoliant. (fsu.edu)
  • Many drug users who were exposed to paraquat-laced marijuana developed nosebleeds, headaches, vomiting, and breathing disorders. (fsu.edu)
  • Mlo transcript abundance increases in response to Bgh , rice ( Oryza sativa ) blast, wounding, paraquat treatment, a wheat powdery mildew-derived carbohydrate elicitor, and during leaf senescence. (plantphysiol.org)
  • Instead, diquat was combined with the use of specialised mechanised equipment which by the late 1950s was becoming common in the harvesting of crops such as potatoes. (wikipedia.org)
  • A small-scale inter-laboratory validation of the developed method for diquat and paraquat using potato and barley samples was conducted by three laboratories. (wur.nl)
  • A man died after ingesting paraquat that was stored in a Lucozade® bottle, 5 a 2.5-year-old boy died after ingesting diquat left in a soft drink bottle, 6 and another 2.5-year-old boy died after ingesting endosulfan also stored in a soft drink bottle. (nzma.org.nz)
  • The estimated lethal dose of 20% paraquat is 10-20 mL for adults and 4-5 mL for children. (mhmedical.com)
  • In the United States alone, paraquat use was 4 million pounds and diquat use was 20,000 pounds in 2002 1 . (waters.com)
  • The sale of paraquat was banned from the year 2002 to 2006. (publiceye.ch)
  • effective product bound both paraquat and diquat and particle size did you not influence the adsorptive capacity of the Quasense (extended - cycle). (coconutoilbenefits.biz)
  • Cantavenera MJ, Catanzaro I, Loddo V et al (2007) Photocatalytic degradation of paraquat and genotoxicity of its intermediate products. (springer.com)
  • Diquat is made available to end users only in formulated products. (wikipedia.org)