A species of RUBULAVIRUS associated particularly with acute laryngotracheitis (CROUP) in children aged 6 months to 3 years.
A species of RESPIROVIRUS frequently isolated from small children with pharyngitis, bronchitis, and pneumonia.
A genus of the family PARAMYXOVIRIDAE (subfamily PARAMYXOVIRINAE) where all the virions have both HEMAGGLUTININ and NEURAMINIDASE activities and encode a non-structural C protein. SENDAI VIRUS is the type species.
A species of RESPIROVIRUS also called hemadsorption virus 2 (HA2), which causes laryngotracheitis in humans, especially children.
A species of RESPIROVIRUS, subfamily PARAMYXOVIRINAE, most often seen in conjunction with a secondary infection of MANNHEIMIA HAEMOLYTICA resulting in pneumonic pasteurellosis (PASTEURELLOSIS, PNEUMONIC).
A species of RUBULAVIRUS originally isolated from cultured primary monkey cells. Its natural host is the DOG in which it causes kennel cough, but it can also infect humans.
Infections with viruses of the genus RUBULAVIRUS, family PARAMYXOVIRIDAE.
Vaccines or candidate vaccines used to prevent infection with parainfluenza viruses in humans and animals.
A species of RUBULAVIRUS causing endemic upper respiratory infections in children. It produces only a mild clinical disease and often goes undetected.
Infections with viruses of the genus RESPIROVIRUS, family PARAMYXOVIRIDAE. Host cell infection occurs by adsorption, via HEMAGGLUTININ, to the cell surface.
A genus of the family PARAMYXOVIRIDAE (subfamily PARAMYXOVIRINAE) where all the species have hemagglutinin and neuraminidase activities but lack a C protein. MUMPS VIRUS is the type species.
Glycoprotein from Sendai, para-influenza, Newcastle Disease, and other viruses that participates in binding the virus to cell-surface receptors. The HN protein possesses both hemagglutinin and neuraminidase activity.
A family of spherical viruses, of the order MONONEGAVIRALES, somewhat larger than the orthomyxoviruses, and containing single-stranded RNA. Subfamilies include PARAMYXOVIRINAE and PNEUMOVIRINAE.
Proteins, usually glycoproteins, found in the viral envelopes of a variety of viruses. They promote cell membrane fusion and thereby may function in the uptake of the virus by cells.
A group of viruses in the PNEUMOVIRUS genus causing respiratory infections in various mammals. Humans and cattle are most affected but infections in goats and sheep have also been reported.
Invasion of the host RESPIRATORY SYSTEM by microorganisms, usually leading to pathological processes or diseases.
The type species of RESPIROVIRUS in the subfamily PARAMYXOVIRINAE. It is the murine version of HUMAN PARAINFLUENZA VIRUS 1, distinguished by host range.
A general term for diseases produced by viruses.
Process of growing viruses in live animals, plants, or cultured cells.
The process of intracellular viral multiplication, consisting of the synthesis of PROTEINS; NUCLEIC ACIDS; and sometimes LIPIDS, and their assembly into a new infectious particle.
Proteins found in any species of virus.
Viruses whose genetic material is RNA.
A subfamily of the family MURIDAE comprised of 69 genera. New World mice and rats are included in this subfamily.
A species of CERCOPITHECUS containing three subspecies: C. tantalus, C. pygerythrus, and C. sabeus. They are found in the forests and savannah of Africa. The African green monkey (C. pygerythrus) is the natural host of SIMIAN IMMUNODEFICIENCY VIRUS and is used in AIDS research.
The type species of RUBULAVIRUS that causes an acute infectious disease in humans, affecting mainly children. Transmission occurs by droplet infection.
A CELL LINE derived from the kidney of the African green (vervet) monkey, (CERCOPITHECUS AETHIOPS) used primarily in virus replication studies and plaque assays.
Immunoglobulins produced in response to VIRAL ANTIGENS.
The type species of PNEUMOVIRUS and an important cause of lower respiratory disease in infants and young children. It frequently presents with bronchitis and bronchopneumonia and is further characterized by fever, cough, dyspnea, wheezing, and pallor.
Specific molecular components of the cell capable of recognizing and interacting with a virus, and which, after binding it, are capable of generating some signal that initiates the chain of events leading to the biological response.
Minute infectious agents whose genomes are composed of DNA or RNA, but not both. They are characterized by a lack of independent metabolism and the inability to replicate outside living host cells.
A family of RNA viruses causing INFLUENZA and other diseases. There are five recognized genera: INFLUENZAVIRUS A; INFLUENZAVIRUS B; INFLUENZAVIRUS C; ISAVIRUS; and THOGOTOVIRUS.
The type species of ORTHOPOXVIRUS, related to COWPOX VIRUS, but whose true origin is unknown. It has been used as a live vaccine against SMALLPOX. It is also used as a vector for inserting foreign DNA into animals. Rabbitpox virus is a subspecies of VACCINIA VIRUS.
Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.
A genus of the subfamily PNEUMOVIRINAE, containing two members: Turkey rhinotracheitis virus and a human Metapneumovirus. Virions lack HEMAGGLUTININ and NEURAMINIDASE.
An enzyme that catalyzes the hydrolysis of alpha-2,3, alpha-2,6-, and alpha-2,8-glycosidic linkages (at a decreasing rate, respectively) of terminal sialic residues in oligosaccharides, glycoproteins, glycolipids, colominic acid, and synthetic substrate. (From Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992)
Inflammation involving the GLOTTIS or VOCAL CORDS and the subglottic larynx. Croup is characterized by a barking cough, HOARSENESS, and persistent inspiratory STRIDOR (a high-pitched breathing sound). It occurs chiefly in infants and children.
Pneumovirus infections caused by the RESPIRATORY SYNCYTIAL VIRUSES. Humans and cattle are most affected but infections in goats and sheep have been reported.
Substances elaborated by viruses that have antigenic activity.
Ribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of viruses.
Live vaccines prepared from microorganisms which have undergone physical adaptation (e.g., by radiation or temperature conditioning) or serial passage in laboratory animal hosts or infected tissue/cell cultures, in order to produce avirulent mutant strains capable of inducing protective immunity.
Method for measuring viral infectivity and multiplication in CULTURED CELLS. Clear lysed areas or plaques develop as the VIRAL PARTICLES are released from the infected cells during incubation. With some VIRUSES, the cells are killed by a cytopathic effect; with others, the infected cells are not killed but can be detected by their hemadsorptive ability. Sometimes the plaque cells contain VIRAL ANTIGENS which can be measured by IMMUNOFLUORESCENCE.
Inflammation of the LARYNGEAL MUCOSA, including the VOCAL CORDS. Laryngitis is characterized by irritation, edema, and reduced pliability of the mucosa leading to VOICE DISORDERS such as APHONIA and HOARSENESS.
Inflammation of the lung parenchyma that is caused by a viral infection.
Serologic tests in which a known quantity of antigen is added to the serum prior to the addition of a red cell suspension. Reaction result is expressed as the smallest amount of antigen which causes complete inhibition of hemagglutination.
Visible morphologic changes in cells infected with viruses. It includes shutdown of cellular RNA and protein synthesis, cell fusion, release of lysosomal enzymes, changes in cell membrane permeability, diffuse changes in intracellular structures, presence of viral inclusion bodies, and chromosomal aberrations. It excludes malignant transformation, which is CELL TRANSFORMATION, VIRAL. Viral cytopathogenic effects provide a valuable method for identifying and classifying the infecting viruses.
The measurement of infection-blocking titer of ANTISERA by testing a series of dilutions for a given virus-antiserum interaction end-point, which is generally the dilution at which tissue cultures inoculated with the serum-virus mixtures demonstrate cytopathology (CPE) or the dilution at which 50% of test animals injected with serum-virus mixtures show infectivity (ID50) or die (LD50).
The type species of MORBILLIVIRUS and the cause of the highly infectious human disease MEASLES, which affects mostly children.
The assembly of VIRAL STRUCTURAL PROTEINS and nucleic acid (VIRAL DNA or VIRAL RNA) to form a VIRUS PARTICLE.
The top portion of the pharynx situated posterior to the nose and superior to the SOFT PALATE. The nasopharynx is the posterior extension of the nasal cavities and has a respiratory function.
Fusion of somatic cells in vitro or in vivo, which results in somatic cell hybridization.
Agents used in the prophylaxis or therapy of VIRUS DISEASES. Some of the ways they may act include preventing viral replication by inhibiting viral DNA polymerase; binding to specific cell-surface receptors and inhibiting viral penetration or uncoating; inhibiting viral protein synthesis; or blocking late stages of virus assembly.
Vaccines or candidate vaccines used to prevent infection with RESPIRATORY SYNCYTIAL VIRUSES.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
The tubular and cavernous organs and structures, by means of which pulmonary ventilation and gas exchange between ambient air and the blood are brought about.
Suspensions of attenuated or killed viruses administered for the prevention or treatment of infectious viral disease.
Specific hemagglutinin subtypes encoded by VIRUSES.
The functional hereditary units of VIRUSES.
A phenomenon manifested by an agent or substance adhering to or being adsorbed on the surface of a red blood cell, as tuberculin can be adsorbed on red blood cells under certain conditions. (Stedman, 25th ed)
Viral proteins that are components of the mature assembled VIRUS PARTICLES. They may include nucleocapsid core proteins (gag proteins), enzymes packaged within the virus particle (pol proteins), and membrane components (env proteins). These do not include the proteins encoded in the VIRAL GENOME that are produced in infected cells but which are not packaged in the mature virus particle,i.e. the so called non-structural proteins (VIRAL NONSTRUCTURAL PROTEINS).
Small synthetic peptides that mimic surface antigens of pathogens and are immunogenic, or vaccines manufactured with the aid of recombinant DNA techniques. The latter vaccines may also be whole viruses whose nucleic acids have been modified.
The expelling of virus particles from the body. Important routes include the respiratory tract, genital tract, and intestinal tract. Virus shedding is an important means of vertical transmission (INFECTIOUS DISEASE TRANSMISSION, VERTICAL).
Membrane glycoproteins from influenza viruses which are involved in hemagglutination, virus attachment, and envelope fusion. Fourteen distinct subtypes of HA glycoproteins and nine of NA glycoproteins have been identified from INFLUENZA A VIRUS; no subtypes have been identified for Influenza B or Influenza C viruses.
A subfamily in the family CEBIDAE that consists of four genera: CALLITHRIX (marmosets), CALLIMICO (Goeldi's monkey), LEONTOPITHECUS (lion tamarins), and SAGUINUS (long-tusked tamarins). The members of this family inhabit the tropical forests of South and Central America.
An acute viral infection in humans involving the respiratory tract. It is marked by inflammation of the NASAL MUCOSA; the PHARYNX; and conjunctiva, and by headache and severe, often generalized, myalgia.
A species of POLYOMAVIRUS originally isolated from Rhesus monkey kidney tissue. It produces malignancy in human and newborn hamster kidney cell cultures.
The first continuously cultured human malignant CELL LINE, derived from the cervical carcinoma of Henrietta Lacks. These cells are used for VIRUS CULTIVATION and antitumor drug screening assays.
A subfamily in the family MURIDAE, comprising the hamsters. Four of the more common genera are Cricetus, CRICETULUS; MESOCRICETUS; and PHODOPUS.
Proteins conjugated with nucleic acids.
Viruses parasitic on plants higher than bacteria.
Viruses whose nucleic acid is DNA.
Viruses which lack a complete genome so that they cannot completely replicate or cannot form a protein coat. Some are host-dependent defectives, meaning they can replicate only in cell systems which provide the particular genetic function which they lack. Others, called SATELLITE VIRUSES, are able to replicate only when their genetic defect is complemented by a helper virus.
A species of PNEUMOVIRUS causing an important respiratory infection in cattle. Symptoms include fever, conjunctivitis, and respiratory distress.
The infective system of a virus, composed of the viral genome, a protein core, and a protein coat called a capsid, which may be naked or enclosed in a lipoprotein envelope called the peplos.
A protein-nucleic acid complex which forms part or all of a virion. It consists of a CAPSID plus enclosed nucleic acid. Depending on the virus, the nucleocapsid may correspond to a naked core or be surrounded by a membranous envelope.
A suborder of PRIMATES consisting of six families: CEBIDAE (some New World monkeys), ATELIDAE (some New World monkeys), CERCOPITHECIDAE (Old World monkeys), HYLOBATIDAE (gibbons and siamangs), CALLITRICHINAE (marmosets and tamarins), and HOMINIDAE (humans and great apes).
Any of the processes by which cytoplasmic factors influence the differential control of gene action in viruses.
The type species of ALPHAVIRUS normally transmitted to birds by CULEX mosquitoes in Egypt, South Africa, India, Malaya, the Philippines, and Australia. It may be associated with fever in humans. Serotypes (differing by less than 17% in nucleotide sequence) include Babanki, Kyzylagach, and Ockelbo viruses.
A subtype of INFLUENZA A VIRUS with the surface proteins hemagglutinin 1 and neuraminidase 1. The H1N1 subtype was responsible for the Spanish flu pandemic of 1918.
A subtype of INFLUENZA A VIRUS comprised of the surface proteins hemagglutinin 3 and neuraminidase 2. The H3N2 subtype was responsible for the Hong Kong flu pandemic of 1968.
A form of fluorescent antibody technique utilizing a fluorochrome conjugated to an antibody, which is added directly to a tissue or cell suspension for the detection of a specific antigen. (Bennington, Saunders Dictionary & Encyclopedia of Laboratory Medicine and Technology, 1984)
The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.
Species of the genus INFLUENZAVIRUS B that cause HUMAN INFLUENZA and other diseases primarily in humans. Antigenic variation is less extensive than in type A viruses (INFLUENZA A VIRUS) and consequently there is no basis for distinct subtypes or variants. Epidemics are less likely than with INFLUENZA A VIRUS and there have been no pandemics. Previously only found in humans, Influenza B virus has been isolated from seals which may constitute the animal reservoir from which humans are exposed.
Delivery of medications through the nasal mucosa.
Test for tissue antigen using either a direct method, by conjugation of antibody with fluorescent dye (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, DIRECT) or an indirect method, by formation of antigen-antibody complex which is then labeled with fluorescein-conjugated anti-immunoglobulin antibody (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, INDIRECT). The tissue is then examined by fluorescence microscopy.
The type species of LYSSAVIRUS causing rabies in humans and other animals. Transmission is mostly by animal bites through saliva. The virus is neurotropic multiplying in neurons and myotubes of vertebrates.
Proteins found mainly in icosahedral DNA and RNA viruses. They consist of proteins directly associated with the nucleic acid inside the NUCLEOCAPSID.
The type species of the genus INFLUENZAVIRUS A that causes influenza and other diseases in humans and animals. Antigenic variation occurs frequently between strains, allowing classification into subtypes and variants. Transmission is usually by aerosol (human and most non-aquatic hosts) or waterborne (ducks). Infected birds shed the virus in their saliva, nasal secretions, and feces.
Virus diseases caused by the ORTHOMYXOVIRIDAE.
A subtype of INFLUENZA A VIRUS comprised of the surface proteins hemagglutinin 5 and neuraminidase 1. The H5N1 subtype, frequently referred to as the bird flu virus, is endemic in wild birds and very contagious among both domestic (POULTRY) and wild birds. It does not usually infect humans, but some cases have been reported.
A guanido-neuraminic acid that is used to inhibit NEURAMINIDASE.
The relationships of groups of organisms as reflected by their genetic makeup.
DNA molecules capable of autonomous replication within a host cell and into which other DNA sequences can be inserted and thus amplified. Many are derived from PLASMIDS; BACTERIOPHAGES; or VIRUSES. They are used for transporting foreign genes into recipient cells. Genetic vectors possess a functional replicator site and contain GENETIC MARKERS to facilitate their selective recognition.
Divisions of the year according to some regularly recurrent phenomena usually astronomical or climatic. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
The adherence and merging of cell membranes, intracellular membranes, or artificial membranes to each other or to viruses, parasites, or interstitial particles through a variety of chemical and physical processes.
A genus of PICORNAVIRIDAE inhabiting primarily the respiratory tract of mammalian hosts. It includes over 100 human serotypes associated with the COMMON COLD.
Domesticated bovine animals of the genus Bos, usually kept on a farm or ranch and used for the production of meat or dairy products or for heavy labor.
Fluid obtained by THERAPEUTIC IRRIGATION or washout of the nasal cavity and NASAL MUCOSA. The resulting fluid is used in cytologic and immunologic assays of the nasal mucosa such as with the NASAL PROVOCATION TEST in the diagnosis of nasal hypersensitivity.
A signal transducer and activator of transcription that mediates cellular responses to TYPE I INTERFERONS. Stat2 protein is associated constitutively with INTERFERON REGULATORY FACTOR-9. After PHOSPHORYLATION Stat2 forms the IFN-STIMULATED GENE FACTOR 3 COMPLEX to regulate expression of target GENES.
Term used to designate tetrahydroxy aldehydic acids obtained by oxidation of hexose sugars, i.e. glucuronic acid, galacturonic acid, etc. Historically, the name hexuronic acid was originally given to ascorbic acid.
Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of viruses.
Viral proteins found in either the NUCLEOCAPSID or the viral core (VIRAL CORE PROTEINS).
Serological reactions in which an antiserum against one antigen reacts with a non-identical but closely related antigen.
The entering of cells by viruses following VIRUS ATTACHMENT. This is achieved by ENDOCYTOSIS, by direct MEMBRANE FUSION of the viral membrane with the CELL MEMBRANE, or by translocation of the whole virus across the cell membrane.
The study of the structure, growth, function, genetics, and reproduction of viruses, and VIRUS DISEASES.
Vaccines or candidate vaccines used to prevent EBOLA HEMORRHAGIC FEVER.
Methods of maintaining or growing biological materials in controlled laboratory conditions. These include the cultures of CELLS; TISSUES; organs; or embryo in vitro. Both animal and plant tissues may be cultured by a variety of methods. Cultures may derive from normal or abnormal tissues, and consist of a single cell type or mixed cell types.
The type species of the genus ORTHOHEPADNAVIRUS which causes human HEPATITIS B and is also apparently a causal agent in human HEPATOCELLULAR CARCINOMA. The Dane particle is an intact hepatitis virion, named after its discoverer. Non-infectious spherical and tubular particles are also seen in the serum.
A species of the genus MACACA inhabiting India, China, and other parts of Asia. The species is used extensively in biomedical research and adapts very well to living with humans.
A species of FLAVIVIRUS, one of the Japanese encephalitis virus group (ENCEPHALITIS VIRUSES, JAPANESE). It can infect birds and mammals. In humans, it is seen most frequently in Africa, Asia, and Europe presenting as a silent infection or undifferentiated fever (WEST NILE FEVER). The virus appeared in North America for the first time in 1999. It is transmitted mainly by CULEX spp mosquitoes which feed primarily on birds, but it can also be carried by the Asian Tiger mosquito, AEDES albopictus, which feeds mainly on mammals.
The type species of VESICULOVIRUS causing a disease symptomatically similar to FOOT-AND-MOUTH DISEASE in cattle, horses, and pigs. It may be transmitted to other species including humans, where it causes influenza-like symptoms.
Respiratory and conjunctival infections caused by 33 identified serotypes of human adenoviruses.
The complete genetic complement contained in a DNA or RNA molecule in a virus.
The outer protein protective shell of a virus, which protects the viral nucleic acid.
Production of new arrangements of DNA by various mechanisms such as assortment and segregation, CROSSING OVER; GENE CONVERSION; GENETIC TRANSFORMATION; GENETIC CONJUGATION; GENETIC TRANSDUCTION; or mixed infection of viruses.
In vitro method for producing large amounts of specific DNA or RNA fragments of defined length and sequence from small amounts of short oligonucleotide flanking sequences (primers). The essential steps include thermal denaturation of the double-stranded target molecules, annealing of the primers to their complementary sequences, and extension of the annealed primers by enzymatic synthesis with DNA polymerase. The reaction is efficient, specific, and extremely sensitive. Uses for the reaction include disease diagnosis, detection of difficult-to-isolate pathogens, mutation analysis, genetic testing, DNA sequencing, and analyzing evolutionary relationships.
An N-acyl derivative of neuraminic acid. N-acetylneuraminic acid occurs in many polysaccharides, glycoproteins, and glycolipids in animals and bacteria. (From Dorland, 28th ed, p1518)
Proteins secreted by vertebrate cells in response to a wide variety of inducers. They confer resistance against many different viruses, inhibit proliferation of normal and malignant cells, impede multiplication of intracellular parasites, enhance macrophage and granulocyte phagocytosis, augment natural killer cell activity, and show several other immunomodulatory functions.
Sensitive assay using radiolabeled ANTIGENS to detect specific ANTIBODIES in SERUM. The antigens are allowed to react with the serum and then precipitated using a special reagent such as PROTEIN A sepharose beads. The bound radiolabeled immunoprecipitate is then commonly analyzed by gel electrophoresis.
Multinucleated masses produced by the fusion of many cells; often associated with viral infections. In AIDS, they are induced when the envelope glycoprotein of the HIV virus binds to the CD4 antigen of uninfected neighboring T4 cells. The resulting syncytium leads to cell death and thus may account for the cytopathic effect of the virus.
Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.
The mechanism by which latent viruses, such as genetically transmitted tumor viruses (PROVIRUSES) or PROPHAGES of lysogenic bacteria, are induced to replicate and then released as infectious viruses. It may be effected by various endogenous and exogenous stimuli, including B-cell LIPOPOLYSACCHARIDES, glucocorticoid hormones, halogenated pyrimidines, IONIZING RADIATION, ultraviolet light, and superinfecting viruses.
A genus of the family Muridae having three species. The present domesticated strains were developed from individuals brought from Syria. They are widely used in biomedical research.
A variation of the PCR technique in which cDNA is made from RNA via reverse transcription. The resultant cDNA is then amplified using standard PCR protocols.
The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.
A genus of the family CORONAVIRIDAE which causes respiratory or gastrointestinal disease in a variety of vertebrates.
Administration of vaccines to stimulate the host's immune response. This includes any preparation intended for active immunological prophylaxis.
Child hospitalized for short term care.
The mucous lining of the NASAL CAVITY, including lining of the nostril (vestibule) and the OLFACTORY MUCOSA. Nasal mucosa consists of ciliated cells, GOBLET CELLS, brush cells, small granule cells, basal cells (STEM CELLS) and glands containing both mucous and serous cells.
The domestic dog, Canis familiaris, comprising about 400 breeds, of the carnivore family CANIDAE. They are worldwide in distribution and live in association with people. (Walker's Mammals of the World, 5th ed, p1065)
The ability of a pathogenic virus to lie dormant within a cell (latent infection). In eukaryotes, subsequent activation and viral replication is thought to be caused by extracellular stimulation of cellular transcription factors. Latency in bacteriophage is maintained by the expression of virally encoded repressors.
Disinfectant used in vapor form to sterilize vaccines, grafts, etc. The vapor is very irritating and the liquid form is carcinogenic.
Antibodies produced by a single clone of cells.
The most well known avian paramyxovirus in the genus AVULAVIRUS and the cause of a highly infectious pneumoencephalitis in fowl. It is also reported to cause CONJUNCTIVITIS in humans. Transmission is by droplet inhalation or ingestion of contaminated water or food.
Diseases of domestic cattle of the genus Bos. It includes diseases of cows, yaks, and zebus.
A sequence of successive nucleotide triplets that are read as CODONS specifying AMINO ACIDS and begin with an INITIATOR CODON and end with a stop codon (CODON, TERMINATOR).
Either of the pair of organs occupying the cavity of the thorax that effect the aeration of the blood.
The interactions between a host and a pathogen, usually resulting in disease.
Short sequences (generally about 10 base pairs) of DNA that are complementary to sequences of messenger RNA and allow reverse transcriptases to start copying the adjacent sequences of mRNA. Primers are used extensively in genetic and molecular biology techniques.
The biosynthesis of RNA carried out on a template of DNA. The biosynthesis of DNA from an RNA template is called REVERSE TRANSCRIPTION.
A group of naturally occurring N-and O-acyl derivatives of the deoxyamino sugar neuraminic acid. They are ubiquitously distributed in many tissues.
The property of objects that determines the direction of heat flow when they are placed in direct thermal contact. The temperature is the energy of microscopic motions (vibrational and translational) of the particles of atoms.
A thin membrane that lines the CEREBRAL VENTRICLES and the central canal of the SPINAL CORD.
Viruses that produce tumors.
Sites on an antigen that interact with specific antibodies.
A multistage process that includes cloning, physical mapping, subcloning, determination of the DNA SEQUENCE, and information analysis.
One of the type I interferons produced by fibroblasts in response to stimulation by live or inactivated virus or by double-stranded RNA. It is a cytokine with antiviral, antiproliferative, and immunomodulating activity.
An immunoassay utilizing an antibody labeled with an enzyme marker such as horseradish peroxidase. While either the enzyme or the antibody is bound to an immunosorbent substrate, they both retain their biologic activity; the change in enzyme activity as a result of the enzyme-antibody-antigen reaction is proportional to the concentration of the antigen and can be measured spectrophotometrically or with the naked eye. Many variations of the method have been developed.
Virus diseases caused by the PICORNAVIRIDAE.
Conjugated protein-carbohydrate compounds including mucins, mucoid, and amyloid glycoproteins.
Sudden increase in the incidence of a disease. The concept includes EPIDEMICS and PANDEMICS.
Species of the genus LENTIVIRUS, subgenus primate immunodeficiency viruses (IMMUNODEFICIENCY VIRUSES, PRIMATE), that induces acquired immunodeficiency syndrome in monkeys and apes (SAIDS). The genetic organization of SIV is virtually identical to HIV.
The restriction of a characteristic behavior, anatomical structure or physical system, such as immune response; metabolic response, or gene or gene variant to the members of one species. It refers to that property which differentiates one species from another but it is also used for phylogenetic levels higher or lower than the species.
A nucleoside antimetabolite antiviral agent that blocks nucleic acid synthesis and is used against both RNA and DNA viruses.
An area showing altered staining behavior in the nucleus or cytoplasm of a virus-infected cell. Some inclusion bodies represent "virus factories" in which viral nucleic acid or protein is being synthesized; others are merely artifacts of fixation and staining. One example, Negri bodies, are found in the cytoplasm or processes of nerve cells in animals that have died from rabies.
A family of non-enveloped viruses infecting mammals (MASTADENOVIRUS) and birds (AVIADENOVIRUS) or both (ATADENOVIRUS). Infections may be asymptomatic or result in a variety of diseases.
Proteins associated with the inner surface of the lipid bilayer of the viral envelope. These proteins have been implicated in control of viral transcription and may possibly serve as the "glue" that binds the nucleocapsid to the appropriate membrane site during viral budding from the host cell.
A phenomenon in which infection by a first virus results in resistance of cells or tissues to infection by a second, unrelated virus.
The cartilaginous and membranous tube descending from the larynx and branching into the right and left main bronchi.
Virus diseases caused by the ADENOVIRIDAE.
The naturally occurring or experimentally induced replacement of one or more AMINO ACIDS in a protein with another. If a functionally equivalent amino acid is substituted, the protein may retain wild-type activity. Substitution may also diminish, enhance, or eliminate protein function. Experimentally induced substitution is often used to study enzyme activities and binding site properties.
Viruses which produce a mottled appearance of the leaves of plants.
A funnel-shaped fibromuscular tube that conducts food to the ESOPHAGUS, and air to the LARYNX and LUNGS. It is located posterior to the NASAL CAVITY; ORAL CAVITY; and LARYNX, and extends from the SKULL BASE to the inferior border of the CRICOID CARTILAGE anteriorly and to the inferior border of the C6 vertebra posteriorly. It is divided into the NASOPHARYNX; OROPHARYNX; and HYPOPHARYNX (laryngopharynx).
Methods for using more than one primer set in a polymerase chain reaction to amplify more than one segment of the target DNA sequence in a single reaction.
Sensitive tests to measure certain antigens, antibodies, or viruses, using their ability to agglutinate certain erythrocytes. (From Stedman, 26th ed)
Body organ that filters blood for the secretion of URINE and that regulates ion concentrations.
Serum that contains antibodies. It is obtained from an animal that has been immunized either by ANTIGEN injection or infection with microorganisms containing the antigen.
A species in the genus HEPATOVIRUS containing one serotype and two strains: HUMAN HEPATITIS A VIRUS and Simian hepatitis A virus causing hepatitis in humans (HEPATITIS A) and primates, respectively.
A species of ALPHAVIRUS isolated in central, eastern, and southern Africa.
An infant during the first month after birth.
RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.
Group of alpharetroviruses (ALPHARETROVIRUS) producing sarcomata and other tumors in chickens and other fowl and also in pigeons, ducks, and RATS.
Species of the genus MASTADENOVIRUS, causing a wide range of diseases in humans. Infections are mostly asymptomatic, but can be associated with diseases of the respiratory, ocular, and gastrointestinal systems. Serotypes (named with Arabic numbers) have been grouped into species designated Human adenovirus A-F.
The binding of virus particles to receptors on the host cell surface. For enveloped viruses, the virion ligand is usually a surface glycoprotein as is the cellular receptor. For non-enveloped viruses, the virus CAPSID serves as the ligand.
A species of POLYOMAVIRUS apparently infecting over 90% of children but not clearly associated with any clinical illness in childhood. The virus remains latent in the body throughout life and can be reactivated under certain circumstances.
A signal transducer and activator of transcription that mediates cellular responses to INTERFERONS. Stat1 interacts with P53 TUMOR SUPPRESSOR PROTEIN and regulates expression of GENES involved in growth control and APOPTOSIS.
Layers of protein which surround the capsid in animal viruses with tubular nucleocapsids. The envelope consists of an inner layer of lipids and virus specified proteins also called membrane or matrix proteins. The outer layer consists of one or more types of morphological subunits called peplomers which project from the viral envelope; this layer always consists of glycoproteins.
Infections produced by oncogenic viruses. The infections caused by DNA viruses are less numerous but more diverse than those caused by the RNA oncogenic viruses.
The uptake of naked or purified DNA by CELLS, usually meaning the process as it occurs in eukaryotic cells. It is analogous to bacterial transformation (TRANSFORMATION, BACTERIAL) and both are routinely employed in GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUES.
Viruses whose taxonomic relationships have not been established.
A species of POLYOMAVIRUS, originally isolated from the brain of a patient with progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy. The patient's initials J.C. gave the virus its name. Infection is not accompanied by any apparent illness but serious demyelinating disease can appear later, probably following reactivation of latent virus.
Diseases of the domestic dog (Canis familiaris). This term does not include diseases of wild dogs, WOLVES; FOXES; and other Canidae for which the heading CARNIVORA is used.
The developmental entity of a fertilized chicken egg (ZYGOTE). The developmental process begins about 24 h before the egg is laid at the BLASTODISC, a small whitish spot on the surface of the EGG YOLK. After 21 days of incubation, the embryo is fully developed before hatching.
Binary classification measures to assess test results. Sensitivity or recall rate is the proportion of true positives. Specificity is the probability of correctly determining the absence of a condition. (From Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)
A highly fatal, acute hemorrhagic fever, clinically very similar to MARBURG VIRUS DISEASE, caused by EBOLAVIRUS, first occurring in the Sudan and adjacent northwestern (what was then) Zaire.
The type species of ALPHARETROVIRUS producing latent or manifest lymphoid leukosis in fowl.
Nucleosides in which the purine or pyrimidine base is combined with ribose. (Dorland, 28th ed)
Organic or inorganic compounds that contain the -N3 group.
Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
Disease having a short and relatively severe course.
The type species of ORBIVIRUS causing a serious disease in sheep, especially lambs. It may also infect wild ruminants and other domestic animals.
Serologic tests based on inactivation of complement by the antigen-antibody complex (stage 1). Binding of free complement can be visualized by addition of a second antigen-antibody system such as red cells and appropriate red cell antibody (hemolysin) requiring complement for its completion (stage 2). Failure of the red cells to lyse indicates that a specific antigen-antibody reaction has taken place in stage 1. If red cells lyse, free complement is present indicating no antigen-antibody reaction occurred in stage 1.
Naturally occurring or experimentally induced animal diseases with pathological processes sufficiently similar to those of human diseases. They are used as study models for human diseases.
Agglutination of ERYTHROCYTES by a virus.
The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.
Viruses containing two or more pieces of nucleic acid (segmented genome) from different parents. Such viruses are produced in cells coinfected with different strains of a given virus.

Human parainfluenza virus type 1 phosphoprotein is constitutively phosphorylated at Ser-120 and Ser-184. (1/717)

RNA-dependent RNA polymerases of single-stranded, negative-sense RNA viruses comprise a phosphoprotein (P) and a large protein. The constitutive phosphorylation of the P protein in these viruses is highly conserved, yet the functional significance of phosphorylation is enigmatic. To approach this problem, phosphorylation sites were determined in two closely related paramyxovirus P proteins. Sendai virus (SV) is a prototypic paramyxovirus. Previously, using a phosphopeptide mapping technique, the primary constitutive phosphorylation site of SV P protein was mapped to Ser-249. Phosphorylation at Ser-249 is dependent on the presence of Pro-250. Human parainfluenza virus type 1 (HPIV-1) P protein has 66% similarity to SV P protein and its predicted secondary structure is highly similar to that of SV P protein. However, there is no obvious conserved phosphorylation site in HPIV-1 P protein. Using the phosphopeptide mapping strategy, the constitutive phosphorylation sites of HPIV-1 P protein were mapped. The HPIV-1 P protein is primarily phosphorylated at Ser-120. Phosphorylation at Ser-120 is dependent on the presence of Pro-121. It also has a minor phosphorylation site at Ser-184. The sequence at Ser-184 does not match any consensus phosphorylation target site for the known kinases. Significantly, the P proteins from both viruses are constitutively and primarily phosphorylated at one serine and the phosphorylation of that serine is dependent on the presence of a proline on its carboxyl side.  (+info)

Human parainfluenza virus type 1 matrix and nucleoprotein genes transiently expressed in mammalian cells induce the release of virus-like particles containing nucleocapsid-like structures. (2/717)

The matrix (M) protein plays an essential role in the assembly and budding of some enveloped RNA viruses. We expressed the human parainfluenza virus type 1 (hPIV-1) M and/or NP genes into 293T cells using the mammalian expression vector pCAGGS. Biochemical and electron microscopic analyses of transfected cells showed that the M protein alone can induce the budding of virus-like particles (vesicles) from the plasma membrane and that the NP protein can assemble into intracellular nucleocapsid-like (NC-like) structures. Furthermore, the coexpression of both the M and NP genes resulted in the production of vesicles enclosing NC-like structures, suggesting that the hPIV-1 M protein has the intrinsic ability to induce membrane vesiculation and to incorporate NC-like structures into these budding vesicles.  (+info)

Parainfluenza virus infection among adults hospitalized for lower respiratory tract infection. (3/717)

To better define the contribution of human parainfluenza viruses (HPIVs) to lower respiratory tract infection in adults, we tested acute- and convalescent-phase serum specimens from hospitalized adults participating in a population-based prospective study of lower respiratory tract infection during 1991-1992. We tested all available specimens from the epidemic seasons for each virus and approximately 300 randomly selected specimens from the corresponding off-seasons for antibodies to HPIV-1, HPIV-2, or HPIV-3. During the respective epidemic season, HPIV-1 infection was detected in 18 (2.5%) of 721 and HPIV-3 infection in 22 (3.1%) of 705 patients with lower respiratory tract infection. Only 2 (0.2%) of 1,057 patients tested positive for HPIV-2 infection. No HPIV-1 infections and only 2 (0.7% of 281 patients tested) HPIV-3 infections were detected during the off-seasons. HPIV-1 and HPIV-3 were among the four most frequently identified infections associated with lower respiratory tract infection during their respective outbreak seasons.  (+info)

Respiratory viral antigens in autopsy lung tissue specimens from patients with cancer or myocardial infarction. (4/717)

Using immunoenzyme histochemical analysis, we retrospectively examined lung tissue specimens obtained at autopsy from 118 patients with cancer who had received chemotherapy and 20 patients who had died after myocardial infarction. Respiratory viral antigens were demonstrated in lung tissue specimens from eight of 118 cancer patients and two of 20 myocardial infarction patients. Most of the patients with demonstrable viral antigens were febrile and had signs of pulmonary infection, but in no case was pulmonary viral infection considered clinically. The following viral antigens were demonstrated: influenza A virus (6 patients), respiratory syncytial virus (2), influenza B virus (1), and parainfluenza virus type 1 (1).  (+info)

Clinical characteristics of acute viral lower respiratory tract infections in hospitalized children in Seoul, 1996-1998. (5/717)

This study was performed to investigate the etiologic agents, age distribution, clinical manifestations and seasonal occurrence of acute viral lower respiratory tract infections in children. We confirmed viral etiologies using nasopharyngeal aspirates in 237 patients of the ages of 15 years or younger who were hospitalized for acute lower respiratory tract infection (ALRI) from March 1996 to February 1998 at Samsung Seoul Hospital, Seoul, Korea. The overall isolation rate was 22.1%. The viral pathogens identified were adenovirus (12.7%), influenza virus type A (21.1%), -type B (13.9%), parainfluenza virus type 1 (13.5%), -type 2 (1.3%), -type 3 (16.0%) and respiratory syncytial virus (21.5%). The occurrence of ALRIs was highest in the first year of life, although parainfluenza virus type 1 infection occurred predominantly in the second year of life and influenza virus caused illnesses in all age groups. The specific viruses are frequently associated with specific clinical syndromes of ALRI. The respiratory agents and associated syndromes frequently have characteristic seasonal patterns. This study will help us to estimate the etiologic agents of ALRI, and establish a program for the prevention and treatment. An annual nationwide survey is necessary to understand the viral epidemiology associated with respiratory illnesses in Korea.  (+info)

Detection and identification of human parainfluenza viruses 1, 2, 3, and 4 in clinical samples of pediatric patients by multiplex reverse transcription-PCR. (6/717)

We describe a multiplex reverse transcription-PCR (m-RT-PCR) assay that is able to detect and differentiate all known human parainfluenza viruses (HPIVs). Serial dilution experiments with reference strains that compared cell culture isolation and m-RT-PCR showed sensitivities ranging from 0.0004 50% tissue culture infective dose (TCID(50)) for HPIV type 4B (HPIV-4B) to 32 TCID(50)s for HPIV-3. As few as 10 plasmids containing HPIV PCR products could be detected in all cases. When 201 nasopharyngeal aspirate specimens from pediatric patients hospitalized for lower respiratory illness were tested, m-RT-PCR assay detected 64 HPIVs (24 HPIV-3, 23 HPIV-1, 10 HPIV-4, and 7 HPIV-2), while only 42 of them (21 HPIV-1, 14 HPIV-3, 6 HPIV-2, and 1 HPIV-4 isolates) grew in cell culture. Our m-RT-PCR assay was more sensitive than either cell culture isolation or indirect immunofluorescence with monoclonal antibodies for the detection of HPIV infections. Also, HPIV-4 was more frequently detected than HPIV-2 in this study, suggesting that it may have been underestimated as a lower respiratory tract pathogen because of the insensitivity of cell culture.  (+info)

Mutations in conserved domains IV and VI of the large (L) subunit of the sendai virus RNA polymerase give a spectrum of defective RNA synthesis phenotypes. (7/717)

The Sendai virus RNA polymerase is a complex of two virus-encoded proteins, the phosphoprotein (P) and the large (L) protein. When aligned with amino acid sequences of L proteins from other negative-sense RNA viruses, the Sendai L protein contains six regions of good conservation, designated domains I-VI, which have been postulated to be important for the various enzymatic activities of the polymerase. To directly address the roles of domains IV and VI, 14 site-directed mutations were constructed either by changing clustered charged amino acids to ala or by substituting selected Sendai L amino acids with the corresponding sequence from measles virus L. Each mutant L protein was tested for its ability to transcribe and replicate the Sendai genome. The series of mutations created a spectrum of phenotypes, from those with significant, near wild-type, activity to those being completely defective for all RNA synthesis. The inactive L proteins, however, were still able to bind P protein and form a polymerase capable of binding the nucleocapsid template. The remainder of the mutations reduced, but did not abolish, enzymatic activity and included one mutant with a specific defect in the synthesis of the leader RNA compared with mRNA, and three mutants that replicated genome RNA much more efficiently in vivo than in vitro. Together, these data suggest that even within a domain, the function of the Sendai L protein is likely to be very complex. In addition, SS3 and SS10 L in domain IV and SS13 L in domain VI were shown to be temperature-sensitive. Both SS3 and SS10 gave significant, although not wild-type, activity at 32 degrees C; however, each was completely inactivated for all RNA synthesis at 37 and 39.6 degrees C. SS13 was completely inactive only when synthesized at the higher temperature. Each polymerase synthesized at 32 degrees C could only be partially heat inactivated in vitro at 39.6 degrees C, suggesting that inactivation involves both thermal lability of the protein and temperature sensitivity for its synthesis.  (+info)

Nucleocapsid incorporation into parainfluenza virus is regulated by specific interaction with matrix protein. (8/717)

The paramyxovirus nucleoproteins (NPs) encapsidate the genomic RNA into nucleocapsids, which are then incorporated into virus particles. We determined the protein-protein interaction between NP molecules and the molecular mechanism required for incorporating nucleocapsids into virions in two closely related viruses, human parainfluenza virus type 1 (hPIV1) and Sendai virus (SV). Expression of NP from cDNA resulted in in vivo nucleocapsid formation. Electron micrographs showed no significant difference in the morphological appearance of viral nucleocapsids obtained from lysates of transfected cells expressing SV or hPIVI NP cDNA. Coexpression of NP cDNAs from both viruses resulted in the formation of nucleocapsid composed of a mixture of NP molecules; thus, the NPs of both viruses contained regions that allowed the formation of mixed nucleocapsid. Mixed nucleocapsids were also detected in cells infected with SV and transfected with hPIV1 NP cDNA. However, when NP of SV was donated by infected virus and hPIV1 NP was from transfected cDNA, nucleocapsids composed of NPs solely from SV or solely from hPIVI were also detected. Although almost equal amounts of NP of the two viruses were found in the cytoplasm of cells infected with SV and transfected with hPIV1 NP cDNA, 90% of the NPs in the nucleocapsids of the progeny SV virions were from SV. Thus, nucleocapsids containing heterologous hPIV1 NPs were excluded during the assembly of progeny SV virions. Coexpression of hPIV1 NP and hPIV1 matrix protein (M) in SV-infected cells increased the uptake of nucleocapsids containing hPIV1 NP; thus, M appears to be responsible for the specific incorporation of the nucleocapsid into virions. Using SV-hPIV1 chimera NP cDNAs, we found that the C-terminal domain of the NP protein (amino acids 420 to 466) is responsible for the interaction with M.  (+info)

Surface properties of Sendai virus envelope.: Surface properties of Sendai virus envelope membrane have been measured, using both biological and biophysical tec
We have analyzed the mechanism by which M protein interacts with components of the viral envelope during Sendai virus assembly. Using recombinant vaccinia viruses to selectively express combinations of Sendai virus F, HN, and M proteins, we have successfully reconstituted M protein-glycoprotein interaction in vivo and determined the molecular interactions which are necessary and sufficient to promote M protein-membrane binding. Our results showed that M protein accumulates on cellular membranes via a direct interaction with both F and HN proteins. Specifically, our data demonstrated that a small fraction (8 to 16%) of M protein becomes membrane associated in the absence of Sendai virus glycoproteins, while , 75% becomes membrane bound in the presence of both F and HN proteins. Selective expression of M protein together with either F or HN protein showed that each viral glycoprotein is individually sufficient to promote efficient (56 to 73%) M protein-membrane binding. Finally, we observed that M ...
INTRODUCTION: Sendai virus (SeV), also known as murine parainfluenza virus type 1 or hemagglutinating virus of Japan (HVJ), is a nonsegmented negative sense single-stranded RNA virus of the Respirovirus genus of the family Paramyxoviridae. SeV is one of the most important respiratory pathogens of rats and mice. SeV is responsible for a highly transmissible respiratory tract infection in mice, hamsters, guinea pigs, rats, and occasionally pigs, with infection passing through both air and direct contact routes. Clinical symptoms seen in mice are signs of pneumonia, such as dyspnea, chattering teeth, and death in young mice. Multiple strains of SeV have been described. The SeV Z strain has a 15,384-nucleotide RNA genome, consisting of six genes. Each gene has concise transcription initiation and termination signals and is transcribed to mRNA encoding a single polypeptide (except for the P gene encoding P, C and V proteins). SeV particles are spherical in shape with an average diameter of 260 nm. A ...
The conserved N-terminal region of Sendai virus nucleocapsid protein NP is required for nucleocapsid assemblyBUCHHOLZ, C. J; SPEHNER, D; DRILLIEN, R et al.Journal of virology. 1993, Vol 67, Num 10, pp 5803-5812, issn 0022-538XArticle ...
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Mouse monoclonal antibody raised against human parainfluenza virus type 2. Human parainfluenza virus type 2 (MAB4866) - Products - Abnova
TY - JOUR. T1 - Infection of ciliated cells by human parainfluenza virus type 3 in an in vitro model of human airway epithelium. AU - Zhang, Liqun. AU - Bukreyev, Alexander. AU - Thompson, Catherine I.. AU - Watson, Brandy. AU - Peeples, Mark E.. AU - Collins, Peter L.. AU - Pickles, Raymond J.. PY - 2005/1. Y1 - 2005/1. N2 - We constructed a human recombinant parainfluenza virus type 3 (rPIV3) that expresses enhanced green fluorescent protein (GFP) and used this virus, rgPIV3, to characterize PIV3 infection of an established in vitro model of human pseudostratified mucociliary airway epithelium (HAE). The apical surface of HAE was highly susceptible to rgPIV3 infection, whereas only occasional cells were infected when virus was applied to the basolateral surface. Infection involved exclusively ciliated epithelial cells. There was little evidence of virus-mediated cytopathology and no spread of the virus beyond the ciliated cell types. Infection of ciliated cells by rgPIV3 was sensitive to a ...
Human parainfluenza virus 1 ATCC ® VR-1377D™ Designation: RNA from Human parainfluenza virus 4b strain CH 19503 [ATCC ® VR-1377™] Application:
Human Parainfluenza viruses (HPIV) type 1 and 3 are important causes of respiratory tract infections in young children globally. HPIV infections do not confer complete protective immunity so reinfections occur throughout life. Since no effective vaccine is available for the two virus subtypes, comprehensive understanding of HPIV-1 and HPIV-3 genetic and epidemic features is important for diagnosis, prevention, and treatment of HPIV-1 and HPIV-3 infections. Relatively few whole genome sequences are available for both HPIV-1 and HPIV-3 viruses, so our study sought to provide whole genome sequences from multiple countries to further the understanding of the global diversity of HPIV at a whole-genome level. We collected HPIV-1 and HPIV-3 samples and isolates from Argentina, Australia, France, Mexico, South Africa, Switzerland, and USA from the years 2003-2011 and sequenced the genomes of 40 HPIV-1 and 75 HPIV-3 viruses with Sanger and next-generation sequencing with the Ion Torrent, Illumina, and 454
Human parainfluenza viruses (HPIVs) are a group of viruses that cause different types of respiratory infections and are most common in children and babies. Most HPIVs usually cause infections of the upper airway such as a common cold, ear infections, or sore throat. Other infections caused by HPIVs include infections of the lower respiratory tract such as croup (an infection of the airway below the larynx, or voice box, that is characterized by a barky cough and harsh, noisy breathing), pneumonia, or bronchiolitis (an inflammation of the lower airways).. ...
Background: Human Parainfluenza viruses are a common cause of both upper and lower respiratory tract infections, particularly in children. Of the four Parainfluenza virus serotypes, Parainfluenza 4 is least well characterised from both the clinical, epidemiological and genetic perspectives. Methods: Flocked nose or throat swabs from a previous study investigating viral prevalence in community-based adults suffering from influenza like illness were used as the basis for this study. Samples in which no virus was detected using a 16 viral respiratory pathogen real-time PCR panel were barcoded and pyrosequenced using the Roche 454 GS FLX Titanium chemistry. The sequences were analysed using the VirusHunter bioinformatic pipeline. Sanger sequencing was used to complete the detected Parainfluenza 4 coding region. Results: A variant Parainfluenza 4 subtype b strain (QLD-01) was discovered in an otherwise healthy adult who presented with influenza like illness. Strain QLD-01 shared genomic similarities ...
Sendai virus (SeV) is a single-stranded negative-sense RNA virus belonging to the family Paramyxoviridae. It is an important model and vector virus, and a murine pathogen. Innate immunity is the first to act on infections. Invading viruses are recognized by pattern recognition receptors (PRRs) belonging to innate immunity. Retinoic-acid inducible gene-1 (Rig-I) is one key cytosolic PRR and recognizes primarily short double-stranded RNA. Activation of the Rig-I pathway leads to the activation of the transcription factor interferon regulatory factor 3 (IRF3). Activated IRF3 translocates from cytoplasm into the nucleus. There it regulates the production of interferons (IFNs) and other pro-inflammatory molecules aiming to eliminate the virus. In this study, the activation kinetics of the Rig-I pathway were studied in vitro in A549 cells infected with SeV Cantell strain. The central interest was the activation requirements of the Rig-I: whether innate immunity responses are activated when the virus ...
To provide atomic-level information on the prefusion-stabilized PIV F, we determined the structure of the PIV3 F Q162C-L168C, I213C-G230C, A463V, I474Y variant in complex with the prefusion-specific antibody PIA174 by cryo-EM to an overall resolution of 4.3 Å, as reported according to the FSC0.143 gold-standard criterion (Fig. 1D and SI Appendix, Fig. S2 A-D and Table S2). The resolution of the map progressively decreased towards the more disordered peripheries of the complex, with the lowest resolutions observed for the constant domains of the PIA174 Fab and the tip of the C-terminal HRB (SI Appendix, Fig. S3 A and B). Overall, the cryo-EM reconstruction revealed a single Fab bound at the apex of the prefusion F trimer, reminiscent of HIV-1 prefusion Env trimer apex-specific antibodies PGT145 (24, 25), VRC26.09 (26), or PG9 (27⇓-29).. Similar to the PIV5 F trimer (PDB ID 4WSG), the PIV3 F trimer presented a tree-like appearance, with three intertwined monomers forming DI, DII, DIII, and ...
Sendai virus, also known as murine parainfluenza virus 1, causes infections in rabbits, guinea pigs, hamsters, rats and mice as well as in humans. An introduction into a population leads to severe respiratory symptoms (focally ulcerative/necrotising rhinitis/tracheitis, pneumonia and pleuritis) and mortality rates of up to 100% especially in mice. If the infection persists in a population, the course of infection is milder or subclinical. Once the infection is overcome, antibodies are detectable throughout life. ...
Read Methyl-beta cyclodextrin alters the production and infectivity of Sendai virus, Archives of Virology on DeepDyve, the largest online rental service for scholarly research with thousands of academic publications available at your fingertips.
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Hirosegawa River, Sendai: See 118 reviews, articles, and 29 photos of Hirosegawa River, ranked No.17 on TripAdvisor among 234 attractions in Sendai.
Sendai Plant Location 3-5-1 Fukiage, Iwanuma-shi, Miyagi 989-2484 Japan …
It is a sad fact of virological life that quite a lot of what we see, in the experiments we do, is artefactual: that is, the way we do experiments leads us to see results that do not necessarily reflect reality, but rather, the scenario we inadvertently selected for. And it is electron microscopy that…
A common case is that there are two categories --- for example, this is the case for email spam detection. In this case it can be tempting to simplify the above equation using the fact that $P(C_1) = (1 - P(C_2))$. However, this is not as effective as it seems as you would also need to assume that $P(W_i,C_1) = (1 - P(W_i,C_2))$ to achieve any significant simplifcation. However, this is clearly not the case --- just because the word ​drugs​ occurs in 20% of spam email, for example, it doesn​t follow that it occurs in 80% of non-spam. ...
COD W96 CON Jean-Gabriel Bosch [[email protected]] OBS A. Maury, J.-B. de Vanssay, J.-G. Bosch MEA J.-G.Bosch TEL 0.4-m f/5.4 Ritchey-Chretien + QHY9CCD ACK MPCReport file updated 2017.07.24 05:20:38 AC2 [email protected] NET UCAC-4 0352P C2017 07 24.26629 01 10 58.57 -10 56 07.2 17.3 N W96 0352P C2017 07 24.29797 01 10 59.62 -10 55 58.2 17.3 N W96 ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - An outbreak of human parainfluenza virus 3 infection in an outpatient hematopoietic stem cell transplantation clinic. AU - Sydnor, Emily R M. AU - Greer, Amy. AU - Budd, Alicia P.. AU - Pehar, Miriana. AU - Munshaw, Supriya. AU - Neofytos, Dionissios. AU - Perl, Trish M.. AU - Valsamakis, Alexandra. PY - 2012/9/1. Y1 - 2012/9/1. N2 - Background: Parainfluenza viruses cause respiratory tract infections in adults and children, with peak activity during the spring and summer months. Human parainfluenza virus type 3 (hPIV-3) can contribute to significant morbidity and mortality in patients undergoing hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT). Methods: Automated surveillance software was used to identify an hPIV-3 outbreak in an HSCT clinic. Active surveillance for respiratory illness and infection control measures were instituted. A retrospective molecular investigation of outbreak viral strains was performed by direct sequencing. Results: Twelve of 196 HSCT recipients attending ...
NIH Rare Diseases : 53 Parainfluenza virus type 3 is one of a group of common viruses known as human parainfluenza viruses (HPIV) that cause a variety of respiratory illnesses. Symptoms usually develop between 2 and 7 days from the time of exposure and typically resolve in 7-10 days. Symptoms may include fever, runny nose, and cough. HPIV-3 can also cause bronchiolitis, bronchitis, and pneumonia. Infants and young children are particularly susceptible to HPIV-3 infections, though older adults and those with a weakened immune system are also at risk for complications. HPIVs are usually spread from an infected person to others through coughing, sneezing, and/or touching. There is currently no vaccine to protect against parainfluenza virus infections. Most HPIV infections resolve on their own and do not require special treatment, though medical intervention may be necessary for severe breathing problems. Most adults have antibodies against parainfluenza but can get repeat infections ...
The membrane fusion and cell swelling stages of Sendai virus-mediated cell-cell fusion have been studied by thin-section and freeze-fracture electron microscopy. Sites of membrane fusion have been detected in human erythrocytes arrested at the membrane fusion stage of cell fusion and in virtually all cases a fused viral envelope or envelope components has been identified thus providing further direct evidence that cell-viral envelope-cell bridge formation is the membrane fusion event in Sendai virus-induced cell fusion. Radial expansion of a single virus bridge connecting 2 cells is sufficient to produce a fused cell. Membrane redistribution which occurs during this cell swelling stage of the fusion process is often accompanied by the formation of a system of membrane tubules in the plane of expansion of the virus bridge. The tubules originate from points of fusion between the bridging virus envelope and the erythrocyte membrane and also expand radially as cells swell. Ultimately membrane ...
Variations in epitopes on structural proteins of four isolates of parainfluenza virus type 4 (PIV-4) and the M r of polypeptides in these isolates were determined by radioimmune precipitation assay with monoclonal antibodies to parainfluenza virus type 4A (PIV-4A) and type 4B (PIV-4B). Three isolates antigenically resembled the prototype PIV-4A and the sizes of their structural proteins were 72K (HN protein), 61K (F0 protein), 61K (NP protein) and 40K (M protein). However, one virus isolate showed marked antigenic differences from both the 4A and 4B prototype viruses, particularly with regard to properties of the HN and F proteins. In addition, both the NP and F0 proteins of this isolate had a slightly increased M r of 63K.
Human parainfluenza type-3 virus (hPIV-3) is one of the principal aetiological agents of acute respiratory illness in infants worldwide and also shows high disease severity in the elderly and immunocompromised, but neither therapies nor vaccines are available to treat or prevent infection, respectively. Using a multidisciplinary approach we report herein that the approved drug suramin acts as a non-competitive in vitro inhibitor of the hPIV-3 haemagglutinin-neuraminidase (HN). Furthermore, the drug inhibits viral replication in mammalian epithelial cells with an IC50 of 30 μM, when applied post-adsorption. Significantly, we show in cell-based drug-combination studies using virus infection blockade assays, that suramin acts synergistically with the anti-influenza virus drug zanamivir. Our data suggests that lower concentrations of both drugs can be used to yield high levels of inhibition. Finally, using NMR spectroscopy and in silico docking simulations we confirmed that suramin binds HN simultaneously
Why was this study done? This study was designed to help understand the progression of parainfluenza infection for the development of potential anti-viral strategies.. What did the study find?. The study suggested that the most direct strategy for preventing infection may be by interfering with the initial receptor binding of the virus to the host cell.. ...
Mouse anti Parainfluenza Virus antibody, clone 1256 recognizes the haemagglutinin protein from parainfluenza virus type 3 (HPIV-3), an env
Parainfluenza virus is the second most common cause of lower respiratory disease in young children. Parainfluenza virus can cause respiratory tract illness in patients of any age.
Parainfluenza Type 3 Antibody (OAMA00248) | Monoclonal Antibody | Clone: B3291M | Application: ELISA, IF, IA | Species reactivity: | Alias: Monoclonal Antibody to Parainfluenza Type 3, Hemagglutinin
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Iinuma, M.; Maeno, K.; Matsumoto, T.; Hoshino, M., 1977: Restitution of hemagglutinating activity to spikeless particles of HVJ (Sendai virus) by glycoprotein components of Newcastle disease virus
Thirteen colostrum deprived calves were inoculated with a low passage field strain of parainfluenza type III (PI 3) virus. Virus was administered by the intranasal route and the calves were experimentally infected twice daily for four consecutive days. Clinical signs of respiratory disease were noted and pneumonia was present in 12 animals at necropsy. PI 3 virus was isolated from the lung lesions and no other respiratory pathogens could be demonstrated. The pneumonic lesions grossly, histologically and in their distribution resembled those encountered in naturally occurring outbreaks of indoor calf pneumonia.. ...
Mechanisms that affect respiratory virus-cell interplay in the context of humans are finely tuned to the environment of the host (4, 5). To understand natural viral infection and the features that govern infectivity and transmissibility in humans, we have endeavored to analyze field strains in airway tissues. We have shown for human parainfluenza virus type 3 that conclusions drawn from laboratory strains can be misleading with regard to the receptor interaction and viral fusion properties that govern entry and fitness in vivo (4, 5). Analysis of clinical strains suggests that the HN-F fusion pairs of circulating HPIV-3 viruses maintain a balance of properties that result in an inverse correlation between fusion in cultured cells and growth in vivo; the fusion complex operates under specific constraints that govern viability in the different environments of cell cultures and human beings.. We have previously used whole-genome sequencing of field strains of HPIV-3 isolated from humans and grown ...
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A research group at Hiroshima University, Japan demonstrated the mechanism by which the Sendai virus (SeV) escapes the host immune system. They examined the crystal structure of the complex of SeV C protein and transcription factor STAT1, and found that SeV C protein inhibits the signal transduction pathway of interferon gamma. Researchers are now trying to screen low molecular weight compounds for developing new anti-viral drugs.
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Enucleation of L cells leads to loss of the capacity to produce interferon, showing that the cell nucleus is essential for interferon formation. However, when the cells were enucleated while interferon formation was proceeding, the cytoplasts were capable of continuing to synthesize interferon by a process shown to be protein synthesis, showing that the interferon messenger RNA leaves the nucleus after synthesis. Reconstructed cells were obtained by Sendai virus fusion of karyoplasts and cytoplasts. Such reconstructed cells were capable of producing at least as much interferon (43 interferon units/104 nucleated cells) as control cells (31 interferon units/104 nucleated cells).
How I came to the term and spelling sendai for the TKP bio-mechanicals was from expanding upon an already established Theos term. Co-creator of the foundation material Steve Loveland and I, developed the singular to plural terms for T.D.S. (telepathic defense systems) units called taedus (singular) and taedai (plural), eventually sendai became the term for all the bio-mechanical creatures in the story. Sendai, as the name for the non-human characters in Theos, was never intend to refer to the Japanese city now in such devastation and pain. In TKP history is a very fractured and foggy picture to the populace of the setting so naming conventions can come from any number of places, past and present and meanings that are accurate or outright inaccurate gibberish contextually (to real world terms) are commonplace. Humanity has been recreating itself through a distorted filter of its past. I suppose not too unlike how we are now but in Theos its far more an acute phenomenon ...
We spread heavy beef bowls in weight and made special sauce miso using Sendai miso Bovine weightAnd plus a roll of Tonlover cattle weightHas appeared on April 19th (Thursday), April 25th (Wednesday), 2018 in a week, limited to one week. I went to a shop and went to a shop that combined a Sendai miso sauce that has a thick umami with a thick cut beef tangerle.
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Summary The capacity of an egg-grown Sendai virus preparation to induce interferon in the human lymphoblastoid cell Namalwa is dependent on its passage history. Virus which has been serially passaged at high dilution is a poor inducer, whereas virus serially passaged undiluted is a good inducer. Such a good inducer preparation has a low infectivity to haemagglutination ratio as the result of a high content of defective-interfering (DI) particles. Using DI particles purified on glycerol gradients, it is shown that for the induction of maximum interferon titres both infectious and DI particles are required. DI particles alone induce little or no interferon. Addition of DI particles to fully infectious Sendai virus preparations increased the interferon yield obtained from Namalwa cells some 60- to 100-fold.
Looking for online definition of parainfluenza in the Medical Dictionary? parainfluenza explanation free. What is parainfluenza? Meaning of parainfluenza medical term. What does parainfluenza mean?
Human Parainfluenza virus type 3 (HPIV3) is a key respiratory pathogen responsible for bronchiolitis, pneumonia and croup. The persistent nature of this virus and its ability to reinfect within a short space of time has led to successive failures in the design of a vaccine against this virus. To understand the lack of protective immunity observed after HPIV3 infections, a comprehensive study investigating immune responses to this respiratory pathogen was undertaken. A human ex vivo model of viral infection was developed. Priming by HPIV3 was compared to immune responses induced by influenza A virus, which unlike HPIV3 primes immunity to reinfectionwith the same strain. HPIV3 infection generated potent and mature dendritic cells (DCs). However, unlike influenza A generated DCs, allogeneic human mixed leukocytes (MLR) failed to proliferate to HPIV3 generated DCs. Conversely pur3ed CD3+T cells were capable of expanding to these DCs. Further investigation revealed that autologous CD14-CD3- cells in ...
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Immunization of young lambs against parainfluenza virus 3 (PI-3) is a major problem due to the presence of maternal antibodies that interfere with an active immune response. The objective of this experimentation was to develop a heterotypic vaccine that would overcome that blocking effect;Antiserums were produced in lambs against bovine PI-3 (BPI-3), human PI-3 (HPI-3), Sendai virus and simian virus-5 (SV-5). The titer and specificity of the antiserums were determined by hemagglutination inhibition (HI) test, enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), Western immunoblot assay (WIA), and radioimmunoprecipitation assay (RIPA);These sheep antiserums demonstrated a close antigenic relationship between BPI-3 and HPI-3 viruses. Sendai virus was also found to share some epitopes with the PI-3 viruses. Antigenic crossreactivity of SV-5 antiserum was limited to the nucleoprotein of other viruses;Lambs with variant levels of PI-3 virus maternal antibodies were vaccinated with inactivated virus preparations of
Attaches the virus to sialic acid-containing cell receptors and thereby initiating infection. Binding of HN protein to the receptor induces a conformational change that allows the F protein to trigger virion/cell membranes fusion (By similarity).
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Human Parainfluenza virus (hPIV) is passed from person to person through direct contact with the infected person or their respiratory droplets on surfaces from coughs or sneezes, just like any cold or flu virus. It is a much smaller virion (virus particle) than most influenza viruses, measuring 150 - 200 nanometers in size compared to around 300 nanometers for some of the other common influenza viruses, and, therefore, is able to stay airborne for up to an hour if in the air on respiratory droplets from coughs or sneezes. There is no vaccine to prevent it, but breast fed infants receive the important antibodies from their mothers in the b...
ICD-9 code 480.2 for Pneumonia due to parainfluenza virus is a medical classification as listed by WHO under the range - PNEUMONIA AND INFLUENZA (480-
Viruses account for the largest proportion of childhood pneumonia. Viral pneumonia decreases in frequency in healthy young and middle-aged adults, but it then increases substantially among the elderly.
PPD is a leader in global HIV therapeutic development and has helped clients conduct more than 100 trials on six continents. In the past five years, we have conducted Phase I-IV studies involving hepatitis B and C, human papilloma virus and parainfluenza virus type 3 with more than 2,900 sites and 40,000 patients enrolled.1 Our global investigator network and strong relationships ensure we secure the highest-performing sites with the right patients for our clients programs.. 1. These numbers do not include our work in the government and public health services sector, which is tracked separately.. ...
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Since he made his debut in the fall, star guard Kejuan Johnson has excelled for the Sendai 89ers, leading the team to its best-ever regular season (37-15). Kyoto Hannaryz head coach Honoo Hamaguchi, meanwhile, guided the Kansai club to a bj-league record 44-8 regular-season mark. The ... ...
We got an assignment to find such three dependent events that satisfy this equation: P(A*B*C)=P(A)*P(B)*P(C). I was thinking to solve this with use of
Overview of Human Parainfluenza Viruses". www.cdc.gov. Retrieved September 19, 2014. Sawatsky (2008). "Hendra and Nipah Virus ... but also able to infect humans. Hendra virus (HeV) and Nipah virus (NiV) in the genus Henipavirus have emerged in humans and ... The human parainfluenza viruses (HPIV) are the second most common causes of respiratory tract disease in infants and children. ... The virus exits the host cell by budding. Human, vertebrates, and birds serve as the natural hosts. Transmission route is ...
Antiviral activity against influenza, parainfluenza, Herpes simplex viruses I and II, and Hepatitis A and B by Croton lechleri ... Taspine was found to be the principal cicatrizant agent in murine models as well as able to increase the chemotaxis of human ... against respiratory syncytial and parainfluenza type 3 viruses in cotton rats". Antiviral Research. 20 (2): 145-154. doi: ... to examine the role of sangre de grado from Croton lechleri as an effective antifungal agent in animal and human models. ...
Contribution of the Human Parainfluenza Virus Type 3 HN-Receptor Interaction to Pathogenesis In Vivo". Journal of Virology (24 ... Gregory A. Prince; David D. Porter (1996). "Treatment of Parainfluenza Virus Type 3 Bronchiolitis and Pneumonia in a Cotton Rat ... "Resistance to Human Respiratory Syncytial Virus (RSV) Infection Induced by Immunization of Cotton Rats with a Recombinant ... Building on discoveries that Prince made as a doctoral student, VSI pioneered the prevention of respiratory syncytial virus ( ...
The virus genome has high similarity with human parainfluenza virus 1 (HPIV-1) and the two viruses share common antigenic ... March 2015). "Safety and immunogenicity of an intranasal Sendai virus-based human parainfluenza virus type 1 vaccine in 3- to 6 ... Sendai virus has been used in clinical trials involving both adults and children to immunize against human parainfluenza virus ... Human Parainfluenza Virus type 1 (HPIV1), which is a close relative of SeV and is (in contrast to SeV) a successful human ...
Simian virus 5 and type II human parainfluenza virus express a protein, named "V", which acts as a substrate receptor and ... Human CUL4A forms direct interactions with: DDB1 RBX1 CAND1 The COP9 signalosome Human CUL4A-DDB1-RBX1 complexes promote the ... "Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 Vpr-binding protein VprBP, a WD40 protein associated with the DDB1-CUL4 E3 ubiquitin ligase ... In human retinal pigment epithelial cells, loss of Cdt2 expression also result in p21 dependent delayed S-phase entry, and re- ...
... while testing negative for other causes like Human respiratory syncytial virus (RSV), parainfluenza viruses (types 1-3), ... HCoV-HKU1 is one of seven known coronaviruses to infect humans. The other six are: Human coronavirus 229E (HCoV-229E) Human ... Lim, Yvonne Xinyi; Ng, Yan Ling; Tam, James P.; Liu, Ding Xiang (2016-07-25). "Human Coronaviruses: A Review of Virus-Host ... The virus is an enveloped, positive-sense, single-stranded RNA virus which enters its host cell by binding to the N-acetyl-9-O- ...
... human rhinovirus parainfluenza, and herpes simplex. In the infected cell system of a human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), it is ... For example, Ajoene has been shown to have activity against the human dermatophyte Trichophyton rubrum, the most common cause ... Ajoene has shown potential virucidal properties against a number of viruses including vesicular stomatitis, vaccinia, ... but is thought to be related to the inhibition of phosphatidylcholine biosynthesis in human dermatophytes. In a randomized ...
Of the panel of human viruses studied, measles, influenza A, and parainfluenza 1, 2 and 3 were found in some of the studied ... Schillaci, M. A.; Jones-Engel, L.; Engel, G. A.; Kyes, R. C. (2006). "Exposure to human respiratory viruses among urban ... Human-to-primate transmission (HPT) is a seldom-remarked epidemiologic vector. It is by definition a cross-species transmission ... In 2018, scientists speculated that HPT was likely to have occurred in the case of human malaria parasites. Also in 2018, ...
2 Newcastle disease Human parainfluenza viruses Human rhinovirus Measles MERS coronavirus Human respiratory syncytial virus ... Coxsackie B virus) Chickenpox Cytomegalovirus Eastern equine encephalitis virus California encephalitis virus Enteroviruses ... Hendra virus Hepatitis A, B, C, D, E Herpes HIV-1, - ...
Murrell M, Porotto M, Weber T, Greengard O, Moscona A (January 2003). "Mutations in human parainfluenza virus type 3 ... Huberman K, Peluso RW, Moscona A (December 1995). "Hemagglutinin-neuraminidase of human parainfluenza 3: role of the ... Parainfluenza hemagglutinin-neuraminidase is a type of hemagglutinin-neuraminidase produced by parainfluenza. ... 214 (1): 294-300. doi:10.1006/viro.1995.9925. PMID 8525632. v t e. ...
... (HPIVs) are the viruses that cause human parainfluenza. HPIVs are a paraphyletic group of four ... it has been found that the most efficient human parainfluenza viruses (in terms of replication and transcription) have a genome ... These viruses are closely associated with both human and veterinary disease. Virions are approximately 150-250 nm in size and ... In immunosuppressed people, parainfluenza virus infections can cause severe pneumonia, which can be fatal. HPIV-1 and HPIV-2 ...
Kennel cough can also be caused by canine adenovirus-2 or canine parainfluenza virus or a combination of pathogens. In rabbits ... Humans are not natural carriers of B. bronchiseptica, which typically infects the respiratory tracts of smaller mammals (cats, ... Role of canine parainfluenza virus and Bordetella bronchiseptica in kennel cough. Am J Vet Res 45(9): 1862-6. Burns, E. H., Jr ... It can cause infectious bronchitis in dogs and other animals, but rarely infects humans. Closely related to B. pertussis-the ...
Human immunodeficiency virus type I (HIV) infection can occur during labor and delivery, in utero through mother-to-child ... Other viral infections such as respiratory syncytial virus (RSV), metapneumovirus (hMPV), rhinovirus, parainfluenza (PIV), and ... Zika fever is caused by a virus that is acquired by the mother and then transmitted to the infant in utero. The CDC is ... Herpes simplex virus (HSV) can infect the infant during birth. Most women with HVS genital herpes develop asymptomatic ...
If they become exposed to 4-IPO it increases their susceptibility to bovine parainfluenza virus 3. Parainfluenza itself does ... As both CYPs are mainly active in the liver, 4-IPO causes hepatotoxicity in humans. In both rodents and humans phase I ... EFFECTS OF 4-IPOMEANOL ON BOVINE PARAINFLUENZA TYPE-3 VIRUS-INDUCED PNEUMONIA IN CALVES. Veterinary Pathology 28(5):428-437.. ... However, in humans the reactivity of CYP4B1 is different and it does not activate 4-IPO. The CYP enzymes CYP1A2 and CYP3A4 are ...
In addition, CV-N is active against rhinoviruses, human parainfluenza virus, respiratory syncytial virus, and enteric viruses. ... including human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). The virucidal activity of CV-N is mediated through specific high-affinity ... The virucidal activity of CV-N against influenza virus is directed towards viral haemagglutinin. CV-N has a complex fold ... this compound is also active against herpes viruses.[citation needed] "Development of cyanovirin has been exceedingly slow- ...
Parainfluenza virus. Other causative agents include the Epstein-Barr virus, cytomegalovirus, group A streptococcus, and non- ... Human deaths from the bird flu H5N1 usually involve cytokine storms as well. Cytokine storm has also been implicated in ... The viruses can invade lung epithelial cells and alveolar macrophages to produce viral nucleic acid, which stimulates the ... A cytokine storm, also called hypercytokinemia, is a physiological reaction in humans and other animals in which the innate ...
Other viruses such as SARS, polio, Ebola, measles, human coxsackie, Dengue, rabies, human hepatitis, human parainfluenza and ... "The site of antiviral action of 3-nitrosobenzamide on the infectivity process of human immunodeficiency virus in human ... "Inhibitors of Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type 1 Zinc Fingers Prevent Normal Processing of Gag Precursors and Result in the ... "In Vivo Antiviral Activity of Novel Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type I Nucleocapsid p7 Zinc Finger Inhibitors in a Transgenic ...
Mumps virus (Paramyxoviridae) Human respiratory syncytial virus (Paramyxoviridae) Parainfluenza (Paramyxoviridae) Rabies ( ... includes Yellow fever virus, West Nile virus, Hepatitis C virus, Dengue fever virus, Zika virus Family Fusariviridae Family ... ring blotch virus Cadicistrovirus Chara australis virus Extra small virus Goji berry chlorosis virus Harmonia axyridis virus 1 ... includes Measles virus, Mumps virus, Nipah virus, Hendra virus, and NDV Family Pneumoviridae - includes RSV and Metapneumovirus ...
MVA is an attenuated vaccinia virus and does not replicate in the human body as efficiently as vaccinia. However, whether or ... parainfluenza, measles virus, flaviviruses, tuberculosis, Plasmodium parasites and smallpox as well as certain cancers. A ... One of them, the Modified Vaccinia Ankara (MVA') virus, is a highly attenuated strain of vaccinia virus that was developed ... Vaccinia viruses re-engineered to express foreign genes are vectors for production of recombinant proteins, the most common ...
... the human parvovirus B19, an infection that affects children; and the human parainfluenza virus. Some sufferers attribute the ... Studies are inconclusive, but several somewhat common viruses were identified as possible triggers for PMR. The viruses thought ... onset of PMR to stress.[citation needed] Persons having the HLA-DR4 type of human leucocyte antigen appear to have a higher ... 9 (1): 18-23. doi:10.1002/art.1780090103. PMID 4952416. Plotz, Charles; Docken, William (May 2013). "Letters: More on the ...
Japanese encephalitis virus and human immunodeficiency virus in cell culture assays. Clinical trials have indicated a potential ... parainfluenza, coronavirus, rotavirus, norovirus, hepatitis B, hepatitis C, dengue, yellow fever, ... Nitazoxanide also inhibits the replication of a broad range of other RNA and DNA viruses including respiratory syncytial virus ... January 2008). "Nitazoxanide, tizoxanide and other thiazolides are potent inhibitors of hepatitis B virus and hepatitis C virus ...
... in addition to canine parainfluenza virus (another kennel cough agent). Vaccination against Lyme disease, an illness that is ... In countries where routine rabies vaccination of dogs is practiced, for example, rabies in humans is reduced to a very rare ... Both of the most recent vaccine protocols no longer consider canine parainfluenza to be a core vaccine and have moved CPiV into ... canine hepatitis virus or adenovirus-2) and CPV-2 (canine parvovirus). This combination vaccine may also be known as DHPP or ...
... canine parainfluenza virus, and Lyme disease, among others. Cases of veterinary vaccines used in humans have been documented, ... Soon scientists began cultivating other viruses in eggs. Eggs were used for virus propagation in the development of a yellow ... With the advent of aerosol vaccination in veterinary clinics, human exposure to pathogens not naturally carried in humans, such ... such as the virus-like particle (VLP) vaccine against human papillomavirus (HPV), which is composed of the viral major capsid ...
She has primarily investigated the genetic association of Varicella zoster virus, Herpes simplex virus and human parainfluenza ... "Common virus is 'less prone to mutation' giving hope for vaccine development". ScienceDaily. Retrieved 2020-03-25. "New ... For almost three decades it was unclear how the Varicella zoster virus retained its dormancy. Breuer was the first to identify ... This finding demonstrates that HCMV does not mutate faster than other viruses, making it easier to identify a vaccination. In ...
Viruses such as the human papillomavirus (HPV), human T-lymphotropic virus (HTLV) etc, can stimulate growth of tumours in ... Examples of localised infections include: common cold (rhinovirus), flu (parainfluenza), gastrointestinal infections (rotavirus ... varicella zoster virus), smallpox (variola), HIV (human immunodeficiency virus). A minority of viruses can disseminate via the ... Virus tropism Virus factors Host factors Virus tropism refers to the virus' preferential site of replication in discrete cell ...
... and human parainfluenza viruses have variable peaks depending on the specific strain. Enteroviruses, with the exception of ... Influenza, Human orthopneumovirus (RSV), and human coronaviruses are more prevalent in the winter. Human bocavirus and Human ... Of the viruses that cause respiratory infections in humans, most have seasonal variation in prevalence. ... Viruses that cause RTI are more transmissible at very high or low relative humidity; ideal humidity for indoor spaces is ...
These viral respiratory infections are mostly caused by respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) and human rhinovirus (HRV). Although ... influenza A and B or parainfluenza virus. It is hypothesized that C. pneumoniae is associated with asthma because C. pneumoniae ... Rhinoviruses are known to be the most important common cold viruses. They are ssRNA positive-strand viruses with no DNA stage, ... At 37 °C virus replication rate falls to 10% to 50% of optimum. This may be the major reason why rhinoviruses can replicate ...
... parainfluenza Type 3 (PI3), and bovine respiratory syncytial (BRSV) viruses Actara (Thiamenthoxam) Atrazine (Atrazine) Larvadex ... Also in 2006, Sandoz became the first company to have a biosimilar drug approved in Europe with its recombinant human growth ... the United States Department of Health and Human Services awarded Novartis a $486 million contract for construction of the ... "US Department of Health and Human Services awards Novartis USD 486 million contract to build manufacturing facility for ...
... the virus most frequently transmitted before birth) dental caries Diabetes (Type 1) Diphtheria Duchenne muscular dystrophy ... infection Necrotizing enterocolitis Gonorrhea infection of the newborn parainfluenza (PIV) infection pertussis poliomyelitis ... Candida albicans infection Candida parapsilosis infection Cytomegalovirus infection diphtheria human coronavirus infection ... Listeria Group B streptoccus infection Tay-Sachs disease tetanus Ureaplasma urealyticum infection respiratory Syncytial Virus ...
... herpes simplex virus, influenza virus, parainfluenza virus, rhinovirus, respiratory syncytial virus, varicella zoster virus, ... Human and monkey cells are used in both traditional viral culture and shell vial culture. Human virus types that can be ... Viral culture is a laboratory technique in which samples of a virus are placed to different cell lines which the virus being ... "Viruses as Targets for Biotechnology". Viruses. pp. 317-338. doi:10.1016/B978-0-12-811257-1.00013-9. ISBN 9780128112571. Curtis ...
ref name=E116/, Virusi i [[ parainfluenza,parainfluenzës]] njerëzore zakonisht rezulton në inflamacion të hundës, fytit dhe [[ ... Shpesh më shumë se një virus është i pranishëm. ,ref,Eccles p. 107,/ref, Në total, më shumë se 200 lloje virale shoqërohen me ... Sequencing and Analyses of All Known Human Rhinovirus Genomes Reveals Structure and Evolution,url=,journal=Science,language=en, ... viruset parainfluenza]] [[ Metapneumovirus njerëzor,njerëzore]] dhe [[ Metapneumovirus njerëzor,metapneumoviruset njerzore]]. , ...
The JC virus or John Cunningham virus is a type of human polyomavirus (formerly known as papovavirus). It was identified by ... DNA virus. HBV (B). RNA virus. CBV. HAV (A). HCV (C). HDV (D). HEV (E). HGV (G). ... DNA virus. JCV Progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy. RNA virus. MeV Subacute sclerosing panencephalitis. LCV Lymphocytic ... The virus is very common in the general population, infecting 70% to 90% of humans; most people acquire JCV in childhood or ...
Other cases may be caused by human parainfluenza viruses, human respiratory syncytial virus, adenoviruses, Enteroviruses, and ... Human parainfluenza virus typically results in inflammation of the nose, throat, and airways.[29] In young children, when it ... Viruses[change , change source]. Coronaviruses are a group of viruses known for causing the common cold. They have a halo, or ... A rhinovirus is an RNA-containing virus of the family Picornaviridae. There are 99 known types of viruses in this family of ...
These viruses are only distantly related to the human parainfluenza viruses, which are RNA viruses belonging to the ... The virus has the potential to infect humans, although no such cases have been observed yet.[7] This virus has not been found ... Hall CB (June 2001). "Respiratory syncytial virus and parainfluenza virus". N. Engl. J. Med. 344 (25): 1917-28. doi:10.1056/ ... In virus classification, influenza viruses are RNA viruses that make up four of the seven genera of the family Orthomyxoviridae ...
... canine parainfluenza virus, and Lyme disease. Several trends in vaccine development[change , change source]. *Nowadays, ... Animals are vaccinated to keep them from getting diseases, and to keep them from infecting humans with diseases.[19] Pets as ... It gives immunity to an infectious disease caused by a particular germ (bacteria or virus). For example, the flu vaccine makes ... Olesen OF, Lonnroth A, Mulligan B (2009). "Human vaccine research in the European Union". Vaccine 27 (5): 640-5. doi:10.1016/j. ...
V, Paramyxoviridae: Human parainfluenza viruses *Parainfluenza. *RSV. *hMPV. Human digestive system. Pharynx/Esophagus. *MuV * ... DNA virus. HBV (B). RNA virus. CBV. HAV (A). HCV (C). HDV (D). HEV (E). HGV (G). ... DNA virus. JCV Progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy. RNA virus. MeV Subacute sclerosing panencephalitis. LCV Lymphocytic ... DNA virus. HBV Hepatocellular carcinoma. HPV Cervical cancer. Anal cancer. Penile cancer. Vulvar cancer. Vaginal cancer. ...
Viruses that cause croup are generally the parainfluenza viruses 1-3, with influenza viruses A and B also causing croup, but ... In the fourth week of development of the human embryo as the respiratory bud grows, the trachea separates from the foregut ... Allowing for variations in the length of the neck, the trachea in other mammals is, in general, similar to that in humans. ... 101 (1): 83-87. doi:10.1097/SMJ.0b013e31815d4259. PMID 18176298.. *^ a b Delaere, P; Van Raemdonck, D (March 2016). "Tracheal ...
Green M, Loewenstein PM (December 1988). "Autonomous functional domains of chemically synthesized human immunodeficiency virus ... "Cellular uptake of the tat protein from human immunodeficiency virus". Cell. 55 (6): 1189-93. doi:10.1016/0092-8674(88)90263-2 ... "Structural and functional characterization of human immunodeficiency virus Tat protein". Journal of Virology. 63 (1): 1-8. doi: ... "Mutational analysis of the conserved basic domain of human immunodeficiency virus tat protein". Journal of Virology. 63 (3): ...
V, Orthomyxoviridae: Influenza virus A/B/C/D *Influenza/Avian influenza. *V, Paramyxoviridae: Human parainfluenza viruses * ... DNA virus. Human polyomavirus 2 Progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy. RNA virus. MeV Subacute sclerosing panencephalitis ... DNA virus. HBV (B). RNA virus. CBV. HAV (A). HCV (C). HDV (D). HEV (E). HGV (G). ... The hepatitis C virus (HCV)[2] is a small (55-65 nm in size), enveloped, positive-sense single-stranded RNA virus of the family ...
V, 副黏液病毒科:人類副流感病毒(英语:Human parainfluenza viruses) *人類副流感病毒(英语:Human parainfluenza viruses) ... CBV(英语:Coxsackie B virus). 甲型肝炎 (A). HCV(英语:Hepatitis C virus) (C). 丁型肝炎 (D). HEV(英语:Hepatitis E virus) (E). 庚型肝炎 (G). ... Yaba monkey tumor virus(英语:Yaba monkey tumor virus). *MCV(英语:Molluscum contagiosum virus) *Molluscum contagiosum(英语:Molluscum ... Human
... a al virus parainfluenza.Lo crop o difteria larinjada se manifèsta per un empachament respiratòri e per avalar. Las falsas ... Toxigenic Corynebacterium ulcerans in a fatal human case and her feline contacts, France, March 2014. », Eurosurveillance,‎ 11 ... La difteria aviària es la forma, dicha « umida », de la variòla aviària qu'èra pas deguda a un bacil mas a un virus. La ... Per èsser toxinogèn, lo bactèri deu èsser infectat per un virus bacteriofag, dich « fag β », se dich alara de « conversion ...
... influenza A virus, respiratory syncytial virus (RSV), parainfluenza virus, and human metapneumovirus (hMPV). The Center for ... Further studies confirmed that the virus is not an emerging virus, but rather one that continually circulates the human ... to distinguish between symptoms caused by infection of the HCoV-NL63 virus and those caused by other common human viruses, ... The virus can survive for up to a week in outside of the body in aqueous solutions at room temperature and three hours on dry ...
... parainfluenza Type 3 (PI3), and bovine respiratory syncytial (BRSV) viruses ... Novartis to expand its human vaccines presence in China Archived 13 November 2009 at the Wayback Machine. ... In January 2009, the United States Department of Health and Human Services awarded Novartis a $486 million contract for ... "US Department of Health and Human Services awards Novartis USD 486 million contract to build manufacturing facility for ...
V, Orthomyxoviridae: Influenza virus A/B/C/D *Influenza/Avian influenza. *V, Paramyxoviridae: Human parainfluenza viruses * ... Although it is possible for humans to contract the avian influenza virus from birds, human-to-human contact is much more ... DNA virus. Human polyomavirus 2 Progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy. RNA virus. MeV Subacute sclerosing panencephalitis ... Until H5N1, all known avian influenza viruses had a Glu at position 627, while all human influenza viruses had a Lys.[15]. HA ...
Luby, Stephen P.; Gurley, Emily S.; Hossain, M. Jahangir (২০১২)। TRANSMISSION OF HUMAN INFECTION WITH NIPAH VIRUS (ইংরেজি ... DNA virus: HBV (B). RNA virus: CBV · HAV (A) · HCV (C) · HDV (D) · HEV (E) · HGV (G) ... DNA virus: JCV (Progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy). RNA virus:MeV (Subacute sclerosing panencephalitis) · LCV( ... "Death toll from India's Nipah virus outbreak rises to 12 - Xinhua , English.news.cnDeath toll from India's Nipah virus outbreak ...
人類副流感病毒(英语:Human parainfluenza viruses) ... 一般是通过病毒感染[1]. 診斷方法. 按症状,快速抗原测试(英语:rapid antigen detection test) ... 咽炎(英語:Pharyngitis)是指人類喉部深處,即俗稱咽(咽喉后部)出现的炎症[2],通常会导致咽喉痛、 发热[2],其他病徵可能包括流鼻水还可能有流鼻涕、咳嗽、头痛、声音沙哑(英语:hoarse voice)等症状[1],通常会持续3到5天,也可 ... 在美國,約有7.5%的人每3個月就會感
"Analysis of a viral agent isolated from multiple sclerosis (MS) brain tissue: Characterization as a parainfluenza virus type I ... culturing of human tumors in nude mice,[13][14] genetic engineering to produce human proteins of therapeutic value in domestic ... "Interactions of early mouse embryos with oncogenic viruses-Simian virus 40 and polyoma. I. Ultrastructural studies." Journal ... Handbook of Human Embryology for Medical Students (Three editions, in Polish). Warsaw, 1970, 1974, 1977. Print. ...
... of hepatitis B virus recovered from Japanese patients infected with human immunodeficiency virus type 1". Journal of Medical ... DNA virus. HBV (B). RNA virus. CBV. HAV (A). HCV (C). HDV (D). HEV (E). HGV (G). ... DNA virus. JCV Progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy. RNA virus. MeV Subacute sclerosing panencephalitis. LCV Lymphocytic ... The hepatitis B virus has infected humans since at least the Bronze Age.[101][102] The evidence was obtained from 4,500-year- ...
V: Orthomyxoviridae: Influenza virus A/B/C/D *Influenza/Avian influenza. *V, Paramyxoviridae: Human parainfluenza viruses * ... DNA virus. Human polyomavirus 2 Progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy. RNA virus. MeV Subacute sclerosing panencephalitis ... DNA virus. HBV (B). RNA virus. CBV. HAV (A). HCV (C). HDV (D). HEV (E). HGV (G). ... Virus lifecycle[edit]. The lifecycle of hepatitis E virus is unknown; the capsid protein obtains viral entry by binding to a ...
Virus influenza C. Virus-virus tersebut memiliki kekerabatan yang jauh dengan virus parainfluenza manusia, yang merupakan virus ... "Human and avian influenza viruses target different cells in the lower respiratory tract of humans and other mammals". Am. J. ... Jenis-jenis virusSunting. Dalam klasifikasi virus, virus influenza termasuk virus RNA yang merupakan tiga dari lima genera ... Virus influenza A subtipe H10N7. Virus influenza BSunting. Genus ini memiliki satu spesies, yaitu virus influenza B. influenza ...
Human papillomavirus (HPV) infection One of the Human papillomaviruses Human parainfluenza virus infection Human parainfluenza ... DNA virus. HBV (B). RNA virus. CBV. HAV (A). HCV (C). HDV (D). HEV (E). HGV (G). ... DNA virus. JCV Progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy. RNA virus. MeV Subacute sclerosing panencephalitis. LCV Lymphocytic ... DNA virus. HBV Hepatocellular carcinoma. HPV Cervical cancer. Anal cancer. Penile cancer. Vulvar cancer. Vaginal cancer. ...
V: Orthomyxoviridae: Influenza virus A/B/C/D *Influenza/Avian influenza. *V, Paramyxoviridae: Human parainfluenza viruses * ... DNA virus. Human polyomavirus 2 Progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy. RNA virus. MeV Subacute sclerosing panencephalitis ... DNA virus. HBV (B). RNA virus. CBV. HAV (A). HCV (C). HDV (D). HEV (E). HGV (G). ... DNA virus. HBV Hepatocellular carcinoma. HPV Cervical cancer. Anal cancer. Penile cancer. Vulvar cancer. Vaginal cancer. ...
The main viruses associated with human cancers are human papillomavirus, hepatitis B and hepatitis C virus, Epstein-Barr virus ... DNA viruses[edit]. *Human papilloma virus (HPV), a DNA virus, causes transformation in cells through interfering with tumor ... Human T-lymphotropic virus and hepatitis B virus, which normally replicates as a mixed double and single-stranded DNA virus but ... "tumor virus" or "cancer virus". The vast majority of human and animal viruses do not cause cancer, probably because of ...
This article on a gene on human chromosome 11 is a stub. You can help Wikipedia by expanding it.. *v ... response to virus. • negative regulation of transcription from RNA polymerase II promoter. • transcription from RNA polymerase ... and parainfluenza was unaffected.[8] ... defense response to virus. • regulation of gene expression. ... "Human PubMed Reference:". National Center for Biotechnology Information, U.S. National Library of Medicine.. .mw-parser-output ...
... canine parainfluenza virus, and Lyme disease, among others. Cases of veterinary vaccines used in humans have been documented, ... the virus-like particle (VLP) vaccine against human papillomavirus (HPV) that is composed of the viral major capsid protein,[40 ... "Safety and immunogenicity of attenuated dengue virus vaccines (Aventis Pasteur) in human volunteers". Vaccine. 19 (23-24): 3179 ... Examples include the subunit vaccine against Hepatitis B virus that is composed of only the surface proteins of the virus ( ...
... canine parainfluenza virus, and Lyme disease, among others. Cases of veterinary vaccines used in humans have been documented, ... Soon scientist cultivated other viruses in eggs. Eggs were used for virus propagation in the development of a yellow fever ... With the advent of aerosol vaccination in veterinary clinics, human exposure to pathogens not naturally carried in humans, such ... such as the virus-like particle (VLP) vaccine against human papillomavirus (HPV), which is composed of the viral major capsid ...
... and influenza viruses, others caused by adenoviruses, human parainfluenza viruses, human respiratory syncytial virus, ... "Human Molecular Genetics. 18 (3): 580-593. doi:10.1093/hmg/ddn372. PMC 2722191 . PMID 18996923.. CS1 maint: Explicit use of et ... The inflammation is caused by viruses, bacteria, irritants or allergens. The most common kind of rhinitis is allergic rhinitis, ... In the case of infectious rhinitis, vaccination against influenza viruses, adenoviruses, measles, rubella, Streptococcus ...
V, Orthomyxoviridae: Influenza virus A/B/C/D *Influenza/Avian influenza. *V, Paramyxoviridae: Human parainfluenza viruses * ... DNA virus. Human polyomavirus 2 Progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy. RNA virus. MeV Subacute sclerosing panencephalitis ... The Epstein-Barr virus (EBV), formally called Human gammaherpesvirus 4, is one of the nine known human herpesvirus types in the ... DNA virus. HBV (B). RNA virus. CBV. HAV (A). HCV (C). HDV (D). HEV (E). HGV (G). ...
RNA from Human parainfluenza virus 4b strain CH 19503 [ATCC ® VR-1377™] Application: ... RNA from Human parainfluenza virus 4b strain CH 19503 [ATCC® VR-1377™] (ATCC® VR-1377D™) Organism: Human parainfluenza virus 1 ... RNA from Human parainfluenza virus 4b strain CH 19503 [ATCC® VR-1377™] ATCC® VR-1377D™ frozen Total RNA from infected cells, ... Genomic RNA isolated from NCI-H292 cells (ATCC® CRL-1848™) infected with Human parainfluenza virus 4b, Strain: CH 19503. This ...
... mumps virus (MuV) (6), respiratory syncytial virus (RSV), metapneumovirus (MPV) (7), and parainfluenza virus types 1-4 (PIV1-4 ... 2017) Attenuated human parainfluenza virus type 1 expressing the respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) fusion (F) glycoprotein from ... Structure-based design of a quadrivalent fusion glycoprotein vaccine for human parainfluenza virus types 1-4. Guillaume B. E. ... 2001) Half-life of human parainfluenza virus type 3 (hPIV3) maternal antibody and cumulative proportion of hPIV3 infection in ...
... genome sequencing are greatly needed to better understand the spatial dynamics of these important respiratory viruses in humans ... Since no effective vaccine is available for the two virus subtypes, comprehensive understanding of HPIV-1 and HPIV-3 genetic ... We collected HPIV-1 and HPIV-3 samples and isolates from Argentina, Australia, France, Mexico, South Africa, Switzerland, and ... Human Parainfluenza viruses (HPIV) type 1 and 3 are important causes of respiratory tract infections in young children globally ...
... are highly infectious human pathogens, of which PIV3 is most commonly responsible for severe respiratory illness in newborns, ... Structure-based design of a quadrivalent fusion glycoprotein vaccine for human parainfluenza virus types 1-4 Proc Natl Acad Sci ... Parainfluenza Virus 2, Human / chemistry * Parainfluenza Virus 2, Human / genetics * Parainfluenza Virus 2, Human / immunology ... Parainfluenza Virus 3, Human / chemistry * Parainfluenza Virus 3, Human / genetics * Parainfluenza Virus 3, Human / immunology ...
Human parainfluenza virus type 1 but not Sendai virus replicates in human respiratory cells despite IFN treatment. Virus Res. ... Human parainfluenza virus-associated hospitalizations among children less than five years of age in the United States. Pediatr ... Human parainfluenza virus type 1 C proteins are nonessential proteins that inhibit the host interferon and apoptotic responses ... Human parainfluenza virus type 1 (HPIV1) is an important respiratory pathogen in young children, the immunocompromised, and the ...
Genotype replacement of the human parainfluenza virus type 2 in Croatia between 2011 and 2017 - the role of neutralising ... 1987) Expression of the F and HN glycoproteins of human parainfluenza virus type 3 by recombinant vaccinia viruses: ... 6.Almajhdi, FN, Alshaman, MS and Amer, HM (2012) Human parainfluenza virus type 2 hemagglutinin-neuramindase gene: sequence and ... 2011) Progress in the development of human parainfluenza virus vaccines. Expert Review in Respiratory Medicine 5, 515-526. ...
Human parainfluenza virus type 3 fusion glycoprotein C-terminal heptad repeat domainHuman parainfluenza virus type 3 fusion ... 6NRO: Human parainfluenza virus type 3 fusion protein N-terminal heptad repeat domain+VIQKI. ... Human Parainfluenza Virus Type 3 Fusion Glycoprotein N-terminal Heptad Repeat Domain ... Human Parainfluenza Virus Type 3 Fusion Glycoprotein C-terminal Heptad Repeat Domain ...
RNA from Human parainfluenza virus 2, Strain Greer Application: ... Human parainfluenza virus 2 Strain RNA from Human parainfluenza ... Human parainfluenza virus 2 ATCC® VR-92D™ frozen Total RNA from infected cells, 100 µL per vial ... Genomic RNA isolated from LLC-MK2 cells (ATCC® CCL-7.1™) infected with Human parainfluenza virus 2 strain Greer (ATCC® VR-92™). ... Human parainfluenza virus 2 (ATCC® VR-92D™) Classification: Paramyxoviridae, Paramyxovirinae, Rubulavirus / Product Format: ...
In the United States, human parainfluenza viruses (HPIVs) commonly cause respiratory tract illnesses. ... HPIV-1 infections often cause croup in children. There are usually more cases in the fall of odd-numbered years. ... It is less frequently detected than HPIV-1 and HPIV-3.. *HPIV-3 infections usually occur in spring and early summer months each ... However, HPIV-3 infections can occur throughout the year, particularly when HPIV-1 and HPIV-2 are not in season. ...
... newly-developed MAbs as a valuable tool for the study of HPIV3 infection as well as the several diagnostic tests of this virus. ... newly-developed MAbs as a valuable tool for the study of HPIV3 infection as well as the several diagnostic tests of this virus. ... Human parainfluenza virus 3 (HPIV3) commonly causes respiratory disorders in infants and young children. Monoclonal antibodies ... Human parainfluenza virus 3 (HPIV3) commonly causes respiratory disorders in infants and young children. Monoclonal antibodies ...
Clinical and Molecular Epidemiology of Human Parainfluenza Viruses 1-4 in Children from Viet Nam ... Clinical and Molecular Epidemiology of Human Parainfluenza Viruses 1-4 in Children from Viet Nam ...
... are a group of viruses that cause different types of respiratory infections. They are more common in children and babies. But ... Human Parainfluenza Viruses (HPIVs) in Children. What are human parainfluenza viruses in children?. Human parainfluenza viruses ... Human parainfluenza viruses (HPIVs) are a group of viruses that cause different types of respiratory infections. ... HPIVs) are a group of viruses that cause different types of respiratory infections. They are more common in children and babies ...
Human parainfluenza viruses (HPIVs) are the viruses that cause human parainfluenza. HPIVs are a paraphyletic group of four ... it has been found that the most efficient human parainfluenza viruses (in terms of replication and transcription) have a genome ... These viruses are closely associated with both human and veterinary disease. Virions are approximately 150-250 nm in size and ... In immunosuppressed people, parainfluenza virus infections can cause severe pneumonia, which can be fatal. HPIV-1 and HPIV-2 ...
Human parainfluenza virus type 3 (HPIV3) is a cytoplasmic, enveloped virus with a nonsegmented negative-strand (NNS) RNA genome ... Using a human parainfluenza virus type 3 (HPIV3) minigenome assay, we found that an N mutant (NL478A) did not support reporter ... Role of NH(2)- and COOH-terminal domains of the P protein of human parainfluenza virus type 3 in transcription and replication ... Messenger RNA encoding the phosphoprotein (P) gene of human parainfluenza virus 3 is bicistronic. Virology 153:318-325. ...
Goat polyclonal Parainfluenza Virus type 1 antibody. Validated in ELISA, Conjugation. Cited in 1 publication(s). Immunogen ... Human parainfluenza viruses (HPIV) were first discovered in the late 1950s. HPIV is genetically and antigenically divided into ... Microbiology Organism Virus RNA Virus single stranded RNA negative strand virus Parainfluenza Share by email ... Lingemann M et al. Attenuated Human Parainfluenza Virus Type 1 Expressing Ebola Virus Glycoprotein GP Administered Intranasally ...
Human Parainfluenza Viruses (HPIVs) cause upper and lower respiratory illnesses, especially in infants and young children. ... Parainfluenza viruses in: Evans A, Kaslow R, eds. Viral infections in humans: epidemiology and control. 4th ed. New York: ... Human Parainfluenza Surveillance, National Respiratory and Enteric Virus Surveillance System (NREVSS). References. *American ... Parainfluenza viruses. In: Fields BN, Knipe DM, Howley PM, eds. Fields virology. 5th ed. Philadelphia: Lippincott-Williams & ...
Human Parainfluenza viruses (HPIVs) include four differentiated RNA viruses of the Paramyxoviridae genus. Many viruses in this ... Human parainfluenza virus serotypes differ in their kinetics of replication and cytokine secretion in human tracheobronchial ... Viruses; ssRNA viruses; ssRNA negative-strand viruses; Mononegavirales; Paramyxoviridae; Respirovirus; Human respirovirus6 ... Phosphoprotein of Human Parainfluenza Virus Type 3 Blocks Autophagosome-Lysosome Fusion to Increase Virus Production. 2014 [ ...
Identification of simian agent 10 as human parainfluenza virus type 3 suggests transmission of a human virus to an African ... Maziarz RT, Sridharan P, Slater S, Meyers G, Post M, Erdman DD, Control of an outbreak of human parainfluenza virus 3 in ... Human Parainfluenza Virus Type 3 in Wild Nonhuman Primates, Zambia. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2013;19(9):1500-1503. doi: ... Human parainfluenza virus type 3 (HPIV3) genome was detected in 4 baboons in Zambia. Antibody for HPIV3 was detected in 13 ...
... parainfluenzavirus, influenza virus, human metapneumoviruses, adenovirus, or bocavirus) (odds ratio 2.8, 95% confidence ... respiratory syncytial virus; coronaviruses 229E and OC43; parainfluenza viruses 1-3; influenza viruses AH1, AH3, and B; human ... Viruses detected during wheezy episodes were defined as infection and viruses identified from children without wheeze were ... The similarity in distribution of virus types in wheezy children and asymptomatic children suggests that the type of virus ...
... has recently emerged to cause a human pandemic. Although molecular diagnostic tests were rapidly developed, serologic assays ... human metapneumovirus; MERS, Middle East respiratory syndrome; NA, not applicable; PIV, parainfluenza virus; RSV, respiratory ... α-CoV, alphacoronavirus; β-CoV, betacoronavirus; CoV, coronavirus; CMV, cytomegalovirus; EBV, Epstein-Barr virus; HCoV, human ... Department of Health and Human Services, the Public Health Service, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, or the ...
Human Parainfluenza Virus Type 3 in Wild Nonhuman Primates, Zambia Michihito Sasaki, Akihiro Ishii, Yasuko Orba, Yuka Thomas, ... Phylogenetic analysis of the amino acid sequence of the HN protein of human parainfluenza virus type 3 (HPIV3). The ... Human Parainfluenza Virus Type 3 in Wild Nonhuman Primates, Zambia. ... Department of Health and Human Services, the Public Health Service, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, or the ...
Human parainfluenza virus type 3 (HPIV3) genome was detected in 4 baboons in Zambia. Antibody for HPIV3 was detected in 13 ... Human Parainfluenza Virus Type 3 in Wild Nonhuman Primates, Zambia Michihito Sasaki, Akihiro Ishii, Yasuko Orba, Yuka Thomas, ... Phylogenetic analysis of the amino acid sequence of the HN protein of human parainfluenza virus type 3 (HPIV3). The ... Human Parainfluenza Virus Type 3 in Wild Nonhuman Primates, Zambia. ...
The Sialic Acid Binding Activity of Human Parainfluenza Virus 3 and Mumps Virus Glycoproteins Enhances the Adherence of Group B ... The Sialic Acid Binding Activity of Human Parainfluenza Virus 3 and Mumps Virus Glycoproteins Enhances the Adherence of Group B ... The Sialic Acid Binding Activity of Human Parainfluenza Virus 3 and Mumps Virus Glycoproteins Enhances the Adherence of Group B ... The Sialic Acid Binding Activity of Human Parainfluenza Virus 3 and Mumps Virus Glycoproteins Enhances the Adherence of Group B ...
Biochemical and Morphological Studies on Human Jejunal Mucosa Maintained in Culture Clin Sci Mol Med (May, 1976) ... Rapid Production of Elisa Antigens from Roller Cultures of Parainfluenza Virus Type 1 and Influenza Virus Type a Isolates SJ ... SJ Cai, WH Taylor; Rapid Production of Elisa Antigens from Roller Cultures of Parainfluenza Virus Type 1 and Influenza Virus ... Down-regulation of placental Cdc42 and Rac1 links mTORC2 inhibition to decreased trophoblast amino acid transport in human ...
... influenza B viruses; human parainfluenza virus types 1 through 4; adenovirus; respiratory syncytial virus types A and B; human ... The next most frequently encountered viruses were adenovirus, human metapneumovirus, and respiratory syncytial virus, each ... The incidence of each virus within the virus-positive KD patient group was compared with the viruses recorded in all samples ... and human rhinovirus/enterovirus. The monthly distribution of virus-positive and virus-negative patients was evaluated. ...
... parainfluenza virus 2; parainfluenza virus 3; parainfluenza virus 4; respiratory syncytial virus ... human metapneumovirus; human rhinovirus/enterovirus; influenza A; influenza A subtype H1; influenza A subtype H3; influenza A ... Combatting Modern Slavery and Human Trafficking Statement. © 2018 Laboratory Corporation of America® Holdings. All Rights ... subtype H1-2009; influenza B; Mycoplasma pneumoniae; parainfluenza virus 1; ...
HPIV is a member of the Paramyxoviridae family of viruses. There are 4 types of HPIV (PIV 1-4).1 HPIV has an RNA genome ... HPIV infection 2, 3 HPIV is a very common virus infection that often resembles the common cold with mild symptoms such as a ... Human parainfluenza viruses Human parainfluenza viruses (HPIV) are among the most common causes of respiratory tract infection ... Although all 4 types cause disease, most significant infections are caused by HPIV-1 and HPIV-3 whereas HPIV-4 is the least ...
... parainfluenza virus type 3, vaccinia virus, vesicular stomatitis virus and human rhinovirus type 2. Oct 01, 1992. ... Parainfluenza Virus Infections, Rhinovirus Infection , Vesicular Stomatitis Virus ... 4 Abstracts with Parainfluenza Virus Infections Research. Filter by Study Type. Animal Study. ... Parainfluenza Virus Infections is a Sub of the following Topic. *Upper Respiratory Infections ...
Human Influenza Virus (Types A and B). *Human Metapneumovirus. *Human Parainfluenza Virus (Types 1, 2, 3, 4) ... Live intranasal influenza virus vaccine (FluMist®). Live influenza virus vaccine. Mouthwash and Gargle Solutions*. Eucalyptol, ... Human nucleic acid co-extracted with MTB-complex and primers amplifying human housekeeping genes (e.g., RNaseP, β-actin). ... A simulated sputum sample can be contrived using saline solution, mucin, and human cells. If you choose to use a simulated ...
... respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) infection, with other respiratory viruses (para-influenza virus (PIV), influenza virus, human ... Other important respiratory viruses include human metapneumovirus, parainfluenza virus types 1 and 3, adenovirus, influenza A ... Respiratory syncytial virus illnesses in human immunodeficiency virus-and non-infected children. Pediatr Infect Dis J. 1993;12: ... Human RV is a Picornavirus, a small RNA virus of which there are 100 serotypes. The major group (90% of serotypes) use ICAM-1 ...
  • HPIV are closely related to recently discovered megamyxoviruses (Hendra and Nipah viruses) and metapneumovirus. (abcam.com)
  • Recently, other researchers reported infections with human respiratory syncytial virus and human metapneumovirus in wild nonhuman primates in Africa ( 6 , 7 ). (cdc.gov)
  • Phosphorylation of Human Metapneumovirus M2-1 Protein Upregulates Viral Replication and Pathogenesis. (osu.edu)
  • Similar to respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) and human metapneumovirus (PIV), PIV is a member of the Paramyxoviridae family of viruses and has an RNA genome. (quidel.com)
  • 3 Human parainfluenza virus (types 1 and 3) is the most common pathogen, 4 but other causative viruses include influenza A and B viruses, respiratory syncytial virus, rhinovirus, coronavirus, human metapneumovirus and adenovirus. (cmaj.ca)
  • CAMBRIDGE, Mass.--( BUSINESS WIRE )--AlloVir (Nasdaq: ALVR), a late clinical-stage cell therapy company, announced that the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) has cleared the Investigational New Drug (IND) application for ALVR106, an allogeneic, off-the-shelf virus-specific T cell therapy (VST) designed to target infections and diseases caused by respiratory syncytial virus (RSV), influenza, parainfluenza virus (PIV), and human metapneumovirus (hMPV). (businesswire.com)
  • ALVR106 is an allogeneic, off-the-shelf, multi-virus specific VST investigational therapy designed to target infections and diseases caused by the respiratory syncytial virus (RSV), influenza, parainfluenza virus (PIV), and human metapneumovirus (hMPV). (businesswire.com)
  • 1) Human metapneumovirus is also a cause of respiratory illness in both children and adults. (mayocliniclabs.com)
  • The most common viruses that cause it are RSV (respiratory syncytial virus) , para influenza virus, rhinovirus (common cold), human metapneumovirus and adenovirus. (nationwidechildrens.org)
  • The novel universal virus assay detected human metapneumovirus in the clinical sample. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • Croup may also be caused by influenza A and B, adenovirus, measles , and respiratory syncytial virus (RSV). (encyclopedia.com)
  • 6 Adenovirus, respiratory syncytial virus, rhinovirus, enteroviruses, and influenza viruses A and B also may cause laryngotracheobronchitis. (aafp.org)
  • Parainfluenza viruses and adenovirus are also common causes of viral infection, especially in young children. (mayocliniclabs.com)
  • Vz and influenza virus are the common viruses linked to reye syndrome but strains of adenovirus and the epstein barr virus ( mono ) have also been cited as triggers. (healthtap.com)
  • This chapter reviews the clinical and laboratory features of mumps as well as other viral etiologies of parotitis, including influenza virus, adenovirus, Epstein-Barr virus, parainfluenza virus, and enterovirus. (springer.com)
  • Viruses are the most common causative agents for children under 5 years of age, especially respiratory syncytial virus (RSV), rhinovirus (RV), influenza (IV), parainfluenza viruses (PIV), and adenovirus (ADV) [ 6 , 7 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • HPIV1 is a single-stranded, negative-sense, nonsegmented RNA virus in the Paramyxoviridae family. (asm.org)
  • HPIVs belong to the Paramyxoviridae family of medium-sized enveloped viruses and their genomes are organized on a single negative-sense strand of RNA. (frontiersin.org)
  • HPIVs are a paraphyletic group of four distinct single-stranded RNA viruses belonging to the Paramyxoviridae family. (wikipedia.org)
  • Human parainfluenza virus type 3 (HPIV3) is a cytoplasmic, enveloped virus with a nonsegmented negative-strand (NNS) RNA genome that is classified in the Paramyxoviridae family, in the order Mononegavirales . (asm.org)
  • These viruses belong to the Paramyxoviridae family, one of the largest and most rapidly growing groups of viruses causing significant human and veterinary disease. (abcam.com)
  • Human Parainfluenza viruses (HPIVs) include four differentiated RNA viruses of the Paramyxoviridae genus. (kenyon.edu)
  • Human parainfluenza viruses (HPIVs) (family Paramyxoviridae ) are major causes of lower respiratory tract infections in infants and elderly persons. (cdc.gov)
  • HPIV is a member of the Paramyxoviridae family of viruses. (quidel.com)
  • Paramyxoviridae (from Greek para- "by the side of" and myxa "mucus") is a family of negative-strand RNA viruses in the order Mononegavirales. (wikipedia.org)
  • For example, nucleocapsid protein, N, is needed in greater amounts than RNA polymerase, L. Viruses in the Paramyxoviridae family are also antigenically stable, meaning that the glycoproteins on the viruses are consistent between different strains of the same type. (wikipedia.org)
  • The parainfluenza virus is a single-stranded RNA virus, a member of the family Paramyxoviridae, genus Paramyxovirus. (health.gov.au)
  • Sosuga virus (SosV), from the genus Pararubulavirus , family Paramyxoviridae , is a prominent example as it has been implicated to be responsible for severe disease in an infected patient. (pnas.org)
  • The bat-borne paramyxovirus, Sosuga virus (SosV), is one of many paramyxoviruses recently identified and classified within the newly established genus Pararubulavirus , family Paramyxoviridae . (pnas.org)
  • Such investigations, especially those performed in bat populations ( 2 ⇓ ⇓ ⇓ ⇓ - 7 ), have revealed unexpected genomic breadth, expanding the number of genera within the Paramyxoviridae family ( 8 , 9 ) and highlighting the potential for novel paramyxoviruses to spill over and threaten human health and animal husbandry. (pnas.org)
  • The proposed porcine parainfluenza virus type 1 belongs to the genus Respirovirus in the subfamily Paramyxovirinae within the family Paramyxoviridae . (nationalhogfarmer.com)
  • Garlic has antiviral activity against herpes simplex 1 and 2, parainfluenza virus type 3, vaccinia virus, vesicular stomatitis virus and human rhinovirus type 2. (greenmedinfo.com)
  • Human rhinovirus and coronavirus (serotypes HKU1, NL63, 229E, OC43) are the causative agents of the common cold, with symptoms including runny nose, sore throat, and malaise. (mayocliniclabs.com)
  • Infections with rhinovirus and coronaviruses are extremely common, due to the large number of serotypes of these viruses. (mayocliniclabs.com)
  • Among those, the main diseases that we are now dealing with are viruses which have no majority vaccine found: Human Rhinovirus 14 (HRV), Human Coronavirus OC43 (HCoV), Respiratory Syncytial Virus (RSV), and Human Para influenza virus 1(HVJ). (scirp.org)
  • The major human rhinovirus receptor is ICAM-1. (medscape.com)
  • Prevalence and clinical characterization of a newly identified human rhinovirus C species in children with acute respiratory tract infections. (medscape.com)
  • Frequency of human rhinovirus species in outpatient children with acute respiratory infections at primary care level in Brazil. (medscape.com)
  • Clinical spectrum of human rhinovirus infections in hospitalized Hong Kong children. (medscape.com)
  • It seems that those affected by respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) do not benefit, 4-6 but those affected by rhinovirus may benefit. (lww.com)
  • Nonhuman primates, the closest living relatives of humans, are susceptible to paramyxoviruses that cause respiratory disease in humans. (cdc.gov)
  • Human respiratory paramyxoviruses, for example parainfluenza virus type 3 (HPIV3), are common causes of respiratory diseases both in infants and a subset of adults. (figshare.com)
  • To show that other human paramyxoviruses are also able to recognize the capsular sialic acid of GBS we demonstrate that GBS attaches in a sialic acid-dependent way to transfected BHK cells expressing the HN protein of mumps virus (MuV) on their surface. (figshare.com)
  • This interaction between human paramyxoviruses and GBS enhances the bacterial adherence to airway cells and thus may result in more severe disease. (figshare.com)
  • For the parainfluenza viruses as well as other HN-containing paramyxoviruses, this single molecule carries out three different but critical activities at specific points in the process of viral entry. (functionalglycomics.org)
  • Parainfluenza virus type 3 hemagglutinin-neuraminidase is expressed by HPIV paramyxoviruses that bind to sialic acid-containing receptor molecules on the surface of host lung cells. (functionalglycomics.org)
  • Parainfluenza virus type 3 hemagglutinin-neuraminidase is expressed by paramyxoviruses. (functionalglycomics.org)
  • In addition to three recognised viruses, namely Fer-de-Lance virus of reptiles (FDLV), the chiropteran Mapuera virus (MPRV), and the rodent Nariva virus (NARV), several viruses from penguins are known which are distinct from avian paramyxoviruses 1-9. (virology.net)
  • Paramyxoviruses (including parainfluenza virus) are relatively labile, especially during freezing and thawing, so specimen should be processed immediately or stored (short term) at +4 0 C or (longer term) at -70 0 C. The maximum acceptable duration of storage at room temperature is 5 days for IF and 2 days for culture. (health.gov.au)
  • The emergence of pathogenic paramyxoviruses, such as Nipah virus (NiV) and Hendra virus (HeV) ( 1 ), from native host reservoirs into human populations has driven recent efforts to survey virus prevalence in animals. (pnas.org)
  • Along with seven other paramyxoviruses, many of which have been demonstrated to be capable of infecting humans and domestic animals ( 5 , 12 ⇓ ⇓ - 15 ), SosV classifies into the newly created genus, Pararubulavirus ( 8 , 9 ). (pnas.org)
  • Paramyxoviruses cause a wide variety of human and animal diseases. (ebscohost.com)
  • Host and organ tropism, spread of infection in the organism, and pathogenesis of paramyxoviruses have been well documented to be correlated with cleavage activation of the viral glycoproteins, and the host protease dependent expression of viral pathogenicity (1,2). (bioscience.org)
  • Paramyxoviruses are pathogens known to infect humans and livestock species including swine. (nationalhogfarmer.com)
  • We found that infection with wild-type (WT) HPIV1 suppressed the innate immune response in human airway epithelial cells by preventing not only phosphorylation of interferon regulatory factor 3 (IRF3) but also degradation of IκBβ, thereby inhibiting IRF3 and NF-κB activation, respectively. (asm.org)
  • The newly-developed MAbs could thus be a valuable tool for the study of HPIV3 infection as well as the several diagnostic tests of this virus. (frontiersin.org)
  • Therefore, characterization of the protein structure and function of HN is of great importance for the understanding of HPIV3 infection and the host immunity against this virus. (frontiersin.org)
  • As the infection progresses, the virus travels to the lower respiratory tract. (kenyon.edu)
  • In this study we determined if common pathogenic bacteria were associated with acute wheezy episodes in children and whether any association was independent of virus infection. (bmj.com)
  • Human parainfluenza viruses (HPIV) are among the most common causes of respiratory tract infection especially in young children. (quidel.com)
  • HPIV is a very common virus infection that often resembles the common cold with mild symptoms such as a runny nose, coughing and low-grade fever. (quidel.com)
  • While co-infection by GBS and HPIV3 had a delaying effect on the virus replication, it enhanced GBS adherence to virus-infected cells. (figshare.com)
  • Fucoidan inhibits parainfluenza virus type 2 infection. (greenmedinfo.com)
  • Although infection with any member of the MTB-complex can lead to pulmonary tuberculosis, M. bovis is the cause of active pulmonary tuberculosis in less than 2% of subjects in the United States [Ref. 1], and members of MTB - complex other than M. bovis and M. tuberculosis are even less common causes of disease. (fda.gov)
  • The virus takes advantage of the single promoter model by having its genes arranged in relative order of protein needed for successful infection. (wikipedia.org)
  • Although spasmodic croup is associated with the same viruses that cause viral croup, spasmodic croup tends to recur and may be an indication of some type of allergic reaction instead of a direct infection. (encyclopedia.com)
  • Prevention of measles virus infection by intranasal delivery of fusion inhibitor peptides. (osu.edu)
  • Infection occurs typically during winter, and the virus may co-circulate with influenza, RSV and other respiratory viral agents. (health.gov.au)
  • Human Parainfluenza viruses are a significant cause of respiratory tract infection especially in children. (quidel.com)
  • PIV infection that often resembles the common cold, however, PIV-1 can cause more severe disease such as croup (laryngotracheobronchitis) with a characteristic bark-like cough. (quidel.com)
  • Prevention of PIV infection depends on good hygienic methods to reduce the spread of the virus. (quidel.com)
  • 1 ) The infection affects the vocal cords, windpipe and broncial tubes. (davidwolfe.com)
  • Survey of patients admitted to hospital with laboratory confirmed influenza A virus infection in 2012 and 2014: Lessons for the future. (otago.ac.nz)
  • The eyes have it: influenza virus infection beyond the respiratory tract. (amedeo.com)
  • Recommendations are made for prevention of respiratory syncytial virus infection with palivizumab and the control of nosocomial spread of infection. (aappublications.org)
  • The most common etiology is the respiratory syncytial virus (RSV), with the highest incidence of RSV infection occurring between December and March. (aappublications.org)
  • Chlamydophila pneumoniae is the most common Chlamydophila species that causes human infection ( 1 ). (cdc.gov)
  • Early diagnosis of influenza and RSV is important so that 1) necessary infection control precautions can be taken if the patient is hospitalized, and 2) antiviral therapy can be considered if the patient is hospitalized or considered at high-risk for severe disease. (mayocliniclabs.com)
  • The virus interference phenomenon goes against the basic assumption of the test-negative vaccine effectiveness study that vaccination does not change the risk of infection with other respiratory illness, thus potentially biasing vaccine effectiveness results in the positive direction. (globalresearch.ca)
  • While influenza vaccination offers protection against influenza, natural influenza infection may reduce the risk of non-influenza respiratory viruses by providing temporary, non-specific immunity against these viruses [7], [8]. (globalresearch.ca)
  • These are different viruses which are all capable of producing human infection. (healthtap.com)
  • What are the symptoms of respiratory syncytial virus infection? (healthtap.com)
  • Can Epstein Barr Virus cause chronic diarrhea during active infection? (healthtap.com)
  • Characterization of conserved properties of hemagglutinin of H5N1 and human influenza viruses: possible consequences for therapy and infection control. (ebscohost.com)
  • Bronchiolitis (bron-key-oh-LIE-tiss) is an infection of the small airways caused by a virus. (nationwidechildrens.org)
  • 1 Acute bronchitis is a clinical diagnosis characterized by acute cough, with or without sputum production, and signs of lower respiratory tract infection in the absence of chronic lung disease, such as chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, or an identifiable cause, such as pneumonia or sinusitis. (aafp.org)
  • Sendai virus, the prototype of paramyxovirus, is a counterpart of human parainfluenza virus type 1 (HPIV1), which causes a respiratory infection in children. (bioscience.org)
  • Lung tissue also exhibited bronchiolitis with bronchiolar epithelial necrosis, a common lesion caused by infection with influenza A virus. (nationalhogfarmer.com)
  • Attempts to isolate the virus have been unsuccessful to date precluding the ability to evaluate PPIV-1 through experimental infection. (nationalhogfarmer.com)
  • The efficacy of prednisolone in acute wheezing associated with human bocavirus infection was investigated in 232 hospitalized children (median age, 1.6 years). (lww.com)
  • No efficacy of prednisolone was found in children with serologically confirmed acute human bocavirus infection. (lww.com)
  • In contrast to human influenza viruses which have a preference for α2,6-linked sialic acid, HPIV3 preferentially recognize α2,3-linked sialic acids. (figshare.com)
  • Establishment of a multiplex real-time RT-PCR assay for rapid identification of H6 subtype avian influenza viruses. (amedeo.com)
  • Influenza viruses (type A and type B) and respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) are 2 common causes of viral respiratory illness, with peak incidence in the winter and spring months in the Northern hemisphere. (mayocliniclabs.com)
  • however, significant protection with vaccination was associated not only with most influenza viruses, but also parainfluenza, RSV, and non-influenza virus coinfections. (globalresearch.ca)
  • All type a influenza viruses can interchange parts of their RNA with other type a flus. (healthtap.com)
  • One application of the system is production of attenuated, reassortant influenza viruses for use as antigens in vaccines. (freepatentsonline.com)
  • Human Parainfluenza viruses (HPIV) type 1 and 3 are important causes of respiratory tract infections in young children globally. (plos.org)
  • Since no effective vaccine is available for the two virus subtypes, comprehensive understanding of HPIV-1 and HPIV-3 genetic and epidemic features is important for diagnosis, prevention, and treatment of HPIV-1 and HPIV-3 infections. (plos.org)
  • Relatively few whole genome sequences are available for both HPIV-1 and HPIV-3 viruses, so our study sought to provide whole genome sequences from multiple countries to further the understanding of the global diversity of HPIV at a whole-genome level. (plos.org)
  • We collected HPIV-1 and HPIV-3 samples and isolates from Argentina, Australia, France, Mexico, South Africa, Switzerland, and USA from the years 2003-2011 and sequenced the genomes of 40 HPIV-1 and 75 HPIV-3 viruses with Sanger and next-generation sequencing with the Ion Torrent, Illumina, and 454 platforms. (plos.org)
  • Phylogenetic analysis showed that the HPIV-1 genome is evolving at an estimated rate of 4.97 × 10 −4 mutations/site/year (95% highest posterior density 4.55 × 10 −4 to 5.38 × 10 −4 ) and the HPIV-3 genome is evolving at a similar rate (3.59 × 10 −4 mutations/site/year, 95% highest posterior density 3.26 × 10 −4 to 3.94 × 10 −4 ). (plos.org)
  • There were multiple genetically distinct lineages of both HPIV-1 and 3 circulating on a global scale. (plos.org)
  • Human Parainfluenza viruses (HPIV) belong to the Paramyxovirus family and are important causes of respiratory tract infections in young children, elderly individuals, and the immunocompromised globally. (plos.org)
  • Serologic evidence shows that most children over five years of age have been infected by HPIV [ 1 ]. (plos.org)
  • There are four types of HPIV with HPIV-1 and 3 belonging to the Human respirovirus 1 and 3 species of the Respirovirus genus and HPIV-2 and 4 belonging to the Human rubulavirus 2 and 4 species of the Rubulavirus genus. (plos.org)
  • HPIV-1 and 3 cause more illness than the other two types and are therefore more studied. (plos.org)
  • HPIV-1 is the most common pathogen associated with croup while HPIV-3 ranks only behind respiratory syncytial viruses (RSV) as a cause of bronchiolitis and viral pneumonia among infants and young children [ 2 - 4 ]. (plos.org)
  • In children less than 5 years of age it has been estimated that HPIV-1 causes 0.3-1.6 hospitalizations per 1000 children and HPIV-3 causes 0.5-2.6 hospitalizations per 1000 children in the United States [ 3 - 5 ]. (plos.org)
  • Both HPIV-1 and 3 also cause serious lower respiratory tract disease and death in the immunocompromised and elderly. (plos.org)
  • HPIV-1 infections have been epidemic in the fall of odd-numbered years since 1973 and HPIV-3 infections are usually widespread in the United States during late spring and summer [ 3 , 6 ]. (plos.org)
  • HPIV-1 infections often cause croup in children. (cdc.gov)
  • It is less frequently detected than HPIV-1 and HPIV-3. (cdc.gov)
  • However, HPIV-3 infections can occur throughout the year, particularly when HPIV-1 and HPIV-2 are not in season. (cdc.gov)
  • These include: HPIVs belong to two genera: Respirovirus (HPIV-1 & HPIV-3) and Rubulavirus (HPIV-2 & HPIV-4). (wikipedia.org)
  • HPIV-1, HPIV-2 and HPIV-3 have been linked with up to a third of these infections. (wikipedia.org)
  • Upper respiratory infections (URI) are also important in the context of HPIV, however, they are caused to a lesser extent by the virus. (wikipedia.org)
  • The highest rates of serious HPIV illnesses occur among young children, and surveys have shown that about 75% of children aged 5 or older have antibodies to HPIV-1. (wikipedia.org)
  • Human parainfluenza viruses (HPIV) were first discovered in the late 1950s. (abcam.com)
  • HPIV is genetically and antigenically divided into types 1 to 4. (abcam.com)
  • HPIV 1 to HPIV 3 are major causes of lower respiratory infections in infants, young children, the immunocompromised, the chronically ill, and the elderly. (abcam.com)
  • HPIV infects the human body at any age and normally inhabits the upper respiratory tract, causing inflammation and croup, especially in children. (kenyon.edu)
  • There are 4 types of HPIV (PIV 1-4). (quidel.com)
  • 1 HPIV has an RNA genome enclosed in a capsid surrounded by a lipid envelope. (quidel.com)
  • Although all 4 types cause disease, most significant infections are caused by HPIV-1 and HPIV-3 whereas HPIV-4 is the least common cause of disease. (quidel.com)
  • HPIV-1 is the major cause of the syndrome referred to as "croup" which is laryngotracheitis in infants and young children. (quidel.com)
  • they are Newcastle Disease virus (NDV), HPIV type 3, and HPIV type 5 (formerly called SV5). (functionalglycomics.org)
  • Human parainfluenza virus 1 (HPIV-1) is the most common cause. (encyclopedia.com)
  • This study sought to provide current estimates of HPIV-1-3-associated hospitalizations among US children. (ovid.com)
  • Croup causes include the human parainfluenza virus or HPIV. (davidwolfe.com)
  • 2 , 6 - 11 Human parainfluenza virus 1 (HPIV-1) is the most common, estimated to cause 18 percent of all cases of croup. (aafp.org)
  • 6 HPIV-1 has had an unusual pattern of biennial epidemics during the autumn months of odd-numbered years since 1973. (aafp.org)
  • BACKGROUND: Human parainfluenza virus (HPIV) is one of the major causes of viral respiratory infections and can affect people at any age, especially infants and young children. (elis.sk)
  • however, according to new findings hPIVs are now divided into two genera: Respirovirus (hPIV 1 and 3) and Rubulavirus (hPIV 2 and 4), under the subfamily Paramyxovirinae(3). (msdsonline.com)
  • In the United States, human parainfluenza viruses (HPIVs) commonly cause respiratory tract illnesses. (cdc.gov)
  • Human parainfluenza viruses (HPIVs) are a group of viruses that cause different types of respiratory infections. (ahealthyme.com)
  • Human parainfluenza viruses (HPIVs) are the viruses that cause human parainfluenza. (wikipedia.org)
  • HPIVs remain the second main cause of hospitalisation in children under 5 years of age suffering from a respiratory illness (only Human orthopneumovirus (Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV)) causes more respiratory hospitalisations for this age group). (wikipedia.org)
  • The pathogenicity of HPIVs is mutually dependent on the viruses having the correct accessory proteins that are able to elicit anti-interferon properties. (wikipedia.org)
  • One-step mRT-PCR was set up using a viral panel containing 10 respiratory viruses, including HPIVs. (elis.sk)
  • PATHOGENICITY/TOXICITY: hPIVs generally cause upper and lower respiratory infections(1,3). (msdsonline.com)
  • hPIVs are the second most common cause of lower respiratory disease in young children after respiratory syncytial virus. (msdsonline.com)
  • It can cause severe respiratory tract diseases such as bronchiolitis, pneumonia, and croup in infants and young children ( 1 ). (asm.org)
  • PIV-1 and PIV-2 are associated with croup syndrome in children. (kenyon.edu)
  • The viruses causing croup are highly contagious and easily transmitted between individuals through sneezing and coughing. (encyclopedia.com)
  • The parainfluenza viruses (types 1, 2, and 3) are the most frequent causes of croup, accounting for approximately 75 percent of all cases diagnosed. (encyclopedia.com)
  • Parainfluenza viruses, especially type 1, are important causes of childhood laryngotracheobronchitis (croup). (health.gov.au)
  • Population-based data indicate that 1%-5% of children with croup are admitted to hospital, 8 - 10 and, of those admitted, less than 3% receive intubation. (cmaj.ca)
  • Human Parainfluenza Viruses (Common cold and croup). (itsasnap.org)
  • Croup accounts for 15 percent of respiratory tract infections among children in practice, 7 and during the second year of life, 1 to 5 percent of children will need outpatient evaluation for croup. (aafp.org)
  • 1 Laryngotracheitis, laryngotracheobronchitis, laryngotracheobronchopneumonitis, and spasmodic croup are included in the croup syndrome. (aafp.org)
  • Parainfluenza viruses (types 1, 2, and 3) are the most frequent cause of croup, accounting for almost 75 percent of all cases. (aafp.org)
  • 7 , 9 , 11 Table 1 12 lists viral etiologic agents of croup and measures of their severity. (aafp.org)
  • Acute croup is most often caused by a virus, as is recurrent, or spasmodic, croup. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • Severe croup is rare and accounts for less than 1 percent of cases. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • Respiratory syncytial virus is one of the causes of viral croup. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • However, parainfluenza viruses may also cause more severe lower respiratory disease, such as croup or pneumonia. (mayocliniclabs.com)
  • Parainfluenza Virus 1 Fusion Protein antibody LS-C528539 is a biotin-conjugated mouse monoclonal antibody to parainfluenza virus type 1 Parainfluenza Virus 1 Fusion Protein. (lsbio.com)
  • Parainfluenza Virus 3 Antibody (34. (novusbio.com)
  • The direct fluorescent antibody (DFA) method allows detection of virus within 2-3 hours, but is labor intensive and requires considerable experience. (quidel.com)
  • cChief Medical and Scientific Officer- ADMA Biologics Inc., Ramsey, NJ, USA Downloaded by [Linköping University Library] at 19:14 26 October 2017 a ABSTRACT ARTICLE HISTORY Introduction: Novel immune globulin (IG) products (RI-002, RI-001) have been designed to provide protection against respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) mediated respiratory illness while at the same time meeting the manufacturing requirements established by FDA for antibody supplementation in immunocompromised subjects. (docme.ru)
  • Introduction Supplementation with immunoglobulins (IG) has been considered the standard of care for the treatment of patients with a variety of antibody production disorders due to B cell or B and T cell abnormalities, collectively referred to as primary immunodeficiency diseases (PIDDs) [1]. (docme.ru)
  • The role of N-glycosylation of the three minor envelope glycoproteins (GP2, GP3, and GP4) of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) on infectious virus production, interactions with the receptor CD163, and neutralizing antibody production in infected pigs was examined. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Parainfluenza virus type 3 hemagglutinin-neuraminidase binds sialylated glycans. (functionalglycomics.org)
  • To see all glycan array results for parainfluenza hemagglutinin-neuraminidase, click here . (functionalglycomics.org)
  • Structure of the Parainfluenza Virus 5 (PIV5) Hemagglutinin-Neuraminidase (HN) Ectodomain. (ebscohost.com)
  • Structure of the Ulster Strain Newcastle Disease Virus Hemagglutinin-Neuraminidase Reveals Auto-Inhibitory Interactions Associated with Low Virulence. (ebscohost.com)
  • Paramyxovirus hemagglutinin-neuraminidase (HN) plays roles in viral entry and maturation, including binding to sialic acid receptors, activation of the F protein to drive membrane fusion, and enabling virion release during virus budding. (ebscohost.com)
  • They also focus on the activation and evasion of host antiviral signaling pathways by detailing RNA virus families, filoviruses, suppression of innate immunity, paramyxovirus and orthomyxoviruses, arenaviruses, picornaviruses , togaviruses, coronaviruses and innate immune responses elicited by reovirus and rotavirus. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Here, we present the crystal structure of the secreted, uncleaved ectodomain of the paramyxovirus, human parainfluenza virus 3 fusion (F) protein, a member of the class I viral fusion protein group. (rcsb.org)
  • In 2012, a wildlife biologist was infected with one such novel paramyxovirus, Sosuga virus (SosV), following work with rodents and bats in South Sudan and Uganda ( 4 , 10 ). (pnas.org)
  • Further investigation revealed that SosV may use Egyptian rousette bats ( Rousettus aegyptiacus ) as a natural host reservoir and is most closely related to the rubula-like paramyxovirus, Tuhoko virus 3 ( 5 , 11 ). (pnas.org)
  • Furthermore, recent studies of paramyxovirus circulation in South African Egyptian rousette bat populations has led to the discovery of numerous other pararubulaviruses, raising concerns about the widespread range of these putatively functionally similar viruses ( 6 ). (pnas.org)
  • Additional diagnostics using broad genus-level PCR assays detected a sequence with genetic similarity to a porcine parainfluenza virus type 1 reported in Hong Kong suggesting an association between this Paramyxovirus and respiratory disease in swine. (nationalhogfarmer.com)
  • Although the virus is distributed worldwide and maintained in human communities, its epidemiology in Africa is unclear. (cdc.gov)
  • 2019). Comparative global epidemiology of influenza, respiratory syncytial and parainfluenza viruses, 2010-2015. (otago.ac.nz)
  • 1992. A reconsideration of the epidemiology of respiratory virus infections. (slu.edu)
  • Epidemiology of multiple respiratory viruses in childcare attendees. (medscape.com)
  • Although diagnostic laboratories have detected PPIV-1 in diagnostic samples, information regarding the epidemiology, transmission, lesions and clinical disease associated with PPIV-1 is lacking. (nationalhogfarmer.com)
  • 2018 ;88:1-7. (greenmedinfo.com)
  • Tracheal secretion was collected from infants presenting respiratory distress isolated or associated with systemic signs, attending the unit of Neonatology between December 1, 2016, and Mai 31, 2018. (hindawi.com)
  • BPIV, bovine parainfluenza virus. (cdc.gov)
  • Sendai virus (SeV) and bovine parainfluenza virus type 3 (bPIV3) are closely related viruses, but SeV edits its P gene mRNA with the insertion of a single G residue (at approximately 50% frequency) within the sequence 5' A6G3, whereas bPIV3 inserts 1 to approximately 6 Gs at roughly equal frequency within the sequence 5' A6G4. (nih.gov)
  • Main outcome measure Frequency of bacteria and virus carriage in airway aspirates during wheezy episodes and at planned visits without respiratory symptoms. (bmj.com)
  • The children were prospectively examined for common airway pathogenic bacteria and viruses from age 4 weeks to 3 years during wheezy episodes and outside of such episodes as a part of the Copenhagen Prospective Study on Asthma in Childhood. (bmj.com)
  • Features of Circulating Parainfluenza Virus Required for Growth in Human Airway. (osu.edu)
  • 2010. Bradykinin-induced lung inflammation and bronchoconstriction: role in parainfluenze-3 virus-induced inflammation and airway hyperreactivity . (cardiff.ac.uk)
  • This virus usually infects upper airway among respiratory system and gastro-intestinal tract. (scirp.org)
  • In fact, HPIV3 is second only to respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) as a cause of pneumonia and bronchiolitis in infants and young children. (frontiersin.org)
  • Among the 4 serotypes, HPIV3 (genus Respirovirus ) causes particularly severe disease, including bronchiolitis and pneumonia ( 1 - 3 ). (cdc.gov)
  • It responsible for up to 20% of community-acquired pneumonia cases in elderly adults ( 1 ). (cdc.gov)
  • The outbreak lasted through May 2014, and a total of 102 cases of pneumonia were identified in US Air Force Academy cadets ( Figure 1 ). (cdc.gov)
  • DNA and RNA viruses are involved in the etiology of viral pneumonia. (medscape.com)
  • Because the viruses are intracellular pathogens, most pathologic changes in the setting of viral pneumonia occur in the epithelium and adjacent interstitial tissue. (medscape.com)
  • To identify the potential cause of the pneumonia using a degenerate oligonucleotide primer (DOP) PCR assay which is designed to detect all viruses. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • According to the World Health Organization (WHO), pneumonia is defined as acute respiratory tract infections (RTIs) which affect the lungs tissue (bronchi, bronchioles, and alveolar tissue) [ 1 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • Pneumonia is caused by a variety of microorganisms (viruses, bacteria, or fungi). (hindawi.com)
  • At least 26 viruses have now been associated with pneumonia. (hindawi.com)
  • Subsequently, genomic transcription occurs using the viruses own 'viral RNA-dependent RNA polymerase' (L protein). (wikipedia.org)
  • The matrix protein surrounds and connects the capsid to the envelope, resulting in a virus with an average size of 150-250 nm in diameter 11 . (kenyon.edu)
  • The virus then introduces its genetic material into the cytoplasm of the host cell, followed by subsequent transcription through viral RNA large polymerase or L protein. (kenyon.edu)
  • Phylogenetic analysis of the amino acid sequence of the HN protein of human parainfluenza virus type 3 (HPIV3). (cdc.gov)
  • Specific for the FO/F1 fusion protein common to all parainfluenza I strains. (lsbio.com)
  • The main hypothesis behind why the viruses are antigenically stable is that each protein and amino acid has an important function. (wikipedia.org)
  • In Vivo Efficacy of Measles Virus Fusion Protein-Derived Peptides Is Modulated by the Properties of Self-Assembly and Membrane Residence. (osu.edu)
  • Any of a group of very small viruses, including the enteroviruses and the rhinoviruses, that infect animals and consist of RNA surrounded by an icosahedral protein shell. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Structural insights into the protein conformational changes associated with membrane fusion are based largely on studies of the influenza virus hemagglutinin in pre- and postfusion conformations. (rcsb.org)
  • Heterologous Expression and Isolation of Influenza A Virus Nuclear Export Protein NEP. (amedeo.com)
  • Human parainfluenza virus type 2 V protein inhibits caspase-1. (amedeo.com)
  • Through investigation of the virion envelope-displayed SosV host-cell receptor binding protein, we provide a molecular-level rationale for how SosV undergoes a sialic acid-independent host-cell entry pathway, which contrasts the glycan reliance of related orthorubulaviruses, including mumps virus. (pnas.org)
  • Isolation and Characterization of Monoclonal Antibodies Against a Virion Core Protein of Orf Virus Strain NA1/11 As Potential Diagnostic Tool for Orf Viruses. (medworm.com)
  • Thirty-five hybridoma clones were constructed from splenocytes of BALB/c mice immunized with natural orf virus protein. (medworm.com)
  • The results indicate that 5F2D8 specifically recognizes orf virus encoded protein ORFV086, a late expression virion core protein that plays important roles in progeny virus particle assembly, morphogenesis, and maturity. (medworm.com)
  • Acidic amino acids increase fusion activity in the specific fusion domain of Newcastle disease virus fusion protein. (ebscohost.com)
  • To explore the effects of amino acids Gln and Asn within the specific fusion domain of fusion (F) protein on the specific membrane fusion in Newcastle disease virus (NDV), the mutants Q204E-Q205E and N245D were constructed in the specific fusion domain of F protein. (ebscohost.com)
  • The fusion (F) protein plays a key role in virus pathogenesis, and it is also used for Newcastle disease virus classification. (deepdyve.com)
  • The Global Polio Eradication Initiative (GPEI), which was launched in response to a directive from the World Health Assembly, has dramatically reduced the number of cases of wild poliovirus [which is an enterovirus (EV)] globally, including in China ( 1 , 2 ). (frontiersin.org)
  • What sicknesses are associated with coxsackie virus and enterovirus 71? (healthtap.com)
  • The virus overrides cellular ribosomal machinery to produce an initial wave of viral proteins which assist production of the rest of the viral genome 17 . (kenyon.edu)
  • Matrix proteins inside the envelope stabilise virus structure. (wikipedia.org)
  • Further experiments demonstrate that this MAb did not react with other viral proteins of ORFV orthopoxviruses, but reacted strongly to different field isolates of orf viruses from China. (medworm.com)
  • By mutation of the glycosylation sites in these proteins, the studies show that glycan addition at N184 of GP2, N42, N50 and N131 of GP3 is necessary for infectious virus production. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Additional mutants were isolated from wild-type Sendai virus with phenotypes similar to the pantropic mutant, F1-R. The genome of the mutants was sequenced and mutations were revealed in several proteins encoded by the genes. (bioscience.org)
  • Sendai virus has two glycoproteins, HN and F proteins. (bioscience.org)
  • In embryonated eggs, Sendai virus is readily propagated in the infectious form by the proteins activating protease shown to be a blood clotting factor Xa, a vitamin K-dependent serine protease of the prothrombin family. (bioscience.org)
  • Further surveillance and whole-genome sequencing are greatly needed to better understand the spatial dynamics of these important respiratory viruses in humans. (plos.org)
  • These mutant viruses directed a marked increase in the accumulation of viral genome, antigenome, and mRNA that was coincident with the accumulation of dsRNA. (asm.org)
  • With the advent of reverse genetics, it has been found that the most efficient human parainfluenza viruses (in terms of replication and transcription) have a genome nucleotide total that is divisible by the number 6. (wikipedia.org)
  • Human parainfluenza virus type 3 (HPIV3) genome was detected in 4 baboons in Zambia. (cdc.gov)
  • This is a list of representative viruses (grouped by genome structure) compiled from: 'Virus Taxonomy', the Sixth Report of the International Committee on Taxonomy of Viruses (ICTV) 1995. (virology.net)
  • 5. Use according to any preceding claim where the nucleic acid molecule is a modified hepatitis delta virus genome. (google.it)
  • 6. Use according to any preceding claim where the nucleic acid molecule is a modified hepatitis delta virus genome comprising 1.2 copies of the genome with an ORF encoding the delta antigen inactivated by a 2 nucleotide deletion. (google.it)
  • The resultant minimal plasmid-based system may be used to synthesize any RNA virus, preferably viruses with a negative single stranded RNA genome. (freepatentsonline.com)
  • A fast and robust method for full genome sequencing of Porcine Reproductive and Respiratory Syndrome Virus (PRRSV) Type 1 and Type 2. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Received 7 August 2017 Accepted 5 October 2017 1. (docme.ru)
  • 2017. Potentiated virucidal activity of pomegranate rind extract (PRE) and punicalagin against Herpes simplex virus (HSV) when co-administered with zinc (II) ions, and antiviral activity of PRE against HSV and aciclovir-resistant HSV . (cardiff.ac.uk)
  • 2016 Oct 1;94(7):560-565. (aafp.org)
  • The ISU VDL recently performed PPIV-1 PCR testing that was done on samples collected in February-to-April of 2016 and found that 38% of samples tested were positive for PPIV-1 (Figure 1). (nationalhogfarmer.com)
  • Goudarzi, Hossein 2016-12-21 00:00:00 Newcastle disease virus (NDV) is believed to be the cause of fatal poultry disease worldwide. (deepdyve.com)
  • From Linda Stannard's Virus Ultrastructure , at the Department of Medical Microbiology, University of Cape Town. (virology.net)
  • Clinical Microbiology Reviews , 31 (1), e00047-17. (otago.ac.nz)
  • 1 Department of Genetics and Microbiology, University of Geneva School of Medicine, Switzerland. (nih.gov)
  • This college level instructional aid is a concise yet comprehensible review of human viral diseases specifically designed for beginning microbiology instructors and their students. (mellenpress.com)
  • By publishing these series of concise lectures on human viruses, Igor has rendered a powerful teaching tool for beginning instructors during their initial years of coping with the immense amount of information to be covered in preparation for their Microbiology classes. (mellenpress.com)
  • At the same time, this text presents itself as a valuable resource for students of Microbiology and Infectious Diseases as well as for anyone in need of a thorough primer on human viral diseases. (mellenpress.com)
  • One of the interests of the Niewiesk laboratory is the use of measles vaccine virus as oncolytic therapy to cure T cell leukemias. (osu.edu)
  • In the USA, there are several commercially available IG products that meet minimum standards of concentrations of antibodies to diphtheria toxoid (≥1.21 U/mL), measles (≥0.60 CBER reference), and polio (≥0.28 CBER reference) viruses in conformance with the US FDA guidance 21CFR 640 subpart J [9]. (docme.ru)
  • 2013. Novel antiviral activity ofl-dideoxy bicyclic nucleoside analogues versus vaccinia and measles viruses in vitro . (cardiff.ac.uk)
  • Structure of the measles virus hemagglutinin bound to its cellular receptor SLAM. (ebscohost.com)
  • Measles virus, a major cause of childhood morbidity and mortality worldwide, predominantly infects immune cells using signaling lymphocyte activation molecule (SLAM) as a cellular receptor. (ebscohost.com)
  • Here we present crystal structures of measles virus hemagglutinin (MV-H), the receptor-binding. (ebscohost.com)
  • 1 Vaccine Research Center, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD 20892. (nih.gov)
  • To obtain a vaccine effective against all four PIV types, we engineered mutations in each of the four PIV fusion (F) glycoproteins to stabilize their metastable prefusion states, as such stabilization had previously enabled the elicitation of high-titer neutralizing antibodies against the related respiratory syncytial virus. (nih.gov)
  • The influenza pandemic of 1918-1919, which contributed to an estimated 50 million deaths worldwide, stimulated interest in influenza vaccine research [1]. (globalresearch.ca)
  • Twenty years after the pandemic began, the first influenza vaccine was administered to US soldiers in 1938 [1]. (globalresearch.ca)
  • There has been limited evidence that the influenza vaccine may actually be associated with the virus interference process [8], [11]. (globalresearch.ca)
  • The purpose of this study is to add to the general knowledge of influenza vaccine-related virus interference by comparing rates of non-influenza respiratory viruses to negative laboratory tests, and comparing vaccination status of influenza positive cases to controls among Department of Defense (DoD) personnel. (globalresearch.ca)
  • There is a vaccine for coronavirus that infects dogs, but for now there is no vaccine or remedy for human. (scirp.org)
  • In Silico Design of Multimeric HN-F Antigen as a Highly Immunogenic Peptide Vaccine Against Newcastle Disease Virus. (ebscohost.com)
  • Murphy's research has focused on vaccine development for various viruses. (wikipedia.org)
  • Evaluation of a live, cold-passaged, temperature-sensitive, respiratory syncytial virus vaccine candidate in infancy. (wikipedia.org)
  • Production of infectious human respiratory syncytial virus from cloned cDNA confirms an essential role for the transcription elongation factor from the 5' proximal open reading frame of the M2 mRNA in gene expression and provides a capability for vaccine development. (wikipedia.org)
  • 4 Mahoney, James B. Detection of Respiratory Viruses by Molecular Methods . (quidel.com)
  • The Lyra Parainfluenza Virus Assay is a multiplex real-time PCR assay for the qualitative detection and identification of viral nucleic acids extracted from. (quidel.com)
  • Over the last decade, PCR has promised the rapid, sensitive and accurate detection of many pathogens, e.g. viruses, even when present in low numbers. (google.it)
  • As for other respiratory viruses, nasopharyngeal aspirates, swabs and washes, endotracheal aspirates, bronchoalveolar lavage fluid and lung biopsy tissue are acceptable for culture, direct antigen detection and NAT (where available). (health.gov.au)
  • Allows for the -detection of 8 -viruses with DFA -accuracy in -under 25 minutes from -specimen receipt to virus detection. (quidel.com)
  • Improve laboratory workflow and patient care with the D 3 Ultra DFA Respiratory Virus Screening and Identification Kit for the detection of seven. (quidel.com)
  • Multiplex-PCR for the detection of viruses in the CSF of infants and young children. (otago.ac.nz)
  • 1992. The use of the polymerase chain reaction in influenza virus detection and characterization. (slu.edu)
  • 1998. Simultaneous detection and identification of human parainfluenza viruses 1,2,3 from clinical samples by multiplex PCR. (slu.edu)
  • Detection of unknown viruses remains one of the most challenging problems in virology. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • Generic virus detection tests allow for the simultaneous detection of multiple (if not all) virus sequences. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • We previously developed and optimized an improved universal virus detection method that sensitively and broadly detects DNA and RNA viruses in infected cell cultures and spiked cells with limiting amounts of nucleic acid or viruses 1 . (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • This technique requires no prior sequence information from the virus being detected, implying promise for virus discovery and detection of virus in samples for which other methods have failed. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • A case of pulmonary infiltrates and fever of unknown origin occurring in a hematopoietic stem cell transplant (HSCT) recipient was investigated using a modified version of the generic virus detection assay after conventional methods failed to identify a pathogen. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • However, detection of the virus by PCR in diagnostic submissions suggest the virus is widespread in the swine population. (nationalhogfarmer.com)
  • The DNA viruses included in this study were herpes simplex virus type 1and type 2, a TK - (thymidine kinase deficient) strain of herpes simplex virus type 1, and vaccinia virus. (docme.ru)
  • 1 Pulmonary tuberculosis is the most common clinical presentation of tuberculosis in adults, although extra-pulmonary disease is relatively more prevalent in children. (fda.gov)
  • About 50% of corona virus infections result in clinical illness. (springer.com)
  • Given that conventional antibiotics are not only failing, but driving bacteria and viruses into greater lethality, we can't wait around for the multi-billion dollar clinical trial-based drug approval process to turn its attention to a non-patentable natural substance. (bibliotecapleyades.net)
  • The IND enables AlloVir to initiate a Phase 1/2 proof-of-concept clinical study in allogeneic and autologous hematopoietic stem cell transplant (HSCT) patients with respiratory infections caused by RSV, influenza, PIV or hMPV. (businesswire.com)
  • The clearance of the IND for ALVR106 advances our third program into clinical trials further exploring the power of our proprietary virus-specific T cell therapy platform. (businesswire.com)
  • 2010. Anti-EBNA-1 IgG is not a reliable marker of multiple sclerosis clinical disease activity . (cardiff.ac.uk)
  • 1990. Sequence of an influenza virus hemagglutinin determined directly from a clinical sample. (slu.edu)
  • Animal biological products offer possible clinical opportunities such as xenotransplantation in order to remedy to the frequent shortage of human organs. (omicsonline.org)
  • Unfortunately, clinical disease and lung lesions associated with PPIV-1 have not been thoroughly reported due to the lack of controlled experiments. (nationalhogfarmer.com)
  • HPIV3 with a single amino acid mutation in the HN glycoprotein with better than wildtype growth in cell culture had a disadvantage in an ex vivo or in vivo system, revealing a gap in our understanding of the biology of these viruses in their natural host [24] . (functionalglycomics.org)
  • Especially, SARS coronavirus among corona virus has S amino acid and hemagglutinin esterase on the envelope. (scirp.org)
  • On the envelope, there are amino acid F and G. Amino acid F causes syncytia formation by inducing the fusion of the virus and cell. (scirp.org)
  • A single amino acid in the PB2 gene of influenza A virus is a determinant of host range. (wikipedia.org)
  • The goal of this guideline is to provide an evidence-based approach to the diagnosis, management, and prevention of bronchiolitis in children from 1 month to 2 years of age. (aappublications.org)
  • Bronchiolitis affects the small airways (bronchioles) in the lower respiratory tract ( Picture 1 ). (nationwidechildrens.org)
  • The viruses that cause bronchiolitis are very contagious (catching). (nationwidechildrens.org)
  • There are many other viruses that infect the respiratory tract and there is a large overlap of symptoms among these infections. (quidel.com)
  • Among a variety of coronavirus, only 6 of them are known to infect human. (scirp.org)
  • Pediatr Infect Dis J . 2010 Jan. 29(1):75-7. (medscape.com)
  • Explain to patients who ask that this study suggests that contrary to long-held belief, rhinoviruses, the most common form of cold virus, can infect the lower airways as well as the upper respiratory tract. (medpagetoday.com)
  • The findings flout conventional wisdom holding that human rhinoviruses only infect the upper respiratory tract, the investigators wrote in the second December issue of the American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine . (medpagetoday.com)
  • Human parainfluenza virus 3 (HPIV3) commonly causes respiratory disorders in infants and young children. (frontiersin.org)
  • Using a human parainfluenza virus type 3 (HPIV3) minigenome assay, we found that an N mutant (N L478A ) did not support reporter gene expression. (asm.org)
  • Human parainfluenza viruses hPIV1 and hPIV3 bind oligosaccharides with {alpha}2-3 linked sialic acid that are distinct from those bound by H5 avian influenza hemagglutinin. (functionalglycomics.org)
  • These viruses would not be able to survive as long compared to the more virulent strains, and so would die out. (wikipedia.org)
  • Genetic diversity in envelope genes of contemporary U.S. porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus strains influences viral antigenicity. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Application of molecular biology techniques to the production of new vaccines against different strains of the Newcastle disease virus (NDV) has been the subject of recent research reports. (ebscohost.com)
  • With the exception of (CH3)2SnBr2.PBI and (C6H5)2SnC12 -2DMS0, all of the complexes were active against one or more of the three strains of herpes simplex viruses. (docme.ru)
  • Human parainfluenza virus type 1 (HPIV1) is an important respiratory pathogen in young children, the immunocompromised, and the elderly. (asm.org)
  • Human parainfluenza virus type 1 (HPIV1) is an important and uncontrolled respiratory pathogen that causes a significant burden of disease, mainly in young children, the immunocompromised, and the elderly ( 13 , 16 , 21 , 27 , 46 , 52 ). (asm.org)
  • Although the four serogroups of hPIV1-4 have different seasonal peaks, infections caused by these viruses tend to be diagnosed throughout the year(3). (msdsonline.com)
  • 1 , 2 Previous studies have investigated several potential viral causes of KD, including herpesviruses, 3 parvoviruses, 3 adenoviruses, 4 retroviruses, 5 and coronaviruses, 6 , 7 without finding support for a specific viral etiology. (aappublications.org)
  • Similarly to the viruses described above, parainfluenza viruses and adenoviruses generally cause mild, self-limited infections but may cause severe disease in immunosuppressed patients. (mayocliniclabs.com)
  • A and B viruses and other respiratory viruses including adenoviruses, RSV, and parainfluenza virus . (google.com.au)
  • 1 This virus, now termed severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS‐CoV‐2), causes a respiratory disease called coronavirus disease (COVID)‐19 in infected individuals. (mja.com.au)
  • All lung transplant recipients who underwent bronchoalveolar lavage for various diagnostic and therapeutic reasons were screened for the presence of 13 different respiratory viruses with reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction, and for three atypical bacteria ( Mycoplasma pneumoniae , Chlamydophila pneumoniae , and Legionella pneumophila ). (medpagetoday.com)
  • This dilemma is confounded when children present with symptoms consistent with known, common respiratory viruses and/or with KD symptoms that could potentially be attributed to a respiratory virus. (aappublications.org)
  • 1 Many viruses cause the same constellation of symptoms and signs. (aappublications.org)
  • HBoV infections are mostly found in young children and coinfections with other respiratory viruses are often found, exacerbating the efforts to link HBoV to specific symptoms. (mdpi.com)
  • Pine cone lignin and ascorbic acid combination has a potent antiviral activity, promoting faster healing, reduction of symptoms and reducing the frequency of recurrence episodes in HSV-1. (greenmedinfo.com)
  • Are frequent gastrointestinal viruses and sore throats symptoms of Hodgkin lymphoma? (healthtap.com)
  • Also what are the symptoms for influenza, west nile virus? (healthtap.com)
  • If you develop symptoms of severe west nile virus illness, such as unusually severe headaches or confusion, seek medical attention immediately, according to the cdc. (healthtap.com)
  • Starting an experiment with those reasons, we separated viruses by the basic symptoms and appearances, and by using data mining, we found similarities and differences of various sequences. (scirp.org)
  • If you have symptoms of meningitis, your provider may also test your cerebrospinal fluid for the mumps virus. (rochester.edu)
  • Other viruses can cause a swollen jaw and other symptoms that are similar to mumps. (rochester.edu)
  • however, older children and adults can get cold-like symptoms caused by the same virus. (nationwidechildrens.org)
  • Results 984 samples (361 children) were analysed for bacteria, 844 (299 children) for viruses, and 696 (277 children) for both viruses and bacteria. (bmj.com)
  • The associations of bacteria and viruses were independent of each other. (bmj.com)
  • AP is caused mostly by viruses and bacteria. (springer.com)
  • It is characterized by a barking cough and can be caused by either viruses and bacteria. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • Viruses account for a significant percentage of respiratory diseases, but bacteria may be associated with respiratory infections. (mayocliniclabs.com)
  • Various viruses ( mono ) and bacteria (Strep A) would be on my list - were they checked for? (healthtap.com)
  • The interaction between respiratory viruses and pathogenic bacteria in the upper respiratory tract of asymptomatic Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal children. (medscape.com)
  • Samples were tested with the multiplex RespiFinder® SMART 22 FAST which potentially detects 18 viruses and 4 bacteria. (hindawi.com)
  • Of the 86 infants considered in this study (mean age 31 ± 19 days) suspected of acute respiratory tract infections, 71 (83%) were positive for one or multiple viruses or/and bacteria. (hindawi.com)
  • The virus has a lipid envelope that contains viral glycoproteins that are involved in entry of the virus into cells and fusion of the viral envelope with cell membranes. (quidel.com)
  • The reassortant viruses generated by cotransfection of plasmids may comprise genes encoding the surface glycoproteins hemagglutinin and neuraminidase from an influenza virus currently infecting the population and the internal genes from an attenuated influenza virus. (freepatentsonline.com)
  • Glycosylation of minor envelope glycoproteins of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus in infectious virus recovery, receptor interaction, and immune response. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Attenuated Human Parainfluenza Virus Type 1 Expressing Ebola Virus Glycoprotein GP Administered Intranasally Is Immunogenic in African Green Monkeys. (abcam.com)
  • Parainfluenza 1, all structural antigens. (abcam.com)
  • The RNA viruses were vesicular stomatitis virus, Coxsackie virus type B4, Sindbis virus, Semliki forest virus, parainfluenza virus type 3, and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). (docme.ru)
  • 1. An expression plasmid comprising an RNA polymerase I (pol I) promoter and pol I terminator sequences, which are inserted between an RNA polymerase II (pol II) promoter and a polyadenylation signal. (freepatentsonline.com)
  • This test looks for antibodies to the mumps virus in your blood. (rochester.edu)
  • Your healthcare provider may also order a saliva or urine test for the mumps virus itself. (rochester.edu)
  • Your provider may also order a hemagglutination inhibition test (HAI) to look for the mumps virus. (rochester.edu)
  • Mumps virus nomenclature update: 2012. (springer.com)
  • Emergence of a novel highly pathogenic porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus in China. (semanticscholar.org)
  • GP5 of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) as a target for homologous and broadly neutralizing antibodies. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Several viruses play a role in the porcine respiratory disease complex including porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus, influenza A virus and porcine circovirus type 2, although infections often involve more than one of these respiratory pathogens. (nationalhogfarmer.com)
  • Parainfluenza virus types 1-4 (PIV1-4) are highly infectious human pathogens, of which PIV3 is most commonly responsible for severe respiratory illness in newborns, elderly, and immunocompromised individuals. (nih.gov)
  • It presents pathogens initially with respect to their biological identity and as an alternative to their presentation in many college textbooks as pathogens of the human organ systems. (mellenpress.com)
  • This project has been funded in whole or part with federal funds from the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, National Institutes of Health, Department of Health and Human Services under contract number HHSN272200900007C and grant numbers U19AI110819, with the sub-project directed by HAL, and grants U01AI070428 and U01AI077988 awarded to KJH. (plos.org)
  • Many viruses in this family cause significant human and veterinary diseases. (kenyon.edu)
  • In the complex microenvironment of the human respiratory tract, different kinds of microorganisms may synergistically interact with each other resulting in viral-bacterial co-infections that are often associated with more severe diseases than the respective mono-infections. (figshare.com)
  • Academic Book: Classroom Lectures on Human Viral Diseases Presented at the City University of New York. (mellenpress.com)
  • The company's innovative and proprietary technology platforms leverage off-the-shelf, allogeneic, multi-virus specific T cells targeting devastating viruses for patients with T cell deficiencies who are at risk from the life-threatening consequences of viral diseases. (businesswire.com)
  • In 1983, he was promoted to head the respiratory viruses section of the Laboratory of Infectious Diseases. (wikipedia.org)
  • Test your therapeutic antibodies in immunohistochemistry against a broad panel of normal frozen human tissue types in order to determine potential unintended binding. (lsbio.com)
  • What types of viruses are coronaviruses? (slideserve.com)
  • These viruses are closely associated with both human and veterinary disease. (wikipedia.org)
  • The viruses were first isolated in the 1950s from children with lower respiratory disease. (kenyon.edu)
  • The conclusions, findings, and opinions expressed by authors contributing to this journal do not necessarily reflect the official position of the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, the Public Health Service, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, or the authors' affiliated institutions. (cdc.gov)
  • HTLV-1 viral oncogene HBZ induces osteolytic bone disease in transgenic mice. (osu.edu)
  • What is the most common infectious disease of humans? (slideserve.com)
  • Acute bronchitis is usually caused by viruses, and antibiotics are not indicated in patients without chronic lung disease. (aafp.org)
  • Human rhinoviruses in severe respiratory disease in very low birth weight infants. (medscape.com)
  • Is PPIV-1 a member of the porcine respiratory disease complex? (nationalhogfarmer.com)
  • Porcine parainfluenza virus type 1: Member of the porcine respiratory disease complex? (nationalhogfarmer.com)
  • also used for Newcastle disease virus classification. (deepdyve.com)
  • Wild-type Sendai virus is exclusively pneumotropic in mice. (bioscience.org)
  • Sendai virus, isolated during an investigation of an outbreak of pneumonitis of the newborn (3), is exclusively pneumotropic in mice and readily establishes persistent infections in tissue cultures. (bioscience.org)
  • Sendai virus has been used as a model for investigations on the in vivo mechanism of protease-mediated infections of respiratory agents (2). (bioscience.org)
  • Ao/PR/9/34 influenza and parainfluenza (Sendai) viruses were used for interferon induction and assay. (cdc.gov)
  • Parainfluenza viruses are believed to cause 23,000 hospitalizations in children under the age of five every year in the United States 2 . (kenyon.edu)
  • The Parainfluenza Virus (PIV) targets young children and leads to many respiratory illnesses. (kenyon.edu)
  • For children younger than five years old, it is estimated that PIV-1 infected 3,888 children yearly, PIV-2 infected 8,481 children yearly, and PIV-3 infected 10,186 children yearly 19 . (kenyon.edu)
  • Conclusion Acute wheezy episodes in young children were significantly associated with bacterial infections similar to but independent of the association with virus infections. (bmj.com)
  • Recurrent wheezy episodes in young children are the major reason for use of paediatric healthcare resources 1 and represent an important unmet need for improved treatment strategies. (bmj.com)
  • Chapter 7, Coronaviruses: New studies have confirmed the important role of these viruses in common respiratory illnesses of children and adults. (springer.com)
  • 1 , 2 It affects boys more than girls (1.4:1) and young children between 6 months and 3 years of age more commonly than younger infants, older children and adolescents. (cmaj.ca)
  • Although far less than 1% of children with acute-onset stridor have another diagnosis, clinicians should consider an alternate cause if children do not respond to standard therapy or appear extremely unwell ( Box 2 ). (cmaj.ca)
  • 1 The annual incidence is up to six cases per 100 children younger than six years. (aafp.org)
  • The taxonomic division is broadly based on antigenic and genetic characteristics, forming four major serotypes or clades, which today are considered distinct viruses. (wikipedia.org)
  • While they are distinct from the influenza virus, the different viruses share some antigenic sites 1 . (kenyon.edu)
  • Furthermore, a positive respiratory virus test result should not be used to exclude the diagnosis of KD. (aappublications.org)
  • Unlike influenza (which has the WHO Collaborating Centre for Reference and Research), there is no centralised service for parainfluenza diagnosis and study within Australia. (health.gov.au)
  • 1.HIV infections - diagnosis. (who.int)
  • An accurate and early etiologic diagnosis is important because specific therapies are used against certain viruses. (medscape.com)
  • However, laboratory diagnosis in vaccinated patients is challenging due to the limited value of serologic studies and the brief window of time during which the virus can be detected in oral specimens. (springer.com)
  • The antiviral assay employed in this study involved the simultaneous inoculation of confluent human foreskin fibroblast (HFF) cell cultures with virus and test compounds. (docme.ru)