Anterior Cerebral Artery: Artery formed by the bifurcation of the internal carotid artery (CAROTID ARTERY, INTERNAL). Branches of the anterior cerebral artery supply the CAUDATE NUCLEUS; INTERNAL CAPSULE; PUTAMEN; SEPTAL NUCLEI; GYRUS CINGULI; and surfaces of the FRONTAL LOBE and PARIETAL LOBE.Infarction, Anterior Cerebral Artery: NECROSIS occurring in the ANTERIOR CEREBRAL ARTERY system, including branches such as Heubner's artery. These arteries supply blood to the medial and superior parts of the CEREBRAL HEMISPHERE, Infarction in the anterior cerebral artery usually results in sensory and motor impairment in the lower body.Cerebral Arteries: The arterial blood vessels supplying the CEREBRUM.Middle Cerebral Artery: The largest of the cerebral arteries. It trifurcates into temporal, frontal, and parietal branches supplying blood to most of the parenchyma of these lobes in the CEREBRAL CORTEX. These are the areas involved in motor, sensory, and speech activities.Cerebral Angiography: Radiography of the vascular system of the brain after injection of a contrast medium.Intracranial Aneurysm: Abnormal outpouching in the wall of intracranial blood vessels. Most common are the saccular (berry) aneurysms located at branch points in CIRCLE OF WILLIS at the base of the brain. Vessel rupture results in SUBARACHNOID HEMORRHAGE or INTRACRANIAL HEMORRHAGES. Giant aneurysms (>2.5 cm in diameter) may compress adjacent structures, including the OCULOMOTOR NERVE. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p841)Infarction, Middle Cerebral Artery: NECROSIS occurring in the MIDDLE CEREBRAL ARTERY distribution system which brings blood to the entire lateral aspects of each CEREBRAL HEMISPHERE. Clinical signs include impaired cognition; APHASIA; AGRAPHIA; weak and numbness in the face and arms, contralaterally or bilaterally depending on the infarction.Circle of Willis: A polygonal anastomosis at the base of the brain formed by the internal carotid (CAROTID ARTERY, INTERNAL), proximal parts of the anterior, middle, and posterior cerebral arteries (ANTERIOR CEREBRAL ARTERY; MIDDLE CEREBRAL ARTERY; POSTERIOR CEREBRAL ARTERY), the anterior communicating artery and the posterior communicating arteries.Arteries: The vessels carrying blood away from the heart.Cerebral Infarction: The formation of an area of NECROSIS in the CEREBRUM caused by an insufficiency of arterial or venous blood flow. Infarcts of the cerebrum are generally classified by hemisphere (i.e., left vs. right), lobe (e.g., frontal lobe infarction), arterial distribution (e.g., INFARCTION, ANTERIOR CEREBRAL ARTERY), and etiology (e.g., embolic infarction).Cerebrovascular Circulation: The circulation of blood through the BLOOD VESSELS of the BRAIN.Cerebral Arterial Diseases: Pathological conditions of intracranial ARTERIES supplying the CEREBRUM. These diseases often are due to abnormalities or pathological processes in the ANTERIOR CEREBRAL ARTERY; MIDDLE CEREBRAL ARTERY; and POSTERIOR CEREBRAL ARTERY.Scotoma: A localized defect in the visual field bordered by an area of normal vision. This occurs with a variety of EYE DISEASES (e.g., RETINAL DISEASES and GLAUCOMA); OPTIC NERVE DISEASES, and other conditions.Subarachnoid Hemorrhage: Bleeding into the intracranial or spinal SUBARACHNOID SPACE, most resulting from INTRACRANIAL ANEURYSM rupture. It can occur after traumatic injuries (SUBARACHNOID HEMORRHAGE, TRAUMATIC). Clinical features include HEADACHE; NAUSEA; VOMITING, nuchal rigidity, variable neurological deficits and reduced mental status.Basilar Artery: The artery formed by the union of the right and left vertebral arteries; it runs from the lower to the upper border of the pons, where it bifurcates into the two posterior cerebral arteries.Aneurysm, Ruptured: The tearing or bursting of the weakened wall of the aneurysmal sac, usually heralded by sudden worsening pain. The great danger of a ruptured aneurysm is the large amount of blood spilling into the surrounding tissues and cavities, causing HEMORRHAGIC SHOCK.Carotid Artery, Internal: Branch of the common carotid artery which supplies the anterior part of the brain, the eye and its appendages, the forehead and nose.Brain Ischemia: Localized reduction of blood flow to brain tissue due to arterial obstruction or systemic hypoperfusion. This frequently occurs in conjunction with brain hypoxia (HYPOXIA, BRAIN). Prolonged ischemia is associated with BRAIN INFARCTION.Tomography, X-Ray Computed: Tomography using x-ray transmission and a computer algorithm to reconstruct the image.Ultrasonography, Doppler, Transcranial: A non-invasive technique using ultrasound for the measurement of cerebrovascular hemodynamics, particularly cerebral blood flow velocity and cerebral collateral flow. With a high-intensity, low-frequency pulse probe, the intracranial arteries may be studied transtemporally, transorbitally, or from below the foramen magnum.Carotid Arteries: Either of the two principal arteries on both sides of the neck that supply blood to the head and neck; each divides into two branches, the internal carotid artery and the external carotid artery.Neuroanatomy: Study of the anatomy of the nervous system as a specialty or discipline.Posterior Cerebral Artery: Artery formed by the bifurcation of the BASILAR ARTERY. Branches of the posterior cerebral artery supply portions of the OCCIPITAL LOBE; PARIETAL LOBE; inferior temporal gyrus, brainstem, and CHOROID PLEXUS.Magnetic Resonance Angiography: Non-invasive method of vascular imaging and determination of internal anatomy without injection of contrast media or radiation exposure. The technique is used especially in CEREBRAL ANGIOGRAPHY as well as for studies of other vascular structures.Blood Flow Velocity: A value equal to the total volume flow divided by the cross-sectional area of the vascular bed.Vertebral Artery: The first branch of the SUBCLAVIAN ARTERY with distribution to muscles of the NECK; VERTEBRAE; SPINAL CORD; CEREBELLUM; and interior of the CEREBRUM.Ischemic Attack, Transient: Brief reversible episodes of focal, nonconvulsive ischemic dysfunction of the brain having a duration of less than 24 hours, and usually less than one hour, caused by transient thrombotic or embolic blood vessel occlusion or stenosis. Events may be classified by arterial distribution, temporal pattern, or etiology (e.g., embolic vs. thrombotic). (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp814-6)Pulmonary Artery: The short wide vessel arising from the conus arteriosus of the right ventricle and conveying unaerated blood to the lungs.Arterial Occlusive Diseases: Pathological processes which result in the partial or complete obstruction of ARTERIES. They are characterized by greatly reduced or absence of blood flow through these vessels. They are also known as arterial insufficiency.Brain: The part of CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM that is contained within the skull (CRANIUM). Arising from the NEURAL TUBE, the embryonic brain is comprised of three major parts including PROSENCEPHALON (the forebrain); MESENCEPHALON (the midbrain); and RHOMBENCEPHALON (the hindbrain). The developed brain consists of CEREBRUM; CEREBELLUM; and other structures in the BRAIN STEM.Magnetic Resonance Imaging: Non-invasive method of demonstrating internal anatomy based on the principle that atomic nuclei in a strong magnetic field absorb pulses of radiofrequency energy and emit them as radiowaves which can be reconstructed into computerized images. The concept includes proton spin tomographic techniques.Intracranial Embolism and Thrombosis: Embolism or thrombosis involving blood vessels which supply intracranial structures. Emboli may originate from extracranial or intracranial sources. Thrombosis may occur in arterial or venous structures.Cerebral Revascularization: Microsurgical revascularization to improve intracranial circulation. It usually involves joining the extracranial circulation to the intracranial circulation but may include extracranial revascularization (e.g., subclavian-vertebral artery bypass, subclavian-external carotid artery bypass). It is performed by joining two arteries (direct anastomosis or use of graft) or by free autologous transplantation of highly vascularized tissue to the surface of the brain.Vasospasm, Intracranial: Constriction of arteries in the SKULL due to sudden, sharp, and often persistent smooth muscle contraction in blood vessels. Intracranial vasospasm results in reduced vessel lumen caliber, restricted blood flow to the brain, and BRAIN ISCHEMIA that may lead to hypoxic-ischemic brain injury (HYPOXIA-ISCHEMIA, BRAIN).Echoencephalography: Use of reflected ultrasound in the diagnosis of intracranial pathologic processes.Angiography, Digital Subtraction: A method of delineating blood vessels by subtracting a tissue background image from an image of tissue plus intravascular contrast material that attenuates the X-ray photons. The background image is determined from a digitized image taken a few moments before injection of the contrast material. The resulting angiogram is a high-contrast image of the vessel. This subtraction technique allows extraction of a high-intensity signal from the superimposed background information. The image is thus the result of the differential absorption of X-rays by different tissues.Renal Artery: A branch of the abdominal aorta which supplies the kidneys, adrenal glands and ureters.Femoral Artery: The main artery of the thigh, a continuation of the external iliac artery.Mesenteric Arteries: Arteries which arise from the abdominal aorta and distribute to most of the intestines.Embolization, Therapeutic: A method of hemostasis utilizing various agents such as Gelfoam, silastic, metal, glass, or plastic pellets, autologous clot, fat, and muscle as emboli. It has been used in the treatment of spinal cord and INTRACRANIAL ARTERIOVENOUS MALFORMATIONS, renal arteriovenous fistulas, gastrointestinal bleeding, epistaxis, hypersplenism, certain highly vascular tumors, traumatic rupture of blood vessels, and control of operative hemorrhage.Visual Fields: The total area or space visible in a person's peripheral vision with the eye looking straightforward.Intracranial Arteriovenous Malformations: Congenital vascular anomalies in the brain characterized by direct communication between an artery and a vein without passing through the CAPILLARIES. The locations and size of the shunts determine the symptoms including HEADACHES; SEIZURES; STROKE; INTRACRANIAL HEMORRHAGES; mass effect; and vascular steal effect.Visual Field Tests: Method of measuring and mapping the scope of vision, from central to peripheral of each eye.Cerebrovascular Disorders: A spectrum of pathological conditions of impaired blood flow in the brain. They can involve vessels (ARTERIES or VEINS) in the CEREBRUM, the CEREBELLUM, and the BRAIN STEM. Major categories include INTRACRANIAL ARTERIOVENOUS MALFORMATIONS; BRAIN ISCHEMIA; CEREBRAL HEMORRHAGE; and others.Neurosurgical Procedures: Surgery performed on the nervous system or its parts.Cerebral Hemorrhage: Bleeding into one or both CEREBRAL HEMISPHERES including the BASAL GANGLIA and the CEREBRAL CORTEX. It is often associated with HYPERTENSION and CRANIOCEREBRAL TRAUMA.Dominance, Cerebral: Dominance of one cerebral hemisphere over the other in cerebral functions.Craniotomy: Any operation on the cranium or incision into the cranium. (Dorland, 28th ed)Intracranial Arteriosclerosis: Vascular diseases characterized by thickening and hardening of the walls of ARTERIES inside the SKULL. There are three subtypes: (1) atherosclerosis with fatty deposits in the ARTERIAL INTIMA; (2) Monckeberg's sclerosis with calcium deposits in the media and (3) arteriolosclerosis involving the small caliber arteries. Clinical signs include HEADACHE; CONFUSION; transient blindness (AMAUROSIS FUGAX); speech impairment; and HEMIPARESIS.Moyamoya Disease: A noninflammatory, progressive occlusion of the intracranial CAROTID ARTERIES and the formation of netlike collateral arteries arising from the CIRCLE OF WILLIS. Cerebral angiogram shows the puff-of-smoke (moyamoya) collaterals at the base of the brain. It is characterized by endothelial HYPERPLASIA and FIBROSIS with thickening of arterial walls. This disease primarily affects children but can also occur in adults.Brain Hemorrhage, Traumatic: Bleeding within the brain as a result of penetrating and nonpenetrating CRANIOCEREBRAL TRAUMA. Traumatically induced hemorrhages may occur in any area of the brain, including the CEREBRUM; BRAIN STEM (see BRAIN STEM HEMORRHAGE, TRAUMATIC); and CEREBELLUM.Carotid Artery Diseases: Pathological conditions involving the CAROTID ARTERIES, including the common, internal, and external carotid arteries. ATHEROSCLEROSIS and TRAUMA are relatively frequent causes of carotid artery pathology.Ultrasonography, Doppler: Ultrasonography applying the Doppler effect, with frequency-shifted ultrasound reflections produced by moving targets (usually red blood cells) in the bloodstream along the ultrasound axis in direct proportion to the velocity of movement of the targets, to determine both direction and velocity of blood flow. (Stedman, 25th ed)Stroke: A group of pathological conditions characterized by sudden, non-convulsive loss of neurological function due to BRAIN ISCHEMIA or INTRACRANIAL HEMORRHAGES. Stroke is classified by the type of tissue NECROSIS, such as the anatomic location, vasculature involved, etiology, age of the affected individual, and hemorrhagic vs. non-hemorrhagic nature. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp777-810)Cerebral Palsy: A heterogeneous group of nonprogressive motor disorders caused by chronic brain injuries that originate in the prenatal period, perinatal period, or first few years of life. The four major subtypes are spastic, athetoid, ataxic, and mixed cerebral palsy, with spastic forms being the most common. The motor disorder may range from difficulties with fine motor control to severe spasticity (see MUSCLE SPASTICITY) in all limbs. Spastic diplegia (Little disease) is the most common subtype, and is characterized by spasticity that is more prominent in the legs than in the arms. Pathologically, this condition may be associated with LEUKOMALACIA, PERIVENTRICULAR. (From Dev Med Child Neurol 1998 Aug;40(8):520-7)Coronary Artery Bypass: Surgical therapy of ischemic coronary artery disease achieved by grafting a section of saphenous vein, internal mammary artery, or other substitute between the aorta and the obstructed coronary artery distal to the obstructive lesion.Regional Blood Flow: The flow of BLOOD through or around an organ or region of the body.Iliac Artery: Either of two large arteries originating from the abdominal aorta; they supply blood to the pelvis, abdominal wall and legs.Treatment Outcome: Evaluation undertaken to assess the results or consequences of management and procedures used in combating disease in order to determine the efficacy, effectiveness, safety, and practicability of these interventions in individual cases or series.Aneurysm, Dissecting: Aneurysm caused by a tear in the TUNICA INTIMA of a blood vessel leading to interstitial HEMORRHAGE, and splitting (dissecting) of the vessel wall, often involving the AORTA. Dissection between the intima and media causes luminal occlusion. Dissection at the media, or between the media and the outer adventitia causes aneurismal dilation.Akinetic Mutism: A syndrome characterized by a silent and inert state without voluntary motor activity despite preserved sensorimotor pathways and vigilance. Bilateral FRONTAL LOBE dysfunction involving the anterior cingulate gyrus and related brain injuries are associated with this condition. This may result in impaired abilities to communicate and initiate motor activities. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p348; Fortschr Neurol Psychiatr 1995 Feb;63(2):59-67)Retinal DiseasesRadial Artery: The direct continuation of the brachial trunk, originating at the bifurcation of the brachial artery opposite the neck of the radius. Its branches may be divided into three groups corresponding to the three regions in which the vessel is situated, the forearm, wrist, and hand.Temporal Arteries: Arteries arising from the external carotid or the maxillary artery and distributing to the temporal region.Surgical Instruments: Hand-held tools or implements used by health professionals for the performance of surgical tasks.Carotid Stenosis: Narrowing or stricture of any part of the CAROTID ARTERIES, most often due to atherosclerotic plaque formation. Ulcerations may form in atherosclerotic plaques and induce THROMBUS formation. Platelet or cholesterol emboli may arise from stenotic carotid lesions and induce a TRANSIENT ISCHEMIC ATTACK; CEREBROVASCULAR ACCIDENT; or temporary blindness (AMAUROSIS FUGAX). (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp 822-3)Mammary Arteries: Arteries originating from the subclavian or axillary arteries and distributing to the anterior thoracic wall, mediastinal structures, diaphragm, pectoral muscles and mammary gland.Electroretinography: Recording of electric potentials in the retina after stimulation by light.Subclavian Artery: Artery arising from the brachiocephalic trunk on the right side and from the arch of the aorta on the left side. It distributes to the neck, thoracic wall, spinal cord, brain, meninges, and upper limb.Vasoconstriction: The physiological narrowing of BLOOD VESSELS by contraction of the VASCULAR SMOOTH MUSCLE.Vision Disorders: Visual impairments limiting one or more of the basic functions of the eye: visual acuity, dark adaptation, color vision, or peripheral vision. These may result from EYE DISEASES; OPTIC NERVE DISEASES; VISUAL PATHWAY diseases; OCCIPITAL LOBE diseases; OCULAR MOTILITY DISORDERS; and other conditions (From Newell, Ophthalmology: Principles and Concepts, 7th ed, p132).Carotid Artery, Common: The two principal arteries supplying the structures of the head and neck. They ascend in the neck, one on each side, and at the level of the upper border of the thyroid cartilage, each divides into two branches, the external (CAROTID ARTERY, EXTERNAL) and internal (CAROTID ARTERY, INTERNAL) carotid arteries.Umbilical Arteries: Specialized arterial vessels in the umbilical cord. They carry waste and deoxygenated blood from the FETUS to the mother via the PLACENTA. In humans, there are usually two umbilical arteries but sometimes one.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Collateral Circulation: Maintenance of blood flow to an organ despite obstruction of a principal vessel. Blood flow is maintained through small vessels.Brain Edema: Increased intracellular or extracellular fluid in brain tissue. Cytotoxic brain edema (swelling due to increased intracellular fluid) is indicative of a disturbance in cell metabolism, and is commonly associated with hypoxic or ischemic injuries (see HYPOXIA, BRAIN). An increase in extracellular fluid may be caused by increased brain capillary permeability (vasogenic edema), an osmotic gradient, local blockages in interstitial fluid pathways, or by obstruction of CSF flow (e.g., obstructive HYDROCEPHALUS). (From Childs Nerv Syst 1992 Sep; 8(6):301-6)Infarction, Posterior Cerebral Artery: NECROSIS induced by ISCHEMIA in the POSTERIOR CEREBRAL ARTERY distribution system which supplies portions of the BRAIN STEM; the THALAMUS; TEMPORAL LOBE, and OCCIPITAL LOBE. Depending on the size and location of infarction, clinical features include OLFACTION DISORDERS and visual problems (AGNOSIA; ALEXIA; HEMIANOPSIA).Cerebral Veins: Veins draining the cerebrum.Ultrasonography: The visualization of deep structures of the body by recording the reflections or echoes of ultrasonic pulses directed into the tissues. Use of ultrasound for imaging or diagnostic purposes employs frequencies ranging from 1.6 to 10 megahertz.Brachial Artery: The continuation of the axillary artery; it branches into the radial and ulnar arteries.Splenic Artery: The largest branch of the celiac trunk with distribution to the spleen, pancreas, stomach and greater omentum.Hematoma: A collection of blood outside the BLOOD VESSELS. Hematoma can be localized in an organ, space, or tissue.Muscle, Smooth, Vascular: The nonstriated involuntary muscle tissue of blood vessels.Ophthalmic Artery: Artery originating from the internal carotid artery and distributing to the eye, orbit and adjacent facial structures.Vasodilation: The physiological widening of BLOOD VESSELS by relaxing the underlying VASCULAR SMOOTH MUSCLE.Hepatic Artery: A branch of the celiac artery that distributes to the stomach, pancreas, duodenum, liver, gallbladder, and greater omentum.Coronary Vessels: The veins and arteries of the HEART.Disease Models, Animal: Naturally occurring or experimentally induced animal diseases with pathological processes sufficiently similar to those of human diseases. They are used as study models for human diseases.Retrospective Studies: Studies used to test etiologic hypotheses in which inferences about an exposure to putative causal factors are derived from data relating to characteristics of persons under study or to events or experiences in their past. The essential feature is that some of the persons under study have the disease or outcome of interest and their characteristics are compared with those of unaffected persons.Rats, Sprague-Dawley: A strain of albino rat used widely for experimental purposes because of its calmness and ease of handling. It was developed by the Sprague-Dawley Animal Company.Carotid Artery, External: Branch of the common carotid artery which supplies the exterior of the head, the face, and the greater part of the neck.Frontal Lobe: The part of the cerebral hemisphere anterior to the central sulcus, and anterior and superior to the lateral sulcus.Blood Pressure: PRESSURE of the BLOOD on the ARTERIES and other BLOOD VESSELS.Reperfusion: Restoration of blood supply to tissue which is ischemic due to decrease in normal blood supply. The decrease may result from any source including atherosclerotic obstruction, narrowing of the artery, or surgical clamping. It is primarily a procedure for treating infarction or other ischemia, by enabling viable ischemic tissue to recover, thus limiting further necrosis. However, it is thought that reperfusion can itself further damage the ischemic tissue, causing REPERFUSION INJURY.Mesenteric Artery, Superior: A large vessel supplying the whole length of the small intestine except the superior part of the duodenum. It also supplies the cecum and the ascending part of the colon and about half the transverse part of the colon. It arises from the anterior surface of the aorta below the celiac artery at the level of the first lumbar vertebra.Celiac Artery: The arterial trunk that arises from the abdominal aorta and after a short course divides into the left gastric, common hepatic and splenic arteries.Follow-Up Studies: Studies in which individuals or populations are followed to assess the outcome of exposures, procedures, or effects of a characteristic, e.g., occurrence of disease.Malaria, Cerebral: A condition characterized by somnolence or coma in the presence of an acute infection with PLASMODIUM FALCIPARUM (and rarely other Plasmodium species). Initial clinical manifestations include HEADACHES; SEIZURES; and alterations of mentation followed by a rapid progression to COMA. Pathologic features include cerebral capillaries filled with parasitized erythrocytes and multiple small foci of cortical and subcortical necrosis. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p136)Neuroprotective Agents: Drugs intended to prevent damage to the brain or spinal cord from ischemia, stroke, convulsions, or trauma. Some must be administered before the event, but others may be effective for some time after. They act by a variety of mechanisms, but often directly or indirectly minimize the damage produced by endogenous excitatory amino acids.Intracranial Embolism: Blocking of a blood vessel in the SKULL by an EMBOLUS which can be a blood clot (THROMBUS) or other undissolved material in the blood stream. Most emboli are of cardiac origin and are associated with HEART DISEASES. Other non-cardiac sources of emboli are usually associated with VASCULAR DISEASES.Hemodynamics: The movement and the forces involved in the movement of the blood through the CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM.Postoperative Complications: Pathologic processes that affect patients after a surgical procedure. They may or may not be related to the disease for which the surgery was done, and they may or may not be direct results of the surgery.Carotid Artery Thrombosis: Blood clot formation in any part of the CAROTID ARTERIES. This may produce CAROTID STENOSIS or occlusion of the vessel, leading to TRANSIENT ISCHEMIC ATTACK; CEREBRAL INFARCTION; or AMAUROSIS FUGAX.Visual Acuity: Clarity or sharpness of OCULAR VISION or the ability of the eye to see fine details. Visual acuity depends on the functions of RETINA, neuronal transmission, and the interpretative ability of the brain. Normal visual acuity is expressed as 20/20 indicating that one can see at 20 feet what should normally be seen at that distance. Visual acuity can also be influenced by brightness, color, and contrast.Renal Artery Obstruction: Narrowing or occlusion of the RENAL ARTERY or arteries. It is due usually to ATHEROSCLEROSIS; FIBROMUSCULAR DYSPLASIA; THROMBOSIS; EMBOLISM, or external pressure. The reduced renal perfusion can lead to renovascular hypertension (HYPERTENSION, RENOVASCULAR).Brain Infarction: Tissue NECROSIS in any area of the brain, including the CEREBRAL HEMISPHERES, the CEREBELLUM, and the BRAIN STEM. Brain infarction is the result of a cascade of events initiated by inadequate blood flow through the brain that is followed by HYPOXIA and HYPOGLYCEMIA in brain tissue. Damage may be temporary, permanent, selective or pan-necrosis.Neurologic Examination: Assessment of sensory and motor responses and reflexes that is used to determine impairment of the nervous system.Endothelium, Vascular: Single pavement layer of cells which line the luminal surface of the entire vascular system and regulate the transport of macromolecules and blood components.Thoracic Arteries: Arteries originating from the subclavian or axillary arteries and distributing to the anterior thoracic wall, mediastinal structures, diaphragm, pectoral muscles, mammary gland and the axillary aspect of the chest wall.Cornea: The transparent anterior portion of the fibrous coat of the eye consisting of five layers: stratified squamous CORNEAL EPITHELIUM; BOWMAN MEMBRANE; CORNEAL STROMA; DESCEMET MEMBRANE; and mesenchymal CORNEAL ENDOTHELIUM. It serves as the first refracting medium of the eye. It is structurally continuous with the SCLERA, avascular, receiving its nourishment by permeation through spaces between the lamellae, and is innervated by the ophthalmic division of the TRIGEMINAL NERVE via the ciliary nerves and those of the surrounding conjunctiva which together form plexuses. (Cline et al., Dictionary of Visual Science, 4th ed)Vasodilator Agents: Drugs used to cause dilation of the blood vessels.Rats, Wistar: A strain of albino rat developed at the Wistar Institute that has spread widely at other institutions. This has markedly diluted the original strain.Bronchial Arteries: Left bronchial arteries arise from the thoracic aorta, the right from the first aortic intercostal or the upper left bronchial artery; they supply the bronchi and the lower trachea.Pia Mater: The innermost layer of the three meninges covering the brain and spinal cord. It is the fine vascular membrane that lies under the ARACHNOID and the DURA MATER.Popliteal Artery: The continuation of the femoral artery coursing through the popliteal fossa; it divides into the anterior and posterior tibial arteries.Angiography: Radiography of blood vessels after injection of a contrast medium.Ulnar Artery: The larger of the two terminal branches of the brachial artery, beginning about one centimeter distal to the bend of the elbow. Like the RADIAL ARTERY, its branches may be divided into three groups corresponding to their locations in the forearm, wrist, and hand.Hematoma, Subdural: Accumulation of blood in the SUBDURAL SPACE between the DURA MATER and the arachnoidal layer of the MENINGES. This condition primarily occurs over the surface of a CEREBRAL HEMISPHERE, but may develop in the spinal canal (HEMATOMA, SUBDURAL, SPINAL). Subdural hematoma can be classified as the acute or the chronic form, with immediate or delayed symptom onset, respectively. Symptoms may include loss of consciousness, severe HEADACHE, and deteriorating mental status.Constriction: The act of constricting.Uterine Artery: A branch arising from the internal iliac artery in females, that supplies blood to the uterus.Dogs: The domestic dog, Canis familiaris, comprising about 400 breeds, of the carnivore family CANIDAE. They are worldwide in distribution and live in association with people. (Walker's Mammals of the World, 5th ed, p1065)Infant, Newborn: An infant during the first month after birth.Vasoconstrictor Agents: Drugs used to cause constriction of the blood vessels.Coronary Angiography: Radiography of the vascular system of the heart muscle after injection of a contrast medium.Acute Disease: Disease having a short and relatively severe course.Carotid Artery Injuries: Damages to the CAROTID ARTERIES caused either by blunt force or penetrating trauma, such as CRANIOCEREBRAL TRAUMA; THORACIC INJURIES; and NECK INJURIES. Damaged carotid arteries can lead to CAROTID ARTERY THROMBOSIS; CAROTID-CAVERNOUS SINUS FISTULA; pseudoaneurysm formation; and INTERNAL CAROTID ARTERY DISSECTION. (From Am J Forensic Med Pathol 1997, 18:251; J Trauma 1994, 37:473)Reperfusion Injury: Adverse functional, metabolic, or structural changes in ischemic tissues resulting from the restoration of blood flow to the tissue (REPERFUSION), including swelling; HEMORRHAGE; NECROSIS; and damage from FREE RADICALS. The most common instance is MYOCARDIAL REPERFUSION INJURY.Rupture, Spontaneous: Tear or break of an organ, vessel or other soft part of the body, occurring in the absence of external force.Stents: Devices that provide support for tubular structures that are being anastomosed or for body cavities during skin grafting.Constriction, Pathologic: The condition of an anatomical structure's being constricted beyond normal dimensions.Prospective Studies: Observation of a population for a sufficient number of persons over a sufficient number of years to generate incidence or mortality rates subsequent to the selection of the study group.Vasomotor System: The neural systems which act on VASCULAR SMOOTH MUSCLE to control blood vessel diameter. The major neural control is through the sympathetic nervous system.Pulsatile Flow: Rhythmic, intermittent propagation of a fluid through a BLOOD VESSEL or piping system, in contrast to constant, smooth propagation, which produces laminar flow.Meningeal Arteries: Arteries which supply the dura mater.Sensitivity and Specificity: Binary classification measures to assess test results. Sensitivity or recall rate is the proportion of true positives. Specificity is the probability of correctly determining the absence of a condition. (From Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)Intracranial Thrombosis: Formation or presence of a blood clot (THROMBUS) in a blood vessel within the SKULL. Intracranial thrombosis can lead to thrombotic occlusions and BRAIN INFARCTION. The majority of the thrombotic occlusions are associated with ATHEROSCLEROSIS.Laser-Doppler Flowmetry: A method of non-invasive, continuous measurement of MICROCIRCULATION. The technique is based on the values of the DOPPLER EFFECT of low-power laser light scattered randomly by static structures and moving tissue particulates.Muscle Tonus: The state of activity or tension of a muscle beyond that related to its physical properties, that is, its active resistance to stretch. In skeletal muscle, tonus is dependent upon efferent innervation. (Stedman, 25th ed)Cats: The domestic cat, Felis catus, of the carnivore family FELIDAE, comprising over 30 different breeds. The domestic cat is descended primarily from the wild cat of Africa and extreme southwestern Asia. Though probably present in towns in Palestine as long ago as 7000 years, actual domestication occurred in Egypt about 4000 years ago. (From Walker's Mammals of the World, 6th ed, p801)Image Processing, Computer-Assisted: A technique of inputting two-dimensional images into a computer and then enhancing or analyzing the imagery into a form that is more useful to the human observer.Dose-Response Relationship, Drug: The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.Carbon Dioxide: A colorless, odorless gas that can be formed by the body and is necessary for the respiration cycle of plants and animals.Coronary Disease: An imbalance between myocardial functional requirements and the capacity of the CORONARY VESSELS to supply sufficient blood flow. It is a form of MYOCARDIAL ISCHEMIA (insufficient blood supply to the heart muscle) caused by a decreased capacity of the coronary vessels.Axillary Artery: The continuation of the subclavian artery; it distributes over the upper limb, axilla, chest and shoulder.Intracranial Pressure: Pressure within the cranial cavity. It is influenced by brain mass, the circulatory system, CSF dynamics, and skull rigidity.Injections, Intra-Arterial: Delivery of drugs into an artery.Aneurysm: Pathological outpouching or sac-like dilatation in the wall of any blood vessel (ARTERIES or VEINS) or the heart (HEART ANEURYSM). It indicates a thin and weakened area in the wall which may later rupture. Aneurysms are classified by location, etiology, or other characteristics.Ligation: Application of a ligature to tie a vessel or strangulate a part.Predictive Value of Tests: In screening and diagnostic tests, the probability that a person with a positive test is a true positive (i.e., has the disease), is referred to as the predictive value of a positive test; whereas, the predictive value of a negative test is the probability that the person with a negative test does not have the disease. Predictive value is related to the sensitivity and specificity of the test.Blood-Brain Barrier: Specialized non-fenestrated tightly-joined ENDOTHELIAL CELLS with TIGHT JUNCTIONS that form a transport barrier for certain substances between the cerebral capillaries and the BRAIN tissue.Oxygen: An element with atomic symbol O, atomic number 8, and atomic weight [15.99903; 15.99977]. It is the most abundant element on earth and essential for respiration.Nitric Oxide: A free radical gas produced endogenously by a variety of mammalian cells, synthesized from ARGININE by NITRIC OXIDE SYNTHASE. Nitric oxide is one of the ENDOTHELIUM-DEPENDENT RELAXING FACTORS released by the vascular endothelium and mediates VASODILATION. It also inhibits platelet aggregation, induces disaggregation of aggregated platelets, and inhibits platelet adhesion to the vascular endothelium. Nitric oxide activates cytosolic GUANYLATE CYCLASE and thus elevates intracellular levels of CYCLIC GMP.Acetazolamide: One of the CARBONIC ANHYDRASE INHIBITORS that is sometimes effective against absence seizures. It is sometimes useful also as an adjunct in the treatment of tonic-clonic, myoclonic, and atonic seizures, particularly in women whose seizures occur or are exacerbated at specific times in the menstrual cycle. However, its usefulness is transient often because of rapid development of tolerance. Its antiepileptic effect may be due to its inhibitory effect on brain carbonic anhydrase, which leads to an increased transneuronal chloride gradient, increased chloride current, and increased inhibition. (From Smith and Reynard, Textbook of Pharmacology, 1991, p337)
This artery in turn branches into the medial frontal arteries (anterior, intermediate, posterior), and the paracentral artery, ... The left and right anterior cerebral arteries are connected by the anterior communicating artery. Anterior cerebral artery ... Anterior cerebral artery Cerebral arteries seen from beneath. Anterior cerebral artery visible at centre. The arterial circle ... also forms the middle cerebral artery and the anterior choroidal artery. The anterior cerebral arteries grow toward each other ...
... ansa lenticularis anterior cerebral artery Anterior chamber of eyeball anterior choroidal artery anterior commissure anterior ... cerebellar artery posterior lobe of the cerebellum posterior nasal artery posterior septal artery posterior spinal arteries ... pancreas pancreatic duct pancreaticoduodenal branches panniculus papilla papillary muscles paraaortic lymph nodes paracentral ... anterior root anterior spinal artery anterior spinocerebellar tract anterior superior alveolar artery anterior tibial artery ...
The main arteries supplying the cortex are the anterior cerebral artery, the middle cerebral artery, and the posterior cerebral ... the paracentral lobule, the superior parietal lobule, and the inferior parietal lobule. ... The anterior cerebral artery supplies the anterior portions of the brain, including most of the frontal lobe. The middle ... Blood supply to the cerebral cortex is part of the cerebral circulation. Cerebral arteries supply the blood that perfuses the ...
The anterior ulnar recurrent artery is an artery in the forearm. It is one of two recurrent arteries that arises from the ulnar artery, the other being the posterior ulnar recurrent artery. It arises from the ulnar artery immediately below the elbow-joint, runs upward between the brachialis and pronator teres muscle and supplies twigs to those muscles. In front of the medial epicondyle it anastomoses with the superior and Inferior ulnar collateral arteries. Posterior ulnar recurrent artery This article incorporates text in the public domain from the 20th edition of Gray's Anatomy (1918) lesson4arteriesofarm at The Anatomy Lesson by Wesley Norman (Georgetown University) lesson4artofforearm at The Anatomy Lesson by Wesley Norman (Georgetown ...
The radial recurrent artery arises from the radial artery immediately below the elbow. It ascends between the branches of the radial nerve, lying on the supinator muscle and then between the brachioradialis muscle and the brachialis muscle, supplying these muscles and the elbow-joint, and anastomosing with the terminal part of the profunda brachii. ...
The left and right internal carotid arteries arise from the left and right common carotid arteries. The posterior communicating artery is given off as a branch of the internal carotid artery just before it divides into its terminal branches - the anterior and middle cerebral arteries. The anterior cerebral artery forms the anterolateral portion of the circle of Willis, while the middle cerebral artery does not contribute to the circle. The right and left posterior cerebral arteries arise from the basilar artery, which is formed by the left and right vertebral arteries. The vertebral ...
In human anatomy, the radial artery is the main artery of the lateral aspect of the forearm. The radial artery arises from the bifurcation of the brachial artery in the antecubital fossa. It runs distally on the anterior part of the forearm. There, it serves as a landmark for the division between the anterior and posterior compartments of the forearm, with the posterior compartment beginning just lateral to the artery. The artery winds laterally around the wrist, passing through the anatomical snuff box and between the heads of the first dorsal interosseous muscle. It passes anteriorly between the heads of the adductor pollicis, and becomes the deep palmar arch, which joins with the deep branch of the ulnar artery. Along its ...
... and recurrent may refer to: Disease recurrence, also called relapse Eternal recurrence, or eternal return, the concept that the universe has been recurring, and will continue to recur, in a self-similar form an infinite number of times across infinite time or space Historic recurrence, the repetition of similar events in history Poincaré recurrence theorem, Henri Poincaré's theorem on dynamical systems Radial recurrent artery - arising from the radial artery immediately below the elbow Recurrence (album), a 2008 metalcore album by Vira Recurrent neural network, a special artificial neural network Recurrence period density entropy, an information-theoretic method for summarising the recurrence properties of a dynamical systems Recurrence plot, a statistical plot that shows a pattern that re-occurs Recurrence relation, an equation which defines a sequence recursively Recurrent rotation, a term used in contemporary hit radio for frequently ...
Ang MRI scan ng mga pasyenteng may depresyon ay naghayag ng ilang mga pagkakaiba sa istraktura ng utak kumpara sa mga indibidwal na walang depresyon. Ang kamakailang meta-analysis ng mga pag-aaral na neuroimaging sa pangunahing depresyon ay nag-ulat na kumpara sa mga kontrol, ang mga depresadong pasyente ay may tumaas na bolyum ng lateral ventricles at glandulang adrenal at mas maliit na mga bolyum ng basal ganglia, thalamus, hippocampus, at harapang lobo (kabilang ang orbitofrontal cortex at gyrus rectus).[20][21] Ang mga hyperintensidad ay naiugnay sa mga pasyenteng may pagsisimula sa kalaunang edad at tumungo sa pagbuo ng teoriya ng depresyong baskular.[22] Maaring may kaungyan sa pagitan ng depresyon at neurohenesis sa hippocampus,[23] na sentro ng parehong mood at memorya. Ang paglaho ng mga neuron na hippocampal ay matatagpuan sa ilang mga depresadong indibidwal at umuugnay sa napinsalang memory at mood na dysthimiko. Ang mga gamot ay maaaring magpataas ng mga lebel ng serotonin sa utak at ...
The theory of oncogenes was foreshadowed by the German biologist Theodor Boveri in his 1914 book Zur Frage der Entstehung Maligner Tumoren ('The Origin of Malignant Tumours'), Gustav Fisher, Jena, 1914. Oncogenes (Teilungsfoerdernde Chromosomen) that become amplified (im permanenten Übergewicht) during tumour development. Later on the term "oncogene" was rediscovered in 1969 by National Cancer Institute scientists George Todaro and Robert Heubner.[7]. The first confirmed oncogene was discovered in 1970 and was termed sarcom. Sarcoma was in fact first discovered as an oncogene in a chicken retrovirus. Experiments performed by Dr. G. Steve Martin of the University of California, Berkeley demonstrated that the sarcoma was indeed the oncogene of the virus.[8] The first nucleotide sequence of v-sarcoma was sequenced in 1980 by A.P. Czernilofsky et al.[9]. In 1976 Drs. Dominique Stehelin, J. Michael Bishop and Harold E. Varmus of the University of California, San Francisco demonstrated that oncogenes ...
Rho GTPase-activating protein 24 is an enzyme that in humans is encoded by the ARHGAP24 gene. GRCh38: Ensembl release 89: ENSG00000138639 - Ensembl, May 2017 GRCm38: Ensembl release 89: ENSMUSG00000057315 - Ensembl, May 2017 "Human PubMed Reference:". "Mouse PubMed Reference:". Wiemann S, Weil B, Wellenreuther R, Gassenhuber J, Glassl S, Ansorge W, Böcher M, Blöcker H, Bauersachs S, Blum H, Lauber J, Düsterhöft A, Beyer A, Köhrer K, Strack N, Mewes HW, Ottenwälder B, Obermaier B, Tampe J, Heubner D, Wambutt R, Korn B, Klein M, Poustka A (Mar 2001). "Toward a catalog of human genes and proteins: sequencing and analysis of 500 novel complete protein coding human cDNAs". Genome Research. 11 (3): 422-435. doi:10.1101/gr.GR1547R. PMC 311072 . PMID 11230166. Katoh M, Katoh M (Aug 2004). "Identification and characterization of ARHGAP24 and ARHGAP25 genes in silico". International Journal of Molecular Medicine. 14 (2): 333-8. doi:10.3892/ijmm.14.2.333. PMID 15254788. "Entrez Gene: ARHGAP24 Rho ...
In chemistry, an enantiomer (/ɪˈnæntiəmər, ɛ-, -tioʊ-/[1] ə-NAN-tee-ə-mər; from Greek ἐνάντιος (enántios), meaning 'opposite', and μέρος (méros), meaning 'part') (archaically termed optical isomer,[2] antipode,[3] or optical antipode[4]), is one of two stereoisomers that are mirror images of each other that are non-superposable (not identical), much as one's left and right hands are mirror images of each other that cannot appear identical simply by reorientation.[5] A single chiral atom or similar structural feature in a compound causes that compound to have two possible structures which are non-superposable, each a mirror image of the other. Each member of the pair is termed an enantiomorph (enantio = opposite; morph = form)[6]; the structural property is termed enantiomerism. The presence of multiple chiral features in a given compound increases the number of geometric forms possible, though there may still be some perfect-mirror-image pairs. A sample of a chemical is ...
... is a type of atherosclerosis where build-up of plaque in the blood vessels of the brain occurs. Some of the main components of the plaques are connective tissue, extracellular matrix, including collagen, proteoglycans, fibronectin, and elastic fibers; crystalline cholesterol, cholesteryl esters, and phospholipids; cells such as monocyte derived macrophages, T-lymphocytes, and smooth muscle cells. The plaque that builds up can lead to further complications such as stroke, as the plaque disrupts blood flow within the intracranial arterioles. This causes the downstream sections of the brain that would normally be supplied by the blocked artery to suffer from ischemia. Diagnosis of the disease is normally done through imaging technology such as angiograms or magnetic resonance imaging. The risk of cerebral atherosclerosis and its associated diseases appears to increase with increasing age; however there are numerous factors that can be ...
The posterior cerebral artery (PCA) is one of a pair of blood vessels that supply oxygenated blood to the posterior aspect of the brain (occipital lobe) in human anatomy. It arises near the intersection of the posterior communicating artery and the basilar artery and connects with the ipsilateral middle cerebral artery (MCA) and internal carotid artery via the posterior communicating artery (PCommA). The development of the PCA in fetal brain comes relatively late and arises from the fusion of several embryonic vessels near the caudal end of the PCommA supplying the mesencephalon and diencephalon of the fetus. The PCA begins as such, as a continuation of the PCommA in the fetus with only 10-30% of fetuses having a prominent basilar origin. ...
The left and right internal carotid arteries arise from the left and right common carotid arteries. The posterior communicating artery is given off as a branch of the internal carotid artery just before it divides into its terminal branches - the anterior and middle cerebral arteries. The anterior cerebral artery forms the anterolateral portion of the circle of Willis, while the middle cerebral artery does not contribute to the circle. The right and left posterior cerebral arteries arise from the basilar artery, which is formed by the left and right vertebral arteries. The vertebral ...
A watershed stroke or watershed infarct is defined as ischemia that is localized to the vulnerable border zones between the tissues supplied via the Anterior, Posterior and Middle Cerebral arteries.(Note that the actual blood stream blockage/restriction site can be located far away from the infarcts. See "Pathogenesis" followed.) Watershed locations are those border-zone regions in the brain supplied by the major cerebral arteries where blood supply is decreased. Watershed strokes are a concern because they comprise approximately 10% of all ischemic stroke cases. The watershed zones themselves are particularly susceptible to infarction from global ischemia as the distal nature of the vasculature predisposes these areas to be most sensitive to profound hypoperfusion. Watershed strokes are localized to two primary regions of the brain, and are termed cortical watersheds (CWS) and internal ...
... anterior superior? Meaning of alveolar arteries, anterior superior medical term. What does alveolar arteries, anterior superior ... anterior superior in the Medical Dictionary? alveolar arteries, anterior superior explanation free. What is alveolar arteries, ... paracentral artery origin, postcommunical part of anterior cerebral artery; branches, none; distribution, cerebral cortex and ... The anterior cerebral artery anastomoses with the contralateral anterior cerebral artery via the anterior communicating artery ...
This artery in turn branches into the medial frontal arteries (anterior, intermediate, posterior), and the paracentral artery, ... The left and right anterior cerebral arteries are connected by the anterior communicating artery. Anterior cerebral artery ... Anterior cerebral artery Cerebral arteries seen from beneath. Anterior cerebral artery visible at centre. The arterial circle ... also forms the middle cerebral artery and the anterior choroidal artery. The anterior cerebral arteries grow toward each other ...
... the anterior and middle internal frontal and callosomarginal arteries, A3; the paracentral artery, A4; and the superior and ... The microsurgical anatomy of the distal anterior cerebral artery (ACA) has been defined in 50 cerebral hemispheres. The distal ... The anterior choroidal artery originated from the carotid artery on both sides in all cases. A double anterior choroidal artery ... The recurrent artery of Heubner was frequently exposed before the A-1 segment in defining the neck on anterior cerebral ...
What is lobar artery, middle? Meaning of lobar artery, middle medical term. What does lobar artery, middle mean? ... Looking for online definition of lobar artery, middle in the Medical Dictionary? lobar artery, middle explanation free. ... central arteries, anteromedial, of anterior cerebral artery origin, precommunical part of anterior cerebral artery; branches, ... paracentral artery origin, postcommunical part of anterior cerebral artery; branches, none; distribution, cerebral cortex and ...
Anterior cerebral artery (B) Middle cerebral artery (C) Posterior cerebral artery (D) Anterior choroidal artery (E) Anterior ... 2. The optic chiasm is supplied by all of thefollowing arteries EXCEPT the (A) internal carotid artery (B) anterior ... Occlusion of this artery results in infarction of the paracentral lobule with Babinskis sign ... Anterior cerebral artery (B) Middle cerebral artery (C) Posterior cerebral artery (D) Anterior choroidal artery (E) Anterior ...
Check out the Arteries of the Brain on the Anatomage Table from Anatomage. (https://anatomagetable.com/Default?Category=1&Id= ... Precuneal Artery. Pericallosal Artery. Anterior Cerebral Artery. Paracentral Arteries. Callosomarginal Arteries. Polar Frontal ... labyrinthine Artery. Posterior Spinal Artery. Anterior Spinal Artery. Posterior Cerebral Artery. Medial Occipital Artery. ... Distal Medial Striate Artery. Posterior Communicating Arteries. Anterior Communicating Artery. middle Cerebral Artery (MCA). ...
CALLOSOMARGINAL - cingulaate gyrus, paracentral lobule. *ANTERIOR INTERNAL FRONTAL - anteromedial frontal lobe. *MIDDLE ... Cerebral Abscess * Cerebral Arteries - Embryology * Cerebral Cortex - Frontal Lobe * Cerebral Edema * Cerebral Palsy / ... Branches of the anterior cerebral artery near the anterior communicating artery complex: an anatomic study and surgical ... RECURRENT ARTERY OF HEUBNER / Medial Distal Striate Artery. *Course: doubles back on ACA, above carotid bifurcation and MCA, ...
Most commonly absent (callosomarginal artery) and additional (paracentral lobule artery) arteries were noted. Origins were ... Anterior Cerebral Artery (ACA). The anterior cerebral artery extends upward and forward from the internal carotid artery (ICA ... Certain aspects of the anterior cerebral artery (ACA) cortical branches tend to vary, including absent or additional arteries, ... Description of the anterior cerebral artery and its cortical branches: Variation in presence, origin, and size. ...
It is the smaller of the two, and arches anteromedially to pass anterior to the genu of the corpus callosum, dividing as i... ... The anterior cerebral artery along with the middle cerebral artery forms at the termination of the internal carotid artery. ... Figure 3: anterior and middle cerebral arteries (annotated cerebral angiogram)Figure 3: anterior and middle cerebral arteries ( ... paracentral lobule (as the branches reach over the vertex to supply a stip of cortex on the surface, they are responsible for ...
... anterior choroidal artery syndrome), red core, and the paracentral ambit (anterior cerebral artery area) OSAHS may existent in ... which in humans contains ten isoprenyl units The narrowed coronary arteries be struck by for good grace blocked and the client ... eNOS levels rose significantly in spermatozoa and serum testosterone The anterior spinal artery supplies about the anterior two ... There is often anterior spinal artery compression so that the corticospinal and spinothalamic tracts are damaged sooner than a ...
Prefrontal arteries, Second segment of the middle cerebral artery, Second segment of the anterior cerebral artery, Anterior ... Posterior internal frontal artery, Anterior parietal artery, Paracentral artery, Posterior parietal artery, Anterior internal ... Frontal orbital artery, Posterior communicating artery, Ophthalmic artery, Internal carotid artery, Callosomarginal artery, ... Medial internal frontal artery, Inferior internal parietal artery, Frontal polar artery, Artery of the angular gyrus, ...
Prefrontal arteries, Second segment of the middle cerebral artery, Second segment of the anterior cerebral artery, Anterior ... Posterior internal frontal artery, Anterior parietal artery, Paracentral artery, Posterior parietal artery, Anterior internal ... cerebral artery, Second segment of the anterior cerebral artery, Anterior choroidal artery, Frontal orbital artery, Posterior ... Posterior internal frontal artery, Anterior parietal artery, Paracentral artery, Posterior parietal artery, Anterior internal ...
Middle cerebral artery is a continuation of? Internal carotid 53. Cortical centre for micturation lies in? Paracentral lobule ... Phrenic nerve lies on? Scalenus anterior 67. In the neck region accessory spinal nerve isaccompanied by branches from? Anterior ... Axillary nerve in the arm is accompanied by? Posterior circumflex humeral arteries ... Artery to bulb of penis is a branch of? Internal pudendal artery ... Second part of subclavian artery lies behind? Scalenus anterior ...
This article describes the anterior circulation of the brain, including main vessels, their course, branches and origin. Learn ... The former will differentiate into the middle cerebral artery, anterior cerebral artery and the anterior choroidal artery; ... and the frontal arteries supply the paracentral lobule, medial frontal and cingulate gyri, and the corpus callosum. The ... Compared to the middle cerebral artery, the anterior cerebral artery is a much smaller branch of the internal carotid artery. ...
... that curves out of the Sylvian fissure and runs over the temporal lobe to supply the anterior third of the superior, middle and ... The anterior temporal artery is usually a branch of the M1 segment of the middle cerebral artery (MCA) ... middle cerebral artery (MCA) *M1 branches * lenticulostriate arteries *medial lenticulostriate arteries. *lateral ... vertebral artery *posterior inferior cerebellar artery (PICA). * basilar artery * anterior inferior cerebellar artery (AICA)* ...
It forms the anterior border of the paracentral lobule, separating it from the medial frontal gyrus and supplementary motor ... The paracentral sulcus is an ascending branch of the cingulate sulcus in the frontal lobe. ... middle cerebral artery (MCA) *M1 branches * lenticulostriate arteries *medial lenticulostriate arteries. *lateral ... vertebral artery *posterior inferior cerebellar artery (PICA). * basilar artery * anterior inferior cerebellar artery (AICA)* ...
... is the largest perforating branch from the proximal anterior cerebral artery (ACA) and is the only one routinely seen on ... also known as the medial striate artery or long central artery, ... paracentral lobule. * cingulate gyrus*anterior cingulate cortex ... middle cerebral artery (MCA) *M1 branches * lenticulostriate arteries *medial lenticulostriate arteries. *lateral ... vertebral artery *posterior inferior cerebellar artery (PICA). * basilar artery * anterior inferior cerebellar artery (AICA)* ...
And so the hemisphere as it supplies the frontal lobe and the paracentral lobule. In addition to the anterior cerebral artery, ... The basilar artery just anterior to the superior cerebella arteries, splits into two parts. One branch goes to form the ... Optic chiasm and that forms an artery call the Anterior Cerebral Artery. The Anterior Cerebral Artery begins right there at the ... we can see what happened to that anterior cerebral artery. So heres the anterior cerebral artery... Right where it is coming ...
... and to the anterior choroidal and middle cerebral arteries. The anterior communicating artery (ACom A) is formed from a ... They are orbitofrontal, frontopolar, internal frontal, paracentral and parietal arteries. The cortical branches supply the ... Anterior Cerebral Artery, AChaA and its Branches. *Recurrent artery (of Heubner) is the largest artery arising from A1 or ... The sides of the polygon of Willis are made of the anterior cerebral arteries (ACA), the posterior cerebral arteries (PCA), ...
6) 4- The anterior cerebral artery (begining , end , course & branches) . (14) 5- Venous drainage of the heart. (7) 6- ... anterior part of Para central lobule. (10 Marks) 6. Name arteries sharing in the circle of Willis. Where it located & what is ... Questions: 1) Which artery supplies anterior wall of the le; ventricle (1mark) 2) Name the branches of right coronary artery (2 ... 1- Are coronary arteries anatomical or func#onal end arteries? (1 M) 2- Enumerate main coronary arteries and their origin. (2 M ...
What is the blood supply to the paracentral lobule Anterior cerebral a. ... These arteries supply the region of diencephalon where internal capsule is located ... It is formed by the blood supply from the anterior i.e. Internal carotid and posterior i.e. vertebral aa., it is known as the ... It is formed by the blood supply from the anterior i.e. Internal carotid and posterior i.e. vertebral aa., it is known as the ...
ANTERIOR INFERIOR CEREBELLAR ARTERY. *Crosses CN VI and CPA cistern to IAC, anterior inferior to CN VII/VIII and supplies them ... Paracentral - central sulcus. *Distal Pericallosal - medial parietal cortex, precuneus. *Superior parietal. *Inferior parietal ... Recurrent artery of Huebner - courses back toward A1 to anterior internal capsule, head of caudate, putamen, globus pallidus, ... Medial (McConnels capsular artery) - anterior and inferior pituitary capsule (present in 28%) ...
Arterial of base of the brain showing anterior cerebral artery, posterior communicating artery, pontine arteries, basilar ... Median saggital section of brainshowing paracentral lobule, cingulate suleus, cingulate gyrus, rostrum corpus callosi, corpus ... Cerebral hemisphere vascularshowing middle cerebral artery, external frontal basal artery, artery of precentral sulcus, artery ... Cerebral hemisphere vascularshowing middle cerebral artery, external frontal basal artery, artery of precentral sulcus, artery ...
See hypothalamic arteries.. Anterior choroidal artery. See choroidal artery.. Anterior clinoid, 13: 6. Anterior commissure (AC ... Cerebral arteries. See arteries of the brain.. Cerebral blood flow, 13: 2. Cerebral peduncles, 3: 2. Ch 4., (see also Nucleus ... part of paracentral lobule), 10: 2, 10. arteries (see also parietal artery), 10: 27, 28, 29. clinical syndromes, 10: 30, 31. ... Candelabra artery. See prefrontal artery.. Carotid artery. See either internal or external carotid artery.. Caudate artery (or ...
Anterior cerebral. artery. brainstem. Compare with Figure 2-24 on the facing page. The cerebellum and portions of the temporal ... The lower extremity and foot areas are located on medial aspects of the hemisphere in the anterior paracentral. (motor) and the ... Note the area of infarction representing the territory of the anterior. cerebral artery (ACA). ... Cerebral. aqueduct (CA). Anterior medullary. velum (AMV). Fourth ventricle. (ForVen). Infundibulum (In). Infundibular recess. ...
  • An autopsy confirmed the radiographic findings and detected bilateral retinal hemorrhages, optic nerve sheath hemorrhages, and a ruptured saccular aneurysm due to focal fibromuscular dysplasia involving the intracranial right vertebral artery. (bvsalud.org)
  • The artery and its accompanying dural veins lie between the periosteal and meningeal layers of the dura. (brainscape.com)
  • Deep muscles, arteries and veins of right lower limb human plastination specimen for Saudi Arabia as teaching aids supplied by meiwo lab. (meiwoplastination.com)
  • These are a complex knot of directly fistulating arteries and veins, without a normal capillary bed in between. (reviewofoptometry.com)
  • TA] anterior basal branch of superior basal veins of the lower right and left lobes of left and right lungs. (academic.ru)
  • The superior sagittal sinus is located on the superior border of the falx cerebri and receives blood from superior cerebral, diploic, and emissary veins, as well as receiving CSF via arachnoid granulations. (aoscan.com)
  • This technique provides a simultaneous visualization of cortical arteries and veins without the need for additional radiation exposure or intraarterial catheter placement. (neurosurgery-blog.com)
  • The optic nerve and ophthalmic artery reach the orbit via the optic canal. (brainscape.com)
  • 7-A. The ophthalmic artery is the first major branch of the internal carotid artery. (brainscape.com)
  • amaurosis fugax - Temporary impairment or loss of vision (blindness) in one eye due to impairment of blood supply through the internal cartoid artery of the ophthalmic artery. (neurolaw.com)
  • These, in turn, result from one or more abnormalities in the relative or absolute sizes or positions of anterior segment structures or posterior segment forces that alter anterior segment anatomy .1 Angle closure results from blockage of the meshwork by the iris, but the forces causing this blockage may be viewed as originating at four successive anatomic levels (figure 12.1) 3. (guwsmedical.info)
  • Second, 3D image reconstructions for the brain, the ventricles, the brainstem, the cerebellum, the cerebral arteries and the venous sinuses were created from images in slices by means of a DICOM reconstruction console. (imaios.com)
  • Longer periods of asphyxia demonstrated wide spread thalamic and brainstem lesions and even extending to the intermediate and anterior grey matter of the spinal cord. (obstetricalpathology.com)
  • It arose from the A-2 segment of the anterior cerebral artery (ACA) in 78% and most commonly terminated in the area of the anterior perforated substance, and lateral to it in the Sylvian fissure. (thejns.org)
  • 2-6 Lateral (A) and medial (B) views of the cerebral hemisphere showing the more commonly described Brodmann areas. (scribd.com)
  • The cerebellopontine angle cistern , also known as the pontocerebellar cistern , is a triangular CSF -filled subarachnoid cistern that lies between the anterior surface of the cerebellum and the lateral surface of the pons . (radiopaedia.org)
  • This is a thin, triangular, vertical double membrane separating the anterior horns of the left and right lateral ventricles of the brain. (aoscan.com)