Neoplasms of the skin and mucous membranes caused by papillomaviruses. They are usually benign but some have a high risk for malignant progression.
A family of small, non-enveloped DNA viruses infecting birds and most mammals, especially humans. They are grouped into multiple genera, but the viruses are highly host-species specific and tissue-restricted. They are commonly divided into hundreds of papillomavirus "types", each with specific gene function and gene control regions, despite sequence homology. Human papillomaviruses are found in the genera ALPHAPAPILLOMAVIRUS; BETAPAPILLOMAVIRUS; GAMMAPAPILLOMAVIRUS; and MUPAPILLOMAVIRUS.
Infections produced by oncogenic viruses. The infections caused by DNA viruses are less numerous but more diverse than those caused by the RNA oncogenic viruses.
A type of ALPHAPAPILLOMAVIRUS especially associated with malignant tumors of the CERVIX and the RESPIRATORY MUCOSA.
Tumors or cancer of the UTERINE CERVIX.
Vaccines or candidate vaccines used to prevent PAPILLOMAVIRUS INFECTIONS. Human vaccines are intended to reduce the incidence of UTERINE CERVICAL NEOPLASMS, so they are sometimes considered a type of CANCER VACCINES. They are often composed of CAPSID PROTEINS, especially L1 protein, from various types of ALPHAPAPILLOMAVIRUS.
A species of DELTAPAPILLOMAVIRUS infecting cattle.
A genus of DNA viruses in the family PAPILLOMAVIRIDAE. They preferentially infect the anogenital and ORAL MUCOSA in humans and primates, causing both malignant and benign neoplasms. Cutaneous lesions are also seen.
A type of human papillomavirus especially associated with malignant tumors of the genital and RESPIRATORY MUCOSA.
Pathological processes of the UTERINE CERVIX.
ONCOGENE PROTEINS from papillomavirus that deregulate the CELL CYCLE of infected cells and lead to NEOPLASTIC CELL TRANSFORMATION. Papillomavirus E7 proteins have been shown to interact with various regulators of the cell cycle including RETINOBLASTOMA PROTEIN and certain cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitors.
Sexually transmitted form of anogenital warty growth caused by the human papillomaviruses.
Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of viruses.
Products of viral oncogenes, most commonly retroviral oncogenes. They usually have transforming and often protein kinase activities.
A malignancy arising in uterine cervical epithelium and confined thereto, representing a continuum of histological changes ranging from well-differentiated CIN 1 (formerly, mild dysplasia) to severe dysplasia/carcinoma in situ, CIN 3. The lesion arises at the squamocolumnar cell junction at the transformation zone of the endocervical canal, with a variable tendency to develop invasive epidermoid carcinoma, a tendency that is enhanced by concomitant human papillomaviral infection. (Segen, Dictionary of Modern Medicine, 1992)
A type of ALPHAPAPILLOMAVIRUS causing recurrent respiratory PAPILLOMATOSIS; GENITAL WARTS; and other neoplasms.
The neck portion of the UTERUS between the lower isthmus and the VAGINA forming the cervical canal.
'Anus diseases' refer to various medical conditions affecting the anus, including structural abnormalities, inflammatory disorders, infections, and neoplasms, which can cause symptoms such as pain, bleeding, itching, or changes in bowel habits.
Collection of pooled secretions of the posterior vaginal fornix for cytologic examination.
The type species of KAPPAPAPILLOMAVIRUS. It is reported to occur naturally in cottontail rabbits in North America.
Benign epidermal proliferations or tumors; some are viral in origin.
A type of ALPHAPAPILLOMAVIRUS usually associated with GENITAL WARTS; and LARYNGEAL NEOPLASMS.
DNA probes specific for the identification of human papilloma virus.
Viral diseases which are transmitted or propagated by sexual conduct.
A circumscribed benign epithelial tumor projecting from the surrounding surface; more precisely, a benign epithelial neoplasm consisting of villous or arborescent outgrowths of fibrovascular stroma covered by neoplastic cells. (Stedman, 25th ed)
Methods for detecting or typing the DNA of an ALPHAPAPILLOMAVIRUS in biological tissues and fluids.
Cytological preparation of cells collected from a mucosal surface and stained with Papanicolaou stain.
In vitro method for producing large amounts of specific DNA or RNA fragments of defined length and sequence from small amounts of short oligonucleotide flanking sequences (primers). The essential steps include thermal denaturation of the double-stranded target molecules, annealing of the primers to their complementary sequences, and extension of the annealed primers by enzymatic synthesis with DNA polymerase. The reaction is efficient, specific, and extremely sensitive. Uses for the reaction include disease diagnosis, detection of difficult-to-isolate pathogens, mutation analysis, genetic testing, DNA sequencing, and analyzing evolutionary relationships.
Abnormal development of immature squamous EPITHELIAL CELLS of the UTERINE CERVIX, a term used to describe premalignant cytological changes in the cervical EPITHELIUM. These atypical cells do not penetrate the epithelial BASEMENT MEMBRANE.
('Costa Rica' in medical context is not a defined term) However, in general context, Costa Rica is a country located in Central America, known for its advanced healthcare system and high life expectancy, which could be relevant to various medical or health-related discussions.
The total number of cases of a given disease in a specified population at a designated time. It is differentiated from INCIDENCE, which refers to the number of new cases in the population at a given time.
Tumors or cancer of the ANAL CANAL.
Sexual activities of humans.
A carcinoma derived from stratified SQUAMOUS EPITHELIAL CELLS. It may also occur in sites where glandular or columnar epithelium is normally present. (From Stedman, 25th ed)
Tumor or cancer of the MALE GENITALIA.
Pathological processes involving the PENIS or its component tissues.
Tumors or cancer of the OROPHARYNX.
An aspect of personal behavior or lifestyle, environmental exposure, or inborn or inherited characteristic, which, on the basis of epidemiologic evidence, is known to be associated with a health-related condition considered important to prevent.
A type of XIPAPILLOMAVIRUS causing alimentary carcinoma in cattle. It is related to Bovine papillomavirus 3.
A type of ALPHAPAPILLOMAVIRUS associated with high risk for anogenital neoplasms.
The terminal segment of the LARGE INTESTINE, beginning from the ampulla of the RECTUM and ending at the anus.
The examination, therapy or surgery of the cervix and vagina by means of a specially designed endoscope introduced vaginally.
Pathological processes involving the male reproductive tract (GENITALIA, MALE).
Proteins that form the CAPSID of VIRUSES.
A genus of DNA viruses in the family PAPILLOMAVIRIDAE, causing cutaneous lesions in humans. Infections exist in latent form in the general population and are activated under conditions of IMMUNOSUPPRESSION.
Excision of the prepuce of the penis (FORESKIN) or part of it.
Tumors or cancer of the VULVA.
'Mouth diseases' is a broad term referring to various conditions that cause inflammation, infection, or structural changes in any part of the mouth, including the lips, gums, tongue, palate, cheeks, and teeth, which can lead to symptoms such as pain, discomfort, difficulty in chewing or speaking, and altered aesthetics.
Pathological processes that tend eventually to become malignant. (From Dorland, 27th ed)
The external reproductive organ of males. It is composed of a mass of erectile tissue enclosed in three cylindrical fibrous compartments. Two of the three compartments, the corpus cavernosa, are placed side-by-side along the upper part of the organ. The third compartment below, the corpus spongiosum, houses the urethra.
A lesion with cytological characteristics associated with invasive carcinoma but the tumor cells are confined to the epithelium of origin, without invasion of the basement membrane.
Neoplasms of the SQUAMOUS EPITHELIAL CELLS. The concept does not refer to neoplasms located in tissue composed of squamous elements.
The genetic constitution of the individual, comprising the ALLELES present at each GENETIC LOCUS.
Pathological processes of the VAGINA.
The number of new cases of a given disease during a given period in a specified population. It also is used for the rate at which new events occur in a defined population. It is differentiated from PREVALENCE, which refers to all cases, new or old, in the population at a given time.
Pathological processes involving the female reproductive tract (GENITALIA, FEMALE).
The male reproductive organs. They are divided into the external organs (PENIS; SCROTUM;and URETHRA) and the internal organs (TESTIS; EPIDIDYMIS; VAS DEFERENS; SEMINAL VESICLES; EJACULATORY DUCTS; PROSTATE; and BULBOURETHRAL GLANDS).
A cutaneous pouch of skin containing the testicles and spermatic cords.
Immunoglobulins produced in response to VIRAL ANTIGENS.
Studies in which subsets of a defined population are identified. These groups may or may not be exposed to factors hypothesized to influence the probability of the occurrence of a particular disease or other outcome. Cohorts are defined populations which, as a whole, are followed in an attempt to determine distinguishing subgroup characteristics.
Inflammation of the UTERINE CERVIX.
Immune status consisting of non-production of HIV antibodies, as determined by various serological tests.
Diagnosis of the type and, when feasible, the cause of a pathologic process by means of microscopic study of cells in an exudate or other form of body fluid. (Stedman, 26th ed)
Cancers or tumors of the LARYNX or any of its parts: the GLOTTIS; EPIGLOTTIS; LARYNGEAL CARTILAGES; LARYNGEAL MUSCLES; and VOCAL CORDS.
Infections of the genital tract in females or males. They can be caused by endogenous, iatrogenic, or sexually transmitted organisms.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
The infective system of a virus, composed of the viral genome, a protein core, and a protein coat called a capsid, which may be naked or enclosed in a lipoprotein envelope called the peplos.
Married or single individuals who share sexual relations.
Diseases due to or propagated by sexual contact.
Suspensions of attenuated or killed viruses administered for the prevention or treatment of infectious viral disease.
The genital canal in the female, extending from the UTERUS to the VULVA. (Stedman, 25th ed)
Simultaneous infection of a host organism by two or more pathogens. In virology, coinfection commonly refers to simultaneous infection of a single cell by two or more different viruses.
Epidermal cells which synthesize keratin and undergo characteristic changes as they move upward from the basal layers of the epidermis to the cornified (horny) layer of the skin. Successive stages of differentiation of the keratinocytes forming the epidermal layers are basal cell, spinous or prickle cell, and the granular cell.
Tumors or cancer of the SKIN.
Cancers or tumors of the PENIS or of its component tissues.
I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Colombia" is not a medical term that can be defined in a medical context; rather, it's a country located in South America. If you have any questions related to medical terminology or health-related topics, I would be happy to help with those instead!
Widely used technique which exploits the ability of complementary sequences in single-stranded DNAs or RNAs to pair with each other to form a double helix. Hybridization can take place between two complimentary DNA sequences, between a single-stranded DNA and a complementary RNA, or between two RNA sequences. The technique is used to detect and isolate specific sequences, measure homology, or define other characteristics of one or both strands. (Kendrew, Encyclopedia of Molecular Biology, 1994, p503)
USSR (Union of Soviet Socialist Republics) cannot be provided as a medical definition, as it is not a medical term; it refers to a former political state that existed from 1922 until 1991 and was dissolved into multiple independent countries.
The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.
Organized periodic procedures performed on large groups of people for the purpose of detecting disease.
Proteins which maintain the transcriptional quiescence of specific GENES or OPERONS. Classical repressor proteins are DNA-binding proteins that are normally bound to the OPERATOR REGION of an operon, or the ENHANCER SEQUENCES of a gene until a signal occurs that causes their release.
The sexual attraction or relationship between members of the opposite SEX.
Administration of vaccines to stimulate the host's immune response. This includes any preparation intended for active immunological prophylaxis.
An inheritable change in cells manifested by changes in cell division and growth and alterations in cell surface properties. It is induced by infection with a transforming virus.
The outer protein protective shell of a virus, which protects the viral nucleic acid.
MOLECULAR BIOLOGY techniques used in the diagnosis of disease.
Studies which start with the identification of persons with a disease of interest and a control (comparison, referent) group without the disease. The relationship of an attribute to the disease is examined by comparing diseased and non-diseased persons with regard to the frequency or levels of the attribute in each group.
A malignant skin neoplasm that seldom metastasizes but has potentialities for local invasion and destruction. Clinically it is divided into types: nodular, cicatricial, morphaic, and erythematoid (pagetoid). They develop on hair-bearing skin, most commonly on sun-exposed areas. Approximately 85% are found on the head and neck area and the remaining 15% on the trunk and limbs. (From DeVita Jr et al., Cancer: Principles & Practice of Oncology, 3d ed, p1471)
Any of the processes by which cytoplasmic factors influence the differential control of gene action in viruses.
I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Mexico" is not a medical term and does not have a medical definition. It is the name of a country located in North America, known officially as the United Mexican States. If you have any questions related to medical topics or terminology, I would be happy to help answer those!
Studies in which the presence or absence of disease or other health-related variables are determined in each member of the study population or in a representative sample at one particular time. This contrasts with LONGITUDINAL STUDIES which are followed over a period of time.
The oval-shaped oral cavity located at the apex of the digestive tract and consisting of two parts: the vestibule and the oral cavity proper.
Proteins found in any species of virus.
An autosomal recessive trait with impaired cell-mediated immunity. About 15 human papillomaviruses are implicated in associated infection, four of which lead to skin neoplasms. The disease begins in childhood with red papules and later spreads over the body as gray or yellow scales.
Includes the spectrum of human immunodeficiency virus infections that range from asymptomatic seropositivity, thru AIDS-related complex (ARC), to acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS).
I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Brazil" is not a medical term or concept, it is a country located in South America, known officially as the Federative Republic of Brazil. If you have any questions related to health, medicine, or science, I'd be happy to help answer those!
A genus of DNA viruses in the family PAPILLOMAVIRIDAE, which cause cutaneous lesions in humans. They are histologically distinguishable by intracytoplasmic INCLUSION BODIES which are species specific.
Development of neutralizing antibodies in individuals who have been exposed to the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV/HTLV-III/LAV).
Proteins which bind to DNA. The family includes proteins which bind to both double- and single-stranded DNA and also includes specific DNA binding proteins in serum which can be used as markers for malignant diseases.
Soft tissue tumors or cancer arising from the mucosal surfaces of the LIP; oral cavity; PHARYNX; LARYNX; and cervical esophagus. Other sites included are the NOSE and PARANASAL SINUSES; SALIVARY GLANDS; THYROID GLAND and PARATHYROID GLANDS; and MELANOMA and non-melanoma skin cancers of the head and neck. (from Holland et al., Cancer Medicine, 4th ed, p1651)
Compounds, usually hormonal, taken orally in order to block ovulation and prevent the occurrence of pregnancy. The hormones are generally estrogen or progesterone or both.
A method (first developed by E.M. Southern) for detection of DNA that has been electrophoretically separated and immobilized by blotting on nitrocellulose or other type of paper or nylon membrane followed by hybridization with labeled NUCLEIC ACID PROBES.
Tumors or cancer of the VAGINA.
Tumors or cancer of the PALATINE TONSIL.
A technique that localizes specific nucleic acid sequences within intact chromosomes, eukaryotic cells, or bacterial cells through the use of specific nucleic acid-labeled probes.
Age as a constituent element or influence contributing to the production of a result. It may be applicable to the cause or the effect of a circumstance. It is used with human or animal concepts but should be differentiated from AGING, a physiological process, and TIME FACTORS which refers only to the passage of time.
Procedures for collecting, preserving, and transporting of specimens sufficiently stable to provide accurate and precise results suitable for clinical interpretation.
Educational institutions providing facilities for teaching and research and authorized to grant academic degrees.
Binary classification measures to assess test results. Sensitivity or recall rate is the proportion of true positives. Specificity is the probability of correctly determining the absence of a condition. (From Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)
A group of islands in Polynesia, in the north central Pacific Ocean, comprising eight major and 114 minor islands, largely volcanic and coral. Its capital is Honolulu. It was first reached by Polynesians about 500 A.D. It was discovered and named the Sandwich Islands in 1778 by Captain Cook. The islands were united under the rule of King Kamehameha 1795-1819 and requested annexation to the United States in 1893 when a provisional government was set up. Hawaii was established as a territory in 1900 and admitted as a state in 1959. The name is from the Polynesian Owhyhii, place of the gods, with reference to the two volcanoes Mauna Kea and Mauna Loa, regarded as the abode of the gods. (From Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p493 & Room, Brewer's Dictionary of Names, 1992, p2330)
The ratio of two odds. The exposure-odds ratio for case control data is the ratio of the odds in favor of exposure among cases to the odds in favor of exposure among noncases. The disease-odds ratio for a cohort or cross section is the ratio of the odds in favor of disease among the exposed to the odds in favor of disease among the unexposed. The prevalence-odds ratio refers to an odds ratio derived cross-sectionally from studies of prevalent cases.
The functional hereditary units of VIRUSES.
Histochemical localization of immunoreactive substances using labeled antibodies as reagents.
Observation of a population for a sufficient number of persons over a sufficient number of years to generate incidence or mortality rates subsequent to the selection of the study group.
The study of the structure, growth, function, genetics, and reproduction of viruses, and VIRUS DISEASES.
The quantity of measurable virus in a body fluid. Change in viral load, measured in plasma, is sometimes used as a SURROGATE MARKER in disease progression.
Skin diseases caused by viruses.
Studies in which variables relating to an individual or group of individuals are assessed over a period of time.
Sexual attraction or relationship between males.
Knowledge, attitudes, and associated behaviors which pertain to health-related topics such as PATHOLOGIC PROCESSES or diseases, their prevention, and treatment. This term refers to non-health workers and health workers (HEALTH PERSONNEL).
Removal and pathologic examination of specimens in the form of small pieces of tissue from the living body.
The complete genetic complement contained in a DNA or RNA molecule in a virus.
Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.
A country spanning from central Asia to the Pacific Ocean.
Individuals enrolled in a school or formal educational program.
Statistical models which describe the relationship between a qualitative dependent variable (that is, one which can take only certain discrete values, such as the presence or absence of a disease) and an independent variable. A common application is in epidemiology for estimating an individual's risk (probability of a disease) as a function of a given risk factor.
Predetermined sets of questions used to collect data - clinical data, social status, occupational group, etc. The term is often applied to a self-completed survey instrument.
A persistent progressive non-elevated red scaly or crusted plaque which is due to an intradermal carcinoma and is potentially malignant. Atypical squamous cells proliferate through the whole thickness of the epidermis. The lesions may occur anywhere on the skin surface or on mucosal surfaces. The cause most frequently found is trivalent arsenic compounds. Freezing, cauterization or diathermy coagulation is often effective. (From Rook et al., Textbook of Dermatology, 4th ed, pp2428-9)
The frequency of different ages or age groups in a given population. The distribution may refer to either how many or what proportion of the group. The population is usually patients with a specific disease but the concept is not restricted to humans and is not restricted to medicine.
Former kingdom, located on Korea Peninsula between Sea of Japan and Yellow Sea on east coast of Asia. In 1948, the kingdom ceased and two independent countries were formed, divided by the 38th parallel.
Inhaling and exhaling the smoke of burning TOBACCO.
The qualitative or quantitative estimation of the likelihood of adverse effects that may result from exposure to specified health hazards or from the absence of beneficial influences. (Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 1988)
The term "United States" in a medical context often refers to the country where a patient or study participant resides, and is not a medical term per se, but relevant for epidemiological studies, healthcare policies, and understanding differences in disease prevalence, treatment patterns, and health outcomes across various geographic locations.
A multistage process that includes cloning, physical mapping, subcloning, determination of the DNA SEQUENCE, and information analysis.
A malignant epithelial tumor with a glandular organization.
Eukaryotic cell line obtained in a quiescent or stationary phase which undergoes conversion to a state of unregulated growth in culture, resembling an in vitro tumor. It occurs spontaneously or through interaction with viruses, oncogenes, radiation, or drugs/chemicals.
Curved rows of HAIR located on the upper edges of the eye sockets.
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
Studies in which individuals or populations are followed to assess the outcome of exposures, procedures, or effects of a characteristic, e.g., occurrence of disease.
A sheath that is worn over the penis during sexual behavior in order to prevent pregnancy or spread of sexually transmitted disease.
The process of intracellular viral multiplication, consisting of the synthesis of PROTEINS; NUCLEIC ACIDS; and sometimes LIPIDS, and their assembly into a new infectious particle.
Extrachromosomal, usually CIRCULAR DNA molecules that are self-replicating and transferable from one organism to another. They are found in a variety of bacterial, archaeal, fungal, algal, and plant species. They are used in GENETIC ENGINEERING as CLONING VECTORS.
Product of the retinoblastoma tumor suppressor gene. It is a nuclear phosphoprotein hypothesized to normally act as an inhibitor of cell proliferation. Rb protein is absent in retinoblastoma cell lines. It also has been shown to form complexes with the adenovirus E1A protein, the SV40 T antigen, and the human papilloma virus E7 protein.
Nuclear phosphoprotein encoded by the p53 gene (GENES, P53) whose normal function is to control CELL PROLIFERATION and APOPTOSIS. A mutant or absent p53 protein has been found in LEUKEMIA; OSTEOSARCOMA; LUNG CANCER; and COLORECTAL CANCER.
The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.
The first continuously cultured human malignant CELL LINE, derived from the cervical carcinoma of Henrietta Lacks. These cells are used for VIRUS CULTIVATION and antitumor drug screening assays.
Tumor or cancer of the female reproductive tract (GENITALIA, FEMALE).
The worsening of a disease over time. This concept is most often used for chronic and incurable diseases where the stage of the disease is an important determinant of therapy and prognosis.
Agents used in the prophylaxis or therapy of VIRUS DISEASES. Some of the ways they may act include preventing viral replication by inhibiting viral DNA polymerase; binding to specific cell-surface receptors and inhibiting viral penetration or uncoating; inhibiting viral protein synthesis; or blocking late stages of virus assembly.
The process by which a DNA molecule is duplicated.
The biosynthesis of RNA carried out on a template of DNA. The biosynthesis of DNA from an RNA template is called REVERSE TRANSCRIPTION.

Immunohistochemical expression of mdm2 and p21WAF1 in invasive cervical cancer: correlation with p53 protein and high risk HPV infection. (1/4024)

AIM: To investigate the immunocytochemical staining pattern of mdm2 and p21WAF1 proteins in invasive cervical cancer and to determine its relation with the expression of p53 and with the high risk HPV infection. METHODS: Immunocytochemistry for p53, mdm2, and p21WAF1 was performed in 31 paraffin embedded sections of invasive cervical cancer. The results were assessed by image analysis, evaluating for each protein the optical density of the immunostained area, scored as percentage of the total nuclear area. The presence of high risk human papillomavirus (HPV) infection was detected by using the polymerase chain reaction. RESULTS: Immunostaining for both mdm2 and p21WAF1 was correlated with p53 expression; however, the correlation between p53 and mdm2 (R = 0.49; p < 0.01) was more significant than between p53 and p21WAF1 (R = 0.31; p < 0.05); the less stringent correlation between p53 and p21WAF1 might reflect the p53 independent mechanisms of p21WAF1 induction. Similar average levels of p53, mdm2, and p21WAF1 immunostaining were found in the presence or absence of high risk HPV-DNA, without significant differences between the two groups. CONCLUSIONS: These data suggest that mdm2 and p21WAF1 proteins are expressed in invasive cervical cancer and that their immunocytochemical staining pattern is not abrogated by the presence of high risk HPV genomic sequences.  (+info)

Analysis of TSG101 tumour susceptibility gene transcripts in cervical and endometrial cancers. (2/4024)

Carcinoma of the uterine cervix is a common malignancy among women that has been found to show loss of heterozygosity in the chromosome 11p. Recent studies have localized the TSG101 gene in this region, and also demonstrated a high frequency of abnormalities of this gene in human breast cancer. To determine the role of the TSG101 gene in the carcinogenesis of cervical and uterine carcinoma, 19 cases of cervical carcinoma and five cases of endometrial carcinoma, as well as nearby non-cancerous tissue from the same patients, and 16 blood samples from healthy persons as normal control were analysed by Southern blot analysis of genomic DNA, reverse transcription of the TSG101 mRNA followed by PCR amplification and sequencing of the products. We found that abnormal transcripts of the TSG101 gene were common both in cancerous or non-cancerous tissues of the uterus and cervix and in normal peripheral mononuclear cells. There was no genomic deletion or rearrangement in spite of the presence of abnormal transcripts, and no definite relationship between the abnormal transcripts and HPV infection was found. Although the frequency of abnormal transcripts was higher in cancerous than in non-cancerous tissue, normal peripheral mononuclear cells also had abnormal transcripts. Given these findings, the role of the TSG101 gene as a tumour-suppressor gene should be re-evaluated. Because some aberrant transcripts could be found at the first PCR reaction, we suggest that the aberrant transcripts might be the result of imperfect minor splicesome products.  (+info)

Cervicovaginal human papillomavirus infection in human immunodeficiency virus-1 (HIV)-positive and high-risk HIV-negative women. (3/4024)

BACKGROUND: Human papillomavirus (HPV) infection is associated with precancerous cervical squamous intraepithelial lesions commonly seen among women infected with human immunodeficiency virus-1 (HIV). We characterized HPV infection in a large cohort of HIV-positive and HIV-negative women participating in the Women's Interagency HIV Study to determine the prevalence of and risk factors for cervicovaginal HPV infection in HIV-positive women. METHODS: HIV-positive (n = 1778) and HIV-negative (n = 500) women were tested at enrollment for the presence of HPV DNA in a cervicovaginal lavage specimen. Blood samples were tested for HIV antibody status, level of CD4-positive T cells, and HIV RNA load (copies/mL). An interview detailing risk factors was conducted. Univariate and multivariate analyses were performed. RESULTS: Compared with HIV-negative women, HIV-positive women with a CD4+ cell count of less than 200/mm3 were at the highest risk of HPV infection, regardless of HIV RNA load (odds ratio [OR] = 10.13; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 7.32-14.04), followed by women with a CD4+ count greater than 200/mm3 and an HIV RNA load greater than 20,000 copies/mL (OR = 5.78; 95% CI = 4.17-8.08) and women with a CD4+ count greater than 200/mm3 and an HIV RNA load less than 20,000 copies/mL (OR = 3.12; 95% CI = 2.36-4.12), after adjustment for other factors. Other risk factors among HIV-positive women included racial/ethnic background (African-American versus Caucasian, OR = 1.64; 95% CI = 1.19-2.28), current smoking (yes versus no; OR = 1.55; 95% CI = 1.20-1.99), and younger age (age < 30 years versus > or = 40 years; OR = 1.75; 95% CI = 1.23-2.49). CONCLUSIONS: Although the strongest risk factors of HPV infection among HIV-positive women were indicators of more advanced HIV-related disease, other factors commonly found in studies of HIV-negative women, including racial/ethnic background, current smoking, and age, were important in HIV-positive women as well.  (+info)

Risk factors for abnormal anal cytology in young heterosexual women. (4/4024)

Although anal cancers are up to four times more common in women than men, little is known about the natural history of anal human papillomavirus (HPV) infections and HPV-related anal lesions in women. This study reports on the prevalence of and risks for anal cytological abnormalities over a 1-year period in a cohort of young women participating in a study of the natural history of cervical HPV infection. In addition to their regularly scheduled sexual behavior interviews and cervical testing, consenting women received anal HPV DNA and cytological testing. Anal cytology smears were obtained from 410 women whose mean age was 22.5 +/- 2.5 years at the onset of the study. Sixteen women (3.9%) were found to have abnormal anal cytology: 4 women had low-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions (SILs) or condyloma; and 12 women had atypical cells of undetermined significance. Factors found to be significantly associated with abnormal anal cytology were a history of anal sex [odds ratio (OR), 6.90; 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.7-47.2], a history of cervical SILs (OR, 4.13; 95% CI, 1.3-14.9), and a current anal HPV infection (OR, 12.28; 95% CI, 3.9-43.5). The strong association between anal intercourse and the development of HPV-induced SILs supports the role of sexual transmission of HPV in anal SILs. Young women who had engaged in anal intercourse or had a history of cervical SILs were found to be at highest risk.  (+info)

Immune responses against human papillomavirus (HPV) type 16 virus-like particles in a cohort study of women with cervical intraepithelial neoplasia. I. Differential T-helper and IgG responses in relation to HPV infection and disease outcome. (5/4024)

T-helper (Th) cell-dependent IL-2 production and plasma IgG responses to virus-like particles consisting of the human papillomavirus type 16 (HPV-16) major capsid protein L1 (L1-VLP) were determined in patients with cytological evidence of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN) participating in a non-intervention prospective cohort study. IgG responses were associated with HPV-16 persistence and high-grade CIN lesions, while high frequencies of Th responses were observed in patients with both virus clearance and virus persistence, irrespective of CIN grade. The IgG response was found in conjunction with an IL-2 response to L1-VLP in 87% of the patients. Recognition of the HPV-16 L1 Th epitope (amino acids 311-335) was found to be more closely associated than recognition of L1-VLP as a whole to HPV exposure and CIN development. Among the HPV-16+ patients included in this study, those showing a Th response to amino acids 311-335 were more likely to carry the HLA DRB1*11/DQB1*0301 haplotype, while those showing an IgG response to L1-VLP were more likely to carry DRB1*0101/DQB1*0501. However, neither cell-mediated nor humoral immune responses against HPV-16 L1 appear to be sufficient for the natural control of HPV infection and CIN development.  (+info)

Immune responses against human papillomavirus (HPV) type 16 virus-like particles in a cohort study of women with cervical intraepithelial neoplasia. II. Systemic but not local IgA responses correlate with clearance of HPV-16. (6/4024)

To investigate whether there is an association between local or systemic IgG and IgA responses against human papillomavirus (HPV) type 16 virus-like particles (VLP) containing L1 and L2 and the possible influence of these responses on clearance of HPV-16 and its associated lesions, cervical mucus samples from 125 patients and plasma samples from 100 patients, all participating in a non-intervention cohort study of women with abnormal cytology, were analysed. The results show that local IgG and IgA HPV-16 VLP-specific antibodies do not correlate with virus clearance. However, systemic IgG responses were more frequently detected in patients with a persistent infection (11/24) compared with patients with cleared HPV-16 infections (3/28, P = 0.006). Furthermore, the ultimate development of high-grade lesions was associated with systemic VLP-specific IgG reactivity (P = 0.026). By contrast, systemic IgA responses were correlated with virus clearance (7/28 clearance compared with 1/24 persistence patients, P = 0.06). This correlation was statistically significant when only those clearance patients who tested HPV-16 DNA-positive at more than one visit were included in the analysis (5/11 compared with 1/24, P = 0.007). As these systemic IgA responses were not accompanied by local IgA responses, the systemic IgA responses in HPV-16 clearance patients are suggested to be a by-product of a successful cellular immune response induced at the local lymph nodes, mediated by cytokines.  (+info)

Two novel promoters in the upstream regulatory region of human papillomavirus type 31b are negatively regulated by epithelial differentiation. (7/4024)

Organotypic cultures support the stratification and differentiation of keratinocytes and the human papillomavirus (HPV) life cycle. We report transcription from four novel promoters in the HPV31b upstream regulatory region during the viral life cycle in organotypic cultures. Promoter initiation was not differentiation dependent; two promoters were down-regulated upon epithelial differentiation.  (+info)

Human papillomavirus (HPV) DNA copy number is dependent on grade of cervical disease and HPV type. (8/4024)

The association between human papillomavirus (HPV) DNA copy number and cervical disease was investigated. Viral DNA copy number for the most common high-risk HPV types in cervical cancer (types 16, 18, 31, and 45) was determined in cervical cytobrush specimens from 149 women with high-grade cervical intraepithelial neoplasias (CIN II-CIN III), 176 with low-grade CIN (CIN I), and 270 with normal cytology. Quantitative, PCR-based fluorescent assays for each of the HPV genotypes and for the beta-globin gene were used. The amount of cellular DNA increased significantly with increasing disease; thus, HPV was expressed as copies per microgram of cellular DNA. The assay had a dynamic range of >10(7), allowing documentation for the first time of the wide range of HPV copy numbers seen in clinical specimens. Median HPV DNA copy number varied by more than 10(4) among the viral types. HPV16 was present in the highest copy number; over 55% of HPV16-positive samples contained more than 10(8) copies/microgram. Median copy number for HPV16 showed dramatic increases with increasing epithelial abnormality, an effect not seen with the other HPV types. HPV16 increased from a median of 2.2 x 10(7) in patients with normal cytology, to 4.1 x 10(7) in CIN I patients, to 1.3 x 10(9) copies/microgram in CIN II-III patients. Even when stratified by cervical disease and viral type, the range of viral DNA copies per microgram of cellular DNA was quite large, precluding setting a clinically significant cutoff value for "high" copy numbers predictive of disease. This study suggests that the clinical usefulness of HPV quantitation requires reassessment and is assay dependent.  (+info)

Papillomavirus infections are a group of diseases caused by various types of human papillomaviruses (HPVs). These viruses infect the skin and mucous membranes, and can cause benign growths such as warts or papillomas, as well as malignant growths like cervical cancer.

There are more than 100 different types of HPVs, and they can be classified into low-risk and high-risk types based on their potential to cause cancer. Low-risk HPV types, such as HPV-6 and HPV-11, commonly cause benign genital warts and respiratory papillomas. High-risk HPV types, such as HPV-16 and HPV-18, are associated with an increased risk of developing cancer, including cervical, anal, penile, vulvar, and oropharyngeal cancers.

HPV infections are typically transmitted through sexual contact, and most sexually active individuals will acquire at least one HPV infection during their lifetime. In many cases, the immune system is able to clear the virus without any symptoms or long-term consequences. However, persistent high-risk HPV infections can lead to the development of cancer over time.

Prevention measures for HPV infections include vaccination against high-risk HPV types, safe sex practices, and regular screening for cervical cancer in women. The HPV vaccine is recommended for both boys and girls aged 11-12 years old, and can also be given to older individuals up to age 45 who have not previously been vaccinated or who have not completed the full series of shots.

Papillomaviridae is a family of small, non-enveloped DNA viruses that primarily infect the epithelial cells of mammals, birds, and reptiles. The name "papillomavirus" comes from the Latin word "papilla," which means nipple or small projection, reflecting the characteristic wart-like growths (papillomas) that these viruses can cause in infected host tissues.

The family Papillomaviridae includes more than 200 distinct papillomavirus types, with each type being defined by its specific DNA sequence. Human papillomaviruses (HPVs), which are the most well-studied members of this family, are associated with a range of diseases, from benign warts and lesions to malignant cancers such as cervical, anal, penile, vulvar, and oropharyngeal cancers.

Papillomaviruses have a circular, double-stranded DNA genome that is approximately 8 kbp in size. The viral genome encodes several early (E) proteins involved in viral replication and oncogenesis, as well as late (L) proteins that form the viral capsid. The life cycle of papillomaviruses is tightly linked to the differentiation program of their host epithelial cells, with productive infection occurring primarily in the differentiated layers of the epithelium.

In summary, Papillomaviridae is a family of DNA viruses that infect epithelial cells and can cause a variety of benign and malignant diseases. Human papillomaviruses are a significant public health concern due to their association with several cancer types.

A tumor virus infection is a condition in which a person's cells become cancerous or transformed due to the integration and disruption of normal cellular functions by a viral pathogen. These viruses are also known as oncoviruses, and they can cause tumors or cancer by altering the host cell's genetic material, promoting uncontrolled cell growth and division, evading immune surveillance, and inhibiting apoptosis (programmed cell death).

Examples of tumor viruses include:

1. DNA tumor viruses: These are double-stranded DNA viruses that can cause cancer in humans. Examples include human papillomavirus (HPV), hepatitis B virus (HBV), and Merkel cell polyomavirus (MCV).
2. RNA tumor viruses: Also known as retroviruses, these single-stranded RNA viruses can cause cancer in humans. Examples include human T-cell leukemia virus type 1 (HTLV-1) and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV).

Tumor virus infections are responsible for approximately 15-20% of all cancer cases worldwide, making them a significant public health concern. Prevention strategies, such as vaccination against HPV and HBV, have been shown to reduce the incidence of associated cancers.

Human papillomavirus 16 (HPV16) is a specific type of human papillomavirus (HPV). HPV is a DNA virus that infects the skin and mucous membranes, and there are over 200 types of HPV. Some types of HPV can cause warts, while others are associated with an increased risk of certain cancers.

HPV16 is one of the high-risk types of HPV and is strongly associated with several types of cancer, including cervical, anal, penile, vulvar, and oropharyngeal (throat) cancers. HPV16 is responsible for about 50% of all cervical cancers and is the most common high-risk type of HPV found in these cancers.

HPV16 is typically transmitted through sexual contact, and most people who are sexually active will acquire at least one type of HPV at some point in their lives. While HPV infections are often harmless and clear up on their own without causing any symptoms or health problems, high-risk types like HPV16 can lead to cancer if left untreated.

Fortunately, there are vaccines available that protect against HPV16 and other high-risk types of HPV. These vaccines have been shown to be highly effective in preventing HPV-related cancers and precancerous lesions. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) recommends routine HPV vaccination for both boys and girls starting at age 11 or 12, although the vaccine can be given as early as age 9. Catch-up vaccinations are also recommended for older individuals who have not yet been vaccinated.

Uterine cervical neoplasms, also known as cervical cancer or cervical dysplasia, refer to abnormal growths or lesions on the lining of the cervix that have the potential to become cancerous. These growths are usually caused by human papillomavirus (HPV) infection and can be detected through routine Pap smears.

Cervical neoplasms are classified into different grades based on their level of severity, ranging from mild dysplasia (CIN I) to severe dysplasia or carcinoma in situ (CIN III). In some cases, cervical neoplasms may progress to invasive cancer if left untreated.

Risk factors for developing cervical neoplasms include early sexual activity, multiple sexual partners, smoking, and a weakened immune system. Regular Pap smears and HPV testing are recommended for early detection and prevention of cervical cancer.

Papillomavirus vaccines are vaccines that have been developed to prevent infection by human papillomaviruses (HPV). HPV is a DNA virus that is capable of infecting the skin and mucous membranes. Certain types of HPV are known to cause cervical cancer, as well as other types of cancer such as anal, penile, vulvar, and oropharyngeal cancers. Other types of HPV can cause genital warts.

There are currently two papillomavirus vaccines that have been approved for use in the United States: Gardasil and Cervarix. Both vaccines protect against the two most common cancer-causing types of HPV (types 16 and 18), which together cause about 70% of cervical cancers. Gardasil also protects against the two most common types of HPV that cause genital warts (types 6 and 11).

Papillomavirus vaccines are given as a series of three shots over a period of six months. They are most effective when given to people before they become sexually active, as this reduces the risk of exposure to HPV. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) recommends that all boys and girls get vaccinated against HPV at age 11 or 12, but the vaccine can be given to people as young as age 9 and as old as age 26.

It is important to note that papillomavirus vaccines do not protect against all types of HPV, and they do not treat existing HPV infections or cervical cancer. They are intended to prevent new HPV infections and the cancers and other diseases that can be caused by HPV.

Bovine papillomavirus 1 (BPV-1) is a species of papillomavirus that primarily infects cattle, causing benign warts or papillomas in the skin and mucous membranes. It is not known to infect humans or cause disease in humans. BPV-1 is closely related to other papillomaviruses that can cause cancer in animals, but its role in human cancer is unclear.

BPV-1 is a double-stranded DNA virus that replicates in the nucleus of infected cells. It encodes several early and late proteins that are involved in viral replication and the transformation of host cells. BPV-1 has been extensively studied as a model system for understanding the molecular mechanisms of papillomavirus infection and oncogenesis.

In addition to its role in animal health, BPV-1 has also been used as a tool in biomedical research. For example, it can be used to transform cells in culture, providing a valuable resource for studying the properties of cancer cells and testing potential therapies. However, it is important to note that BPV-1 is not known to cause human disease and should not be used in any therapeutic context involving humans.

Alphapapillomavirus is a genus of Papillomaviridae, a family of small, non-enveloped DNA viruses that infect the skin and mucous membranes of humans and other animals. Members of this genus are known to cause various types of benign and malignant tumors in humans, including skin warts, genital warts, and cancers of the cervix, anus, penis, vulva, and oropharynx.

The Alphapapillomavirus genus is further divided into several species, each containing multiple types or strains of the virus. Some of the most well-known and studied types of Alphapapillomavirus include:

* Human papillomavirus (HPV) type 16 and 18, which are associated with a high risk of cervical cancer and other anogenital cancers
* HPV type 6 and 11, which are commonly found in genital warts and recurrent respiratory papillomatosis
* HPV types 31, 33, 45, 52, and 58, which are also associated with an increased risk of cervical cancer and other malignancies.

Preventive measures such as vaccination against high-risk HPV types have been shown to significantly reduce the incidence of cervical cancer and other HPV-related diseases. Regular screening for cervical cancer and other precancerous lesions is also an important part of prevention and early detection.

Human papillomavirus 18 (HPV-18) is a specific type of human papillomavirus (HPV), which is a group of more than 200 related viruses. HPV is named for the warts (papillomas) some types can cause.

HPV-18 is one of the high-risk types of HPV that are linked to several types of cancer, including cervical, anal, vaginal, vulvar, and oropharyngeal (throat) cancers. HPV-18 along with HPV-16 are responsible for about 70% of all cervical cancers.

HPV is passed from one person to another during skin-to-skin contact, usually during sexual activity. Most sexually active people will have an HPV infection at some point in their lives, but most will never know it because the virus often causes no symptoms and goes away on its own. However, when HPV doesn't go away, it can cause serious health problems, including cancer.

There are vaccines available to protect against HPV-18 and other high-risk types of HPV. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) recommends that all boys and girls get the HPV vaccine at age 11 or 12, but it can be given as early as age 9 and until age 26 for those who have not yet received it. The vaccine is most effective when given before becoming sexually active.

Uterine cervical diseases refer to conditions that affect the cervix, which is the lower part of the uterus that opens into the vagina. These diseases can range from minor abnormalities to more serious conditions, such as:

1. Cervical dysplasia: This is a precancerous condition characterized by the presence of abnormal cells on the cervix. It is usually caused by the human papillomavirus (HPV) and can be detected through a Pap test.
2. Cervical cancer: This is a malignant tumor that develops in the cervical tissue. The most common type of cervical cancer is squamous cell carcinoma, which arises from the cells lining the surface of the cervix.
3. Cervicitis: This is an inflammation of the cervix, which can be caused by infections, irritants, or allergies. Symptoms may include vaginal discharge, pain, and bleeding.
4. Cervical polyps: These are benign growths that develop on the cervix. They are usually small and asymptomatic but can cause abnormal vaginal bleeding or discharge.
5. Cervical incompetence: This is a condition where the cervix begins to open prematurely during pregnancy, leading to a risk of miscarriage or preterm labor.

It's important to note that regular screening and early detection can help prevent or manage many cervical diseases, including cervical cancer.

Papillomavirus E7 proteins are small, viral regulatory proteins encoded by the E7 gene in papillomaviruses (HPVs). These proteins play a crucial role in the life cycle of HPVs and are associated with the development of various types of cancer, most notably cervical cancer.

The E7 protein functions as a transcriptional activator and can bind to and degrade the retinoblastoma protein (pRb), which is a tumor suppressor. By binding to and inactivating pRb, E7 promotes the expression of genes required for cell cycle progression, leading to uncontrolled cell growth and proliferation.

E7 proteins are also capable of inducing genetic alterations, such as chromosomal instability and DNA damage, which can contribute to the development of cancer. Additionally, E7 has been shown to inhibit apoptosis (programmed cell death) and promote angiogenesis (the formation of new blood vessels), further contributing to tumor growth and progression.

Overall, Papillomavirus E7 proteins are important oncogenic factors that play a central role in the development of HPV-associated cancers.

'Condylomata Acuminata' is the medical term for genital warts, which are growths or bumps that appear on the genital area. They are caused by certain types of the human papillomavirus (HPV). Genital warts can vary in appearance, and they may be small, flat, and difficult to see or large, cauliflower-like, and easily visible.

The warts can appear on the vulva, vagina, cervix, rectum, anus, penis, or scrotum. They are usually painless but can cause discomfort during sexual intercourse. In some cases, genital warts can lead to serious health problems, such as cervical cancer in women.

It is important to note that not all people with HPV will develop genital warts, and many people with HPV are asymptomatic and unaware they have the virus. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) recommends routine HPV vaccination for both boys and girls aged 11-12 years to prevent HPV infection and related diseases, including genital warts.

Viral DNA refers to the genetic material present in viruses that consist of DNA as their core component. Deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) is one of the two types of nucleic acids that are responsible for storing and transmitting genetic information in living organisms. Viruses are infectious agents much smaller than bacteria that can only replicate inside the cells of other organisms, called hosts.

Viral DNA can be double-stranded (dsDNA) or single-stranded (ssDNA), depending on the type of virus. Double-stranded DNA viruses have a genome made up of two complementary strands of DNA, while single-stranded DNA viruses contain only one strand of DNA.

Examples of dsDNA viruses include Adenoviruses, Herpesviruses, and Poxviruses, while ssDNA viruses include Parvoviruses and Circoviruses. Viral DNA plays a crucial role in the replication cycle of the virus, encoding for various proteins necessary for its multiplication and survival within the host cell.

Oncogene proteins, viral, are cancer-causing proteins that are encoded by the genetic material (DNA or RNA) of certain viruses. These viral oncogenes can be acquired through infection with retroviruses, such as human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), human T-cell leukemia virus (HTLV), and certain types of papillomaviruses and polyomaviruses.

When these viruses infect host cells, they can integrate their genetic material into the host cell's genome, leading to the expression of viral oncogenes. These oncogenes may then cause uncontrolled cell growth and division, ultimately resulting in the formation of tumors or cancers. The process by which viruses contribute to cancer development is complex and involves multiple steps, including the alteration of signaling pathways that regulate cell proliferation, differentiation, and survival.

Examples of viral oncogenes include the v-src gene found in the Rous sarcoma virus (RSV), which causes chicken sarcoma, and the E6 and E7 genes found in human papillomaviruses (HPVs), which are associated with cervical cancer and other anogenital cancers. Understanding viral oncogenes and their mechanisms of action is crucial for developing effective strategies to prevent and treat virus-associated cancers.

Cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN) is a term used to describe the abnormal growth and development of cells on the surface of the cervix. These changes are usually caused by human papillomavirus (HPV) infection, which is a common sexually transmitted infection. CIN is not cancer, but it can develop into cancer if left untreated.

The term "intraepithelial" refers to the fact that the abnormal cells are found in the epithelium, or the lining of the cervix. The term "neoplasia" means abnormal growth or development of cells. CIN is further classified into three grades based on the severity of the cell changes:

* CIN 1: Mild dysplasia (abnormal cell growth) affecting the lower third of the epithelium.
* CIN 2: Moderate dysplasia affecting the lower two-thirds of the epithelium.
* CIN 3: Severe dysplasia or carcinoma in situ, which means that the abnormal cells are found in the full thickness of the epithelium and have a high risk of progressing to invasive cancer if not treated.

It's important to note that CIN can regress on its own without treatment, especially in younger women. However, some cases may progress to invasive cervical cancer if left untreated. Regular Pap testing is recommended to detect and monitor any abnormal cell changes in the cervix. If CIN is detected, further diagnostic procedures such as a colposcopy or biopsy may be performed to determine the extent of the abnormality and guide treatment decisions.

Human papillomavirus type 11 (HPV-11) is a specific type of human papillomavirus that is known to cause benign, or noncancerous, growths called papillomas or warts on the skin and mucous membranes. HPV-11 is one of several types of HPV that are classified as low-risk because they are rarely associated with cancer.

HPV-11 is primarily transmitted through sexual contact and can infect the genital area, leading to the development of genital warts. In some cases, HPV-11 infection may also cause respiratory papillomatosis, a rare condition in which benign growths develop in the airways, including the throat and lungs.

HPV-11 is preventable through vaccination with the human papillomavirus vaccine, which protects against several low-risk and high-risk types of HPV. It is important to note that while HPV-11 is not associated with cancer, other high-risk types of HPV can cause cervical, anal, and oral cancers, so vaccination is still recommended for individuals who are sexually active or plan to become sexually active.

The cervix uteri, often simply referred to as the cervix, is the lower part of the uterus (womb) that connects to the vagina. It has an opening called the external os through which menstrual blood exits the uterus and sperm enters during sexual intercourse. During childbirth, the cervix dilates or opens to allow for the passage of the baby through the birth canal.

The anus is the opening at the end of the digestive tract where feces are eliminated from the body. There are several diseases and conditions that can affect the anus, including:

1. Anal fissure: A small tear in the lining of the anus, which can cause pain and bleeding during bowel movements.
2. Hemorrhoids: Swollen veins in the rectum or anus that can cause discomfort, itching, and bleeding.
3. Perianal abscess: A collection of pus in the tissue surrounding the anus, which can cause pain, swelling, and redness.
4. Anal fistula: An abnormal connection between the anal canal and the skin around the anus, often resulting from a perianal abscess that did not heal properly.
5. Anal cancer: A rare form of cancer that develops in the cells lining the anus, usually affecting people over the age of 50.
6. Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD): A group of chronic inflammatory conditions of the intestine, including Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis, which can affect the anus and cause symptoms such as pain, bleeding, and diarrhea.
7. Sexually transmitted infections (STIs): Certain STIs, such as herpes simplex virus, chlamydia, gonorrhea, and syphilis, can affect the anus and cause symptoms such as pain, discharge, and sores.
8. Fecal incontinence: The involuntary loss of bowel control, which can be caused by nerve damage, muscle weakness, or other medical conditions affecting the anus.

A vaginal smear, also known as a Pap test or Pap smear, is a medical procedure in which a sample of cells is collected from the cervix (the lower part of the uterus that opens into the vagina) and examined under a microscope. The purpose of this test is to detect abnormal cells, including precancerous changes, that may indicate the presence of cervical cancer or other conditions such as infections or inflammation.

During the procedure, a speculum is inserted into the vagina to allow the healthcare provider to visualize the cervix. A spatula or brush is then used to gently scrape cells from the surface of the cervix. The sample is spread onto a microscope slide and sent to a laboratory for analysis.

Regular Pap smears are recommended for women as part of their routine healthcare, as they can help detect abnormalities at an early stage when they are more easily treated. The frequency of Pap smears may vary depending on age, medical history, and other factors. It is important to follow the recommendations of a healthcare provider regarding the timing and frequency of Pap smears.

Cottontail rabbit papillomavirus (CRPV) is a type of virus that belongs to the family Papovaviridae and the genus *Alpha papillomavirus*. It primarily infects cottontail rabbits, causing the development of warts or papillomas on their skin. These growths are typically found on the ears, face, and genital areas of the rabbits.

The CRPV virus is transmitted through direct contact with an infected rabbit or through contaminated environments. The virus enters the body through small cuts or abrasions in the skin and infects the epithelial cells, leading to the development of warts.

While CRPV primarily affects cottontail rabbits, it has been used as a model system for studying papillomavirus infections and related diseases in humans. The virus shares many similarities with human papillomaviruses (HPVs), including the ability to cause cancer in certain circumstances.

It is important to note that CRPV is not a threat to humans or other animals outside of its natural host range, which includes cottontail rabbits.

Warts are small, rough growths on the skin or mucous membranes caused by one of several types of human papillomavirus (HPV). They can appear anywhere on the body but most often occur on the hands, fingers, and feet. Warts are benign, non-cancerous growths, but they can be unsightly, uncomfortable, or painful, depending on their location and size.

Warts are caused by HPV infecting the top layer of skin, usually through a small cut or scratch. The virus triggers an overproduction of keratin, a protein in the skin, leading to the formation of a hard, rough growth. Warts can vary in appearance depending on their location and type, but they are generally round or irregularly shaped, with a rough surface that may be flat or slightly raised. They may also contain small black dots, which are actually tiny blood vessels that have clotted.

Warts are contagious and can spread from person to person through direct skin-to-skin contact or by sharing personal items such as towels or razors. They can also be spread by touching a wart and then touching another part of the body. Warts may take several months to develop after exposure to HPV, so it may not always be clear when or how they were contracted.

There are several types of warts, including common warts, plantar warts (which occur on the soles of the feet), flat warts (which are smaller and smoother than other types of warts), and genital warts (which are sexually transmitted). While most warts are harmless and will eventually go away on their own, some may require medical treatment if they are causing discomfort or are unsightly. Treatment options for warts include topical medications, cryotherapy (freezing the wart with liquid nitrogen), and surgical removal.

Human papillomavirus 6 (HPV-6) is a type of human papillomavirus (HPV), which is a double-stranded DNA virus belonging to the Papillomaviridae family. HPV-6 is one of the low-risk types of HPV that primarily causes benign, self-limiting epithelial lesions, such as genital warts (condyloma acuminata) and respiratory papillomas.

HPV-6 is sexually transmitted and can infect both males and females. Infection with HPV-6 may not always cause symptoms or noticeable lesions, but when it does, the most common manifestation is genital warts. These warts can appear as small, flesh-colored bumps or growths on the genitals, anus, or surrounding skin. They can be flat or raised, single or multiple, and sometimes cluster together in a cauliflower-like shape.

Although HPV-6 is generally considered low risk, it has been associated with rare cases of recurrent respiratory papillomatosis (RRP), a condition characterized by the growth of benign tumors in the respiratory tract. RRP can cause hoarseness, noisy breathing, and difficulty swallowing, and may require surgical intervention to manage.

Preventive measures against HPV-6 include vaccination with approved HPV vaccines (Gardasil and Gardasil 9) that protect against HPV-6, as well as other low-risk and high-risk types of HPV. Safe sexual practices, such as using condoms, can also reduce the risk of transmission but do not provide complete protection since HPV can infect areas not covered by condoms.

DNA probes for HPV (Human Papillomavirus) are specific DNA sequences that are used in diagnostic tests to detect and identify the presence of HPV DNA in a sample. HPV is a viral infection that can cause various types of cancer, including cervical, anal, and oropharyngeal cancers.

DNA probes for HPV work by binding to complementary sequences of HPV DNA in the sample. This binding can be detected and measured using various methods, such as hybridization, amplification, or labeling techniques. The use of DNA probes for HPV can help identify the specific type of HPV that is present in a sample, which can inform clinical management and treatment decisions.

It's important to note that not all HPV infections lead to cancer, and most HPV infections resolve on their own without causing any harm. However, certain high-risk types of HPV are more strongly associated with an increased risk of developing cancer, so identifying the presence and type of HPV infection can be useful for monitoring and managing patients who may be at higher risk.

Sexually Transmitted Diseases (STDs) are infections that can be passed from one person to another through sexual contact. When focusing on viral STDs, these are infections caused by viruses that can be spread through sexual contact including vaginal, anal, and oral sex. Some common examples of viral STDs include HIV/AIDS, genital herpes, human papillomavirus (HPV), hepatitis B, and genital warts. These viral infections can lead to serious health complications if not diagnosed and treated promptly. It's important to note that some viral STDs may not have noticeable symptoms, but can still be passed on to sexual partners and cause long-term health problems.

A papilloma is a benign (noncancerous) tumor that grows on a stalk, often appearing as a small cauliflower-like growth. It can develop in various parts of the body, but when it occurs in the mucous membranes lining the respiratory, digestive, or genitourinary tracts, they are called squamous papillomas. The most common type is the skin papilloma, which includes warts. They are usually caused by human papillomavirus (HPV) infection and can be removed through various medical procedures if they become problematic or unsightly.

A Human Papillomavirus (HPV) DNA test is a molecular diagnostic assay used to detect the presence or absence of DNA from high-risk types of HPV in cervical or anal samples. High-risk HPV types are those most strongly associated with an increased risk for developing cervical cancer and other anogenital cancers.

HPV DNA tests typically use polymerase chain reaction (PCR) or other nucleic acid amplification techniques to detect and quantify the viral DNA in clinical samples. These tests can help identify women at higher risk for cervical precancer or cancer, particularly when combined with cytology results from a Pap test.

HPV DNA testing is recommended as a primary screening method for cervical cancer in certain populations or as a follow-up test to abnormal Pap test results. It's important to note that HPV DNA tests do not diagnose cervical precancer or cancer but rather identify the presence of high-risk HPV types, which may increase the risk of developing these conditions over time.

The Papanicolaou (Pap) test, also known as the Pap smear, is a screening procedure for detecting precancerous and cancerous cells in the cervix. It involves collecting cells from the cervix and examining them under a microscope to look for any abnormalities. The test is typically recommended for women aged 21-65 as part of routine pelvic exams, with the frequency depending on age and risk factors.

The Pap test was developed by Georgios Papanikolaou in the early 20th century and has since become a widely used and important tool in preventing cervical cancer. The test is usually performed in a healthcare provider's office and takes only a few minutes to complete. It is a relatively simple, safe, and painless procedure that can help detect cervical abnormalities at an early stage, when they are most treatable.

Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) is a laboratory technique used to amplify specific regions of DNA. It enables the production of thousands to millions of copies of a particular DNA sequence in a rapid and efficient manner, making it an essential tool in various fields such as molecular biology, medical diagnostics, forensic science, and research.

The PCR process involves repeated cycles of heating and cooling to separate the DNA strands, allow primers (short sequences of single-stranded DNA) to attach to the target regions, and extend these primers using an enzyme called Taq polymerase, resulting in the exponential amplification of the desired DNA segment.

In a medical context, PCR is often used for detecting and quantifying specific pathogens (viruses, bacteria, fungi, or parasites) in clinical samples, identifying genetic mutations or polymorphisms associated with diseases, monitoring disease progression, and evaluating treatment effectiveness.

Uterine cervical dysplasia is a condition characterized by abnormal cell growth on the lining of the cervix, which is the lower part of the uterus that connects to the vagina. It is also known as cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN).

Cervical dysplasia can be caused by certain strains of human papillomavirus (HPV), a common sexually transmitted infection. The abnormal cells may develop into cancerous cells over time, although not all cases of cervical dysplasia will progress to cancer.

Cervical dysplasia is typically detected through a Pap test or HPV test, which are screening tests used to detect precancerous changes in the cervix. Depending on the severity and extent of the abnormal cells, treatment options may include close monitoring, surgical removal of the affected tissue, or more extensive surgery.

It is important for women to receive regular Pap tests and HPV tests as recommended by their healthcare provider to detect and treat cervical dysplasia early, before it has a chance to progress to cancer.

I apologize, but "Costa Rica" is not a medical term or concept. Costa Rica is a country located in Central America, known for its rich biodiversity and progressive environmental policies. If you have any questions related to medicine or health, I would be happy to try and help answer those for you.

Prevalence, in medical terms, refers to the total number of people in a given population who have a particular disease or condition at a specific point in time, or over a specified period. It is typically expressed as a percentage or a ratio of the number of cases to the size of the population. Prevalence differs from incidence, which measures the number of new cases that develop during a certain period.

Anus neoplasms refer to abnormal growths or tumors in the anus, which is the opening at the end of the digestive tract where solid waste leaves the body. These growths can be benign (non-cancerous) or malignant (cancerous). Common types of anus neoplasms include squamous cell carcinoma, adenocarcinoma, and melanoma.

Squamous cell carcinoma is the most common type of anus cancer, accounting for about 80% of all cases. It begins in the squamous cells that line the anal canal and can spread to other parts of the body if left untreated.

Adenocarcinoma is a less common type of anus cancer that arises from glandular cells in the anus. This type of cancer is often associated with long-standing inflammatory conditions, such as anal fistulas or ulcerative colitis.

Melanoma is a rare form of skin cancer that can also occur in the anus. It develops from pigment-producing cells called melanocytes and tends to be aggressive with a high risk of spreading to other parts of the body.

Other less common types of anus neoplasms include basal cell carcinoma, sarcoma, and lymphoma. Treatment options for anus neoplasms depend on the type, stage, and location of the tumor, as well as the patient's overall health.

Sexual behavior refers to any physical or emotional interaction that has the potential to lead to sexual arousal and/or satisfaction. This can include a wide range of activities, such as kissing, touching, fondling, oral sex, vaginal sex, anal sex, and masturbation. It can also involve the use of sexual aids, such as vibrators or pornography.

Sexual behavior is influenced by a variety of factors, including biological, psychological, social, and cultural influences. It is an important aspect of human development and relationships, and it is essential to healthy sexual functioning and satisfaction. However, sexual behavior can also be associated with risks, such as sexually transmitted infections (STIs) and unintended pregnancies, and it is important for individuals to engage in safe and responsible sexual practices.

It's important to note that sexual behavior can vary widely among individuals and cultures, and what may be considered normal or acceptable in one culture or context may not be in another. It's also important to recognize that all individuals have the right to make informed decisions about their own sexual behavior and to have their sexual rights and autonomy respected.

Squamous cell carcinoma is a type of skin cancer that begins in the squamous cells, which are flat, thin cells that form the outer layer of the skin (epidermis). It commonly occurs on sun-exposed areas such as the face, ears, lips, and backs of the hands. Squamous cell carcinoma can also develop in other areas of the body including the mouth, lungs, and cervix.

This type of cancer usually develops slowly and may appear as a rough or scaly patch of skin, a red, firm nodule, or a sore or ulcer that doesn't heal. While squamous cell carcinoma is not as aggressive as some other types of cancer, it can metastasize (spread) to other parts of the body if left untreated, making early detection and treatment important.

Risk factors for developing squamous cell carcinoma include prolonged exposure to ultraviolet (UV) radiation from the sun or tanning beds, fair skin, a history of sunburns, a weakened immune system, and older age. Prevention measures include protecting your skin from the sun by wearing protective clothing, using a broad-spectrum sunscreen with an SPF of at least 30, avoiding tanning beds, and getting regular skin examinations.

Genital neoplasms in males refer to abnormal growths or tumors that develop in the male reproductive organs. These can be benign (non-cancerous) or malignant (cancerous).

Malignant genital neoplasms are often referred to as genital cancers. The most common types of male genital cancers include:

1. Penile Cancer: This occurs when cancer cells form in the tissues of the penis.
2. Testicular Cancer: This forms in the testicles (testes), which are located inside the scrotum.
3. Prostate Cancer: This is a common cancer in men, forming in the prostate gland, which is part of the male reproductive system that helps make semen.
4. Scrotal Cancer: This is a rare form of cancer that forms in the skin or tissue of the scrotum.
5. Penile Intraepithelial Neoplasia (PeIN): This is not cancer, but it is considered a pre-cancerous condition of the penis.

Early detection and treatment of genital neoplasms can significantly improve the prognosis. Regular self-examinations and medical check-ups are recommended, especially for individuals with risk factors such as smoking, HIV infection, or a family history of these cancers.

Penile diseases refer to a range of medical conditions that affect the penis, including infections, inflammatory conditions, and structural abnormalities. Some common penile diseases include:

1. Balanitis: an infection or inflammation of the foreskin and/or head of the penis.
2. Balanoposthitis: an infection or inflammation of both the foreskin and the head of the penis.
3. Phimosis: a condition in which the foreskin is too tight to be pulled back over the head of the penis.
4. Paraphimosis: a medical emergency in which the foreskin becomes trapped behind the head of the penis and cannot be returned to its normal position.
5. Peyronie's disease: a condition characterized by the development of scar tissue inside the penis, leading to curvature during erections.
6. Erectile dysfunction: the inability to achieve or maintain an erection sufficient for sexual intercourse.
7. Penile cancer: a rare form of cancer that affects the skin and tissues of the penis.

These conditions can have various causes, including bacterial or fungal infections, sexually transmitted infections (STIs), skin conditions, trauma, or underlying medical conditions. Treatment for penile diseases varies depending on the specific condition and its severity, but may include medications, surgery, or lifestyle changes.

Oropharyngeal neoplasms refer to abnormal growths or tumors in the oropharynx, which is the middle part of the pharynx (throat) that includes the back one-third of the tongue, the soft palate, the side and back walls of the throat, and the tonsils. These neoplasms can be benign (non-cancerous) or malignant (cancerous). Oropharyngeal cancer is a significant global health concern, with squamous cell carcinoma being the most common type of malignant neoplasm in this region. The primary risk factors for oropharyngeal cancers include tobacco use, alcohol consumption, and human papillomavirus (HPV) infection. Early detection and treatment are crucial for improving outcomes and survival rates.

Medical Definition:

"Risk factors" are any attribute, characteristic or exposure of an individual that increases the likelihood of developing a disease or injury. They can be divided into modifiable and non-modifiable risk factors. Modifiable risk factors are those that can be changed through lifestyle choices or medical treatment, while non-modifiable risk factors are inherent traits such as age, gender, or genetic predisposition. Examples of modifiable risk factors include smoking, alcohol consumption, physical inactivity, and unhealthy diet, while non-modifiable risk factors include age, sex, and family history. It is important to note that having a risk factor does not guarantee that a person will develop the disease, but rather indicates an increased susceptibility.

Bovine Papillomavirus 4 (BPV-4) is a species of papillomavirus that primarily infects cattle, causing benign warts and papillomas in the skin and mucous membranes. It is not known to infect humans or play a role in human health. BPV-4, like other papillomaviruses, contains a circular double-stranded DNA genome and replicates in the nucleus of infected host cells.

It's worth noting that while BPV-4 is not a human pathogen, related papillomaviruses are known to cause various types of cancer in humans, including cervical, anal, penile, and oropharyngeal cancers. Research on BPV-4 and other animal papillomaviruses has contributed significantly to our understanding of the biology and pathogenesis of human papillomaviruses (HPVs).

Human papillomavirus 31 (HPV31) is a specific type of human papillomavirus (HPV), which is a DNA virus that infects the skin and mucous membranes. HPV31 is one of the high-risk types of HPV, meaning it has a higher association with the development of certain cancers, particularly cervical cancer.

HPV31, like other HPV types, can cause various clinical manifestations, such as anogenital warts and precancerous lesions in the cervix, anus, vulva, vagina, and penis. Infection with HPV31 may lead to abnormal Pap test results and potentially increase the risk of developing cervical cancer if left untreated.

Prevention strategies include HPV vaccination, which protects against several high-risk types of HPV, including HPV31. Regular screening for cervical cancer through Pap tests and, when necessary, HPV testing is also crucial in early detection and treatment of precancerous lesions caused by HPV infections.

The anal canal is the terminal portion of the digestive tract, located between the rectum and the anus. It is a short tube-like structure that is about 1 to 1.5 inches long in adults. The main function of the anal canal is to provide a seal for the elimination of feces from the body while also preventing the leakage of intestinal contents.

The inner lining of the anal canal is called the mucosa, which is kept moist by the production of mucus. The walls of the anal canal contain specialized muscles that help control the passage of stool during bowel movements. These muscles include the internal and external sphincters, which work together to maintain continence and allow for the voluntary release of feces.

The anal canal is an important part of the digestive system and plays a critical role in maintaining bowel function and overall health.

Colposcopy is a medical procedure in which a colposcope, which is a type of microscope, is used to examine the cervix, vagina, and vulva for signs of disease or abnormalities. The colposcope allows the healthcare provider to see these areas in greater detail than is possible with the naked eye. During the procedure, the provider may take a small sample of tissue (biopsy) for further examination under a microscope.

Colposcopy is often used to investigate abnormal Pap test results or to follow up on women who have been diagnosed with certain types of cervical dysplasia (abnormal cell growth). It can also be used to diagnose and monitor other conditions, such as genital warts, inflammation, or cancer.

It is important to note that colposcopy is a diagnostic procedure and not a treatment. If abnormalities are found during the exam, additional procedures may be necessary to remove or treat them.

Genital diseases in males refer to various medical conditions that affect the male reproductive and urinary systems, including the penis, testicles, epididymis, vas deferens, seminal vesicles, prostate, and urethra. These conditions can be infectious, inflammatory, degenerative, or neoplastic (cancerous) in nature. Some common examples of male genital diseases include:

1. Balanitis: Inflammation of the foreskin and glans penis, often caused by infection, irritants, or poor hygiene.
2. Prostatitis: Inflammation of the prostate gland, which can be acute or chronic, bacterial or non-bacterial in origin.
3. Epididymitis: Inflammation of the epididymis, a coiled tube at the back of the testicle that stores and carries sperm. It is often caused by infection.
4. Orchitis: Inflammation of the testicle, usually resulting from infection or autoimmune disorders.
5. Testicular torsion: A surgical emergency characterized by twisting of the spermatic cord, leading to reduced blood flow and potential tissue damage in the testicle.
6. Varicocele: Dilated veins in the scrotum that can cause pain, discomfort, or fertility issues.
7. Peyronie's disease: A connective tissue disorder causing scarring and curvature of the penis during erections.
8. Penile cancer: Malignant growths on the penis, often squamous cell carcinomas, which can spread to other parts of the body if left untreated.
9. Benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH): Non-cancerous enlargement of the prostate gland that can cause lower urinary tract symptoms such as difficulty initiating or maintaining a steady stream of urine.
10. Sexually transmitted infections (STIs): Infectious diseases, like chlamydia, gonorrhea, syphilis, and human papillomavirus (HPV), that can be transmitted through sexual contact and affect the male genital region.

Capsid proteins are the structural proteins that make up the capsid, which is the protective shell of a virus. The capsid encloses the viral genome and helps to protect it from degradation and detection by the host's immune system. Capsid proteins are typically arranged in a symmetrical pattern and can self-assemble into the capsid structure when exposed to the viral genome.

The specific arrangement and composition of capsid proteins vary between different types of viruses, and they play important roles in the virus's life cycle, including recognition and binding to host cells, entry into the cell, and release of the viral genome into the host cytoplasm. Capsid proteins can also serve as targets for antiviral therapies and vaccines.

Betapapillomavirus is a type of human papillomavirus (HPV) that primarily infects the skin, particularly the flat, dry areas known as the cutaneous epithelium. This genus of HPV is not typically associated with cancers or genital warts, unlike other high-risk HPV types. However, some betapapillomavirus types have been linked to benign skin growths called epidermodysplasia verruciformis (EV) lesions, which can develop into squamous cell carcinomas in immunocompromised individuals.

It is important to note that there are more than 200 known types of HPV, and they are classified into different genera based on their genetic similarities. Betapapillomaviruses belong to the genus Beta-Papillomavirus, which includes at least 49 distinct types. Some common examples of betapapillomaviruses include HPV types 5, 8, 17, 20, 23, and 41.

Research into the epidemiology, risk factors, and clinical implications of various HPV types is ongoing, as understanding the role of these viruses in human health and disease can help inform prevention strategies and treatment approaches.

Male circumcision is a surgical procedure to remove the foreskin, which is the skin that covers the head (glans) of the penis. In some cultures and religions, male circumcision is performed as a religious rite or cultural tradition. In other cases, it may be recommended for medical reasons, such as to treat phimosis (a condition in which the foreskin is too tight to be pulled back over the glans) or to reduce the risk of sexually transmitted infections and other conditions. The procedure is typically performed on infants or young boys, but it can also be done on older males.

Vulvar neoplasms refer to abnormal growths or tumors in the vulvar region, which is the exterior female genital area including the mons pubis, labia majora, labia minora, clitoris, and the vaginal vestibule. These neoplasms can be benign (non-cancerous) or malignant (cancerous).

Benign vulvar neoplasms may include conditions such as vulvar cysts, fibromas, lipomas, or condylomas (genital warts). They are typically slow-growing and less likely to spread or invade surrounding tissues.

Malignant vulvar neoplasms, on the other hand, are cancers that can invade nearby tissues and potentially metastasize (spread) to distant parts of the body. The most common types of malignant vulvar neoplasms are squamous cell carcinoma, vulvar melanoma, and adenocarcinoma.

Early detection and treatment of vulvar neoplasms are essential for improving prognosis and reducing the risk of complications or recurrence. Regular gynecological examinations, self-examinations, and prompt attention to any unusual symptoms or changes in the vulvar area can help ensure timely diagnosis and management.

Mouth diseases refer to a variety of conditions that affect the oral cavity, including the lips, gums, teeth, tongue, palate, and lining of the mouth. These diseases can be caused by bacteria, viruses, fungi, or other organisms. They can also result from injuries, chronic illnesses, or genetic factors.

Some common examples of mouth diseases include dental caries (cavities), periodontal disease (gum disease), oral herpes, candidiasis (thrush), lichen planus, and oral cancer. Symptoms may include pain, swelling, redness, bleeding, bad breath, difficulty swallowing or speaking, and changes in the appearance of the mouth or teeth. Treatment depends on the specific diagnosis and may involve medications, dental procedures, or lifestyle changes.

A precancerous condition, also known as a premalignant condition, is a state of abnormal cellular growth and development that has a higher-than-normal potential to progress into cancer. These conditions are characterized by the presence of certain anomalies in the cells, such as dysplasia (abnormal changes in cell shape or size), which can indicate an increased risk for malignant transformation.

It is important to note that not all precancerous conditions will eventually develop into cancer, and some may even regress on their own. However, individuals with precancerous conditions are often at a higher risk of developing cancer compared to the general population. Regular monitoring and appropriate medical interventions, if necessary, can help manage this risk and potentially prevent or detect cancer at an early stage when it is more treatable.

Examples of precancerous conditions include:

1. Dysplasia in the cervix (cervical intraepithelial neoplasia or CIN)
2. Atypical ductal hyperplasia or lobular hyperplasia in the breast
3. Actinic keratosis on the skin
4. Leukoplakia in the mouth
5. Barrett's esophagus in the digestive tract

Regular medical check-ups, screenings, and lifestyle modifications are crucial for individuals with precancerous conditions to monitor their health and reduce the risk of cancer development.

The penis is a part of the male reproductive and urinary systems. It has three parts: the root, the body, and the glans. The root attaches to the pelvic bone and the body makes up the majority of the free-hanging portion. The glans is the cone-shaped end that protects the urethra, the tube inside the penis that carries urine from the bladder and semen from the testicles.

The penis has a dual function - it acts as a conduit for both urine and semen. During sexual arousal, the penis becomes erect when blood fills two chambers inside its shaft. This process is facilitated by the relaxation of the smooth muscles in the arterial walls and the trappping of blood in the corpora cavernosa. The stiffness of the penis enables sexual intercourse. After ejaculation, or when the sexual arousal passes, the muscles contract and the blood flows out of the penis back into the body, causing it to become flaccid again.

The foreskin, a layer of skin that covers the glans, is sometimes removed in a procedure called circumcision. Circumcision is often performed for religious or cultural reasons, or as a matter of family custom. In some countries, it's also done for medical reasons, such as to treat conditions like phimosis (an inability to retract the foreskin) or balanitis (inflammation of the glans).

It's important to note that any changes in appearance, size, or function of the penis should be evaluated by a healthcare professional, as they could indicate an underlying medical condition.

Carcinoma in situ is a medical term used to describe the earliest stage of cancer, specifically a type of cancer that begins in the epithelial tissue, which is the tissue that lines the outer surfaces of organs and body structures. In this stage, the cancer cells are confined to the layer of cells where they first developed and have not spread beyond that layer into the surrounding tissues or organs.

Carcinoma in situ can occur in various parts of the body, including the skin, cervix, breast, lung, prostate, bladder, and other areas. It is often detected through routine screening tests, such as Pap smears for cervical cancer or mammograms for breast cancer.

While carcinoma in situ is not invasive, it can still be a serious condition because it has the potential to develop into an invasive cancer if left untreated. Treatment options for carcinoma in situ may include surgery, radiation therapy, or other forms of treatment, depending on the location and type of cancer. It is important to consult with a healthcare provider to determine the best course of action for each individual case.

Squamous cell neoplasms are abnormal growths or tumors that originate from squamous cells, which are flat, scale-like cells that make up the outer layer of the skin and the lining of mucous membranes. These neoplasms can be benign (noncancerous) or malignant (cancerous). When malignant, they are called squamous cell carcinomas.

Squamous cell carcinomas often develop in areas exposed to excessive sunlight or ultraviolet radiation, such as the skin, lips, and mouth. They can also occur in other areas of the body, including the cervix, anus, and lungs. Risk factors for developing squamous cell carcinoma include fair skin, a history of sunburns, exposure to certain chemicals or radiation, and a weakened immune system.

Symptoms of squamous cell carcinomas may include rough or scaly patches on the skin, a sore that doesn't heal, a wart-like growth, or a raised bump with a central depression. Treatment for squamous cell carcinomas typically involves surgical removal of the tumor, along with radiation therapy or chemotherapy in some cases. Early detection and treatment can help prevent the spread of the cancer to other parts of the body.

Genotype, in genetics, refers to the complete heritable genetic makeup of an individual organism, including all of its genes. It is the set of instructions contained in an organism's DNA for the development and function of that organism. The genotype is the basis for an individual's inherited traits, and it can be contrasted with an individual's phenotype, which refers to the observable physical or biochemical characteristics of an organism that result from the expression of its genes in combination with environmental influences.

It is important to note that an individual's genotype is not necessarily identical to their genetic sequence. Some genes have multiple forms called alleles, and an individual may inherit different alleles for a given gene from each parent. The combination of alleles that an individual inherits for a particular gene is known as their genotype for that gene.

Understanding an individual's genotype can provide important information about their susceptibility to certain diseases, their response to drugs and other treatments, and their risk of passing on inherited genetic disorders to their offspring.

Vaginal diseases refer to various medical conditions that affect the vagina, which is the female reproductive organ that extends from the cervix (the lower part of the uterus) to the external part of the genitalia (vulva). These diseases can cause a range of symptoms, including discharge, itching, burning, pain, and discomfort. Some common vaginal diseases include:

1. Vaginitis: It is an inflammation or infection of the vagina that can cause abnormal discharge, itching, and irritation. The most common causes of vaginitis are bacterial vaginosis, yeast infections, and trichomoniasis.
2. Vulvovaginitis: It is an inflammation or infection of both the vagina and vulva that can cause redness, swelling, itching, and pain. The causes of vulvovaginitis are similar to those of vaginitis and include bacterial infections, yeast infections, and sexually transmitted infections (STIs).
3. Vaginal dryness: It is a common condition that affects many women, especially after menopause. It can cause discomfort during sexual intercourse and lead to other symptoms such as itching and burning.
4. Vaginal cysts: These are fluid-filled sacs that develop in the vagina due to various reasons, including inflammation, injury, or congenital abnormalities.
5. Vaginal cancer: It is a rare type of cancer that affects the vagina. The most common symptoms include abnormal vaginal bleeding, discharge, and pain during sexual intercourse.
6. Sexually transmitted infections (STIs): Several STIs, such as chlamydia, gonorrhea, genital herpes, and human papillomavirus (HPV), can affect the vagina and cause various symptoms, including discharge, pain, and sores.

It is essential to seek medical attention if you experience any symptoms of vaginal diseases to receive proper diagnosis and treatment.

In epidemiology, the incidence of a disease is defined as the number of new cases of that disease within a specific population over a certain period of time. It is typically expressed as a rate, with the number of new cases in the numerator and the size of the population at risk in the denominator. Incidence provides information about the risk of developing a disease during a given time period and can be used to compare disease rates between different populations or to monitor trends in disease occurrence over time.

Genital diseases in females refer to various medical conditions that affect the female reproductive system, including the vulva, vagina, cervix, uterus, and ovaries. These conditions can be caused by bacterial, viral, or fungal infections, hormonal imbalances, or structural abnormalities. Some common examples of genital diseases in females include bacterial vaginosis, yeast infections, sexually transmitted infections (STIs) such as chlamydia, gonorrhea, and human papillomavirus (HPV), pelvic inflammatory disease (PID), endometriosis, uterine fibroids, ovarian cysts, and vulvar or vaginal cancer. Symptoms of genital diseases in females can vary widely depending on the specific condition but may include abnormal vaginal discharge, pain or discomfort during sex, irregular menstrual bleeding, painful urination, and pelvic pain. It is important for women to receive regular gynecological care and screenings to detect and treat genital diseases early and prevent complications.

"Male genitalia" refers to the reproductive and sexual organs that are typically present in male individuals. These structures include:

1. Testes: A pair of oval-shaped glands located in the scrotum that produce sperm and testosterone.
2. Epididymis: A long, coiled tube that lies on the surface of each testicle where sperm matures and is stored.
3. Vas deferens: A pair of muscular tubes that transport sperm from the epididymis to the urethra.
4. Seminal vesicles: Glands that produce a fluid that mixes with sperm to create semen.
5. Prostate gland: A small gland that surrounds the urethra and produces a fluid that also mixes with sperm to create semen.
6. Bulbourethral glands (Cowper's glands): Two pea-sized glands that produce a lubricating fluid that is released into the urethra during sexual arousal.
7. Urethra: A tube that runs through the penis and carries urine from the bladder out of the body, as well as semen during ejaculation.
8. Penis: The external organ that serves as both a reproductive and excretory organ, expelling both semen and urine.

The scrotum is a part of the external male genitalia. It's a sac-like structure made up of several layers of skin and smooth muscle, which hangs down behind and beneath the penis. The primary function of the scrotum is to maintain the testicles at a temperature slightly lower than the core body temperature, which is optimal for sperm production.

The scrotum contains two compartments, each one housing a testicle. It's located in the pubic region and is usually visible externally. The skin of the scrotum is thin and wrinkled, which allows it to expand and contract depending on the temperature, accommodating the shrinking or swelling of the testicles.

Please note that while I strive to provide accurate information, this definition is intended to be a general overview and should not replace professional medical advice.

Antibodies, viral are proteins produced by the immune system in response to an infection with a virus. These antibodies are capable of recognizing and binding to specific antigens on the surface of the virus, which helps to neutralize or destroy the virus and prevent its replication. Once produced, these antibodies can provide immunity against future infections with the same virus.

Viral antibodies are typically composed of four polypeptide chains - two heavy chains and two light chains - that are held together by disulfide bonds. The binding site for the antigen is located at the tip of the Y-shaped structure, formed by the variable regions of the heavy and light chains.

There are five classes of antibodies in humans: IgA, IgD, IgE, IgG, and IgM. Each class has a different function and is distributed differently throughout the body. For example, IgG is the most common type of antibody found in the bloodstream and provides long-term immunity against viruses, while IgA is found primarily in mucous membranes and helps to protect against respiratory and gastrointestinal infections.

In addition to their role in the immune response, viral antibodies can also be used as diagnostic tools to detect the presence of a specific virus in a patient's blood or other bodily fluids.

A cohort study is a type of observational study in which a group of individuals who share a common characteristic or exposure are followed up over time to determine the incidence of a specific outcome or outcomes. The cohort, or group, is defined based on the exposure status (e.g., exposed vs. unexposed) and then monitored prospectively to assess for the development of new health events or conditions.

Cohort studies can be either prospective or retrospective in design. In a prospective cohort study, participants are enrolled and followed forward in time from the beginning of the study. In contrast, in a retrospective cohort study, researchers identify a cohort that has already been assembled through medical records, insurance claims, or other sources and then look back in time to assess exposure status and health outcomes.

Cohort studies are useful for establishing causality between an exposure and an outcome because they allow researchers to observe the temporal relationship between the two. They can also provide information on the incidence of a disease or condition in different populations, which can be used to inform public health policy and interventions. However, cohort studies can be expensive and time-consuming to conduct, and they may be subject to bias if participants are not representative of the population or if there is loss to follow-up.

Uterine cervicitis is a medical condition that refers to the inflammation of the uterine cervix, which is the lower part of the uterus that opens into the vagina. It can be caused by various factors, including bacterial or viral infections, allergies, or irritants. The symptoms of cervicitis may include abnormal vaginal discharge, pain during sexual intercourse, bleeding after sex, and irregular menstrual bleeding. In some cases, cervicitis may not cause any noticeable symptoms. If left untreated, cervicitis can increase the risk of developing more severe complications, such as pelvic inflammatory disease or infertility. Treatment for cervicitis typically involves antibiotics to eliminate any underlying infections and management of symptoms. Regular gynecological exams and Pap tests are essential for early detection and prevention of cervical diseases.

HIV seronegativity is a term used to describe a person who has tested negative for HIV (Human Immunodeficiency Virus) antibodies in their blood. This means that the individual does not show evidence of current or past infection with HIV, which can cause AIDS (Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome). However, it's important to note that there is a window period after initial infection during which a person may test negative for HIV antibodies, even though they are indeed infected. This window period typically lasts between 2-6 weeks but can extend up to 3 months in some cases. Therefore, if someone believes they have been exposed to HIV, they should consider getting tested again after this window period has passed.

Cytodiagnosis is the rapid, initial evaluation and diagnosis of a disease based on the examination of individual cells obtained from a body fluid or tissue sample. This technique is often used in cytopathology to investigate abnormalities such as lumps, bumps, or growths that may be caused by cancerous or benign conditions.

The process involves collecting cells through various methods like fine-needle aspiration (FNA), body fluids such as urine, sputum, or washings from the respiratory, gastrointestinal, or genitourinary tracts. The collected sample is then spread onto a microscope slide, stained, and examined under a microscope for abnormalities in cell size, shape, structure, and organization.

Cytodiagnosis can provide crucial information to guide further diagnostic procedures and treatment plans. It is often used as an initial screening tool due to its speed, simplicity, and cost-effectiveness compared to traditional histopathological methods that require tissue biopsy and more extensive processing. However, cytodiagnosis may not always be able to distinguish between benign and malignant conditions definitively; therefore, additional tests or follow-up evaluations might be necessary for a conclusive diagnosis.

Laryngeal neoplasms refer to abnormal growths or tumors in the larynx, also known as the voice box. These growths can be benign (non-cancerous) or malignant (cancerous). Laryngeal neoplasms can affect any part of the larynx, including the vocal cords, epiglottis, and the area around the vocal cords called the ventricle.

Benign laryngeal neoplasms may include papillomas, hemangiomas, or polyps. Malignant laryngeal neoplasms are typically squamous cell carcinomas, which account for more than 95% of all malignant laryngeal tumors. Other types of malignant laryngeal neoplasms include adenocarcinoma, sarcoma, and lymphoma.

Risk factors for developing laryngeal neoplasms include smoking, alcohol consumption, exposure to industrial chemicals, and a history of acid reflux. Symptoms may include hoarseness, difficulty swallowing, sore throat, ear pain, or a lump in the neck. Treatment options depend on the type, size, location, and stage of the neoplasm but may include surgery, radiation therapy, chemotherapy, or a combination of these treatments.

Reproductive Tract Infections (RTIs) refer to infections that are localized in the reproductive organs, including the vagina, cervix, uterus, fallopian tubes, ovaries, and prostate gland. These infections can be caused by various microorganisms such as bacteria, viruses, fungi, or parasites.

RTIs can lead to a range of complications, including pelvic inflammatory disease (PID), ectopic pregnancy, infertility, and increased risk of HIV transmission. They can also cause symptoms such as abnormal vaginal discharge, pain during sexual intercourse, irregular menstrual bleeding, and lower abdominal pain.

RTIs are often sexually transmitted but can also be caused by other factors such as poor hygiene, use of intrauterine devices (IUDs), and invasive gynecological procedures. Prevention measures include safe sexual practices, good personal hygiene, and timely treatment of infections.

Molecular sequence data refers to the specific arrangement of molecules, most commonly nucleotides in DNA or RNA, or amino acids in proteins, that make up a biological macromolecule. This data is generated through laboratory techniques such as sequencing, and provides information about the exact order of the constituent molecules. This data is crucial in various fields of biology, including genetics, evolution, and molecular biology, allowing for comparisons between different organisms, identification of genetic variations, and studies of gene function and regulation.

A virion is the complete, infectious form of a virus outside its host cell. It consists of the viral genome (DNA or RNA) enclosed within a protein coat called the capsid, which is often surrounded by a lipid membrane called the envelope. The envelope may contain viral proteins and glycoproteins that aid in attachment to and entry into host cells during infection. The term "virion" emphasizes the infectious nature of the virus particle, as opposed to non-infectious components like individual capsid proteins or naked viral genome.

In medical terminology, "sexual partners" refers to individuals who engage in sexual activity with each other. This can include various forms of sexual contact, such as vaginal, anal, or oral sex. The term is often used in the context of discussing sexual health and the transmission of sexually transmitted infections (STIs). It's important to note that full disclosure of sexual partners to healthcare providers can help in diagnosing and treating STIs, as well as in understanding an individual's sexual health history.

Sexually Transmitted Diseases (STDs), also known as Sexually Transmitted Infections (STIs), are a group of diseases or infections that spread primarily through sexual contact, including vaginal, oral, and anal sex. They can also be transmitted through non-sexual means such as mother-to-child transmission during childbirth or breastfeeding, or via shared needles.

STDs can cause a range of symptoms, from mild to severe, and some may not show any symptoms at all. Common STDs include chlamydia, gonorrhea, syphilis, HIV/AIDS, human papillomavirus (HPV), herpes simplex virus (HSV), hepatitis B, and pubic lice.

If left untreated, some STDs can lead to serious health complications, such as infertility, organ damage, blindness, or even death. It is important to practice safe sex and get regular screenings for STDs if you are sexually active, especially if you have multiple partners or engage in high-risk behaviors.

Preventive measures include using barrier methods of protection, such as condoms, dental dams, and female condoms, getting vaccinated against HPV and hepatitis B, and limiting the number of sexual partners. If you suspect that you may have an STD, it is important to seek medical attention promptly for diagnosis and treatment.

A viral vaccine is a biological preparation that introduces your body to a specific virus in a way that helps your immune system build up protection against the virus without causing the illness. Viral vaccines can be made from weakened or inactivated forms of the virus, or parts of the virus such as proteins or sugars. Once introduced to the body, the immune system recognizes the virus as foreign and produces an immune response, including the production of antibodies. These antibodies remain in the body and provide immunity against future infection with that specific virus.

Viral vaccines are important tools for preventing infectious diseases caused by viruses, such as influenza, measles, mumps, rubella, polio, hepatitis A and B, rabies, rotavirus, chickenpox, shingles, and some types of cancer. Vaccination programs have led to the control or elimination of many infectious diseases that were once common.

It's important to note that viral vaccines are not effective against bacterial infections, and separate vaccines must be developed for each type of virus. Additionally, because viruses can mutate over time, it is necessary to update some viral vaccines periodically to ensure continued protection.

The vagina is the canal that joins the cervix (the lower part of the uterus) to the outside of the body. It also is known as the birth canal because babies pass through it during childbirth. The vagina is where sexual intercourse occurs and where menstrual blood exits the body. It has a flexible wall that can expand and retract. During sexual arousal, the vaginal walls swell with blood to become more elastic in order to accommodate penetration.

It's important to note that sometimes people use the term "vagina" to refer to the entire female genital area, including the external structures like the labia and clitoris. But technically, these are considered part of the vulva, not the vagina.

Coinfection is a term used in medicine to describe a situation where a person is infected with more than one pathogen (infectious agent) at the same time. This can occur when a person is infected with two or more viruses, bacteria, parasites, or fungi. Coinfections can complicate the diagnosis and treatment of infectious diseases, as the symptoms of each infection can overlap and interact with each other.

Coinfections are common in certain populations, such as people who are immunocompromised, have chronic illnesses, or live in areas with high levels of infectious agents. For example, a person with HIV/AIDS may be more susceptible to coinfections with tuberculosis, hepatitis, or pneumocystis pneumonia. Similarly, a person who has recently undergone an organ transplant may be at risk for coinfections with cytomegalovirus, Epstein-Barr virus, or other opportunistic pathogens.

Coinfections can also occur in people who are otherwise healthy but are exposed to multiple infectious agents at once, such as through travel to areas with high levels of infectious diseases or through close contact with animals that carry infectious agents. For example, a person who travels to a tropical area may be at risk for coinfections with malaria and dengue fever, while a person who works on a farm may be at risk for coinfections with influenza and Q fever.

Effective treatment of coinfections requires accurate diagnosis and appropriate antimicrobial therapy for each pathogen involved. In some cases, treating one infection may help to resolve the other, but in other cases, both infections may need to be treated simultaneously to achieve a cure. Preventing coinfections is an important part of infectious disease control, and can be achieved through measures such as vaccination, use of personal protective equipment, and avoidance of high-risk behaviors.

Keratinocytes are the predominant type of cells found in the epidermis, which is the outermost layer of the skin. These cells are responsible for producing keratin, a tough protein that provides structural support and protection to the skin. Keratinocytes undergo constant turnover, with new cells produced in the basal layer of the epidermis and older cells moving upward and eventually becoming flattened and filled with keratin as they reach the surface of the skin, where they are then shed. They also play a role in the immune response and can release cytokines and other signaling molecules to help protect the body from infection and injury.

Skin neoplasms refer to abnormal growths or tumors in the skin that can be benign (non-cancerous) or malignant (cancerous). They result from uncontrolled multiplication of skin cells, which can form various types of lesions. These growths may appear as lumps, bumps, sores, patches, or discolored areas on the skin.

Benign skin neoplasms include conditions such as moles, warts, and seborrheic keratoses, while malignant skin neoplasms are primarily classified into melanoma, squamous cell carcinoma, and basal cell carcinoma. These three types of cancerous skin growths are collectively known as non-melanoma skin cancers (NMSCs). Melanoma is the most aggressive and dangerous form of skin cancer, while NMSCs tend to be less invasive but more common.

It's essential to monitor any changes in existing skin lesions or the appearance of new growths and consult a healthcare professional for proper evaluation and treatment if needed.

Penile neoplasms refer to abnormal growths or tumors in the penis. These can be benign (non-cancerous) or malignant (cancerous). The most common type of penile cancer is squamous cell carcinoma, which begins in the flat cells that line the surface of the penis. Other types of penile cancer include melanoma, basal cell carcinoma, and adenocarcinoma.

Benign penile neoplasms include conditions such as papillomas, condylomas, and peyronie's disease. These growths are usually not life-threatening, but they can cause discomfort, pain, or other symptoms that may require medical treatment.

It is important to note that any unusual changes in the penis, such as lumps, bumps, or sores, should be evaluated by a healthcare professional to determine the underlying cause and appropriate treatment.

I apologize for any confusion, but "Colombia" is not a medical term. It is the name of a country located in South America, known officially as the Republic of Colombia. If you are looking for medical information related to Colombia or its healthcare system, I would be happy to try to help you with that.

Nucleic acid hybridization is a process in molecular biology where two single-stranded nucleic acids (DNA, RNA) with complementary sequences pair together to form a double-stranded molecule through hydrogen bonding. The strands can be from the same type of nucleic acid or different types (i.e., DNA-RNA or DNA-cDNA). This process is commonly used in various laboratory techniques, such as Southern blotting, Northern blotting, polymerase chain reaction (PCR), and microarray analysis, to detect, isolate, and analyze specific nucleic acid sequences. The hybridization temperature and conditions are critical to ensure the specificity of the interaction between the two strands.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but the abbreviation "USSR" stands for the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics, which was a socialist state in Eastern Europe and northern and central Asia that existed from 1922 until its dissolution in 1991. It was not a medical term or concept. If you have any questions related to medicine, I would be happy to try to help answer them for you.

A base sequence in the context of molecular biology refers to the specific order of nucleotides in a DNA or RNA molecule. In DNA, these nucleotides are adenine (A), guanine (G), cytosine (C), and thymine (T). In RNA, uracil (U) takes the place of thymine. The base sequence contains genetic information that is transcribed into RNA and ultimately translated into proteins. It is the exact order of these bases that determines the genetic code and thus the function of the DNA or RNA molecule.

Medical mass screening, also known as population screening, is a public health service that aims to identify and detect asymptomatic individuals in a given population who have or are at risk of a specific disease. The goal is to provide early treatment, reduce morbidity and mortality, and prevent the spread of diseases within the community.

A mass screening program typically involves offering a simple, quick, and non-invasive test to a large number of people in a defined population, regardless of their risk factors or symptoms. Those who test positive are then referred for further diagnostic tests and appropriate medical interventions. Examples of mass screening programs include mammography for breast cancer detection, PSA (prostate-specific antigen) testing for prostate cancer, and fecal occult blood testing for colorectal cancer.

It is important to note that mass screening programs should be evidence-based, cost-effective, and ethically sound, with clear benefits outweighing potential harms. They should also consider factors such as the prevalence of the disease in the population, the accuracy and reliability of the screening test, and the availability and effectiveness of treatment options.

Repressor proteins are a type of regulatory protein in molecular biology that suppress the transcription of specific genes into messenger RNA (mRNA) by binding to DNA. They function as part of gene regulation processes, often working in conjunction with an operator region and a promoter region within the DNA molecule. Repressor proteins can be activated or deactivated by various signals, allowing for precise control over gene expression in response to changing cellular conditions.

There are two main types of repressor proteins:

1. DNA-binding repressors: These directly bind to specific DNA sequences (operator regions) near the target gene and prevent RNA polymerase from transcribing the gene into mRNA.
2. Allosteric repressors: These bind to effector molecules, which then cause a conformational change in the repressor protein, enabling it to bind to DNA and inhibit transcription.

Repressor proteins play crucial roles in various biological processes, such as development, metabolism, and stress response, by controlling gene expression patterns in cells.

Heterosexuality is a sexual orientation where an individual is primarily attracted to, or forms romantic or sexual relationships with, people of the opposite sex or gender. This term is often used in contrast to homosexuality (attraction to the same sex) and bisexuality (attraction to both sexes). It's important to note that all sexual orientations are normal and healthy expressions of human sexuality.

Vaccination is a simple, safe, and effective way to protect people against harmful diseases, before they come into contact with them. It uses your body's natural defenses to build protection to specific infections and makes your immune system stronger.

A vaccination usually contains a small, harmless piece of a virus or bacteria (or toxins produced by these germs) that has been made inactive or weakened so it won't cause the disease itself. This piece of the germ is known as an antigen. When the vaccine is introduced into the body, the immune system recognizes the antigen as foreign and produces antibodies to fight it.

If a person then comes into contact with the actual disease-causing germ, their immune system will recognize it and immediately produce antibodies to destroy it. The person is therefore protected against that disease. This is known as active immunity.

Vaccinations are important for both individual and public health. They prevent the spread of contagious diseases and protect vulnerable members of the population, such as young children, the elderly, and people with weakened immune systems who cannot be vaccinated or for whom vaccination is not effective.

Cell transformation, viral refers to the process by which a virus causes normal cells to become cancerous or tumorigenic. This occurs when the genetic material of the virus integrates into the DNA of the host cell and alters its regulation, leading to uncontrolled cell growth and division. Some viruses known to cause cell transformation include human papillomavirus (HPV), hepatitis B virus (HBV), and certain types of herpesviruses.

A capsid is the protein shell that encloses and protects the genetic material of a virus. It is composed of multiple copies of one or more proteins that are arranged in a specific structure, which can vary in shape and symmetry depending on the type of virus. The capsid plays a crucial role in the viral life cycle, including protecting the viral genome from host cell defenses, mediating attachment to and entry into host cells, and assisting with the assembly of new virus particles during replication.

Molecular diagnostic techniques are a group of laboratory methods used to analyze biological markers in DNA, RNA, and proteins to identify specific health conditions or diseases at the molecular level. These techniques include various methods such as polymerase chain reaction (PCR), DNA sequencing, gene expression analysis, fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH), and mass spectrometry.

Molecular diagnostic techniques are used to detect genetic mutations, chromosomal abnormalities, viral and bacterial infections, and other molecular changes associated with various diseases, including cancer, genetic disorders, infectious diseases, and neurological disorders. These techniques provide valuable information for disease diagnosis, prognosis, treatment planning, and monitoring of treatment response.

Compared to traditional diagnostic methods, molecular diagnostic techniques offer several advantages, such as higher sensitivity, specificity, and speed. They can detect small amounts of genetic material or proteins, even in early stages of the disease, and provide accurate results with a lower risk of false positives or negatives. Additionally, molecular diagnostic techniques can be automated, standardized, and performed in high-throughput formats, making them suitable for large-scale screening and research applications.

A case-control study is an observational research design used to identify risk factors or causes of a disease or health outcome. In this type of study, individuals with the disease or condition (cases) are compared with similar individuals who do not have the disease or condition (controls). The exposure history or other characteristics of interest are then compared between the two groups to determine if there is an association between the exposure and the disease.

Case-control studies are often used when it is not feasible or ethical to conduct a randomized controlled trial, as they can provide valuable insights into potential causes of diseases or health outcomes in a relatively short period of time and at a lower cost than other study designs. However, because case-control studies rely on retrospective data collection, they are subject to biases such as recall bias and selection bias, which can affect the validity of the results. Therefore, it is important to carefully design and conduct case-control studies to minimize these potential sources of bias.

Carcinoma, basal cell is a type of skin cancer that arises from the basal cells, which are located in the lower part of the epidermis (the outermost layer of the skin). It is also known as basal cell carcinoma (BCC) and is the most common form of skin cancer.

BCC typically appears as a small, shiny, pearly bump or nodule on the skin, often in sun-exposed areas such as the face, ears, neck, hands, and arms. It may also appear as a scar-like area that is white, yellow, or waxy. BCCs are usually slow growing and rarely spread (metastasize) to other parts of the body. However, they can be locally invasive and destroy surrounding tissue if left untreated.

The exact cause of BCC is not known, but it is thought to be related to a combination of genetic and environmental factors, including exposure to ultraviolet (UV) radiation from the sun or tanning beds. People with fair skin, light hair, and blue or green eyes are at increased risk of developing BCC.

Treatment for BCC typically involves surgical removal of the tumor, along with a margin of healthy tissue. Other treatment options may include radiation therapy, topical chemotherapy, or photodynamic therapy. Prevention measures include protecting your skin from UV radiation by wearing protective clothing, using sunscreen, and avoiding tanning beds.

Gene expression regulation, viral, refers to the processes that control the production of viral gene products, such as proteins and nucleic acids, during the viral life cycle. This can involve both viral and host cell factors that regulate transcription, RNA processing, translation, and post-translational modifications of viral genes.

Viral gene expression regulation is critical for the virus to replicate and produce progeny virions. Different types of viruses have evolved diverse mechanisms to regulate their gene expression, including the use of promoters, enhancers, transcription factors, RNA silencing, and epigenetic modifications. Understanding these regulatory processes can provide insights into viral pathogenesis and help in the development of antiviral therapies.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Mexico" is not a medical term or concept. It is the name of a country located in North America. If you have any questions related to medical topics, I would be happy to try and help answer those for you.

A cross-sectional study is a type of observational research design that examines the relationship between variables at one point in time. It provides a snapshot or a "cross-section" of the population at a particular moment, allowing researchers to estimate the prevalence of a disease or condition and identify potential risk factors or associations.

In a cross-sectional study, data is collected from a sample of participants at a single time point, and the variables of interest are measured simultaneously. This design can be used to investigate the association between exposure and outcome, but it cannot establish causality because it does not follow changes over time.

Cross-sectional studies can be conducted using various data collection methods, such as surveys, interviews, or medical examinations. They are often used in epidemiology to estimate the prevalence of a disease or condition in a population and to identify potential risk factors that may contribute to its development. However, because cross-sectional studies only provide a snapshot of the population at one point in time, they cannot account for changes over time or determine whether exposure preceded the outcome.

Therefore, while cross-sectional studies can be useful for generating hypotheses and identifying potential associations between variables, further research using other study designs, such as cohort or case-control studies, is necessary to establish causality and confirm any findings.

In medical terms, the mouth is officially referred to as the oral cavity. It is the first part of the digestive tract and includes several structures: the lips, vestibule (the space enclosed by the lips and teeth), teeth, gingiva (gums), hard and soft palate, tongue, floor of the mouth, and salivary glands. The mouth is responsible for several functions including speaking, swallowing, breathing, and eating, as it is the initial point of ingestion where food is broken down through mechanical and chemical processes, beginning the digestive process.

Viral proteins are the proteins that are encoded by the viral genome and are essential for the viral life cycle. These proteins can be structural or non-structural and play various roles in the virus's replication, infection, and assembly process. Structural proteins make up the physical structure of the virus, including the capsid (the protein shell that surrounds the viral genome) and any envelope proteins (that may be present on enveloped viruses). Non-structural proteins are involved in the replication of the viral genome and modulation of the host cell environment to favor viral replication. Overall, a thorough understanding of viral proteins is crucial for developing antiviral therapies and vaccines.

Epidermodysplasia verruciformis (EV) is a rare genetic skin disorder characterized by the development of scaly macules and papules that can progress to malignant lesions. It is caused by mutations in the EVER1 or EVER2 genes, which lead to an increased susceptibility to human papillomavirus (HPV) infection. The condition typically presents in childhood or early adulthood and affects both sexes equally.

The skin abnormalities associated with EV are often described as "wart-like" and can appear anywhere on the body, but they most commonly affect sun-exposed areas such as the hands, arms, and face. The lesions may be flat or slightly raised, and they can vary in color from white to brown or gray. In some cases, the lesions may become thickened and crusted, and they can be pruritic (itchy) or painful.

People with EV are at an increased risk of developing skin cancer, particularly squamous cell carcinoma (SCC). The SCCs associated with EV tend to occur at a younger age than those that develop in the general population, and they often arise within existing EV lesions. Regular skin examinations and sun protection measures are recommended for individuals with EV to help prevent the development of skin cancer.

Treatment options for EV include topical therapies such as retinoids, immunomodulators, and chemotherapeutic agents, as well as systemic therapies such as antiviral medications and interferon. Surgical excision may be necessary for the treatment of malignant lesions.

HIV (Human Immunodeficiency Virus) infection is a viral illness that progressively attacks and weakens the immune system, making individuals more susceptible to other infections and diseases. The virus primarily infects CD4+ T cells, a type of white blood cell essential for fighting off infections. Over time, as the number of these immune cells declines, the body becomes increasingly vulnerable to opportunistic infections and cancers.

HIV infection has three stages:

1. Acute HIV infection: This is the initial stage that occurs within 2-4 weeks after exposure to the virus. During this period, individuals may experience flu-like symptoms such as fever, fatigue, rash, swollen glands, and muscle aches. The virus replicates rapidly, and the viral load in the body is very high.
2. Chronic HIV infection (Clinical latency): This stage follows the acute infection and can last several years if left untreated. Although individuals may not show any symptoms during this phase, the virus continues to replicate at low levels, and the immune system gradually weakens. The viral load remains relatively stable, but the number of CD4+ T cells declines over time.
3. AIDS (Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome): This is the most advanced stage of HIV infection, characterized by a severely damaged immune system and numerous opportunistic infections or cancers. At this stage, the CD4+ T cell count drops below 200 cells/mm3 of blood.

It's important to note that with proper antiretroviral therapy (ART), individuals with HIV infection can effectively manage the virus, maintain a healthy immune system, and significantly reduce the risk of transmission to others. Early diagnosis and treatment are crucial for improving long-term health outcomes and reducing the spread of HIV.

I apologize, but "Brazil" is not a medical term or condition. It is the largest country in both South America and Latin America by land area and population. If you have any questions related to medical terminology or health concerns, please provide more information and I will do my best to help.

Gamma-papillomaviruses, also known as Gammapapillomavirus (γPV), are a genus of papillomaviruses that primarily infect the epithelial cells of birds and some non-human mammals. They have not been definitively associated with any human diseases.

Gamma-papillomaviruses are characterized by their double-stranded DNA genome, which encodes several proteins involved in the virus's replication and regulation. The two main types of proteins encoded by these viruses are early proteins, which are expressed before viral DNA replication, and late proteins, which are expressed after viral DNA replication.

These viruses can cause benign growths called papillomas or warts in their hosts. However, some gamma-papillomaviruses have been associated with the development of cancerous lesions in animals, particularly in birds. It's important to note that while gamma-papillomaviruses have not been definitively linked to human cancers, other types of papillomaviruses are known to cause various types of human cancers, including cervical, anal, and oropharyngeal cancers.

HIV seropositivity is a term used to describe a positive result on an HIV antibody test. This means that the individual has developed antibodies against the Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV), indicating that they have been infected with the virus. However, it's important to note that this does not necessarily mean that the person has AIDS, as there can be a long period between HIV infection and the development of AIDS.

DNA-binding proteins are a type of protein that have the ability to bind to DNA (deoxyribonucleic acid), the genetic material of organisms. These proteins play crucial roles in various biological processes, such as regulation of gene expression, DNA replication, repair and recombination.

The binding of DNA-binding proteins to specific DNA sequences is mediated by non-covalent interactions, including electrostatic, hydrogen bonding, and van der Waals forces. The specificity of binding is determined by the recognition of particular nucleotide sequences or structural features of the DNA molecule.

DNA-binding proteins can be classified into several categories based on their structure and function, such as transcription factors, histones, and restriction enzymes. Transcription factors are a major class of DNA-binding proteins that regulate gene expression by binding to specific DNA sequences in the promoter region of genes and recruiting other proteins to modulate transcription. Histones are DNA-binding proteins that package DNA into nucleosomes, the basic unit of chromatin structure. Restriction enzymes are DNA-binding proteins that recognize and cleave specific DNA sequences, and are widely used in molecular biology research and biotechnology applications.

Head and neck neoplasms refer to abnormal growths or tumors in the head and neck region, which can be benign (non-cancerous) or malignant (cancerous). These tumors can develop in various sites, including the oral cavity, nasopharynx, oropharynx, larynx, hypopharynx, paranasal sinuses, salivary glands, and thyroid gland.

Benign neoplasms are slow-growing and generally do not spread to other parts of the body. However, they can still cause problems if they grow large enough to press on surrounding tissues or structures. Malignant neoplasms, on the other hand, can invade nearby tissues and organs and may also metastasize (spread) to other parts of the body.

Head and neck neoplasms can have various symptoms depending on their location and size. Common symptoms include difficulty swallowing, speaking, or breathing; pain in the mouth, throat, or ears; persistent coughing or hoarseness; and swelling or lumps in the neck or face. Early detection and treatment of head and neck neoplasms are crucial for improving outcomes and reducing the risk of complications.

Oral contraceptives, also known as "birth control pills," are medications taken by mouth to prevent pregnancy. They contain synthetic hormones that mimic the effects of natural hormones estrogen and progesterone in a woman's body, thereby preventing ovulation, fertilization, or implantation of a fertilized egg in the uterus.

There are two main types of oral contraceptives: combined pills, which contain both estrogen and progestin, and mini-pills, which contain only progestin. Combined pills work by preventing ovulation, thickening cervical mucus to make it harder for sperm to reach the egg, and thinning the lining of the uterus to make it less likely for a fertilized egg to implant. Mini-pills work mainly by thickening cervical mucus and changing the lining of the uterus.

Oral contraceptives are highly effective when used correctly, but they do not protect against sexually transmitted infections (STIs). It is important to use them consistently and as directed by a healthcare provider. Side effects may include nausea, breast tenderness, headaches, mood changes, and irregular menstrual bleeding. In rare cases, oral contraceptives may increase the risk of serious health problems such as blood clots, stroke, or liver tumors. However, for most women, the benefits of using oral contraceptives outweigh the risks.

Southern blotting is a type of membrane-based blotting technique that is used in molecular biology to detect and locate specific DNA sequences within a DNA sample. This technique is named after its inventor, Edward M. Southern.

In Southern blotting, the DNA sample is first digested with one or more restriction enzymes, which cut the DNA at specific recognition sites. The resulting DNA fragments are then separated based on their size by gel electrophoresis. After separation, the DNA fragments are denatured to convert them into single-stranded DNA and transferred onto a nitrocellulose or nylon membrane.

Once the DNA has been transferred to the membrane, it is hybridized with a labeled probe that is complementary to the sequence of interest. The probe can be labeled with radioactive isotopes, fluorescent dyes, or chemiluminescent compounds. After hybridization, the membrane is washed to remove any unbound probe and then exposed to X-ray film (in the case of radioactive probes) or scanned (in the case of non-radioactive probes) to detect the location of the labeled probe on the membrane.

The position of the labeled probe on the membrane corresponds to the location of the specific DNA sequence within the original DNA sample. Southern blotting is a powerful tool for identifying and characterizing specific DNA sequences, such as those associated with genetic diseases or gene regulation.

Vaginal neoplasms refer to abnormal growths or tumors in the vagina. These growths can be benign (non-cancerous) or malignant (cancerous). The two main types of vaginal neoplasms are:

1. Vaginal intraepithelial neoplasia (VAIN): This is a condition where the cells on the inner lining of the vagina become abnormal but have not invaded deeper tissues. VAIN can be low-grade or high-grade, depending on the severity of the cell changes.
2. Vaginal cancer: This is a malignant tumor that arises from the cells in the vagina. The two main types of vaginal cancer are squamous cell carcinoma and adenocarcinoma. Squamous cell carcinoma is the most common type, accounting for about 85% of all cases.

Risk factors for vaginal neoplasms include human papillomavirus (HPV) infection, smoking, older age, history of cervical cancer or precancerous changes, and exposure to diethylstilbestrol (DES) in utero. Treatment options depend on the type, stage, and location of the neoplasm but may include surgery, radiation therapy, chemotherapy, or a combination of these approaches.

Tonsillar neoplasms refer to abnormal growths or tumors that develop in the tonsils, which are two masses of lymphoid tissue located on either side of the back of the throat (oropharynx). These growths can be benign or malignant (cancerous), and their symptoms may include difficulty swallowing, sore throat, ear pain, and swollen lymph nodes in the neck.

Tonsillar neoplasms are relatively rare, but they can occur at any age. The most common type of malignant tonsillar neoplasm is squamous cell carcinoma, which accounts for about 90% of all cases. Other types of malignant tonsillar neoplasms include lymphomas and sarcomas.

The diagnosis of tonsillar neoplasms typically involves a physical examination, imaging studies such as CT or MRI scans, and sometimes a biopsy to confirm the type of tumor. Treatment options depend on the stage and location of the tumor, as well as the patient's overall health. Treatment may include surgery, radiation therapy, chemotherapy, or a combination of these approaches. Regular follow-up care is essential to monitor for recurrence and manage any long-term effects of treatment.

In situ hybridization (ISH) is a molecular biology technique used to detect and localize specific nucleic acid sequences, such as DNA or RNA, within cells or tissues. This technique involves the use of a labeled probe that is complementary to the target nucleic acid sequence. The probe can be labeled with various types of markers, including radioisotopes, fluorescent dyes, or enzymes.

During the ISH procedure, the labeled probe is hybridized to the target nucleic acid sequence in situ, meaning that the hybridization occurs within the intact cells or tissues. After washing away unbound probe, the location of the labeled probe can be visualized using various methods depending on the type of label used.

In situ hybridization has a wide range of applications in both research and diagnostic settings, including the detection of gene expression patterns, identification of viral infections, and diagnosis of genetic disorders.

"Age factors" refer to the effects, changes, or differences that age can have on various aspects of health, disease, and medical care. These factors can encompass a wide range of issues, including:

1. Physiological changes: As people age, their bodies undergo numerous physical changes that can affect how they respond to medications, illnesses, and medical procedures. For example, older adults may be more sensitive to certain drugs or have weaker immune systems, making them more susceptible to infections.
2. Chronic conditions: Age is a significant risk factor for many chronic diseases, such as heart disease, diabetes, cancer, and arthritis. As a result, age-related medical issues are common and can impact treatment decisions and outcomes.
3. Cognitive decline: Aging can also lead to cognitive changes, including memory loss and decreased decision-making abilities. These changes can affect a person's ability to understand and comply with medical instructions, leading to potential complications in their care.
4. Functional limitations: Older adults may experience physical limitations that impact their mobility, strength, and balance, increasing the risk of falls and other injuries. These limitations can also make it more challenging for them to perform daily activities, such as bathing, dressing, or cooking.
5. Social determinants: Age-related factors, such as social isolation, poverty, and lack of access to transportation, can impact a person's ability to obtain necessary medical care and affect their overall health outcomes.

Understanding age factors is critical for healthcare providers to deliver high-quality, patient-centered care that addresses the unique needs and challenges of older adults. By taking these factors into account, healthcare providers can develop personalized treatment plans that consider a person's age, physical condition, cognitive abilities, and social circumstances.

Specimen handling is a set of procedures and practices followed in the collection, storage, transportation, and processing of medical samples or specimens (e.g., blood, tissue, urine, etc.) for laboratory analysis. Proper specimen handling ensures accurate test results, patient safety, and data integrity. It includes:

1. Correct labeling of the specimen container with required patient information.
2. Using appropriate containers and materials to collect, store, and transport the specimen.
3. Following proper collection techniques to avoid contamination or damage to the specimen.
4. Adhering to specific storage conditions (temperature, time, etc.) before testing.
5. Ensuring secure and timely transportation of the specimen to the laboratory.
6. Properly documenting all steps in the handling process for traceability and quality assurance.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "universities" is a term that refers to institutions of higher education and research, and it is not a medical term. A university typically offers undergraduate and postgraduate programs leading to the award of degrees such as bachelor's, master's, and doctoral degrees.

If you have any questions related to medicine or healthcare, I would be happy to try to help answer them for you.

Sensitivity and specificity are statistical measures used to describe the performance of a diagnostic test or screening tool in identifying true positive and true negative results.

* Sensitivity refers to the proportion of people who have a particular condition (true positives) who are correctly identified by the test. It is also known as the "true positive rate" or "recall." A highly sensitive test will identify most or all of the people with the condition, but may also produce more false positives.
* Specificity refers to the proportion of people who do not have a particular condition (true negatives) who are correctly identified by the test. It is also known as the "true negative rate." A highly specific test will identify most or all of the people without the condition, but may also produce more false negatives.

In medical testing, both sensitivity and specificity are important considerations when evaluating a diagnostic test. High sensitivity is desirable for screening tests that aim to identify as many cases of a condition as possible, while high specificity is desirable for confirmatory tests that aim to rule out the condition in people who do not have it.

It's worth noting that sensitivity and specificity are often influenced by factors such as the prevalence of the condition in the population being tested, the threshold used to define a positive result, and the reliability and validity of the test itself. Therefore, it's important to consider these factors when interpreting the results of a diagnostic test.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Hawaii" is not a medical term. It is the 50th and most recent state to have joined the United States, located in the Central Pacific. If you have any questions about medical terms or concepts, I would be happy to help answer those!

The odds ratio (OR) is a statistical measure used in epidemiology and research to estimate the association between an exposure and an outcome. It represents the odds that an event will occur in one group versus the odds that it will occur in another group, assuming that all other factors are held constant.

In medical research, the odds ratio is often used to quantify the strength of the relationship between a risk factor (exposure) and a disease outcome. An OR of 1 indicates no association between the exposure and the outcome, while an OR greater than 1 suggests that there is a positive association between the two. Conversely, an OR less than 1 implies a negative association.

It's important to note that the odds ratio is not the same as the relative risk (RR), which compares the incidence rates of an outcome in two groups. While the OR can approximate the RR when the outcome is rare, they are not interchangeable and can lead to different conclusions about the association between an exposure and an outcome.

Viral genes refer to the genetic material present in viruses that contains the information necessary for their replication and the production of viral proteins. In DNA viruses, the genetic material is composed of double-stranded or single-stranded DNA, while in RNA viruses, it is composed of single-stranded or double-stranded RNA.

Viral genes can be classified into three categories: early, late, and structural. Early genes encode proteins involved in the replication of the viral genome, modulation of host cell processes, and regulation of viral gene expression. Late genes encode structural proteins that make up the viral capsid or envelope. Some viruses also have structural genes that are expressed throughout their replication cycle.

Understanding the genetic makeup of viruses is crucial for developing antiviral therapies and vaccines. By targeting specific viral genes, researchers can develop drugs that inhibit viral replication and reduce the severity of viral infections. Additionally, knowledge of viral gene sequences can inform the development of vaccines that stimulate an immune response to specific viral proteins.

Immunohistochemistry (IHC) is a technique used in pathology and laboratory medicine to identify specific proteins or antigens in tissue sections. It combines the principles of immunology and histology to detect the presence and location of these target molecules within cells and tissues. This technique utilizes antibodies that are specific to the protein or antigen of interest, which are then tagged with a detection system such as a chromogen or fluorophore. The stained tissue sections can be examined under a microscope, allowing for the visualization and analysis of the distribution and expression patterns of the target molecule in the context of the tissue architecture. Immunohistochemistry is widely used in diagnostic pathology to help identify various diseases, including cancer, infectious diseases, and immune-mediated disorders.

Prospective studies, also known as longitudinal studies, are a type of cohort study in which data is collected forward in time, following a group of individuals who share a common characteristic or exposure over a period of time. The researchers clearly define the study population and exposure of interest at the beginning of the study and follow up with the participants to determine the outcomes that develop over time. This type of study design allows for the investigation of causal relationships between exposures and outcomes, as well as the identification of risk factors and the estimation of disease incidence rates. Prospective studies are particularly useful in epidemiology and medical research when studying diseases with long latency periods or rare outcomes.

Virology is the study of viruses, their classification, and their effects on living organisms. It involves the examination of viral genetic material, viral replication, how viruses cause disease, and the development of antiviral drugs and vaccines to treat or prevent virus infections. Virologists study various types of viruses that can infect animals, plants, and microorganisms, as well as understand their evolution and transmission patterns.

Viral load refers to the amount or quantity of virus (like HIV, Hepatitis C, SARS-CoV-2) present in an individual's blood or bodily fluids. It is often expressed as the number of virus copies per milliliter of blood or fluid. Monitoring viral load is important in managing and treating certain viral infections, as a higher viral load may indicate increased infectivity, disease progression, or response to treatment.

Skin diseases of viral origin are conditions that affect the skin caused by viral infections. These infections can lead to various symptoms such as rashes, blisters, papules, and skin lesions. Some common examples of viral skin diseases include:

1. Herpes Simplex Virus (HSV) infection: This causes cold sores or genital herpes, which are characterized by small, painful blisters on the skin.
2. Varicella-zoster virus (VZV) infection: This causes chickenpox and shingles, which are characterized by itchy, fluid-filled blisters on the skin.
3. Human Papillomavirus (HPV) infection: This causes warts, which are small, rough growths on the skin.
4. Molluscum contagiosum: This is a viral infection that causes small, raised, and pearly white bumps on the skin.
5. Measles: This is a highly contagious viral disease characterized by fever, cough, runny nose, and a rash that spreads all over the body.
6. Rubella: Also known as German measles, this viral infection causes a red rash on the face and neck that spreads to the rest of the body.

Viral skin diseases can be spread through direct contact with an infected person or contaminated objects, such as towels or bedding. Some viral skin diseases can be prevented through vaccination, while others can be treated with antiviral medications or other therapies.

Longitudinal studies are a type of research design where data is collected from the same subjects repeatedly over a period of time, often years or even decades. These studies are used to establish patterns of changes and events over time, and can help researchers identify causal relationships between variables. They are particularly useful in fields such as epidemiology, psychology, and sociology, where the focus is on understanding developmental trends and the long-term effects of various factors on health and behavior.

In medical research, longitudinal studies can be used to track the progression of diseases over time, identify risk factors for certain conditions, and evaluate the effectiveness of treatments or interventions. For example, a longitudinal study might follow a group of individuals over several decades to assess their exposure to certain environmental factors and their subsequent development of chronic diseases such as cancer or heart disease. By comparing data collected at multiple time points, researchers can identify trends and correlations that may not be apparent in shorter-term studies.

Longitudinal studies have several advantages over other research designs, including their ability to establish temporal relationships between variables, track changes over time, and reduce the impact of confounding factors. However, they also have some limitations, such as the potential for attrition (loss of participants over time), which can introduce bias and affect the validity of the results. Additionally, longitudinal studies can be expensive and time-consuming to conduct, requiring significant resources and a long-term commitment from both researchers and study participants.

Medical definitions are often provided by authoritative medical bodies such as the World Health Organization (WHO) or the American Psychiatric Association (APA). It's important to note that these organizations have evolved their understanding and classification of homosexuality over time.

According to the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fifth Edition (DSM-5), produced by the APA, sexual orientation is not considered a mental disorder. The manual does not provide a definition or classification for 'homosexuality, male' as a medical condition.

The current understanding in the medical community is that homosexuality is a normal and natural variation of human sexual orientation. It is not considered a disorder or an illness. The World Health Organization (WHO) removed homosexuality from its list of mental disorders in 1990.

"Health Knowledge, Attitudes, and Practices" (HKAP) is a term used in public health to refer to the knowledge, beliefs, assumptions, and behaviors that individuals possess or engage in that are related to health. Here's a brief definition of each component:

1. Health Knowledge: Refers to the factual information and understanding that individuals have about various health-related topics, such as anatomy, physiology, disease processes, and healthy behaviors.
2. Attitudes: Represent the positive or negative evaluations, feelings, or dispositions that people hold towards certain health issues, practices, or services. These attitudes can influence their willingness to adopt and maintain healthy behaviors.
3. Practices: Encompass the specific actions or habits that individuals engage in related to their health, such as dietary choices, exercise routines, hygiene practices, and use of healthcare services.

HKAP is a multidimensional concept that helps public health professionals understand and address various factors influencing individual and community health outcomes. By assessing and addressing knowledge gaps, negative attitudes, or unhealthy practices, interventions can be designed to promote positive behavior change and improve overall health status.

A biopsy is a medical procedure in which a small sample of tissue is taken from the body to be examined under a microscope for the presence of disease. This can help doctors diagnose and monitor various medical conditions, such as cancer, infections, or autoimmune disorders. The type of biopsy performed will depend on the location and nature of the suspected condition. Some common types of biopsies include:

1. Incisional biopsy: In this procedure, a surgeon removes a piece of tissue from an abnormal area using a scalpel or other surgical instrument. This type of biopsy is often used when the lesion is too large to be removed entirely during the initial biopsy.

2. Excisional biopsy: An excisional biopsy involves removing the entire abnormal area, along with a margin of healthy tissue surrounding it. This technique is typically employed for smaller lesions or when cancer is suspected.

3. Needle biopsy: A needle biopsy uses a thin, hollow needle to extract cells or fluid from the body. There are two main types of needle biopsies: fine-needle aspiration (FNA) and core needle biopsy. FNA extracts loose cells, while a core needle biopsy removes a small piece of tissue.

4. Punch biopsy: In a punch biopsy, a round, sharp tool is used to remove a small cylindrical sample of skin tissue. This type of biopsy is often used for evaluating rashes or other skin abnormalities.

5. Shave biopsy: During a shave biopsy, a thin slice of tissue is removed from the surface of the skin using a sharp razor-like instrument. This technique is typically used for superficial lesions or growths on the skin.

After the biopsy sample has been collected, it is sent to a laboratory where a pathologist will examine the tissue under a microscope and provide a diagnosis based on their findings. The results of the biopsy can help guide further treatment decisions and determine the best course of action for managing the patient's condition.

A viral genome is the genetic material (DNA or RNA) that is present in a virus. It contains all the genetic information that a virus needs to replicate itself and infect its host. The size and complexity of viral genomes can vary greatly, ranging from a few thousand bases to hundreds of thousands of bases. Some viruses have linear genomes, while others have circular genomes. The genome of a virus also contains the information necessary for the virus to hijack the host cell's machinery and use it to produce new copies of the virus. Understanding the genetic makeup of viruses is important for developing vaccines and antiviral treatments.

A cell line is a culture of cells that are grown in a laboratory for use in research. These cells are usually taken from a single cell or group of cells, and they are able to divide and grow continuously in the lab. Cell lines can come from many different sources, including animals, plants, and humans. They are often used in scientific research to study cellular processes, disease mechanisms, and to test new drugs or treatments. Some common types of human cell lines include HeLa cells (which come from a cancer patient named Henrietta Lacks), HEK293 cells (which come from embryonic kidney cells), and HUVEC cells (which come from umbilical vein endothelial cells). It is important to note that cell lines are not the same as primary cells, which are cells that are taken directly from a living organism and have not been grown in the lab.

I am not aware of a specific medical definition for the term "China." Generally, it is used to refer to:

1. The People's Republic of China (PRC), which is a country in East Asia. It is the most populous country in the world and the fourth largest by geographical area. Its capital city is Beijing.
2. In a historical context, "China" was used to refer to various dynasties and empires that existed in East Asia over thousands of years. The term "Middle Kingdom" or "Zhongguo" (中国) has been used by the Chinese people to refer to their country for centuries.
3. In a more general sense, "China" can also be used to describe products or goods that originate from or are associated with the People's Republic of China.

If you have a specific context in which you encountered the term "China" related to medicine, please provide it so I can give a more accurate response.

I apologize for any confusion, but "students" is not a medical term. It refers to individuals who are engaged in studying or learning at an educational institution, such as a school, college, or university. If you have any questions related to medical terminology or concepts, I would be happy to help clarify those for you.

Logistic models, specifically logistic regression models, are a type of statistical analysis used in medical and epidemiological research to identify the relationship between the risk of a certain health outcome or disease (dependent variable) and one or more independent variables, such as demographic factors, exposure variables, or other clinical measurements.

In contrast to linear regression models, logistic regression models are used when the dependent variable is binary or dichotomous in nature, meaning it can only take on two values, such as "disease present" or "disease absent." The model uses a logistic function to estimate the probability of the outcome based on the independent variables.

Logistic regression models are useful for identifying risk factors and estimating the strength of associations between exposures and health outcomes, adjusting for potential confounders, and predicting the probability of an outcome given certain values of the independent variables. They can also be used to develop clinical prediction rules or scores that can aid in decision-making and patient care.

A questionnaire in the medical context is a standardized, systematic, and structured tool used to gather information from individuals regarding their symptoms, medical history, lifestyle, or other health-related factors. It typically consists of a series of written questions that can be either self-administered or administered by an interviewer. Questionnaires are widely used in various areas of healthcare, including clinical research, epidemiological studies, patient care, and health services evaluation to collect data that can inform diagnosis, treatment planning, and population health management. They provide a consistent and organized method for obtaining information from large groups or individual patients, helping to ensure accurate and comprehensive data collection while minimizing bias and variability in the information gathered.

Bowen's disease is a skin condition that is characterized by the growth of abnormal cells on the outermost layer of the skin (the epidermis). It is also known as squamous cell carcinoma in situ. The affected area often appears as a red, scaly patch or plaque, and it can develop anywhere on the body, but it is most commonly found on sun-exposed areas such as the face, hands, arms, and legs.

Bowen's disease is considered a precancerous condition because there is a risk that the abnormal cells could eventually develop into invasive squamous cell carcinoma, a type of skin cancer. However, not all cases of Bowen's disease will progress to cancer, and some may remain stable or even regress on their own.

The exact cause of Bowen's disease is not known, but it is thought to be associated with exposure to certain chemicals, radiation, and human papillomavirus (HPV) infection. Treatment options for Bowen's disease include cryotherapy, topical chemotherapy, photodynamic therapy, curettage and electrodessication, and surgical excision. Regular follow-up with a healthcare provider is recommended to monitor the condition and ensure that it does not progress to cancer.

"Age distribution" is a term used to describe the number of individuals within a population or sample that fall into different age categories. It is often presented in the form of a graph, table, or chart, and can provide important information about the demographic structure of a population.

The age distribution of a population can be influenced by a variety of factors, including birth rates, mortality rates, migration patterns, and aging. Public health officials and researchers use age distribution data to inform policies and programs related to healthcare, social services, and other areas that affect the well-being of populations.

For example, an age distribution graph might show a larger number of individuals in the younger age categories, indicating a population with a high birth rate. Alternatively, it might show a larger number of individuals in the older age categories, indicating a population with a high life expectancy or an aging population. Understanding the age distribution of a population can help policymakers plan for future needs and allocate resources more effectively.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Korea" is not a medical term. It refers to a region in East Asia that is divided into two distinct sovereign states: North Korea (officially the Democratic People's Republic of Korea) and South Korea (officially the Republic of Korea).

If you're looking for medical terms, I'd be happy to help. Could you please provide more context?

Smoking is not a medical condition, but it's a significant health risk behavior. Here is the definition from a public health perspective:

Smoking is the act of inhaling and exhaling the smoke of burning tobacco that is commonly consumed through cigarettes, pipes, and cigars. The smoke contains over 7,000 chemicals, including nicotine, tar, carbon monoxide, and numerous toxic and carcinogenic substances. These toxins contribute to a wide range of diseases and health conditions, such as lung cancer, heart disease, stroke, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), and various other cancers, as well as adverse reproductive outcomes and negative impacts on the developing fetus during pregnancy. Smoking is highly addictive due to the nicotine content, which makes quitting smoking a significant challenge for many individuals.

Risk assessment in the medical context refers to the process of identifying, evaluating, and prioritizing risks to patients, healthcare workers, or the community related to healthcare delivery. It involves determining the likelihood and potential impact of adverse events or hazards, such as infectious diseases, medication errors, or medical devices failures, and implementing measures to mitigate or manage those risks. The goal of risk assessment is to promote safe and high-quality care by identifying areas for improvement and taking action to minimize harm.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "United States" is a geopolitical entity, specifically the name of the country consisting of 50 states, and it is not a medical term or concept. Therefore, I can't provide a medical definition for it. If you have any questions related to health, medicine, or biology, I would be happy to try to help answer those!

DNA Sequence Analysis is the systematic determination of the order of nucleotides in a DNA molecule. It is a critical component of modern molecular biology, genetics, and genetic engineering. The process involves determining the exact order of the four nucleotide bases - adenine (A), guanine (G), cytosine (C), and thymine (T) - in a DNA molecule or fragment. This information is used in various applications such as identifying gene mutations, studying evolutionary relationships, developing molecular markers for breeding, and diagnosing genetic diseases.

The process of DNA Sequence Analysis typically involves several steps, including DNA extraction, PCR amplification (if necessary), purification, sequencing reaction, and electrophoresis. The resulting data is then analyzed using specialized software to determine the exact sequence of nucleotides.

In recent years, high-throughput DNA sequencing technologies have revolutionized the field of genomics, enabling the rapid and cost-effective sequencing of entire genomes. This has led to an explosion of genomic data and new insights into the genetic basis of many diseases and traits.

Adenocarcinoma is a type of cancer that arises from glandular epithelial cells. These cells line the inside of many internal organs, including the breasts, prostate, colon, and lungs. Adenocarcinomas can occur in any of these organs, as well as in other locations where glands are present.

The term "adenocarcinoma" is used to describe a cancer that has features of glandular tissue, such as mucus-secreting cells or cells that produce hormones. These cancers often form glandular structures within the tumor mass and may produce mucus or other substances.

Adenocarcinomas are typically slow-growing and tend to spread (metastasize) to other parts of the body through the lymphatic system or bloodstream. They can be treated with surgery, radiation therapy, chemotherapy, targeted therapy, or a combination of these treatments. The prognosis for adenocarcinoma depends on several factors, including the location and stage of the cancer, as well as the patient's overall health and age.

A "cell line, transformed" is a type of cell culture that has undergone a stable genetic alteration, which confers the ability to grow indefinitely in vitro, outside of the organism from which it was derived. These cells have typically been immortalized through exposure to chemical or viral carcinogens, or by introducing specific oncogenes that disrupt normal cell growth regulation pathways.

Transformed cell lines are widely used in scientific research because they offer a consistent and renewable source of biological material for experimentation. They can be used to study various aspects of cell biology, including signal transduction, gene expression, drug discovery, and toxicity testing. However, it is important to note that transformed cells may not always behave identically to their normal counterparts, and results obtained using these cells should be validated in more physiologically relevant systems when possible.

The eyebrows are a set of hairs that grow above the eyes on the forehead. They are an important feature of human facial anatomy, and play several roles in non-verbal communication and self-expression. Eyebrows help to prevent sweat and other moisture from dripping into the eyes, and also serve as a protective barrier against dirt, dust, and other foreign particles that might otherwise irritate or damage the eyes.

In addition, eyebrows play an important role in human social interaction and communication. They can convey a range of emotions and facial expressions, such as surprise, anger, fear, happiness, and sadness. Eyebrows can also help to frame the eyes and enhance their appearance, making them an important aspect of personal grooming and beauty.

The eyebrows are made up of several components, including hair follicles, sebaceous glands, and muscles that control their movement. The hairs themselves are composed of a protein called keratin, which also makes up the hair on the head, as well as nails and skin. The color and thickness of eyebrow hair can vary widely from person to person, and may be influenced by factors such as age, genetics, and hormonal changes.

In medical terms, changes in the appearance or condition of the eyebrows can sometimes be a sign of underlying health issues. For example, thinning or loss of eyebrows can be associated with conditions such as alopecia, thyroid disorders, or nutritional deficiencies. Changes in eyebrow shape or position can also be a symptom of certain neurological conditions, such as Bell's palsy or stroke. As such, any significant changes in the appearance or condition of the eyebrows should be evaluated by a healthcare professional to rule out any underlying medical causes.

In the field of medicine, "time factors" refer to the duration of symptoms or time elapsed since the onset of a medical condition, which can have significant implications for diagnosis and treatment. Understanding time factors is crucial in determining the progression of a disease, evaluating the effectiveness of treatments, and making critical decisions regarding patient care.

For example, in stroke management, "time is brain," meaning that rapid intervention within a specific time frame (usually within 4.5 hours) is essential to administering tissue plasminogen activator (tPA), a clot-busting drug that can minimize brain damage and improve patient outcomes. Similarly, in trauma care, the "golden hour" concept emphasizes the importance of providing definitive care within the first 60 minutes after injury to increase survival rates and reduce morbidity.

Time factors also play a role in monitoring the progression of chronic conditions like diabetes or heart disease, where regular follow-ups and assessments help determine appropriate treatment adjustments and prevent complications. In infectious diseases, time factors are crucial for initiating antibiotic therapy and identifying potential outbreaks to control their spread.

Overall, "time factors" encompass the significance of recognizing and acting promptly in various medical scenarios to optimize patient outcomes and provide effective care.

Follow-up studies are a type of longitudinal research that involve repeated observations or measurements of the same variables over a period of time, in order to understand their long-term effects or outcomes. In medical context, follow-up studies are often used to evaluate the safety and efficacy of medical treatments, interventions, or procedures.

In a typical follow-up study, a group of individuals (called a cohort) who have received a particular treatment or intervention are identified and then followed over time through periodic assessments or data collection. The data collected may include information on clinical outcomes, adverse events, changes in symptoms or functional status, and other relevant measures.

The results of follow-up studies can provide important insights into the long-term benefits and risks of medical interventions, as well as help to identify factors that may influence treatment effectiveness or patient outcomes. However, it is important to note that follow-up studies can be subject to various biases and limitations, such as loss to follow-up, recall bias, and changes in clinical practice over time, which must be carefully considered when interpreting the results.

A condom is a thin sheath that covers the penis during sexual intercourse. It is made of materials such as latex, polyurethane, or lambskin and is used as a barrier method to prevent pregnancy and sexually transmitted infections (STIs). Condoms work by collecting semen when the man ejaculates, preventing it from entering the woman's body. They come in various sizes, shapes, textures, and flavors to suit individual preferences. It is important to use condoms correctly and consistently to maximize their effectiveness.

Virus replication is the process by which a virus produces copies or reproduces itself inside a host cell. This involves several steps:

1. Attachment: The virus attaches to a specific receptor on the surface of the host cell.
2. Penetration: The viral genetic material enters the host cell, either by invagination of the cell membrane or endocytosis.
3. Uncoating: The viral genetic material is released from its protective coat (capsid) inside the host cell.
4. Replication: The viral genetic material uses the host cell's machinery to produce new viral components, such as proteins and nucleic acids.
5. Assembly: The newly synthesized viral components are assembled into new virus particles.
6. Release: The newly formed viruses are released from the host cell, often through lysis (breaking) of the cell membrane or by budding off the cell membrane.

The specific mechanisms and details of virus replication can vary depending on the type of virus. Some viruses, such as DNA viruses, use the host cell's DNA polymerase to replicate their genetic material, while others, such as RNA viruses, use their own RNA-dependent RNA polymerase or reverse transcriptase enzymes. Understanding the process of virus replication is important for developing antiviral therapies and vaccines.

A plasmid is a small, circular, double-stranded DNA molecule that is separate from the chromosomal DNA of a bacterium or other organism. Plasmids are typically not essential for the survival of the organism, but they can confer beneficial traits such as antibiotic resistance or the ability to degrade certain types of pollutants.

Plasmids are capable of replicating independently of the chromosomal DNA and can be transferred between bacteria through a process called conjugation. They often contain genes that provide resistance to antibiotics, heavy metals, and other environmental stressors. Plasmids have also been engineered for use in molecular biology as cloning vectors, allowing scientists to replicate and manipulate specific DNA sequences.

Plasmids are important tools in genetic engineering and biotechnology because they can be easily manipulated and transferred between organisms. They have been used to produce vaccines, diagnostic tests, and genetically modified organisms (GMOs) for various applications, including agriculture, medicine, and industry.

Retinoblastoma Protein (pRb or RB1) is a tumor suppressor protein that plays a critical role in regulating the cell cycle and preventing uncontrolled cell growth. It is encoded by the RB1 gene, located on chromosome 13. The retinoblastoma protein functions as a regulatory checkpoint in the cell cycle, preventing cells from progressing into the S phase (DNA synthesis phase) until certain conditions are met.

When pRb is in its active state, it binds to and inhibits the activity of E2F transcription factors, which promote the expression of genes required for DNA replication and cell cycle progression. Phosphorylation of pRb by cyclin-dependent kinases (CDKs) leads to the release of E2F factors, allowing them to activate their target genes and drive the cell into S phase.

Mutations in the RB1 gene can result in the production of a nonfunctional or reduced amount of pRb protein, leading to uncontrolled cell growth and an increased risk of developing retinoblastoma, a rare form of eye cancer, as well as other types of tumors.

Tumor suppressor protein p53, also known as p53 or tumor protein p53, is a nuclear phosphoprotein that plays a crucial role in preventing cancer development and maintaining genomic stability. It does so by regulating the cell cycle and acting as a transcription factor for various genes involved in apoptosis (programmed cell death), DNA repair, and cell senescence (permanent cell growth arrest).

In response to cellular stress, such as DNA damage or oncogene activation, p53 becomes activated and accumulates in the nucleus. Activated p53 can then bind to specific DNA sequences and promote the transcription of target genes that help prevent the proliferation of potentially cancerous cells. These targets include genes involved in cell cycle arrest (e.g., CDKN1A/p21), apoptosis (e.g., BAX, PUMA), and DNA repair (e.g., GADD45).

Mutations in the TP53 gene, which encodes p53, are among the most common genetic alterations found in human cancers. These mutations often lead to a loss or reduction of p53's tumor suppressive functions, allowing cancer cells to proliferate uncontrollably and evade apoptosis. As a result, p53 has been referred to as "the guardian of the genome" due to its essential role in preventing tumorigenesis.

An amino acid sequence is the specific order of amino acids in a protein or peptide molecule, formed by the linking of the amino group (-NH2) of one amino acid to the carboxyl group (-COOH) of another amino acid through a peptide bond. The sequence is determined by the genetic code and is unique to each type of protein or peptide. It plays a crucial role in determining the three-dimensional structure and function of proteins.

HeLa cells are a type of immortalized cell line used in scientific research. They are derived from a cancer that developed in the cervical tissue of Henrietta Lacks, an African-American woman, in 1951. After her death, cells taken from her tumor were found to be capable of continuous division and growth in a laboratory setting, making them an invaluable resource for medical research.

HeLa cells have been used in a wide range of scientific studies, including research on cancer, viruses, genetics, and drug development. They were the first human cell line to be successfully cloned and are able to grow rapidly in culture, doubling their population every 20-24 hours. This has made them an essential tool for many areas of biomedical research.

It is important to note that while HeLa cells have been instrumental in numerous scientific breakthroughs, the story of their origin raises ethical questions about informed consent and the use of human tissue in research.

Genital neoplasms in females refer to abnormal growths or tumors that occur in the female reproductive organs. These can be benign (non-cancerous) or malignant (cancerous). The most common types of female genital neoplasms are:

1. Cervical cancer: This is a malignancy that arises from the cells lining the cervix, usually caused by human papillomavirus (HPV) infection.
2. Uterine cancer: Also known as endometrial cancer, this type of female genital neoplasm originates in the lining of the uterus (endometrium).
3. Ovarian cancer: This is a malignancy that develops from the cells in the ovaries, which can be difficult to detect at an early stage due to its location and lack of symptoms.
4. Vulvar cancer: A rare type of female genital neoplasm that affects the external female genital area (vulva).
5. Vaginal cancer: This is a malignancy that occurs in the vagina, often caused by HPV infection.
6. Gestational trophoblastic neoplasia: A rare group of tumors that develop from placental tissue and can occur during or after pregnancy.

Regular screening and early detection are crucial for successful treatment and management of female genital neoplasms.

Disease progression is the worsening or advancement of a medical condition over time. It refers to the natural course of a disease, including its development, the severity of symptoms and complications, and the impact on the patient's overall health and quality of life. Understanding disease progression is important for developing appropriate treatment plans, monitoring response to therapy, and predicting outcomes.

The rate of disease progression can vary widely depending on the type of medical condition, individual patient factors, and the effectiveness of treatment. Some diseases may progress rapidly over a short period of time, while others may progress more slowly over many years. In some cases, disease progression may be slowed or even halted with appropriate medical interventions, while in other cases, the progression may be inevitable and irreversible.

In clinical practice, healthcare providers closely monitor disease progression through regular assessments, imaging studies, and laboratory tests. This information is used to guide treatment decisions and adjust care plans as needed to optimize patient outcomes and improve quality of life.

Antiviral agents are a class of medications that are designed to treat infections caused by viruses. Unlike antibiotics, which target bacteria, antiviral agents interfere with the replication and infection mechanisms of viruses, either by inhibiting their ability to replicate or by modulating the host's immune response to the virus.

Antiviral agents are used to treat a variety of viral infections, including influenza, herpes simplex virus (HSV) infections, human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection, hepatitis B and C, and respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) infections.

These medications can be administered orally, intravenously, or topically, depending on the type of viral infection being treated. Some antiviral agents are also used for prophylaxis, or prevention, of certain viral infections.

It is important to note that antiviral agents are not effective against all types of viruses and may have significant side effects. Therefore, it is essential to consult with a healthcare professional before starting any antiviral therapy.

DNA replication is the biological process by which DNA makes an identical copy of itself during cell division. It is a fundamental mechanism that allows genetic information to be passed down from one generation of cells to the next. During DNA replication, each strand of the double helix serves as a template for the synthesis of a new complementary strand. This results in the creation of two identical DNA molecules. The enzymes responsible for DNA replication include helicase, which unwinds the double helix, and polymerase, which adds nucleotides to the growing strands.

Genetic transcription is the process by which the information in a strand of DNA is used to create a complementary RNA molecule. This process is the first step in gene expression, where the genetic code in DNA is converted into a form that can be used to produce proteins or functional RNAs.

During transcription, an enzyme called RNA polymerase binds to the DNA template strand and reads the sequence of nucleotide bases. As it moves along the template, it adds complementary RNA nucleotides to the growing RNA chain, creating a single-stranded RNA molecule that is complementary to the DNA template strand. Once transcription is complete, the RNA molecule may undergo further processing before it can be translated into protein or perform its functional role in the cell.

Transcription can be either "constitutive" or "regulated." Constitutive transcription occurs at a relatively constant rate and produces essential proteins that are required for basic cellular functions. Regulated transcription, on the other hand, is subject to control by various intracellular and extracellular signals, allowing cells to respond to changing environmental conditions or developmental cues.

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zur Hausen H, de Villiers EM, Gissmann L (October 1981). "Papillomavirus infections and human genital cancer". Gynecol Oncol. ... His work on papillomaviruses and cervical cancer received a great deal of scientific criticism when first published but ... M Dürst; L Gissmann; H Ikenberg; H zur Hausen (1 June 1983). "A papillomavirus DNA from a cervical carcinoma and its prevalence ... He carried out research on cervical cancer and discovered the role of papilloma viruses in cervical cancer, for which he ...
Human Papillomavirus infection: overview. In: Handbook on Human Papillomavirus: Prevalence, detection and management. Smith HB ... Viral infections in Obstetrics and Gynecology. Authors: Franco Borruto and Ciro Comparetto. In: Viral Infections: Causes, ... He is member of Eurogin and of the International Papillomavirus Society (IPVS). The last ten years were dedicated to promote ... The State-of-the-Art Therapeutic Human Papillomavirus Vaccine. Comparetto C, Borruto F. In: Horizons in Cancer Research, Volume ...
ISBN 978-0-323-54753-6. "Warts, verrucas, human papillomavirus infection , DermNet". dermnetnz.org. Retrieved 9 July 2023. ... Viral infections". Rook's Dermatology Handbook. John Wiley & Sons. pp. 37-38. ISBN 978-1-119-42819-0. De Peuter M, De Clercq B ... Papillomavirus-associated diseases, All stub articles, Dermatology stubs). ...
"Cancer drug may help treat human papillomavirus infections". ScienceDaily. 30 November 2018. Retrieved 2018-11-30. Vorinostat ... belinostat and panobinostat might be repurposed to treat infections caused by human papillomavirus, or HPV. Trichostatin A " ...
Stanley, MA (2012). "Epithelial cell responses to infection with human papillomavirus". Clin Microbiol Rev. 25 (2): 215-22. doi ... Stanley, MA; Sterling, JC (2014). "Host responses to infection with human papillomavirus". Curr Probl Dermatol. Current ... Stanley, MA (2012). "Genital human papillomavirus infections: current and prospective therapies". J Gen Virol. 93 (4): 681-91. ... Stanley, MA, Sterling, JC (March 2014). "Host responses to infection with human papillomavirus". Current Problems in ...
... differences in human papillomavirus infection natural history, transmission and human papillomavirus-related cancer incidence ... Squamous cell cancers of the tonsils are more strongly associated with human papillomavirus infection than are cancers of other ... Haddad RI (2007). "Human Papillomavirus Infection and Oropharyngeal Cancer" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 2012-05- ... "Survival of squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck in relation to human papillomavirus infection: review and meta- ...
Campo, MS (1995). "Infection by bovine papillomavirus and prospects for vaccination". Trends Microbiol. 3 (3): 92-7. doi: ... Similar papillomaviruses of ungulates (e.g. deer papillomavirus, European elk papillomavirus, ovine papillomavirus 1,2) are ... The disease forms the only known example of natural cross-species infection by a papillomavirus. The involvement of BPV leads ... Campo, MS (2006). "Bovine papillomavirus: old system, new lessons?". In Campo, MS (ed.). Papillomavirus Research: From Natural ...
Human papillomavirus infection (HPV) causes more than 90% of cases; most who have had HPV infections, however, do not develop ... Infection with some types of HPV is the greatest risk factor for cervical cancer, followed by smoking. HIV infection is also a ... Bosch FX, de Sanjosé S (2007). "The epidemiology of human papillomavirus infection and cervical cancer". Disease Markers. 23 (4 ... February 2013). "The role of co-factors in the progression from human papillomavirus infection to cervical cancer". Gynecologic ...
Infection with the human papillomavirus (HPV) can cause changes in the epithelium, which can lead to cancer of the cervix. ... Cervical cancer nearly always involves human papillomavirus (HPV) infection. HPV is a virus with numerous strains, several of ... HPV vaccines, developed in the early 21st century, reduce the risk of cervical cancer by preventing infections from the main ... As many as half of pregnant women having a gonorrheal infection of the cervix are asymptomatic. Other causes include overgrowth ...
Sinal SH, Woods CR (October 2005). "Human papillomavirus infections of the genital and respiratory tracts in young children". ... Should an oncogenic protein, such as those produced by cells infected by high-risk types of human papillomavirus, bind and ... Münger K, Howley PM (November 2002). "Human papillomavirus immortalization and transformation functions". Virus Research. 89 (2 ... Greenblatt RJ (2005). "Human papillomaviruses: Diseases, diagnosis, and a possible vaccine". Clinical Microbiology Newsletter. ...
Cervical cancer can be caused by human papillomavirus (HPV) infection. AIM2 protein can recognise viral DNA in cytoplasm and ... HPV infection causes the upregulation of sirtuin 1 protein, which disrupts the transcription factor for AIM2, RelB. Knockdown ... In a healthy cell, caspase-1 activation helps to fight infection caused by Salmonella and Shigella by introducing cell death to ... Doitsh G, Greene WC (March 2016). "Dissecting How CD4 T Cells Are Lost During HIV Infection". Cell Host & Microbe. 19 (3): 280- ...
Molecular testing identifies an infection called human papillomavirus, or HPV. Human papillomavirus (HPV) infection is a cause ... Most women will successfully clear HPV infections within 18 months. Those that have a prolonged infection with a high-risk type ... September 1999). "Human papillomavirus is a necessary cause of invasive cervical cancer worldwide". The Journal of Pathology. ... December 2003). "Management of women who test positive for high-risk types of human papillomavirus: the HART study". Lancet. ...
Her dissertation was titled Oropharyngeal cancer attributable to human papillomavirus 16 (HPV16) infection. Her doctoral ... D'Souza, Gypsyamber (2006). Oropharyngeal cancer attributable to human papillomavirus 16 (HPV16) infection (Thesis). OCLC ...
"Human Papillomavirus Infections and Upper Aero-Digestive Tract Cancers: The ARCAGE Study" (PDF). JNCI Journal of the National ... viral infections, and other lifestyle factors in cancer development. Renato Talamini was born in Vittorio Veneto, Italy, into a ...
4 November 1998). "Oral Cancer Risk in Relation to Sexual History and Evidence of Human Papillomavirus Infection". JNCI Journal ... Ault, KA (2006). "Epidemiology and Natural History of Human Papillomavirus Infections in the Female Genital tract". Infectious ... "Oral Human Papillomavirus (HPV) Infection in HPV-Positive Patients With Oropharyngeal Cancer and Their Partners". Journal of ... "Survival of squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck in relation to human papillomavirus infection: Review and meta- ...
Gunter, Jennifer (September 2003). "Genital and perianal warts: new treatment opportunities for human papillomavirus infection ... in situ hybridization analysis for human papillomavirus". Primary Care Update for OB/GYNS. Elsevier Science Inc. 5 (4): 152. ...
Human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccines are vaccines that prevent infection by certain types of human papillomavirus (HPV). ... 2007). "MVA E2 recombinant vaccine in the treatment of human papillomavirus infection in men presenting intraurethral flat ... World Health Organization (2011). The immunological basis for immunization series: module 19: human papillomavirus infection. ... "Human Papillomavirus (HPV) Vaccines". National Institutes of Health (NIH). 18 June 2021. Papillomavirus Vaccines at the U.S. ...
The tumors are caused by human papillomavirus (HPV) infection of the throat. The tumors may lead to narrowing of the airway, ... Laryngeal papillomatosis is caused by human papillomavirus (HPV) infection, most frequently types 6 and 11 although genotypes ... "The human papillomavirus vaccine as a treatment for human papillomavirus-related dysplastic and neoplastic conditions: A ... In more aggressive cases, infection of the lungs can occur with progressive airway obstruction. Although rare (less than 1% of ...
Warren C, Westrich J, Doorslaer K, Pyeon D (August 2017). "Roles of APOBEC3A and APOBEC3B in Human Papillomavirus Infection and ... APOBEC3 family of cytidine deaminase enzymes respond to viral infections by editing viral genome, but the enzymatic activity of ... APOBEC complex is thought to be involved in host immune response to viral infections and lipid metabolism. Both Signature 2 and ... has also been found to cause unwanted host genome editing and may even participate to oncogenesis in human papillomavirus- ...
"Epidemiology and natural history of human papillomavirus infections and type-specific implications in cervical neoplasia". ... HPV infection of the vulva and vagina can cause genital warts or be asymptomatic. The cause of CIN is chronic infection of the ... While infection with HPV is needed for development of CIN, most women with HPV infection do not develop high-grade ... infection is necessary for the development of CIN, but not all with this infection develop cervical cancer. Many women with HPV ...
"Global gene methylation profiling of common warts caused by human papillomaviruses infection". Saudi Journal of Biological ... A study of global gene methylation of common warts caused by HPV infection found that c12orf71 gene is differentially ...
"Condom Use and the Risk of Genital Human Papillomavirus Infection in Young Women". New England Journal of Medicine. 354 (25): ... Exposure to human papillomavirus, even in individuals already infected with the virus, appears to increase the risk of ... To a lesser extent, they also protect against genital herpes, human papillomavirus (HPV), and syphilis. Condoms as a method of ... A 2006 study reports that proper condom use decreases the risk of transmission of human papillomavirus (HPV) to women by ...
"Prevalence of human papilloma virus infection in patients with male accessory gland infection". Reproductive BioMedicine Online ...
"Condom use and the risk of genital human papillomavirus infection in young women". The New England Journal of Medicine. 354 (25 ... vaginal infection, and urinary tract infection.[citation needed] Sterilization procedures are generally considered to have a ... Other barrier methods, such as diaphragms may provide limited protection against infections in the upper genital tract. Other ... Cates W, Steiner MJ (March 2002). "Dual protection against unintended pregnancy and sexually transmitted infections: what is ...
"Latent Infection Induced with Cottontail Rabbit Papillomavirus: A Model for Human Papillomavirus Latency". American Journal of ... Steinberg, collaborating with Allan Abramson, M.D., discovered that HPVs establish latent infections, which are the source of ... discovering that their signaling systems are altered in HPV infection and the cells don't get the right messages to carry out ... Steinberg began her studies of human papillomaviruses (HPVs) and their role in diseases of the head and neck, especially ...
Human papillomavirus (HPV) is the most commonly transmitted sexually transmitted infection, affecting both men and women. While ... Larke N, Thomas SL, Dos Santos Silva I, Weiss HA (November 2011). "Male circumcision and human papillomavirus infection in men ... "Male circumcision and human papillomavirus infection in men: a systematic review and meta-analysis" (2011), Albero et al. "Male ... Rehmeyer CJ (March 2011). "Male circumcision and human papillomavirus studies reviewed by infection stage and virus type". The ...
INMEGEN studies how proteins are affected by the immune system in papillomavirus infection. The institution develops projects ...
HPV is human papillomavirus, a virus which causes human papillomavirus infection (HPV infection). HPV may also refer to: ... the taxonomic family of human papillomavirus Search for "hpv" on Wikipedia. All pages with titles containing Hpv This ...
"The S100A10 subunit of the annexin A2 heterotetramer facilitates L2-mediated human papillomavirus infection". PLOS ONE. 7 (8): ... Ramalingam R, Rafii S, Worgall S, Hackett NR, Crystal RG (Dec 1999). "Induction of endogenous genes following infection of ... Infection and Immunity. 36 (2): 591-7. doi:10.1016/j.coph.2006.10.001. PMC 351269. PMID 7085073. Gladwin MT, Yao XL, Cowan M, ...
Some HPV infections can lead to cancer. Most HPV infections (9 out of 10) go away by themselves within 2 years. But sometimes, ... HPV infections will last longer and can cause some cancers. HPV infections can cause cancers of the:. *Cervix, vagina, and ... HPV, or human papillomavirus, is a common virus that can cause cancers later in life. You can protect your child from these ... HPV infections are very common. Nearly everyone will get HPV at some point in their lives. ...
The infection is caused by the human papilloma virus (HPV). ... infection is the most common sexually transmitted infection. ... Human papillomavirus infection is the most common sexually transmitted infection. The infection is caused by the human ... Most people who develop oropharyngeal cancer from an HPV infection have had the infection for a long time. ... papilloma virus (HPV). HPV can cause genital warts and lead to cervical cancer. Certain types of HPV can cause an infection in ...
... infection is a common sexually transmitted infection (STI) caused by human papillomavirus. There are several different strains ... What is human papillomavirus infection?. Human papillomavirus (HPV) is a viral infection thats passed between people through ... Human papillomavirus (HPV) that occurs in the mouth is a sexually transmitted infection (STI). It often has few or no symptoms ... Human papillomavirus (HPV) is an extremely common sexually transmitted infection, and most sexually active men and women will ...
... and human papillomavirus (HPV) families cause the most common primary viral infections of the oral cavity. HPV infections have ... This article discusses viral conditions of the oral cavity, including HHV infection, HPV infection, coxsackievirus infection, ... Parisi SG, Cruciani M, Scaggiante R, Boldrin C, Andreis S, Dal Bello F. Anal and oral human papillomavirus (HPV) infection in ... Concordant Oral and Vaginal Human Papillomavirus Infection in the United States. JAMA Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg. 2016 Mar 24. ...
Human papillomaviruses* The epithelial lining of the anogenital tract is the target for infection by a group of mucosotropic ... Human papillomavirus (HPV) infection is now recognized as the main cause of cervical cancer, the role of coexisting factors is ... Persistent genital human papillomavirus infection as a risk factor for persistent cervical dysplasia. J Natl Cancer Inst 1995; ... Cervical cancer: epidemiology, prevention and the role of human papillomavirus infection. Eduardo L. Franco, Eliane Duarte- ...
Human papillomavirus infection - Homo sapiens (human) + Pathogen [ Pathway menu , Organism menu , Pathway entry , Show ... nt06166 Human papillomavirus (HPV) * N00367 HPV E5 to EGFR-RAS-ERK signaling pathway ... Human papillomavirus (HPV) is a non-enveloped, double-stranded DNA virus. HPV infect mucoal and cutaneous epithelium resulting ...
Men were checked for the presence of genital human papillomavirus (HPV)-associated lesions. The evaluation included acetic acid ... Prevalence of human papillomavirus infection in men. Comparison of the partners of infected and uninfected women J Reprod Med. ... The male sexual partners of women with HPV infection had a significantly higher risk of harboring genital HPV infection as ... Men were checked for the presence of genital human papillomavirus (HPV)-associated lesions. The evaluation included acetic acid ...
A Groundbreaking Stand-Alone Diagnostic Kit to Predict Human Papilloma Virus Infections Evolving into Cervical Cancer. ... A Groundbreaking Stand-Alone Diagnostic Kit to Predict Human Papilloma Virus Infections Evolving into Cervical Cancer). Okres ... HPV OncoPredict is unique in its power to discriminate clinically relevant from irrelevant HPV infections by means of a high- ... HPV is the most commonly acquired sexually transmitted virus, with around four out of five people contracting this infection at ...
Langley C, Benga-De E, Critchlow C, et al. HIV-1, HIV-2, human papillomavirus infection and cervical neoplasia in high-risk ... Gitsch G, Kainz Ch, Reinthaller A, et al. Cervical neoplasia and human papilloma virus infection in prostitutes. Genitourin Med ... Objectives: Sex workers are at increased risk for sexually transmitted infections (STI), human papillomavirus (HPV) and hence ... Human papillomavirus (HPV) is sexually transmitted and causally related to cervical cancer,1 and sex workers are therefore at ...
... and human papillomavirus (HPV) families cause the most common primary viral infections of the oral cavity. HPV infections have ... This article discusses viral conditions of the oral cavity, including HHV infection, HPV infection, coxsackievirus infection, ... Parisi SG, Cruciani M, Scaggiante R, Boldrin C, Andreis S, Dal Bello F. Anal and oral human papillomavirus (HPV) infection in ... Concordant Oral and Vaginal Human Papillomavirus Infection in the United States. JAMA Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg. 2016 Mar 24. ...
Shared and persistent asymptomatic cutaneous human papillomavirus infections in healthy skin.. November 19, 2011. By Jonathan 1 ... Shared and persistent asymptomatic cutaneous human papillomavirus infections in healthy skin.. ... Cutaneous human papillomavirus (HPV) types are commonly found in normal skin, and some of them have been suspected to play a ...
Human papillomavirus infection - Homo sapiens (human) [ Pathway menu , Organism menu , Pathway entry , Show description , ... nt06166 Human papillomavirus (HPV) * N00367 HPV E5 to EGFR-RAS-ERK signaling pathway ... Human papillomavirus (HPV) is a non-enveloped, double-stranded DNA virus. HPV infect mucoal and cutaneous epithelium resulting ...
Papillomavirus Res 2018;5:38-45. [PMID: 29272853] Evander M., Edlund K., Gustafsson A., et al. Human papillomavirus infection ... Human papillomavirus types in 115,789 HPV-positive women: a meta-analysis from cervical infection to cancer. Int J Cancer 2012; ... Human papillomavirus infection and cytologic abnormalities of the anus and cervix among HIV-infected women in the study to ... Natural history of cervicovaginal papillomavirus infection in young women. N Engl J Med 1998;338(7):423-28. [PMID: 9459645] ...
Human Papillomavirus (HPV) Vaccine - Explore from the MSD Manuals - Medical Consumer Version. ... vaccine helps protect against infection by the strains of HPV Human Papillomavirus (HPV) Infection Human papillomavirus (HPV) ... Genital or anal warts Human Papillomavirus (HPV) Infection Human papillomavirus (HPV) can be sexually transmitted and causes ... Most cervical cancers are caused by human papillomavirus (HPV) infection. Cervical cancer usually results from infection... ...
Smoking increases the probability of hrHPV infection, and smoking intensity is positively associated to this increase. Smoking ... as a surrogate of persistent hrHPV infection, we used data from women recruited for the PIPAVIR project, which examined the ... Persistent cervical infection with high-risk human papillomaviruses (hrHPVs) is a necessary, but not sufficient, condition for ... Cigarette Smoking Promotes Infection of Cervical Cells by High-Risk Human Papillomaviruses, but not Subsequent E7 Oncoprotein ...
The human papillomavirus infection in men study: human papillomavirus prevalence and type distribution among men residing in ... Smoking and human papillomavirus (HPV) infection in the HPV in Men (HIM) study. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev 2012;211:102- ... Multiple-type human papillomavirus infection in younger uncircumcised men. Int J STD AIDS 2013; 24:128-33. ... Genital human papillomavirus infection: incidence and risk factors in a cohort of female university students. Am J Epidemiol ...
Oral human papillomavirus infection in women with cervical HPV infection: New data from an Italian cohort and a metanalysis of ... Sexual Transmission of Oral Human Papillomavirus Infection among Men Kristina R. Dahlstrom; Kristina R. Dahlstrom ... The prevalence and incidence of oral human papillomavirus infection among young men and women, aged 18-30 years ... Genital and extra-genital warts increase the risk of asymptomatic genital human papillomavirus infection in men ...
HPV infection in FSWs was significantly associated with the age at first sexual intercourse (OR 0.699, 95 % CI 0.492-0.992 ... Data on HPV infection and histological and cytological lesions of the cervix were obtained and analyzed. A questionnaire survey ... This study aimed to determine the prevalence and risk factors of HPV infection in FSWs in Northeast China. A total of 309 FSWs ... Age of first sexual intercourse and post-menopause are two independent risk factors for HPV infection in this special group of ...
Age-specific prevalence of cervical human papillomavirus infection and cytological abnormalities in women in Gauteng Province ... Age-specific prevalence of cervical human papillomavirus infection and cytological abnormalities in women in Gauteng Province. ... This cross-sectional study describes the age-specific prevalence of human papillomavirus (HPV) infection and cytological ... The prevalences of HPV infection and abnormal cytology were much higher than previously reported in general populations in ...
Disruption of the E2 Gene Is a Common and Early Event in the Natural History of Cervical Human Papillomavirus Infection: A ... If HPV16 infection is more likely to be followed by a severe cytologic abnormality than is HPV18 infection, then screening ... Natural history of cervical human papillomavirus infection in young women: a longitudinal cohort study. Lancet ... Disruption of the E2 Gene Is a Common and Early Event in the Natural History of Cervical Human Papillomavirus Infection: A ...
Human Papillomavirus (HPV) Vaccine - Explore from the MSD Manuals - Medical Consumer Version. ... vaccine helps protect against infection by the strains of HPV Human Papillomavirus (HPV) Infection Human papillomavirus (HPV) ... Genital or anal warts Human Papillomavirus (HPV) Infection Human papillomavirus (HPV) can be sexually transmitted and causes ... Most cervical cancers are caused by human papillomavirus (HPV) infection. Cervical cancer usually results from infection... ...
... Song, ... Cervical cancer; human papilloma virus; high-risk HPV genotype; prevalence; Vietnam National Category Cancer and Oncology ... Aim: The goal of the present study was to determine the prevalence and distribution of high-risk human papilloma virus (HPV) ...
Assessment of Human Papillomavirus Infection and Risk Factors in Egyptian Women With Breast Cancer. ... Assessment of Human Papillomavirus Infection and Risk Factors in Egyptian Women With Breast Cancer. Breast Cancer (Auckl). 2021 ...
... On-line free medical diagnosis assistant. Ranked list of possible diseases from either several ...
... for hepatitis C virus infection; 33.9% (95% CI: 24.3-43.5%) for high-risk human papillomavirus infection from cervical samples ... for human herpes virus 8 infection. The prevalence of major cancer risk factors was high among PLWHA in China, suggesting an ... for hepatitis B virus infection; 29.1% (95% CI: 23.6-34.5%) ... Anal human papillomavirus infection among HIV-infected and ... Human papillomavirus infection prevalence; (g) Epstein-Barr virus infection prevalence; (h) Human herpes virus 8 infection ...
Human papillomavirus type 16 infection and squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck in never-smokers: a matched pair ... PURPOSE: Infection with human papillomavirus (HPV) type 16 has been suggested to be a risk factor for squamous cell carcinoma ... "Human papillomavirus type 16 infection and squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck in never-smokers: a matched pair ... Human papillomavirus type 16 infection and squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck in never-smokers: a matched pair ...
Human papillomavirus (HPV) infection. The human papillomavirus (HPV) is a group of over 200 related viruses. They are called ... But infection with certain high-risk types of HPV can cause some forms of cancers, including cancers of the cervix, vagina, ... Significance of human papillomavirus positivity in sinonasal squamous cell carcinoma. Int Forum Allergy Rhinol. 2017;7(10):980- ... more research is needed to show that HPV infection causes them. ... papilloma viruses because some of them cause a type of benign ( ...
... and human papillomavirus (HPV) families cause the most common primary viral infections of the oral cavity. HPV infections have ... This article discusses viral conditions of the oral cavity, including HHV infection, HPV infection, coxsackievirus infection, ... Parisi SG, Cruciani M, Scaggiante R, Boldrin C, Andreis S, Dal Bello F. Anal and oral human papillomavirus (HPV) infection in ... Concordant Oral and Vaginal Human Papillomavirus Infection in the United States. JAMA Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg. 2016 Mar 24. ...
  • Human papillomavirus (HPV) infection is now recognized as the main cause of cervical cancer, the role of coexisting factors is better understood, a new cytology reporting terminology has improved diagnosis and management of precursor lesions, and specific treatment protocols have increased survival among patients with early or advanced disease. (cmaj.ca)
  • Men were checked for the presence of genital human papillomavirus (HPV)-associated lesions. (nih.gov)
  • Approximately 30 different HPV types infect cells in the anus and genital tract, including the cervix, and may cause asymptomatic infection, condylomata acuminata (genital warts), squamous intraepithelial lesions (SILs), glandular cell abnormalities, and anal and cervical cancer or other genital carcinomas. (hivguidelines.org)
  • HPV infection is often asymptomatic, and the time course from initial infection to the presence of lesions has not been determined, preventing a reliable method for determining the source and time of acquisition. (hivguidelines.org)
  • Data on HPV infection and histological and cytological lesions of the cervix were obtained and analyzed. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Presence of papillomavirus infections in genital lesions of women in Romania. (adventube.ro)
  • Clinical and molecular analyses for detection of DNA PV infection, as well as histopathology examination and cytogenetic evaluation were carried out in clinical lesions canines. (fiocruz.br)
  • Reviewed By Experts Human Papillomavirus infection is a common sexually transmitted infection and serves as the primary catalyst for various epithelial lesions and cancers. (blogarama.com)
  • p16INK4A Expression in Condyloma Acuminata Lesions Associated with High-Risk Human Papillomavirus Infection. (bvsalud.org)
  • The objective of this study was to discover the possible correlation between p16INK4A expression and the LR/HR- HPV infection in condyloma acuminate (CA) lesions. (bvsalud.org)
  • Background Robust age-specific estimates of anal human papillomavirus (HPV) and high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions (HSIL) in HIV-positive and HIV-negative men can inform anal cancer prevention efforts. (who.int)
  • To investigate the clinical role of nm23 expression in identifying both high‐risk human papillomavirus (HR‐HPV) and high‐grade cervical lesions or carcinomas [cervical intraepithelial neoplasia 2 + (CIN2 + )], and to compare it with p16 overexpression, as this latter biomarker has already been reported widely in HR‐HPV infected cervical lesions. (mcmaster.ca)
  • Rettig E, Gourin CG, Fakhry C. Human papillomavirus and the epidemiology of head and neck cancer. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Human Papillomavirus - HPV - Nucleus Health helminth disease epidemiology Mijloace pentru îndepărtarea viermilor la om creșterea pielii human papillomavirus infection goes away negi genitale, peritoneal cancer types paraziti piele simptome. (turismodobesti.ro)
  • Scholars@Duke publication: Human papillomavirus type 16 infection and squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck in never-smokers: a matched pair analysis. (duke.edu)
  • PURPOSE: Infection with human papillomavirus (HPV) type 16 has been suggested to be a risk factor for squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck (SCCHN) and to be more commonly associated with SCCHN occurring in the oropharynx and in never-smokers. (duke.edu)
  • Popa L. Specific targeting of human papillomavirus type 16 E7 oncogene with triple-helix forming purine oligodeoxyribonucleotides. (adventube.ro)
  • The vaccine does not contain any live virus and thus cannot cause HPV infection. (msdmanuals.com)
  • For more information, see the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's (CDC) HPV (Human Papillomavirus) vaccine information statement . (msdmanuals.com)
  • Although HPV has no cure, infection by some high risk strains can be prevented with the HPV vaccine. (buckscountywomenswellness.com)
  • The HPV vaccine cannot cure existing HPV infections, but it can be used to prevent you from being infected with other strains of HPV in the future. (buckscountywomenswellness.com)
  • Human papilloma virus who Human Papillomavirus HPV Vaccine and Public Comments hpv virus tratament Sugari pentru tratamentul viermilor viermi cum aduc, papillomavirus vaccin date anthelmintic definition pharmacology. (turismodobesti.ro)
  • EurLex-2 Patent claims 9 and 16 concern a vaccine for the prevention of infections with the human papillomavirus. (bogdanvetu.ro)
  • Papillomavirus humain traitement homme Papillomavirus : risques et protection - La Maison des maternelles LMDM hepatocellular cancer signalling pathway Benign cancer cancerous hpv cure mexican scientists fara miros, hpv vaccine boy paralyzed papiloma virus humano como se contagia. (modelm.ro)
  • Before implementing a large-scale HPV vaccine campaign in Viet Nam, information about the prevalence of infection with the HPV vaccine types is required. (who.int)
  • While it is relevant to implement an HPV vaccine campaign in Viet Nam due to the high prevalence of infection with HPV 16 and/or 18, it is important to note that one can be infected with multiple types of HPV. (who.int)
  • Human papillomavirus vaccine in german Infecţia cu virusul imunodeficienţei umane Human Immunodeficiency Virus, HIV este de asemenea o problemă de sănătate globală, Centrul pentru Controlul şi Prevenţia Bolilor Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, CDC raportând în existenţa a aproximativ 36,9 milioane de oameni trăind cu această infecţie, dintre care doar 21,7 milioane se aflau sub tratament. (metin2kiss.ro)
  • Some cases of genital HPV infection may not cause any health problems. (healthline.com)
  • Most people get a genital HPV infection through direct sexual contact, including vaginal, anal, and oral sex. (healthline.com)
  • The male sexual partners of women with HPV infection had a significantly higher risk of harboring genital HPV infection as compared to partners of uninfected women. (nih.gov)
  • The biological role that alcohol plays in genital HPV infection remains understudied and limited epidemiological data exist, especially among men. (bmj.com)
  • Genital hpv infection symptoms in males people infected with HPV are not aware Tulpinile de Hpv virus symptoms in males 16 i 18 sunt tupinile cu risc of this because they seldom show any symptoms oncogen crescut, recunoscute a provoca aproape genital hpv infection symptoms in males signs. (metin2kiss.ro)
  • Shared and persistent asymptomatic cutaneous human papillomavirus infections in healthy skin. (sanevax.org)
  • Blood sample from the both epithelial infection and the asymptomatic dogs had been collected for molecular analysis. (fiocruz.br)
  • Asymptomatic Ureaplasma urealyticum infection is closely associated with human papillomavirus infection, suggesting simultaneous evaluation for both infections during gynecological screening. (consensus.app)
  • This study aimed to determine the role of asymptomatic bacterial sexually transmitted infections (STIs), such as Chlamydia trachomatis (Ct), Mycoplasma genitalium (Mg), Mycoplasma hominis (Mh), and Ureaplasma urealyticum (Uu) in human papillomavirus (HPV) infection. (consensus.app)
  • Our data suggested that asymptomatic HDC-Uu was closely associated with HPV infection. (consensus.app)
  • La infección por HPV (virus del papiloma humano o Human Papilloma Virus por sus siglas en inglés) causan a nivel genital verrugas, papilomas y condilomas acuminados. (anejo.eu)
  • Paraziti in sarcina Hpv warts go away forever - Hpv virus go away Cancer de colon nombre cientifico tratamiento del virus del papiloma humano en la mujer, papillomatosis rare laryngeal papillomatosis infant. (turismodobesti.ro)
  • Mode de contamination du papillomavirus infection papillomavirus traitement colon hereditario Virus papiloma humano vacuna chile djecje gliste paraziti, sarcoma cancer aids asportazione papilloma gola. (modelm.ro)
  • Les condylomes VPHpar Dr Marc Steben cancerul de prostata formula as Que es la papiloma virus wart treatment nhs, papillomavirus souche 16 papiloma humano virus cancer. (modelm.ro)
  • Hpv related cancer in males Journal Club, Symptoms of human papillomavirus in males Papiloma ductal tratamento Cancer hpv virus in males males from hpv - fotobiennale. (metin2kiss.ro)
  • HCMV and HPV infection was investigated using nested and conventional polymerase chain reaction, respectively. (aku.edu)
  • Oral HPV infection shows no symptoms. (medlineplus.gov)
  • An oral HPV infection has no symptoms and cannot be detected by a test. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Often, HPV infection doesn't cause any noticeable symptoms or health problems. (healthline.com)
  • Learn more about HPV symptoms and infection. (healthline.com)
  • Many men who contract an HPV infection have no symptoms, although some may develop genital warts. (healthline.com)
  • Like with men, many women that get HPV don't have any symptoms and the infection goes away without causing any health problems. (healthline.com)
  • Most people with oral HPV infections don't have symptoms. (clevelandclinic.org)
  • Human papillomavirus infection symptoms male. (metin2kiss.ro)
  • Human papillomavirus symptoms in males, Înțelesul "papillomavirus" în dicționarul Engleză Hpv virus symptoms male. (metin2kiss.ro)
  • This guideline on human papillomavirus (HPV) in individuals with HIV was developed by the New York State Department of Health AIDS Institute (NYSDOH AI) to inform primary care providers and other practitioners in New York State about HPV prevention, screening methods, diagnosis and presentation, and treatment in adults with HIV. (hivguidelines.org)
  • The identification of high-risk human papillomavirus (HPV) types offers not only the prospect of effective primary prevention but also the possibility of improving the efficiency of cervical screening programs. (aacrjournals.org)
  • In 1994, the U.S. Public Health Service (USPHS) and the Infectious Diseases Society of America (IDSA) recognized that, although strategies were available to reduce the frequency of opportunistic infections in patients who have human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection, information regarding prevention of both exposure and disease often was published in journals not regularly reviewed by health-care providers. (cdc.gov)
  • In response, USPHS/IDSA developed comprehensive guidelines for health-care providers and patients that consolidated information pertaining to the prevention of opportunistic infections in persons infected with HIV. (cdc.gov)
  • The response to the 1995 guidelines (e.g., the many requests for reprints and observations from health-care providers) suggests that they have served as a valuable reference against which local policies regarding prevention of opportunistic infections could be compared. (cdc.gov)
  • According to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), HPV is the most common sexually transmitted infection (STI). (buckscountywomenswellness.com)
  • Oral cavity, oropharyngeal, hypopharyngeal, and laryngeal cancers prevention approaches include avoiding or reducing risk factors like smoking, alcohol, and oral HPV infection. (oncolink.org)
  • 2013). 'Determination of Knowledge of Turkish Midwifery Students about Human Papilloma Virus Infection and its Vaccines', Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , 14(11), pp. 6775-6778. (waocp.org)
  • 2006-2015.1 The review highlighted the achievements and progress in prevention interventions and programmes, particularly in human papillomavirus control and global elimination of congenital syphilis. (who.int)
  • In addition, Member States voiced strong support for WHO's continued work on the prevention and control of such infections, which would, ideally, address specified, achievable targets to measure success and define challenges. (who.int)
  • abstract = "Several viruses, including human papillomaviruses, depend on endosomal acidification for successful infection. (lih.lu)
  • ABSTRACT Studies have suggested a possible link between breast cancer pathogenesis and human papillomavirus (HPV) infection. (who.int)
  • Paraziți în inimă papillomavirus femme, schema filum platyhelminthes leac pentru viermi de la 2 ani. (turismodobesti.ro)
  • Papilloma virus hsil pastile pentru infection papillomavirus traitement, un papillomavirus en arabe hpv impfung fur jungen aok. (modelm.ro)
  • In men, the subclinical HPV în vedere faptul că la bărbaţi infecția subclinică este Medeleanu1, infection is 10 times more frequent then the de peste 10 ori mai frecventă decât cea human papillomavirus infection etiology and pathogenesis, Cristiana symptomatic one, therefore the diagnosis often diagnosticul acesteia necesită, de cele mai multe ori, Voicu1, requires special procedures and techniques. (evenimente-corporate.ro)
  • HPV se limitează la nivelul scrotului şi uretrei de de cazuri noi la La pacienții imunocompentenți, imunitatea human papillomavirus infection etiology and pathogenesis Aproximativ jumătate dintre adulţii activi din punct poate controla infecția latentă cu HPV şi poate induce de vedere sexual prezintă infecţie subclinică cu una sau regresia leziunilor induse de acest virus 4însă în anu- mai multe tulpini de HPV, majoritatea tulpini benigne. (evenimente-corporate.ro)
  • Human papillomavirus (HPV) is involved in the pathogenesis of many cancers and has a high prevalence in patients with cervical and oral cancer in Pakistan. (aku.edu)
  • Certain types of HPV can cause an infection in the mouth and throat. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Current research has focused on the determinants of infection with oncogenic HPV types, the assessment of prophylactic and therapeutic vaccines and the development of screening strategies incorporating HPV testing and other methods as adjunct to cytology. (cmaj.ca)
  • Cutaneous human papillomavirus (HPV) types are commonly found in normal skin, and some of them have been suspected to play a role in the development of non-melanoma skin cancer. (sanevax.org)
  • 4-6 Although the majority of HPV infections are transient and do not result in disease, the failure to develop an immune response to control an infection results in viral persistence and, in the case of the oncogenic HPV types, an increased risk of progression to cancer. (bmj.com)
  • Human papillomavirus (HPV) is a major risk factor for several types of cancer including oropharyngeal cancer. (aacrjournals.org)
  • although the virus alone may not be sufficient to cause cancer [ 4 ], virtually all cervical cancers are associated with persistent infection with one of the high-risk types of HPV. (biomedcentral.com)
  • But infection with certain high-risk types of HPV can cause some forms of cancers, including cancers of the cervix , vagina , anus , vulva , penis , mouth , and throat . (cancer.org)
  • Cervical infection with certain types of HPV is causally associated with cervical cancer in women. (cdc.gov)
  • Opalka D, Lachman CE, MacMullen SA, Jansen KU, Smith JF, Chirmule N, Esser MT. Simultaneous quantitation of antibodies to neutralizing epitopes on virus-like particles for human papillomavirus types 6, 11, 16, and 18 by a multiplexed luminex assay. (cdc.gov)
  • While skin cancer, throat cancer, and mouth cancer have been linked to the human papillomavirus, there are many other cancer types that doctors have long associated with the infection. (belmarrahealth.com)
  • The infection inhibitory potencies of saliphenylhalamide, a proven V-ATPase inhibitor, and its derivatives, as well as those of other V-ATPase inhibitors, were analyzed on different HPV types in relevant cell lines. (lih.lu)
  • Infection with some types of HPV is the greatest risk factor for cervical cancer, followed by smoking. (wikipedia.org)
  • Risk factors for cervical cancer are closely linked to sexual behavior and to sexually transmitted infections with certain types of human papillomavirus. (cdc.gov)
  • 13-15 The prevalence of cervical HPV infection ranged from 6.1% in Ha Noi to 10.2% in Can Tho. (who.int)
  • In human cervical neoplasia human papillomavirus (HPV) type 18 has a higher cancer/cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN) prevalence ratio than HPV 16. (nih.gov)
  • Does human papillomavirus infection go away Human Papillomavirus HPV teniera ovariană bovină Human papillomavirus 52 positive squamous cell carcinoma of the conjunctiva Hpv virus can it go away Conținutul Human papillomavirus 52 positive squamous cell carcinoma of the conjunctiva Can human papilloma virus go away Conținutul Does human papilloma virus go away What is HPV? (turismodobesti.ro)
  • In line with the 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development, WHO has developed a draft global health sector strategy on sexually transmitted infections, 2016-2021 (see the Annex of the present report for a summary of the draft strategy). (who.int)
  • See Cutaneous Manifestations of HIV Disease and Cutaneous Manifestations of Hepatitis C for information on these viral infections. (medscape.com)
  • The findings documented as mucosal and cutaneous tropism, which the PV viral infection not confined only epithelial sites, but also involved intracellular genome of host cell. (fiocruz.br)
  • The researchers reported that cutaneous (skin-related) human papillomavirus, as opposed to HPV associated with cervical cancers, could be a risk factor for squamous cell carcinoma (SCC). (belmarrahealth.com)
  • RÉSUMÉ Des études ont suggéré qu'un lien était possible entre la pathogénèse du cancer du sein et l'infection à papillomavirus humain. (who.int)
  • L'étude menée en Iraq a utilisé la méthode d'hybridation in situ pour déterminer la fréquence du papillomavirus humain et pour son génotypage dans les échantillons de tissus prélevés auprès de 129 patientes ayant reçu un diagnostic de cancer du sein malin, de 24 patientes porteuses d'une tumeur du sein bénigne et de 20 femmes témoins en bonne santé. (who.int)
  • Papillomavirus HPV : infection papillomavirus traitement, infection, vaccin, contamination, symptômes, cancer wart virus starting with m Bacterii nefolositoare detoxifiere dupa alcool, cancer linfatico abdominal 3 exemple de ciuperci infection papillomavirus traitement. (modelm.ro)
  • HPV, or human papillomavirus, is a common virus that can cause cancers later in life. (cdc.gov)
  • But sometimes, HPV infections will last longer and can cause some cancers. (cdc.gov)
  • The two currently licensed human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccines are highly efficacious in preventing cervical pre-cancers related to HPV 6, 11, 16 and 18. (who.int)
  • Consequence du papillomavirus chez lhomme Papillomavirus dna replication papillomavirus ou. (bogdanvetu.ro)
  • Human Papillomavirus (HPV) Infection Human papillomavirus (HPV) can be sexually transmitted and causes changes in cells, which can lead to genital warts or to precancer or cancer of the cervix, vagina, vulva, anus, or throat. (msdmanuals.com)
  • Human Papillomavirus infection (HPV) causes genital warts, papillomas and condyloma acuminata. (anejo.eu)
  • Is the human papillomavirus DNA present in penile warts? (adventube.ro)
  • Myths about Human Papillomavirus HPV detoxifierea colonului cu faina de in Hpv warts go away forever - Hpv virus go away Will human papilloma virus go away. (turismodobesti.ro)
  • Papilloma in poodles hpv warts number, endometrial cancer jco bitterul suedez si infection papillomavirus traitement de infection papillomavirus traitement uterin. (modelm.ro)
  • Human Papillomavirus (HPV) is a viral infection passed from skin to skin and/or sexual contact during vaginal, anal, or oral sex. (buckscountywomenswellness.com)
  • Most people who develop oropharyngeal cancer from an HPV infection have had the infection for a long time. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Of 3,172 specimens tested, 2,236 were positive for Human papillomavirus (HPV) is an etiologic agent of -globin and were included in the analysis (median par- cervical cancer. (cdc.gov)
  • This trend, suggestive of a resurgence in cervical cancer, has also been observed in many European countries and could reflect increased cancer detection by the use of new diagnostic techniques, such as human papillomavirus (HPV) testing and cervicography, or it could be the result of a cohort effect. (cmaj.ca)
  • With the identification of the human papillomavirus (HPV) as the causative agent of essentially all cervical cancer cases, HPV molecular tests have been developed to allow screening for early disease detection. (europa.eu)
  • Available HPV tests are unable to discriminate HPV infections regressing spontaneously from those turning into cancer. (europa.eu)
  • Sex workers are at increased risk for sexually transmitted infections (STI), human papillomavirus (HPV) and hence cervical cancer. (bmj.com)
  • Human papillomavirus (HPV) is sexually transmitted and causally related to cervical cancer, 1 and sex workers are therefore at increased risk for cervical cancer. (bmj.com)
  • Women accessing the public health system in Gauteng Province are largely unscreened for cervical cancer and have a high background prevalence of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection. (samj.org.za)
  • We conducted a meta-analysis among PLWHA in China to describe the prevalence of major cancer risk factors including tobacco smoking, alcohol consumption, overweight and obesity, and cancer-related viral infections such as hepatitis B virus (HBV), hepatitis C virus (HCV), human papillomavirus (HPV), Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) and human herpes virus 8 (HHV8). (nature.com)
  • CONCLUSIONS: HPV-16 infection is associated with a significant increased risk for oropharyngeal cancer but not oral cavity cancer. (duke.edu)
  • This accounts for a big sanitary problem as women may spread the virus blind to its presence, and because there is a relationship between HPV infection and cervical cancer. (anejo.eu)
  • This paper offers information about possible systemic treatments of HPV infection, based on the documentation from the PubMed database human papillomavirus infection goes away cancer lower back, including immunomodulatory drugs, antiviral medications, therapeutic Sintomi del papillomavirus hpv vaccines and biological therapy. (turismodobesti.ro)
  • Cum se poate elimina papilomul în zona intimă poate human papillomavirus infection goes away condilom la femei, manifestări largi ale condilomului cancer la plamani celule mici. (turismodobesti.ro)
  • Cancer colorectal metastaze djecje gliste paraziti, enterobius vermicularis urina tratamiento de papilomatosis en perros. (turismodobesti.ro)
  • Human papillomavirus infection, or HPV, transmission can increase the risk of skin cancer, mouth cancer, and throat cancer, according to findings discussed by experts at Duke University and published in the well-respected medical journal PLOS . (belmarrahealth.com)
  • The study at Duke is not the only research to link the human papillomavirus to skin cancer. (belmarrahealth.com)
  • Most people who develop an oral HPV infection won't get cancer. (clevelandclinic.org)
  • Human papilloma virus (HPV) is one of the most common sexually transmitted agents and its infection isthe most established cause of cervical cancer. (waocp.org)
  • Infection papillomavirus traitement Pancreatic cancer drugs Ca și cum ar fi privit copiii Le champignon shiitake serait efficace pour lutter contre le c - Top Santé Symptômes au 1er stade syphilis primaire Traducere "de col uterin" în franceză Infecţia cu HPV: ce tratament este eficient? (modelm.ro)
  • La transmission du virus HPV helminthic therapy anxiety Human papillomavirus infection percent cancer de prostata brca, papillomavirus beim pferd como eliminar vermes oxiuros. (modelm.ro)
  • Le champignon shiitake serait efficace pour lutter contre le c - Top Santé cancer du col infection papillomavirus traitement Traducere în română - exemple în franceză Reverso Context Se pare ca varicele de col uterin Cauzele care produc cancerul infection papillomavirus traitement col uterin. (modelm.ro)
  • Endometrial cancer natural treatment wart treatment uptodate, high risk human oxiuros en unas hpv fingernails. (modelm.ro)
  • Studies have shown that infection with high-risk human papillomavirus (HPV) can lead to cervical cancer. (who.int)
  • Most of the HPV infections in women toate cazurile de cancer de col uterin, ele crescnd are temporary. (metin2kiss.ro)
  • Human papillomavirus infection male Cancer caused by hpv in males. (metin2kiss.ro)
  • most who have had HPV infections, however, do not develop cervical cancer. (wikipedia.org)
  • Infection with HPV is generally believed to be required for cervical cancer to occur. (wikipedia.org)
  • Two HPV vaccines are licensed, and knowledge of the national prevalence of HPV infection is critical for planning vaccination strategies and monitoring the impact of vaccination in the United States. (cdc.gov)
  • Human papillomavirus infection is the most common sexually transmitted infection. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Oral HPV is a subtype of human papillomavirus - the most common sexually transmitted infection (STI) in the United States. (clevelandclinic.org)
  • This article is about oral HPV infection. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Men are more likely to have oral HPV infection than women. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Most oral HPV infections go away on their own without treatment within 2 years and do not cause any health problems. (medlineplus.gov)
  • The prevalence of oral HPV among men was 7.2% and was higher among men who were ever smokers (12.2%), in nonmonogamous relationships (17.9%), or had a partner with oral (28.6%) and/or genital (11.5%) HPV infection. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Oral HPV is a subtype of human papillomavirus. (clevelandclinic.org)
  • The same study found that significantly more people have developed HPV over the past three decades, and that more men than women have oral HPV infection. (clevelandclinic.org)
  • In fact, most oral HPV infections clear up on their own without treatment in about two years. (clevelandclinic.org)
  • Oncogenic HPV is necessary for carcinogenesis and usually HPV infections are successfully cleared. (sogr.ro)
  • Parada R, Morales R, Giuliano AR, Cruz A, Castellsagué X, Lazcano-Ponce E: Prevalence, concordance and determinants of human papillomavirus infection among heterosexual partners in a rural region in central Mexico. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Infection papillomavirus traitement Infecţia cu HPV: ce tratament este eficient? (modelm.ro)
  • The detection of human papillomaviruses in histological preparations by using dot-blot hybridization. (adventube.ro)
  • The objective of this cross-sectional analysis was to assess the association between alcohol intake and prevalent human papillomavirus (HPV) infection among US men enrolled in the HPV in Men ( HIM ) study using quantitative alcohol intake measured from a Food Frequency Questionnaire. (bmj.com)
  • The fourth quartile of alcohol intake was associated with elevated risks for prevalent HPV infection across all strata of number of sexual partners and among never-smokers and current smokers, but not among former smokers. (bmj.com)
  • Conclusions These results demonstrate that high intake of alcohol is associated with an increased risk for prevalent HPV infections among men. (bmj.com)
  • Human papillomavirus (HPV) is known to be more prevalent in spontaneous abortions than in elective terminations of pregnancy. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Human papillomavirus (HPV) is a viral infection that's passed between people through skin-to-skin contact. (healthline.com)
  • HDC-Uu was significantly associated with HPV infection (p=0.014, chi-square test). (consensus.app)
  • The expression of p16INK4A was significantly correlated with HR- HPV infection . (bvsalud.org)
  • Risk-stratification will prevent unnecessary costly and stressful investigations and overtreatment of women with clinically irrelevant infections. (europa.eu)
  • Women having multiple sex partners are reportedly at an increased risk of HPV infection. (biomedcentral.com)
  • However, using serial samples taken from a cohort of young women who were recruited soon after they first had sexual intercourse, we show that disruption of the E2 gene is a common and early event in the natural history of incident cervical HPV infections. (aacrjournals.org)
  • For the comparison of the prevalence of HPV infection in men and women, we used the MacNemar test. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The analysis of known risk factors for HPV infection was carried out separately for men and women. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The last section of the study focuses on assessing the risk of HPV infection in women, considering the presence of HPV infection in their sex partners as an explanatory variable. (biomedcentral.com)
  • We do not seek to compare the risk of HPV infection between men and women (Table 3 ). (biomedcentral.com)
  • What are the effects of treatments for uncomplicated infections in men and nonpregnant women? (aafp.org)
  • What are the effects of treatments for uncomplicated infections in pregnant women? (aafp.org)
  • Human papillomavirus infection in males Originea viermilor Fig 1. (metin2kiss.ro)
  • This cross-sectional study describes the age-specific prevalence of human papillomavirus (HPV) infection and cytological abnormalities among this urban and peri-urban population. (samj.org.za)
  • Hpv femme traitement Le papillomavirus, interview du Pr Gondry cose il papilloma vescicale Este manifestarea somatic a unei insuficiene hormonale estrogenice ovariene i se nsoete de un infantilism fenotipic general. (modelm.ro)
  • HPV infections have received particular attention in recent years, as high-risk strains have been linked to some cases of oral squamous cell carcinoma. (medscape.com)
  • FSWs are at a substantially high risk of HPV infection and cervical dysplasia development as compared with healthy control subjects in Shenyang, China. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Human papillomavirus 52 positive squamous cell carcinoma of the conjunctiva Does hpv high risk go away, Hpv high risk does it go away. (turismodobesti.ro)
  • The highest prevalence for single and multiple infections, as well as for high-risk infections, was reported for the youngest age group (less than 30 years). (who.int)
  • HPV is the most commonly acquired sexually transmitted virus, with around four out of five people contracting this infection at some point during their lifetime. (europa.eu)
  • With more than six million new infections occurring annually in the USA, 1 , 2 human papillomavirus (HPV) is one of the most common sexually transmitted infections. (bmj.com)
  • Remaining challenges, such as the provision of human and financial resources for programmes to include sexually transmitted infection services within the context of striving for universal health coverage, were also highlighted. (who.int)
  • During the discussions, a clear need was identified for an updated global strategy on sexually transmitted infections in the post-2015 period. (who.int)
  • The process of developing the draft global health sector strategy on sexually transmitted infections was managed together with the draft global health sector strategies on HIV and on viral hepatitis. (who.int)
  • Streptococcus agalactiae bacteria, responsible for vaginal and urinary tract infections and newborn infections including meningitis and septicemia. (blogarama.com)
  • Nonetheless, many other viral infections can affect the oral cavity in humans, either as localized or systemic infections. (medscape.com)
  • HPV OncoPredict is unique in its power to discriminate clinically relevant from irrelevant HPV infections by means of a high-throughput molecular reflex testing algorithm: 1) screening assay able to detect all oncogenic HPV infections, 2) triage assays for HPV positive samples comprising of two second line biomarkers as indicators of risk, normalized hrHPV viral load and viral-induced cellular oncogenic transcripts. (europa.eu)
  • We estimated the prevalence of oral human papillomavirus (HPV) and assessed risk factors among young heterosexual men participating in the HPV Infection and Transmission among Couples through Heterosexual Activity (HITCH) study. (aacrjournals.org)
  • However, the prevalence and risk factors of HPV infection in female sex workers (FSWs) vary considerably across racial/ethnic, socioeconomic, and geographic groups. (biomedcentral.com)
  • This study aimed to determine the prevalence and risk factors of HPV infection in FSWs in Northeast China. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Age of first sexual intercourse and post-menopause are two independent risk factors for HPV infection in this special group of population. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Intensified and coordinated efforts from government, public health sector, communities and families are needed to reduce the risk of HPV infection in this specific group of population. (biomedcentral.com)
  • During 2010 and 2011, a large-scale study was done in five provinces (Ha Noi, Ho Chi Minh City, Hue, Thai Nguyen and Can Tho) to explore the prevalence of HPV infection and its risk factors. (who.int)
  • HIV infection is also a risk factor. (wikipedia.org)