Stretches of genomic DNA that exist in different multiples between individuals. Many copy number variations have been associated with susceptibility or resistance to disease.
The number of copies of a given gene present in the cell of an organism. An increase in gene dosage (by GENE DUPLICATION for example) can result in higher levels of gene product formation. GENE DOSAGE COMPENSATION mechanisms result in adjustments to the level GENE EXPRESSION when there are changes or differences in gene dosage.
The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
In vitro method for producing large amounts of specific DNA or RNA fragments of defined length and sequence from small amounts of short oligonucleotide flanking sequences (primers). The essential steps include thermal denaturation of the double-stranded target molecules, annealing of the primers to their complementary sequences, and extension of the annealed primers by enzymatic synthesis with DNA polymerase. The reaction is efficient, specific, and extremely sensitive. Uses for the reaction include disease diagnosis, detection of difficult-to-isolate pathogens, mutation analysis, genetic testing, DNA sequencing, and analyzing evolutionary relationships.
A method for comparing two sets of chromosomal DNA by analyzing differences in the copy number and location of specific sequences. It is used to look for large sequence changes such as deletions, duplications, amplifications, or translocations.
The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.
A multistage process that includes cloning, physical mapping, subcloning, determination of the DNA SEQUENCE, and information analysis.
A procedure consisting of a sequence of algebraic formulas and/or logical steps to calculate or determine a given task.
The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.
Extrachromosomal, usually CIRCULAR DNA molecules that are self-replicating and transferable from one organism to another. They are found in a variety of bacterial, archaeal, fungal, algal, and plant species. They are used in GENETIC ENGINEERING as CLONING VECTORS.
A selective increase in the number of copies of a gene coding for a specific protein without a proportional increase in other genes. It occurs naturally via the excision of a copy of the repeating sequence from the chromosome and its extrachromosomal replication in a plasmid, or via the production of an RNA transcript of the entire repeating sequence of ribosomal RNA followed by the reverse transcription of the molecule to produce an additional copy of the original DNA sequence. Laboratory techniques have been introduced for inducing disproportional replication by unequal crossing over, uptake of DNA from lysed cells, or generation of extrachromosomal sequences from rolling circle replication.
Widely used technique which exploits the ability of complementary sequences in single-stranded DNAs or RNAs to pair with each other to form a double helix. Hybridization can take place between two complimentary DNA sequences, between a single-stranded DNA and a complementary RNA, or between two RNA sequences. The technique is used to detect and isolate specific sequences, measure homology, or define other characteristics of one or both strands. (Kendrew, Encyclopedia of Molecular Biology, 1994, p503)
Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.
Discrete segments of DNA which can excise and reintegrate to another site in the genome. Most are inactive, i.e., have not been found to exist outside the integrated state. DNA transposable elements include bacterial IS (insertion sequence) elements, Tn elements, the maize controlling elements Ac and Ds, Drosophila P, gypsy, and pogo elements, the human Tigger elements and the Tc and mariner elements which are found throughout the animal kingdom.
Sequences of DNA or RNA that occur in multiple copies. There are several types: INTERSPERSED REPETITIVE SEQUENCES are copies of transposable elements (DNA TRANSPOSABLE ELEMENTS or RETROELEMENTS) dispersed throughout the genome. TERMINAL REPEAT SEQUENCES flank both ends of another sequence, for example, the long terminal repeats (LTRs) on RETROVIRUSES. Variations may be direct repeats, those occurring in the same direction, or inverted repeats, those opposite to each other in direction. TANDEM REPEAT SEQUENCES are copies which lie adjacent to each other, direct or inverted (INVERTED REPEAT SEQUENCES).
A type of IN SITU HYBRIDIZATION in which target sequences are stained with fluorescent dye so their location and size can be determined using fluorescence microscopy. This staining is sufficiently distinct that the hybridization signal can be seen both in metaphase spreads and in interphase nuclei.
The quantity of measurable virus in a body fluid. Change in viral load, measured in plasma, is sometimes used as a SURROGATE MARKER in disease progression.
Processes occurring in various organisms by which new genes are copied. Gene duplication may result in a MULTIGENE FAMILY; supergenes or PSEUDOGENES.
A method (first developed by E.M. Southern) for detection of DNA that has been electrophoretically separated and immobilized by blotting on nitrocellulose or other type of paper or nylon membrane followed by hybridization with labeled NUCLEIC ACID PROBES.
Any method used for determining the location of and relative distances between genes on a chromosome.
Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of viruses.
The relationships of groups of organisms as reflected by their genetic makeup.
A deoxyribonucleotide polymer that is the primary genetic material of all cells. Eukaryotic and prokaryotic organisms normally contain DNA in a double-stranded state, yet several important biological processes transiently involve single-stranded regions. DNA, which consists of a polysugar-phosphate backbone possessing projections of purines (adenine and guanine) and pyrimidines (thymine and cytosine), forms a double helix that is held together by hydrogen bonds between these purines and pyrimidines (adenine to thymine and guanine to cytosine).
The complete genetic complement contained in the DNA of a set of CHROMOSOMES in a HUMAN. The length of the human genome is about 3 billion base pairs.
The statistical reproducibility of measurements (often in a clinical context), including the testing of instrumentation or techniques to obtain reproducible results. The concept includes reproducibility of physiological measurements, which may be used to develop rules to assess probability or prognosis, or response to a stimulus; reproducibility of occurrence of a condition; and reproducibility of experimental results.
An analytical technique for resolution of a chemical mixture into its component compounds. Compounds are separated on an adsorbent paper (stationary phase) by their varied degree of solubility/mobility in the eluting solvent (mobile phase).
Use of restriction endonucleases to analyze and generate a physical map of genomes, genes, or other segments of DNA.
A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria (GRAM-NEGATIVE FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC RODS) commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. It is usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce DIARRHEA and pyogenic infections. Pathogenic strains (virotypes) are classified by their specific pathogenic mechanisms such as toxins (ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI), etc.
Ribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of viruses.
Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of genetic processes or phenomena. They include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.
The biosynthesis of RNA carried out on a template of DNA. The biosynthesis of DNA from an RNA template is called REVERSE TRANSCRIPTION.
Hybridization of a nucleic acid sample to a very large set of OLIGONUCLEOTIDE PROBES, which have been attached individually in columns and rows to a solid support, to determine a BASE SEQUENCE, or to detect variations in a gene sequence, GENE EXPRESSION, or for GENE MAPPING.
The process of cumulative change at the level of DNA; RNA; and PROTEINS, over successive generations.
Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of bacteria.
Genotypic differences observed among individuals in a population.
The genetic constitution of the individual, comprising the ALLELES present at each GENETIC LOCUS.
The sequential correspondence of nucleotides in one nucleic acid molecule with those of another nucleic acid molecule. Sequence homology is an indication of the genetic relatedness of different organisms and gene function.
The arrangement of two or more amino acid or base sequences from an organism or organisms in such a way as to align areas of the sequences sharing common properties. The degree of relatedness or homology between the sequences is predicted computationally or statistically based on weights assigned to the elements aligned between the sequences. This in turn can serve as a potential indicator of the genetic relatedness between the organisms.
The outward appearance of the individual. It is the product of interactions between genes, and between the GENOTYPE and the environment.
Short sequences (generally about 10 base pairs) of DNA that are complementary to sequences of messenger RNA and allow reverse transcriptases to start copying the adjacent sequences of mRNA. Primers are used extensively in genetic and molecular biology techniques.
Includes the spectrum of human immunodeficiency virus infections that range from asymptomatic seropositivity, thru AIDS-related complex (ARC), to acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS).
RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.
The functional hereditary units of BACTERIA.
A set of genes descended by duplication and variation from some ancestral gene. Such genes may be clustered together on the same chromosome or dispersed on different chromosomes. Examples of multigene families include those that encode the hemoglobins, immunoglobulins, histocompatibility antigens, actins, tubulins, keratins, collagens, heat shock proteins, salivary glue proteins, chorion proteins, cuticle proteins, yolk proteins, and phaseolins, as well as histones, ribosomal RNA, and transfer RNA genes. The latter three are examples of reiterated genes, where hundreds of identical genes are present in a tandem array. (King & Stanfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)
A category of nucleic acid sequences that function as units of heredity and which code for the basic instructions for the development, reproduction, and maintenance of organisms.
Variant forms of the same gene, occupying the same locus on homologous CHROMOSOMES, and governing the variants in production of the same gene product.
Computer-based representation of physical systems and phenomena such as chemical processes.
Abnormal number or structure of chromosomes. Chromosome aberrations may result in CHROMOSOME DISORDERS.
A genetic rearrangement through loss of segments of DNA or RNA, bringing sequences which are normally separated into close proximity. This deletion may be detected using cytogenetic techniques and can also be inferred from the phenotype, indicating a deletion at one specific locus.
Proteins found in any species of bacterium.
Sequential operating programs and data which instruct the functioning of a digital computer.
A single nucleotide variation in a genetic sequence that occurs at appreciable frequency in the population.
The restriction of a characteristic behavior, anatomical structure or physical system, such as immune response; metabolic response, or gene or gene variant to the members of one species. It refers to that property which differentiates one species from another but it is also used for phylogenetic levels higher or lower than the species.
Production of new arrangements of DNA by various mechanisms such as assortment and segregation, CROSSING OVER; GENE CONVERSION; GENETIC TRANSFORMATION; GENETIC CONJUGATION; GENETIC TRANSDUCTION; or mixed infection of viruses.
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
Enzymes that are part of the restriction-modification systems. They catalyze the endonucleolytic cleavage of DNA sequences which lack the species-specific methylation pattern in the host cell's DNA. Cleavage yields random or specific double-stranded fragments with terminal 5'-phosphates. The function of restriction enzymes is to destroy any foreign DNA that invades the host cell. Most have been studied in bacterial systems, but a few have been found in eukaryotic organisms. They are also used as tools for the systematic dissection and mapping of chromosomes, in the determination of base sequences of DNAs, and have made it possible to splice and recombine genes from one organism into the genome of another. EC 3.21.1.
Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.
Elements that are transcribed into RNA, reverse-transcribed into DNA and then inserted into a new site in the genome. Long terminal repeats (LTRs) similar to those from retroviruses are contained in retrotransposons and retrovirus-like elements. Retroposons, such as LONG INTERSPERSED NUCLEOTIDE ELEMENTS and SHORT INTERSPERSED NUCLEOTIDE ELEMENTS do not contain LTRs.
Statistical formulations or analyses which, when applied to data and found to fit the data, are then used to verify the assumptions and parameters used in the analysis. Examples of statistical models are the linear model, binomial model, polynomial model, two-parameter model, etc.
The degree of similarity between sequences of amino acids. This information is useful for the analyzing genetic relatedness of proteins and species.
The genetic complement of an organism, including all of its GENES, as represented in its DNA, or in some cases, its RNA.
Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of systems, processes, or phenomena. They include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.
The type species of LENTIVIRUS and the etiologic agent of AIDS. It is characterized by its cytopathic effect and affinity for the T4-lymphocyte.
The functional hereditary units of FUNGI.
Double-stranded DNA of MITOCHONDRIA. In eukaryotes, the mitochondrial GENOME is circular and codes for ribosomal RNAs, transfer RNAs, and about 10 proteins.
A publication issued at stated, more or less regular, intervals.
DNA sequences which are recognized (directly or indirectly) and bound by a DNA-dependent RNA polymerase during the initiation of transcription. Highly conserved sequences within the promoter include the Pribnow box in bacteria and the TATA BOX in eukaryotes.
The determination of the pattern of genes expressed at the level of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION, under specific circumstances or in a specific cell.
Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.
The process by which a DNA molecule is duplicated.
The systematic study of the complete DNA sequences (GENOME) of organisms.
Electrophoresis in which paper is used as the diffusion medium. This technique is confined almost entirely to separations of small molecules such as amino acids, peptides, and nucleotides, and relatively high voltages are nearly always used.
Change brought about to an organisms genetic composition by unidirectional transfer (TRANSFECTION; TRANSDUCTION, GENETIC; CONJUGATION, GENETIC, etc.) and incorporation of foreign DNA into prokaryotic or eukaryotic cells by recombination of part or all of that DNA into the cell's genome.
A species of the genus SACCHAROMYCES, family Saccharomycetaceae, order Saccharomycetales, known as "baker's" or "brewer's" yeast. The dried form is used as a dietary supplement.
Genes bearing close resemblance to known genes at different loci, but rendered non-functional by additions or deletions in structure that prevent normal transcription or translation. When lacking introns and containing a poly-A segment near the downstream end (as a result of reverse copying from processed nuclear RNA into double-stranded DNA), they are called processed genes.
Agents used to treat AIDS and/or stop the spread of the HIV infection. These do not include drugs used to treat symptoms or opportunistic infections associated with AIDS.
A field of biology concerned with the development of techniques for the collection and manipulation of biological data, and the use of such data to make biological discoveries or predictions. This field encompasses all computational methods and theories for solving biological problems including manipulation of models and datasets.
The phenotypic manifestation of a gene or genes by the processes of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION and GENETIC TRANSLATION.
A variation of the PCR technique in which cDNA is made from RNA via reverse transcription. The resultant cDNA is then amplified using standard PCR protocols.
Time period from 1901 through 2000 of the common era.
Actual loss of portion of a chromosome.
Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of fungi.
Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control (induction or repression) of gene action at the level of transcription or translation.
Mutagenesis where the mutation is caused by the introduction of foreign DNA sequences into a gene or extragenic sequence. This may occur spontaneously in vivo or be experimentally induced in vivo or in vitro. Proviral DNA insertions into or adjacent to a cellular proto-oncogene can interrupt GENETIC TRANSLATION of the coding sequences or interfere with recognition of regulatory elements and cause unregulated expression of the proto-oncogene resulting in tumor formation.
"The business or profession of the commercial production and issuance of literature" (Webster's 3d). It includes the publisher, publication processes, editing and editors. Production may be by conventional printing methods or by electronic publishing.
DNA constructs that are composed of, at least, a REPLICATION ORIGIN, for successful replication, propagation to and maintenance as an extra chromosome in bacteria. In addition, they can carry large amounts (about 200 kilobases) of other sequence for a variety of bioengineering purposes.
Laboratory techniques that involve the in-vitro synthesis of many copies of DNA or RNA from one original template.
Species- or subspecies-specific DNA (including COMPLEMENTARY DNA; conserved genes, whole chromosomes, or whole genomes) used in hybridization studies in order to identify microorganisms, to measure DNA-DNA homologies, to group subspecies, etc. The DNA probe hybridizes with a specific mRNA, if present. Conventional techniques used for testing for the hybridization product include dot blot assays, Southern blot assays, and DNA:RNA hybrid-specific antibody tests. Conventional labels for the DNA probe include the radioisotope labels 32P and 125I and the chemical label biotin. The use of DNA probes provides a specific, sensitive, rapid, and inexpensive replacement for cell culture techniques for diagnosing infections.
DNA present in neoplastic tissue.
The number of CD4-POSITIVE T-LYMPHOCYTES per unit volume of BLOOD. Determination requires the use of a fluorescence-activated flow cytometer.
Very long DNA molecules and associated proteins, HISTONES, and non-histone chromosomal proteins (CHROMOSOMAL PROTEINS, NON-HISTONE). Normally 46 chromosomes, including two sex chromosomes are found in the nucleus of human cells. They carry the hereditary information of the individual.
Binary classification measures to assess test results. Sensitivity or recall rate is the proportion of true positives. Specificity is the probability of correctly determining the absence of a condition. (From Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)
DNA molecules capable of autonomous replication within a host cell and into which other DNA sequences can be inserted and thus amplified. Many are derived from PLASMIDS; BACTERIOPHAGES; or VIRUSES. They are used for transporting foreign genes into recipient cells. Genetic vectors possess a functional replicator site and contain GENETIC MARKERS to facilitate their selective recognition.
Biologically active DNA which has been formed by the in vitro joining of segments of DNA from different sources. It includes the recombination joint or edge of a heteroduplex region where two recombining DNA molecules are connected.
Proteins which bind to DNA. The family includes proteins which bind to both double- and single-stranded DNA and also includes specific DNA binding proteins in serum which can be used as markers for malignant diseases.
Deletion of sequences of nucleic acids from the genetic material of an individual.
In INFORMATION RETRIEVAL, machine-sensing or identification of visible patterns (shapes, forms, and configurations). (Harrod's Librarians' Glossary, 7th ed)
The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.
Structures within the nucleus of bacterial cells consisting of or containing DNA, which carry genetic information essential to the cell.
A sequence of successive nucleotide triplets that are read as CODONS specifying AMINO ACIDS and begin with an INITIATOR CODON and end with a stop codon (CODON, TERMINATOR).
A set of statistical methods used to group variables or observations into strongly inter-related subgroups. In epidemiology, it may be used to analyze a closely grouped series of events or cases of disease or other health-related phenomenon with well-defined distribution patterns in relation to time or place or both.
Single-stranded complementary DNA synthesized from an RNA template by the action of RNA-dependent DNA polymerase. cDNA (i.e., complementary DNA, not circular DNA, not C-DNA) is used in a variety of molecular cloning experiments as well as serving as a specific hybridization probe.
A test used to determine whether or not complementation (compensation in the form of dominance) will occur in a cell with a given mutant phenotype when another mutant genome, encoding the same mutant phenotype, is introduced into that cell.
The regular and simultaneous occurrence in a single interbreeding population of two or more discontinuous genotypes. The concept includes differences in genotypes ranging in size from a single nucleotide site (POLYMORPHISM, SINGLE NUCLEOTIDE) to large nucleotide sequences visible at a chromosomal level.
An approach of practicing medicine with the goal to improve and evaluate patient care. It requires the judicious integration of best research evidence with the patient's values to make decisions about medical care. This method is to help physicians make proper diagnosis, devise best testing plan, choose best treatment and methods of disease prevention, as well as develop guidelines for large groups of patients with the same disease. (from JAMA 296 (9), 2006)
The process of cumulative change over successive generations through which organisms acquire their distinguishing morphological and physiological characteristics.
The parts of a transcript of a split GENE remaining after the INTRONS are removed. They are spliced together to become a MESSENGER RNA or other functional RNA.
Low-copy (2-50) repetitive DNA elements that are highly homologous and range in size from 1000 to 400,000 base pairs.
Theory and development of COMPUTER SYSTEMS which perform tasks that normally require human intelligence. Such tasks may include speech recognition, LEARNING; VISUAL PERCEPTION; MATHEMATICAL COMPUTING; reasoning, PROBLEM SOLVING, DECISION-MAKING, and translation of language.
Endogenous substances, usually proteins, which are effective in the initiation, stimulation, or termination of the genetic transcription process.
Two identical genes showing the same phenotypic action but localized in different regions of a chromosome or on different chromosomes. (From Rieger et al., Glossary of Genetics: Classical and Molecular, 5th ed)
Critical and exhaustive investigation or experimentation, having for its aim the discovery of new facts and their correct interpretation, the revision of accepted conclusions, theories, or laws in the light of newly discovered facts, or the practical application of such new or revised conclusions, theories, or laws. (Webster, 3d ed)
Methods used for detecting the amplified DNA products from the polymerase chain reaction as they accumulate instead of at the end of the reaction.
The functional hereditary units of VIRUSES.
Evaluation undertaken to assess the results or consequences of management and procedures used in combating disease in order to determine the efficacy, effectiveness, safety, and practicability of these interventions in individual cases or series.
Techniques using energy such as radio frequency, infrared light, laser light, visible light, or acoustic energy to transfer information without the use of wires, over both short and long distances.
In a prokaryotic cell or in the nucleus of a eukaryotic cell, a structure consisting of or containing DNA which carries the genetic information essential to the cell. (From Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed)
A latent susceptibility to disease at the genetic level, which may be activated under certain conditions.
Copies of DNA sequences which lie adjacent to each other in the same orientation (direct tandem repeats) or in the opposite direction to each other (INVERTED TANDEM REPEATS).
The parts of a macromolecule that directly participate in its specific combination with another molecule.
A plan for collecting and utilizing data so that desired information can be obtained with sufficient precision or so that an hypothesis can be tested properly.
New abnormal growth of tissue. Malignant neoplasms show a greater degree of anaplasia and have the properties of invasion and metastasis, compared to benign neoplasms.
Organized activities related to the storage, location, search, and retrieval of information.
The terms, expressions, designations, or symbols used in a particular science, discipline, or specialized subject area.
The portion of an interactive computer program that issues messages to and receives commands from a user.
The property of objects that determines the direction of heat flow when they are placed in direct thermal contact. The temperature is the energy of microscopic motions (vibrational and translational) of the particles of atoms.
A system containing any combination of computers, computer terminals, printers, audio or visual display devices, or telephones interconnected by telecommunications equipment or cables: used to transmit or receive information. (Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed)
Method of measuring performance against established standards of best practice.
Linear POLYPEPTIDES that are synthesized on RIBOSOMES and may be further modified, crosslinked, cleaved, or assembled into complex proteins with several subunits. The specific sequence of AMINO ACIDS determines the shape the polypeptide will take, during PROTEIN FOLDING, and the function of the protein.
DNA sequences encoding RIBOSOMAL RNA and the segments of DNA separating the individual ribosomal RNA genes, referred to as RIBOSOMAL SPACER DNA.
The chromosomal constitution of cells which deviate from the normal by the addition or subtraction of CHROMOSOMES, chromosome pairs, or chromosome fragments. In a normally diploid cell (DIPLOIDY) the loss of a chromosome pair is termed nullisomy (symbol: 2N-2), the loss of a single chromosome is MONOSOMY (symbol: 2N-1), the addition of a chromosome pair is tetrasomy (symbol: 2N+2), the addition of a single chromosome is TRISOMY (symbol: 2N+1).
Biochemical identification of mutational changes in a nucleotide sequence.
A loose confederation of computer communication networks around the world. The networks that make up the Internet are connected through several backbone networks. The Internet grew out of the US Government ARPAnet project and was designed to facilitate information exchange.
A phenotypically recognizable genetic trait which can be used to identify a genetic locus, a linkage group, or a recombination event.
Sequences of DNA in the genes that are located between the EXONS. They are transcribed along with the exons but are removed from the primary gene transcript by RNA SPLICING to leave mature RNA. Some introns code for separate genes.
Methods of creating machines and devices.
The presence of viruses in the blood.
Any of the processes by which cytoplasmic or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in bacteria.
Extensive collections, reputedly complete, of facts and data garnered from material of a specialized subject area and made available for analysis and application. The collection can be automated by various contemporary methods for retrieval. The concept should be differentiated from DATABASES, BIBLIOGRAPHIC which is restricted to collections of bibliographic references.
A polynucleotide consisting essentially of chains with a repeating backbone of phosphate and ribose units to which nitrogenous bases are attached. RNA is unique among biological macromolecules in that it can encode genetic information, serve as an abundant structural component of cells, and also possesses catalytic activity. (Rieger et al., Glossary of Genetics: Classical and Molecular, 5th ed)
Mapping of the KARYOTYPE of a cell.
Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of plants.
The spatial arrangement of the atoms of a nucleic acid or polynucleotide that results in its characteristic 3-dimensional shape.
The profession of writing. Also the identity of the writer as the creator of a literary production.
Synthetic or natural oligonucleotides used in hybridization studies in order to identify and study specific nucleic acid fragments, e.g., DNA segments near or within a specific gene locus or gene. The probe hybridizes with a specific mRNA, if present. Conventional techniques used for testing for the hybridization product include dot blot assays, Southern blot assays, and DNA:RNA hybrid-specific antibody tests. Conventional labels for the probe include the radioisotope labels 32P and 125I and the chemical label biotin.
Research that involves the application of the natural sciences, especially biology and physiology, to medicine.
Genes that are introduced into an organism using GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUES.
Specific regions that are mapped within a GENOME. Genetic loci are usually identified with a shorthand notation that indicates the chromosome number and the position of a specific band along the P or Q arm of the chromosome where they are found. For example the locus 6p21 is found within band 21 of the P-arm of CHROMOSOME 6. Many well known genetic loci are also known by common names that are associated with a genetic function or HEREDITARY DISEASE.
Variation occurring within a species in the presence or length of DNA fragment generated by a specific endonuclease at a specific site in the genome. Such variations are generated by mutations that create or abolish recognition sites for these enzymes or change the length of the fragment.
A SMN complex protein that is closely-related to SURVIVAL OF MOTOR NEURON 1 PROTEIN. In humans, the protein is encoded by an often duplicated gene found near the inversion centromere of a large inverted region of CHROMOSOME 5.
The loss of one allele at a specific locus, caused by a deletion mutation; or loss of a chromosome from a chromosome pair, resulting in abnormal HEMIZYGOSITY. It is detected when heterozygous markers for a locus appear monomorphic because one of the ALLELES was deleted.
An aspect of personal behavior or lifestyle, environmental exposure, or inborn or inherited characteristic, which, on the basis of epidemiologic evidence, is known to be associated with a health-related condition considered important to prevent.
Procedures for collecting, preserving, and transporting of specimens sufficiently stable to provide accurate and precise results suitable for clinical interpretation.
A specific pair of GROUP C CHROMOSOMES of the human chromosome classification.
A species of fruit fly much used in genetics because of the large size of its chromosomes.
The evaluation by experts of the quality and pertinence of research or research proposals of other experts in the same field. Peer review is used by editors in deciding which submissions warrant publication, by granting agencies to determine which proposals should be funded, and by academic institutions in tenure decisions.
The complete genetic complement contained in a DNA or RNA molecule in a virus.
Reproduction of data in a new location or other destination, leaving the source data unchanged, although the physical form of the result may differ from that of the source.
The process of intracellular viral multiplication, consisting of the synthesis of PROTEINS; NUCLEIC ACIDS; and sometimes LIPIDS, and their assembly into a new infectious particle.
Databases devoted to knowledge about specific genes and gene products.
Genes which regulate or circumscribe the activity of other genes; specifically, genes which code for PROTEINS or RNAs which have GENE EXPRESSION REGULATION functions.
An analysis comparing the allele frequencies of all available (or a whole GENOME representative set of) polymorphic markers in unrelated patients with a specific symptom or disease condition, and those of healthy controls to identify markers associated with a specific disease or condition.
In bacteria, a group of metabolically related genes, with a common promoter, whose transcription into a single polycistronic MESSENGER RNA is under the control of an OPERATOR REGION.
A specific pair of GROUP E CHROMOSOMES of the human chromosome classification.
Studies in which subsets of a defined population are identified. These groups may or may not be exposed to factors hypothesized to influence the probability of the occurrence of a particular disease or other outcome. Cohorts are defined populations which, as a whole, are followed in an attempt to determine distinguishing subgroup characteristics.
Systems composed of a computer or computers, peripheral equipment, such as disks, printers, and terminals, and telecommunications capabilities.
The use of statistical methods in the analysis of a body of literature to reveal the historical development of subject fields and patterns of authorship, publication, and use. Formerly called statistical bibliography. (from The ALA Glossary of Library and Information Science, 1983)
A SMN complex protein that is essential for the function of the SMN protein complex. In humans the protein is encoded by a single gene found near the inversion telomere of a large inverted region of CHROMOSOME 5. Mutations in the gene coding for survival of motor neuron 1 protein may result in SPINAL MUSCULAR ATROPHIES OF CHILDHOOD.
A theorem in probability theory named for Thomas Bayes (1702-1761). In epidemiology, it is used to obtain the probability of disease in a group of people with some characteristic on the basis of the overall rate of that disease and of the likelihood of that characteristic in healthy and diseased individuals. The most familiar application is in clinical decision analysis where it is used for estimating the probability of a particular diagnosis given the appearance of some symptoms or test result.
Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of protozoa.
The genetic constitution of individuals with respect to one member of a pair of allelic genes, or sets of genes that are closely linked and tend to be inherited together such as those of the MAJOR HISTOCOMPATIBILITY COMPLEX.
Proteins found in any species of fungus.
Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.
The functional hereditary units of PLANTS.
The uptake of naked or purified DNA by CELLS, usually meaning the process as it occurs in eukaryotic cells. It is analogous to bacterial transformation (TRANSFORMATION, BACTERIAL) and both are routinely employed in GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUES.
The chromosomal constitution of a cell containing multiples of the normal number of CHROMOSOMES; includes triploidy (symbol: 3N), tetraploidy (symbol: 4N), etc.
The genetic complement of a plant (PLANTS) as represented in its DNA.
The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.
Multicellular, eukaryotic life forms of kingdom Plantae (sensu lato), comprising the VIRIDIPLANTAE; RHODOPHYTA; and GLAUCOPHYTA; all of which acquired chloroplasts by direct endosymbiosis of CYANOBACTERIA. They are characterized by a mainly photosynthetic mode of nutrition; essentially unlimited growth at localized regions of cell divisions (MERISTEMS); cellulose within cells providing rigidity; the absence of organs of locomotion; absence of nervous and sensory systems; and an alternation of haploid and diploid generations.
A quantitative measure of the frequency on average with which articles in a journal have been cited in a given period of time.
The sum of the weight of all the atoms in a molecule.
An aberration in which an extra chromosome or a chromosomal segment is made.
A process of separating particulate matter from a fluid, such as air or a liquid, by passing the fluid carrier through a medium that will not pass the particulates. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
Nucleotide sequences repeated on both the 5' and 3' ends of a sequence under consideration. For example, the hallmarks of a transposon are that it is flanked by inverted repeats on each end and the inverted repeats are flanked by direct repeats. The Delta element of Ty retrotransposons and LTRs (long terminal repeats) are examples of this concept.
A stochastic process such that the conditional probability distribution for a state at any future instant, given the present state, is unaffected by any additional knowledge of the past history of the system.
The status during which female mammals carry their developing young (EMBRYOS or FETUSES) in utero before birth, beginning from FERTILIZATION to BIRTH.
Models used experimentally or theoretically to study molecular shape, electronic properties, or interactions; includes analogous molecules, computer-generated graphics, and mechanical structures.
Time period from 1801 through 1900 of the common era.
Studies which start with the identification of persons with a disease of interest and a control (comparison, referent) group without the disease. The relationship of an attribute to the disease is examined by comparing diseased and non-diseased persons with regard to the frequency or levels of the attribute in each group.
Detection of RNA that has been electrophoretically separated and immobilized by blotting on nitrocellulose or other type of paper or nylon membrane followed by hybridization with labeled NUCLEIC ACID PROBES.
Tumors or cancer of the human BREAST.
The ordered rearrangement of gene regions by DNA recombination such as that which occurs normally during development.
Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in neoplastic tissue.
A specific pair of human chromosomes in group A (CHROMOSOMES, HUMAN, 1-3) of the human chromosome classification.
Any of the covalently closed DNA molecules found in bacteria, many viruses, mitochondria, plastids, and plasmids. Small, polydisperse circular DNA's have also been observed in a number of eukaryotic organisms and are suggested to have homology with chromosomal DNA and the capacity to be inserted into, and excised from, chromosomal DNA. It is a fragment of DNA formed by a process of looping out and deletion, containing a constant region of the mu heavy chain and the 3'-part of the mu switch region. Circular DNA is a normal product of rearrangement among gene segments encoding the variable regions of immunoglobulin light and heavy chains, as well as the T-cell receptor. (Riger et al., Glossary of Genetics, 5th ed & Segen, Dictionary of Modern Medicine, 1992)
A sequence of amino acids in a polypeptide or of nucleotides in DNA or RNA that is similar across multiple species. A known set of conserved sequences is represented by a CONSENSUS SEQUENCE. AMINO ACID MOTIFS are often composed of conserved sequences.
Chromosomal, biochemical, intracellular, and other methods used in the study of genetics.
This process produces a blue or black image on a white paper. It is a monochromatic copying process. Serial 71,260,891, United ... Its main use was for making copies of electrical, mechanical and civil engineering drawings. It is still used widely in ... The Ozalid process is a process of printing positive images on paper from patterns on film or other translucent media. Its ... Ozalid is a registered trademark of a type of paper used for "test prints" in the monochrome classic offset process. The word " ...
Analog copies degrade with each generation, while some digital copies have much higher copying fidelity. Digital data can also ... Hand copying of a single fiche or aperture card involves exposure over a light box and then individually processing the film. ... which were carried by homing pigeons into Paris and projected by magic lantern while clerks copied the dispatches onto paper. ... All regular microfilm copying involves contact exposure under pressure. Then the film is processed to provide a permanent image ...
... leaving the original paper blank. The process began and ended with only one copy of the poster. Society of Composers, Authors ... What is copying? What constitutes a substantial part? How can copying be proven? Theberge v. Galerie d'Art du Petit Champlain ... the Copyright Board held that while temporary buffer copies do qualify as copies, the duration and form of the copies was such ... Further considerations include whether the public would be able to recognize the source of the copy and whether the copy would ...
... the basic process was already widely used in other copying processes, including the "whiteprint" paper copying system and a ... This was cause for serious concern, as the New York Times had invested heavily in Kalvar copying and had distributed copies of ... It was originally intended to make copying microfilm simpler, but also found a number of other uses. As the document processing ... The diazo-copying process is not unique to Kalvar; ... In a second process called "cycling," it was run through a tank ...
... is a low-cost duplicating machine that works by forcing ink through a stencil onto paper. The process is mimeography. A copy ... 390 Advertisement via Google Books Antique Copying Machines from Office Museum Eugenic de Zuccato (1895) Patent US548116 ... Mimeographed copies have moderate durability when acid-free paper is used. Gestetner, Risograph, and other companies still make ... Zuccato's system involved writing on a sheet of varnished paper with caustic ink, which ate through the varnish and paper ...
1,025 copies (1,000 paper, 25 vellum). The Pliny text was printed as a partnership venture between Jenson and the Strozzi ... While the original Autographs were "perfect", the process of hand copying resulted in derivations from the original texts. Of ... "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 2012-04-06. Retrieved 2011-11-30.CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link) "Winter ... "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 2009-08-14. Retrieved 2011-12-08.CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link) " ...
This process was developed from the process of electrostatic copying. Color reproduction is very accurate, and because there is ... multi-part documents such as sales invoices and credit card receipts using continuous stationery with carbonless copy paper. It ... The paper is passed near a pool of liquid ink with the opposite charge. The charged areas of the paper attract the ink and thus ... Speeds in ppm usually apply to A4 paper in most countries in the world, and letter paper size, about 6% shorter, in North ...
Carlson wanted to invent a 'copying' machine, that could take an existing document and copy it onto a new piece of paper ... Carlson's process produced a dry copy, as contrasted with the wet copies then produced by the mimeograph process. Carlson's ... They heated the paper, softening the wax so the lycopodium would adhere to it, and had the world's first xerographic copy. ... Carlson knew that several major corporations were researching ways of copying paper. The Haloid Company had the Photostat, ...
Magnitizdat (in Russian магнитиздат) is the process of re-copying and self-distributing live audiotape recordings in the Soviet ... Copies were often made in small quantities of handwritten or typed documents, while recipients were expected to make additional ... Those agencies also provided the top publishing priorities and would apportion paper used for printing to the various ... The process of magnitizdat was less risky than publishing literature via samizdat, since any person in the USSR was permitted ...
Carbon copy Carbonless copy paper List of duplicating processes "Transfer element and method of making the same 1959 Patent app ... However, this carbon paper has nothing to do with the carbon paper used for copying texts. It consists of carbon microfibers ... Carbon Paper Being Used in Fuel Cells The Exciting History of Carbon Paper! How Carbon Paper is Made A comment on carbon paper ... Carbon paper (originally carbonic paper) was originally paper coated on one side with a layer of a loosely bound dry ink or ...
... developed for architects and design engineers to create drawings which could be copied precisely using the diazo copy process;[ ... The original use for drawing and tracing was largely superseded by technologies which do not require diazo copying or manual ... and invitations Parchment paper Wax paper Glassine paper Red rosin paper How is paper made translucent (grease proof, tracing ... paper)? PaperOnWeb "Paper and paperboard; articles of paper pulp, of paper or of paperboard". wcoomd.org. "Frequently Asked ...
It has sometimes been regarded (for example in Robson (2001)) as a simple mistake made by the scribe in the process of copying ... are universally regarded as minor errors in copying from a work tablet (or possibly from an earlier copy of the table). The ... appears not to have been noticed in some of the early papers on the tablet. ... or copying the wrong number from a work tablet. If the error in Row 15 is understood as having written 56 instead of 28 in ...
The Xerox 914 was the first marketable automatic and plain-paper copier. This machine could produce a good quality copy in ... Gundlach continued his research and experimentation in the field of xerography, developing a process that allowed many copies ... Before Robert joined the company, xerography was good at copying thin lines and characters, but could not successfully ... Gunchlach's process significantly increased the speed of the photocopier and paved the way for its commercial success. In 1955 ...
In the process of whiteprint copying , (essentially a diazotype process), a dynamic contact copier is used (similar to the ... the copied paper is immersed in a developer solution made from ammonia (or ammonia vapor) converting the parts of the paper not ... The contact copying process was used in the early days of photography and sunlight-exposed blueprints; it is still used in ... The sensitized paper, has a photosensitive coating -an impregnation of diazo - covering the surface of the paper. Once exposed ...
... can also be as simple as the process of copying a password which someone has unwisely written down on a piece of paper and left ... The required information is usually copied without removing or destroying it, so capture often takes place without the victim ...
... original copy, rather than a photocopy that could be altered in the copying process. Embossing has been used regularly on ... The blind embossing process provides a clean and distinctive or subtle image on paper stock. It is best used to create a subtle ... Rather than the paper being raised in specific areas, it is indented. The process involves applying pressure to the front side ... Embossing and debossing are the processes of creating either raised or recessed relief images and designs in paper and other ...
Reformatting is the practice of creating copies of an object in another type of data-storage device. Reformatting processes ... Paper - Acid-free paper, Japanese tissue, Mummy paper, Paper splitting, & Print permanence ... Reformatting, or in any other way copying an item's contents, raises obvious copyright issues. In many cases, a library is ... 1933: William Barrow introduces the field of conservation to paper deacidification when he publishes a paper on the acid paper ...
... precipitate onto the paper below, and become bonded to the paper during the fusing process. This will result in a general ... 1991) reported that the responses to chronically inhaled copying toner, a plastic dust pigmented with carbon black, titanium ... This enables laser printing to copy images more quickly than most photocopiers. ... There are typically seven steps involved in the process:. Raster image processing[edit]. The document to be printed is encoded ...
The ratio between paper and parchment copies is estimated at around 150 to 30 (Hanebutt-Benz 2000, pp. 158-189). ... Because the printing process ensured that the same information fell on the same pages, page numbering, tables of contents, and ... compared to forty by hand-printing and a few by hand-copying.[4] Gutenberg's newly devised hand mould made possible the precise ... The paper was damp as this lets the type 'bite' into the paper better. Small pins hold the paper in place. The paper is now ...
The ratio between paper and parchment copies is estimated at around 150 to 30 (Hanebutt-Benz 2000, pp. 158-189). ... Because the printing process ensured that the same information fell on the same pages, page numbering, tables of contents, and ... learning and literacy amongst the middle class led to an increased demand for books which the time-consuming hand-copying ... The paper was damp as this lets the type 'bite' into the paper better. Small pins hold the paper in place. The paper is now ...
PCR is the technique of copying DNA by making millions of copies. When all 13 core loci are tested on a DNA profile, the random ... Documents are characterized by the composition of their paper and ink.. *Firearms can be identified by the striations on the ... The first step in the DNA process with a piece of evidence is extraction. Extraction is a technique used to remove the DNA from ... The third step is amplification in order to yield multiple copies of DNA. Next is separation, to separate the DNA out to use ...
Processing power needed to simulate a brain[edit]. Whole brain emulation[edit]. Main article: Mind uploading ... "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 15 June 2006. Retrieved 2006-06-23.. , Moravec argued for 108 MIPS which would ... A low-level brain model is built by scanning and mapping a biological brain in detail and copying its state into a computer ... If the grounding considerations in this paper are valid, then this expectation is hopelessly modular and there is really only ...
Copying of this file is authorized only if ... you make absolutely no changes to your copy". This restriction should be ... This paved the way for the creation of repositories of scientific papers such as arXiv, through which papers could be ' ... Several document processing systems are based on TeX, notably jadeTeX, which uses TeX as a backend for printing from James ... and a copy of Indagationes Mathematicae, a Dutch mathematics journal. Knuth looked closely at these printed papers to sort out ...
... started the "Maha Lout Ploh" in Cambodia, copying the "Great Leap Forward" of China.[135][270] ... organised processes found in other Marxist-Leninist states.[414] Within Democratic Kampuchea, there was much regional and local ... named after a former Russian paper.[52] In October 1951, Yuon was elected head of the Khmer Student Association (AEK; ... Pol Pot saw the Khmer Rouge as an example that should be copied by other revolutionary movements across the world and courted ...
Dr Koop looked at 250 papers that scientists wrote in scientific journals. Dr Koop said that the science we know does not show ... Most miscarriages are due to problems with the copying of chromosomes, but some are caused by environmental factors. When a ... For example, Down syndrome happens when there are three copies of chromosome #21. (Usually people have 2 of every chromosome.) ... Abortion would interrupt this process, leaving in the gland undifferentiated structures like those observed in the rat mammary ...
Oral interviews as part of the selection process were theoretically supposed to be an unbiased process, but in practice favored ... Persons in the copy office then recopied the entire text three times so that the examiners would not be able to identify the ... Paper was provided by the examiners and stamped with an official seal. The examinees of the Ming and Qing periods could take up ... In some cases the examinees still made mistakes while copying the text word for word. The contents of the military exam were ...
The unconverted coating is washed away, and the paper is then dried. The result is a copy of the original image with the clear ... "Imaging Technology, 2. Copying and Nonimpact Printing Processes". Ullmann's Encyclopedia of Industrial Chemistry. Weinheim: ... The blueprint process is still used for special artistic and photographic effects, on paper and fabrics.[self-published source ... Xerography is standard copy machine technology using toner on bond paper. When large size xerography machines became available ...
Process for Letter Copying. A Modified Gelatine Emulsion Process. Papers upon Industrial Chemistry. ... A printed copy of this issue is not included. $7.99. Add to Cart. ...
The Jordan Finisher, and the Manufacture of Paper. Copying Drawings by Chemical Process. ... A printed copy of this issue is not included. $7.99. Add to Cart. ...
This process produces a blue or black image on a white paper. It is a monochromatic copying process. Serial 71,260,891, United ... Its main use was for making copies of electrical, mechanical and civil engineering drawings. It is still used widely in ... The Ozalid process is a process of printing positive images on paper from patterns on film or other translucent media. Its ... Ozalid is a registered trademark of a type of paper used for "test prints" in the monochrome classic offset process. The word " ...
... the basic process was already widely used in other copying processes, including the "whiteprint" paper copying system and a ... This was cause for serious concern, as the New York Times had invested heavily in Kalvar copying and had distributed copies of ... It was originally intended to make copying microfilm simpler, but also found a number of other uses. As the document processing ... The diazo-copying process is not unique to Kalvar; ... In a second process called "cycling," it was run through a tank ...
Unfortunately, the paper tape jammed and was torn during the copying process. Fortunately, a digital copy of the BIN loader is ... The paper tape copies of the BIN loader were successfully loaded, and used to load "Random ISZ Test" from an original paper ... Difficulties had been encountered with the paper tape punch while attempting to create copies of the original BIN loader paper ... the original paper tape was torn while making a copy. Repairs were made by manipulating the backspace feature of the paper tape ...
In one variety of plan copying known as the whiteprint process, an original is made on translucent paper. The paper is placed ... After that process is completed, a sheet of copy paper is passed by the drum at the same time that a positive electric charge ... cop·ies) a photographic copy of printed or written material produced by a process involving the action of light on a specially ... When many copies are required, printing processes are more economical. However, when a printing process is used, the master or ...
The compositions also find use on security documents and safety papers to provide a covert image on the document beneath ... B41M-PRINTING, DUPLICATING, MARKING, OR COPYING PROCESSES; COLOUR PRINTING * B41M3/00-Printing processes to produce particular ... Process for the production of self-contained carbonless copy record sheets US4081127A (en) * 1976-06-15. 1978-03-28. Wallace ... Process for the production of self-contained carbonless copy record sheets US4199618A (en) * 1975-09-02. 1980-04-22. Champion ...
Lets walk through the process of printing a copy of your spreadsheet.…The most important thing when youre printing a ... Since the rows and columns may not fit easily on a standard piece of paper,…you may need to do some adjustment to the print ... Let me walk through the printing process on my Solar Panel Chart spreadsheet.…To start, open the specific sheet that you want ... so that your spreadsheet prints out just as you want it to look on the paper.…The good news, is that these options are really ...
A digital copier alerts a user when a document to be copies already exists electronically within a database. ... However, paper documents remain important and the processes of printing, faxing, and copying are still central to document ... For example, for every document to be copied, copy machine 104 captures digital information representing the document. The user ... Proper filing of paper documents for later retrieval requires a certain administrative discipline but the retrieval process ...
The standard copying charge for records in black and white paper copy is $0.15 per page. This charge includes the operators ... c) Reproduction means the process of making a copy of a record necessary to respond to a request. Such copy can take the form ... x 11 or 11 x 14 inch black and white paper copy, such as computer tapes, disks and color copies, the requester may be charged ... or for mailing additional copies where the total postage cost does not exceed $5.00. However, where the volume of paper copy or ...
Page costs are deducted from the students quota each time a print or copy job is processed. ... The college encourages you to consider the full cost of printing, whether it be financial or environmental for power, paper, ... The Cost of Printing & Copying. This section outlines student, faculty, and staff print processes. ... Otherwise, process the payment through the college Accounts Payable department.. Guest Rates. Guests of the college are those ...
Essentially, the copy machine reads the object and then prints the object in two dimensions and from paper to paper, retaining ... The process of printing with the copy machine is very similar to that of a traditional colour artists print. Each colour is ... Whats really interesting, though, is the way in which Hockney utilised the copy machine. My interest in the [copying] machine ... Its an exciting process, but Ive always been bothered by the lack of spontaneity: how it takes hours and hours, working ...
... if I falsely claimed that the image was a direct copy. But if the distortions in the copy were caused by the copying process, ... Most people conclude that these are three images of the very same piece of paper. There are those who question how the pdf was ... TK, re your 8:04, if the issue was whether I had such a bill locked away, and I had displayed a certied copy of that bill and ... I guess we can hope that this will raise the percentage of people whove heard of the Venona Papers from 0.03% to 0.05%.. ...
Samuel went on to describe the difficult process of copying, carried out on old machinery and coloured carbon paper. He said: " ... and some have asked for their own copies." ...
... if I falsely claimed that the image was a direct copy. But if the distortions in the copy were caused by the copying process, ... Most people conclude that these are three images of the very same piece of paper. There are those who question how the pdf was ... TK, re your 8:04, if the issue was whether I had such a bill locked away, and I had displayed a certied copy of that bill and ... I guess we can hope that this will raise the percentage of people whove heard of the Venona Papers from 0.03% to 0.05%.. ...
... printing market with an electro-photographic process for copying documents using a special chemically-treated type of paper. ... 1959 - Xerox plain-paper copier. The Xerox 914 is the first successful plain paper copier. It can make six copies per minute ... Its first plain-paper office copier follows in 1973. Instead of a xerographic process, this copier uses a developer free ... Nearly 54000 copies are printed and sold for 50¢. Mint copies now sell for over $5000. ...
Pete told me it had been processed with new digital copying technology. ManualMan will be my first choice when I need to order ... So many times the reproduction schematics look like copies of copies with poor resolution. That is certainly NOT the case with ... The print quality is excellent and the paper stock feels very durable. The lay-flat binding makes it easy to read the manual on ... ManualMan does not buy manuals that are copies. LAFAYETTE OPERATING & SERVICE MANUALS AVAILABLE. We have one of the largest ...
... information contained in or on a resource that is able to be copied by traditional copying processes or digitisation so that it ... For a photograph, it is the image itself not the medium the image is held on (e.g. paper, glass or plastic.) For a digital ... Preservation copy. The digital version or copy of material that is stored securely in a physical format or on a physical ... Digitisation is the process of copying analogue material to a digital file form. ...
... or just lined paper, to speed up the process of all that tedious copying work done by the clerks. ... SP did have sufficient interest in japanning and varnishing to acquire later a copy of the earliest text known in English, but ... Maybe the varnisher supplied Sam with lined paper, graph paper, or something of the sort. ... Maybe the varnisher supplied Sam with lined paper, graph paper, or something of the sort. ...
... this also introduces the possibility of error-not copying some little detail or moving something in the process. Figure 3.13, ... Getting ink on paper isnt the end of the story. The printed piece must be trimmed to its final size and subjected to any ... If you supply business card art as a lonely card on a letter-sized page, a prepress operator will have to copy the card art ... Trimming is the finishing process that chops the printed piece to the correct final size. Since this is a mechanical process, ...
Clerks fees for issuance of process and certificates; (P) (4) Clerks fees for transmittal of papers; (P) (5) Court appointed ... Clerks fees for filing papers; (P) (2) Clerks fees for reasonably necessary certification and copying; (P) (3) ... Copied to clipboard. Back to Top Research. Cases & Codes. Opinion Summaries. Sample Business Contracts. Research An Attorney or ... or other paper accompanied by such an application is timely lodged with the court and delay is caused due to the processing of ...
Macs follow a similar process.. Back your images up!. The next step I take is to copy all my RAW images to DVD. As odd as this ... Copying the images to the computer. Immediately after shooting a series of images, I copy them to my computer using a compact ... In this paper, I am going to describe my own digital workflow, from the time my shots leave the camera, to the basic editing ... Backing up my images to a second hard drive means that I have at least two copies of my processed photographs available on my ...
Making an electronic copy of an electronic record is not "creating" a new record; instead, it is similar to copying a paper ... The requirements for processing requests for electronic public records are generally the same as requests for paper copies. In ... The process for requesting electronic records is the same as for requesting public records in hard copy. ... Processing Public Records Requests for Electronic Records. This page provides sample policy language on processing public ...
When Xerox introduced its popular copying machines in 1959, their wizardry was considered as high tech as the iPhone when Steve ... Less paper and fewer copies undermined the companys once lucrative franchise.. In recent years, Xerox moved to recast itself ... High-end Xerox machines - essentially, complex paper-processing computers - became symbols of modern technology, sometimes ... Soon, Xerox copying machines were a booming business and central to office life, a spot for informal conversations and gossip. ...
Reduced paper copy and print volumes, and streamlined processes reduces staff time and associated costs. ... You want to reduce waste and recover as much as possible (potentially up to 30 to 50%) of printing and copying costs. Toshibas ... Inevitably, some documents need to be printed, but with enforceable print rules and management processes, you can reduce paper ... We simply pay a monthly amount, which is made up of our lease plus a pay-per-click copy charge, with no charge for scanning. ...
and began the process of copying and pasting the text of my articles into a Microsoft Word template. ... Step #6: Finally, I was ready to upload my files and order my proof copy! My 190-page black and white soft cover book cost a ... from the drop-down menu for the paper format). ... Begin promoting and selling copies of your book online, via ... Why? Well, there are no up-front costs, you get listed quickly with Amazon, and you can buy copies of your book for less than $ ...
n) Copy of data processed The user may request a copy of the personal data collected and processed by ICAB. The copy will ... If you are not the default recipient, we inform you that all distribution, copying or use of this communication and/or the ... normally be transmitted in electronic form, unless the user expressly requests delivery on paper. In case of a request for ... b) Processing of personal data on a freely basis The collection and processing of personal data by ICAB is done on freely basis ...
In either case, once the data is identified, Concurrent Copy will process the data by protecting and copying tracks. This means ... This paper has been further updated to take a deeper look into the buffer optimizer, IBM schemes, and alternatives... Read More ... Introduction to Concurrent Copy -. By Jim Ratliff, Dino-Software (12-minute read) *Restricted Member Content* Concurrent Copy ... There is no record level processing in Concurrent Copy. There are many references in the IBM DFSMS publications identifying how ...
In either case, once the data is identified, Concurrent Copy will process the data by protecting and copying tracks. This means ... This paper has been further updated to take a deeper look into the buffer optimizer, IBM schemes, and alternatives... Read More ... Introduction to Concurrent Copy -. By Jim Ratliff, Dino-Software (12-minute read) *Restricted Member Content* Concurrent Copy ... There is no record level processing in Concurrent Copy. There are many references in the IBM DFSMS publications identifying how ...
In either case, once the data is identified, Concurrent Copy will process the data by protecting and copying tracks. This means ... This paper has been further updated to take a deeper look into the buffer optimizer, IBM schemes, and alternatives... Read More ... Introduction to Concurrent Copy -. By Jim Ratliff, Dino-Software (12-minute read) *Restricted Member Content* Concurrent Copy ... There is no record level processing in Concurrent Copy. There are many references in the IBM DFSMS publications identifying how ...
In either case, once the data is identified, Concurrent Copy will process the data by protecting and copying tracks. This means ... This paper has been further updated to take a deeper look into the buffer optimizer, IBM schemes, and alternatives... Read More ... Introduction to Concurrent Copy -. By Jim Ratliff, Dino-Software (12-minute read) *Restricted Member Content* Concurrent Copy ... There is no record level processing in Concurrent Copy. There are many references in the IBM DFSMS publications identifying how ...
In either case, once the data is identified, Concurrent Copy will process the data by protecting and copying tracks. This means ... This paper has been further updated to take a deeper look into the buffer optimizer, IBM schemes, and alternatives... Read More ... Introduction to Concurrent Copy -. By Jim Ratliff, Dino-Software (12-minute read) *Restricted Member Content* Concurrent Copy ... There is no record level processing in Concurrent Copy. There are many references in the IBM DFSMS publications identifying how ...
"First I had to order the US letter size paper (we use A4 in the UK) pre-three-holed-punched (we have two or four hole punches) ... If youre a novice or a seasoned pro, this program can aid greatly in your creative process. Marc Scott ZicreeWriter - The Next ... If you run a print & copy shop in Los Angeles, New York or Florida then the Hollywood Script Express Printing Partner Program ... With HSX we have streamlined the entire process so that writers can submit their scripts to agents, producers, studios and ...
In that paper, copying other organizations was one process that could lead to similarity. Researchers these days say that ... Is it possible to copy what others do and still become different from them? That seems like a paradox, but it could be reality ... A new process that improves work has been discovered elsewhere in the organization, executives love the process and its results ... In response, they started innovating processes. These had some minor resemblance to the original process but were different in ...
... processes passport applications; accepts marriage applications and issues the subsequent license; issues certified copies of ... In addition to real estate transactions, the Recorders Office issues titles and liens; records veterans discharge papers; ... They accept and process fines, fees and court costs owed to the state, child support checks, and civil judgments owed to ...
... processes passport applications; accepts marriage applications and issues the subsequent license; issues certified copies of ... In addition to real estate transactions, the Recorders Office issues titles and liens; records veterans discharge papers; ... They accept and process fines, fees and court costs owed to the state, child support checks, and civil judgments owed to ...
... processes passport applications; accepts marriage applications and issues the subsequent license; issues certified copies of ... In addition to real estate transactions, the Recorders Office issues titles and liens; records veterans discharge papers; ... They accept and process fines, fees and court costs owed to the state, child support checks, and civil judgments owed to ...
Appropriately processes outgoing material including copying, faxing, mailing and tracking. Appropriately processes daily ... Develops and maintains electronic and/or paper filing system for the efficient storage and retrieval of office records, ... Maintains records of minutes and provides copies of actions taken as requested. ... Manages the orientation process of new executive/senior leaders. Facilitates the timely completion and submission of required ...
Copying processes can take a lot of time with the use of an analog printer. Since digital copiers store the documents into an ... This type of copier creates copies through a process that requires a positively charged drum and a negatively charged ink toner ... Paper is also saved through the use of duplex printing and less paper jams during operation. ... It only has to scan the document once and then can make as many copies as the operator wants. Speeds of up to 30 pages per ...
... and successively convey-introducing the sheets of copy paper into the circulating conveyance path from a copy-sheet conveyance ... for starting a next continuous dual-sided copying cycle after copying to first sides of the copy sheets successively convey- ... feeding sheets of copy paper wherein the number of the fed sheets is based on the circulatable sheet count if a copy sheet ... there is no need for copy sheet detection sensors to determine whether the number of copy sheets conveyed to the circulating ...
  • Its objective is the creation of a photogram, using chemically treated paper. (wikipedia.org)
  • Océ invents an electro-photographic process for copying documents using a special chemically-treated type of paper. (adobe.com)
  • Copy clerks, like the scribes of churches and government offices before them, were common in the business offices of the nineteenth century. (madehow.com)
  • A growing number of file clerks use imaging systems that scan paper files or film and store the material on computers. (careers.org)
  • If necessary, file clerks make copies of records and distribute them. (careers.org)
  • The R.Q.O. Holding Company also owns a United States trademark registration for OZALID for "copying and reprographic machines, apparatus and parts thereof. (wikipedia.org)
  • Carbon paper is an inexpensive reprographic device used to make a single copy concurrently with the original, as in credit card transaction receipts, legal documents, manuscripts, letters, and other simple forms. (madehow.com)
  • Its main use was for making copies of electrical, mechanical and civil engineering drawings. (wikipedia.org)
  • When copying, copiers will automatically log you out if idle for 5 minutes. (middlebury.edu)
  • When documents that are size A3 or 11" 17" are placed onto the platen of some copiers for reduction copies to be made from the documents onto smaller sized copy sheets (e.g., 81/2" 11"), the copy sheets must be rotated 90 before they receive images from the documents. (google.ca)
  • In the 1860s Lebbeus H. Rogers attempted to sell these carbons to businesses, but it wasn't until the invention of the type-writer in 1867 that carbon paper came to be accepted (typewriters produced a cleaner copy as well as a quality original). (madehow.com)
  • However, compound "Ozalid Process" appears never to have been registered as a trademark, and the use of OZALID specifically for the Ozalid process using diazo compound paper is not currently registered as a trademark at least in the United States. (wikipedia.org)
  • A transparent film with the pattern to be printed is placed on a diazo compound coated paper. (wikipedia.org)
  • In the production process, a solution of Saran dissolved in an organic solvent and containing a small amount of a diazo compound was coated onto a substrate of Mylar. (wikipedia.org)
  • It was originally intended to make copying microfilm simpler, but also found a number of other uses. (wikipedia.org)
  • You will need to give thought to the overall size of the photocopy, because you should make sure that the size of paper in the photocopier is large enough to hold the copy of the original shape. (encyclopedia.com)
  • It is process where an oily picture is sketched onto a piece of limestone and then can be rolled over to make countless copies. (adobe.com)
  • Lots of copying goes on in primary schools: students copy down words from the board, teachers make copies of the week's spelling test, administrators make copies of the parent newsletter. (questioncopyright.org)
  • The Ozalid process is a process of printing positive images on paper from patterns on film or other translucent media. (wikipedia.org)
  • Multiple sheet business form assemblies which can be used as mailers are typically sealed envelopes which contain additional sheets therein on which information can be printed by impact printing processes. (google.com)
  • The college encourages you to consider the full cost of printing, whether it be financial or environmental for power, paper, toner/ink, and machine. (middlebury.edu)
  • Student organization printing and copying should be executed following Student Activities' guidelines and will be charge to that organization's Banner index. (middlebury.edu)
  • Students involved in student organizations should follow Student Activities' guidelines for printing and copying. (middlebury.edu)
  • Students using their personal accounts will not be reimbursed or refunded for organization-related printing and copying. (middlebury.edu)
  • Students workers who are expected to print and copy as part of their duties should consult their supervisor about printing and copying using department accounts. (middlebury.edu)
  • Student workers who choose to use their quota, rather than using department accounts, will not be reimbursed or refunded for work-related printing and copying. (middlebury.edu)
  • Let's walk through the process of printing a copy of your spreadsheet. (lynda.com)
  • Let me walk through the printing process on my Solar Panel Chart spreadsheet. (lynda.com)
  • 8. The printing apparatus of claim 7, wherein the rotation of a copy sheet is from landscape to portrait. (google.ca)
  • 9. The printing apparatus of claim 7, wherein said second set of balls initially contact a copy sheet while in said first position. (google.ca)
  • 12. The printing apparatus of claim 8, wherein said first set of balls and said belt transport drives copy sheets against a vertical straight edge. (google.ca)
  • For consumers, computers have made printing a much more independant process, it is a lot easier to pull up an editable document and press print than to go go to a professional offset printer. (adobe.com)
  • This early carbon paper was not a huge success, apparently because business owners, fearing forgery, preferred items written in ink. (madehow.com)
  • In 1823 Cyrus P. Dakin began making carbons, papers coated with oil and carbon black. (madehow.com)
  • Rogers originally made carbon paper by placing paper on a stone table and slathering it with a mixture containing carbon black (soot), oil, and naphtha (a liquid hydrocarbon). (madehow.com)
  • Later he developed a machine that applied hot wax to the carbon paper, doing away with the manual brushing. (madehow.com)
  • The production of carbon paper has stayed basically the same since Rogers's technological advances. (madehow.com)
  • In a quaint manufacturing tradebook put out around the turn of this century, carbon paper is described as consisting of various pigments, including carbon black, and wax or oils brushed onto thin, strong paper. (madehow.com)
  • While modern carbon paper is made using essentially the same formula, manufacturers have concentrated on increasing the cleanliness of the process and improving the quality of the reproduction by using more refined materials. (madehow.com)
  • A typical piece of carbon paper consists of a sheet of paper that has been impregnated with carbon and sandwiched between two sheets of regular paper. (madehow.com)
  • The key ingredient in carbon paper is carbon black. (madehow.com)
  • The carbon black adheres to the paper with the help of various waxes. (madehow.com)
  • Some carbon paper can be reused. (madehow.com)
  • This comes in handy for use in sales books, for example, because only one sheet of carbon paper is needed to write out receipts for several sales. (madehow.com)
  • Reusable oil-soluble pencil carbon produces indelible copy. (madehow.com)
  • Reusable pigment pencil carbon paper produces erasable copy. (madehow.com)
  • This process produces a blue or black image on a white paper. (wikipedia.org)
  • A digital copier alerts a user when a document to be copies already exists electronically within a database. (google.com)
  • This invention relates to transport of copy sheets in a copier or printer, and more particularly, to a system for rotating sheets as they are traveling vertically on a transport apparatus. (google.ca)
  • Its first plain-paper office copier follows in 1973. (adobe.com)
  • The photocopier also can produce copies of objects that are smaller (reduction) or larger (magnification) than the original object. (encyclopedia.com)
  • The compositions also find use on security documents and safety papers to provide a covert image on the document beneath information which may be subject to attempted alteration, such as the amount written on a check. (google.com)
  • This invention relates to carbonless coatings which can be printed onto business forms, security documents, or safety paper and to a method for forming visible images on such business forms, security documents, or safety paper. (google.com)
  • Even up to the twentieth century, copying documents for business purposes was a difficult, labor-intensive process. (madehow.com)
  • The software includes a large database of documents, and when a paper is uploaded the program checks it against that database. (questioncopyright.org)
  • Kalvar was intended to be used primarily for document storage, copying microfilm or microfiche. (wikipedia.org)
  • A ball track is included that appears to be primarily a guide, with the actual rotation of a paper being caused by a shoulder which the paper strikes as it moves along the belt of the transport system. (google.ca)
  • As the document processing world moved to computerized records, Kalvar was no longer in demand, and vesicular microfilm is now only made upon request. (wikipedia.org)
  • Ozalid is a registered trademark of a type of paper used for "test prints" in the monochrome classic offset process. (wikipedia.org)
  • The word "Ozalid" is an anagram of "diazol", the name of the substance that the company "Ozalid" used in the fabrication of this type of paper. (wikipedia.org)
  • 6. The method of claim 1 wherein said capturing step comprises scanning in using a copying machine. (google.com)
  • 2,190,413 and 2,190,416 show a ball-on-belt transport that provides 90 rotation of paper in a folding machine. (google.ca)
  • The photocopier can produce copies that have virtually the same size as the original item copied. (encyclopedia.com)
  • Around 1820 it became possible to use paper that had been inked on one side only and an indelible pencil to produce the original. (madehow.com)
  • For this Instructable I will document the entire build process, some of the steps are out of sequence and the build is on going, as punching this many rivets is a lot of hard work. (instructables.com)
  • What she means is: "Don't copy the work of someone else and try to pass it off as your own. (questioncopyright.org)
  • This white paper should be useful for improving copy performance of software that must read video frames decoded by a hardware decode accelerator from USWC graphics memory into a system memory buffer for further processing. (intel.com)
  • In many small offices, they often have additional responsibilities, such as entering data, performing word processing, sorting mail, and operating copying or fax machines. (careers.org)
  • Meanwhile, "copy" is a two syllable word with easy spelling, and it refers to a concrete physical action. (questioncopyright.org)
  • The word "copy" appears three times. (questioncopyright.org)
  • New ways to cheat," of course, refers to his use of the word "copy" in the first paragraph, filling out the nefarious connotation of the word "copy" just a little more. (questioncopyright.org)
  • The muddy use of the word "copy" leads us astray. (questioncopyright.org)
  • This section outlines student, faculty, and staff print processes. (middlebury.edu)
  • A teacher can submit a student paper, and Turnitin compares it to its huge database. (questioncopyright.org)
  • This database includes text from Internet pages, text from commercial databases of journal articles and periodicals, and text from every student paper an educator has ever submitted. (questioncopyright.org)
  • Of course, in the good old days, you had to copy off of a neighbor or buy a copy of a paper some other student had written a few years ago. (questioncopyright.org)
  • Turnitin makes money because teachers want students to stop copying, but Turnitin copies student papers! (questioncopyright.org)
  • No. 1,103,356 is directed to a device for conveying and at the same time aligning individual sheets along an aligning guide using a conveyor belt which is inclined slightly with respect to the direction of paper travel and has a number of feeding moving spheres in cages. (google.ca)
  • A record may be a sheet of paper stored in a file cabinet or an image on microform. (careers.org)
  • Notice of Proposed Rulemaking and Temporary regulations under section 7602 that authorize the IRS to use 6103(n) contracted experts in summons interviews to propound questions and receive summoned books, papers and other records. (irs.gov)
  • After a 15 sec to 5 min exposure, ammonia vapours are used to develop the film image onto the paper. (wikipedia.org)
  • A metal stylus then scratched an impression onto the tissue paper, creating a copy that read correctly and another that was a mirror image, though easily read through the thin tissue paper. (madehow.com)
  • Since the bubbles form where the UV light went through the original, the copy is a negative. (wikipedia.org)
  • The two objects - original and its copy - are said to be mathematically congruent to each other. (encyclopedia.com)
  • On the photocopier, the copy comes out as a reflection of the original (flipped upside down), so you may have to flip the copy to fit it on top of the original to see the perfect match in shape and size. (encyclopedia.com)
  • The copy has the same shape as the original, but not the same size. (encyclopedia.com)
  • Certain corresponding measurements (such as the left side on an original and the left side on a copy) are multiples or fractions of the original. (encyclopedia.com)
  • If you enlarge the triangle with a photocopier and measure the base length and height of the copy, you can compare those new lengths to the original values. (encyclopedia.com)
  • You will find that you can either multiply or divide by one specific number to get the measurement of the copy based upon the measurement of the original. (encyclopedia.com)
  • In this example, the length of the base of the copy of the triangle is 4 inches, yet the original base length was 2 inches. (encyclopedia.com)
  • So, if you multiply the same number, 2, times the height measure of the original triangle (1 inch), you will get 2 inches (2 × 1 inch), the height of the similar copy. (encyclopedia.com)
  • We might say that the ratio of side lengths of the similar copy to the side lengths of the original is 2:1, or 2-to − 1. (encyclopedia.com)
  • Determining the relationship between the area of the original shape and its similar copy is more challenging. (encyclopedia.com)
  • Calculate the area with a formula or discover the area by tessellating copies of the smaller triangle until you cover the similar copy of the original triangle. (encyclopedia.com)
  • Watt disliked trusting scribes to copy business letters, so he invented a method of pressing a tissue paper that had been moistened with special liquids onto an original, which had been written using special ink. (madehow.com)
  • We could have done it easier but the cost of copying the plan with the intention of cutting it up was a waste of funds and we managed to get the paper from someone who was tossing it out. (instructables.com)
  • Have you ever tried to enlarge a copy of an object to fit into an special frame, and had to enlarge it several times before you got the size "just right? (encyclopedia.com)
  • The ease of copying also suggested its use in the distribution of movies, and in 1961 Kalvar and Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer formed a joint venture, "Metro Kalvar", to market a system for copying 16 mm and 35 mm black-and-white motion pictures. (wikipedia.org)
  • Kalvar film was limited to reproduction of black and white only although a color process was developed. (wikipedia.org)
  • Using conventional copying methods can yield very poor performance when the source data is in "uncacheable" memory, as when video decode is being done with hardware acceleration, but an application needs to quickly obtain copies of decoded frame buffers for additional processing. (intel.com)
  • This paper explains best known methods for improving performance of data copies from Uncacheable Speculative Write Combining (USWC) memory to ordinary write back (WB) system memory. (intel.com)
  • Copying data to USWC memory or within WB memory is not covered, nor is integration with other video acceleration APIs. (intel.com)
  • Copying data from USWC memory can exhibit very poor performance with conventional copy methods, such as applying the memcpy() function, or writing a simple copy function using the MOVDQA SIMD (Single Instruction, Multiple Data) instruction to load and store data. (intel.com)
  • Figure 3-1 is a quick summary of the current best known algorithm to copy data buffers from USWC memory to WB system memory. (intel.com)
  • Repeat above two bullets in step 2 until all data is copied from the 4KB buffer. (intel.com)
  • Since the rows and columns may not fit easily on a standard piece of paper,…you may need to do some adjustment to the print settings before you print. (lynda.com)
  • A paper saturated with printer's ink was placed between a piece of tissue paper and a piece of regular paper. (madehow.com)
  • In California, Xidex Corporation developed a similar process and filed a patent on it in the late 1950s. (wikipedia.org)
  • For example, A ′ is the copy of A. Do these shapes - A and A ′ , B and B ′ , C and C ′ , and D and D ′ - seem similar? (encyclopedia.com)
  • Page costs are deducted from the student's quota each time a print or copy job is processed. (middlebury.edu)
  • The second time, in the phrase "copy off of," it means "plagiarize. (questioncopyright.org)
  • The first attempt at copying important business correspondence is attributed to the Scottish engineer James Watt, who improved the steam engine. (madehow.com)
  • By 1779, he was ready to market the process, but it didn't catch on. (madehow.com)
  • Here we perform a comprehensive physicochemical and morphological characterization of PM0.1 and raw materials (toners and paper) at eight commercial photocopy centers that use color and monochrome photocopiers over the course of a full week. (nih.gov)
  • Publication 1223 General Rules and Specifications for Substitute Forms W-2c and W-3c This procedure provides general rules and specifications from the Service for paper and computer-generated substitutes for Form W-2c and W-3c. (irs.gov)
  • Refunds are processed by the ITS Helpdesk once a week during regular business hours. (middlebury.edu)
  • Sample code is included for a fast copy function based on those methods, as well as sample code illustrating how that copy might be called in an application using the Microsoft DXVA2 (DirectX Video Acceleration 2) libraries for hardware accelerated video decode to copy video frames from USWC to WB memory buffers. (intel.com)
  • The demonstrated methods may be used to copy video frames decoded by a hardware video accelerator, to allow software processing of the video frames. (intel.com)
  • 2. The method of claim 1 further comprising adding preformed silver halide grains at any step in the process of preparing the silver soap of a long chain carboxylic acid to form a silver halide/silver carboxylate soap. (google.com)
  • Repeat steps 1 and 2 until the whole frame buffer has been copied. (intel.com)
  • The color process used entirely too much light to be an economic success and never became commercially available. (wikipedia.org)
  • More particularly, the invention relates to a business form, security document, or safety paper having a self-contained coating of an admixture of pressure-rupturable microcapsules of solvent, a color former and a color developer, printed thereon, and to a business form, security document, or safety paper having a coating of a color former and a color developer printed thereon. (google.com)
  • But when Miss Winthrop says "don't copy," she's not referring to any of these activities. (questioncopyright.org)
  • Accordingly, OZALID may have become descriptive of the Ozalid process, and no longer uniquely associated with any one source, at least in the United States. (wikipedia.org)
  • Kalvar Corp was not the only company to commercially develop the process. (wikipedia.org)