PaperAlgorithms: A procedure consisting of a sequence of algebraic formulas and/or logical steps to calculate or determine a given task.Chromatography, Paper: An analytical technique for resolution of a chemical mixture into its component compounds. Compounds are separated on an adsorbent paper (stationary phase) by their varied degree of solubility/mobility in the eluting solvent (mobile phase).Periodicals as Topic: A publication issued at stated, more or less regular, intervals.Models, Theoretical: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of systems, processes, or phenomena. They include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Computer Simulation: Computer-based representation of physical systems and phenomena such as chemical processes.Electrophoresis, Paper: Electrophoresis in which paper is used as the diffusion medium. This technique is confined almost entirely to separations of small molecules such as amino acids, peptides, and nucleotides, and relatively high voltages are nearly always used.History, 20th Century: Time period from 1901 through 2000 of the common era.Reproducibility of Results: The statistical reproducibility of measurements (often in a clinical context), including the testing of instrumentation or techniques to obtain reproducible results. The concept includes reproducibility of physiological measurements, which may be used to develop rules to assess probability or prognosis, or response to a stimulus; reproducibility of occurrence of a condition; and reproducibility of experimental results.Models, Statistical: Statistical formulations or analyses which, when applied to data and found to fit the data, are then used to verify the assumptions and parameters used in the analysis. Examples of statistical models are the linear model, binomial model, polynomial model, two-parameter model, etc.Models, Biological: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Publishing: "The business or profession of the commercial production and issuance of literature" (Webster's 3d). It includes the publisher, publication processes, editing and editors. Production may be by conventional printing methods or by electronic publishing.Software: Sequential operating programs and data which instruct the functioning of a digital computer.Pattern Recognition, Automated: In INFORMATION RETRIEVAL, machine-sensing or identification of visible patterns (shapes, forms, and configurations). (Harrod's Librarians' Glossary, 7th ed)Evidence-Based Medicine: An approach of practicing medicine with the goal to improve and evaluate patient care. It requires the judicious integration of best research evidence with the patient's values to make decisions about medical care. This method is to help physicians make proper diagnosis, devise best testing plan, choose best treatment and methods of disease prevention, as well as develop guidelines for large groups of patients with the same disease. (from JAMA 296 (9), 2006)Research: Critical and exhaustive investigation or experimentation, having for its aim the discovery of new facts and their correct interpretation, the revision of accepted conclusions, theories, or laws in the light of newly discovered facts, or the practical application of such new or revised conclusions, theories, or laws. (Webster, 3d ed)Wireless Technology: Techniques using energy such as radio frequency, infrared light, laser light, visible light, or acoustic energy to transfer information without the use of wires, over both short and long distances.Benchmarking: Method of measuring performance against established standards of best practice.Artificial Intelligence: Theory and development of COMPUTER SYSTEMS which perform tasks that normally require human intelligence. Such tasks may include speech recognition, LEARNING; VISUAL PERCEPTION; MATHEMATICAL COMPUTING; reasoning, PROBLEM SOLVING, DECISION-MAKING, and translation of language.Equipment Design: Methods of creating machines and devices.Information Storage and Retrieval: Organized activities related to the storage, location, search, and retrieval of information.Research Design: A plan for collecting and utilizing data so that desired information can be obtained with sufficient precision or so that an hypothesis can be tested properly.Computer Communication Networks: A system containing any combination of computers, computer terminals, printers, audio or visual display devices, or telephones interconnected by telecommunications equipment or cables: used to transmit or receive information. (Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed)Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.United StatesAuthorship: The profession of writing. Also the identity of the writer as the creator of a literary production.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Peer Review, Research: The evaluation by experts of the quality and pertinence of research or research proposals of other experts in the same field. Peer review is used by editors in deciding which submissions warrant publication, by granting agencies to determine which proposals should be funded, and by academic institutions in tenure decisions.Biomedical Research: Research that involves the application of the natural sciences, especially biology and physiology, to medicine.Bibliometrics: The use of statistical methods in the analysis of a body of literature to reveal the historical development of subject fields and patterns of authorship, publication, and use. Formerly called statistical bibliography. (from The ALA Glossary of Library and Information Science, 1983)User-Computer Interface: The portion of an interactive computer program that issues messages to and receives commands from a user.Journal Impact Factor: A quantitative measure of the frequency on average with which articles in a journal have been cited in a given period of time.Great BritainData Interpretation, Statistical: Application of statistical procedures to analyze specific observed or assumed facts from a particular study.History, 19th Century: Time period from 1801 through 1900 of the common era.Terminology as Topic: The terms, expressions, designations, or symbols used in a particular science, discipline, or specialized subject area.Computational Biology: A field of biology concerned with the development of techniques for the collection and manipulation of biological data, and the use of such data to make biological discoveries or predictions. This field encompasses all computational methods and theories for solving biological problems including manipulation of models and datasets.Databases, Factual: Extensive collections, reputedly complete, of facts and data garnered from material of a specialized subject area and made available for analysis and application. The collection can be automated by various contemporary methods for retrieval. The concept should be differentiated from DATABASES, BIBLIOGRAPHIC which is restricted to collections of bibliographic references.Internet: A loose confederation of computer communication networks around the world. The networks that make up the Internet are connected through several backbone networks. The Internet grew out of the US Government ARPAnet project and was designed to facilitate information exchange.Filtration: A process of separating particulate matter from a fluid, such as air or a liquid, by passing the fluid carrier through a medium that will not pass the particulates. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Transducers: Any device or element which converts an input signal into an output signal of a different form. Examples include the microphone, phonographic pickup, loudspeaker, barometer, photoelectric cell, automobile horn, doorbell, and underwater sound transducer. (McGraw Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Health Policy: Decisions, usually developed by government policymakers, for determining present and future objectives pertaining to the health care system.Medical Records Systems, Computerized: Computer-based systems for input, storage, display, retrieval, and printing of information contained in a patient's medical record.Publications: Copies of a work or document distributed to the public by sale, rental, lease, or lending. (From ALA Glossary of Library and Information Science, 1983, p181)Amino Acid Sequence: The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.Moral Obligations: Duties that are based in ETHICS, rather than in law.Signal Processing, Computer-Assisted: Computer-assisted processing of electric, ultrasonic, or electronic signals to interpret function and activity.Models, Genetic: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of genetic processes or phenomena. They include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Image Interpretation, Computer-Assisted: Methods developed to aid in the interpretation of ultrasound, radiographic images, etc., for diagnosis of disease.Data Collection: Systematic gathering of data for a particular purpose from various sources, including questionnaires, interviews, observation, existing records, and electronic devices. The process is usually preliminary to statistical analysis of the data.ComputersEthics, Medical: The principles of professional conduct concerning the rights and duties of the physician, relations with patients and fellow practitioners, as well as actions of the physician in patient care and interpersonal relations with patient families.Science: The study of natural phenomena by observation, measurement, and experimentation.Abstracting and Indexing as Topic: Activities performed to identify concepts and aspects of published information and research reports.Base Sequence: The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.Public Health: Branch of medicine concerned with the prevention and control of disease and disability, and the promotion of physical and mental health of the population on the international, national, state, or municipal level.Morals: Standards of conduct that distinguish right from wrong.History, 21st Century: Time period from 2001 through 2100 of the common era.Environmental Monitoring: The monitoring of the level of toxins, chemical pollutants, microbial contaminants, or other harmful substances in the environment (soil, air, and water), workplace, or in the bodies of people and animals present in that environment.Computer Systems: Systems composed of a computer or computers, peripheral equipment, such as disks, printers, and terminals, and telecommunications capabilities.Ethical Theory: A philosophically coherent set of propositions (for example, utilitarianism) which attempts to provide general norms for the guidance and evaluation of moral conduct. (from Beauchamp and Childress, Principles of Biomedical Ethics, 4th ed)Developing Countries: Countries in the process of change with economic growth, that is, an increase in production, per capita consumption, and income. The process of economic growth involves better utilization of natural and human resources, which results in a change in the social, political, and economic structures.Kinetics: The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.Blood Specimen Collection: The taking of a blood sample to determine its character as a whole, to identify levels of its component cells, chemicals, gases, or other constituents, to perform pathological examination, etc.Databases, Bibliographic: Extensive collections, reputedly complete, of references and citations to books, articles, publications, etc., generally on a single subject or specialized subject area. Databases can operate through automated files, libraries, or computer disks. The concept should be differentiated from DATABASES, FACTUAL which is used for collections of data and facts apart from bibliographic references to them.Guidelines as Topic: A systematic statement of policy rules or principles. Guidelines may be developed by government agencies at any level, institutions, professional societies, governing boards, or by convening expert panels. The text may be cursive or in outline form but is generally a comprehensive guide to problems and approaches in any field of activity. For guidelines in the field of health care and clinical medicine, PRACTICE GUIDELINES AS TOPIC is available.International Cooperation: The interaction of persons or groups of persons representing various nations in the pursuit of a common goal or interest.Image Processing, Computer-Assisted: A technique of inputting two-dimensional images into a computer and then enhancing or analyzing the imagery into a form that is more useful to the human observer.Social Responsibility: The obligations and accountability assumed in carrying out actions or ideas on behalf of others.Remote Sensing Technology: Observation and acquisition of physical data from a distance by viewing and making measurements from a distance or receiving transmitted data from observations made at distant location.Natural Language Processing: Computer processing of a language with rules that reflect and describe current usage rather than prescribed usage.Politics: Activities concerned with governmental policies, functions, etc.Policy Making: The decision process by which individuals, groups or institutions establish policies pertaining to plans, programs or procedures.Industry: Any enterprise centered on the processing, assembly, production, or marketing of a line of products, services, commodities, or merchandise, in a particular field often named after its principal product. Examples include the automobile, fishing, music, publishing, insurance, and textile industries.Health Promotion: Encouraging consumer behaviors most likely to optimize health potentials (physical and psychosocial) through health information, preventive programs, and access to medical care.Delivery of Health Care: The concept concerned with all aspects of providing and distributing health services to a patient population.Imaging, Three-Dimensional: The process of generating three-dimensional images by electronic, photographic, or other methods. For example, three-dimensional images can be generated by assembling multiple tomographic images with the aid of a computer, while photographic 3-D images (HOLOGRAPHY) can be made by exposing film to the interference pattern created when two laser light sources shine on an object.Philosophy: A love or pursuit of wisdom. A search for the underlying causes and principles of reality. (Webster, 3d ed)Personal Autonomy: Self-directing freedom and especially moral independence. An ethical principle holds that the autonomy of persons ought to be respected. (Bioethics Thesaurus)Image Enhancement: Improvement of the quality of a picture by various techniques, including computer processing, digital filtering, echocardiographic techniques, light and ultrastructural MICROSCOPY, fluorescence spectrometry and microscopy, scintigraphy, and in vitro image processing at the molecular level.Questionnaires: Predetermined sets of questions used to collect data - clinical data, social status, occupational group, etc. The term is often applied to a self-completed survey instrument.Risk Assessment: The qualitative or quantitative estimation of the likelihood of adverse effects that may result from exposure to specified health hazards or from the absence of beneficial influences. (Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 1988)Treatment Outcome: Evaluation undertaken to assess the results or consequences of management and procedures used in combating disease in order to determine the efficacy, effectiveness, safety, and practicability of these interventions in individual cases or series.Mathematics: The deductive study of shape, quantity, and dependence. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Diagnosis, Computer-Assisted: Application of computer programs designed to assist the physician in solving a diagnostic problem.Social Justice: An interactive process whereby members of a community are concerned for the equality and rights of all.Information Systems: Integrated set of files, procedures, and equipment for the storage, manipulation, and retrieval of information.Neoplasms: New abnormal growth of tissue. Malignant neoplasms show a greater degree of anaplasia and have the properties of invasion and metastasis, compared to benign neoplasms.Cooperative Behavior: The interaction of two or more persons or organizations directed toward a common goal which is mutually beneficial. An act or instance of working or acting together for a common purpose or benefit, i.e., joint action. (From Random House Dictionary Unabridged, 2d ed)Computer Security: Protective measures against unauthorized access to or interference with computer operating systems, telecommunications, or data structures, especially the modification, deletion, destruction, or release of data in computers. It includes methods of forestalling interference by computer viruses or so-called computer hackers aiming to compromise stored data.Automatic Data Processing: Data processing largely performed by automatic means.Ethics: The philosophy or code pertaining to what is ideal in human character and conduct. Also, the field of study dealing with the principles of morality.Systems Integration: The procedures involved in combining separately developed modules, components, or subsystems so that they work together as a complete system. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Proteins: Linear POLYPEPTIDES that are synthesized on RIBOSOMES and may be further modified, crosslinked, cleaved, or assembled into complex proteins with several subunits. The specific sequence of AMINO ACIDS determines the shape the polypeptide will take, during PROTEIN FOLDING, and the function of the protein.Randomized Controlled Trials as Topic: Works about clinical trials that involve at least one test treatment and one control treatment, concurrent enrollment and follow-up of the test- and control-treated groups, and in which the treatments to be administered are selected by a random process, such as the use of a random-numbers table.Value of Life: The intrinsic moral worth ascribed to a living being. (Bioethics Thesaurus)EuropeProgram Evaluation: Studies designed to assess the efficacy of programs. They may include the evaluation of cost-effectiveness, the extent to which objectives are met, or impact.MEDLINE: The premier bibliographic database of the NATIONAL LIBRARY OF MEDICINE. MEDLINE® (MEDLARS Online) is the primary subset of PUBMED and can be searched on NLM's Web site in PubMed or the NLM Gateway. MEDLINE references are indexed with MEDICAL SUBJECT HEADINGS (MeSH).Health Services Research: The integration of epidemiologic, sociological, economic, and other analytic sciences in the study of health services. Health services research is usually concerned with relationships between need, demand, supply, use, and outcome of health services. The aim of the research is evaluation, particularly in terms of structure, process, output, and outcome. (From Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)Forecasting: The prediction or projection of the nature of future problems or existing conditions based upon the extrapolation or interpretation of existing scientific data or by the application of scientific methodology.Bayes Theorem: A theorem in probability theory named for Thomas Bayes (1702-1761). In epidemiology, it is used to obtain the probability of disease in a group of people with some characteristic on the basis of the overall rate of that disease and of the likelihood of that characteristic in healthy and diseased individuals. The most familiar application is in clinical decision analysis where it is used for estimating the probability of a particular diagnosis given the appearance of some symptoms or test result.Risk Factors: An aspect of personal behavior or lifestyle, environmental exposure, or inborn or inherited characteristic, which, on the basis of epidemiologic evidence, is known to be associated with a health-related condition considered important to prevent.Numerical Analysis, Computer-Assisted: Computer-assisted study of methods for obtaining useful quantitative solutions to problems that have been expressed mathematically.Database Management Systems: Software designed to store, manipulate, manage, and control data for specific uses.Specimen Handling: Procedures for collecting, preserving, and transporting of specimens sufficiently stable to provide accurate and precise results suitable for clinical interpretation.Manuscripts, MedicalFuzzy Logic: Approximate, quantitative reasoning that is concerned with the linguistic ambiguity which exists in natural or synthetic language. At its core are variables such as good, bad, and young as well as modifiers such as more, less, and very. These ordinary terms represent fuzzy sets in a particular problem. Fuzzy logic plays a key role in many medical expert systems.Methods: A series of steps taken in order to conduct research.Medical Informatics: The field of information science concerned with the analysis and dissemination of medical data through the application of computers to various aspects of health care and medicine.Health Care Reform: Innovation and improvement of the health care system by reappraisal, amendment of services, and removal of faults and abuses in providing and distributing health services to patients. It includes a re-alignment of health services and health insurance to maximum demographic elements (the unemployed, indigent, uninsured, elderly, inner cities, rural areas) with reference to coverage, hospitalization, pricing and cost containment, insurers' and employers' costs, pre-existing medical conditions, prescribed drugs, equipment, and services.Ethical Analysis: The use of systematic methods of ethical examination, such as CASUISTRY or ETHICAL THEORY, in reasoning about moral problems.Software Design: Specifications and instructions applied to the software.Information Dissemination: The circulation or wide dispersal of information.Temperature: The property of objects that determines the direction of heat flow when they are placed in direct thermal contact. The temperature is the energy of microscopic motions (vibrational and translational) of the particles of atoms.Program Development: The process of formulating, improving, and expanding educational, managerial, or service-oriented work plans (excluding computer program development).Cluster Analysis: A set of statistical methods used to group variables or observations into strongly inter-related subgroups. In epidemiology, it may be used to analyze a closely grouped series of events or cases of disease or other health-related phenomenon with well-defined distribution patterns in relation to time or place or both.Public Policy: A course or method of action selected, usually by a government, from among alternatives to guide and determine present and future decisions.Vocabulary, Controlled: A specified list of terms with a fixed and unalterable meaning, and from which a selection is made when CATALOGING; ABSTRACTING AND INDEXING; or searching BOOKS; JOURNALS AS TOPIC; and other documents. The control is intended to avoid the scattering of related subjects under different headings (SUBJECT HEADINGS). The list may be altered or extended only by the publisher or issuing agency. (From Harrod's Librarians' Glossary, 7th ed, p163)Mutation: Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.Evaluation Studies as Topic: Studies determining the effectiveness or value of processes, personnel, and equipment, or the material on conducting such studies. For drugs and devices, CLINICAL TRIALS AS TOPIC; DRUG EVALUATION; and DRUG EVALUATION, PRECLINICAL are available.Robotics: The application of electronic, computerized control systems to mechanical devices designed to perform human functions. Formerly restricted to industry, but nowadays applied to artificial organs controlled by bionic (bioelectronic) devices, like automated insulin pumps and other prostheses.Quality Control: A system for verifying and maintaining a desired level of quality in a product or process by careful planning, use of proper equipment, continued inspection, and corrective action as required. (Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed)World Health: The concept pertaining to the health status of inhabitants of the world.Decision Making: The process of making a selective intellectual judgment when presented with several complex alternatives consisting of several variables, and usually defining a course of action or an idea.Models, Organizational: Theoretical representations and constructs that describe or explain the structure and hierarchy of relationships and interactions within or between formal organizational entities or informal social groups.Neural Networks (Computer): A computer architecture, implementable in either hardware or software, modeled after biological neural networks. Like the biological system in which the processing capability is a result of the interconnection strengths between arrays of nonlinear processing nodes, computerized neural networks, often called perceptrons or multilayer connectionist models, consist of neuron-like units. A homogeneous group of units makes up a layer. These networks are good at pattern recognition. They are adaptive, performing tasks by example, and thus are better for decision-making than are linear learning machines or cluster analysis. They do not require explicit programming.Online Systems: Systems where the input data enter the computer directly from the point of origin (usually a terminal or workstation) and/or in which output data are transmitted directly to that terminal point of origin. (Sippl, Computer Dictionary, 4th ed)Infant, Newborn: An infant during the first month after birth.Statistics as Topic: The science and art of collecting, summarizing, and analyzing data that are subject to random variation. The term is also applied to the data themselves and to the summarization of the data.Brain: The part of CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM that is contained within the skull (CRANIUM). Arising from the NEURAL TUBE, the embryonic brain is comprised of three major parts including PROSENCEPHALON (the forebrain); MESENCEPHALON (the midbrain); and RHOMBENCEPHALON (the hindbrain). The developed brain consists of CEREBRUM; CEREBELLUM; and other structures in the BRAIN STEM.History, 18th Century: Time period from 1701 through 1800 of the common era.Pregnancy: The status during which female mammals carry their developing young (EMBRYOS or FETUSES) in utero before birth, beginning from FERTILIZATION to BIRTH.Sequence Alignment: The arrangement of two or more amino acid or base sequences from an organism or organisms in such a way as to align areas of the sequences sharing common properties. The degree of relatedness or homology between the sequences is predicted computationally or statistically based on weights assigned to the elements aligned between the sequences. This in turn can serve as a potential indicator of the genetic relatedness between the organisms.Physical and Rehabilitation Medicine: A medical specialty concerned with the use of physical agents, mechanical apparatus, and manipulation in rehabilitating physically diseased or injured patients.Medicine in Literature: Written or other literary works whose subject matter is medical or about the profession of medicine and related areas.Congresses as Topic: Conferences, conventions or formal meetings usually attended by delegates representing a special field of interest.Probability: The study of chance processes or the relative frequency characterizing a chance process.Organizational Innovation: Introduction of changes which are new to the organization and are created by management.Escherichia coli: A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria (GRAM-NEGATIVE FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC RODS) commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. It is usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce DIARRHEA and pyogenic infections. Pathogenic strains (virotypes) are classified by their specific pathogenic mechanisms such as toxins (ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI), etc.Bias (Epidemiology): Any deviation of results or inferences from the truth, or processes leading to such deviation. Bias can result from several sources: one-sided or systematic variations in measurement from the true value (systematic error); flaws in study design; deviation of inferences, interpretations, or analyses based on flawed data or data collection; etc. There is no sense of prejudice or subjectivity implied in the assessment of bias under these conditions.Species Specificity: The restriction of a characteristic behavior, anatomical structure or physical system, such as immune response; metabolic response, or gene or gene variant to the members of one species. It refers to that property which differentiates one species from another but it is also used for phylogenetic levels higher or lower than the species.Sequence Analysis, DNA: A multistage process that includes cloning, physical mapping, subcloning, determination of the DNA SEQUENCE, and information analysis.Cost-Benefit Analysis: A method of comparing the cost of a program with its expected benefits in dollars (or other currency). The benefit-to-cost ratio is a measure of total return expected per unit of money spent. This analysis generally excludes consideration of factors that are not measured ultimately in economic terms. Cost effectiveness compares alternative ways to achieve a specific set of results.Internationality: The quality or state of relating to or affecting two or more nations. (After Merriam-Webster Collegiate Dictionary, 10th ed)Confidentiality: The privacy of information and its protection against unauthorized disclosure.Documentation: Systematic organization, storage, retrieval, and dissemination of specialized information, especially of a scientific or technical nature (From ALA Glossary of Library and Information Science, 1983). It often involves authenticating or validating information.Hospital Information Systems: Integrated, computer-assisted systems designed to store, manipulate, and retrieve information concerned with the administrative and clinical aspects of providing medical services within the hospital.Personhood: The state or condition of being a human individual accorded moral and/or legal rights. Criteria to be used to determine this status are subject to debate, and range from the requirement of simply being a human organism to such requirements as that the individual be self-aware and capable of rational thought and moral agency.Biological Evolution: The process of cumulative change over successive generations through which organisms acquire their distinguishing morphological and physiological characteristics.Environment: The external elements and conditions which surround, influence, and affect the life and development of an organism or population.Manuscripts as Topic: Compositions written by hand, as one written before the invention or adoption of printing. A manuscript may also refer to a handwritten copy of an ancient author. A manuscript may be handwritten or typewritten as distinguished from a printed copy, especially the copy of a writer's work from which printed copies are made. (Webster, 3d ed)Electronics: The study, control, and application of the conduction of ELECTRICITY through gases or vacuum, or through semiconducting or conducting materials. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Clinical Trials as Topic: Works about pre-planned studies of the safety, efficacy, or optimum dosage schedule (if appropriate) of one or more diagnostic, therapeutic, or prophylactic drugs, devices, or techniques selected according to predetermined criteria of eligibility and observed for predefined evidence of favorable and unfavorable effects. This concept includes clinical trials conducted both in the U.S. and in other countries.Electric Power Supplies: Devices that control the supply of electric current for running electrical equipment.Phylogeny: The relationships of groups of organisms as reflected by their genetic makeup.Teaching: The educational process of instructing.Microcomputers: Small computers using LSI (large-scale integration) microprocessor chips as the CPU (central processing unit) and semiconductor memories for compact, inexpensive storage of program instructions and data. They are smaller and less expensive than minicomputers and are usually built into a dedicated system where they are optimized for a particular application. "Microprocessor" may refer to just the CPU or the entire microcomputer.Computers, Handheld: A type of MICROCOMPUTER, sometimes called a personal digital assistant, that is very small and portable and fitting in a hand. They are convenient to use in clinical and other field situations for quick data management. They usually require docking with MICROCOMPUTERS for updates.Review Literature as Topic: Published materials which provide an examination of recent or current literature. Review articles can cover a wide range of subject matter at various levels of completeness and comprehensiveness based on analyses of literature that may include research findings. The review may reflect the state of the art. It also includes reviews as a literary form.Organizational Case Studies: Descriptions and evaluations of specific health care organizations.Computer Graphics: The process of pictorial communication, between human and computers, in which the computer input and output have the form of charts, drawings, or other appropriate pictorial representation.Models, Chemical: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of chemical processes or phenomena; includes the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Consumer Participation: Community or individual involvement in the decision-making process.Australia: The smallest continent and an independent country, comprising six states and two territories. Its capital is Canberra.History, 17th Century: Time period from 1601 through 1700 of the common era.Phantoms, Imaging: Devices or objects in various imaging techniques used to visualize or enhance visualization by simulating conditions encountered in the procedure. Phantoms are used very often in procedures employing or measuring x-irradiation or radioactive material to evaluate performance. Phantoms often have properties similar to human tissue. Water demonstrates absorbing properties similar to normal tissue, hence water-filled phantoms are used to map radiation levels. Phantoms are used also as teaching aids to simulate real conditions with x-ray or ultrasonic machines. (From Iturralde, Dictionary and Handbook of Nuclear Medicine and Clinical Imaging, 1990)Models, Molecular: Models used experimentally or theoretically to study molecular shape, electronic properties, or interactions; includes analogous molecules, computer-generated graphics, and mechanical structures.Social Change: Social process whereby the values, attitudes, or institutions of society, such as education, family, religion, and industry become modified. It includes both the natural process and action programs initiated by members of the community.Semantics: The relationships between symbols and their meanings.Bioethical Issues: Clusters of topics that fall within the domain of BIOETHICS, the field of study concerned with value questions that arise in biomedicine and health care delivery.Models, Anatomic: Three-dimensional representation to show anatomic structures. Models may be used in place of intact animals or organisms for teaching, practice, and study.Libraries, MedicalGovernment Regulation: Exercise of governmental authority to control conduct.Geographic Information Systems: Computer systems capable of assembling, storing, manipulating, and displaying geographically referenced information, i.e. data identified according to their locations.Practice Guidelines as Topic: Directions or principles presenting current or future rules of policy for assisting health care practitioners in patient care decisions regarding diagnosis, therapy, or related clinical circumstances. The guidelines may be developed by government agencies at any level, institutions, professional societies, governing boards, or by the convening of expert panels. The guidelines form a basis for the evaluation of all aspects of health care and delivery.Data Mining: Use of sophisticated analysis tools to sort through, organize, examine, and combine large sets of information.BrazilDatabases as Topic: Organized collections of computer records, standardized in format and content, that are stored in any of a variety of computer-readable modes. They are the basic sets of data from which computer-readable files are created. (from ALA Glossary of Library and Information Science, 1983)Conservation of Natural Resources: The protection, preservation, restoration, and rational use of all resources in the total environment.Patient Selection: Criteria and standards used for the determination of the appropriateness of the inclusion of patients with specific conditions in proposed treatment plans and the criteria used for the inclusion of subjects in various clinical trials and other research protocols.Models, Neurological: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of the neurological system, processes or phenomena; includes the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Subtraction Technique: Combination or superimposition of two images for demonstrating differences between them (e.g., radiograph with contrast vs. one without, radionuclide images using different radionuclides, radiograph vs. radionuclide image) and in the preparation of audiovisual materials (e.g., offsetting identical images, coloring of vessels in angiograms).Architecture as Topic: The art and science of designing buildings and structures. More generally, it is the design of the total built environment, including town planning, urban design, and landscape architecture.PubMed: A bibliographic database that includes MEDLINE as its primary subset. It is produced by the National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI), part of the NATIONAL LIBRARY OF MEDICINE. PubMed, which is searchable through NLM's Web site, also includes access to additional citations to selected life sciences journals not in MEDLINE, and links to other resources such as the full-text of articles at participating publishers' Web sites, NCBI's molecular biology databases, and PubMed Central.European Union: The collective designation of three organizations with common membership: the European Economic Community (Common Market), the European Coal and Steel Community, and the European Atomic Energy Community (Euratom). It was known as the European Community until 1994. It is primarily an economic union with the principal objectives of free movement of goods, capital, and labor. Professional services, social, medical and paramedical, are subsumed under labor. The constituent countries are Austria, Belgium, Denmark, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Ireland, Italy, Luxembourg, Netherlands, Portugal, Spain, Sweden, and the United Kingdom. (The World Almanac and Book of Facts 1997, p842)Anthropology, Cultural: It is the study of social phenomena which characterize the learned, shared, and transmitted social activities of particular ethnic groups with focus on the causes, consequences, and complexities of human social and cultural variability.Stochastic Processes: Processes that incorporate some element of randomness, used particularly to refer to a time series of random variables.Journalism, Medical: The collection, writing, and editing of current interest material on topics related to biomedicine for presentation through the mass media, including newspapers, magazines, radio, or television, usually for a public audience such as health care consumers.Canada: The largest country in North America, comprising 10 provinces and three territories. Its capital is Ottawa.Wavelet Analysis: Signal and data processing method that uses decomposition of wavelets to approximate, estimate, or compress signals with finite time and frequency domains. It represents a signal or data in terms of a fast decaying wavelet series from the original prototype wavelet, called the mother wavelet. This mathematical algorithm has been adopted widely in biomedical disciplines for data and signal processing in noise removal and audio/image compression (e.g., EEG and MRI).Programming Languages: Specific languages used to prepare computer programs.Magnetic Resonance Imaging: Non-invasive method of demonstrating internal anatomy based on the principle that atomic nuclei in a strong magnetic field absorb pulses of radiofrequency energy and emit them as radiowaves which can be reconstructed into computerized images. The concept includes proton spin tomographic techniques.Curriculum: A course of study offered by an educational institution.Technology: The application of scientific knowledge to practical purposes in any field. It includes methods, techniques, and instrumentation.Socioeconomic Factors: Social and economic factors that characterize the individual or group within the social structure.Commerce: The interchange of goods or commodities, especially on a large scale, between different countries or between populations within the same country. It includes trade (the buying, selling, or exchanging of commodities, whether wholesale or retail) and business (the purchase and sale of goods to make a profit). (From Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed, p411, p2005 & p283)Interviews as Topic: Conversations with an individual or individuals held in order to obtain information about their background and other personal biographical data, their attitudes and opinions, etc. It includes school admission or job interviews.Organizational Objectives: The purposes, missions, and goals of an individual organization or its units, established through administrative processes. It includes an organization's long-range plans and administrative philosophy.Efficiency, Organizational: The capacity of an organization, institution, or business to produce desired results with a minimum expenditure of energy, time, money, personnel, materiel, etc.Nonlinear Dynamics: The study of systems which respond disproportionately (nonlinearly) to initial conditions or perturbing stimuli. Nonlinear systems may exhibit "chaos" which is classically characterized as sensitive dependence on initial conditions. Chaotic systems, while distinguished from more ordered periodic systems, are not random. When their behavior over time is appropriately displayed (in "phase space"), constraints are evident which are described by "strange attractors". Phase space representations of chaotic systems, or strange attractors, usually reveal fractal (FRACTALS) self-similarity across time scales. Natural, including biological, systems often display nonlinear dynamics and chaos.

Decolorization and detoxification of extraction-stage effluent from chlorine bleaching of kraft pulp by Rhizopus oryzae. (1/473)

Rhizopus oryzae, a zygomycete, was found to decolorize, dechlorinate, and detoxify bleach plant effluent at lower cosubstrate concentrations than the basidiomycetes previously investigated. With glucose at 1 g/liter, this fungus removed 92 to 95% of the color, 50% of the chemical oxygen demand, 72% of the adsorbable organic halide, and 37% of the extractable organic halide in 24 h at temperatures of 25 to 45 degrees C and a pH of 3 to 5. Even without added cosubstrate the fungus removed up to 78% of the color. Monomeric chlorinated aromatic compounds were removed almost completely, and toxicity to zebra fish was eliminated. The fungal mycelium could be immobilized in polyurethane foam and used repeatedly to treat batches of effluent. The residue after treatment was not further improved by exposure to fresh R. oryzae mycelium.  (+info)

Toxicity of combustion products from burning polymers: development and evaluation of methods. (2/473)

Laboratory and room-scale experiments were conducted with natural and synthetic polymers: cotton, paper, wood, wool, acetate, acrylic, nylon, and urethane. Smoke and off-gases from single materials were generated in a dual-compartment 110-liter exposure chamber. Multicomponent, composite fuel loads were burned within a 100 m(3) facility subdivided into rooms. In chamber experiments, mortality depended on the amount of material burned, i.e., fuel consumption (FC). Conventional dose (FC)/mortality curves were obtained, and the amount of fuel required to produce 50% mortality (FC(50)) was calculated. With simple flame ignition, cotton was the only material that produced smoke concentrations lethal to rats; FC(50) values for cotton ranged from 2 g to 9 g, depending on the configuration of the cotton sample burned. When supplemental conductive heat was added to flame ignition, the following FC(50) values were obtained; nylon, 7 g; acrylic, 8 g; newsprint, 9 g; cotton, 10 g; and wood, 11 g. Mortality resulting from any given material depended upon the specific conditions employed for its thermal decomposition. Toxicity of off-gasses from pyrolysis of phosphorus-containing trimethylol propane-polyurethane foams was markedly decreased by addition of a flame ignition source. Further studies are needed to determine the possible relevance of single-material laboratory scale smoke toxicity experiments. Room-scale burns were conducted to assess the relative contributions of single materials to toxicity of smoke produced by a multicomponent self-perpetuating fire. Preliminary results suggest that this approach permits a realistic evaluation of the contribution of single materials to the toxicity of smoke from residential fires.  (+info)

Diagnosis of rickettsial diseases using samples dried on blotting paper. (3/473)

The use of filter paper is an inexpensive and convenient method for collecting, storing, and transporting blood samples for serological studies. In addition, samples occupy little space and can be readily transported without refrigeration. Rickettsial diseases often evolve according to an epidemic mode and are now considered reemerging diseases, especially in developing countries, under conditions where fieldwork could be difficult. The suitability of collecting whole-blood specimens on filter paper discs for rickettsial antibody assay was evaluated. Dried blood specimens from 64 individuals with antibodies to Coxiella burnetii, Bartonella quintana, or Rickettsia conorii were tested for rickettsial antibodies by microimmunofluorescence. Although occasional titers were 1 or 2 dilutions lower than those of tested serum samples, no statistically significant differences were observed. Among patients with negative serology, no false positives were found. This study demonstrated that the recovery of antibodies from finger-stick blood dried on filter paper after elution produces results comparable to those obtained by recovering antibodies from serum. Storing paper samples for 1 month at room temperature or at 4 degrees C did not significantly affect the level of antibodies recovered. This report shows the utility of this sample collection method in developing countries where refrigeration is not possible and venipuncture is problematic.  (+info)

Airways inflammation among workers in a paper industry. (4/473)

Exposure to organic dusts may cause airways inflammation in a large proportion of exposed persons. Most studies have relied on questionnaires and spirometry for diagnosis. To assess the possibility of determining the presence of inflammation using clinical diagnostic procedures, a study was undertaken among workers in a paper industry. Participants were 83 workers and 44 controls. Airborne endotoxin and (1-->3)-beta-D-glucan levels at the worksites were determined. The effects of this exposure were evaluated using a questionnaire, spirometry and measurements of airway responsiveness (methacholine) and levels of eosinophil cationic protein (ECP), myeloperoxidase (MPO), and C-reactive protein (CRP) in serum. The workers had a decreased baseline forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1) and an increased airway responsiveness compared with controls. The concentrations of ECP and MPO were elevated compared with controls. There was a relation between exposure to endotoxin and (1-->3)-beta-D-glucan and airway responsiveness as well as ECP levels, when controlling for age, sex, smoking habits, atopy and asthma. The results suggest an increased prevalence of subjective respiratory symptoms, and an increased airway responsiveness among exposed workers. There was also a relationship between the serum concentration of eosinophil cationic protein and airway responsiveness. Taken together, the results suggest the presence of airways inflammation in the workers.  (+info)

Screening of folate status with use of dried blood spots on filter paper. (5/473)

BACKGROUND: Dried blood spots (DBS) on filter paper have been a successful and economical matrix for neonatal screening. OBJECTIVE: Our objective was to develop and evaluate an optimized method for DBS folate analysis and to assess DBS folate stability. DESIGN: DBS were eluted from paper by sonication in 5 g ascorbic acid/L containing 0.1% (by vol) Triton X-100 and hemoglobin folate values (HF; as pmol/g) were calculated from DBS eluate folate and hemoglobin concentrations. RESULTS: Over 95% of DBS folate was eluted during a standardized sonication cycle and DBS folate assay reproducibility was acceptable both within (CV: <8%) and between (CV: <9%) runs. HF means (+/-1 SD) from finger-stick DBS and conventional venous methods were 2513 +/- 1144 and 2607 +/- 1195 pmol/g, respectively, in blood samples taken concurrently from 80 donors, and they correlated well (r = 0.97, P < 0.001). HF values and erythrocyte folate measures may be interconverted by using the mean cell hemoglobin concentration. CONCLUSION: The DBS matrix has potential as an inexpensive and practical option for folate screening studies.  (+info)

Dried plasma spot measurements of ferritin and transferrin receptor for assessing iron status. (6/473)

BACKGROUND: Efforts to reduce the high global prevalence of nutritional anemia require the use of both reliable laboratory assays to distinguish iron deficiency from other causes of anemia and cost-effective methods for collection of blood specimens under field conditions. The suitability of using small plasma samples spotted and dried on filter paper for measurements of plasma ferritin and transferrin receptor was evaluated in the present study. METHODS: Blood specimens obtained from 73 male and 83 female subjects (19-40 years) representing a wide range of iron status were used to perform parallel measurements of plasma ferritin and transferrin receptor on whole plasma and spotted plasma samples. RESULTS: Ratio plots, evaluating the acceptability and precision of the spot method in ferritin and transferrin receptor assays, showed the expected proportion of data points within the 95% prediction interval. In the composite group of 156 subjects, both the whole plasma and plasma spot methods gave a geometric mean transferrin receptor/ferritin ratio of 18. The regression equation for the ratio was logy = 1.045 logx - 0.05126; r = 0.986; P <0.0001. The ratio of transferrin receptor/ferritin determined from plasma spots correctly identified all 12 subjects with iron deficiency anemia compared with 11 of the 12 for whole plasma measurements. CONCLUSIONS: Measurements of ferritin and transferrin receptor on plasma spotted and dried on filter paper are comparable to whole plasma values for the identification of iron deficiency anemia. The use of dried plasma spots will facilitate the collection, storage, and transport of samples in epidemiological studies of anemia prevalence.  (+info)

Exhaled nitric oxide among pulpmill workers reporting gassing incidents involving ozone and chlorine dioxide. (7/473)

The aim of the study was to investigate whether measurement of nitric oxide in exhaled air could be used for assessing the effects of irritants on the respiratory system, in this case recurrent ozone gassing in an occupational setting. The study population comprised bleachery workers (n=56) from a Swedish pulpmill carrying out ozone-based pulp bleaching since 1992 and controls (n=39). Both groups were investigated by measuring NO in exhaled air, methacholine challenge test and answers to a questionnaire concerning history of respiratory symptoms and accidental exposure to ozone peaks. There was no significant difference in NO output between exposed subjects and controls (median 67.2 versus 55.0 nL x min(-1), p=0.64). However, among bleachery workers reporting ozone gassings, the median NO output was 90.0 nL x min(-1) compared to 58.8 nL x min(-1) among those not reporting such incidents (p=0.019). There was no relation between exhaled NO and the prevalence of respiratory symptoms or bronchial hyperresponsiveness. In a multiple regression model, only reported ozone gassings were associated (p=0.016) with NO output. The results indicate an association between previous response to ozone gassing and nitric oxide output. The increased nitric oxide output among the bleachery workers reporting peak ozone exposure may indicate that chronic airway inflammation is present. Further studies are needed to evaluate the extent to which nitric oxide can be used for biological monitoring of respiratory health effects, and to relate it to other markers of airway inflammation.  (+info)

Evaluation of filter paper blood lead methods: results of a pilot proficiency testing program. (8/473)

BACKGROUND: Lead testing on dried filter paper (FP) blood spots is used routinely by some laboratories for lead poisoning screening. Proficiency testing (PT) as required under CLIA '88 laboratory regulations has not been available for these methods. METHODS: We describe a suitable PT scheme and evaluate FP laboratory performance based on program results. Monthly testing events consisting of five FP specimens were provided to six participating laboratories. Results were evaluated against target values determined by referee laboratories. RESULTS: Preliminary FP laboratory results showed poor agreement with specimen target values, exhibiting a mean absolute bias of 0.29 micromol/L (5.9 microg/dL). Five of six participating laboratories demonstrated significant improvement in later testing events, with bias decreasing to 0.12 micromol/L (2.5 microg/dL). Performance varied widely between the participating laboratories and appeared to be method dependent. When evaluated using CLIA blood lead acceptability criteria, the proportion of acceptable individual specimen results (n = 35) ranged from 54% to 100%. On a testing event basis (n = 7), the proportion of acceptable events ranged from 29% to 100%. CONCLUSIONS: A suitable FP PT program now exists to capably assist and monitor FP laboratories. Based on overt PT results, properly utilized FP testing methods can accurately measure blood lead concentration.  (+info)

  • Bioavailability, exposure status and ecotoxicological effects of pulp and paper mill effluent (BKME) -contaminated sediments were studied in the recipient area of a pulp and paper mill and at reference areas in Southern Lake Saimaa, Finland. (jyu.fi)
  • Paper-based microfluidic devices offer much promise for instrument-free medical diagnostics that can perform complex analytical functions while being easy to manipulate and use. (sciencemag.org)
  • The detection by serotyping Mabs was generally consistent for dried filter paper MAb samples stored frozen for over 1 year at -20°C, and although decreased reactive antibody titers were found after storage, this did not interfere with the specificity of the Mabs used after 13 years as dry spots on filter paper. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Finally, exposure status of perch and roach populations was investigated after occurrence of a black liquor spill in June 2003 from a pulp and paper mill in the Southern Lake Saimaa area. (jyu.fi)
  • Dropbox Paper is more than a doc-it's a co-editing tool that brings creation and coordination together in one place. (dropbox.com)
  • With Dropbox Paper I could share the creative concept, test-shots and Dion's designs with the global team at any hour of the day and get immediate sign off. (dropbox.com)
  • Colotech+ Gloss Coated offers ultimate print results and enhanced run ability in comparison to offset papers in Digital Colour Printers. (xerox.com)
  • Colotech+ Gloss Coated - A 2 side coated paper with an ultra smooth gloss surface. (xerox.com)
  • Colotech + Supergloss - A 1-side cast coated paper with an ultra high gloss finish. (xerox.com)
  • From April 2020, anyone who has filed a paper tax return in the past will instead receive a short notice to file - this will tell taxpayers that HMRC intends to communicate with them digitally. (which.co.uk)
  • If you opt for a paper tax return, you must send it to HMRC by 31 October every year - so your 2019-20 return would be due by 31 October 2020. (which.co.uk)
  • Paper made it easier for people to record and share ideas. (amnh.org)
  • B2B (business-to-business) white papers are often used to generate sales leads, establish thought leadership , make a business case, grow email lists, grow audiences, increase sales, or inform and persuade readers. (wikipedia.org)
  • See how Paper can make your ideas better and brighter. (dropbox.com)
  • About 2,000 years ago, the Chinese figured out how to make paper from plants or cloth. (amnh.org)
  • You can make a paper straw to use instead of a plastic one, which is one of the top items found at beach cleanups and can hurt ocean animals that mistake them for food. (nationalgeographic.com)
  • It is not much use to me in terms of making a rose, because my computer is not in a place where I can set up the facility to make a rose using damp paper. (etsy.com)
  • Make paper dolls and then dress them up in the uniforms of various professions. (familyeducation.com)
  • For over 10 years, he has helped large Fortune 500 companies digitally transform their businesses from conventional paper-based publishing and business processes to automated, digital-first experiences. (adobe.com)
  • This type of white paper is best used to supplement a product launch, argue a business case, or support a technical evaluation at the bottom of the sales funnel or the end of the customer journey . (wikipedia.org)
  • Colotech+ uncoated paper is the benchmark for Digital Colour printing. (xerox.com)
  • Aqueous Inkjet: Highest quality papers in a variety of specifications and finishes to produce colour graphics prints for a wide range of applications. (xerox.com)
  • As with any other type of bond or debt instrument , the issuing entity offers the paper assuming that it will be in a position to pay both interest and principal by maturity. (investopedia.com)
  • The market took a severe hit when Lehman Brothers declared bankruptcy in 2008, and new rules and restrictions on the type and amount of commercial paper that could be held inside money market mutual funds were instituted as a result. (investopedia.com)
  • For other uses of "White paper", see Copy paper and White paper (disambiguation) . (wikipedia.org)
  • A white paper is a report or guide that informs readers concisely about a complex issue and presents the issuing body's philosophy on the matter. (wikipedia.org)
  • In business, a white paper is closer to a form of marketing presentation, a tool meant to persuade customers and partners and promote a product or viewpoint. (wikipedia.org)
  • The term white paper originated with the British government , and many point to the Churchill White Paper of 1922 as the earliest well-known example under this name. (wikipedia.org)
  • Gertrude Bell , the British explorer and diplomat, was the first woman to author a White Paper. (wikipedia.org)
  • "White papers have tried to perform the dual role of presenting firm government policies while at the same time inviting opinions upon them. (wikipedia.org)
  • The "provision of policy information through the use of white and green papers can help to create an awareness of policy issues among parliamentarians and the public and to encourage an exchange of information and analysis. (wikipedia.org)
  • White papers are a way the government can present policy preferences before it introduces legislation. (wikipedia.org)
  • Publishing a white paper tests public opinion on controversial policy issues and helps the government gauge its probable impact. (wikipedia.org)
  • Examples of governmental white papers include, in Australia, the White Paper on Full Employment and, in the United Kingdom , the White Paper of 1939 and the 1966 Defence White Paper . (wikipedia.org)
  • Since the early 1990s, the terms "white paper" or "whitepaper" have been applied to documents used as marketing or sales tools in business. (wikipedia.org)
  • Many B2B white papers argue that one particular technology , product or methodology is superior to all others for solving a specific business problem. (wikipedia.org)
  • Alacra announces the release of its "Best Practices in KYC for Financial Institutions" white paper detailing observations gleaned by Alacra during multiple compliance workflow engagements. (prweb.com)
  • Alacra, Inc., a leading provider of online business information solutions, announced today the release of "Best Practices in KYC for Financial Institutions," a white paper which answers the question most frequently asked of Alacra during compliance workflow discussions, "What are other banks doing to meet these challenges? (prweb.com)
  • While regulatory regimes differ around the world and KYC processes and procedures vary greatly from bank to bank, Alacra has put together this white paper which identifies best practices in three key areas of the Know-Your-Customer process: 1) Customer Identification, 2) Customer Due Diligence and 3) On-going Monitoring. (prweb.com)
  • Also known as consultation documents , green papers may merely propose a strategy to implement in the details of other legislation, or they may set out proposals on which the government wishes to obtain public views and opinion. (wikipedia.org)
  • To view all papers currently included in a listed RPS eJournal click on the RPS eJournal title below. (ssrn.com)
  • that include papers classified in the Topics listed below the RPS eJournal title. (ssrn.com)
  • Wealthy individual investors have also historically been able to access commercial paper offerings through a private placement . (investopedia.com)
  • Place a chopstick at an angle on the back of the paper. (nationalgeographic.com)
  • States with electronic-only voting machines want to add a paper back-up that would mandate, for every electronic ballot cast, creation of a paper version that could be counted, and presumably, not easily altered. (usatoday.com)
  • Last week, Virginia's Board of Elections voted to replace touch-screen-only voting machines used in 22 localities in the state to those that have paper back-ups. (usatoday.com)
  • When you connect Paper to your calendar, it makes it easy to find the docs you need for each meeting. (dropbox.com)
  • You will receive email announcements of newly received papers in any RPS eJournal to which you subscribe. (ssrn.com)
  • This paper is worth 10% of your final grade. (unm.edu)
  • A debate raged in the 1980s about whether banks were violating the Banking Act of 1933 by underwriting commercial paper since it is not classified as a bond by the SEC. Today commercial paper stands as the chief source of short-term financing for investment-grade issuers along with commercial loans and is still used extensively in the credit card industry. (investopedia.com)
  • When Mike Isabella appeared on Top Chef last season, I was ready to wager vast sums of money (well, as vast as they get in the alt-paper biz) that the Zaytinya chef would pack his knives and leave José Andrés' meze emporium as soon as the show wrapped. (washingtoncitypaper.com)
  • I'm so proud of City Paper, every week I send a copy of it to a friend who produces a nationally syndicated radio talk show in New York. (washingtoncitypaper.com)
  • Touch-screen voting machines are considered insecure because they don't produce a paper copy of the vote and therefore can't be rigorously audited. (usatoday.com)
  • This paper delivers reliable and consistent performance page after page in mono copiers, laser printers and mono inkjet. (xerox.com)
  • Get daily access to a replica of the printed paper on your computer, tablet, or smartphone with The Star ePaper. (pressreader.com)