Epidemics of infectious disease that have spread to many countries, often more than one continent, and usually affecting a large number of people.
A subtype of INFLUENZA A VIRUS with the surface proteins hemagglutinin 1 and neuraminidase 1. The H1N1 subtype was responsible for the Spanish flu pandemic of 1918.
An acute viral infection in humans involving the respiratory tract. It is marked by inflammation of the NASAL MUCOSA; the PHARYNX; and conjunctiva, and by headache and severe, often generalized, myalgia.
Sudden increase in the incidence of a disease. The concept includes EPIDEMICS and PANDEMICS.
Vaccines used to prevent infection by viruses in the family ORTHOMYXOVIRIDAE. It includes both killed and attenuated vaccines. The composition of the vaccines is changed each year in response to antigenic shifts and changes in prevalence of influenza virus strains. The vaccine is usually bivalent or trivalent, containing one or two INFLUENZAVIRUS A strains and one INFLUENZAVIRUS B strain.
An acetamido cyclohexene that is a structural homolog of SIALIC ACID and inhibits NEURAMINIDASE.
Virus diseases caused by the ORTHOMYXOVIRIDAE.
A subtype of INFLUENZA A VIRUS comprised of the surface proteins hemagglutinin 5 and neuraminidase 1. The H5N1 subtype, frequently referred to as the bird flu virus, is endemic in wild birds and very contagious among both domestic (POULTRY) and wild birds. It does not usually infect humans, but some cases have been reported.
Restriction of freedom of movement of individuals who have been exposed to infectious or communicable disease in order to prevent its spread; a period of detention of vessels, vehicles, or travelers coming from infected or suspected places; and detention or isolation on account of suspected contagion. It includes government regulations on the detention of animals at frontiers or ports of entrance for the prevention of infectious disease, through a period of isolation before being allowed to enter a country. (From Dorland, 28th ed & Black's Veterinary Dictionary, 17th ed)
Procedures outlined for the care of casualties and the maintenance of services in disasters.
Membrane glycoproteins from influenza viruses which are involved in hemagglutination, virus attachment, and envelope fusion. Fourteen distinct subtypes of HA glycoproteins and nine of NA glycoproteins have been identified from INFLUENZA A VIRUS; no subtypes have been identified for Influenza B or Influenza C viruses.
Viruses containing two or more pieces of nucleic acid (segmented genome) from different parents. Such viruses are produced in cells coinfected with different strains of a given virus.
A subtype of INFLUENZA A VIRUS comprised of the surface proteins hemagglutinin 3 and neuraminidase 2. The H3N2 subtype was responsible for the Hong Kong flu pandemic of 1968.
Infection of domestic and wild fowl and other BIRDS with INFLUENZA A VIRUS. Avian influenza usually does not sicken birds, but can be highly pathogenic and fatal in domestic POULTRY.
Divisions of the year according to some regularly recurrent phenomena usually astronomical or climatic. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
Semidomesticated variety of European polecat much used for hunting RODENTS and/or RABBITS and as a laboratory animal. It is in the subfamily Mustelinae, family MUSTELIDAE.
A subtype of INFLUENZA A VIRUS comprised of the surface proteins hemagglutinin 2 and neuraminidase 2. The H2N2 subtype was responsible for the Asian flu pandemic of 1957.
An enzyme that catalyzes the hydrolysis of alpha-2,3, alpha-2,6-, and alpha-2,8-glycosidic linkages (at a decreasing rate, respectively) of terminal sialic residues in oligosaccharides, glycoproteins, glycolipids, colominic acid, and synthetic substrate. (From Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992)
Agents used in the prophylaxis or therapy of VIRUS DISEASES. Some of the ways they may act include preventing viral replication by inhibiting viral DNA polymerase; binding to specific cell-surface receptors and inhibiting viral penetration or uncoating; inhibiting viral protein synthesis; or blocking late stages of virus assembly.
The type species of the genus INFLUENZAVIRUS A that causes influenza and other diseases in humans and animals. Antigenic variation occurs frequently between strains, allowing classification into subtypes and variants. Transmission is usually by aerosol (human and most non-aquatic hosts) or waterborne (ducks). Infected birds shed the virus in their saliva, nasal secretions, and feces.
Time period from 1901 through 2000 of the common era.
Warm-blooded VERTEBRATES possessing FEATHERS and belonging to the class Aves.
The expected number of new cases of an infection caused by an infected individual, in a population consisting of susceptible contacts only.
Protection conferred on a host by inoculation with one strain or component of a microorganism that prevents infection when later challenged with a similar strain. Most commonly the microorganism is a virus.
Serologic tests in which a known quantity of antigen is added to the serum prior to the addition of a red cell suspension. Reaction result is expressed as the smallest amount of antigen which causes complete inhibition of hemagglutination.
A species of bacteria found in the marine environment, sea foods, and the feces of patients with acute enteritis.
Immunoglobulins produced in response to VIRAL ANTIGENS.
Programs of surveillance designed to prevent the transmission of disease by any means from person to person or from animal to man.
Administration of vaccines to stimulate the host's immune response. This includes any preparation intended for active immunological prophylaxis.
Infections with bacteria of the genus VIBRIO.
Administration of a vaccine to large populations in order to elicit IMMUNITY.
A subtype of INFLUENZA A VIRUS comprised of the surface proteins hemagglutinin 9 and neuraminidase 2. The H9N2 subtype usually infects domestic birds (POULTRY) but there have been some human infections reported.
Ongoing scrutiny of a population (general population, study population, target population, etc.), generally using methods distinguished by their practicability, uniformity, and frequently their rapidity, rather than by complete accuracy.
A family of RNA viruses causing INFLUENZA and other diseases. There are five recognized genera: INFLUENZAVIRUS A; INFLUENZAVIRUS B; INFLUENZAVIRUS C; ISAVIRUS; and THOGOTOVIRUS.
A subtype of INFLUENZA A VIRUS comprised of the surface proteins hemagglutinin 1 and neuraminidase 2. It is endemic in both human and pig populations.
Monitoring of rate of occurrence of specific conditions to assess the stability or change in health levels of a population. It is also the study of disease rates in a specific cohort such as in a geographic area or population subgroup to estimate trends in a larger population. (From Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)
Planning for needed health and/or welfare services and facilities.
Sorbitan mono-9-octadecanoate poly(oxy-1,2-ethanediyl) derivatives; complex mixtures of polyoxyethylene ethers used as emulsifiers or dispersing agents in pharmaceuticals.
A guanido-neuraminic acid that is used to inhibit NEURAMINIDASE.
The concept pertaining to the health status of inhabitants of the world.
Inflammation of the lung parenchyma that is caused by a viral infection.
The confinement of a patient in a hospital.
Preventive emergency measures and programs designed to protect the individual or community in times of hostile attack.
The transmission of infectious disease or pathogens. When transmission is within the same species, the mode can be horizontal or vertical (INFECTIOUS DISEASE TRANSMISSION, VERTICAL).
Vaccines in which the infectious microbial nucleic acid components have been destroyed by chemical or physical treatment (e.g., formalin, beta-propiolactone, gamma radiation) without affecting the antigenicity or immunogenicity of the viral coat or bacterial outer membrane proteins.
Time period from 2001 through 2100 of the common era.
Infectious diseases that are novel in their outbreak ranges (geographic and host) or transmission mode.
Diseases of non-human animals that may be transmitted to HUMANS or may be transmitted from humans to non-human animals.
Global conflict primarily fought on European continent, that occurred between 1914 and 1918.
Antibodies that reduce or abolish some biological activity of a soluble antigen or infectious agent, usually a virus.
The expelling of virus particles from the body. Important routes include the respiratory tract, genital tract, and intestinal tract. Virus shedding is an important means of vertical transmission (INFECTIOUS DISEASE TRANSMISSION, VERTICAL).
An acute diarrheal disease endemic in India and Southeast Asia whose causative agent is VIBRIO CHOLERAE. This condition can lead to severe dehydration in a matter of hours unless quickly treated.
The relationships of groups of organisms as reflected by their genetic makeup.
Branch of medicine concerned with the prevention and control of disease and disability, and the promotion of physical and mental health of the population on the international, national, state, or municipal level.
Aspects of health and disease related to travel.
The former British crown colony located off the southeast coast of China, comprised of Hong Kong Island, Kowloon Peninsula, and New Territories. The three sites were ceded to the British by the Chinese respectively in 1841, 1860, and 1898. Hong Kong reverted to China in July 1997. The name represents the Cantonese pronunciation of the Chinese xianggang, fragrant port, from xiang, perfume and gang, port or harbor, with reference to its currents sweetened by fresh water from a river west of it.
The influenza outbreaks of 1918 to 1919 also known as Spanish flu pandemic. First reported in Haskell County in Kansas in March of 1918 the disease spread throughout the world and may have killed as many as 25 million people.
An infant during the first month after birth.
The ability of viruses to resist or to become tolerant to chemotherapeutic agents or antiviral agents. This resistance is acquired through gene mutation.
Domesticated birds raised for food. It typically includes CHICKENS; TURKEYS, DUCKS; GEESE; and others.
Diseases of domestic swine and of the wild boar of the genus Sus.
The frequency of different ages or age groups in a given population. The distribution may refer to either how many or what proportion of the group. The population is usually patients with a specific disease but the concept is not restricted to humans and is not restricted to medicine.
The study of the structure, growth, function, genetics, and reproduction of viruses, and VIRUS DISEASES.
Species of the genus INFLUENZAVIRUS B that cause HUMAN INFLUENZA and other diseases primarily in humans. Antigenic variation is less extensive than in type A viruses (INFLUENZA A VIRUS) and consequently there is no basis for distinct subtypes or variants. Epidemics are less likely than with INFLUENZA A VIRUS and there have been no pandemics. Previously only found in humans, Influenza B virus has been isolated from seals which may constitute the animal reservoir from which humans are exposed.
Serological reactions in which an antiserum against one antigen reacts with a non-identical but closely related antigen.
Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of systems, processes, or phenomena. They include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.
An epithelial cell line derived from a kidney of a normal adult female dog.
Educational institutions.
Any of various animals that constitute the family Suidae and comprise stout-bodied, short-legged omnivorous mammals with thick skin, usually covered with coarse bristles, a rather long mobile snout, and small tail. Included are the genera Babyrousa, Phacochoerus (wart hogs), and Sus, the latter containing the domestic pig (see SUS SCROFA).
Sudden outbreaks of a disease in a country or region not previously recognized in that area, or a rapid increase in the number of new cases of a previous existing endemic disease. Epidemics can also refer to outbreaks of disease in animal or plant populations.
Agents that cause agglutination of red blood cells. They include antibodies, blood group antigens, lectins, autoimmune factors, bacterial, viral, or parasitic blood agglutinins, etc.
Men and women working in the provision of health services, whether as individual practitioners or employees of health institutions and programs, whether or not professionally trained, and whether or not subject to public regulation. (From A Discursive Dictionary of Health Care, 1976)
The degree of pathogenicity within a group or species of microorganisms or viruses as indicated by case fatality rates and/or the ability of the organism to invade the tissues of the host. The pathogenic capacity of an organism is determined by its VIRULENCE FACTORS.
An RNA synthesis inhibitor that is used as an antiviral agent in the prophylaxis and treatment of influenza.
A subtype of INFLUENZA A VIRUS with the surface proteins hemagglutinin 7 and neuraminidase 9. This avian origin virus was first identified in humans in 2013.
A country spanning from central Asia to the Pacific Ocean.
A specialized agency of the United Nations designed as a coordinating authority on international health work; its aim is to promote the attainment of the highest possible level of health by all peoples.
The smallest continent and an independent country, comprising six states and two territories. Its capital is Canberra.
Recommendations for directing health planning functions and policies. These may be mandated by PL93-641 and issued by the Department of Health and Human Services for use by state and local planning agencies.
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
The etiologic agent of CHOLERA.
Substances that augment, stimulate, activate, potentiate, or modulate the immune response at either the cellular or humoral level. The classical agents (Freund's adjuvant, BCG, Corynebacterium parvum, et al.) contain bacterial antigens. Some are endogenous (e.g., histamine, interferon, transfer factor, tuftsin, interleukin-1). Their mode of action is either non-specific, resulting in increased immune responsiveness to a wide variety of antigens, or antigen-specific, i.e., affecting a restricted type of immune response to a narrow group of antigens. The therapeutic efficacy of many biological response modifiers is related to their antigen-specific immunoadjuvanticity.
Formerly known as Siam, this is a Southeast Asian nation at the center of the Indochina peninsula. Bangkok is the capital city.
Programs of disease surveillance, generally within health care facilities, designed to investigate, prevent, and control the spread of infections and their causative microorganisms.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
The largest of the continents. It was known to the Romans more specifically as what we know today as Asia Minor. The name comes from at least two possible sources: from the Assyrian asu (to rise) or from the Sanskrit usa (dawn), both with reference to its being the land of the rising sun, i.e., eastern as opposed to Europe, to the west. (From Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p82 & Room, Brewer's Dictionary of Names, 1992, p34)
EPIDEMIOLOGIC STUDIES based on the detection through serological testing of characteristic change in the serum level of specific ANTIBODIES. Latent subclinical infections and carrier states can thus be detected in addition to clinically overt cases.
Planned and coordinated pre-event accumulation of ESSENTIAL DRUGS and medical supplies.
A multistage process that includes cloning, physical mapping, subcloning, determination of the DNA SEQUENCE, and information analysis.
The segregation of patients with communicable or other diseases for a specified time. Isolation may be strict, in which movement and social contacts are limited; modified, where an effort to control specified aspects of care is made in order to prevent cross infection; or reverse, where the patient is secluded in a controlled or germ-free environment in order to protect him or her from cross infection.
Specific hemagglutinin subtypes encoded by VIRUSES.
Statistical formulations or analyses which, when applied to data and found to fit the data, are then used to verify the assumptions and parameters used in the analysis. Examples of statistical models are the linear model, binomial model, polynomial model, two-parameter model, etc.
An antiviral that is used in the prophylactic or symptomatic treatment of influenza A. It is also used as an antiparkinsonian agent, to treat extrapyramidal reactions, and for postherpetic neuralgia. The mechanisms of its effects in movement disorders are not well understood but probably reflect an increase in synthesis and release of dopamine, with perhaps some inhibition of dopamine uptake.

Initial human transmission dynamics of the pandemic (H1N1) 2009 virus in North America. (1/1187)

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Diversity of influenza viruses in swine and the emergence of a novel human pandemic influenza A (H1N1). (2/1187)

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Closing the schools: lessons from the 1918-19 U.S. influenza pandemic. (3/1187)

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Formative research on the feasibility of hygiene interventions for influenza control in UK primary schools. (4/1187)

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Egg-independent vaccine strategies for highly pathogenic H5N1 influenza viruses. (5/1187)

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Critical choices in financing the response to the global HIV/AIDS pandemic. (6/1187)

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Investing to meet the scientific challenges of HIV/AIDS. (7/1187)

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The first influenza pandemic of the 21st century. (8/1187)

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One would have expected these experts to distinguish the enormous difference in severity between the bird and swine flu pandemics, and respond accordingly. Scuttlebut at the time of WHOs June 11 declaration was that different countries had been jockeying to influence the decision, suggesting that politics influenced the declaration. WHO Director-General Chan says that, At no time, not for one second, did commercial interests enter my decision-making, Okay. But then, what did lead Dr. Chan to raise the pandemic level last June? And what has led her to retain that designation today, when there is no serious swine flu pandemic anywhere? Given that the current (absent) state of swine flu disease is still being called a maximum Level 6 Pandemic by WHO, Id advise countries with pandemic vaccine contracts that will be activated by future WHO pandemic designations to scuttle those contracts, asap ...
In Ontario, the local Medical Officer of Health (MOH) has specific functions to lead or carry out, with the assistance of the health unit, in the event of an influenza pandemic. Learn more about the full role of public health in the event of an influenza pandemic.. The Simcoe Muskoka District Health Unit has created a local pandemic influenza plan. As well, all health care agencies and emergency response partners in Simcoe and Muskoka have collaborated with the health unit to create a coordinated regional pandemic influenza plan.. The health unit plan, regional plan, provincial, national and global plans are all designed to work together to minimize suffering, illness and social disruption in a flu pandemic.. In this section you will find links to provincial and national plans, and related topics and web sites providing both in-depth and up-to-date information about the ongoing planning for an influenza pandemic.. ...
Excerpt] A pandemic is a global disease outbreak. An influenza pandemic occurs when a new influenza virus emerges for which there is little or no immunity in the human population, begins to cause serious illness and then spreads easily person-to- person worldwide. A worldwide influenza pandemic could have a major effect on the global economy, including travel, trade, tourism, food, consumption and eventually, investment and financial markets. Planning for pandemic influenza by business and industry is essential to minimize a pandemics impact. Companies that provide critical infrastructure services, such as power and telecommunications, also have a special responsibility to plan for continued operation in a crisis and should plan accordingly. As with any catastrophe, having a contingency plan is essential. In the event of an influenza pandemic, employers will play a key role in protecting employees health and safety as well as in limiting the impact on the economy and society. Employers will ...
Because the precise impact of a future pandemic is unpredictable, national, state, and local planners need multiple scenarios for pandemic planning to implement rapid response efforts. The timing and progression of a pandemic, as well as its severity and transmissibility, will determine the mitigation measures selected. HHS will use several possible scenarios for pandemic planning, including a future pandemic that is moderate in severity, a pandemic that is severe, and one that is very severe in its effects on human health. These scenarios will provide a way to plan for use of response measures scaled to different levels of pandemic severity. ...
By explicitly linking pandemic transmission dynamics to the usage of multiple healthcare resources, and also by facilitating the export of outputs to GIS software, the AsiaFluCap Simulator provides the user with additional benefits compared to existing pandemic prediction models. The user-friendly tool can be easily employed by policy makers, policy advisors, donors and other stakeholders involved in pandemic preparedness. The model can be used for providing evidence-based and illustrative information on health care system capacities during future pandemics. Such information can help inform preparedness and response plans and make participants of simulation exercises (like tabletop and war room exercises) aware of surges in resource demand during pandemics. Furthermore, the tool could be applied for educational purposes, for example for learning the basics of mathematical modelling and understanding resource dynamics.. The flexibility of the tool allows policy makers to base scenario ...
Of the unexplained characteristics of the 1918-19 influenza pandemic, the extreme mortality rate among young adults (W-shaped mortality curve) is the foremost. Lack of a coherent explanation of this and other epidemiologic and clinical manifestations of the pandemic contributes to uncertainty in preparing for future pandemics. Contemporaneous records suggest that immunopathologic responses were a critical determinant of the high mortality rate among young adults and other high-risk subgroups. Historical records and findings from laboratory animal studies suggest that persons who were exposed to influenza once before 1918 (e.g., A/H3Nx 1890 pandemic strain) were likely to have dysregulated, pathologic cellular immune responses to infections with the A/H1N1 1918 pandemic strain. The immunopathologic effects transiently increased susceptibility to ultimately lethal secondary bacterial pneumonia. The extreme mortality rate associated with the 1918-19 pandemic is unlikely to recur naturally. However, T-cell
Please also see the Humanitarian Pandemic Preparedness (H2P) site (http://pandemicpreparedness.org/) for guidance on response at the household and community level in developing countries for humanitarian and community-based organizations.. The H2P Initiative, coordinated by Geneva-based International Federation of Red Cross and Red Crescent societies and including a wide-range of international partners (including CARE), aims to build a chain of health and disaster management tools and practices to inform and strengthen capacity of community first-responders during an influenza pandemic.. *******. The purpose of the CARE Pandemic and Avian Flu Blog is to create a simple site where CARE staff can stay updated on the latest and most important pandemic and AI news. Since we have access to information and are constantly looking over pandemic and AI related news and materials, it helps us narrow down the best information and provide an easy place for CARE staff to stay updated with information ...
Please also see the Humanitarian Pandemic Preparedness (H2P) site (http://pandemicpreparedness.org/) for guidance on response at the household and community level in developing countries for humanitarian and community-based organizations.. The H2P Initiative, coordinated by Geneva-based International Federation of Red Cross and Red Crescent societies and including a wide-range of international partners (including CARE), aims to build a chain of health and disaster management tools and practices to inform and strengthen capacity of community first-responders during an influenza pandemic.. *******. The purpose of the CARE Pandemic and Avian Flu Blog is to create a simple site where CARE staff can stay updated on the latest and most important pandemic and AI news. Since we have access to information and are constantly looking over pandemic and AI related news and materials, it helps us narrow down the best information and provide an easy place for CARE staff to stay updated with information ...
Many people are concerned about what will happen if an actual flu pandemic occurs. Understanding what a flu pandemic is and what you may expect during a flu pandemic can help bring peace of mind to your employees and give them the confidence they need to make informed decisions to lessen the impact of a flu pandemic on their lives. Public education about pandemic flu has been identified as a key role
Recent studies of the 1918 Spanish Flu pandemic have dramatically altered scientists understanding of its transmission and could provide insight into planning for future pandemics, according to a recent study co-authored by a Fogarty scientist.. A summer wave of influenza may have provided partial protection against the lethal fall wave of the 1918 Influenza pandemic in Copenhagen, Denmark, according to the analysis published recently in the Journal of Infectious Diseases. The Spanish Flu pandemic killed over 50 million people worldwide. Historical records suggest that an early pandemic wave struck Europe during the summer of 1918. The researchers obtained surveillance data that were compiled weekly in Copenhagen and included medically treated influenza-like illnesses, hospitalizations and deaths by age.. The study team, including Fogarty scientist Cecile Viboud, report only .02 percent of Copenhagens population died during the summer wave, as compared with .27 percent during the fall wave. ...
Objective. Vaccination is an effective preventive measure to reduce influenza transmission, especially important in a pandemic. Despite messages encouraging vaccination during the last pandemic, uptake remained low (37.6% in clinical risk groups). This study investigated the effect of different types of messages regarding length, content type, and framing on vaccination intention. Method. An online experiment was conducted in February 2015. A representative sample of 1424 people living in England read a mock newspaper article about a novel influenza pandemic before being randomised to one of four conditions: standard Department of Health (DoH) (long message) and three brief theory-based messages - an abridged version of the standard DoH and two messages additionally targeting pandemic influenza severity and vaccination benefits (framed as risk-reducing or healthenhancing, respectively). Intention to be vaccinated and potential mediators were measured. Results. The shortened DoH message increased ...
In recent years, influenza viruses with pandemic potential have been a major concern worldwide. (ELISpot) assays. Mmp13 Our data show that CD4 T PSI-7977 cells reactive to both virus-specific and genetically conserved epitopes are elicited, allowing separate tracking of these responses. Populations of cross-reactive CD4 T cells generated from seasonal influenza infection were found to expand earlier after secondary infection with the pandemic H1N1 virus than CD4 T cell populations specific for new epitopes. Coincident with this rapid CD4 T cell response was a potentiated neutralizing-antibody response to the pandemic strain and protection from the pathological effects of infection with the PSI-7977 pandemic virus. This protection was not dependent on CD8 T cells. Together, our PSI-7977 results indicate that exposure to seasonal vaccines and infection elicits CD4 T cells that promote the ability of the mammalian host to mount a protective immune response to pandemic strains of influenza virus. ...
Since emergence of the pandemic (H1N1) 2009 virus in April 2009, three influenza A viruses-seasonal (H3N2), seasonal (H1N1), and pandemic (H1N1) 2009-have circulated in humans. Genetic reassortment between these viruses could result in enhanced pathogenicity. We compared 4 reassortant viruses with favorable in vitro replication properties with the wild-type pandemic (H1N1) 2009 virus with respect to replication kinetics in vitro and pathogenicity and transmission in ferrets. Pandemic (H1N1) 2009 viruses containing basic polymerase 2 alone or in combination with acidic polymerase of seasonal (H1N1) virus were attenuated in ferrets. In contrast, pandemic (H1N1) 2009 with neuraminidase of seasonal (H3N2) virus resulted in increased virus replication and more severe pulmonary lesions. The data show that pandemic (H1N1) 2009 virus has the potential to reassort with seasonal influenza viruses, which may result in increased pathogenicity while it maintains the capacity of transmission through aerosols or
Dr. Elias Zerhouni knows the dangers of infectious disease outbreaks. He was director of the National Institutes of Health in 2005 when bird flu appeared poised to become more infectious to humans. Fortunately, that pandemic never materialized, but he says it served as a warning of what was to come.. Zerhouni has been a member of the faculty of the Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, and head of global research and development for the pharmaceutical company Sanofi.. I asked him about the difficulties of responding to pandemics in general, and in particular the governments response to the COVID-19 outbreak. Some of the wording has been edited for clarity.. On the Trump administrations pandemic response. It was basically amateur hour. There is no central concept of operations for preparedness, for pandemics, period. This administration doesnt want to or has no concept of what it takes to protect the American people and the world because it is codependent. You cant close your borders ...
The global swine flu pandemic is now over, the WHO has said, though some groups remain at risk of severe illness from the virus.. Following a meeting of its emergency committee, the WHO announced that the world was now in a post-pandemic period.. The world is no longer in phase 6 of influenza pandemic alert, WHO Director-General Dr Margaret Chan said. We are now moving into the post-pandemic period. The new H1N1 virus has largely run its course.. The WHO said that a number of groups remain at increased risk of severe illness from the pandemic H1N1 virus. These include young children, pregnant women, and people with underlying respiratory or other chronic conditions, including asthma and diabetes.. Patients who have severe or deteriorating influenza should be treated as soon as possible with oseltamivir, the WHO said.. Read more at Healthcare Republic.. ...
During the first wave of the H1N12009 pandemic in Canada, adults with immune deficiency were more likely to die with severe infections than were other Canadians. Of 76 deaths attributed to date to this new virus, 37% occurred in persons with immune system compromise. Adults with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection constitute a significant proportion of the at-risk population with over 56,000 affected individuals. Most such individuals retain some capacity to respond to influenza vaccination. The dosing regimen for the pandemic vaccine will be based on limited studies in the general population, leaving open the question of whether HIV-infected persons can respond satisfactorily to the recommended dosing. Availability of an adjuvanted formulation of the pandemic vaccine may improve responsiveness but two doses may be required for the best possible response. Thus it would be optimal to evaluate the safety and immunogenicity of the pandemic vaccine among the earliest HIV-infected persons to ...
The COVID-19 pandemic has seriously affected health systems and health care access including sexual and reproductive health and rights (SRHR). The healthcare industry had to restructure its services to meet the immediate demands of the pandemic. This restructuring has led to a serious disruption of reproductive maternal and neonatal health services.. This global online study surveyed professionals involved in sexual reproductive health and rights (SRHR) from around 62 countries. The survey was answered by professionals representing 29 countries. It provides a quantitative and qualitative account of the impact of the pandemic on SRHR through the voices of providers, researchers, and organizations working towards advancing womens health and rights. The study analyzed the pandemics impact on SRHR in terms of access to SRHR services and governments responses to mitigate the effect of the pandemic on these services.. The study revealed that most countries represented in the survey had seen an ...
Covid-19 is the single largest threat to global public health since the Spanish Influenza pandemic of 1918-20. Was the world better prepared in 2020 than it was in 1918? After a century of public health and basic science research, pandemic response and mortality outcomes should be better than in 1918-20. We ask whether mortality from historical pandemics has any predictive content for mortality in the ongoing Covid-19 pandemic. We find a strong persistence in public health performance in the early days of the Covid-19 pandemic. Places that performed poorly in terms of mortality in 1918 were more likely to have higher mortality today. This is true across countries and across a sample of US cities. Experience with SARS is associated with lower mortality today. Distrust of expert advice, lack of cooperation at many levels, over-confidence, and health care supply shortages have likely promoted higher mortality today as in the past. ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Assessing the role of basic control measures, antivirals and vaccine in curtailing pandemic influenza. T2 - Scenarios for the US, UK and the Netherlands. AU - Nuno, Miriam A. AU - Chowell, G.. AU - Gumel, A. B.. PY - 2007/6/22. Y1 - 2007/6/22. N2 - An increasing number of avian flu cases in humans, arising primarily from direct contact with poultry, in several regions of the world have prompted the urgency to develop pandemic preparedness plans worldwide. Leading recommendations in these plans include basic public health control measures for minimizing transmission in hospitals and communities, the use of antiviral drugs and vaccination. This paper presents a mathematical model for the evaluation of the pandemic flu preparedness plans of the United States (US), the United Kingdom (UK) and the Netherlands. The model is used to assess single and combined interventions. Using data from the US, we show that hospital and community transmission control measures alone can be highly ...
The World Health Organization said Tuesday a spike in swine flu cases in Australia may push it to finally announce the first flu pandemic in 41 years. It also expressed concern about an unusual rise in severe illness from the disease in Canada. WHOs flu chief Keiji Fukuda said the agency wanted to avoid adverse effects if it announces a global outbreak of swine flu. Fukuda said people might panic or that governments might take inappropriate actions if WHO declares a pandemic. Some flu experts think the world already is in a pandemic and that WHO has caved in to country requests that a declaration be postponed. On the surface of it, I think we are in phase 6, or a pandemic, said Margaret Chan, WHOs director-general. ...
A model flu pandemic contingency plan, which deals with planning for a pandemic, pandemic response, pandemic recovery, and testing and review.
Transplantation. 2020 Oct 21. doi: 10.1097/TP.0000000000003502. On-line forward of print.. ABSTRACT. BACKGROUND: Kidney transplant recipients have increased danger of infectious ailments on account of their reliance on immunosuppression. Through the present COVID-19 pandemic, some clinicians might need opted for much less potent immunosuppressive brokers to counterbalance the novel infectious danger. We performed a nationwide research to characterize immunosuppression use and subsequent scientific outcomes through the first 5 months of COVID-19 pandemic in the US.. METHODS: Utilizing knowledge from the Scientific Registry of Transplant Recipients, we studied all kidney-only recipients in the US from 1/1/2017 to three/12/2020 (prepandemic period; n=64 849) and from 3/13/2020 to 7/31/2020 (pandemic period; n=5035). We in contrast the usage of lymphocyte-depleting brokers (vs. basiliximab or no induction) and upkeep steroids (vs. steroid avoidance/withdrawal) within the pandemic period in ...
The flu pandemic has historically occurred at 25-30 year intervals and its destruction has been cataclysmic. The Spanish flu pandemic of 1918, for example, killed more than 40 million people worldwide (670,000 Americans alone). The most recent flu pandemic struck 35 years ago and killed more than 4 million people. Read on and learn more.
The flu pandemic has historically occurred at 25-30 year intervals and its destruction has been cataclysmic. The Spanish flu pandemic of 1918, for example, killed more than 40 million people worldwide (670,000 Americans alone). The most recent flu pandemic struck 35 years ago and killed more than 4 million people. Read on and learn more.
WEDNESDAY, April 15, 2020 (HealthDay News) -- Trying to identify animals that are most likely to transmit viruses to humans may not help prevent future pandemics, researchers say.. Instead, the focus should be on specific types of viruses and how they spread, they suggest.. The current coronavirus pandemic is believed to have originated in bats, and most emerging infectious diseases are zoonotic, meaning that theyre spread from animals to humans, according to researchers from the University of Glasgow in Scotland.. This pandemic shows the serious health and economic threat that zoonotic viruses pose, so its crucial to learn more about them.. This study found little variation in the proportion of zoonotic viruses in 11 major orders of birds and mammals, and that animal orders with more species hosted more viruses overall and more zoonotic viruses.. The findings challenge the belief that certain animal reservoirs, such as bats, pose a heightened risk of spreading viruses to humans, according to ...
s S5 modulate antigenicity and receptor binding, confounds retrospective analysis of genetic variation in HA. The situation is complicated further by the occurrence of epistatic changes within HA and between HA and NA to maximizeviral fitness following selection. Moreover, substitutions selected to modulate receptor avidity will inevitably modify receptor specificity for various sialic acid terminated-glycans and vice versa. From leaves to forest: even in the simplest species (viruses), evolution is complicated, and oversimplified analysis leads to all sorts of errors, including those with practical ramifications in interpreting sequences for choosing vaccine strains. doi:10.1016/j.phrp.2011.11.021 Lessons Learnt from (HIN1)2009 Influenza Pandemic for Preparedness Against Future Pandemics Masato Tashiro Director, WHO Collaborating Centre for Research and Reference on Influenza Influenza Virus Research Center, National Institute of Infectious Diseases, Japan. Pandemic (H1N1) 2009 was relatively mild with
Are You Prepped for a Pandemic? :. If the news announced tomorrow that a pandemic had begun and that your area, in particular, was at risk, would you be prepared?. It was only a couple of years ago that Ebola arrived on the shores of the United States. By sheer luck (certainly not by a well-managed response) the virus was contained.. I had been prepping for quite some time, and had dealt with lengthy power outages, winter storms, and nearby forest fires with aplomb, but when Patient Zero was diagnosed in Dallas, I realized that out of all of the things I was prepared for, a pandemic was not one of them. Sure, Id have been better off than people who were completely unprepared, but I was lacking some vital supplies.. There is usually a little bit of warning before an outbreak becomes severe enough to warrant the title pandemic. It isnt like The Walking Dead, where suddenly 80% of the population is affected overnight.. With a pandemic, you hear a little hum about it before it gets bad. The ...
So I think its unfair to say the government is not listening. We are. We are doing everything, he added when asked to comment on Robredos latest statement.. Nograles explained that the government has already established a feedback mechanism, citing the role of various government agencies as well as local government units in battling the pandemic.. May feedback mechanism tayo diyan (We have a feedback mechanism). From that feedback, we also get inputs nila on how we can also improve yung ginagawa nating pagtugon at pagresponse dito laban sa COVID-19 (on how to respond in the fight against COVID-19), he said.. Asked about any government innovation to enhance the pandemic response, Nograles cited the governments efforts to ramp up testing to immediately detect, isolate, and treat people with coronavirus infection.. Apart from the reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) testing, he said the government was also using rapid antigen test kits in areas with high coronavirus ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Origins of the 1918 Pandemic. T2 - Revisiting the Swine Mixing Vessel Hypothesis. AU - Nelson, Martha I.. AU - Worobey, Michael. PY - 2018/12/1. Y1 - 2018/12/1. N2 - How influenza A viruses host-jump from animal reservoir species to humans, which can initiate global pandemics, is a central question in pathogen evolution. The zoonotic and spatial origins of the influenza virus associated with the Spanish flu pandemic of 1918 have been debated for decades. Outbreaks of respiratory disease in US swine occurred concurrently with disease in humans, raising the possibility that the 1918 virus originated in pigs. Swine also were proposed as mixing vessel intermediary hosts between birds and humans during the 1957 Asian and 1968 Hong Kong pandemics. Swine have presented an attractive explanation for how avian viruses overcome the substantial evolutionary barriers presented by different cellular environments in humans and birds. However, key assumptions underpinning the swine ...
ANN ARBOR, Mich. -Scholars, teachers and anyone fascinated by the social, cultural or scientific features of the 1918 influenza pandemic in the United States will be interested in the just-released special issue of Public Health Reports, the official journal of the U.S. Public Health Service. In this collection of original essays, public health historians and scientists use narrative, photographs, illustrations and charts to present a mosaic of what individuals and institutions understood about influenza in 1918, their strategies for coping with the ever-widening pandemic, and what we know in hindsight about the most devastating influenza pandemic of the modern era. As a whole, the collection of essays allows us to step back and appreciate a more complete picture of these intricate events, says Howard Markel, M.D., Ph.D., the George E. Wantz Distinguished Professor of the History of Medicine at the University of Michigan. The volume includes a forewordby Thomas R. Frieden, director of the ...
Sustaining Indie Brands Post-pandemic will discuss a 360-degree review of strategies to emerge competitive in the post-pandemic recovery.
Revolutionary biologist Paul Ewald,5 claims that a pandemic cannot happen, because in order for it to occur, the world has to change. Not the virus itself, but the world. In a previous interview for Esquire magazine, in which he discusses the possibility of a bird flu pandemic, he states: They think that if a virus mutates, its an evolutionary event. Well, the virus is mutating because that is what viruses and other pathogens do. But evolution is not just random mutation. It is random mutation coupled with natural selection; it is a battle for competitive advantage among different strains generated by random mutation. For bird flu to evolve into a human pandemic, the strain that finds a home in humanity has to be a strain that is both highly virulent and highly transmissible. Deadliness has to translate somehow into popularity; H5N1 has to find a way to kill or immobilize its human hosts, and still find other hosts to infect. Usually that doesnt happen.. Ewald goes on to explain that ...
For most healthy adults, seasonal viruses are not generally life-threatening. But as youve seen in the news, respiratory disease pandemics, such as those caused by coronaviruses or influenza, are something else. They often involve new strains of viruses to which people have developed no immunity. These kinds of viruses can spread quickly and widely, and they can pose a major global health threat. Thats why you need to know about acute respiratory illness pandemics and how to prepare for them. The main objective of this course is to make you aware of the risks of pandemics, the potential problems we could all face should we be hit with a pandemic, and the precautions you would need to take to keep you, your family, and your patients safe.. ...
The Covid-19 pandemic in the winter and spring of 2020 represents a major challenge to the world health care system that has not been seen perhaps since the influenza pandemic in 1918. The virus has spread across the world, claiming lives on all continents with the exception of Antarctica. Since its arrival in the United States, attention has been paid to how Covid-19 cases and deaths have been distributed across varying socioeconomic and ethnic groups. The goal of this study was to examine this issue during the early weeks of the pandemic, with the hope of shedding some light on how the number of cases and the number of deaths were, or were not related to poverty. Results of this study revealed that during the early weeks of the pandemic more disadvantaged counties in the United States had a larger number of confirmed Covid-19 cases, but that over time this trend changed so that by the beginning of April, 2020 more affluent counties had more confirmed cases of the virus. The number of deaths due to
AUSTIN (KXAN) - Researchers in China have identified a new strain of swine flu that has pandemic potential. It has been more than a decade since the swine flu, known as the virus H1N1, last caused a global pandemic. The CDC estimates that the 2009 H1N1 pandemic killed up to 575,000 people globally. The new […]
Why Bird Flu Is Not A Pandemic. By Sarah Jenkins. Most people are aware of the threat of bird flu and the possibility of it creating a pandemic, a worldwide epidemic of an infectious disease breaking out and affecting a large geographic region. Although the virus affects an extensive geographic region, this virus has not yet reached pandemic proportions. According to the World Health Organization, in order for a pandemic to occur, three conditions must be met: the emergence of a disease new to a population, the agent affects humans and causes serious illness, and the agent spreads easily and sustainably among humans. The first of these three, the emergence of a disease new to a population has occurred. Although bird flu is in no way a new disease, as it was first identified in the early 1900s, it was not infectious to humans until the late 1990s. Therefore, this particular strain has emerged new to a population, being the human population, which was previously unaffected by the disease. ...
Texas Pandemic Influenza Preparedness. Cynthia Morgan, PhD, RN Pandemic Influenza Program Coordinator, Acting Anita Wheeler, BSN, RN School Nurse Consultant. Agenda. Everything you wanted to know about pandemic influenza but couldnt find anyone to ask What you can do to prepare your...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Impact of the 2009 influenza pandemic on pneumococcal pneumonia hospitalizations in the United States. AU - Weinberger, Daniel M.. AU - Simonsen, Lone. AU - Jordan, Richard. AU - Steiner, Claudia. AU - Miller, Mark. AU - Viboud, Cecile. PY - 2012/2. Y1 - 2012/2. N2 - BACKGROUND:Infection with influenza virus increases the risk for developing pneumococcal disease. The A/H1N1 influenza pandemic in autumn 2009 provided a unique opportunity to evaluate this relationship.METHODS:Using weekly age-, state-, and cause-specific hospitalizations from the US State Inpatient Databases of the Healthcare Cost and Utilization Project 2003-2009, we quantified the increase in pneumococcal pneumonia hospitalization rates above a seasonal baseline during the pandemic period.RESULTS:We found a significant increase in pneumococcal hospitalizations from late August to mid-December 2009, which corresponded to the timing of highest pandemic influenza activity. Individuals aged 5-19 years, who have a low ...
A sister site, PandemicFlu.gov, provides information on the HHS Pandemic Influenza Plan, a blueprint for pandemic influenza preparation and response that offers guidance to national, state, and local policy makers and health departments and specifies needs and opportunities to build robust preparedness for and response to pandemic influenza. HHS admits these plans are based on plans formulated in 2005. During a press conference on October 4, 2005, Bush said the military would be involved in any response to a flu pandemic. One option is the use of a military thats able to plan and move. So thats why I put it on the table. I think its an important debate for Congress to have, said the then decider in response to a question. A month earlier, in September of 2005, Bush shifted U.S. policy on avian flu and pandemic influenza, placing the country under international guidelines not specifically determined by domestic agencies, according to journalist Jerome R. Corsi. The policy shift was ...
Downloadable! Influenza pandemics considerably burden affected health systems due to surges in inpatient admissions and associated costs. Previous studies underestimate or overestimate 2009/2010 influenza A/H1N1 pandemic hospital admissions and costs. We robustly estimate overall and age‐specific weekly H1N1 admissions and costs between June 2009 and March 2011 across 170 English hospitals. We calculate H1N1 admissions and costs as the difference between our administrative data of all influenza‐like‐illness patients (seasonal and pandemic alike) and a counterfactual of expected weekly seasonal influenza admissions and costs established using time‐series models on prepandemic (2004-2008) data. We find two waves of H1N1 admissions: one pandemic wave (June 2009-March 2010) with 10,348 admissions costing £20.5 million and one postpandemic wave (November 2010-March 2011) with 11,775 admissions costing £24.8 million. Patients aged 0-4 years old have the highest H1N1 admission rate, and 25‐ to 44
Pandemic H1N1 influenza A (H1N1pdm) is currently a dominant circulating influenza strain worldwide. Severe cases of H1N1pdm infection are characterized by prolonged activation of the immune response, yet the specific role of inflammatory mediators in disease is poorly understood. The inflammatory cytokine IL-6 has been implicated in both seasonal and severe pandemic H1N1 influenza A (H1N1pdm) infection. Here, we investigated the role of IL-6 in severe H1N1pdm infection. We found IL-6 to be an important feature of the host response in both humans and mice infected with H1N1pdm. Elevated levels of IL-6 were associated with severe disease in patients hospitalized with H1N1pdm infection. Notably, serum IL-6 levels associated strongly with the requirement of critical care admission and were predictive of fatal outcome. In C57BL/6J, BALB/cJ, and B6129SF2/J mice, infection with A/Mexico/4108/2009 (H1N1pdm) consistently triggered severe disease and increased IL-6 levels in both lung and serum. Furthermore, in
The Influenza pandemic of 1918 was a heavy pandemic of influenza. It lasted from January 1918 to December 1920.[1] About 500 million[1] people were infected across the world. The pandemic spread to remote Pacific Islands and the Arctic. It killed 50 million[2] to 100 million people[3]-3 to 5 percent of the worlds population at the time.[3] This means it was one of the deadliest natural disasters in human history.[1][4][5][6]. To maintain morale, wartime censors minimized early reports of illness and mortality in Germany, Britain, France, and the United States;[7][8] but papers were free to report the epidemics effects in neutral Spain (such as the grave illness of King Alfonso XIII). This situation created the false impression of Spain being especially hard-hit.[9] It also resulted in the nickname Spanish flu.[10]. In most cases, influenza outbreaks kill young people, or the elderly, or those patients that are already weakened. This was not the case for the 1918 pandemic, which killed ...
Background: The 2009 pandemic influenza A (H1N1) (PIA) virus infected large parts of the pediatric population with a wide clinical spectrum and an initially unknown complication rate. The aims of our study were to define clinical characteristics and outcome of pandemic influenza A (H1N1) 2009-associated hospitalizations (PIAH) in children |18 years of age. All hospitalized cases of children |18 years of age with laboratory-confirmed pandemic influenza A (H1N1) 2009 in the region of Wuerzburg (Northern Bavaria, Germany) between July 2009 and March 2010 were identified. For these children a medical chart review was performed to determine their clinical characteristics and complications. Results: Between July 2009 and March 2010, 94 PIAH (62% males) occurred in children |18 years of age, with a median age of 7 years (IQR: 3-12 years). Underlying diseases and predisposing factors were documented in 40 (43%) children; obesity (n = 12, 30%), asthma (n = 10, 25%) and neurologic disorders (n = 8, 20%) were most
Limited production capacity and delays in vaccine development are major obstacles to vaccination programs that are designed to mitigate a pandemic influenza. In order to evaluate and compare the impact of various vaccination strategies during a pandemic influenza, we developed an age/risk-structured model of influenza transmission, and parameterized it with epidemiological data from the 2009 H1N1 influenza A pandemic. Our model predicts that the impact of vaccination would be considerably diminished by delays in vaccination and staggered vaccine supply. Nonetheless, prioritizing limited H1N1 vaccine to individuals with a high risk of complications, followed by school-age children, and then preschool-age children, would minimize an overall attack rate as well as hospitalizations and deaths. This vaccination scheme would maximize the benefits of vaccination by protecting the high-risk people directly, and generating indirect protection by vaccinating children who are most likely to transmit
Sixth cholera pandemic Drawing of Death bringing the cholera, in Le Petit Journal The sixth cholera pandemic was a major outbreak of cholera from the years 1899 to 1923. It killed more than 800,000 in India then erupted in the Middle East, northern Africa, Russia and Eastern Europe. The last outbreak in the United States was in 1910-1911 when the steamship Moltke brought infected people to New York City. Vigilant health authorities isolated the infected on Swinburne Island. Eleven people died, including a health care worker at Swinburne Island. Wave nature Flu pandemics typically come in waves. The 1889-1890 and 1918-1919 flu pandemics each came in three or four waves of increasing lethality. But within a wave, mortality was greater at the beginning of the wave. Variable mortality Mortality varies widely in a pandemic. S. Army camps where reasonably reliable statistics were kept, case mortality often exceeded 5 percent, and in some circumstances exceeded 10 percent. 9 percent. In isolated human ...
Management Sciences for Health offers technical expertise and materials to assist countries to prepare and respond to severe pandemics and other disasters such as earthquakes, hurricanes, and other challenges to health, social, and economic well--‐being. We help governments and communities improve their disaster management, risk communication, and multisector coordination capabilities and planning to mitigate the impacts of a large scale disaster.. While the world watches, outbreaks of the H5N1 virus (Avian Influenza, or bird flu virus) in poultry continue to threaten the health and economic well--‐being of countries, and worries about the recent laboratory success of developing a strain with the potential for human transmission mount. To mitigate the impact of outbreaks, MSH helps prepare countries at the national, district, and local levels to plan, prepare and respond to avian influenza outbreaks or a severe human pandemic.. ...
Interviews, Latest News, Local and National Resources Featured in Companion Website to PBS Flu Special that Airs Nationwide on December 14 -. WASHINGTON, D.C. - PBS NewsHour, the premiere news and public affairs website at pbs.org, will launch today, Tuesday, December 8, the companion website to Anatomy of a Pandemic, a television special and on-going digital media initiative about a pandemics impact on modern society, in response to the 2009 H1N1 influenza virus pandemic. The Anatomy of a Pandemic website (www.pbs.org/newshour/pandemic) will feature a forum after the programs premiere to ask questions of influenza experts from the Centers for Disease Control (CDC) and the Center for Infectious Disease Research and Policy. The site will also provide the latest public media news on H1N1, as well as national and local resources for viewers to learn more about H1N1, get information from their local health departments and find a vaccine site. Segments of the documentary will be available ...
LONDON (Reuters) - British drugmaker GSK ,GSK.L, said on Thursday that its previous flu pandemic vaccine, which used some of the same ingredients as COVID-19 vaccines currently under development, was not linked to a rise in cases of the sleep disorder narcolepsy.. A spokesman for GSK said the science has moved on since concerns were raised about links between narcolepsy and its H1N1 vaccine, called Pandemrix, which was developed during the flu pandemic 10 years ago. He said evidence now suggests the link is to the H1N1 flu virus itself, not the vaccine.. Previous studies in several countries, including Britain, Finland, Sweden and Ireland, where GSKs Pandemrix vaccine was used in the 2009/2010 flu pandemic, had suggested its use was linked to a significant rise in cases of narcolepsy in children.. Pandemrixs ingredients included a booster, or adjuvant, known as AS03, which GSK said on Thursday it planned to produce in large volume for possible use in COVID-19 vaccines currently being ...
Posted: September 01, 20099:11 pm Eastern. By Chelsea Schilling © 2009 WorldNetDaily A pandemic response bill currently making its way through the Massachusetts state legislature would allow authorities to forcefully quarantine citizens in the event of a health emergency, compel health providers to vaccinate citizens, authorize forceful entry into private dwellings and destruction of citizen property and impose fines on citizens for noncompliance. If citizens refuse to comply with isolation or quarantine orders in the event of a health emergency, they may be imprisoned for up to 30 days and fined $1,000 per day that the violation continues. Massachusetts pandemic response bill. Pandemic Response Bill 2028 was passed by the Massachusetts state Senate on April 28 and is now awaiting approval in the House. As stated in the bill, upon declaration by the governor that an emergency exists that is considered detrimental to public health or upon declaration of a state of emergency, a local ...
One hundred years after the Great Influenza pandemic of 1918, global health leadership stands at a crossroads. The United States continues to expand its policy of isolationism at a time when international cooperation in health could not be more important. The state of pandemic preparedness and the necessary steps for protecting the people throughout the world was the topic of The Scowcroft Institute for International Affairs 2nd Annual White Paper. As pandemic policy scholars, with two of us spending the majority of our career in the federal government, we believe that it is essential to prepare the country and the world for the next pandemic. It is not a matter of if, but when, the next disease will sweep the world with deadly and costly consequences. There are many topic areas that national leaders must address to create better preparedness and response capabilities, but we believe three are most urgent. These include targeting the resistance to antimicrobial agents that has come about ...
Background: In the face of an influenza pandemic, accurate estimates of epidemiologic parameters are required to help guide decision-making. We sought to estimate epidemiologic parameters for pandemic H1N1 influenza using data from initial reports of laboratory- confirmed cases. Methods: We obtained data on laboratory- confirmed cases of pandemic H1N1 influenza reported in the prov ince of Ontario, Canada, with dates of symptom onset between Apr. 13 and June 20, 2009. Incubation periods and duration of symptoms were estimated and fit to parametric distributions. We used competing-risk models to estimate risk of hospital admission and case-fatality rates. We used a Markov Chain Monte Carlo model to simulate disease transmission. Results: The median incubation period was 4 days and the duration of symptoms was 7 days. Recovery was faster among patients less than 18 years old than among older patients (hazard ratio 1.23, 95% confidence interval 1.06- 1.44). The risk of hospital admission was 4.5% ...
26.06.2017: Global helse - Reducing social inequality in health is at the core of international health work, but does not form part of the discussion on international preparedness plans for pandemic influenza.
A hallmark of pandemic flu throughout history, including the 2009 H1N1 pandemic, has been its ability to make healthy young and middle-aged adults seriously ill and even kill this population in disproportionate numbers. In a paper published Dec. 5 in Nature Medicine, Vanderbilt University Medical Center researchers provide a possible explanation for this alarming phenomenon of pandemic flu. The studys findings suggest people are made critically ill, or even killed, by their own immune response.
Pregnant women, especially those with co-morbidities, are at increased risk for complications from all forms of influenza virus infection - seasonal, zoonotic, and pandemic. Influenza in pregnancy is associated with an increased risk of adverse pregnancy outcomes, such as spontaneous abortion, preterm birth, and fetal distress.. This document provides guidance for the protection and care of women during pregnancy, childbirth and the postpartum period, and of their newborn infants, from influenza virus infection at home, in public places, in the workplace, and in healthcare facilities. It aims to make available in one concise document all guidance on pandemic influenza A (H1N1) 2009 virus infection relevant to this programmatic area.. ...
There is increasing concern that the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic could harm psychological health and exacerbate suicide risk. Here, based on month-level records of suicides covering the entire Japanese population in 1,848 administrative units, we assessed whether suicide mortality changed during the pandemic. Using difference-in-difference estimation, we found that monthly suicide rates declined by 14% during the first 5 months of the pandemic (February to June 2020). This could be due to a number of complex reasons, including the governments generous subsidies, reduced working hours and school closure. By contrast, monthly suicide rates increased by 16% during the second wave (July to October 2020), with a larger increase among females (37%) and children and adolescents (49%). Although adverse impacts of the COVID-19 pandemic may remain in the long term, its modifiers (such as government subsidies) may not be sustained. Thus, effective suicide prevention-particularly among vulnerable
IMGXYZ1054IMGZYX n November 2005, after several years of concern, discussion, and planning in related matters, the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services released the HHS Pandemic Influenza Plan. Post-outbreak action under the plan, if and when that becomes necessary, will require taking steps in the public square that are highly unusual, possibly unprecedented in … Continue reading The Pandemic Influenza Plan: Implications for Local Law Enforcement. ...
Rationale: A high proportion of influenza infections are asymptomatic. Animal and human challenge studies and observational studies suggest T cells protect against disease among those infected, but the impact of T-cell immunity at the population level is unknown. Objectives: To investigate whether naturally preexisting T-cell responses targeting highly conserved internal influenza proteins could provide cross-protective immunity against pandemic and seasonal influenza. Methods: We quantified influenza A(H3N2) virus-specific T cells in a population cohort during seasonal and pandemic periods between 2006 and 2010. Follow-up included paired serology, symptom reporting, and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) investigation of symptomatic cases. Measurements and Main Results: A total of 1,414 unvaccinated individuals had baseline T-cell measurements (1,703 participant observation sets). T-cell responses to A(H3N2) virus nucleoprotein (NP) dominated and strongly cross-reacted with A(H1N1)pdm09 NP (P , ...
These findings demonstrate a strong association between early, sustained, and layered application of nonpharmaceutical interventions and mitigating the consequences of the 1918-1919 influenza pandemic in the United States. In planning for future severe influenza pandemics, nonpharmaceutical interven …
Every few decades a new, and potentially deadly, influenza virus emerges and spreads worldwide. These events - influenza pandemics - are a threat all countries need to prepare for. The Preparing for pandemics channel brings together courses on various aspects of preparedness, including surveillance, public health measures and risk communication during a pandemic. You can learn the basic epidemiology and virology of influenza. You can learn the differences (and similarities) between zoonotic influenza, seasonal influenza and pandemic influenza. And you can get informed about how WHO, Member States, industry and other stakeholders work together in the Pandemic Influenza Preparedness (PIP) Framework.. ...
There is concern regarding the impact that a global infectious disease pandemic might have, especially the economic impact in the current financial climate. However, preparedness planning concentrates more upon population health and maintaining a functioning health sector than on the wider economic impact. We developed a single country Computable General Equilibrium model to estimate the economic impact of pandemic influenza (PI) and associated policies. While the context for this development was the United Kingdom, there are lessons to be drawn for application of this methodology, as well as indicative results, to other contexts. Disease scenarios were constructed from an epidemiological model which estimated case fatality rates (mild, moderate and severe) as 0.06%, 0.18% and 0.35%. A clinical attack rate of 35% was also used to produce influenza scenarios, together with preparedness policies, including antivirals and school closure, and the possible prophylactic absence of workers. UK cost ...
Thursday, Jan. 12, 2006, As part of President Bush s plan to mobilize the nation to prepare for an influenza pandemic, HHS Secretary Mike Leavitt today announced $100 million in funding for state and...
With an influenza pandemic seemingly imminent, we constructed a model simulating the spread of influenza within the community, in order to test the impact of various interventions. The model includes an individual level, in which the risk of influenza virus infection and the dynamics of viral shedding are simulated according to age, treatment, and vaccination status; and a community level, in which meetings between individuals are simulated on randomly generated graphs. We used data on real pandemics to calibrate some parameters of the model. The reference scenario assumes no vaccination, no use of antiviral drugs, and no preexisting herd immunity. We explored the impact of interventions such as vaccination, treatment/prophylaxis with neuraminidase inhibitors, quarantine, and closure of schools or workplaces. In the reference scenario, 57% of realizations lead to an explosive outbreak, lasting a mean of 82 days (standard deviation (SD) 12 days) and affecting 46.8% of the population on average.
Its times like this when strong, decisive and well-prepared government leaders can make the difference between life and death. As the Spanish flu pandemic of 1918-1919 was killing an estimated 50 million worldwide, Seattle Mayor Ole Hanson preemptively shut down schools, theaters, businesses and other public places in a controversial effort to minimize the local outbreak. Seattle was relatively spared compared to other US cities… and Hanson was literally run out of town by outraged business and civic leaders angered over the loss of revenues and the disruption of the citys daily routine.. In that tradition, King County Executive Ron Sims has long made the inevitability of another flu pandemic a primary focus of the regions disaster preparedness efforts, a focus I first learned about back in September of 2005, when I heard Ron talk at a post-Katrina, Red Cross fundraiser. ...
Health, By Steven Reinberg HealthDay Reporter ...MONDAY June 25 (HealthDay News) -- The pandemic H1N1 flu in 2009 may...During the pandemic 18500 laboratory-confirmed deaths were reported ... This is a better approximation of the number of deaths that occurred... This study also confirms that the majority of deaths were in the unde...,Pandemic,H1N1,Flu,Killed,Far,More,Than,Reported:,Study,medicine,medical news today,latest medical news,medical newsletters,current medical news,latest medicine news
Many U.S. schools are not prepared for bioterrorism attacks, outbreaks of emerging infectious diseases or pandemics, despite the recent 2009 H1N1 influenza pandemic that resulted in more than 18,000 deaths worldwide, Saint Louis University researchers say. The study, led by Terri Rebmann, Ph.D., associate professor at SLUs Institute for Biosecurity, surveyed about 2000 nurses working in elementary, middle and high schools across 26 states. The findings reveal that only 48 percent of schools address pandemic preparedness and only 40 percent of schools have updated their plans . . .
The American Public Health Association (APHA) today released its blueprint for strengthening the nations pandemic preparedness, amid persistent concerns about a potential influenza pandemic.
This study describes the seroprevalence of infection with the pandemic (H1N1) 2009 virus in an enclosed institutional environment and provides evidence of widespread infection among both students and staff before the outbreak became evident to public health authorities. Attack rates for infection were estimated as 40.5% by serologic testing and as 34.1% by clinical illness (ARI). An estimated 44.7% serology-positive persons did not report symptoms of ARI, which agreed with previous findings (10,23). No significant association was found between seropositivity and prophylaxis with antiviral drugs, although some evidence showed that it reduced the odds of ARI. The point estimate of the AOR indicated nonsignificant increased odds of infection (indicated by serologic results) for persons who had received the 2008-09 seasonal influenza vaccine, although it did not increase the odds for ARI.. Our study has some limitations, however. The uncertainty regarding the associated illness of pandemic (H1N1) ...
focuses on an influenza virus dubbed G4. The virus is a unique blend of three lineages: one similar to strains found in European and Asian birds, the H1N1 strain that caused the 2009 pandemic, and a North American H1N1 that has genes from avian, human, and pig influenza viruses.. The G4 variant is especially concerning because its core is an avian influenza virus-to which humans have no immunity-with bits of mammalian strains mixed in. From the data presented, it appears that this is a swine influenza virus that is poised to emerge in humans, says Edward Holmes, an evolutionary biologist at the University of Sydney who studies pathogens. Clearly this situation needs to be monitored very closely.. As part of a project to identify potential pandemic influenza strains, a team led by Liu Jinhua from the China Agricultural University (CAU) analyzed nearly 30,000 nasal swabs taken from pigs at slaughterhouses in 10 Chinese provinces, and another 1000 swabs from pigs with respiratory symptoms seen ...
Is there anything we can do to avoid this course? The answer is a qualified yes that depends on how everyone, from world leaders to local elected officials, decides to respond. We need bold and timely leadership at the highest levels of the governments in the developed world; these governments must recognize the economic, security, and health threats posed by the next influenza pandemic and invest accordingly. The resources needed must be considered in the light of the eventual costs of failing to invest in such an effort. The loss of human life even in a mild pandemic will be devastating, and the cost of a world economy in shambles for several years can only be imagined. ...
To assess herd immunity to swine influenza viruses, we determined antibodies in 28 paired serum samples from participants in a prospective serologic cohort study in Hong Kong who had seroconverted to pandemic (H1N1) 2009 virus. Results indicated that infection with pandemic (H1N1) 2009 broadens cross-reactive immunity to other recent subtype H1 swine viruses ...
Swine influenza A virus (SwIV) infection has considerable economic and animal welfare consequences and, because of the zoonotic potential, can also have public health implications. The 2009 pandemic H1N1 swine-origin infection is now endemic in both pigs and humans. In Europe, avian-like H1avN1, human-like H1huN2, human-like swine H3N2 and, since 2009, pandemic H1N1 (pH1N1) lineage viruses and reassortants, constitute the dominant subtypes. In this study, we used a swine pH1N1 challenge virus to investigate the efficacy of whole inactivated virus vaccines homologous or heterologous to the challenge virus as well as a commercial vaccine. We found that vaccine-mediated protection was most effective when vaccine antigen and challenge virus were homologous and correlated with the specific production of neutralising antibodies and a cellular response to the challenge virus. We conclude that a conventional whole inactivated SwIV vaccine must be antigenically matched to the challenge strain to be an
Is there anything we can do to avoid this course? The answer is a qualified yes that depends on how everyone, from world leaders to local elected officials, decides to respond. We need bold and timely leadership at the highest levels of the governments in the developed world; these governments must recognize the economic, security, and health threats posed by the next influenza pandemic and invest accordingly. The resources needed must be considered in the light of the eventual costs of failing to invest in such an effort. The loss of human life even in a mild pandemic will be devastating, and the cost of a world economy in shambles for several years can only be imagined. ...
Welcome everyone. Im Fran Townsend, the Assistant to the President for Homeland Security and Counterterrorism. I oversee the Homeland Security Council (HSC), the office in the White House that is responsible for coordinating U.S. Government planning for a potential influenza pandemic.. Before we begin, I want to remind everyone that a human pandemic has NOT begun. We are concerned about the H5N1 influenza virus, which has spread throughout bird populations in Asia, Europe and Africa. History has shown that influenza pandemics happen from time to time, and that the viruses that cause these pandemics can be linked to influenza viruses in birds. If the bird virus undergoes certain genetic changes, it could develop the ability to infect and be transmitted between humans. If that occurs, it could spread across the globe in what is known as a pandemic.. Given this concern, the President released the National Strategy for Pandemic Influenza last November, and yesterday we released the Implementation ...
After spending some time away from medicine, I return to find that there seems to be a surreptitious, mysterious pandemic infiltrating the junior doctors that practice medicine in the United Kingdom. The cause of this pandemic has largely been overlooked but recent research can now confirm the existence and rampancy of the condition, which can now be revealed as Robotisism. Although the mechanism remains unclear it is thought that Robotisism metamorphose human doctors into machine like -robots programmed to solely perform tasks. They may look like the epitome of the healthy doctor, but closer inspection reveal that they are far from this.Epidemiology. The exact magnitude of the problem has yet to be ascertained but preliminary data suggest that it could be classed as a pandemic of mass proportions. Nevertheless, estimates of prevalence of Robotisism are grossly underestimated due to difficulty in detection. Cases of Robotisism remain undetected for quite some time as it can often be erroneously ...
Ann Arbor, Mich. - A new University of Michigan study found that the state immunization registry - the public health database that tracks vaccinations- can be an effective tool to encourage influenza vaccinations during a pandemic.. U-M researchers collaborated with the Michigan Department of Community Health (MDCH) to evaluate a statewide influenza vaccination reminder campaign conducted using the Michigan Care Improvement Registry (MCIR) during the H1N1 pandemic during 2009-10. The study results were published Nov. 14 in the American Journal of Public Health.. Reminder letters were mailed to parents of children with chronic health conditions such as asthma or diabetes, who had not yet received the vaccine that was recommended during the 2009-10 H1N1 pandemic. The letter explained that children with chronic conditions were at increased risk for complications from H1N1 influenza and that parents should contact the childs health care provider or local health department to make an appointment for ...
Currently, when European countries experience the second wave of coronavirus infections, the conclusions drawn from the studies conducted during the first wave of the pandemic are gaining value. Their outcomes can serve as ready-made guidelines for dealing with the current SARS-COV-2 impact on dementia care, and also constitute the basis for follow-up research intended to analyse the long-term consequences of this precedential situation.. As a research team based at Wroclaw Medical University, aware of the alarming reports on psychological burden among healthcare workers, we focussed on the mental health of employees of long-term care facilities (LTCF) in Poland. This group of workers was, and still is, particularly exposed to psychological distress caused by the pandemic. It is mostly because of the fact that people who receive their care, mostly older adults and people living with dementia, are considered to be the most vulnerable and at the highest risk of COVID-19 infection ...
The World Health Organization today declared it will launch a review of the global - including its own - response to the H1N1 swine influenza epidemic, as questions swirl around whether the UN agency trumped up the importance of H1N1. The WHO also faces charges this week that it has acted without transparency and inclusiveness in leading a process to find alternative financing for research and development into medicines for diseases occurring predominately in developing countries. The WHO will prepare an interim version of its review of the global H1N1 response in time for the next World Health Assembly in May, WHO Director General Margaret Chan announced to the WHO Executive Board today. Meanwhile, a new proposal emerged from governments on how to proceed on the related issue of pandemic flu access and benefit sharing, and is expected to be discussed Wednesday.. All the issues are on the agenda of the WHO Executive Board, meeting from 18-23 January. The boards recommendations will be carried ...
Business in Freetown ground to a halt. Shops were closed, train service suspended, churches emptied, the main thoroughfares deserted. The death rate soared: hundreds died each week. The dead came, the Sierra Leone Weekly News reported from all classes and conditions-white and black; Agents of European Firms and Native clerks of Government offices, and mercantile establishments; unmarried young men and women as well as married. [6] The disease carried away the vulnerable-infants and the elderly-but was especially dangerous for those in the prime of life.. […]. By late October 1918, the deadly strain of the flu had invaded London. Influenza is spreading to an alarming extent, reported the Daily Mirror. The virulent disease is seizing victims wholesale and the doctors in London are unable to cope with the stream of patients. [7] People who seemed perfectly well one moment, it reported would be deathly ill an hour later. As it spread, crowds lined up outside of hospitals, doctors offices, ...
The Influenza Pandemic of 1918 (or the Spanish flu) killed 25-50 million people (about 2% of world population of 1.7 billion).[ ... Between 1518 and 1568 disease pandemics are said to have caused the population of Mexico to fall from 20 million to 3 million.[ ... A pandemic (or global epidemic) is a disease that affects people over an extensive geographical area. ... or pandemic, which is a global epidemic. If the cause of the infectious disease is unknown, epidemiology can be used to assist ...
A pandemic is a worldwide epidemic. The 1918 flu pandemic, which lasted until 1919, was a category 5 influenza pandemic caused ... The geography and mortality of the 1918 influenza pandemic. Bulletin of the History of Medicine. 1991;65(1):4-21. PMID 2021692. ... Most researchers believe that HIV originated in sub-Saharan Africa during the 20th century;[170] it is now a pandemic, with an ... When this happens with influenza viruses, pandemics might result.[102] RNA viruses often exist as quasispecies or swarms of ...
COVID-19 pandemic[edit]. Main article: COVID-19 pandemic on Charles de Gaulle ...
COVID-19 pandemic change[edit]. Amid the COVID-19 pandemic, the SEVP program allowed international students to take more online ... The new change was criticized by students, schools, and states alike, as with the pandemic worsening in most of the United ...
COVID-19 pandemic[edit]. Main article: COVID-19 lockdowns. During the COVID-19 pandemic, the term lockdown was used for actions ... 2009 swine flu pandemic[edit]. A lockdown was implemented in Mexico from April 30 to May 5, 2009 due to the 2009 swine flu ... See also: Pandemic prevention § Testing and containment. Lockdowns can limit movements or activities in a community while ... related to mass quarantines or stay-at-home orders.[6] The first lockdown during the pandemic was implemented in Wuhan on ...
The 1918 influenza pandemic[edit]. The first person in New Jersey to be diagnosed with influenza was a soldier at Fort Dix. ... http://1918.pandemicflu.gov/the_pandemic/01.htm Archived 2010-06-29 at the Wayback Machine, The Great Pandemic, accessed ... The influenza pandemic at Camp Merritt began in September 1918. On September 19 fifty-eight soldiers were admitted to the post ...
Third pandemic. Main article: Third plague pandemic. The plague resurfaced for a third time in the mid-19th century. Like the ... Also known as the modern pandemic, the third pandemic spread the disease to port cities throughout the world in the second half ... Little LK (2007). Plague and the End of Antiquity: The Pandemic of 541-750. New York, NY: Cambridge University Press. ISBN 978- ... Little LK (2007). "Life and Afterlife of the First Plague Pandemic.". In Little LK (ed.). Plague and the End of Antiquity: The ...
Outbreaks during the COVID-19 pandemic[edit]. See also: COVID-19 pandemic in the United States ... 2 Outbreaks during the COVID-19 pandemic *2.1 Kirkland, Washington outbreak *2.1.1 COVID-19 mortality: March 12-23 ... See also: COVID-19 pandemic in Washington (state). A Life Care Center facility in Kirkland, Washington was the source of a ... See also: COVID-19 pandemic in Massachusetts. Life Care Center of Nashoba Valley in Littleton, Massachusetts, experienced an ...
2020 coronavirus pandemic[edit]. Main article: Shortages related to the COVID-19 pandemic ... Number of ICU beds insufficient to combat Covid-19 pandemic, Dhaka Tribune, 21 March 2020: "In reality, hospitals in Bangladesh ... Due to the coronavirus pandemic, in March 2020 the German government ordered 16.500 units for ventilation and intubation from ... associated with hospital beds has been described as a critical bottleneck in responding to the ongoing COVID-19 pandemic. The ...
"The 2019-2020 Novel Coronavirus (Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2) Pandemic: A Joint American College of ... For stay-at-home orders related to the COVID-19 pandemic, see COVID-19 lockdowns. ... and similar restrictions were enforced globally in response to the COVID-19 pandemic.[32] ... Maryland telling people to stay home and only travel for essential purposes during the COVID-19 pandemic ...
... From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. (Redirected from 2009 swine flu outbreak in New ... "Pandemic Influenza (H1N1) 09 Swine Flu - Update 156". New Zealand Ministry of Health. 21 October 2009. Retrieved 29 October ... "New Zealand Influenza Pandemic Action Plan - 2006". New Zealand Ministry of Health. September 2006. Archived from the original ... New Zealand has had a well-developed Influenza Pandemic action plan since 2006.[18] Following this plan New Zealand immediately ...
In the spring of 2018, he signed on with the New Pandemics modeling agency and modeled for Palomo Spain's and NIHL's fall 2019 ... "About , New Pandemics". www.newpandemics.com. Retrieved 2018-07-15. Eckardt, Stephanie. "These LGBTQ+ Models Just Might Change ...
On February 9, 2020, Bhadelia published an op-ed for The Atlantic warning about the burden of the emerging COVID-19 pandemic on ... During her career, she has worked on assessing the healthcare response to the 2009 flu pandemic that resulted from Influenza A ... "TEDxSpotlights Pandemics". Retrieved 2020-03-29 - via YouTube. "Ebola Doc". Tufts Magazine. Retrieved 2020-03-29. Editors, ... Even after COVID-19 reached the status of pandemic, Bhadelia continues to stress the importance of containment and mitigation ...
Pandemics are a natural field of study for complex systems scientists, as many of the main insights of the discipline-including ... "Systemic Risk of Pandemic via Novel Pathogens - Coronavirus: A Note". New England Complex Systems Institute. Retrieved 2020-05- ... Bar-Yam's early research on pandemics identified the fatality rate of an infectious disease as a key limiting factor in its ... "Ending Pandemics". New England Complex Systems Institute. Retrieved 2020-05-29. Hartnett, Kevin (10 October 2014). "As Ebola ...
... viral pandemics; mass shootings and other forms of violence; economic uncertainty; and the U.S. presidency of Donald Trump. A ...
"Timeline of Human Flu Pandemics". National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases. Retrieved 28 January 2017. "Pandemic ... "Multinational Impact of the 1968 Hong Kong Influenza Pandemic: Evidence for a Smoldering Pandemic". The Journal of Infectious ... Taubenberger, J.K.; Morens, D.M. (2009). "Pandemic influenza - including a risk assessment of H5N1". Rev Sci Tech. 28 (1): 187- ... "Influenza Pandemics". historyofvaccines.org. Retrieved 28 January 2017. Strahan, Lachlan. An oriental scourge: Australia and ...
"Past Pandemics". Archived from the original on July 3, 2020. Retrieved June 22, 2020. "Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19): ... HIV/AIDS in the United States - 700,000+ as of 2021[update] 1918 Spanish Flu - 675,000+ COVID-19 pandemic in the United States ... 568,000+ as of 7 April 2021[update] 1957-1958 influenza pandemic - 116,000 1968 Hong Kong flu - 100,000 Epidemics with lower ...
"On Pandemics. Nancy, Dwivedi, Mohan, Esposito, Nancy, Ronchi , European Journal of Psychoanalysis". Retrieved 4 January 2021. ... Agamben, in an article published by Il Manifesto on 26 February 2020, promoted misinformation that the COVID-19 pandemic was an ...
Hardman, Lizabeth (2011). Influenza Pandemics. Lucent Books. p. 8. Hippocrates, Of the Epidemics, Book I Livy, The History of ...
Hardman, Lizabeth (January 18, 2011). Influenza Pandemics. Farmington Hills, MI: Greenhaven Publishing LLC. p. 37. ISBN 978-1- ...
Completion, opening, and pandemic closure (2019-present)[edit]. On September 20, 2019, Triple Five announced that the mall ... However, due to the COVID-19 pandemic, the opening of the final stages was delayed once more until further notice.[4][6] ... were delayed by the COVID-19 pandemic,[13] which forced the mall's temporary closure on March 8. As of July 22, 2020, there is ... which Triple Five Worldwide announced was a temporary measure resulting from the COVID-19 pandemic in New Jersey, thus again ...
Known flu pandemics[12][68][190]. Name of pandemic. Date. Deaths. Case fatality rate. Subtype involved. Pandemic Severity Index ... Epidemic and pandemic spread. Further information: Flu pandemic. As influenza is caused by a variety of species and strains of ... The most famous and lethal outbreak was the 1918 flu pandemic (Spanish flu pandemic) (type A influenza, H1N1 subtype), which ... Pandemics continued sporadically throughout the 17th and 18th centuries, with the pandemic of 1830-1833 being particularly ...
See also: Impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on education. Beginning in early 2020, the COVID-19 pandemic disrupted education ... The mental health of students has been greatly impacted due to the pandemic. It is estimated that three in ten participating in ... Many schools made alternative plans during the pandemic, leading to a variety of in-person, hybrid, and online-only plans, ...
The second cholera pandemic spread from India to Russia and then to the rest of Europe claiming hundreds of thousands of lives ... Retrieved 2008-12-11.Note: The second pandemic started in India and reached Russia by 1830, then spreading into Finland and ... J. N. Hays (2005). Epidemics and Pandemics: Their Impacts on Human History. Santa Barbara, California: ABC-CLIO. ISBN 978-1- ... Historians believe that the first cholera pandemic had lingered in Indonesia and the Philippines in 1830. ...
Note: The second pandemic started in India and reached Russia by 1830, then spreading into Finland and Poland. A two-year ... The 1829-51 cholera pandemic that originated in India and reached the United Kingdom in 1831 arrived in New York City in the ... "Cholera's seven pandemics". Canadian Broadcasting Corporation. December 2, 2008. Retrieved 2008-12-11. ...
The fourth pandemic lasted from 1863 to 1875 spread from India to Naples and Spain. The fifth pandemic was from 1881-1896 and ... with the seventh pandemic originating in Indonesia in 1961. The first cholera pandemic occurred in the Bengal region of India, ... Cholera pandemics in the 19th and 20th centuries led to the growth of epidemiology as a science and in recent years it has ... The seventh pandemic originated in 1961 in Indonesia and is marked by the emergence of a new strain, nicknamed El Tor, which ...
China which evolved into a global pandemic. The World Health Organization officially declared it a pandemic back on March 11, ... The third plague pandemic emerged in Yunnan province of China in the mid-nineteenth century. It spread east and south through ... Even during pandemics, it is vital to recognize economic globalization in being a catalyst in the spread of the coronavirus. ... The coronavirus pandemic caused many economic disruptions, which caused a functional disconnect in the supply chain and the ...
She was believed to have died of cholera, as a cholera pandemic was affecting the United Kingdom (causing 23,000 deaths across ... "Cholera's seven pandemics". 2 December 2008. Retrieved 11 December 2008. 'Trial' (1856) pp. 180-181 Irrefutable Evidence: A ...
The 1918 Spanish flu pandemic had an adverse economic impact. Many businesses were shuttered during the worst of the outbreak ... Barro, Robert J.; Ursúa, José F.; Weng, Joanna (March 2020). "The Coronavirus and the Great Influenza Pandemic: Lessons from ... Barro, Robert J.; Ursua, Jose F. (May 5, 2009). "Pandemics and Depressions". The Wall Street Journal. Retrieved 27 April 2020. ...
... including those in urban sanitation and infectious diseases/pandemics. Six global cholera pandemics happen in this period ... "Cholera's seven pandemics". CBC News. May 9, 2008. Retrieved April 23, 2016. Gelston, A. L.; Jones, T. C. (December 1977). " ... For instance, the cholera pandemics mentioned above, as well as the growing scientific understanding of the germ theory of ... Timeline of stroke Timeline of cardiovascular disease Timeline of deworming Timeline of the 2019-20 coronavirus pandemic ...
... specific vaccines for a novel pandemic strain are not expected to be available for the first 5-6 months of the next pandemic. ... Influenza pandemics occur at irregular intervals when new strains of influenza A virus spread in humans (1). Influenza ... Novel influenza A viruses and pandemic threats. Lancet. 2017;389:2172-4. DOIPubMedGoogle Scholar ... Nonpharmaceutical Measures for Pandemic Influenza in Nonhealthcare Settings-Personal Protective and Environmental Measures On ...
Once you are fully vaccinated, you may be able to start doing some things that you had stopped doing because of the pandemic. ...
The map pictured shows the state of affairs 4.5 months into a simulated pandemic beginning in Tokyo, based on a plausible H1N1 ... Using self‐organising maps to predict and contain natural disasters and pandemics *Raymond Moodley ... Event Response at Johns Hopkins University in Baltimore is using the model to optimize emergency surge capacity in a pandemic, ... Epstein, J. Modelling to contain pandemics. Nature 460, 687 (2009). https://doi.org/10.1038/460687a ...
Past Pandemicsplus icon *2009 H1N1 Pandemicplus icon * Summary of Progress since 2009 ... Pandemic Severity Assessment Framework. *Allocating & Targeting Pandemic Influenza Vaccineplus icon *Guidance Development and ... Three Waves of the Pandemic. *The Deadliest Flu: The Complete Story of the Discovery and Reconstruction of the 1918 Pandemic ... An influenza pandemic is a global outbreak of a new influenza A virus that is very different from current and recently ...
Pandemic fatigue is the state of being worn out by recommended precautions and restrictions relating to a pandemic, often due ... Social norms can have an effect on pandemic fatigue.[3] Response[edit]. Epidemiologist Julia Marcus wrote that indefinite ... "Managing COVID Fatigue is Crucial to Our Health and Wellbeing During the Pandemic". UW Health. Retrieved 2020-11-25.. ... Here, shoppers visit a shopping district in Tokyo despite a stay-at-home advisory during the COVID-19 pandemic. ...
Influenza pandemics[edit]. Known influenza pandemics[29][30][31]. Name of pandemic. Date. Deaths. Case fatality rate. Subtype ... Pandemic Severity Index. 1889-1890 flu pandemic. (Asiatic or Russian Flu)[32]. 1889-1890. 1 million. 0.15%. possibly H3N8. or ... Nature of a flu pandemic[edit]. Some pandemics are relatively minor such as the one in 1957 called "Asian flu" (1-4 million ... Strategies to prevent a flu pandemic[edit]. This section contains strategies to prevent a flu pandemic by a Council on Foreign ...
The Age of Pandemics The threat of deadly new viruses is on the rise due to population growth, climate change and increased ... Heres the good news: Compared with a few years ago, the world is somewhat better prepared to deal with pandemic influenza. ... Epidemiologists have been shouting from rooftops that a pandemic (or, a world-wide epidemic) of influenza is overdue, and that ... Heres the bad news: Today, we remain underprepared for any pandemic or major outbreak, whether it comes from newly emerging ...
... seven cholera pandemics have killed millions across the globe. The seventh is still going on, but advancements in medical ... Choleras seven pandemics. In the past 200 hundred years, seven cholera pandemics have killed millions across the globe. The ... By 1973, the pandemic had spread to Italy. There were also small outbreaks of the same strain - El Tor - in Japan and the South ... The fifth pandemic originated in the Bengal region of India and swept through Asia, Africa, South America and parts of France ...
A recent example of a pandemic is COVID-19. Read more here. ... A pandemic can happen when a disease spreads between countries ... Pandemic or epidemic?. Share on Pinterest. During a pandemic, governments may restrict free movement and put populations under ... The Spanish flu pandemic, from 1918 to 1920, claimed 100 million lives. Experts consider it the most severe pandemic in history ... In this article, we discuss the difference between epidemics and pandemics, how pandemics start, and future concerns. ...
Recent examples of pandemics include the avian, or bird, flu H1N1. Learn more about what a pandemic is, how it differs from an ... A pandemic can happen when a disease spreads between countries and continents. They often involve a new virus to which people ... epidemic, and why pandemics are so hard to manage. ... Pandemic or epidemic?. The death toll of a pandemic is usually ... Fast facts on pandemics Here are some key points about pandemics.. *Pandemics are usually caused by a novel infectious agent, ...
Influenza pandemics occur when there is a notable genetic change (termed genetic shift) in the circulating strain of influenza ... a large portion of the human population is entirely vulnerable to infection from the new pandemic strain. ... Influenza pandemics have occurred every 10 to 60 years, with three occurring in the twentieth century (1918, 1957-1958, and ... Pandemic Influenza. Homeland Security Planning Scenarios. Scenario 3: Biological Disease Outbreak The term "influenza" refers ...
"Fighting Pandemics" (November 1 at 9 pm ET on National Geographic Channel). The question is about pandemics, but the ... The Story Of The Great Influenza Pandemic" there has been increased attention on the 1918 flu virus and pandemic, as well as ... The swine flu pandemic (S-OIV) currently sweeping the world is the result of an influenza H1N1 virus that made the leap from ... Todays pandemic is a fourth-generation descendant of the 1918 flu virus that infected around a third of the worlds population ...
For "Outbreak Week" weve already covered the deadliest pandemics in human history. But which outbreaks could be around the ... Recent examples of major flu pandemics include the 2009 H1N1 outbreak; recent studies indicate the swine flu may have killed ...
Although the record of past pandemics is clear for larger life, cryptic pandemics likely rage in other groups. Is it possible, ... Opinion: Intercepting pandemics through genomics. W. John Kress, Jonna A. K. Mazet, and View ORCID ProfilePaul D. N. Hebert ... A pandemic interception system needs to be based on detailed knowledge of symbiomes (1), which are the constellations of ... Progress toward a pandemic interception system will be hugely enabled and reinforced by a closer relationship between these ...
Past pandemics. 2009 pandemic. The first influenza pandemic of the 21st century occurred in 2009-2010 and was caused by an ... Pandemics of the 20th century. Three influenza pandemics occurred at intervals of several decades during the 20th century, the ... While most cases of pandemic H1N1 were mild, globally it is estimated that the 2009 pandemic caused between 100 000-400 000 ... It was the first pandemic for which many Member States had developed comprehensive pandemic plans describing the public health ...
... Latest News 30 Innovative Project Winners Ease British Rail Shakeup July 2, 2021 News Editor Comments Off ... Pandemic Shock to Energy Industry Greatest in 70 Years May 4, 2020 News Editor Comments Off on Pandemic Shock to Energy ... Dreams During Pandemic Reveal Fear, Mental Suffering February 10, 2021 News Editor Comments Off on Dreams During Pandemic ... Climate Change Intensifies Despite Pandemic Lockdowns September 10, 2020 News Editor Comments Off on Climate Change Intensifies ...
Pandemic (H1N1) 2009, Ukraine. On 28 October 2009, the Ministry of Health of Ukraine informed WHO, through its Country Office ... On 30 October 2009, the Ministry of Health of Ukraine announced the confirmation of pandemic (H1N1) 2009 virus infection by RT- ... These recommendations are prudent measures which can limit the spread of many communicable diseases and not only the pandemic ( ... International experience of the (H1N1) 2009 pandemic to date, especially from the Southern Hemisphere, has shown that poor ...
... As World War I came to an end, one of the most deadly pandemics the world has know ... Prior to the pandemic, Pfeiffer, a well respected scientist of the time, found a bacillus in the sputum of an influenza patient ... The deadly disease that stuck in pandemic form in 1918 was the Spanish influenza, although it would take the world many more ... Studies done during the pandemic both supported and weakened Pfeiffer s hypothesis. In one survey the bacillus was found ...
Pandemic PreparednessIntroductionDisease History, Characteristics, and TransmissionScope and DistributionTreatment and ... PreventionImpacts and IssuesPrimary Source ConnectionBIBLIOGRAPHY Source for information on Pandemic Preparedness: Infectious ... PANDEMIC: Pandemic, which means all the people, describes an epidemic that occurs in more than one country or population ... Pandemic influenza is one of the greatest infectious disease threats facing the world. A pandemic is a disease epidemic that ...
Influenza pandemics occur when there is a notable genetic change (termed genetic shift) in the circulating strain of influenza ... a large portion of the human population is entirely vulnerable to infection from the new pandemic strain. ... Influenza pandemics have occurred every 10 to 60 years, with three occurring in the twentieth century (1918, 1957-1958, and ... Flu Pandemic - Food Shortages *Flu Pandemic - Survival Food *Flu Pandemic - MRE Meals Ready to Eat *Flu Pandemic - Mormonn Menu ...
Government sets out advice on preparing for emergencies and provides a Checklist for business and organisations for pandemic ... What is Pandemic Influenza and what makes it different from ordinary flu?. Pandemic influenza is different from ordinary ... The Government has dedicated a lot of time to influenza pandemic planning in case there should be a influenza pandemic. This is ... What general advice does HSE have for employers/employees concerned about exposure to pandemic flu at work?. Pandemic flu is ...
PANDEMIC CHEMISTRY. Order Reprints, Todays Paper,Subscribe ... PANDEMIC CHEMISTRY.. SEPT. 11, 1922. Continue reading the main ...
Pandemic (H1N1) 2009 - update 83. Weekly update. 15 January 2010 - As of 10 January 2010, worldwide more than 208 countries and ... Pandemic H1N1 continues to be the predominant circulating virus in the region but seasonal H3N2 viruses continue to circulate ... Human infection with pandemic (H1N1) 2009 virus: updated interim WHO guidance on global surveillance. A description of WHO ... Pandemic H1N1 2009 virus continues to be predominant circulating influenza virus in the northern African and western Asian ...
... paints a frightening portrait of the global obesity pandemic. Analyzing data from a wide variety of international sources, the ... A new, comprehensive analysis, published in the Lancet, paints a frightening portrait of the global obesity pandemic. Analyzing ...
View Pandemics A pandemic is an epidemic of infectious disease that spreads through populations across a large region; for ... Concern about other possible future pandemics. Antibiotic-resistant microorganisms may contribute to the re-emergence of ... The 2009 outbreak of Influenza A H1N1 has reached pandemic status, but it is not very lethal, at least at this point. ... According to the World Health Organization (WHO), a pandemic can start when three conditions have been met:. *Emergence of a ...
... continue to learn a great deal about influenza infection as researchers harvest information from the recent swine flu pandemic ... something that pandemic strains have usually done. In 1918 there was a pandemic with the H1N1 subtype that settled down as the ... so invoking pandemics as the only or even as a desirable means of control is dangerous and certainly incorrect. Pandemics can ... Pandemics are bad and they kill people. A lot of people. It would be better not to have to suffer them. But we can still learn ...
The primary beneficiary as far as the state is concerned in this pandemic will be the police apparatus. It is testing its ... While observing the debates over how best to deal with the economic crash precipitated by this pandemic, one thing is apparent ... Amid the COVID Pandemic, Wall Street Sees an Opportunity to Privatize Public Schools ...
This chapter deals with the nature of pandemic influenza, and demonstrates that in spite of the cavalier approach that ... The Asian flu pandemic was neither the worst nor the mildest of the influenza pandemics of the century. John M. Barry, ... "Pandemics and Pandemic Scares in the 20th Century," National Vaccine Program Office, Department of Health and Human Services ( ... Skidmore M.J. (2016) Pandemic Influenza. In: Presidents, Pandemics, and Politics. The Evolving American Presidency. Palgrave ...
... and we are now in the post-pandemic period. No pandemic form of the H5N1 virus has emerged, but scientists are concerned that a ... Pandemic influenza is any human influenza caused by a mutated influenza Type A virus for which there is little natural immunity ... A pandemic could result in quarantines, border closures, or a lack of equipment or crews, and some people may be forced to ... Once the pandemic subsides and travel resumes, the U.S. Department of State can once again provide full consular services to ...
Anthony Fauci and other leading health officials to discuss events leading up to, and during, the coronavirus pandemic. Follow ... "When we started the pandemic in January, we really didnt know what the status of the supply chain was. We didnt know what ... The United States did not know how much emergency supply the nation had access to at the start of the coronavirus pandemic, Dr ... Kadlec has come under fire in a whistleblower complaint that alleges he was slow to respond to the pandemic threat in the early ...
  • In April 2009, the United States began a response to the emergence of a pandemic influenza virus strain: A(H1N1)pdm09. (cdc.gov)
  • On April 26, 2009, the United States declared a public health emergency in response to the 2009 pandemic influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 virus ( 1 ). (cdc.gov)
  • The map pictured shows the state of affairs 4.5 months into a simulated pandemic beginning in Tokyo, based on a plausible H1N1 variant. (nature.com)
  • On 11 June 2009, a new strain of H1N1 influenza was declared to be a global pandemic (Stage 6) by the WHO after evidence of spreading in the southern hemisphere. (wikipedia.org)
  • The first influenza pandemic of the 21st century occurred in 2009-2010 and was caused by an influenza A(H1N1) virus. (who.int)
  • While most cases of pandemic H1N1 were mild, globally it is estimated that the 2009 pandemic caused between 100 000-400 000 deaths in the first year alone. (who.int)
  • Three influenza pandemics occurred at intervals of several decades during the 20th century, the most severe of which was the so-called "Spanish Flu" (caused by an A(H1N1) virus), estimated to have caused 20-50 million deaths in 1918-1919. (who.int)
  • On 30 October 2009, the Ministry of Health of Ukraine announced the confirmation of pandemic (H1N1) 2009 virus infection by RT-PCR in eleven out of 30 samples obtained from patients presenting with acute respiratory illness in two of the most affected regions. (who.int)
  • International experience of the (H1N1) 2009 pandemic to date, especially from the Southern Hemisphere, has shown that poor clinical outcomes are associated with delays in seeking health care and limited access to supportive care. (who.int)
  • These recommendations are prudent measures which can limit the spread of many communicable diseases and not only the pandemic (H1N1) 2009 virus. (who.int)
  • 15 January 2010 - As of 10 January 2010, worldwide more than 208 countries and overseas territories or communities have reported laboratory confirmed cases of pandemic influenza H1N1 2009, including at least 13554 deaths. (who.int)
  • Pandemic H1N1 2009 virus continues to be predominant circulating influenza virus in the northern African and western Asian regions with only sporadic detections of seasonal influenza viruses. (who.int)
  • Pandemic H1N1 continues to be the predominant circulating virus in the region but seasonal H3N2 viruses continue to circulate in very small numbers in northern China. (who.int)
  • The 2009 outbreak of Influenza A H1N1 has reached pandemic status, but it is not very lethal, at least at this point. (ieet.org)
  • There is as yet no vaccine for the novel H1N1 (swine flu) pandemic strain of influenza now causing widespread illness in North America and what appears to be the start of growing outbreaks in Japan and parts of Europe (but check out this excellent piece over at ScienceInsider). (scienceblogs.com)
  • What is the difference between seasonal influenza (the "flu"), the novel H1N1 virus, avian influenza (bird flu), and pandemic influenza? (state.gov)
  • In 2009, the H1N1 novel influenza (so-called 'swine flu') was declared a pandemic by world health organizations, and we are now in the post-pandemic period. (state.gov)
  • Aaron Wendelboe, Ph.D., has worked to protect Oklahomans from infectious disease pandemics including the 2009 H1N1 influenza, the 2014⎼2015 Ebola virus and the recent Zika virus. (ou.edu)
  • Pandemic swine flu which is also referred as H1N1 virus is basically a disease that affects the respiratory system and spread with great progress. (amazonaws.com)
  • Each day a different case of pandemic H1N1 is reported, there has been a rise in the deaths of people globally as a result of pandemic Flu. (amazonaws.com)
  • In order to take precautionary measures against pandemic of any sort, be it influenza, Swine or H1N1 FDA has developed a strategic plan which is actually prepared in coordination with the President's National strategy For pandemic outbreaks. (amazonaws.com)
  • The most recent pandemic occurred in 2009 and was caused by an influenza A (H1N1) virus. (who.int)
  • The National Health Board of Denmark has announced the first known case of pandemic H1N1 flu resistant to the antiviral drug Tamiflu. (newscientist.com)
  • Scientists fear the pandemic virus, also a member of the H1N1 family, might acquire Tamiflu resistance by interbreeding with these ordinary strains. (newscientist.com)
  • As the H1N1 swine flu pandemic continues to spread around the world, most cases are still mild. (newscientist.com)
  • A virus of the same H1N1 family as the pandemic flu has been circulating as ordinary seasonal flu since 1977. (newscientist.com)
  • The last H1N1 pandemic in 1918 was notorious for causing such rapid, viral pneumonia , which can kill within hours. (newscientist.com)
  • The binding and replication of the pandemic H1N1 virus in the lower respiratory tract in ferrets is consistent with the viral pneumonia that is observed in humans," Fouchier told New Scientist . (newscientist.com)
  • After the outbreak of H1N1 - or swine flu - in 2009, the World Health Organization (WHO) warned that "the world is now at the start of the 2009 influenza pandemic. (pressherald.com)
  • This is very reminiscent of what happened in swine 10 years before the H1N1 pandemic," Garcia-Sastre said. (webmd.com)
  • History suggests that pandemic H1N1 likely faces extinction unless it mutates," they add. (webmd.com)
  • However, the H1N1 swine flu bug isn't yet gone, and the most likely scenario is that it will continue to haunt us for a few years, even if it can't reignite the pandemic. (webmd.com)
  • Writing in March 2020, the current pandemic has had an unprecedented impact across the globe. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • Insurers understood the urgency of helping businesses and individuals recover from the unprecedented crisis caused by the COVID-19 pandemic and took immediate action to adapt premiums when driving was reduced in 2020," Mark Sektnan, APCIA's vice president, said in a press release. (investopedia.com)
  • Talking about pandemic teaching - and especially what happened in the spring of 2020 - requires instructors to delve more into their personal lives than they normally would in discussing their teaching with colleagues, Gaudette says. (chronicle.com)
  • The Coronavirus Aid, Relief, and Economic Security (CARES) Act of 2020 creates a new temporary federal program called Pandemic Emergency Unemployment Compensation (PEUC). (mass.gov)
  • The Pandemic Pediatrician: What We Know Now - Medscape - Dec 04, 2020. (medscape.com)
  • Although influenza vaccines are the cornerstone of seasonal influenza control, specific vaccines for a novel pandemic strain are not expected to be available for the first 5-6 months of the next pandemic. (cdc.gov)
  • Thus, efforts to control the next pandemic will rely largely on nonpharmaceutical interventions. (cdc.gov)
  • Transmission of the next pandemic may be from human to human or, in the possible case of avian flu, initially from bird to human. (encyclopedia.com)
  • Why Humanity Will Probably Botch the Next Pandemic, Too A conversation with Mike Davis, author of 2005's The Monster at Our Door: The Global Threat of Avian Flu , about nationalism, capitalism, and COVID-19. (nymag.com)
  • Most predict that the next pandemic will emerge in Southeast Asia, like the previous two. (innovations-report.de)
  • Nobody can say when the next pandemic will emerge - just ask Kilbourne. (ocregister.com)
  • Has next pandemic already started? (independent.ie)
  • An influenza pandemic is an epidemic of an influenza virus that spreads on a worldwide scale and infects a large proportion of the world population . (wikipedia.org)
  • Epidemiologists have been shouting from rooftops that a pandemic (or, a world-wide epidemic) of influenza is overdue, and that it is not a matter of "if" but "when. (wsj.com)
  • Pandemic or epidemic? (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • While an epidemic remains limited to one city, region, or country, a pandemic spreads beyond national borders and possibly worldwide. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • A pandemic affects a higher number of people and can be more deadly than an epidemic. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • The death toll in a pandemic is generally higher than that in an epidemic. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • The death toll of a pandemic is usually much greater than that of an epidemic. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • A pandemic is a disease epidemic that affects a large proportion of the population over a wide geographic area. (encyclopedia.com)
  • Pandemic, which means all the people, describes an epidemic that occurs in more than one country or population simultaneously. (encyclopedia.com)
  • That was a very difficult time, because everybody in the White House was upset with that interview and the clarity that I brought about the epidemic," Birx told CNN's Dr. Sanjay Gupta in the documentary "COVID WAR: The Pandemic Doctors Speak Out. (cnn.com)
  • Talking especially about the Pandemic Flu you should know that pandemic flu is basically a global form of epidemic which breaks out as influenza. (amazonaws.com)
  • An influenza pandemic is a global epidemic caused by a new influenza virus to which there is little or no pre-existing immunity in the human population. (who.int)
  • Regardless of the timing of recent public health proclamations, it's been apparent to me for several weeks that we were headed into the throes of a pandemic (a global epidemic) - one that it is clearly both biological and psychological. (psychologytoday.com)
  • The prospect of infections spreading from animals to humans has become all too real with the onset of the current swine flu pandemic, and the threat of a bird flu still looming. (scienceblogs.com)
  • A Flu Strain With 'Pandemic Potential' Has Been Found in Pigs in China Researchers describe a virus that has been "predominant in swine populations since 2016" with "the essential hallmarks of" a possible pandemic. (nymag.com)
  • We continue to learn a great deal about influenza infection as researchers harvest information from the recent swine flu pandemic. (scienceblogs.com)
  • At the outset of this pandemic the statement that the receptor binding domain of the 2009 swine flu virus was extremely close to the 1918 Spanish Flu virus would have sounded ominous. (scienceblogs.com)
  • Researchers from Columbia University and Harvard University examined past records of ocean temperatures in the fall and winter before the last four flu pandemics, the 1918 Spanish Flu, the 1957 Asian Flu, the 1958 Hong Kong Flu and the 2009 swine flu were all preceded by periods of La Nina conditions. (ibtimes.com)
  • The gene-swapping between avian and pig influenza viruses was a factor in the 2009 swine flu pandemic. (ibtimes.com)
  • Pandemic swine flu has symptoms quite similar to the seasonal flu, and this has been researched by medical experts. (amazonaws.com)
  • Swine flus is definitely the pandemic that is spreading all over the world, over the decades it has managed to affect the rich, poor, healthy and ill. (amazonaws.com)
  • But the agency desperately wanted a pandemic and swine flu, vastly milder than ordinary flu, clearly didn't fit. (amazonaws.com)
  • But as I've previously noted, the Parliamentary Assembly of the Council of Europe, described as a "human rights watchdog" recently recommended that the European Union investigate WHO's swine flu pandemic declaration to see if the health agency acted under undue influence. (amazonaws.com)
  • While the media are finally beginning to admit that the World Health Organization's swine flu "pandemic," made possible only by completely redefining the definition, may be the mildest in history, they are not willing to admit that we will actually have fewer flu deaths internationally because of this alleged pandemic. (amazonaws.com)
  • The folks who dubbed the swine flu piglet a pandemic, the World Health Organization (WHO), just won't let up. (amazonaws.com)
  • When "swine flu" appeared in 1976, following global flu epidemics in 1957 and 1968, he championed the idea that pandemics appear every 10 years or so. (ocregister.com)
  • But swine flu didn't become a pandemic, and neither has anything else in the three decades since then. (ocregister.com)
  • SAN FRANCISCO (MarketWatch) -- The World Health Organization has informed its member nations that it is declaring a swine flu pandemic, the Associated Press reported Thursday. (marketwatch.com)
  • And some, at least, are ready to start imagining how this time might affect their teaching in the post-pandemic future. (chronicle.com)
  • It is noteworthy that other post-pandemic [ flu ] viruses have continued to cause various rates of excess mortality among younger persons for years after pandemic appearance," Morens, Taubenberger, and Fauci warn. (webmd.com)
  • The National Center for the Study of Preparedness and Catastrophic Event Response at Johns Hopkins University in Baltimore is using the model to optimize emergency surge capacity in a pandemic, supported by the Department of Homeland Security. (nature.com)
  • Protection requires pre-pandemic preparedness, providing more vaccines and conducting more vaccine research and development, antiviral drug stockpiling, and increased surveillance capacity to track illness patterns. (globalsecurity.org)
  • Pandemic preparedness programs may also help safeguard against potential bitoterrorism. (encyclopedia.com)
  • Dual-purpose infrastructure is an attractive option because it avoids several drawbacks of constant pandemic preparedness, such as the need for a huge stockpile of equipment and reagents with finite shelf lives and associated storage costs, the need for infrastructure that stands idle most of the time, the need to retain and train staff, and the need for regular 'war games' to test response capability. (nature.com)
  • For this reason, countries develop multi-sectoral preparedness plans describing their strategies and operational plans for responding to a pandemic. (who.int)
  • The American Public Health Association (APHA) today released its blueprint for strengthening the nation's pandemic preparedness, amid persistent concerns about a potential influenza pandemic. (news-medical.net)
  • In this article, we discuss the difference between epidemics and pandemics, how pandemics start, and future concerns. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • Although national estimates of influenza-associated deaths have been important in understanding the epidemiology of influenza over time and in planning for future epidemics and pandemics, mortality incompletely reflects the severity of influenza infections because many severe illnesses do not result in death. (globalsecurity.org)
  • It will allow you to develop a context of knowledge and familiarity with the concepts that inform legal and public health response strategies to outbreaks, epidemics and pandemics. (coursera.org)
  • One type of pandemic is that which that can emerge when a type of influenza virus, known as the influenza A virus, changes suddenly , resulting in a virus that is different from any virus that already exists. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • How viruses emerge to cause pandemics, how our immune system combats them, and how diagnostic tests, vaccines, and antiviral therapies work. (mit.edu)
  • This book provides an accessible explanation of how viruses emerge to cause pandemics, how our immune system combats them, and how diagnostic tests, vaccines, and antiviral therapies work-concepts that provide the foundation for our public health policies. (mit.edu)
  • As people emerge from their pandemic shell, it's worth considering the act again - or picking up a new habit. (yahoo.com)
  • Then we'll figure out which ones are the most likely to emerge as a global pandemic. (slate.com)
  • But still, there are fewer treatments for viral diseases than for those caused by bacteria, and when infectious disease pandemics emerge, the pathogens that are the most lethal are the viruses, experts say. (livescience.com)
  • Professor Oliver Pybus said: 'Our research suggests that following the original animal to human transmission of the virus (probably through the hunting or handling of bush meat) there was only a small 'window' during the Belgian colonial era for this particular strain of HIV to emerge and spread into a pandemic. (eurekalert.org)
  • Researchers and public health experts are continuously learning more about the influenza virus, vaccines and response measures, and this knowledge is used to improve capacities related to both seasonal and pandemic influenza. (who.int)
  • To reduce the impact of an influenza pandemic, the WHO recommends a non-pharmaceutical approach, such as infection control, as well as a pharmaceutical approach, such as the use of vaccines and anti-viral medications for treatment and prophylaxis. (encyclopedia.com)
  • Two highly effective coronavirus vaccines are now on the horizon, but the next challenge for federal, state and local leaders will be distributing a vaccine equitably so that communities that have been hit hardest by the pandemic can have access. (yahoo.com)
  • to achieve more equitable access for Member States in need of pandemic vaccines and medicines used in a pandemic. (who.int)
  • Ultimately, researchers want to identify the genetic changes that allow a virus to jump species, and to detect potential pandemics in time to prepare vaccines. (innovations-report.de)
  • Merck has developed medicines and vaccines and made important contributions to fighting pandemics for more than 125 years. (merck.com)
  • Merck was among the first companies to produce a vaccine, ultimately manufacturing one-third of all the vaccines made for the pandemic. (merck.com)
  • We shouldn't pooh-pooh the idea of a pandemic just because we mistrust vaccines and those who develop them. (pressherald.com)
  • And while the arrival of vaccines has offered hope as the devastating pandemic drags on, one year since the World Health Organization declared it a global pandemic, lockdowns and isolation will likely continue for months in the United States as we build herd immunity. (nationalgeographic.com)
  • When a vaccine against the pandemic strain was released for initial use, the supply was only 25%-50% of the amount that had been projected because vaccine production yields were lower than expected ( 7 , 8 ). (cdc.gov)
  • Influenza pandemics occur when a new strain of the influenza virus is transmitted to humans from another animal species. (wikipedia.org)
  • One strain of virus that may produce a pandemic in the future is a highly pathogenic variation of the H5N1 subtype of influenza A virus . (wikipedia.org)
  • Three influenza pandemics occurred in the 20th century and killed tens of millions of people, with each of these pandemics being caused by the appearance of a new strain of the virus in humans. (wikipedia.org)
  • It was a similar strain to the seventh pandemic that petered out more than a decade earlier. (cbc.ca)
  • A new virus strain or subtype that easily transmits between humans can cause a pandemic. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • A pandemic is usually caused by a new virus strain or subtype that becomes easily transmissable between humans, or by bacteria that become resistant to antibiotic treatment. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • There is little doubt in the medical community that a pandemic will strike-only its timing, severity, and exact microbial strain (type) remain unknown. (encyclopedia.com)
  • The reason that there is some public and media confusion over bird flu is that the current bird flu virus (H5N1) has the potential to mutate or to recombine genetically with the human flu virus and create a new pandemic human flu strain. (hse.gov.uk)
  • No pandemic form of the H5N1 virus has emerged, but scientists are concerned that a strain of avian influenza with a high mortality rate could evolve into a virus that is easily and repeatedly spread from human to human, causing a severe pandemic. (state.gov)
  • The seventh pandemic originated in 1961 in Indonesia and is marked by the emergence of a new strain, nicknamed El Tor, which still persists (as of 2019) in developing countries. (wikipedia.org)
  • Researcher has managed to find out that the usual interval between the pandemic virus is about 20 to 40 years which definitely means that the strain of virus flu is quite likely to happen. (amazonaws.com)
  • Yes, "technically," because after what we've seen from the WHO, which changed the definition of "pandemic" in order to make the mildest flu strain in decades rank right up there with Spanish flu, technically they can do everything they want. (amazonaws.com)
  • The 1960 sample is the second-oldest genetic sequence of HIV-1 group M, the main strain of the virus responsible for the AIDS pandemic. (reuters.com)
  • Once you have that rate, you can work backward and make a guess of when the ancestor of the whole pandemic strain of the AIDS virus originated. (reuters.com)
  • You should know both the magnitude of what can happen during a pandemic outbreak and what actions you can take to help lessen the impact of an influenza pandemic on you and your family. (smartdraw.com)
  • Three factors predict whether a new virus will cause a human pandemic. (slate.com)
  • HIV is known to have been transmitted from primates and apes to humans at least 13 times but only one of these transmission events has led to a human pandemic. (eurekalert.org)
  • In temperate regions of the southern hemisphere, sporadic cases of pandemic influenza continued to be reported without evidence of sustained community transmission. (who.int)
  • A key objective in this setting is to limit transmission of pandemic influenza within and outside the home. (globalsecurity.org)
  • In North Africa, limited data suggest that transmission of pandemic influenza virus remains active throughout the region, particularly in Morocco, Algeria, and Egypt. (who.int)
  • The disease behind a pandemic can cause severe illness and spread easily from one person to the next. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • Although the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic makes this point with destructive clarity, it is clear that zoonotic pathogens pose a standing threat to our species as demonstrated by Ebola, Middle East respiratory syndrome (MERS), and severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS). (pnas.org)
  • If a pandemic is severe, the effects of it will be far-ranging. (encyclopedia.com)
  • Guidance is intended to inform planning for a pandemic form of influenza that causes severe symptoms in a large proportion of those infected. (hse.gov.uk)
  • In 2003, there were concerns that Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome (SARS) might become pandemic. (ieet.org)
  • Ask if they will let you work from home (telework, etc.) in the event of a severe pandemic. (state.gov)
  • The 2003 severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) pandemic is often labeled the first pandemic of the 21st century. (wikipedia.org)
  • Influenza pandemics, whether mild, moderate or severe, affect a large proportion of the population, which puts significant strains on health and other essential services and may result in significant economic losses. (who.int)
  • Pandemics create the possibility of disruption of processes, movement, and general operations, even if the epidemiology is not severe. (irs.gov)
  • Now the U.S. may benefit from an insurance-like product being developed for third-world countries to battle pandemics, which some experts think will be made more severe and widespread by climate change. (insurancejournal.com)
  • The biological pandemic is of course the spread of the Covid-19 virus and its direct effects on individual human health, which ranges from mild (almost no symptoms in many people) to severe (death in a small percent of cases, chiefly among the elderly and medically compromised). (psychologytoday.com)
  • An influenza pandemic is a global outbreak of a new influenza A virus that is very different from current and recently circulating human seasonal influenza A viruses. (cdc.gov)
  • Influenza A viruses can occasionally be transmitted from wild birds to other species causing outbreaks in domestic poultry and may give rise to human influenza pandemics. (wikipedia.org)
  • Image of Indian Flying Fox from Wikipedia, Fritz Geller-Grimm An ambititous project seeks to identify all unknown viruses in mammals to determine the relative risk of infection to humans and to develop strategies to prevent and treat infections before they become pandemics. (scienceblogs.com)
  • The Global Influenza Surveillance Network (GISN) continues monitoring the global circulation of influenza viruses, including pandemic, seasonal and other influenza viruses infecting, or with the potential to infect, humans including seasonal influenza. (who.int)
  • By developing a new technique for labeling the gene segments of influenza viruses, researchers now know more about how influenza viruses enter the cell and establish cell co-infections -- a major contributing factor to potential pandemic development. (eurekalert.org)
  • Reassortment, which was responsible for the 2009 pandemic virus, occurs when one or more of the eight genome segments are exchanged between two different influenza viruses. (eurekalert.org)
  • Nathan Wolfe, who studied how viruses move from animals into humans, worked with Munich Re, a big reinsurer, to insure companies against pandemics. (wired.com)
  • Two of the last global pandemics-SARS and Ebola -were caused by viruses that appear to live in bats . (slate.com)
  • A headline in Frontiers in Public Health held that medical advances have made it "Unlikely That Influenza Viruses Will Cause a Pandemic Again Like What Happened in 1918 and 1919. (pressherald.com)
  • In contrast, the viruses behind the other two pandemics of the 20th Century were apparently products of reassortment, he said. (ocregister.com)
  • The majority of pandemics have been associated with pigs as an intermediate host between avian [bird] viruses and human hosts. (webmd.com)
  • Other species experience similar pandemics and are both sources of, and sensitive to, shared pathogens. (pnas.org)
  • Some positive effects of the pandemic, such as healthier home-cooked meals, might also be keeping some patients from requiring hospital care, Dr. Blecker added. (medscape.com)
  • While not mentioned in the KidsRights survey, I immediately thought of the effects of the pandemic on North American and European kids, who may not face the same extreme poverty of many developing nations, but are struggling with other kinds of discrimination and erosion of rights. (treehugger.com)
  • Unlike the first six, the seventh pandemic originated in Indonesia. (cbc.ca)
  • These results can be used by public health officials, policy makers, and the public to evaluate this program and plan for the management of future pandemics. (cdc.gov)
  • Antibiotic resistance increases the risk of future pandemics. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • He said there would be a "huge agenda" with the leaders set to discuss a treaty for future pandemics, and shared values between the nations. (yahoo.com)
  • With each pandemic, researchers, public health experts and international organizations have gained a better understanding of the complexity and dynamics of influenza pandemics. (who.int)
  • Researchers said on Monday that the La Nina episodes may heighten the chance for another flu pandemic. (ibtimes.com)
  • However researchers also noted that not all periods of La Niña have been followed by pandemics, which suggested that other factors play a part in spawning new influenza strains. (ibtimes.com)
  • So say researchers tracking emerging strains in animals in the hope of averting further human pandemics. (innovations-report.de)
  • High vaccination rates this flu season, especially among children and young adults, might even drive the pandemic bug to extinction, speculate top researchers at the National Institutes of Health. (webmd.com)
  • If vaccination rates are high in the most vulnerable population -- children and young adults -- we may be able to say good-bye to the pandemic virus once and for all, the researchers say. (webmd.com)
  • The question is about pandemics, but the inspiration for the series, and the question, is the recent ebola pandemic in West Africa. (scienceblogs.com)
  • Ebola is claiming that 70% of the global population could die from a pandemic that has not been clearly identified. (rense.com)
  • Whether it s the fake Ebola pandemic or the military effort to contain both Russia and China: The US and its slave-states, which are referred to as allies , are trying to create a global situation that simply does not exist. (rense.com)
  • Historically, science diplomacy has proved successful in diseases such as SARS, Ebola, Zika and continues to be relevant during the COVID-19 pandemic today. (wikipedia.org)
  • The fifth pandemic originated in the Bengal region of India and swept through Asia, Africa, South America and parts of France and Germany. (cbc.ca)
  • Milder pandemics occurred subsequently in 1957-1958 (the "Asian Flu" caused by an A(H2N2) virus) and in 1968 (the "Hong Kong Flu" caused by an A(H3N2) virus), which were estimated to have caused 1-4 million deaths each. (who.int)
  • In the worldwide pandemic influenza attacks of 1918, 1958, and 1968, about 30% of the U.S. population developed some degree of illness. (encyclopedia.com)
  • Killing nearly half a million people worldwide, the last flu pandemic swept the globe in 1968. (innovations-report.de)
  • Influenza pandemics occur at irregular intervals when new strains of influenza A virus spread in humans ( 1 ). (cdc.gov)
  • Hand hygiene has been proven to prevent many infectious diseases and might be considered a major component in influenza pandemic plans, whether or not it has proven effectiveness against influenza virus transmission, specifically because of its potential to reduce other infections and thereby reduce pressure on healthcare services. (cdc.gov)
  • The World Health Organization (WHO) has produced a six-stage classification that describes the process by which a novel influenza virus moves from the first few infections in humans through to a pandemic. (wikipedia.org)
  • This starts with the virus mostly infecting animals, with a few cases where animals infect people, then moves through the stage where the virus begins to spread directly between people, and ends with a pandemic when infections from the new virus have spread worldwide. (wikipedia.org)
  • A pandemic can occur when a type of influenza virus, known as the influenza A virus, mutates suddenly . (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • Pandemic flu can occur when a new influenza virus emerges which is markedly different from recently circulating strains and to which humans have little or no immunity. (hse.gov.uk)
  • The most intense areas of pandemic influenza virus transmission currently are in parts of North Africa, South Asia, and east and southeastern Europe. (who.int)
  • In West Asia, limit data suggest that pandemic virus continues to circulate widely with a number of countries likely having already experienced a peak in activity prior to December. (who.int)
  • It is feared that the H5N1 avian influenza virus could mutate and become both highly contagious and highly lethal in humans, thereby causing a global influenza pandemic. (ieet.org)
  • Flu pandemics may be linked to La Niña weather conditions that alter bird migration patterns and can promote dangerous new strains of the human influenza virus, according to American scientists in a statement on Monday. (ibtimes.com)
  • However, the scientists noted that while the climatic phenomenon correlated with pandemics, the evidence is not sufficient to say that the weather patterns were the cause of novel strains of the flu virus to which people have not developed immunity. (ibtimes.com)
  • Pandemic influenza is any human influenza caused by a mutated influenza Type A virus for which there is little natural immunity and which spreads easily from human to human across a wide area of the world. (state.gov)
  • This can help the community predict the possibility of two strains reassorting into a potential pandemic virus. (eurekalert.org)
  • Since the outbreak of the pandemic, Sinochem International has been coordinating with its subsidiaries to help domestic and overseas communities in preventing and controlling the spread of the virus. (prnewswire.com)
  • Two separate teams - one led by Ron Fouchier at Erasmus University in Rotterdam, the Netherlands, and the other by Terrence Tumpey at the Centres for Disease Control in Atlanta, Georgia - both report that the pandemic virus binds deeper than ordinary flu in the respiratory tract of ferrets, the animal most like humans when it comes to flu. (newscientist.com)
  • The pandemic virus also replicated more, and caused more damage, though none of the ferrets were severely ill. (newscientist.com)
  • 1918 PANDEMIC: Influenza victims crowd into an emergency hospital at Camp Funston, part of Fort Riley, Kan. There is some evidence that the virus mutated on its own. (ocregister.com)
  • For a pandemic to occur, the virus "must make people sick and spread easily. (ocregister.com)
  • Scientists don't know the genetic changes needed to transform a bird flu virus into a pandemic killer of people, said Jeffery Taubenberger of the Armed Forces Institute of Pathology in Rockville, Md. (ocregister.com)
  • Studies of past pandemics don't reveal how the switchover from bird virus to human scourge will happen in the next one. (ocregister.com)
  • Taubenberger, who is studying the genetic makeup of the 1918 pandemic virus, said that germ appears to have mutated on its own. (ocregister.com)
  • In the early days of the pandemic, we struggled with what experts have dubbed quarantine fatigue , the exhaustion of adjusting to the restrictions associated with the virus. (nationalgeographic.com)
  • After the pandemic emerges and spreads, humans develop some immunity. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • Throughout history, humans have contended with pandemics. (mit.edu)
  • There were 3 influenza pandemics in the 20th century, and there has been 1 so far in the 21st century. (cdc.gov)
  • Now, the enormous human and economic toll of the rapidly spreading COVID-19 disease offers a vivid reminder that infectious disease pandemics are one of the greatest existential threats to humanity. (mit.edu)
  • Here, shoppers visit a shopping district in Tokyo despite a stay-at-home advisory during the COVID-19 pandemic . (wikipedia.org)
  • Drawing from lessons in HIV prevention , she advised a principle of harm reduction rather than an "all-or-nothing approach" in controlling the COVID-19 pandemic . (wikipedia.org)
  • Dr. Sanjay Gupta speaks with the medical leaders of the war on Covid during a CNN special report "COVID WAR - The Pandemic Doctors Speak Out. (cnn.com)
  • I also think that the revocation of that EUA was the right decision," Hahn told CNN's Dr. Sanjay Gupta in the documentary "COVID WAR: The Pandemic Doctors Speak Out. (cnn.com)
  • Masks should have never become a dividing line in our country," Hahn said on CNN's "COVID WAR - The Pandemic Doctors Speak Out. (cnn.com)
  • Handshakes were one of the first habits to go when the COVID-19 pandemic began last year, but with vaccination rates rising, you may find yourself confronting an outstretched hand again soon. (yahoo.com)
  • However, the current COVID-19 pandemic has resulted in a concurrent demand for the same resources across the planet. (nature.com)
  • One year ago, Intel launched the Pandemic Response Technology Initiative (PRTI) , a $50 million commitment to use technology to combat the effects of COVID-19. (intel.com)
  • The Australian Government made its first COVID-19 declaration on 21 January advising that COVID-19 was a disease with pandemic potential. (hia.com.au)
  • U.S. company SpottedRisk has devised a model built on years of data on the political and economic environment of film locations in 150 countries, as well as a year's COVID-19 shutdown data, to come up with a pricing mechanism to cover the risk of production stopping due to the pandemic. (yahoo.com)
  • With a bleak joblessness picture coming into clearer focus Friday, and the COVID-19 death toll in California crossing the 1,000 mark, Gov. Gavin Newsom is turning to a plethora of tech, industrial and policy titans, along with his four living predecessors, to advise him on a daunting task: how to restore a state economy battered by the raging pandemic. (mercurynews.com)
  • Apartment demand in North Texas is taking a big hit from the COVID-19 pandemic. (dallasnews.com)
  • As the hurricane season quickly approaches, HR leaders can't expect to rely on their previous hurricane planning in the midst of the COVID-19 pandemic. (shrm.org)
  • Add to that the COVID-19 pandemic, with more than 1.5 million cases and nearly 100,000 deaths in the United States, and that means 'you can't prepare [for weather emergencies] in the way you did in the past,' said Karen Wilhite, regional manager for the Duluth, Ga.,-based staffing firm Hire Dynamics. (shrm.org)
  • Join us -- at a safe distance -- on this journey through the canonical and radical as we look to literary representations of pandemics in the past to help us understand the politics and possibilities of the present COVID-19 pandemic. (popmatters.com)
  • Throughout this summer of the COVID-19 pandemic, faculty and students of the English Department at Northeastern Illinois University (NEIU) will analyze how pandemics are represented in literature across centuries, across genres, and across nation-states. (popmatters.com)
  • Reuters Health) - Hospitalizations for emergencies like heart attacks and strokes, injuries, ectopic pregnancies, and a broad range of chronic conditions declined during peaks in the COVID-19 pandemic this spring, two new U.S. studies suggest. (medscape.com)
  • One study focused on daily hospital volumes for five common emergencies at Stanford University Medical Center in California and NewYork-Presbyterian/Weill Cornell Medical Center (NYP) in New York City before and after the start of the COVID pandemic. (medscape.com)
  • A national state of emergency and quarantine have been declared in the USA-and in the midst of the COVID-19 world pandemic, everything normal has been derailed. (psychologytoday.com)
  • American medical experts are urging political leaders to shut down the US and start over to contain the pandemic after the US surpassed 4 million Covid-19 cases. (cnn.com)
  • This analogy, say virologists, is a good way of thinking about zoonotic spillover events like the one which sparked the Covid-19 pandemic. (independent.ie)
  • As the Covid pandemic recedes dramatically in the West, Europe is opening its doors to Americans -- but the reverse is not holding true, with the United States not budging on restrictions imposed 15 months ago. (yahoo.com)
  • The face mask has become ubiquitous during the COVID-19 pandemic and curators at the Royal Ontario Museum are creating an exhibit that chronicles this period of time through a collection of masks. (cbc.ca)
  • By 1973, the pandemic had spread to Italy. (cbc.ca)
  • The fourth pandemic began in the Bengal region from which Indian Muslim pilgrims visiting Mecca spread the disease to the Middle East. (cbc.ca)
  • Many governments have now restricted free movement and placed populations under lockdown to limit the spread of the pandemic. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • According to the WHO, a pandemic involves the worldwide spread of a new disease . (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • Sometimes, pandemics occur when new diseases develop the ability to spread rapidly, such as the Black Death, or bubonic plague. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • However, if the disease changes or mutates, it may start to spread easily, and a pandemic may result. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • If a flu subtype gains the ability to spread rapidly between people, a pandemic may result. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • Sometimes, pandemics are caused simply by a new ability to spread rapidly, such as with the Black Death. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • and describe what we know about modern pandemics, including how they spread, how they can be contained, and how they can be treated. (mit.edu)
  • After a long hiatus, a seventh cholera pandemic spread in 1961. (wikipedia.org)
  • The fourth pandemic lasted from 1863 to 1875, and spread from India to Naples and Spain, and to the US in 1873. (wikipedia.org)
  • The fifth pandemic was from 1881 to 1896 and started in India and spread to Europe, Asia, and South America. (wikipedia.org)
  • The first cholera pandemic, though previously restricted, began in Bengal, and then spread across India by 1820. (wikipedia.org)
  • While some of the earliest pandemics faded by wiping out parts of the population, medical and public health initiatives were able to halt the spread of other diseases. (history.com)
  • And new overseas trading routes spread the novel infections far and wide, creating the first global pandemics. (history.com)
  • The first cholera pandemic (1817-1824), also known as the first Asiatic cholera pandemic or Asiatic cholera, began near the city of Calcutta and spread throughout South and Southeast Asia to the Middle East, eastern Africa and the Mediterranean coast. (yahoo.com)
  • Denmark has had only 37 known cases of the pandemic flu so far, so it is still trying to limit the virus's spread by giving Tamiflu to contacts of cases. (newscientist.com)
  • The fear now is that H5N1 will acquire the ability to spread easily from person to person, sparking the worldwide outbreak known as a pandemic. (ocregister.com)
  • The HIV pandemic with us today is almost certain to have begun its global spread from Kinshasa, the capital of the Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC), according to a new study. (eurekalert.org)
  • An international team, led by Oxford University and University of Leuven scientists, has reconstructed the genetic history of the HIV-1 group M pandemic, the event that saw HIV spread across the African continent and around the world, and concluded that it originated in Kinshasa. (eurekalert.org)
  • A pandemic is an outbreak of global proportions. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • This human story addresses the many questions that people worldwide are grappling with during the current global pandemic. (mit.edu)
  • Throughout these continuing attempts to totally destabilize the world, USI, NATO, Israel and the UN are desperately trying to force-feed the global-public information that is completely inaccurate, irresponsible and totally beyond the pale: Hence the Pandemic Panic that has yet to become anything related to any reality without any clear facts. (rense.com)
  • A new, comprehensive analysis, published in the Lancet , paints a frightening portrait of the global obesity pandemic. (forbes.com)
  • In May 2005, scientists urgently called nations to prepare for a global influenza pandemic that could strike as much as 20% of the world's population. (ieet.org)
  • The second pandemic lasted from 1826 to 1837 and particularly affected North America and Europe, due to the result of advancements in transportation and global trade, and increased human migration, including soldiers. (wikipedia.org)
  • LONDON (Reuters) - When much of the global economy locked down last year, insurers, facing estimated losses of more than $100 billion globally, reached straight for their red pens to strike pandemic cover from all new business policies. (yahoo.com)
  • The "100-year thing" he was thinking about was a global pandemic , and how history would judge humanity's efforts to prepare for it. (wired.com)
  • Peter Daszak has spent the past three decades attempting to predict global pandemics. (slate.com)
  • But most global health experts agree that it's only a matter of time before a combination of risk factors makes us vulnerable to another pandemic. (pressherald.com)
  • This is a financial response mechanism to price pandemic risk under development by the World Bank in cooperation with the World Health Organization, global reinsurance companies and catastrophe modelers. (insurancejournal.com)
  • The students collaborated with Swiss Re on the report to examine the implications of climate change on global pandemic risk, and to analyze the potential of the PEF to provide the basis for a long-term market for pandemic insurance. (insurancejournal.com)
  • Alex Kaplan, senior vice president of Swiss Re global partnerships, said the goal of the report - and the creation of the PEF to some extent - was to deal with a humanitarian and economic issue posed by both climate change and the threat of pandemics. (insurancejournal.com)
  • The third pandemic, generally considered the most deadly, originated once again in India. (cbc.ca)
  • The third pandemic erupted in 1846, persisted until 1860, extended to North Africa, and reached South America, for the first time specifically affecting Brazil. (wikipedia.org)
  • At the turn of the century, the sixth pandemic killed more than 800,000 in India before moving into the Middle East, northern Africa, Russia and parts of Europe. (cbc.ca)
  • The sixth pandemic started in India and lasted from 1899 to 1923. (wikipedia.org)
  • Here's a question for you: Historical records show that another pandemic will occur, but no one knows when. (scienceblogs.com)
  • It is likely that another pandemic will strike the same percentage of the population. (encyclopedia.com)
  • One of the characteristics of influenza pandemics is the high incidence of infections in all age groups because of the lack of population immunity. (cdc.gov)
  • As to how the plague ended, the best guess is that the majority of people in a pandemic somehow survive, and those who survive have immunity. (history.com)
  • The second pandemic started in India and reached Russia by 1830 before continuing into Finland and Poland. (cbc.ca)
  • this pandemic was estimated to be responsible for the deaths of approximately 50-100 million people. (wikipedia.org)
  • The word pandemic comes from the Greek pandemos meaning "pertaining to all people. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • The Spanish flu was the worst pandemic in history, killing 100 million people. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • A pandemic is when a disease spreads across a wide geographical area and affects many people. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • Most people played Pandemic, sometimes multiple games and various expansions. (google.com)
  • With about 301,717,000 people in the United States in 2007, a pandemic could sicken over 90 million people in America alone. (encyclopedia.com)
  • Pandemic influenza is different from 'ordinary' seasonal flu, which for most people is an unpleasant illness but runs its natural course (sometimes referred to as 'self-limiting') and is not life-endangering. (hse.gov.uk)
  • Meanwhile, people around the world must face the facts, when it comes to either the military or the medical pandemics that so far still do not exist! (rense.com)
  • Pandemics are bad and they kill people. (scienceblogs.com)
  • Deaths in India between 1817 and 1860, in the first three pandemics of the nineteenth century, are estimated to have exceeded 15 million people. (wikipedia.org)
  • Over the last century there have been quite a lot of breakouts of pandemics, with the continuous media coverage, common people are also quite aware of the likelihood it may cause. (amazonaws.com)
  • And while 40% of respondents said they are ready to take a trip overseas, the volatile pandemic situation means people may change their mind at any time. (bangkokpost.com)
  • By 1981, the rest of the world began to recognize the pandemic, which has now infected 33 million people and killed 25 million. (reuters.com)
  • The Spanish flu pandemic killed at least 50 million people worldwide. (pressherald.com)
  • In the new study, scientists suggest that your beloved furry companion could trigger a flu pandemic among people in the future. (webmd.com)
  • The ongoing pandemic has spurred a rise in "revenge bedtime procrastination," when people stay up late despite knowing the consequences to take revenge on a long, stressful workday. (nationalgeographic.com)
  • And as the pandemic has dragged on, more people found themselves vulnerable to the stress and uncertainty that drives procrastination. (nationalgeographic.com)
  • More than 50 million people have filed such claims since the pandemic started in March. (aarp.org)
  • That's according to a recent survey of 2,000 people, which asked respondents to describe how living through the pandemic has physically affected not just their health but their relationship to their own physical bodies. (yahoo.com)
  • People without the usual kind of antibodies that protect against flu may have other kinds of protective antibodies or other kinds of immune protection against the pandemic flu bug. (webmd.com)
  • In the past 200 hundred years, seven cholera pandemics have killed millions across the globe. (cbc.ca)
  • The discovery of a new species of the cholera bacteria (O139) in Bangladesh in 1992, which has since been detected in 11 countries, has raised the possibility and fear of an eighth pandemic. (cbc.ca)
  • Seven cholera pandemics have occurred in the past 200 years, with the first pandemic originating in India in 1817. (wikipedia.org)
  • Between 1816 and 1923, the first six cholera pandemics occurred consecutively and continuously over time. (wikipedia.org)
  • The first cholera pandemic occurred in the Bengal region of India, near Calcutta (now Kolkata), starting in 1817 through 1824. (wikipedia.org)
  • Influenza ward at Walter Reed Hospital , in Washington, D.C. during the Spanish flu pandemic of 1918-1919. (wikipedia.org)
  • In contrast to the regular seasonal epidemics of influenza, these pandemics occur irregularly - there have been about 9 influenza pandemics during the last 300 years. (wikipedia.org)
  • If an infection becomes widespread in several countries at the same time, it may turn into a pandemic. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • If an infection becomes widespread in several countries at the same time, it can become a pandemic. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • The widespread nature of a pandemic means that there will be insufficient production capacity to supply everyone seeking vaccine with medication, at least in the initial months of an outbreak. (encyclopedia.com)
  • In Europe, pandemic influenza transmission remains geographically widespread throughout the continent, however, overall activity continued to decline substantially since November. (who.int)
  • Will they provide you with antiviral medications, medical care, and/or a pandemic vaccine, if available? (state.gov)
  • However, we don't know how effective antiviral medications such as Tamiflu® (oseltamivir) and Relenza® (zanamivir) would be in treating H5N1 in a pandemic situation. (state.gov)
  • Outbreaks and Pandemics: What's Next? (rwjf.org)
  • TOKYO (Reuters) - Tumbling numbers of pregnancies and marriages in Japan during the coronavirus pandemic are likely to intensify a demographic crisis in the rapidly ageing nation. (reuters.com)
  • For "Outbreak Week" we've already covered the deadliest pandemics in human history . (rwjf.org)
  • Three of the deadliest pandemics in recorded history were caused by a single bacterium, Yersinia pestis , a fatal infection otherwise known as the plague. (history.com)
  • On March 11, the World Health Organization (WHO) advised that this disease has the characteristics of a pandemic. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • Accordingly, a number of governments, mostly in developed nations, along with the World Health Organization (WHO), have developed plans to tackle an influenza pandemic. (encyclopedia.com)
  • Even before the World Health Organization declared its phony pandemic last summer, its designated fibber-in-chief has been Keiji Fukuda. (amazonaws.com)
  • Unless, that is, you use the old definition of pandemic before the World Health Organization made it so that severity no longer counts. (amazonaws.com)
  • As World War I came to an end, one of the most deadly pandemics the world has know infected one fifth of the world's population, causing more deaths than the war had itself. (angelfire.com)
  • In fact, influenza caused the greatest pandemic in humanity's history in terms of the actual number of deaths. (springer.com)
  • The misnamed "Spanish Flu" of 1918, in contrast to most influenza pandemics that target infants and the elderly, hit especially hard among younger adults, and caused more deaths than any great war. (springer.com)
  • The Asian flu pandemic, for example, was responsible in 1957 for some 80,000 deaths in the USA, and around two million worldwide. (springer.com)
  • The Friday jobs totals were accompanied by even more somber milestones, as Newsom reported 95 coronavirus deaths in California on Thursday, the highest one-day tally since the pandemic began ravaging the state. (mercurynews.com)
  • As I pointed out upon the WHO's pandemic declaration in June, the previous definition required "enormous numbers of deaths. (amazonaws.com)
  • Top Trump administration officials say drug overdose deaths are surging amid the coronavirus pandemic, driven by increased substance use due to anxiety, social isolation and depression. (politico.com)
  • The pandemic has caused my level of concern to go up," White House drug czar Jim Carroll told POLITICO in an interview, acknowledging that overdose deaths were already starting to rise in the past year, after posting the first decline in three decades in 2018. (politico.com)
  • Another group of scientists saw these test results as evidence against the theory that Pfeiffer s bacillus was the cause of the pandemic. (angelfire.com)
  • But past flu pandemics, it turns out, don't teach much about whether today's bird flu will become a human mega-killer or just make some scientists and officials look like Chicken Little. (ocregister.com)
  • Because scientists don't know how that evolution happened or how long it took, they can't tell us whether what we're seeing with bird flu now is the run-up to a pandemic or a near miss. (ocregister.com)
  • Leading scientists now discount the notion that flu pandemics happen in regular intervals and that the world is overdue for a new one. (ocregister.com)
  • Thailand and Japan have had a strong bond in tourism exchange for years -- in 2019, 1.3 million Thais travelled to Japan and 1.8 million Japanese tourists visited Thailand -- but due to the volatility generated by the pandemic in both countries, there are good reasons to believe those good old days will not likely return within this year. (bangkokpost.com)
  • Matthew Messina, D.D.S., dental clinic director of Ohio State University Upper Arlington Dentistry, notes that he made more bite guards (which reduce teeth grinding) during two months of the pandemic than he made in all of 2019. (aarp.org)
  • 4 Perhaps not, and certainly not in comparison with what had taken place nearly four decades before, but those who suffered and survived the 1957 pandemic can attest to the truly debilitating nature of the Asian flu while it lasted. (springer.com)
  • Since 2006, the Department of Homeland Security has required that all agencies create and maintain pandemic preparation. (irs.gov)
  • This IRM is to provide guidance to meet requirements from the Department of Homeland Security in preparing a Pandemic Plan for the IRS. (irs.gov)
  • TUESDAY, June 5, 2018 (HealthDay News) -- Dog lovers might be distressed by the latest research on flu pandemics. (webmd.com)