Influenza, Human: An acute viral infection in humans involving the respiratory tract. It is marked by inflammation of the NASAL MUCOSA; the PHARYNX; and conjunctiva, and by headache and severe, often generalized, myalgia.Influenza A virus: The type species of the genus INFLUENZAVIRUS A that causes influenza and other diseases in humans and animals. Antigenic variation occurs frequently between strains, allowing classification into subtypes and variants. Transmission is usually by aerosol (human and most non-aquatic hosts) or waterborne (ducks). Infected birds shed the virus in their saliva, nasal secretions, and feces.Influenza in Birds: Infection of domestic and wild fowl and other BIRDS with INFLUENZA A VIRUS. Avian influenza usually does not sicken birds, but can be highly pathogenic and fatal in domestic POULTRY.Influenza A Virus, H1N1 Subtype: A subtype of INFLUENZA A VIRUS with the surface proteins hemagglutinin 1 and neuraminidase 1. The H1N1 subtype was responsible for the Spanish flu pandemic of 1918.Influenza A Virus, H5N1 Subtype: A subtype of INFLUENZA A VIRUS comprised of the surface proteins hemagglutinin 5 and neuraminidase 1. The H5N1 subtype, frequently referred to as the bird flu virus, is endemic in wild birds and very contagious among both domestic (POULTRY) and wild birds. It does not usually infect humans, but some cases have been reported.Pandemics: Epidemics of infectious disease that have spread to many countries, often more than one continent, and usually affecting a large number of people.Influenza Vaccines: Vaccines used to prevent infection by viruses in the family ORTHOMYXOVIRIDAE. It includes both killed and attenuated vaccines. The composition of the vaccines is changed each year in response to antigenic shifts and changes in prevalence of influenza virus strains. The vaccine is usually bivalent or trivalent, containing one or two INFLUENZAVIRUS A strains and one INFLUENZAVIRUS B strain.Influenza A Virus, H3N2 Subtype: A subtype of INFLUENZA A VIRUS comprised of the surface proteins hemagglutinin 3 and neuraminidase 2. The H3N2 subtype was responsible for the Hong Kong flu pandemic of 1968.Hemagglutinin Glycoproteins, Influenza Virus: Membrane glycoproteins from influenza viruses which are involved in hemagglutination, virus attachment, and envelope fusion. Fourteen distinct subtypes of HA glycoproteins and nine of NA glycoproteins have been identified from INFLUENZA A VIRUS; no subtypes have been identified for Influenza B or Influenza C viruses.Influenza B virus: Species of the genus INFLUENZAVIRUS B that cause HUMAN INFLUENZA and other diseases primarily in humans. Antigenic variation is less extensive than in type A viruses (INFLUENZA A VIRUS) and consequently there is no basis for distinct subtypes or variants. Epidemics are less likely than with INFLUENZA A VIRUS and there have been no pandemics. Previously only found in humans, Influenza B virus has been isolated from seals which may constitute the animal reservoir from which humans are exposed.Birds: Warm-blooded VERTEBRATES possessing FEATHERS and belonging to the class Aves.Influenza A Virus, H9N2 Subtype: A subtype of INFLUENZA A VIRUS comprised of the surface proteins hemagglutinin 9 and neuraminidase 2. The H9N2 subtype usually infects domestic birds (POULTRY) but there have been some human infections reported.Orthomyxoviridae Infections: Virus diseases caused by the ORTHOMYXOVIRIDAE.Poultry: Domesticated birds raised for food. It typically includes CHICKENS; TURKEYS, DUCKS; GEESE; and others.Influenza A Virus, H7N7 Subtype: A subtype of INFLUENZA A VIRUS comprised of the surface proteins hemagglutinin 7 and neuraminidase 7. The H7N7 subtype produced an epidemic in 2003 which was highly pathogenic among domestic birds (POULTRY). Some infections in humans were reported.Influenza A Virus, H5N2 Subtype: A subtype of INFLUENZA A VIRUS comprised of the surface proteins hemagglutinin 5 and neuraminidase 2. The H5N2 subtype has been found to be highly pathogenic in chickens.Disease Outbreaks: Sudden increase in the incidence of a disease. The concept includes EPIDEMICS and PANDEMICS.Orthomyxoviridae: A family of RNA viruses causing INFLUENZA and other diseases. There are five recognized genera: INFLUENZAVIRUS A; INFLUENZAVIRUS B; INFLUENZAVIRUS C; ISAVIRUS; and THOGOTOVIRUS.DucksNeuraminidase: An enzyme that catalyzes the hydrolysis of alpha-2,3, alpha-2,6-, and alpha-2,8-glycosidic linkages (at a decreasing rate, respectively) of terminal sialic residues in oligosaccharides, glycoproteins, glycolipids, colominic acid, and synthetic substrate. (From Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992)Reassortant Viruses: Viruses containing two or more pieces of nucleic acid (segmented genome) from different parents. Such viruses are produced in cells coinfected with different strains of a given virus.Influenza A Virus, H7N9 Subtype: A subtype of INFLUENZA A VIRUS with the surface proteins hemagglutinin 7 and neuraminidase 9. This avian origin virus was first identified in humans in 2013.Anseriformes: An order of BIRDS comprising the waterfowl, particularly DUCKS; GEESE; swans; and screamers.Hemagglutination Inhibition Tests: Serologic tests in which a known quantity of antigen is added to the serum prior to the addition of a red cell suspension. Reaction result is expressed as the smallest amount of antigen which causes complete inhibition of hemagglutination.Influenza A Virus, H3N8 Subtype: A subtype of INFLUENZA A VIRUS comprised of the surface proteins hemagglutinin 3 and neuraminidase 8. The H3N8 subtype has frequently been found in horses.Oseltamivir: An acetamido cyclohexene that is a structural homolog of SIALIC ACID and inhibits NEURAMINIDASE.Hemagglutinins, Viral: Specific hemagglutinin subtypes encoded by VIRUSES.Influenza A Virus, H2N2 Subtype: A subtype of INFLUENZA A VIRUS comprised of the surface proteins hemagglutinin 2 and neuraminidase 2. The H2N2 subtype was responsible for the Asian flu pandemic of 1957.Antibodies, Viral: Immunoglobulins produced in response to VIRAL ANTIGENS.Virus Replication: The process of intracellular viral multiplication, consisting of the synthesis of PROTEINS; NUCLEIC ACIDS; and sometimes LIPIDS, and their assembly into a new infectious particle.Virus Shedding: The expelling of virus particles from the body. Important routes include the respiratory tract, genital tract, and intestinal tract. Virus shedding is an important means of vertical transmission (INFECTIOUS DISEASE TRANSMISSION, VERTICAL).Chickens: Common name for the species Gallus gallus, the domestic fowl, in the family Phasianidae, order GALLIFORMES. It is descended from the red jungle fowl of SOUTHEAST ASIA.Phylogeny: The relationships of groups of organisms as reflected by their genetic makeup.Cloaca: A dilated cavity extended caudally from the hindgut. In adult birds, reptiles, amphibians, and many fishes but few mammals, cloaca is a common chamber into which the digestive, urinary and reproductive tracts discharge their contents. In most mammals, cloaca gives rise to LARGE INTESTINE; URINARY BLADDER; and GENITALIA.Poultry Diseases: Diseases of birds which are raised as a source of meat or eggs for human consumption and are usually found in barnyards, hatcheries, etc. The concept is differentiated from BIRD DISEASES which is for diseases of birds not considered poultry and usually found in zoos, parks, and the wild.Receptors, Virus: Specific molecular components of the cell capable of recognizing and interacting with a virus, and which, after binding it, are capable of generating some signal that initiates the chain of events leading to the biological response.Antiviral Agents: Agents used in the prophylaxis or therapy of VIRUS DISEASES. Some of the ways they may act include preventing viral replication by inhibiting viral DNA polymerase; binding to specific cell-surface receptors and inhibiting viral penetration or uncoating; inhibiting viral protein synthesis; or blocking late stages of virus assembly.Influenza A Virus, H7N3 Subtype: A subtype of INFLUENZA A VIRUS comprised of the surface proteins hemagglutinin 7 and neuraminidase 3. It was first detected in turkeys in Britain in 1963 and there have been several outbreaks on poultry farms since that time. A couple cases of human infections have been reported.Seasons: Divisions of the year according to some regularly recurrent phenomena usually astronomical or climatic. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Influenza A Virus, H7N1 Subtype: A subtype of INFLUENZA A VIRUS comprised of the surface proteins hemagglutinin 7 and neuraminidase 1. This subtype has demonstrated the ability to mutate from a low pathogenic form to a highly pathogenic form in birds. It was responsible for a 1999 outbreak in turkeys in Italy.Viral Proteins: Proteins found in any species of virus.Zoonoses: Diseases of non-human animals that may be transmitted to HUMANS or may be transmitted from humans to non-human animals.Virus Diseases: A general term for diseases produced by viruses.Viruses: Minute infectious agents whose genomes are composed of DNA or RNA, but not both. They are characterized by a lack of independent metabolism and the inability to replicate outside living host cells.Influenza A Virus, H1N2 Subtype: A subtype of INFLUENZA A VIRUS comprised of the surface proteins hemagglutinin 1 and neuraminidase 2. It is endemic in both human and pig populations.RNA, Viral: Ribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of viruses.RNA Viruses: Viruses whose genetic material is RNA.Vaccination: Administration of vaccines to stimulate the host's immune response. This includes any preparation intended for active immunological prophylaxis.Animals, Wild: Animals considered to be wild or feral or not adapted for domestic use. It does not include wild animals in zoos for which ANIMALS, ZOO is available.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Vaccines, Inactivated: Vaccines in which the infectious microbial nucleic acid components have been destroyed by chemical or physical treatment (e.g., formalin, beta-propiolactone, gamma radiation) without affecting the antigenicity or immunogenicity of the viral coat or bacterial outer membrane proteins.Antigens, Viral: Substances elaborated by viruses that have antigenic activity.GeeseInfluenza A Virus, H7N2 Subtype: A subtype of INFLUENZA A VIRUS comprised of the surface proteins hemagglutinin 7 and neuraminidase 2. It has been involved in a number of outbreaks in the 21st century on poultry farms and has been isolated a few times in humans.Communicable Diseases, Emerging: Infectious diseases that are novel in their outbreak ranges (geographic and host) or transmission mode.Virus Cultivation: Process of growing viruses in live animals, plants, or cultured cells.Cell Line: Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.Madin Darby Canine Kidney Cells: An epithelial cell line derived from a kidney of a normal adult female dog.Zanamivir: A guanido-neuraminic acid that is used to inhibit NEURAMINIDASE.Ferrets: Semidomesticated variety of European polecat much used for hunting RODENTS and/or RABBITS and as a laboratory animal. It is in the subfamily Mustelinae, family MUSTELIDAE.Genes, Viral: The functional hereditary units of VIRUSES.Dogs: The domestic dog, Canis familiaris, comprising about 400 breeds, of the carnivore family CANIDAE. They are worldwide in distribution and live in association with people. (Walker's Mammals of the World, 5th ed, p1065)Hemagglutinins: Agents that cause agglutination of red blood cells. They include antibodies, blood group antigens, lectins, autoimmune factors, bacterial, viral, or parasitic blood agglutinins, etc.Amantadine: An antiviral that is used in the prophylactic or symptomatic treatment of influenza A. It is also used as an antiparkinsonian agent, to treat extrapyramidal reactions, and for postherpetic neuralgia. The mechanisms of its effects in movement disorders are not well understood but probably reflect an increase in synthesis and release of dopamine, with perhaps some inhibition of dopamine uptake.Cross Protection: Protection conferred on a host by inoculation with one strain or component of a microorganism that prevents infection when later challenged with a similar strain. Most commonly the microorganism is a virus.Vaccinia virus: The type species of ORTHOPOXVIRUS, related to COWPOX VIRUS, but whose true origin is unknown. It has been used as a live vaccine against SMALLPOX. It is also used as a vector for inserting foreign DNA into animals. Rabbitpox virus is a subspecies of VACCINIA VIRUS.Sentinel Surveillance: Monitoring of rate of occurrence of specific conditions to assess the stability or change in health levels of a population. It is also the study of disease rates in a specific cohort such as in a geographic area or population subgroup to estimate trends in a larger population. (From Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)Bird Diseases: Diseases of birds not considered poultry, therefore usually found in zoos, parks, and the wild. The concept is differentiated from POULTRY DISEASES which is for birds raised as a source of meat or eggs for human consumption, and usually found in barnyards, hatcheries, etc.Virulence: The degree of pathogenicity within a group or species of microorganisms or viruses as indicated by case fatality rates and/or the ability of the organism to invade the tissues of the host. The pathogenic capacity of an organism is determined by its VIRULENCE FACTORS.Charadriiformes: An order of BIRDS including over 300 species that primarily inhabit coastal waters, beaches, and marshes. They are comprised of shorebirds, gulls, and terns.Pneumonia, Viral: Inflammation of the lung parenchyma that is caused by a viral infection.Sequence Analysis, DNA: A multistage process that includes cloning, physical mapping, subcloning, determination of the DNA SEQUENCE, and information analysis.Swine: Any of various animals that constitute the family Suidae and comprise stout-bodied, short-legged omnivorous mammals with thick skin, usually covered with coarse bristles, a rather long mobile snout, and small tail. Included are the genera Babyrousa, Phacochoerus (wart hogs), and Sus, the latter containing the domestic pig (see SUS SCROFA).Animal Migration: Periodic movements of animals in response to seasonal changes or reproductive instinct. Hormonal changes are the trigger in at least some animals. Most migrations are made for reasons of climatic change, feeding, or breeding.RNA Replicase: An enzyme that catalyses RNA-template-directed extension of the 3'- end of an RNA strand by one nucleotide at a time, and can initiate a chain de novo. (Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992, p293)Enterovirus: A genus of the family PICORNAVIRIDAE whose members preferentially inhabit the intestinal tract of a variety of hosts. The genus contains many species. Newly described members of human enteroviruses are assigned continuous numbers with the species designated "human enterovirus".Host-Pathogen Interactions: The interactions between a host and a pathogen, usually resulting in disease.Amino Acid Sequence: The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.Population Surveillance: Ongoing scrutiny of a population (general population, study population, target population, etc.), generally using methods distinguished by their practicability, uniformity, and frequently their rapidity, rather than by complete accuracy.Vaccines, Attenuated: Live vaccines prepared from microorganisms which have undergone physical adaptation (e.g., by radiation or temperature conditioning) or serial passage in laboratory animal hosts or infected tissue/cell cultures, in order to produce avirulent mutant strains capable of inducing protective immunity.Virology: The study of the structure, growth, function, genetics, and reproduction of viruses, and VIRUS DISEASES.Viral Matrix Proteins: Proteins associated with the inner surface of the lipid bilayer of the viral envelope. These proteins have been implicated in control of viral transcription and may possibly serve as the "glue" that binds the nucleocapsid to the appropriate membrane site during viral budding from the host cell.Cross Reactions: Serological reactions in which an antiserum against one antigen reacts with a non-identical but closely related antigen.Species Specificity: The restriction of a characteristic behavior, anatomical structure or physical system, such as immune response; metabolic response, or gene or gene variant to the members of one species. It refers to that property which differentiates one species from another but it is also used for phylogenetic levels higher or lower than the species.Genome, Viral: The complete genetic complement contained in a DNA or RNA molecule in a virus.Quarantine: Restriction of freedom of movement of individuals who have been exposed to infectious or communicable disease in order to prevent its spread; a period of detention of vessels, vehicles, or travelers coming from infected or suspected places; and detention or isolation on account of suspected contagion. It includes government regulations on the detention of animals at frontiers or ports of entrance for the prevention of infectious disease, through a period of isolation before being allowed to enter a country. (From Dorland, 28th ed & Black's Veterinary Dictionary, 17th ed)Influenzavirus A: A genus in the family ORTHOMYXOVIRIDAE causing influenza and other diseases in humans and animals. It contains many strains as well as antigenic subtypes of the integral membrane proteins hemagglutinin (HEMAGGLUTININS) and NEURAMINIDASE. The type species is INFLUENZA A VIRUS.Oncogenic Viruses: Viruses that produce tumors.Neutralization Tests: The measurement of infection-blocking titer of ANTISERA by testing a series of dilutions for a given virus-antiserum interaction end-point, which is generally the dilution at which tissue cultures inoculated with the serum-virus mixtures demonstrate cytopathology (CPE) or the dilution at which 50% of test animals injected with serum-virus mixtures show infectivity (ID50) or die (LD50).Chick Embryo: The developmental entity of a fertilized chicken egg (ZYGOTE). The developmental process begins about 24 h before the egg is laid at the BLASTODISC, a small whitish spot on the surface of the EGG YOLK. After 21 days of incubation, the embryo is fully developed before hatching.Shellfish: Aquatic invertebrates belonging to the phylum MOLLUSCA or the subphylum CRUSTACEA, and used as food.Nucleoproteins: Proteins conjugated with nucleic acids.China: A country spanning from central Asia to the Pacific Ocean.Disaster Planning: Procedures outlined for the care of casualties and the maintenance of services in disasters.Virus Inactivation: Inactivation of viruses by non-immune related techniques. They include extremes of pH, HEAT treatment, ultraviolet radiation, IONIZING RADIATION; DESICCATION; ANTISEPTICS; DISINFECTANTS; organic solvents, and DETERGENTS.Hong Kong: The former British crown colony located off the southeast coast of China, comprised of Hong Kong Island, Kowloon Peninsula, and New Territories. The three sites were ceded to the British by the Chinese respectively in 1841, 1860, and 1898. Hong Kong reverted to China in July 1997. The name represents the Cantonese pronunciation of the Chinese xianggang, fragrant port, from xiang, perfume and gang, port or harbor, with reference to its currents sweetened by fresh water from a river west of it.Communicable Disease Control: Programs of surveillance designed to prevent the transmission of disease by any means from person to person or from animal to man.Mice, Inbred BALB CInfluenzavirus C: A genus of the family ORTHOMYXOVIRIDAE comprising viruses similar to types A and B but less common, more stable, more homogeneous, and lacking the neuraminidase protein. They have not been associated with epidemics but may cause mild influenza. Influenza C virus is the type species.Lung: Either of the pair of organs occupying the cavity of the thorax that effect the aeration of the blood.Virus Assembly: The assembly of VIRAL STRUCTURAL PROTEINS and nucleic acid (VIRAL DNA or VIRAL RNA) to form a VIRUS PARTICLE.Rimantadine: An RNA synthesis inhibitor that is used as an antiviral agent in the prophylaxis and treatment of influenza.Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction: A variation of the PCR technique in which cDNA is made from RNA via reverse transcription. The resultant cDNA is then amplified using standard PCR protocols.Swine Diseases: Diseases of domestic swine and of the wild boar of the genus Sus.DNA, Viral: Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of viruses.Respiratory System: The tubular and cavernous organs and structures, by means of which pulmonary ventilation and gas exchange between ambient air and the blood are brought about.Antibodies, Neutralizing: Antibodies that reduce or abolish some biological activity of a soluble antigen or infectious agent, usually a virus.Disease Transmission, Infectious: The transmission of infectious disease or pathogens. When transmission is within the same species, the mode can be horizontal or vertical (INFECTIOUS DISEASE TRANSMISSION, VERTICAL).VietnamDefective Viruses: Viruses which lack a complete genome so that they cannot completely replicate or cannot form a protein coat. Some are host-dependent defectives, meaning they can replicate only in cell systems which provide the particular genetic function which they lack. Others, called SATELLITE VIRUSES, are able to replicate only when their genetic defect is complemented by a helper virus.Viral Core Proteins: Proteins found mainly in icosahedral DNA and RNA viruses. They consist of proteins directly associated with the nucleic acid inside the NUCLEOCAPSID.Simian virus 40: A species of POLYOMAVIRUS originally isolated from Rhesus monkey kidney tissue. It produces malignancy in human and newborn hamster kidney cell cultures.Epidemics: Sudden outbreaks of a disease in a country or region not previously recognized in that area, or a rapid increase in the number of new cases of a previous existing endemic disease. Epidemics can also refer to outbreaks of disease in animal or plant populations.Drug Resistance, Viral: The ability of viruses to resist or to become tolerant to chemotherapeutic agents or antiviral agents. This resistance is acquired through gene mutation.Polysorbates: Sorbitan mono-9-octadecanoate poly(oxy-1,2-ethanediyl) derivatives; complex mixtures of polyoxyethylene ethers used as emulsifiers or dispersing agents in pharmaceuticals.Virus Attachment: The binding of virus particles to receptors on the host cell surface. For enveloped viruses, the virion ligand is usually a surface glycoprotein as is the cellular receptor. For non-enveloped viruses, the virus CAPSID serves as the ligand.Viral Plaque Assay: Method for measuring viral infectivity and multiplication in CULTURED CELLS. Clear lysed areas or plaques develop as the VIRAL PARTICLES are released from the infected cells during incubation. With some VIRUSES, the cells are killed by a cytopathic effect; with others, the infected cells are not killed but can be detected by their hemadsorptive ability. Sometimes the plaque cells contain VIRAL ANTIGENS which can be measured by IMMUNOFLUORESCENCE.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.PyransReverse Genetics: The use of techniques that produce a functional MUTATION or an effect on GENE EXPRESSION of a specific gene of interest in order to identify the role or activity of the gene product of that gene.Polymerase Chain Reaction: In vitro method for producing large amounts of specific DNA or RNA fragments of defined length and sequence from small amounts of short oligonucleotide flanking sequences (primers). The essential steps include thermal denaturation of the double-stranded target molecules, annealing of the primers to their complementary sequences, and extension of the annealed primers by enzymatic synthesis with DNA polymerase. The reaction is efficient, specific, and extremely sensitive. Uses for the reaction include disease diagnosis, detection of difficult-to-isolate pathogens, mutation analysis, genetic testing, DNA sequencing, and analyzing evolutionary relationships.DelawareDNA Viruses: Viruses whose nucleic acid is DNA.Water Pollution: Contamination of bodies of water (such as LAKES; RIVERS; SEAS; and GROUNDWATER.)History, 20th Century: Time period from 1901 through 2000 of the common era.Hemagglutination, Viral: Agglutination of ERYTHROCYTES by a virus.Plant Viruses: Viruses parasitic on plants higher than bacteria.Turkeys: Large woodland game BIRDS in the subfamily Meleagridinae, family Phasianidae, order GALLIFORMES. Formerly they were considered a distinct family, Melegrididae.Thailand: Formerly known as Siam, this is a Southeast Asian nation at the center of the Indochina peninsula. Bangkok is the capital city.Cardiovirus: A genus of the family PICORNAVIRIDAE causing encephalitis and myocarditis in rodents. ENCEPHALOMYOCARDITIS VIRUS is the type species.Viral Nonstructural Proteins: Proteins encoded by a VIRAL GENOME that are produced in the organisms they infect, but not packaged into the VIRUS PARTICLES. Some of these proteins may play roles within the infected cell during VIRUS REPLICATION or act in regulation of virus replication or VIRUS ASSEMBLY.Respiratory Syncytial Viruses: A group of viruses in the PNEUMOVIRUS genus causing respiratory infections in various mammals. Humans and cattle are most affected but infections in goats and sheep have also been reported.Sindbis Virus: The type species of ALPHAVIRUS normally transmitted to birds by CULEX mosquitoes in Egypt, South Africa, India, Malaya, the Philippines, and Australia. It may be associated with fever in humans. Serotypes (differing by less than 17% in nucleotide sequence) include Babanki, Kyzylagach, and Ockelbo viruses.Measles virus: The type species of MORBILLIVIRUS and the cause of the highly infectious human disease MEASLES, which affects mostly children.Host Specificity: The properties of a pathogen that makes it capable of infecting one or more specific hosts. The pathogen can include PARASITES as well as VIRUSES; BACTERIA; FUNGI; or PLANTS.Mass Vaccination: Administration of a vaccine to large populations in order to elicit IMMUNITY.SqualeneAdministration, Intranasal: Delivery of medications through the nasal mucosa.Virion: The infective system of a virus, composed of the viral genome, a protein core, and a protein coat called a capsid, which may be naked or enclosed in a lipoprotein envelope called the peplos.Parvovirus: A genus of the family PARVOVIRIDAE, subfamily PARVOVIRINAE, infecting a variety of vertebrates including humans. Parvoviruses are responsible for a number of important diseases but also can be non-pathogenic in certain hosts. The type species is MINUTE VIRUS OF MICE.Base Sequence: The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.Cercopithecus aethiops: A species of CERCOPITHECUS containing three subspecies: C. tantalus, C. pygerythrus, and C. sabeus. They are found in the forests and savannah of Africa. The African green monkey (C. pygerythrus) is the natural host of SIMIAN IMMUNODEFICIENCY VIRUS and is used in AIDS research.Vero Cells: A CELL LINE derived from the kidney of the African green (vervet) monkey, (CERCOPITHECUS AETHIOPS) used primarily in virus replication studies and plaque assays.United StatesWorld Health: The concept pertaining to the health status of inhabitants of the world.Asia: The largest of the continents. It was known to the Romans more specifically as what we know today as Asia Minor. The name comes from at least two possible sources: from the Assyrian asu (to rise) or from the Sanskrit usa (dawn), both with reference to its being the land of the rising sun, i.e., eastern as opposed to Europe, to the west. (From Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p82 & Room, Brewer's Dictionary of Names, 1992, p34)Sialic Acids: A group of naturally occurring N-and O-acyl derivatives of the deoxyamino sugar neuraminic acid. They are ubiquitously distributed in many tissues.Rabies virus: The type species of LYSSAVIRUS causing rabies in humans and other animals. Transmission is mostly by animal bites through saliva. The virus is neurotropic multiplying in neurons and myotubes of vertebrates.Seroepidemiologic Studies: EPIDEMIOLOGIC STUDIES based on the detection through serological testing of characteristic change in the serum level of specific ANTIBODIES. Latent subclinical infections and carrier states can thus be detected in addition to clinically overt cases.Evolution, Molecular: The process of cumulative change at the level of DNA; RNA; and PROTEINS, over successive generations.Respiratory Tract Infections: Invasion of the host RESPIRATORY SYSTEM by microorganisms, usually leading to pathological processes or diseases.Hospitalization: The confinement of a patient in a hospital.Amino Acid Substitution: The naturally occurring or experimentally induced replacement of one or more AMINO ACIDS in a protein with another. If a functionally equivalent amino acid is substituted, the protein may retain wild-type activity. Substitution may also diminish, enhance, or eliminate protein function. Experimentally induced substitution is often used to study enzyme activities and binding site properties.Public Health Surveillance: The ongoing, systematic collection, analysis, and interpretation of health-related data with the purpose of preventing or controlling disease or injury, or of identifying unusual events of public health importance, followed by the dissemination and use of information for public health action. (From Am J Prev Med 2011;41(6):636)Nasopharynx: The top portion of the pharynx situated posterior to the nose and superior to the SOFT PALATE. The nasopharynx is the posterior extension of the nasal cavities and has a respiratory function.Recombination, Genetic: Production of new arrangements of DNA by various mechanisms such as assortment and segregation, CROSSING OVER; GENE CONVERSION; GENETIC TRANSFORMATION; GENETIC CONJUGATION; GENETIC TRANSDUCTION; or mixed infection of viruses.North AmericaViral Load: The quantity of measurable virus in a body fluid. Change in viral load, measured in plasma, is sometimes used as a SURROGATE MARKER in disease progression.Egypt: A country in northern Africa, bordering the Mediterranean Sea, between Libya and the Gaza Strip, and the Red Sea north of Sudan, and includes the Asian Sinai Peninsula Its capital is Cairo.Haplorhini: A suborder of PRIMATES consisting of six families: CEBIDAE (some New World monkeys), ATELIDAE (some New World monkeys), CERCOPITHECIDAE (Old World monkeys), HYLOBATIDAE (gibbons and siamangs), CALLITRICHINAE (marmosets and tamarins), and HOMINIDAE (humans and great apes).Adjuvants, Immunologic: Substances that augment, stimulate, activate, potentiate, or modulate the immune response at either the cellular or humoral level. The classical agents (Freund's adjuvant, BCG, Corynebacterium parvum, et al.) contain bacterial antigens. Some are endogenous (e.g., histamine, interferon, transfer factor, tuftsin, interleukin-1). Their mode of action is either non-specific, resulting in increased immune responsiveness to a wide variety of antigens, or antigen-specific, i.e., affecting a restricted type of immune response to a narrow group of antigens. The therapeutic efficacy of many biological response modifiers is related to their antigen-specific immunoadjuvanticity.Sensitivity and Specificity: Binary classification measures to assess test results. Sensitivity or recall rate is the proportion of true positives. Specificity is the probability of correctly determining the absence of a condition. (From Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)Indonesia: A republic stretching from the Indian Ocean east to New Guinea, comprising six main islands: Java, Sumatra, Bali, Kalimantan (the Indonesian portion of the island of Borneo), Sulawesi (formerly known as the Celebes) and Irian Jaya (the western part of New Guinea). Its capital is Djakarta. The ethnic groups living there are largely Chinese, Arab, Eurasian, Indian, and Pakistani; 85% of the peoples are of the Islamic faith.Disease Reservoirs: Animate or inanimate sources which normally harbor disease-causing organisms and thus serve as potential sources of disease outbreaks. Reservoirs are distinguished from vectors (DISEASE VECTORS) and carriers, which are agents of disease transmission rather than continuing sources of potential disease outbreaks.Vesicular stomatitis Indiana virus: The type species of VESICULOVIRUS causing a disease symptomatically similar to FOOT-AND-MOUTH DISEASE in cattle, horses, and pigs. It may be transmitted to other species including humans, where it causes influenza-like symptoms.Basic Reproduction Number: The expected number of new cases of an infection caused by an infected individual, in a population consisting of susceptible contacts only.Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay: An immunoassay utilizing an antibody labeled with an enzyme marker such as horseradish peroxidase. While either the enzyme or the antibody is bound to an immunosorbent substrate, they both retain their biologic activity; the change in enzyme activity as a result of the enzyme-antibody-antigen reaction is proportional to the concentration of the antigen and can be measured spectrophotometrically or with the naked eye. Many variations of the method have been developed.N-Acetylneuraminic Acid: An N-acyl derivative of neuraminic acid. N-acetylneuraminic acid occurs in many polysaccharides, glycoproteins, and glycolipids in animals and bacteria. (From Dorland, 28th ed, p1518)Hemagglutination Tests: Sensitive tests to measure certain antigens, antibodies, or viruses, using their ability to agglutinate certain erythrocytes. (From Stedman, 26th ed)Specific Pathogen-Free Organisms: Animals or humans raised in the absence of a particular disease-causing virus or other microorganism. Less frequently plants are cultivated pathogen-free.Hepatitis B virus: The type species of the genus ORTHOHEPADNAVIRUS which causes human HEPATITIS B and is also apparently a causal agent in human HEPATOCELLULAR CARCINOMA. The Dane particle is an intact hepatitis virion, named after its discoverer. Non-infectious spherical and tubular particles are also seen in the serum.West Nile virus: A species of FLAVIVIRUS, one of the Japanese encephalitis virus group (ENCEPHALITIS VIRUSES, JAPANESE). It can infect birds and mammals. In humans, it is seen most frequently in Africa, Asia, and Europe presenting as a silent infection or undifferentiated fever (WEST NILE FEVER). The virus appeared in North America for the first time in 1999. It is transmitted mainly by CULEX spp mosquitoes which feed primarily on birds, but it can also be carried by the Asian Tiger mosquito, AEDES albopictus, which feeds mainly on mammals.Serial Passage: Inoculation of a series of animals or in vitro tissue with an infectious bacterium or virus, as in VIRULENCE studies and the development of vaccines.Disease Models, Animal: Naturally occurring or experimentally induced animal diseases with pathological processes sufficiently similar to those of human diseases. They are used as study models for human diseases.Epidemiological Monitoring: Collection, analysis, and interpretation of data about the frequency, distribution, and consequences of disease or health conditions, for use in the planning, implementing, and evaluating public health programs.Genetic Variation: Genotypic differences observed among individuals in a population.Water Microbiology: The presence of bacteria, viruses, and fungi in water. This term is not restricted to pathogenic organisms.Gene Expression Regulation, Viral: Any of the processes by which cytoplasmic factors influence the differential control of gene action in viruses.Sequence Homology: The degree of similarity between sequences. Studies of AMINO ACID SEQUENCE HOMOLOGY and NUCLEIC ACID SEQUENCE HOMOLOGY provide useful information about the genetic relatedness of genes, gene products, and species.Antigenic Variation: Change in the surface ANTIGEN of a microorganism. There are two different types. One is a phenomenon, especially associated with INFLUENZA VIRUSES, where they undergo spontaneous variation both as slow antigenic drift and sudden emergence of new strains (antigenic shift). The second type is when certain PARASITES, especially trypanosomes, PLASMODIUM, and BORRELIA, survive the immune response of the host by changing the surface coat (antigen switching). (From Herbert et al., The Dictionary of Immunology, 4th ed)Virus Activation: The mechanism by which latent viruses, such as genetically transmitted tumor viruses (PROVIRUSES) or PROPHAGES of lysogenic bacteria, are induced to replicate and then released as infectious viruses. It may be effected by various endogenous and exogenous stimuli, including B-cell LIPOPOLYSACCHARIDES, glucocorticoid hormones, halogenated pyrimidines, IONIZING RADIATION, ultraviolet light, and superinfecting viruses.Parainfluenza Virus 1, Human: A species of RESPIROVIRUS also called hemadsorption virus 2 (HA2), which causes laryngotracheitis in humans, especially children.Adenoviruses, Human: Species of the genus MASTADENOVIRUS, causing a wide range of diseases in humans. Infections are mostly asymptomatic, but can be associated with diseases of the respiratory, ocular, and gastrointestinal systems. Serotypes (named with Arabic numbers) have been grouped into species designated Human adenovirus A-F.Genetic Vectors: DNA molecules capable of autonomous replication within a host cell and into which other DNA sequences can be inserted and thus amplified. Many are derived from PLASMIDS; BACTERIOPHAGES; or VIRUSES. They are used for transporting foreign genes into recipient cells. Genetic vectors possess a functional replicator site and contain GENETIC MARKERS to facilitate their selective recognition.Viral Tropism: The specificity of a virus for infecting a particular type of cell or tissue.Vaccines, Synthetic: Small synthetic peptides that mimic surface antigens of pathogens and are immunogenic, or vaccines manufactured with the aid of recombinant DNA techniques. The latter vaccines may also be whole viruses whose nucleic acids have been modified.Infant, Newborn: An infant during the first month after birth.Cytopathogenic Effect, Viral: Visible morphologic changes in cells infected with viruses. It includes shutdown of cellular RNA and protein synthesis, cell fusion, release of lysosomal enzymes, changes in cell membrane permeability, diffuse changes in intracellular structures, presence of viral inclusion bodies, and chromosomal aberrations. It excludes malignant transformation, which is CELL TRANSFORMATION, VIRAL. Viral cytopathogenic effects provide a valuable method for identifying and classifying the infecting viruses.Military Facilities: Areas designated for use by the armed forces personnel.Immunization Programs: Organized services to administer immunization procedures in the prevention of various diseases. The programs are made available over a wide range of sites: schools, hospitals, public health agencies, voluntary health agencies, etc. They are administered to an equally wide range of population groups or on various administrative levels: community, municipal, state, national, international.Cells, Cultured: Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.Immunization: Deliberate stimulation of the host's immune response. ACTIVE IMMUNIZATION involves administration of ANTIGENS or IMMUNOLOGIC ADJUVANTS. PASSIVE IMMUNIZATION involves administration of IMMUNE SERA or LYMPHOCYTES or their extracts (e.g., transfer factor, immune RNA) or transplantation of immunocompetent cell producing tissue (thymus or bone marrow).Myxovirus Resistance Proteins: Interferon-induced DYNAMIN-like GTP-binding proteins localized in the cytoplasm, nuclear pore complex and nucleus. They play a role in antiviral defense and immunity.Epitopes: Sites on an antigen that interact with specific antibodies.Geography: The science dealing with the earth and its life, especially the description of land, sea, and air and the distribution of plant and animal life, including humanity and human industries with reference to the mutual relations of these elements. (From Webster, 3d ed)Antibody Formation: The production of ANTIBODIES by proliferating and differentiated B-LYMPHOCYTES under stimulation by ANTIGENS.Newcastle Disease: An acute febrile, contagious, viral disease of birds caused by an AVULAVIRUS called NEWCASTLE DISEASE VIRUS. It is characterized by respiratory and nervous symptoms in fowl and is transmissible to man causing a severe, but transient conjunctivitis.Pharynx: A funnel-shaped fibromuscular tube that conducts food to the ESOPHAGUS, and air to the LARYNX and LUNGS. It is located posterior to the NASAL CAVITY; ORAL CAVITY; and LARYNX, and extends from the SKULL BASE to the inferior border of the CRICOID CARTILAGE anteriorly and to the inferior border of the C6 vertebra posteriorly. It is divided into the NASOPHARYNX; OROPHARYNX; and HYPOPHARYNX (laryngopharynx).Respiratory Syncytial Virus Infections: Pneumovirus infections caused by the RESPIRATORY SYNCYTIAL VIRUSES. Humans and cattle are most affected but infections in goats and sheep have been reported.MexicoReal-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction: Methods used for detecting the amplified DNA products from the polymerase chain reaction as they accumulate instead of at the end of the reaction.
"Working with highly pathogenic avian influenza virus". UK Health and Safety Executive. Retrieved August 2, 2014. "N95 Factsheet ... during the 2007 bird flu pandemic in Japan, and during the 2009 flu pandemic featuring swine flu and the H1N1 virus in the ... Human Services. October 2006. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2016-03-04. " ... "Interim guidance on planning for the use of surgical masks and respirators in health care settings during an influenza pandemic ...
Global spread of H5N1 in 2004
... highly pathogenic avian influenza virus (HPAI) found in multiple bird species. It is both epizootic (an epidemic in non-humans ... influenza experts increasingly refer to containment as a strategy that can delay but not prevent a future avian flu pandemic. A ... Influenza Genome Sequencing Project to provide complete sequence data for selected human and avian influenza isolates begins ... "In the past, outbreaks of highly pathogenic avian influenza in poultry began following the primary introduction of a virus, of ...
Global spread of H5N1 in 2005
... highly pathogenic avian influenza virus (HPAI) found in multiple bird species. It is both epizootic (an epidemic in non-humans ... The global spread of (highly pathogenic) H5N1 in birds is considered a significant pandemic threat. While prior H5N1 strains ... virus circulating across east Asia." "Since January 2004, when human cases of H5N1 avian influenza were first reported in the ... and the United States of America having extensive experience in the testing of avian influenza viruses in human clinical ...
Global spread of H5N1 in 2006
The evolving nature of the virus complicates vaccine planning. He said if an avian influenza pandemic emerges, a strain- ... highly pathogenic avian influenza virus (HPAI) found in multiple bird species. It is both epizootic (an epidemic in non-humans ... The Ministry of Health in Iraq has confirmed the country's first case of human infection with the H5N1 avian influenza virus. ... Avian influenza A(H5N1). Junaidu A. Maina (February 8, 2006). "Nigeria Follow up report No 1 - HPAI" (PDF). "Avian Influenza ...
Global spread of H5N1 in 2007
... highly pathogenic avian influenza virus (HPAI) found in multiple bird species. It is both epizootic (an epidemic in non-humans ... The mutations in the H5N1 virus strain were not drastic enough to make the virus infectious enough to spark a pandemic, but ... The outbreak began March 1." March 22, 2007: Bangladesh saw its first major outbreak of H5N1 avian influenza. "The virus was ... Kuwait saw its first major outbreak of H5N1 avian influenza. February 28, 2007:"Myanmar reported that the H5N1 virus killed ...
... and neuraminidase of avian and human influenza virus segments have resulted in worldwide influenza epidemics called pandemics ... Influenza virus. The antigenic properties of influenza viruses are determined by both hemagglutinin and neuraminidase. ... Flaviviridae is a family of viruses that encompasses well known viruses such as West Nile virus and Dengue virus. The genus ... "Recombination of human influenza A viruses in nature". Nature.. *^ Lyttle, D J (Jan 1994). "Homologs of vascular endothelial ...
Human mortality from H5N1
Until H5N1, all known avian influenza viruses had a Glu at position 627, while all human influenza viruses had a lysine. ... influenza/country/en/ Epidemic and Pandemic Alert and Response (EPR) Confirmed Human Cases of Avian Influenza A(H5N1) A strain ... Epidemic and Pandemic Alert and Response (EPR) Confirmed Human Cases of Avian Influenza A(H5N1) "H5N1 Getting Deadlier". ... Influenza pandemics from its genetic offspring may include influenza A virus subtypes other than H5N1. While genetic analysis ...
The evolving nature of the virus complicates vaccine planning. He said if an avian influenza pandemic emerges, a strain- ... "Confirmed Human Cases of Avian Influenza A(H5N1)". WHO (19 January 2006). "Confirmed Human Cases of Avian Influenza A(H5N1)". ... viruses, three influenza A (H1) viruses, one influenza A (H7N2) virus, and 71 influenza B viruses. Of the 949 influenza A (H3N2 ... has antigenically characterized 516 influenza viruses: 470 influenza A (H3N2) and 46 influenza B viruses. Of the 470 influenza ...
Robert Webster (virologist)
... is an avian influenza authority who correctly posited that pandemic strains of flu arise from genes in flu virus strains in ... that it is possible for the avian and human viruses to combine, creating a new virus that humans would have no antibodies to. ... Before Webster and his colleagues separated the influenza virus into different particles, the entire influenza virus was ... 14 article Characterization of the Influenza A Virus Gene Pool in Avian Species in Southern China: Was H6N1 a Derivative or a ...
... may refer to: Avian influenza, influenza endemic to pigeons and some birds Influenza A virus, the causative agent for ... it also includes viruses that are endemic to humans and other animals) Influenza A virus subtype H5N1, a subtype of influenza A ... virus endemic to birds, currently perceived as a significant emerging pandemic threat Influenza A virus subtype H7N9, first ... the genus of the Orthomyxoviridae family of viruses to which all viruses responsible for avian influenza belong ( ...
... that can affect human health. Allergies Arbovirus Avian influenza Bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE) Cholera Ebola ... primarily that of humans. This can include medical waste or samples of a microorganism, virus or toxin (from a biological ... Epidemics Food poisoning Malaria Molds Onchocerciasis (river blindness) Pandemics Pathogens Pollen for allergic people Rabies ... Human-made hazards while not immediately health-threatening may turn out detrimental to man's well-being eventually, because ...
Pandemic H1N1/09 virus
North American swine influenza, North American avian influenza, human influenza, and swine influenza virus typically found in ... North American swine influenza, North American avian influenza, human influenza, and two swine influenza viruses typically ... The Pandemic H1N1/09 virus is a swine origin Influenza A virus subtype H1N1 virus strain responsible for the 2009 flu pandemic ... 2009 flu pandemic 2009 flu pandemic in Mexico Swine influenza Public health "Update: Novel Influenza A (H1N1) Virus Infections ...
Influenza A virus subtype H3N2
Both the H2N2 and H3N2 pandemic flu strains contained genes from avian influenza viruses. The new subtypes arose in pigs ... "CDC has antigenically characterized 1,567 seasonal human influenza viruses [947 influenza A (H1), 162 influenza A (H3) and 458 ... Influenza A virus subtype H3N2 (A/H3N2) is a subtype of viruses that causes influenza (flu). H3N2 viruses can infect birds and ... and 84 novel influenza A (H1N1) viruses. All 947 influenza seasonal A (H1) viruses are related to the influenza A (H1N1) ...
"Pandemic threat posed by avian influenza A viruses". Clin Microbiol Rev. 14 (1): 129-49. PMC 88966. PMID 11148006. doi:10.1128/ ... September 2005). "Avian influenza A (H5N1) infection in humans". N Engl J Med. 353 (13): 1374-85. PMID 16192482. doi:10.1056/ ... The Multinational Influenza Seasonal Mortality Study (MISMS) Fogarty International Center. *Influenza Virus Resource from the ... Epidemiology of WHO-confirmed human cases of avian influenza A(H5N1) infection ...
Transmission and infection of H5N1
The human incubation period of avian influenza A (H5N1) is 2 to 17 days. Once infected, the virus can spread by cell-to-cell ... "Avian Influenza". Influenza Report. "The Threat of Global Pandemics". Council on Foreign Relations. June 16, 2005. Archived ... "WHO Avian influenza resource (updated)". CDC "Facts About Avian Influenza (Bird Flu) and Avian Influenza A (H5N1) Virus" Check ... Consultation on Human Influenza A/H5 (September 29, 2005). "Avian Influenza A (H5N1) Infection in Humans". N Engl J Med. 353 ( ...
Pre-pandemic Reduce opportunities for human infection Strengthen the early warning system Phase: Emergence of a pandemic virus ... "Asian Lineage Avian Influenza A (H7N9) Virus - Avian Influenza (Flu)". "USGS National Wildlife Health Center - Avian Influenza ... Influenza A virus subtype H7N9 is a novel avian influenza virus first reported to have infected humans in 2013 in China. Most ... Until H5N1, all known avian influenza viruses had a Glu at position 627, while all human influenza viruses had a Lys.[citation ...
Swine influenza - Simple English Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
North American avian influenza, human influenza A virus subtype H1N1, and swine influenza virus typically found in Asia and ... which caused a pandemic in humans in 1918 and 1919. New viruses came from the Spanish flu. These viruses became common in ... Swine influenza virus is a virus that is common in pigs. This type of influenza virus can also infect humans and birds. Swine ... Specialists also think that this might lead to new variations of the influenza virus. Pigs can carry human influenza ...
1968 flu pandemic
Both the H2N2 and H3N2 pandemic flu strains contained genes from avian influenza viruses. The new subtypes arose in pigs ... and direct transmission of avian viruses to humans is possible. H1N1 may have been transmitted directly from birds to humans ( ... "Three strains of Hong Kong influenza virus isolated from humans were compared with a strain isolated from a calf for their ... coinfected with avian and human viruses and were soon transferred to humans. Swine were considered the original "intermediate ...
Evolution of influenza
Under this mechanism, a human influenza virus could exchange genes with an avian strain, and that is how pandemic strains arise ... All three groups (avian, swine, and human) show chronological differences. The human influenza virus is retained in humans only ... They indicate that the human influenza virus is minimally impacted by geographic differences. However, both swine and avian ... The 1918 Spanish influenza virus demonstrates this. The hemagglutinin (HA) gene of the 1918 pandemic virus was closer in ...
H5N1 genetic structure
Both the H2N2 and H3N2 pandemic strains contained avian influenza virus RNA segments. "While the pandemic human influenza ... human flu viruses and avian flu viruses is that avian influenza HA bind alpha 2-3 sialic acid receptors while human influenza ... with their genes from the human flu virus. Both the viruses from the 1957 pandemic and 1968 pandemic carried an avian flu virus ... Until H5N1, all known avian influenza viruses had a Glu at position 627, while all human influenza viruses had a lysine. As of ...
Center for Infectious Disease Research and Policy
... and transmission of avian influenza (AI) viruses with pandemic potential. The primary goal of MCEIRS was to enhance the ... and spread among animal and human populations. The center closed in April 2014. The Center of Excellence for Influenza Research ... such as pandemic influenza, bioterrorism, food safety, avian influenza, and emerging topics. Along with news articles, the site ... has developed an online training portal that provides e-learning modules on topics related to avian influenza and influenza in ...
WHO Rapid Advice Guidelines for pharmacological management of sporadic human infection with avian influenza A (H5N1) virus ... virus and 2 fundamental questions. Briand S, Fukuda K. J Infect Dis. 2009 Jun 15;199(12):1717-9. The pandemic influenza vaccine ... He has focused on influenza since 1996, leading teams that investigated outbreaks of avian influenza and of SARS. On April 28, ... Different approaches to influenza vaccination. Fukuda K, Kieny MP.N Engl J Med. 2006 Dec 14;355(24):2586-7. Influenza- ...
The virus possibly could mutate to become highly virulent and infectious in humans and cause an influenza pandemic. Bacteria ... In general, avian influenza is a disease of birds caused by bird-specific influenza A virus that is not normally transferred to ... "Information on Avian Influenza". Seasonal Influenza (Flu). Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Retrieved March 3, 2014 ... In Southeast Asia, a lack of disease control in free-range farming has been associated with outbreaks of avian influenza. In ...
"Human and avian influenza viruses target different cells in the lower respiratory tract of humans and other mammals". The ... Genesis of a Highly Pathogenic and Potentially Pandemic H5N1 Influenza Virus in Eastern Asia. The Threat of Pandemic Influenza ... "Avian Influenza A (H7N9) Virus , Avian Influenza (Flu)". www.cdc.gov. Retrieved 24 February 2017.. ... influenza B virus. Influenza B almost exclusively infects humans and is less common than influenza A. The only other ...
Influenza A virus subtype H1N1
North American swine influenza, North American avian influenza, human influenza, and swine influenza virus typically found in ... The virus was included in the 1978-1979 influenza vaccine. See also 1889-1890 flu pandemic for the earlier Russian flu pandemic ... Influenza A (H1N1) virus is the subtype of influenza A virus that was the most common cause of human influenza (flu) in 2009, ... Transmission of the virus from pigs to humans is not common and does not always lead to human influenza, often resulting only ...
Influenza A virus subtype H5N1
Both the H2N2 and H3N2 pandemic strains contained avian influenza virus RNA segments. "While the pandemic human influenza ... responsible agency for avian influenza in humans in US - Facts About Avian Influenza (Bird Flu) and Avian Influenza A (H5N1) ... Influenza A virus subtypes that have been confirmed in humans, in order of the number of known human pandemic deaths that they ... December 2007). "Lack of evidence of avian-to-human transmission of avian influenza A (H5N1) virus among poultry workers, Kano ...
2009 flu pandemic by country
... even though the current strain was a human-human transmittable, human influenza that had previously hybridized with avian flu ... "Human infection with pandemic (H1N1) 2009 virus: updated interim WHO guidance on global surveillance" (PDF). Annex 4. WHO. 2009 ... Influenza: H1N1 at Curlie (based on DMOZ) Swine influenza, at the World Health Organization WHO's current Pandemic Influenza ... June 2009). "Emergence of a novel swine-origin influenza A (H1N1) virus in humans". N. Engl. J. Med. 360 (25): 2605-15. doi: ...
"A global initiative on sharing avian flu data". Nature. 31 August 2006. "Pandemic influenza: science to policy". The Royal ... analysis from both human and animal isolates in order to better understand the virus and its potential mutation to a pandemic ... Initially spurred by the global threat posed by human infections with highly pathogenic avian influenza H5N1, GISAID introduced ... following a high-level WHO meeting in Jakarta on Responsible Practices for Sharing Avian Influenza Viruses. On 2007-04-16, the ...
study was on vaccine produced from the human isolate (A/Vietnam/1203/2004 H5N1) of a virulent clade 1 influenza A (H5N1) virus ... In addition, because a pandemic could result from an avian influenza strain that is lethal to chickens, it is impossible to ... The hemagglutinin sequences of most of the H5N1 avian influenza viruses circulating in the past few years fall into two genetic ... According to the U.S. HHS (United States Department of Health & Human Services) Pandemic Influenza Plan Appendix F: Current HHS ...
Prevalent Eurasian avian-like H1N1 swine influenza virus with 2009 pandemic viral genes facilitating human infection | PNAS
Avian-to-human transmission of the PB1 gene of influenza A viruses in the 1957 and 1968 pandemics. J. Virol. 63, 4603-4608 ( ... Prevalent Eurasian avian-like H1N1 swine influenza virus with 2009 pandemic viral genes facilitating human infection. Honglei ... Prevalent Eurasian avian-like H1N1 swine influenza virus with 2009 pandemic viral genes facilitating human infection ... Prevalent Eurasian avian-like H1N1 swine influenza virus with 2009 pandemic viral genes facilitating human infection ...
The Next Influenza Pandemic: Lessons from Hong Kong, 1997 - Volume 5, Number 2-April 1999 - Emerging Infectious Diseases...
... with 18 proven human cases, many severe or fatal, highlighted the challenges of novel influenza viruses. Lessons from this ... expanded international commitment to first responses to pandemic threats; surveillance for influenza in key densely populated ... The Hong Kong epidemic also underscores the need for national committees and country-specific pandemic plans. ... episode can improve international and national planning for influenza pandemics in seven areas: ...
Avian Influenza - A deadly intelligent virus that can jump between animals and humans. | HubPages
Modern medicine struggles to keep up but essential oils can offer a solution as the virus is unable to mutate to a form the ... Avian Flu is the result of a crossover of animal influenza to Human. ... Avian flu never resulted in the expected pandemic, although many victims, once infected, did die. The figures, published by the ... Humans can become ill when infected with viruses from animal sources, such as avian influenza virus subtypes H5N1 and H9N2 and ...
Pandemic Information News: NEJM: Human Infection with a Novel Avian-Origin Influenza A (H7N9) Virus
Avian Influenza Virus. *CDC: Testing Recommendations for Persons with possible infection with Avian Influenza A (H7N9) virus in ... NEJM: Human Infection with a Novel Avian-Origin Influenza A (H7N9) Virus ... Infection of poultry with influenza A subtype H7 viruses occurs worldwide, but the introduction of this subtype to humans in ... Influenza Surveillance Reports. *WHO: Pandemic Influenza Risk Management June 13. *Saudi Arabia Ministry of Health Media ...
Pandemic Information News: WHO Human infection with avian influenza A(H7N9) virus - update January 15, 2014
Avian Influenza Virus. *CDC: Testing Recommendations for Persons with possible infection with Avian Influenza A (H7N9) virus in ... WHO Human infection with avian influenza A(H7N9) virus - update January 15, 2014 ... Influenza Surveillance Reports. *WHO: Pandemic Influenza Risk Management June 13. *Saudi Arabia Ministry of Health Media ... WHO: Laboratory bio risk management for laboratories handling human specimens suspected or confirmed to contain avian influenza ...
Reassortment between avian H5N1 and human H3N2 influenza viruses creates hybrid viruses with substantial virulence | PNAS
Reassortant H5N1 Avian Influenza Virus Bearing PB2 Gene From a 2009 Pandemic H1N1 Exhibits Increased Pathogenicity in Mice ... Reassortment between avian H5N1 and human H3N2 influenza viruses creates hybrid viruses with substantial virulence. Chengjun Li ... Reassortment between avian H5N1 and human H3N2 influenza viruses creates hybrid viruses with substantial virulence ... Reassortment between avian H5N1 and human H3N2 influenza viruses creates hybrid viruses with substantial virulence ...
Bird Flu Virus or Avian Influenza Virus H5N1 & Pandemic Influenza Virus: graphics showing birds and influenza viruses;...
Virus life cycle showing mixing of viral RNA from bird flu and human flu with resuling new dangerous strain of influenza ... Bird Flu Virus or Avian Influenza Virus H5N1, Pandemic Influenza Virus, Swine Flu. Home , Email , About , Blog , Images , ... SEE ALL INFLUENZA VIRUS IMAGES HERE / virus pictures / influenza pictures (influenza A): Birds & Bird Flu graphics showing ... image of bird flu viruses and human flu viruses entering the same cell and pandemic influenza emerging, diagram of replication ...
Human Infection with Eurasian Avian-Like Swine Influenza A(H1N1) Virus, the Netherlands, September 2019 - Volume 27, Number 3...
Continued surveillance of swine influenza A viruses is needed for risk assessment in humans and swine. ... virus that was also detected in the farmed pigs. Both viruses were antigenically and genetically characterized. ... We report a zoonotic infection of a pig farmer in the Netherlands with a Eurasian avian-like swine influenza A(H1N1) ... Sun H, Xiao Y, Liu J, Wang D, Li F, Wang C, et al. Prevalent Eurasian avian-like H1N1 swine influenza virus with 2009 pandemic ...
Assessing Change in Avian Influenza A(H7N9) Virus Infections During the Fourth Epidemic - China, September 2015-August 2016 |...
Scope of fourth avian influenza epidemic increases in rural areas as epidemic period lengthens. ... Scope of fourth avian influenza epidemic increases in rural areas as epidemic period lengthens. ... US Department of Health and Human Services, CDC; 2016. http://www.cdc.gov/flu/pandemic-resources/tools/risk-assessment.htm ... Influenza A(H7N9) virus is a low pathogenic avian influenza virus that can cause severe illness in humans, with a case-fatality ...
The pandemic potential of avian influenza A(H7N9) virus: a review
In March 2013 the first cases of human avian influenza A(H7N9) were reported to the World Health Organization. Since that time ... Three major factors influence the pandemic potential of an influenza virus: (1) its ability to cause human disease, (2) the ... The pandemic potential of avian influenza A(H7N9) virus: a review Epidemiol Infect. 2015 Dec;143(16):3359-74. doi: 10.1017/ ... In March 2013 the first cases of human avian influenza A(H7N9) were reported to the World Health Organization. Since that time ...
Clinical features and rapid viral diagnosis of human disease associated with avian influenza A H5N1 virus. - PubMed - NCBI
Influenza as a zoonosis: how likely is a pandemic? [Lancet. 1998]. PMID:. 9482437. DOI:. 10.1016/s0140-6736(98)01182-9. ... Avian Influenza A H5N1 virus causes human influenza-like illness with a high rate of complications in adults admitted to ... Human infection with an avian influenza A virus (subtype H5N1) was reported recently in Hong Kong. We describe the clinical ... Clinical features and rapid viral diagnosis of human disease associated with avian influenza A H5N1 virus.. Yuen KY1, Chan PK, ...
Increase in Human Infections with Avian Influenza A(H7N9) Virus During the Fifth Epidemic - China, October 2016-February 2017 ...
... health care providers to evaluate patients for avian influenza. ... health care providers to evaluate patients for avian influenza ... Antigenic and genetic characteristics of zoonotic influenza viruses and development of candidate vaccine viruses for pandemic ... annual epidemics of avian influenza A(H7N9) in China resulted in 1,258 avian influenza A(H7N9) virus infections in humans being ... viruses characterized from the previous four epidemics have been low pathogenic avian influenza viruses, analysis of human ( ...
Viral Infection: Influenza or Flu Essay - 1475 Words | Bartleby
Influenza or flu is a rather contagious viral infection that infects the respiratory tract. Fever, cough, muscle aches, ... Essay on Avian Influenza: Type A Virus Infection in Humans. 3311 Words , 14 Pages Introduction The avian influenza virus is a ... Influenza, Avian Influenza, and the Impacts of Past and Looming Pandemics. 1868 Words , 8 Pages Influenza, Avian Influenza, and ... Ironically wild birds do not normally show symptoms of the influenza virus however when avian influenza type A viruses are ...
Avian Influenza (H5N1) Viruses Isolated from Humans in Asia in 2004 Exhibit Increased Virulence in Mammals | Journal of Virology
... the potential for the emergence of an H5 avian-human reassortant with pandemic potential is a clear and present threat to ... Human influenza A H5N1 virus related to a highly pathogenic avian influenza virus. Lancet351:472-477. ... Viruses.Highly pathogenic avian influenza A (H5N1) viruses isolated from birds and humans in various countries in Asia were ... avian-to-human transmission of a purely avian H5N1 virus resulted in 18 human cases, of which 6 were fatal (5, 6, 35). The ...
PPT - Pandemic Influenza Avian Influenza PowerPoint presentation | free to download - id: 428a6a-NzE1Y
Human Services Maine Center for Disease Control & Prevention ... carriers Virus in fecal droppings, ... - A free PowerPoint PPT ... Pandemic Influenza Avian Influenza Seasonal Influenza - Pandemic Influenza Avian Influenza Seasonal Influenza Sandi Henley, RN ... Pandemic Influenza Avian Influenza - Pandemic Influenza Avian Influenza Maine Department of Health & Human Services Maine ... The Pandemic Potential of the Avian Influenza H5N1 Virus - The Pandemic Potential of the Avian Influenza H5N1 Virus , ...
Human Swine Flu (H1N1) and Novel Influenza Pandemics | The New York Academy of Sciences
Bridging from Management of Seasonal and Avian Influenza Virus Infection to Pandemic Preparedness. Dominick A. Iacuzio ( ... Subbaraos lab has been involved in pandemic preparedness against a potential avian influenza viruses, in collaboration with ... Dormitzers research portfolio has included influenza virus vaccines, respiratory syncytial virus vaccines, and virus-like- ... A pandemic arrives. When novel influenza strains originate in animals such as birds or pigs and then make the jump to humans, ...
Avian Influenza: Preparing for a Pandemic - American Family Physician
In the spring of 2006, migrating birds spread the virus from Asia to Europe and Africa. Preparing for a new influenza pandemic ... the protean nature of its genome could transform it into the source of the next human influenza pandemic. ... Although H5N1 is not yet capable of efficient human-to-human transmission, ... Endemic in waterfowl and highly virulent in poultry, H5N1 is capable of incidentally infecting humans and other mammals. ...
Avian-type receptor-binding ability can increase influenza virus pathogenicity in macaques. - PubMed - NCBI
Infection of human lung tissue with 2009 pandemic H1N1 viruses possessing HA-222G or HA-222D. (A) For the control avian virus ( ... typically found in human influenza viruses) and Gly (typically found in avian and classic H1N1 swine influenza viruses), ... Here, we asked whether binding to avian-type receptors enhances influenza virus pathogenicity. We tested two 2009 pandemic H1N1 ... Receptor specificity of 2009 pandemic H1N1 influenza viruses. Sialylated glycan binding by viruses possessing HA-222D or HA- ...
Influenza A virus subtype H3N2 - Wikipedia
Both the H2N2 and H3N2 pandemic flu strains contained genes from avian influenza viruses. The new subtypes arose in pigs ... "CDC has antigenically characterized 1,567 seasonal human influenza viruses [947 influenza A (H1), 162 influenza A (H3) and 458 ... Influenza A virus subtype H3N2 (A/H3N2) is a subtype of viruses that causes influenza (flu). H3N2 viruses can infect birds and ... and 84 novel influenza A (H1N1) viruses. All 947 influenza seasonal A (H1) viruses are related to the influenza A (H1N1) ...
Publication : USDA ARS
Interpretive Summary: Various avian influenza viruses have an unknown potential to become human pandemic influenza viruses. ... This study developed an H7N7 live weakened virus vaccine for humans by using advanced biotechnology to make the virus able to ... Administering the vaccine in the nose protected mice, ferrets and monkeys against challenge by H7 influenza virus which ... virus and the six internal protein genes of the cold-adapted (ca) A/Ann Arbor/6/60 ca (AA ca) (H2N2) virus. The reassortant ...
Change Allows Influenza Virus to Spread in Respiratory Droplets | National Institutes of Health (NIH)
Insights from the study will have profound implications for pandemic flu preparation. ... might have the potential to cause a pandemic flu. A new study shows that H9N2 can fairly easily gain the ability to transmit in ... Avian H9N2 influenza hasnt garnered the attention of H5N1, but it, too, ... The team previously showed when an avian H9N2 virus and a human virus exchanged genetic material, a resulting "reassortant" ...
Virus in Shanghai, China.(Report) by Chinese Medical Journal; Health, general Avian influenza Prognosis CAT scans Usage CT ... Long-term Follow-up of 5 Survivors after the First Outbreak of Human Infections with Avian Influenza A(H7N9) ... and avian influenza A(H7N9) virus infection. Compared with the previous pandemic avian influenza A(H1N1) and avian influenza A( ... MLA style: "Long-term Follow-up of 5 Survivors after the First Outbreak of Human Infections with Avian Influenza A(H7N9) Virus ...
H7N9 Avian Influenza | CIDRAP
Top 10 pandemic response planning tips (May 30, 2013) Emergence of avian influenza A(H7N9) virus causing severe human illness ( ... Liu J, Xu J, Liu L, et al. Sudden emergence of human infections with H7N9 avian influenza A virus in Hubei province, central ... Xiang D, Shen X, Pu Z, et al. Convergent evolution of human-isolated H7N9 avian influenza A viruses. J Infect Dis 2018 ( ... Avian influenza page. Weekly avian influenza report. Chinese Center for Disease Control and Prevention. H7N9 page. Daily ...
IJMS | Free Full-Text | A Role for Protein Phosphatase 2A in Regulating p38 Mitogen Activated Protein Kinase Activation and...
... infected with H9N2/G1 or H1N1 influenza virus. We demonstrate that H9N2/G1 virus activated p38MAPK and hyperinduced TNF-alpha ... in modulating p38MAPK activation and downstream TNF-alpha expressions in primary human monocyte-derived macrophages (PBMac) ... Here we hypothesize that protein phosphatases are involved in the regulation of cytokine expressions during influenza virus ... Some of the H5N1 and H9N2 virus subtypes induce markedly elevated cytokine levels when compared with the seasonal H1N1 virus. ...
What vaccine is FDA approved for prevention of avian influenza (H5N1)?
Influenza A (H5N1) Virus Monovalent Vaccine, Adjuvanted (ID Biomedical Corporation), is mean... more ... the FDA approved the first adjuvanted vaccine for the prevention of H5N1 avian influenza. ... Avian Influenza A Virus Infections in Humans. Available at http://www.cdc.gov/flu/avianflu/avian-in-humans.htm. Accessed: ... Influenza pandemics of the 20th century. Emerg Infect Dis. 2006 Jan. 12(1):9-14. [Medline]. [Full Text]. ...
News & Events | European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control
Avian influenza virus * Remove this filter Infectious disease: Influenza in humans, pandemic ... regional and global surveillance related to seasonal influenza and novel influenza viruses, such as avian influenza A(H7N9). ... Remove this filter Infectious disease: Influenza A(H5N2) virus * Remove this filter Public health area: Laboratory based ... WHO/Europe has been holding annual influenza surveillance meetings jointly with the European Centre for Disease Prevention and ...
News & Events | European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control
Influenza in humans, pandemic * Remove this filter Infectious disease: Avian influenza virus ... The joint annual influenza surveillance meeting by ECDC and the WHO Regional Office for Europe took place on 6 - 8 June 2018 in ... Joint WHO/Europe-ECDC Annual European Influenza Surveillance Meeting, 2018 Event, Expert meeting ... Influenza in humans, avian origin * Influenza in humans, pandemic * Influenza in humans, seasonal ...
Avian influenza virus in mammals spreads beyond the site of infection to other organ systems ( Researchers at Erasmus Medical...
Avian influenza (H5N1) is of great concern because of the current outb...To assess the spread of H5N1 influenza virus in ... mammalian hosts Rimme...As expected all cats were infected with H5N1 virus and exhibited clin...,Avian,influenza,virus,in, ... including possible fecal-oral route in humans, "may limit the risk of H5N1 virus developing into a pandemic influenza virus." ... Less virulent strains of avian influenza can infect humans. 6. Drug resistant avian influenza viruses more common in Southeast ...
Novel host markers in the 2009 pandemic H1N1 influenza a virus
The amino acids at many of these novel sites in 2009 pandemic H1N1 were distinct from those in avian, human, and swine viruses ... However, many of the molecular markers for adaptation to human hosts or to the emergence of a pandemic virus do not exist in ... markers in 2009 pandemic H1N1 has been primarily limited in the context of traditional markers of avian-human or swine-human ... of these markers were also part of the previously discovered genomic signature that separate avian or swine from human viruses ...
InfectionBird fluGenesPreparednessVaccinesHong Kong1918 pandemicSeasonalPotential pandemic1997MammalsThreatHPAIGeneticViralPathogenicityCause a pandemicOutbreaks of avianPigsHemagglutininTransmissionNovel influenzaRespiratorySpread of avian influenzaReassortantAntibodiesNeuraminidaseNext Influenza PandemicSpecificityReceptorsAntiviral drugsZoonoticSwine influenza virusIsolatesInfects1968MutationsEmergence of a pandemicIllnessGlobal influenzaImmunityPathogenic avian influScientistsReceptorMolecularPotentially pandemicVirulentVaccine development
- The primary risk factor for human infection appears to be direct or indirect exposure to infected live or dead animals or contaminated environments. (hubpages.com)
- Avian flu virus (H5N1) can survive in the environment for long periods of time and infection can be spread just by touching surfaces that have the virus on them. (hubpages.com)
- Infection of poultry with influenza A subtype H7 viruses occurs worldwide, but the introduction of this subtype to humans in Asia has not been observed previously. (blogspot.com)
- Influenza or "flu" is a rather contagious viral infection that infects the respiratory tract. (bartleby.com)
- INFLUENZA Introduction One can claim that influenza is an infection that has victimized people from just about every generation that we have known. (bartleby.com)
- Human infection with an avian influenza A virus (subtype H5N1) was reported recently in Hong Kong. (nih.gov)
- Case notes of 12 patients with virus-culture-confirmed influenza A H5N1 infection were analysed. (nih.gov)
- Pharyngeal swabs are more effective than nasal swabs in diagnosing avian influenza A (H5N1) infection. (aafp.org)
- This difference in receptor binding correlated with efficient infection of viruses possessing HA-222G, compared to those possessing HA-222D, in human lung tissue, including alveolar type II pneumocytes, which express avian-type receptors. (nih.gov)
- In a nonhuman primate model, infection with one of the viruses possessing HA-222G caused lung damage more severe than did infection with a virus encoding HA-222D, although these pathological differences were not observed for the other virus pair with either HA-222G or HA-222D. (nih.gov)
- These data demonstrate that the acquisition of avian-type receptor-binding specificity may result in more-efficient infection of human alveolar type II pneumocytes and thus more-severe lung damage. (nih.gov)
- Since the protective ability of influenza vaccines depends primarily on the closeness of the match between the vaccine virus and the epidemic virus, the presence of nonreactive H3N2 SIV variants suggests current commercial vaccines might not effectively protect pigs from infection with a majority of H3N2 viruses. (wikipedia.org)
- After passing the virus through ferrets 10 times, the scientists discovered that the viruses spread to other ferrets through respiratory droplets by 4 days after infection. (nih.gov)
- Here we hypothesize that protein phosphatases are involved in the regulation of cytokine expressions during influenza virus infection. (mdpi.com)
- Seasonal Influenza (Flu): Guidance for Clinicians on the Use of RT-PCR and Other Molecular Assays for Diagnosis of Influenza Virus Infection. (medscape.com)
- A nationwide epidemic of influenza C virus infection in Japan in 2004. (medscape.com)
- Avian influenza virus in mammals spreads beyond the site of infection to other organ systems ( Researchers at Erasmus Medical Center h. (bio-medicine.org)
- Influenza A virus (H5N1) infection in cats causes systemic disease with potential novel routes of virus spread within and between hosts," appears in the January issue of The American Journal of Pathology and is accompanied by a commentary. (bio-medicine.org)
- As expected, all cats were infected with H5N1 virus and exhibited clinical signs of disease (fever, lethargy, labored breathing, etc.), and virus was detected in throat, nasal, and rectal swabs, regardless of the original site of infection. (bio-medicine.org)
- Rimmelzwaan and colleagues caution that because of the systemic nature of avian influenza, "H5N1 virus infection needs to be included in the differential diagnosis of a broader range of clinical presentations than is currently done. (bio-medicine.org)
- Here we combine metabolic pulse labeling and quantitative proteomics to monitor protein synthesis upon infection of human cells with a human- and a bird-adapted IAV strain and observe striking differences in viral protein synthesis. (nature.com)
- IAV infection causes seasonal epidemics and sporadically pandemic outbreaks in the human population with significant morbidity, mortality, and economic burden. (nature.com)
- Influenza A virus displays strong reassortment characteristics, which enable it to achieve adaptation in human infection. (unboundmedicine.com)
- Climate change can affect their timing there by weeks, and could potentially increase the avian infection rate. (medicaldaily.com)
- The researchers found that, if the birds arrived late or early by a matter of weeks, influenza infection rates skyrocketed. (medicaldaily.com)
- To elucidate the role of class switch recombination (CSR) and somatic hypermutation (SHM) in virus infection, we have investigated the influence of the primary and secondary infections of influenza virus on mice deficient of activation-induced cytidine deaminase (AID), which is absolutely required for CSR and SHM. (rupress.org)
- In the secondary infection with a lethal dose of influenza virus, both AID −/− and AID +/− mice survived completely. (rupress.org)
- Because the titers of virus-neutralizing antibodies were comparable between AID −/− and AID +/− mice at the time of the secondary infection, a defect of AID −/− mice in protection of morbidity might be due to the absence of either other Ig classes such as IgG, high affinity antibodies with SHM, or both. (rupress.org)
- Prevention of viral infection by antibodies depends on diverse mechanisms such as prevention of viral attachment to the host cell ( 1 , 2 ), activation of the complement system ( 3 , 4 ), opsonization ( 5 ), antibody-dependent cell-mediated cytotoxicity ( 6 , 7 ), and inhibition of the release of daughter viruses from infected cells ( 8 - 10 ). (rupress.org)
- Several investigations suggest that CSR may have a vital contribution to the protection against influenza virus infection and/or recovery from the infection ( 13 , 14 ). (rupress.org)
- The passive transfer of virus-specific mAb of IgG class exerted prophylactic and therapeutic effect against influenza virus infection in the SCID mouse model, whereas the transfer of IgM or IgA exerted only prophylactic effect. (rupress.org)
- The protective role of Fc receptor-mediated phagocytosis in influenza virus infection also suggests the importance of CSR ( 14 ) because the affinity to the Fc receptor is different among antibody classes, particularly mice IgG subclasses IgG1, IgG2a, and IgG2b, which are able to bind to Fcγ receptors with higher affinity than IgG3 ( 7 ). (rupress.org)
- Although these data support the assumption that CSR plays a role in pathology of influenza virus infection, the direct evidence for the involvement of CSR in protection or recovery from viral infection is still missing. (rupress.org)
- The importance of SHM in secondary influenza virus infection is suggested indirectly. (rupress.org)
- But it was tested on a synthetic H5N1 flu, tweaked to spread among ferrets, a model of human infection. (scientificamerican.com)
- Bridges CB, Lim W, Hu-Primmer J et al (2002) Risk of influenza A (H5N1) infection among poultry workers, Hong Kong, 1997-1998. (springer.com)
- Butt KM, Smith GJ, Chen H et al (2005) Human infection with an avian H9N2 influenza A virus in Hong Kong in 2003. (springer.com)
- The first case of a human infection with H9N2 was reported in 1998, in China 7 . (nature.com)
- Other U.S. states have since reported cases of swine flu infection in humans and cases have been reported internationally as well. (unc.edu)
- Free-range poultry farms are at greater risk of an avian influenza infection, because the poultry can come into direct contact with potentially infected wild birds and waterfowl. (wur.nl)
- Novel influenza virus vaccines that aim to elicit antibodies against conserved epitopes like the hemagglutinin stalk could not only reduce the burden of drifted seasonal viruses but potentially also protect humans from infection with zoonotic and emerging pandemic influenza viruses. (mdpi.com)
- Veterinary authorities in Bulgaria have called for culling of nearly 8,000 ducks according to a food safety agency yesterday after two more regions there have reported avian flu infection. (news-medical.net)
- The greatest known risk would be simultaneous infection of a human host with both the regular seasonal influenza virus and the H5N1 virus, acquired by poultry contact. (psr-la.org)
- An additional vector might be simultaneous infection in pigs, living in close proximity to humans in endemic areas. (psr-la.org)
- At a dose of 10 mg/kg, zanamivir completely protected mice from infection with H9N2 viruses and increased the mean survival day and the number of survivors infected with H6N1 and H5N1 viruses. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
- The increased prevalence of A/Quail/HK/G1/97 in poultry in China, together with serological evidence of infection in up to 60% of quail and up to 16% of quail shedding this virus in cages in Hong Kong poultry markets in 1999 to 2000 ( 10 ), increases the likelihood of transmission to mammals, including humans. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
- Infection of cells by DAO5-captured HCVpp can be blocked by a cross-competing neutralizing antibody, indicating that a single virus particle simultaneously displays E2 molecules in more than one conformation on its surface. (stanford.edu)
- Such conformational plasticity of the HCV E2 receptor binding site has important implications for immunogen design.IMPORTANCE Recent advances in the treatment of hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection with direct-acting antiviral drugs have enabled the control of this major human pathogen. (stanford.edu)
- The viral glycoprotein E2 contains regions that are crucial for virus entry into the host cell, and antibodies that bind to these regions can neutralize infection. (stanford.edu)
- It gives an account of actions taken by the Secretariat within the framework of the Regulations regarding the international response in 2015, and to date in 2016, to public health events and emergencies - in particular, Ebola virus disease, Middle East respiratory syndrome (MERS), poliomyelitis, avian influenza and Zika virus infection, with associated microcephaly and Guillain-Barré syndrome. (who.int)
- Main outcome measure Clinical respiratory illness (CRI), influenza-like illness (ILI) and laboratory-confirmed respiratory virus infection. (bmj.com)
- What factors determine whether infection in a new host yields a dead-end infection or sustained, human-to-human transmission, as happened in 1918? (infectioncontroltoday.com)
- According to the World Health Organization, there are 412 confirmed human cases of infection from this virus, almost all in Asia and northern Africa. (netdoc.com)
- Therefore, to successfully curb the spreadof the disease during an outbreak, accuracy and speed of detection on the type of H5N1 virus is of essence for effective infection control intervention and patient management. (redorbit.com)
- Using such multiplex assays enables simultaneous detection and differentiation of the different types of influenza infection in a single test, which will save hospital labs and clinicianssignificant time and cost. (redorbit.com)
- With this latest H5N1 assay, we can easily combine it with our previous 4-plex Influenza kit to differentiate which strain of Influenza is present with one test, giving a definite diagnosis and faster turnaround for our patients and our colleagues in infection control and public health," said Dr Barkham. (redorbit.com)
- Humans are the natural host for type B infection. (emeter.com)
- However, when two or more damaged viruses infect the same cell multiple infection , viable progeny viruses can be produced provided each of the eight genomic segments is present in at least one undamaged copy. (emeter.com)
- The seasonality of the disease in poultry, together with the control measures already implemented, are likely to reduce temporarily the frequency of H5N1 influenza outbreaks and the probability of human infection. (emeter.com)
- Notably, the H5N1 virus targeted type II pneumocytes throughout the 7-day infection, and induced the most dramatic and sustained expression of type I interferons and inflammatory and innate immune genes, as measured by genomic and protein assays. (pnas.org)
- Since 2003, when two cases of human H5N1 infection occurred in Hong Kong SAR, WHO has worked to identify and resolve problems in order to pave the way for rapid development and production of a pandemic vaccine. (news-medical.net)
- Influenza A virus infection begins with the binding of the hemagglutinin (HA) glycoprotein to sialic acid-containing receptors on the surface of the target cell. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
- When a virus with a new HA subtype is introduced from avian species to humans, the resulting virus may cause widespread infection in the immunologically naïve human population, leading to a pandemic. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
- image of bird flu viruses and human flu viruses entering the same cell and pandemic influenza emerging, diagram of replication of viruses showing reassortment of viral RNA genome segments (genetic mixing or recombination) creating a new viral strain (reassortant) with the potential to create a catastrophic new flu pandemic against which no flu vaccine will protect. (rkm.com.au)
- BIRD FLU INFECTING A PERSON: graphic artwork (above) showing avian influenza viruses (H5N1 shown in green) infecting a person (with lungs and other organs visible). (rkm.com.au)
- BIRD FLU & HUMAN FLU REPLICATION IN A SINGLE CELL: graphic artwork (above) showing avian influenza viruses (H5N1 shown in green) emerging from birds and infecting a cell. (rkm.com.au)
- The new copies exit the nucleus but get jumbled together and form the genome of a new viral strain (red-yellow virions) that might be as lethal as the bird flu and as easily spread from person to person as the human flu. (rkm.com.au)
- BIRDS & BIRD FLU GRAPHIC #1: artwork (above) showing avian influenza viruses (H5N1) emerging from birds and mixing with other strains of influenza virus. (rkm.com.au)
- BIRDS & BIRD FLU GRAPHIC #2: artwork (above) showing avian influenza viruses (H5N1 - shown in green) emerging from birds (swans) and mixing with other strains (blue) of influenza virus, creating the potential for a new strain (red & yellow) which can pass easily from person to person, thereby creating the potential for a pandemic. (rkm.com.au)
- PANDEMIC FLU GRAPHIC: illustration above shows a cell being infected by bird flu (H5N1) and a human flu virus at the same time. (rkm.com.au)
- considerable effort is being devoted to create large quantities of influenza vaccine to fight a potential bird flu pandemic. (rkm.com.au)
- Questions and Answers about Avian Influenza (Bird Flu). (thrall.org)
- Mammal-transmissible bird flu research poses a real danger of a worldwide pandemic that could kill human beings on a vast scale. (thebulletin.org)
- By the end of that year, the virus acquired two gene segments from bird flu viruses as well, becoming a never-before-described triple reassortment virus - a hybrid of a human virus, a pig virus and a bird virus - that triggered outbreaks in Texas, Minnesota and Iowa. (motherearthnews.com)
- Now, researchers have pinpointed another ramification of climate change - an increase in the potential pandemic of bird flu. (medicaldaily.com)
- And, of course, the so-called bird flu - H5N1, which was discovered in 2003 in humans - has infected at least 600 people so far, and has killed at least 300. (medicaldaily.com)
- Bird flu or avian influenza (AI) is a collective term for different influenza viruses that may be dangerous to poultry. (wur.nl)
- However, the mild form of H5 or H7 bird flu may also change into the highly contagious variant, known as high pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI). (wur.nl)
- The H5N8 bird flu virus caused major deaths among wild birds in the Netherlands in 2016-2017. (wur.nl)
- This in contrast to the previously highly pathogenic H5N1 bird flu virus, which could only multiply in the respiratory tract of wild birds. (wur.nl)
- To date, the WHO has reported 260 human cases of bird flu from 10 countries resulting in 153 deaths3. (webwire.com)
- New research from Vanderbilt eavesdrops on gene expression in human immune system cells before and after vaccination against bird flu. (news-medical.net)
- Unlike the H5N1 bird flu virus, which infects the blood, organs and tissue of poultry, most swine flus are confined to the respiratory tract, meaning the risk of a human getting infected by a pig is "probably 10 or a 1,000 times less," Lubroth said. (nbcsandiego.com)
- Dr. Tim Uyeki , an epidemiologist with the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention who has worked on SARS and bird flu outbreaks, said there may be more pig-to-human cases that have gone unnoticed because surveillance among swine populations tends to be weaker than among poultry stocks. (nbcsandiego.com)
- Bird Flu: Is a Pandemic Looming in Our Future? (bioedonline.org)
- One particular strain of H5N1, called highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI), is responsible for the 'bird flu' scares. (scientificamerican.com)
- But while public concern over bird flu has faded in recent years, the risk to humans has increased. (realitysandwich.com)
- Virologists say they understand why bird flu in its present form does not spread among humans. (abc.net.au)
- Bird flu is lethal to poultry and dangerous for humans in close proximity to infected fowl. (abc.net.au)
- Use these social-bookmarking links to share Why bird flu doesn't spread between humans . (abc.net.au)
- The bird flu virus, scientifically termed as the Avian Influenza virus, is usually lethal to the birds and normally does not transmit to humans. (redorbit.com)
- Although anti-viral treatment is available, the potential for H5N1 bird flu virus to spark a pandemic remains a serious threat to public health as most humans do not have immunity to the H5N1 virus. (redorbit.com)
- In 1997, a type of bird flu appeared (H5N1) that is deadly to birds and mammals, including humans, killing nearly 60 per cent of those it infects. (viva.org.uk)
- The bird flu virus H3N2 is endemic in pigs in China . (wikipedia.org)
- Scientists investigating ways of combating the potentially deadly bird flu virus claim to have made a major breakthrough. (netdoctor.co.uk)
- The team injected one group of mice with the H5HA vaccine and another with saline and found that the immunised mice were protected from death and weight loss when infected with bird flu viruses. (netdoctor.co.uk)
- Some animal viruses containing these genes (e.g. (cdc.gov)
- alternately, through reassortment of the genes in different animal or human influenza viruses, the genetic information might reappear in an infectious human virus (17) . (cdc.gov)
- In addition, ongoing genetic analysis of neuraminidase genes from fifth epidemic viruses indicate that approximately 7%-9% of the viruses analyzed to date have known or suspected markers for reduced susceptibility to one or more neuraminidase inhibitor antiviral medications. (cdc.gov)
- Pigs can carry human influenza viruses, which can combine (i.e. exchange homologous genome subunits by genetic reassortment ) with H5N1 , passing genes and mutating into a form which can pass easily among humans. (wikipedia.org)
- A live attenuated H7N7 candidate vaccine virus was generated by reverse genetics using the modified hemagglutinin (HA) and neuraminidase (NA) genes of HP A/Netherlands/219/03 (NL/03) (H7N7) wild-type (wt) virus and the six internal protein genes of the cold-adapted (ca) A/Ann Arbor/6/60 ca (AA ca) (H2N2) virus. (usda.gov)
- Publications] Y. Sakai: 'Accommodation of foreign genes into the sendai virus genome : sizes of inserted genes and viral replication'FEBS Letter. (nii.ac.jp)
- The pandemic virus contained a novel combination of genes from pig, avian and human influenza viruses. (europa.eu)
- Much reporting of early analysis repeated that the strain contained genes from five different flu viruses: North American swine influenza, North American avian influenza, human influenza, and two swine influenza viruses typically found in Asia and Europe. (wikipedia.org)
- They emphasized that there was no way to prove their hypothesis, but stated that there is no evidence that this new virus, which combines Eurasian and North American genes, has ever circulated in North American pigs, "while there is tantalizing evidence that a closely related 'sister virus' had circulated in Asia. (wikipedia.org)
- In August 1998, however, a barking cough resounded throughout a North Carolina pig factory in which all the thousands of breeding sows fell ill. A new swine flu virus was discovered on that factory farm, a human-pig hybrid virus that had picked up three human flu genes. (motherearthnews.com)
- Every past human influenza pandemic has shared genes with an avian influenza virus. (medicaldaily.com)
- This study showed that FTA cards can be used to detect AIV RNA in reverse-transcription PCR and that the resulting cDNA could be sequenced and virus genes and determined. (jove.com)
- An avian H5N1 virus acquired airborne transmission in guinea pigs after receiving genes from 2009/H1N1virus 21 . (nature.com)
- Swine Flu is caused by influenza viruses that normally circulate in pigs in Europe and Asia, plus avian and human genes. (nih.gov)
- The never-before-seen virus was created when genes from pig, bird and human viruses mixed together inside a pig. (nbcsandiego.com)
- According to Perez and his colleagues many factors are involved in the viability of new viruses that result from reassortment, but the most important is the compatibility of their two sets of viral genes to work together to form functional offspring. (medindia.net)
- Porcine genes have already been identified in some strains of influenza virus. (psr-la.org)
- It was an artificial version of the same process through which wild viruses shuffle their genes, known as reassortment. (scientificamerican.com)
- These viruses and a third avian virus [A/Teal/HK/W312/97 (H6N1)] have six highly related genes encoding internal proteins. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
- Additionally, A/Chicken/HK/G9/97 (H9N2) virus has PB1 and PB2 genes that are highly related to those of A/HK/156/97 (H5N1), A/Teal/HK/W312/97 (H6N1), and A/Quail/HK/G1/97 (H9N2) viruses. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
- The H5N1 and H9N2 influenza viruses that were transmitted to humans possess six genes encoding internal proteins that are closely related to each other ( 19 ) and to A/Quail/HK/G1/97 (H9N2), the likely source of the H9N2 viruses that were transmitted to children in Hong Kong. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
- Using reverse genetics, a technique whereby individual genes from viruses are separated, selected, and put back together, Perez and his team created a hybrid human-avian virus. (lockergnome.com)
- Their research hybrid had internal human flu genes and surface avian flu genes from the H9N2 virus. (lockergnome.com)
- Influenza viruses have eight genes, two of which code for virus surface proteins - hemagglutinin (H) and neuraminidase (N) - that allow the virus to enter a host cell and spread from cell to cell. (infectioncontroltoday.com)
- The eight influenza genes can be thought of as players on a team: certain combinations of players may arise through chance and endow the virus with new abilities, such as the ability to infect a new type of host,' says Morens, senior advisor to the NIAID director. (infectioncontroltoday.com)
- The virus had a novel set of eight genes and - through still-unknown mechanisms - gained the ability to infect people and spread readily from person to person. (infectioncontroltoday.com)
- and to spawn a host of novel progeny viruses with novel gene constellations, through the periodic importation or exportation of viral genes,' write the NIAID authors. (infectioncontroltoday.com)
- This means that viruses can mix genes and become a type of flu that could cause a pandemic. (wikipedia.org)
- These viruses can combine in new ways, and exchange certain genes with H5N1 . (wikipedia.org)
- 4. The WHO Regional Office for South East Asia has been actively engaged in working with member countries to assist them in their preparedness and planning for a potential pandemic. (who.int)
- Influenza Pandemic Preparedness Plans (NIPPPs). (who.int)
- A generic National Pandemic Preparedness Plan. (who.int)
- Regional Influenza Pandemic Preparedness Plan (2006-2008). (who.int)
- It is in the process of finalizing a step- by - step guide for conducting simulation exercises to test countries' preparedness for a pandemic. (who.int)
- The President's Homeland Security Advisor, Frances Townsend, discussed the Avian and Pandemic Influenza threat and outlined the Federal Government's preparedness and response steps. (archives.gov)
- On November 1, 2005, the day the President announced the National Strategy for Pandemic Influenza , the Administration also submitted a $7.1 billion emergency budget supplemental request to Congress for pandemic preparedness funding. (archives.gov)
- The Act includes $3.8 billion for pandemic influenza preparedness, the first installment of the President's request to launch these critical activities. (archives.gov)
- work should be published in full to aid pandemic preparedness or redacted to prevent misuse by terrorists. (scientificamerican.com)
- Advice on doing so is contained in the recently revised WHO global influenza preparedness plan 1 and a new WHO checklist for influenza pandemic preparedness planning .2 To further assist in preparedness planning, WHO is developing a model country plan that will give many developing countries a head start in assessing their status of preparedness and identifying priority needs. (who.int)
- This is a bigboost to public healthcare system and a great stride forward in pandemic preparedness against this highly infectious disease worldwide. (redorbit.com)
- Efforts to develop multisectoral pandemic preparedness plans and mobilize political and financial support in the Region are under way. (who.int)
- Influenza vaccines have to be regularly updated because the influenza virus constantly changes its surface antigens. (rkm.com.au)
- Avian influenza vaccines might not work against a novel pandemic viral strain. (rkm.com.au)
- Genetic changes in the virus have not been sufficient to alter antigenic properties or cause mismatch with candidate vaccines. (cdc.gov)
- Present vaccination strategies for swine influenza virus (SIV) control and prevention in swine farms typically include the use of one of several bivalent SIV vaccines commercially available in the United States. (wikipedia.org)
- The crucial changes the researchers pinpointed may prompt a rethinking of how to develop vaccines for a potential pandemic. (nih.gov)
- Richard Webby, a flu expert at St. Jude Children's Research Hospital in Memphis, Tennessee, says that the finding confirms that vaccines based on the bird virus can still be useful against strains that become more infectious. (scientificamerican.com)
- Alexander DJ (2008) Avian influenza manual for diagnostic tests and vaccines for terrestrial animals, 6th edition. (springer.com)
- The current influenza virus vaccines can confer protection when they are well-matched with the circulating strains. (mdpi.com)
- In addition, the current seasonal influenza virus vaccines do not protect from avian influenza viruses of human pandemic potential. (mdpi.com)
- Understanding these susceptibility factors is critical for the development of new vaccines and therapeutics to combat the next pandemic influenza. (frontiersin.org)
- This movement is called antigenic drift, and explains why seasonal flu viruses keep changing and new updated vaccines are needed. (abc.net.au)
- Perez found that one of the two of the genetic mutations in his lab strain that enabled respiratory transmission between mammals was on the tip of the HA surface protein, one of the sites where human antibodies created in response to current vaccines would bind. (lockergnome.com)
- We should keep this in mind when designing vaccines for an avian flu pandemic in humans. (lockergnome.com)
- 5) These are the vaccines that many countries are stockpiling in case a pandemic breaks out but ongoing research is still working on a more effective and cost effective solution. (alpharubicon.com)
- To date, only two of the world's roughly 12 major companies producing influenza vaccines have taken work on a pandemic vaccine significantly forward. (news-medical.net)
- The Hong Kong epidemic also underscores the need for national committees and country-specific pandemic plans. (cdc.gov)
- As mentioned the first avian influenza in humans was reported in Hong Kong in 1997. (hubpages.com)
- Preliminary antigenic analysis of recent Yangtze River Delta lineage viruses isolated from infections detected in Hong Kong indicate reduced cross-reactivity with existing CVVs, whereas viruses belonging to the Pearl River Delta lineage are still well inhibited by ferret antisera raised to CVVs. (cdc.gov)
- H5N1 first emerged as a human threat in Hong Kong in 1997. (aafp.org)
- Previous flu pandemics were the Spanish flu (1918), with an estimated 40 million deaths worldwide, the Asian flu (1957-58) and the Hong Kong flu (1968) with 2 to 3 million victims each. (wur.nl)
- A/Hong Kong/156/97 (A/HK/156/97) (H5N1) influenza virus caused 18 confirmed infections, with six deaths, in Hong Kong ( 3 , 4 , 5 , 31 ). (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
- Because it originated in Hong Kong, the pandemic is also referred to as Hong Kong flu. (wikipedia.org)
- In comparison to other pandemics, the Hong Kong flu yielded a low death rate, with a case-fatality ratio below 0.5% making it a category 2 disease on the Pandemic Severity Index. (wikipedia.org)
- The pandemic infected an estimated 500,000 Hong Kong residents, 15% of the population. (wikipedia.org)
- Three strains of Hong Kong influenza virus isolated from humans were compared with a strain isolated from a calf for their ability to cause disease in calves. (wikipedia.org)
- In addition, there were two H5N1 samples, one taken from a human victim in Hong Kong and one from a duck in Vietnam. (abc.net.au)
- Eleven years later, from 1968 to 1969, the Hong Kong flu pandemic infected 50 million Americans and caused 33,000 deaths. (wikipedia.org)
- In 1997 the first cases of human infections with the avian influenza were reported in Hong Kong. (alpharubicon.com)
- Three people, believed to have had contact with a bird infected with avian influenza, have been taken to hospital in Hong Kong this week for observation and tests. (netdoctor.co.uk)
- Several involved "swine influenza viruses" ( 4 - 6 ) antigenically related to viruses circulating in some pig populations and linked to viruses of the 1918 pandemic (see above). (cdc.gov)
- A CDC staff microbiologist examines reconstructed 1918 Pandemic Influenza Virus at a Biosafety Level 3-enhanced lab. (thebulletin.org)
- That is likely what happened to spark the 1918 pandemic, he adds. (infectioncontroltoday.com)
- The mechanisms responsible for the virulence of the highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) and of the 1918 pandemic influenza virus in humans remain poorly understood. (pnas.org)
- The concern is when the virus mutates to a strain transmitted readily among humans, and unless there is a dramatic decrease in the pathogenicity of the virus, the result will be a pandemic with mortality rates not seen since the 1918 pandemic. (alpharubicon.com)
- The sows of this herd (n = 420) were vaccinated against swine IAVs with Respiporc FLU3 vaccine (Ceva, https://www.ceva.com ), but the farmer and animal caretaker were not recently vaccinated against human seasonal influenza viruses. (cdc.gov)
- Seasonal epidemics within the human population are caused by A and B viruses. (bartleby.com)
- Seasonal epidemics due to influenza A can lead to extensive morbidity in addition to mortality. (bartleby.com)
- Seasonal influenza kills an estimated 36,000 people in the United States each year. (wikipedia.org)
- Seasonal influenza viruses flow out of overlapping epidemics in East Asia and Southeast Asia , then trickle around the globe before dying off. (wikipedia.org)
- Brooks M. FDA Okays 4-Strain Seasonal Influenza Vaccine. (medscape.com)
- FDA approves first quadrivalent vaccine to prevent seasonal influenza. (medscape.com)
- The virus is contagious and is believed to spread from human to human in much the same way as seasonal flu. (wikipedia.org)
- In this paper, we generated influenza virus vaccine constructs that express chimeric hemagglutinins consisting of exotic, avian head domains and a consistent stalk domain of a seasonal virus. (mdpi.com)
- GSK has an active research and development programmetargeted at both seasonal and pandemic influenza and has recently committed over $2 billion to expand capacity for manufacturing flu vaccine and its anti-viral influenza treatment Relenza (zanamivir for inhalation). (webwire.com)
- Key Facts About Seasonal Influenza (Flu). (medscape.com)
- Pandemic Influenza Poses A Greater Risk Than Seasonal Influenza. (archives.gov)
- Most Americans are familiar with seasonal influenza or the "flu" - a respiratory illness that makes hundreds of thousands of people in the United States sick every year. (archives.gov)
- For most healthy people, seasonal influenza is not life-threatening. (archives.gov)
- Pandemic influenza is different from seasonal influenza because it occurs when a new strain of influenza emerges that can be transmitted easily from person-to-person and for which people have no immunity. (archives.gov)
- Unlike seasonal influenza, which typically affects the frail and sick, pandemic influenza could present as much risk to the young and healthy. (archives.gov)
- The two viruses could then share genetic material, transmitting to the H5N1 virus the ease of transmission of the regular seasonal virus. (psr-la.org)
- i.e. for a proscribed rehearsal period, treating current and future seasonal influenza as if it were pandemic flu and then assessing the adequacy of response. (psr-la.org)
- Universal vaccination for seasonal influenza is an absolute priority. (psr-la.org)
- Aside from limiting potential vectors for the spread of pandemic influenza, seasonal flu kills over 35,000 Americans each year. (psr-la.org)
- Fouchier later added, however, that his mutant virus "does not spread yet like a pandemic or seasonal flu virus" and that the ferrets did not die when infected through aerosol transmission. (scientificamerican.com)
- All human-adapted influenza A viruses of today - both seasonal variations and those that caused more dramatic pandemics - are descendents, direct or indirect, of that founding virus,' notes Taubenberger, senior investigator in NIAID's Laboratory of Infectious Diseases. (infectioncontroltoday.com)
- Influenza A is more serious than B and C. The seasonal is developed many months in advance of flu season. (emeter.com)
- Much was written in the press about the potential pandemic threat and tremendous effort was put into producing a possible vaccine to counter the ever mutating virus. (hubpages.com)
- If the agent involved were a potential pandemic pathogen, such a community release could lead to a worldwide pandemic with many fatalities. (thebulletin.org)
- Analyzing the likelihood of release from laboratories researching less virulent or transmissible pathogens therefore can serve as a reasonable surrogate for how potential pandemic pathogens are handled. (thebulletin.org)
- Dr Sambhara and Professor Mittal concluded: "This approach is a feasible vaccine strategy against existing and newly emerging viruses of highly pathogenic avian influenza to prepare against a potential pandemic. (netdoctor.co.uk)
- Four of five human isolates tested were highly lethal for both mice and ferrets and exhibited a substantially greater level of virulence in ferrets than other H5N1 viruses isolated from humans since 1997. (asm.org)
- Rapid disease progression and high lethality rates in ferrets distinguished the highly virulent 2004 H5N1 viruses from the 1997 H5N1 viruses. (asm.org)
- Alexander DJ (2002) Report on avian influenza in the Eastern Hemisphere during 1997-2002. (springer.com)
- Outbreaks of Avian influenza A viruses (gold particles) in humans have been reported since 1997. (bioedonline.org)
- To better understand the potential of H5N1 viruses isolated during this epizootic event to cause disease in mammals, we used the mouse and ferret models to evaluate the relative virulence of selected 2003 and 2004 H5N1 viruses representing multiple genetic and geographical groups and compared them to earlier H5N1 strains isolated from humans. (asm.org)
- Collectively, these findings suggest a new mechanism by which influenza viruses may become more pathogenic in mammals, including humans. (nih.gov)
- Avian Influenza Viruses (AIVs) infect many mammals, including humans 1 . (jove.com)
- An experimental flu vaccine designed for a bird-specific H5N1 influenza virus can protect humans from a lab-made H5N1 strain engineered to pass among mammals. (scientificamerican.com)
- A highly pathogenic strain of H7N1 avian influenza virus became capable of airborne transmission in mammals after 10 serial passages 20 . (nature.com)
- Ours is the first study to show respiratory transmission of an H9 reassortant virus in mammals without prior adaptation. (medindia.net)
- Research describing two mutant strains of H5N1 avian influenza that spread between mammals is likely to be published in its entirety. (scientificamerican.com)
- These laboratory strains could be passed between mammals more easily than wild strains of the virus. (scientificamerican.com)
- Thus, zanamivir is efficacious in treating avian influenza viruses that can be transmitted to mammals. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
- In a study published last week in the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, Associate Professor Daniel Perez from the University of Maryland showed that after an avian and human-like virus combine, the virus requires relatively few mutations to spread rapidly between mammals by respiratory droplets. (lockergnome.com)
- One of two controversial studies that shows how to make H5N1 avian influenza more transmissible in mammals is now up onNature's Web site for all the world to scrutinize. (sciencemag.org)
- Mutations are present in the receptor binding site of the hemagglutinin protein that are associated with increased binding to human-type α2-6-linked sialic acid receptors, as is a mutation in the polymerase basic 2 protein associated with efficient replication in mammals. (annals.org)
- In addition, there are signs that the virus is better adapted to infect mammals than other avian influenza viruses. (medpagetoday.com)
- Influenza viruses circulating in the animal world do pose a threat to human health since they have mutated into a form that allows this. (hubpages.com)
- According to the current analysis, performed at the Columbia University's Center for Computational Biology and Bioinformatics, it is from this pool of viruses that the current swine flu threat derives three-quarters of its genetic material. (motherearthnews.com)
- Our findings elucidate the specific mutations in PB2 contribute to the phenotype differences and emphasize the importance of monitoring the identified amino acid substitutions due to their potential threat to human health. (nature.com)
- Jean St phenne, President of GSK Biologicals, the vaccine division of GSK, said: Receiving this positive opinion today from the CHMP is testament to the company s ongoing commitment to provide health authorities with concrete options against the threat of an influenza pandemic. (webwire.com)
- AI viruses have contributed significantly to this, and in recent years, highly pathogenic AI (HPAI) viruses have emerged as a major zoonotic threat. (frontiersin.org)
- A look at the history of pandemic flu can help us understand why the H5N1 virus remains a serious threat to mankind. (realitysandwich.com)
- Recommended activities are specific to the threat posed by the continuing spread of the H5N1 virus. (who.int)
- In view of the immediacy of the threat, WHO recommends that all countries undertake urgent action to prepare for a pandemic. (who.int)
- Given the many uncertainties about the evolution of the pandemic threat, including the amount of time left to prepare, a wise approach involves a mix of measures that immediately address critical problems with longer-term measures that sustainably improve the world's capacity to protect itself against the recurring pandemic threat. (who.int)
- The clearance of this test represents a major step toward protecting the public from the threat of pandemic flu. (netdoc.com)
- Until now it is unclear whether these bat-derived viruses are circulating in any non-bat species and whether they pose a zoonotic threat. (emeter.com)
- This strain is common, has mild symptoms, and doesn't pose a significant threat to human health. (alpharubicon.com)
- The most dangerous type of avian influenza, fowl pest (HPAI) forms a public health risk. (wur.nl)
- The 2003-2004 H5N1 highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) outbreaks in Japan were the first such outbreaks in 79 years in Japan. (hindawi.com)
- Such highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) epidemics had not been reported in Japan for 79 years. (hindawi.com)
- It aims to prevent the further spread of the Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza (HPAI) to other parts of Nigeria not yet infected by the virus. (worldbank.org)
- Among these viruses, HPAI H5N1 was the most virulent. (pnas.org)
- While both 1918 reassortant viruses also were highly pathogenic, the H5N1 virus was exceptional for the extent of tissue damage, cytokinemia, and interference with immune regulatory mechanisms, which may help explain the extreme virulence of HPAI viruses in humans. (pnas.org)
- Recent nonhuman primate experiments comparing HPAI H5N1 and a reconstructed 1918 virus suggest many similarities in early host responses to these viruses. (pnas.org)
- The genetic markers of mammalian adaptation and antiviral resistance remained similar across each epidemic, and viruses from the fourth epidemic remained antigenically well matched to current candidate vaccine viruses. (cdc.gov)
- Given ample opportunity to circulate, exchange genetic material with other viruses and improve its ability to infect and spread, one of these viruses could unexpectedly spark a pandemic. (nih.gov)
- We have obtained V and C protein-deficient mutant viruses by genetic engineering, and characterized them in mice for pathogenicity. (nii.ac.jp)
- 3) We have developed reverse genetic system of Parainfluenza virus. (nii.ac.jp)
- Publications] Masayoshi Enami: 'Characterization of influenza virus NSl protein using a novel helper-virus-free reverse genetic system'Journal of Virology. (nii.ac.jp)
- Scientists in Winnipeg later completed the full genetic sequencing of viruses from Mexico and Canada on May 6, 2009. (wikipedia.org)
- But pigs are of special concern because they share some basic biological similarities with humans, and they have served as "mixing vessels" in which various flu strains have swapped genetic material. (nbcsandiego.com)
- Flu viruses reproduce sloppily, which induces slight changes in their genetic code. (abc.net.au)
- When the genetic sequences of the mutant virus and original hybrid virus were compared, they found only two surface mutations responsible for supporting respiratory droplet transmission. (lockergnome.com)
- The rapid sharing of genetic sequence information has provided insight into this virus. (annals.org)
- The genetic sequence of viruses from 3 patients as well as H7N7 viruses from live-bird markets shows adaptation to mammalian hosts (2, 3) . (annals.org)
- Uyeki and Cox singled out some genetic characteristics of the new virus that are concerning. (medpagetoday.com)
- Spanish flu may be genetically more diverged than the existing strains,which made it highly virulent one.what is your opinion on genetic configuration of Spanish influenza as comparable to existing influenza virus strains. (virology.ws)
- Analysis of specimens from this cluster is presently under way at a WHO collaborating laboratory to determine whether the virus has changed its genetic make-up. (news-medical.net)
- The flu virus is a moving target, antigenically speaking, and so vaccine manufacture lags viral innovation. (rkm.com.au)
- Clinical features and rapid viral diagnosis of human disease associated with avian influenza A H5N1 virus. (nih.gov)
- The fluorescence signal for glycan #18 in the Utah virus pair includes nonspecific binding by the primary sheep antibody and cannot be interpreted as viral (data not shown). (nih.gov)
- Samji, T. (2009) Influenza A: Understanding the viral life cycle. (scirp.org)
- Furthermore, examination of infected tissues revealed cellular damage at sites containing viral proteins, providing an explanation for the increased severity of disease in humans. (bio-medicine.org)
- The species barriers that hinder most avian IAVs from successfully infecting humans are effective at several steps in the viral life cycle. (nature.com)
- Despite these differences in receptor binding, many avian viruses are internalized by human cells and initiate expression of the viral genome. (nature.com)
- One well-established factor is the influenza RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRP): this enzyme catalyzes replication of the viral genome and transcription of viral messenger RNAs (mRNAs) 3 . (nature.com)
- However, they add, "Changes in other viral proteins, including PB2, may be required to confer pandemic potential on avian viruses that can efficiently replicate in humans. (umn.edu)
- The criterion standard for diagnosing influenza A and B is a viral culture of nasopharyngeal samples or throat samples. (medscape.com)
- Of course, viruses don't actually have sex, but University of Maryland Virologist Daniel Perez, who directed the new study, said new pandemic viruses are formed mainly through a process called reassortment, which can best be described as viral sexual reproduction. (medindia.net)
- The neuraminidase inhibitor zanamivir inhibited viral replication in Madin-Darby canine kidney cells in virus yield assays (50% effective concentration, 8.5 to 14.0 μM) and inhibited viral neuraminidase activity (50% inhibitory concentration, 5 to 10 nM). (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
- The focus of the Foung Laboratory is to define immune correlates of protection against hepatitis C virus and other viral pathogens. (stanford.edu)
- More specifically, our goal is to define protective humoral immunity to viral pathogens through the isolation, biochemical and functional characterization of broadly neutralizing human or nonhuman primate monoclonal antibodies. (stanford.edu)
- The influenza virus that wreaked worldwide havoc in 1918-1919 founded a viral dynasty that persists to this day, according to scientists from the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases (NIAID). (infectioncontroltoday.com)
- Clinical and pathological features in H5N1- and 1918-infected humans and animal models ( 6 - 12 ) suggest that high levels of viral replication with early robust host responses play a key role in pneumonia severity and outcome. (pnas.org)
- Avian-type receptor-binding ability can increase influenza virus pathogenicity in macaques. (nih.gov)
- Here, we asked whether binding to avian-type receptors enhances influenza virus pathogenicity. (nih.gov)
- Alexander DJ, Allan WH, Parsons DG, Parsons G (1978) The pathogenicity of four avian influenza viruses for fowls, turkeys and ducks. (springer.com)
- To assess the replication and pathogenicity of these viruses in different hosts, they were inoculated in chickens, ducks and mice. (frontiersin.org)
Outbreaks of avian1
- Close contact occurs in such regions between humans and animals (e.g., ducks, pigs) raised for food. (cdc.gov)
- Most cases occur in humans who have direct exposure to pigs. (cdc.gov)
- We also conducted whole-genome characterization of viruses from the man and the pigs. (cdc.gov)
- Both humans and the pigs recovered completely within 10 days after the first appearance of signs or symptoms. (cdc.gov)
- On June 23, 2009, The New York Times reported that U.S. federal agriculture officials, "contrary to the popular assumption that the new swine flu pandemic arose on factory farms in Mexico," now believe that it "most likely emerged from pigs in Asia, but then traveled to North America in a human. (wikipedia.org)
- Oliver Pybus of Oxford University's Department of Zoology, and part of the research team, claims "Our results show that this strain has been circulating among pigs, possibly among multiple continents, for many years prior to its transmission to humans. (wikipedia.org)
- We then passed the virus to pigs, where it has continued to circulate, becoming one of the most common causes of respiratory disease on North American pig farms. (motherearthnews.com)
- Blood samples taken from 4,382 pigs across 23 states found that 20.5 percent tested positive for exposure to this triple hybrid swine flu virus by early 1999, including 100 percent of herds tested in Illinois and Iowa, and 90 percent in Kansas and Oklahoma. (motherearthnews.com)
- Scientists postulate that a human flu virus may have starting circulating in U.S. pig farms as early as 1995, but "by mutation or simply by obtaining a critical density , caused disease in pigs and began to spread rapidly through swine herds in North America. (motherearthnews.com)
- MEXICO CITY -- Now that the swine flu virus has passed from a farmworker to pigs, could it jump back to people? (nbcsandiego.com)
- Experts fear the virus that has gone from humans back into pigs in at least one case could mutate further before crossing back into humans again. (nbcsandiego.com)
- Canadian officials announced Saturday that the virus had infected about 200 pigs on a farm -- the first evidence that it had jumped to another species. (nbcsandiego.com)
- Scientists are unsure when the virus leaped from pigs to humans -- possibly months or even a year ago -- but it was identified as a new strain about a week and a half ago. (nbcsandiego.com)
- There have been sporadic cases of pigs infecting humans with influenza in the past. (nbcsandiego.com)
- Most often, pigs have been infected by strains of influenza that are slightly different from those that infect people. (merckmanuals.com)
- When humans are infected with influenza strains that more closely resemble those that infect pigs, the strains are called swine variant viruses and denoted with a 'v' (eg, H3N2v). (merckmanuals.com)
- A wild bird infects overcrowded chickens with a benign flu virus which suddenly finds itself in mutation heaven and produces innumerable new strains, most of which are unviable and die out - but one, just one of millions, is capable of infecting pigs. (viva.org.uk)
- Swine influenza virus is a virus that is common in pigs . (wikipedia.org)
- These viruses became common in pigs. (wikipedia.org)
- Every once in a while, the viruses spread from pigs to humans. (wikipedia.org)
- There were a small number of isolated (far-apart) cases around the U.S. However, these were in people who were thought to have caught the virus from pigs. (wikipedia.org)
- Pigs can carry human influenza viruses. (wikipedia.org)
- On rare occasions, these bird viruses can infect other species, including pigs and humans. (villanova.edu)
- Swine flu is also caused by the influenza A virus and attacks the respiratory systems of pigs. (reference.com)
- Before influenza virus could be propagated in a laboratory, retrospective measurement of antibodies to the influenza virus' major surface antigen (hemagglutinin) in persons of different ages was used to identify viruses causing pandemics. (cdc.gov)
- These changes can arise in either one or both of the proteins, hemagglutinin (H) and neuraminidase (N), located on the exterior of the influenza A virus. (bartleby.com)
- For example, the avian virus receptor hemagglutinin (HA) recognizes oligosaccharides containing terminal sialic acid (SA) that are linked to galactose by α2,3 2 . (nature.com)
- Publications] S. Itamura, H. Nishimura, M. Enami,: 'Influenza A virus with genetically engineered hemagglutinin of virulent avian H5N1 virus isolated from human is Attenuated and confers protection of mice from lethal challenge. (nii.ac.jp)
- Flu viruses use a protein called hemagglutinin to latch onto receptor molecules on the surface of host cells. (umn.edu)
- But a mutation in the hemagglutinin molecule could enable the virus to "recognize" the human type receptor. (umn.edu)
- In this study, male ferrets received a live-attenuated vaccine virus based on the A/Ann Arbor/6/60 strain expressing a chimeric H8/1 (cH8/1) hemagglutinin, which was followed by a heterologous booster vaccination with a cH5/1N1 formalin inactivated non-adjuvanted whole virus. (mdpi.com)
- p. 1230 ) show that the H7 hemagglutinin strongly retains its specificity for avian-type receptors by using cocrystal structures with receptor analogs and glycan binding analysis with recombinant hemagglutinin against a library of receptor analogs. (sciencemag.org)
- However, glycan array analysis of the H7 hemagglutinin reveals negligible binding to humanlike α2-6-linked receptors and strong preference for a subset of avian-like α2-3-linked glycans recognized by all avian H7 viruses. (sciencemag.org)
- The goal of the present study, conducted in our well-characterized macaque and systems biology model of influenza ( 12 - 15 ), was to refine our understanding by using a 2004 human H5N1 Vietnam isolate and 2 1918 reassortant viruses possessing the 1918 hemagglutinin (HA) and neuraminidase (NA) surface proteins, based on the role surface glycoproteins play in the high virulence of the 1918 virus in the mouse model ( 6 ). (pnas.org)
- The H5 virus, however, did not evolve into a form that is readily transmitted from person to person, and its potential for this kind of transmission remains unknown. (cdc.gov)
- So far, there is no evidence of sustained human-to-human transmission. (blogspot.com)
- In the first three annual epidemics, there was no evidence of sustained human-to-human transmission. (cdc.gov)
- Three major factors influence the pandemic potential of an influenza virus: (1) its ability to cause human disease, (2) the immunity of the population to the virus, and (3) the transmission potential of the virus. (nih.gov)
- Since the occurrence of the pandemic, great emphasis has been placed on the importance of influenza vaccination and its role in preventing and slowing transmission of the virus. (bartleby.com)
- Although H5N1 is not yet capable of efficient human-to-human transmission, the protean nature of its genome could transform it into the source of the next human influenza pandemic. (aafp.org)
- This virus however, didn't transmit through respiratory droplets, the main mode of influenza transmission in ferrets. (nih.gov)
- Sequencing of the viruses revealed that 3 amino acid changes on virus surface proteins-2 in the hemaglutinin protein (the "H" of the virus's name) and 1 in the neuraminidase protein (the "N")-were responsible for enabling respiratory droplet transmission. (nih.gov)
- These data underscore the potential for influenza virus to spread not only from the respiratory tract but also from the digestive and urinary tracts, greatly increasing the possible routes of mammalian transmission. (bio-medicine.org)
- Experts agree that it is not a question of if, but when, the virus will adapt in ways that facilitate efficient, sustained human-to-human transmission. (fao.org)
- Given that the primary route of swine flu transmission is thought to be the same as human flu-via droplets or aerosols of infected nasal secretions - it's no wonder experts blame overcrowding for the emergence of new flu virus mutants. (motherearthnews.com)
- That, in turn, would lower the transmission of avian flu. (medicaldaily.com)
- This may help explain the "inefficient" human-to-human transmission of H5N1 viruses seen so far, the article continues. (umn.edu)
- Our studies strongly suggested that field and laboratory studies focusing on mechanical transmission by blow flies should be considered to control H5N1 avian influenza outbreaks, in particular in epidemic areas, where there are high densities of different fly species throughout the year. (hindawi.com)
- We know of no report suggesting that H5N1 virus could be transmitted efficaciously from person to person, but the possibility remains that such transmission could evolve [ 7 ]. (hindawi.com)
- There are no reported cases of sustained human-to-human transmission of the current strain of avian flu. (archives.gov)
- If the virus develops the capacity for sustained human-to-human transmission, however, it could spread quickly around the world. (archives.gov)
- A few deaths have been recorded, and limited human-to-human transmission also has been documented, but nothing sustained. (nbcsandiego.com)
- Wild H5N1 viruses cannot latch on tothe cells in a person's nose and throat, but the mutant strains created by Fouchier and Kawaoka can spread between ferrets, which are viewed as a good animal model of flu transmission between humans. (scientificamerican.com)
- It is important to determine the pathogenicities of these viruses, for they have the potential for interspecies transmission and hence the potential to cause epidemics and pandemics. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
- This restriction may contribute to the inefficient human-to-human transmission of H5N1 viruses seen to date. (abc.net.au)
- There have also been cases of possible human-to-human transmission. (merckmanuals.com)
- A recent study by University of Maryland researchers examines the mechanisms underlying transmission of combined avian-human viruses and illustrates how virus outbreaks like that of the current swine flu come about. (lockergnome.com)
- Perez infected ferrets (considered a good model for human influenza transmission) with the virus he created, and allowed the virus to mutate in the species. (lockergnome.com)
- The studies describe specific mutations in the virus' genome that allow it to be transmitted as droplets between ferrets, which have been considered to be a good model for mammal transmission. (sciencemag.org)
- Information about the methods and mutations used by the two groups could be important to public health officials and researchers striving to understand virus transmission and to predict and prevent the next pandemic. (sciencemag.org)
- The third and most critical characteristic of pandemic strains is efficient human-to-human transmission. (annals.org)
- So far, limited but unsustained human-to-human transmission has been reported ( 4 - 6 ). (asm.org)
- 10) In 2004 the first case of human to human transmission was suspected but not confirmed. (alpharubicon.com)
- Then in January of 2005 was the first confirmed case of human to human transmission in Thailand. (alpharubicon.com)
- Communities need to prepare for a pandemic because if a human-to-human transmission is identified, it has the potential to spread very quickly and will place extraordinary and sustained demands on public health and healthcare systems. (villanova.edu)
- Last week, Thai officials announced a probable case of human-to-human transmission in a family cluster of cases. (news-medical.net)
- Heightened surveillance for further cases has provided no evidence that efficient and sustained human-to-human transmission is presently occurring in Thailand. (news-medical.net)
- In this review, we discuss the receptor binding specificity of influenza A viruses and its role in interspecies transmission. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
- Respiratory illness that is generally mild can be attributed to influenza type C and is not responsible for epidemics. (bartleby.com)
- Grant Wade April 22, 2001 Influenza Influenza Influenza, also known as "the flu," is a virus that infects the respiratory tract. (bartleby.com)
- An H5-specific reverse-transcription PCR assay (RT-PCR) was useful for rapid detection of virus directly in respiratory specimens. (nih.gov)
- The highly virulent viruses replicated to high titers in the mouse and ferret respiratory tracts and spread to multiple organs, including the brain. (asm.org)
- Researchers at Erasmus Medical Center have demonstrated systemic spread of avian influenza virus in cats infected by respiratory, digestive, and cat-to-cat contact. (bio-medicine.org)
- In the human upper respiratory airway epithelium, the dominant linkage is of α2,6 type, to which human-adapted HA binds. (nature.com)
- Mar 23, 2006 (CIDRAP News) - A new study suggests that the reason the H5N1 avian influenza virus infects humans relatively rarely and does not spread from person to person is that it lacks the right key to unlock many cells in the upper respiratory tract. (umn.edu)
- Deep in the respiratory system, [cell] receptors for avian viruses, including avian H5N1 viruses, are present," Kawaoka explained in a University of Wisconsin news release. (umn.edu)
- For the viruses to be transmitted efficiently, they have to multiply in the upper portion of the respiratory system so that they can be transmitted by coughing and sneezing. (umn.edu)
- The authors sought to determine the distribution of these two kinds of receptors in the human respiratory tract. (umn.edu)
- By exposing respiratory tract cells in laboratory cultures to lectins-plant proteins that bind preferentially to different cell-surface molecules-they determined that the human-type receptors were dominant in the nose, nasal sinuses, throat, trachea, and bronchi. (umn.edu)
- The researchers then exposed respiratory tract cells to human and avian flu viruses. (umn.edu)
- These viruses typically replicate in the gastrointestinal and upper respiratory tract of both these natural hosts and chickens, and typically present as subclinical to mild disease ( 3 , 4 ). (frontiersin.org)
- This is important because a new virus must be able to transmit via the respiratory route to impact the human population significantly. (medindia.net)
- can replicate efficiently only in cells in the lower region of the respiratory tract, where the avian virus receptor is prevalent," the paper says. (abc.net.au)
- First and foremost, it would need mutations in the spike, the haemagglutinin molecule, to enable the virus to bind to cells in the upper respiratory tract. (abc.net.au)
- Kawaoka's team exposed various tissues from the human respiratory tract to a range of viruses in lab dishes. (abc.net.au)
- Before long, healthy ferrets that shared air space but not physical space with the infected ferret had the virus, showing that the virus had mutated to spread by respiratory droplets. (lockergnome.com)
- With four mutations, a hybrid H5N1 virus jumps between ferrets via respiratory droplets. (sciencemag.org)
- The flu is a contagious respiratory illness caused by influenza viruses. (villanova.edu)
Spread of avian influenza1
- The researchers set out to determine whether the reassortant virus could gain this ability. (nih.gov)
- The reassortant H7N7 NL/03 ca vaccine virus was temperature sensitive and attenuated in mice, ferrets, and African green monkeys (AGMs). (usda.gov)
- This pandemic strain was a reassortant of avian, swine, and human influenza viruses. (highbeam.com)
- This study revealed important similarities but also critical differences between the H5N1 and 1918-reassortant viruses, highlighting aspects of the host-pathogen interface caused by highly virulent influenza viruses. (pnas.org)
- Differential Replication, Lung Tissue Tropism, and Inflammatory and Innate Immune Responses in Macaques Infected with H5N1 and 1918 Reassortant Influenza Viruses. (pnas.org)
- Two doses of the H7N7 NL/03 ca vaccine induced neutralizing antibodies in the serum and provided complete protection from pulmonary replication of homologous and heterologous wild-type H7 challenge viruses in mice and ferrets. (usda.gov)
- We investigated the transfer of maternal antibodies against avian influenza virus (AIV) in a key AIV host species, the mallard (Anas platyrhynchos). (jove.com)
- Sequence analysis of several antibodies against influenza virus has revealed the accumulation of mutations in secondary, but rarely in primary, antibodies ( 16 ). (rupress.org)
- Crowe and his colleagues took the blood of four patients given the experimental vaccine, and singled out the antibodies that could attack H5N1 viruses. (scientificamerican.com)
- They next wanted to test whether these antibodies could protect against the synthetic H5N1 virus - scientist's best estimation of what a potentially pandemic virus may look like. (scientificamerican.com)
- The hepatitis C virus (HCV) glycoprotein E2 is the major target of neutralizing antibodies and is therefore highly relevant for vaccine design. (stanford.edu)
- Accumulated antibodies to the neuraminidase or internal proteins may have resulted in much fewer casualties than most pandemics. (wikipedia.org)
- It is known that the human immune system mounts a defense against the influenza virus's H and N proteins, primarily in the form of antibodies. (infectioncontroltoday.com)
- But as population-wide immunity to any new variant of flu arises, the virus reacts by changing in large and small ways that make it more difficult for antibodies to recognize it. (infectioncontroltoday.com)
- If a person gets the flu, his body forms antibodies to fight that virus off if it happens again. (wikipedia.org)
- But since the flu virus changes all the time, a person's antibodies do not recognize the virus the next time it happens, because it is different. (wikipedia.org)
- Influenza virus neuraminidase inhibitors. (medscape.com)
- Identification of Residues That Affect Oligomerization and/or Enzymatic Activity of Influenza Virus H5N1 Neuraminidase Proteins. (semanticscholar.org)
- Neuraminidase inhibitor sensitivity and receptor-binding specificity of Cambodian clade 1 highly pathogenic H5N1 influenza virus. (semanticscholar.org)
Next Influenza Pandemic2
- This seems to be the recipe for the next influenza pandemic. (rkm.com.au)
- This document sets out activities that can be undertaken by individual countries, the international community, and WHO to prepare the world for the next influenza pandemic and mitigate its impact once international spread has begun. (who.int)
- Hu, W. (2010) Quantifying the effects of mutations on receptor binding specificity of influenza viruses. (scirp.org)
- Influenza has traditionally been diagnosed on the basis of clinical criteria, but rapid diagnostic tests, which have a high degree of specificity but only moderate sensitivity, are becoming more widely used. (medscape.com)
- Here, we review our current understanding of the role of HA in controlling the host range specificity of influenza A viruses. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
- In glycan arrays, viruses possessing HA-222D preferentially bound to human-type receptors, while those encoding HA-222G bound to both avian- and human-type receptors. (nih.gov)
- These molecules can act as "receptors" for influenza viruses, permitting them to lock onto a cell's surface and thus infect it. (highbeam.com)
- The article explains that avian flu viruses prefer a cell receptor molecule consisting of sialic acid linked to galactose by an alpha-2,3 linkage, called SA-alpha2,3Gal, whereas human flu viruses prefer receptors consisting of sialic acid with an alpha2,6 linkage to galactose (called SA-alpha2,6Gal). (umn.edu)
- They found few of the avian-type receptors in the upper airways, but there were "substantial" numbers in the alveoli, the small air sacks in the lungs. (umn.edu)
- Identification of H5N1 viruses with the ability to recognize human receptors would bring us one step closer to a pandemic strain," Kawaoka commented in the release. (umn.edu)
- He added that the human receptors "can serve as molecular markers for the pandemic potential of the isolates. (umn.edu)
- Scientists in the US and Japan, led by Professor Yoshihiro Kawaoka of the University of Wisconsin at Madison, found that avian influenza viruses and human influenza viruses home in on slightly different receptors. (abc.net.au)
- By closely monitoring viruses from people infected with avian flu, scientists can get a early warning as to whether these strains are mutating into forms that will make it easier to fit into human receptors, Kawaoka says. (abc.net.au)
- The HAs of avian influenza viruses must adapt to receptors in humans to acquire efficient human-to-human transmissibility. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
- Reports in 1957, 1968, and 1977 indicated China and nearby areas as places where outbreaks of novel viruses often first occur (18) . (cdc.gov)
- In the 20th Century, the world witnessed three pandemics in the years of 1918, 1957, and 1968. (bartleby.com)
- 1957 and 1968 pandemics had few similarities. (who.int)
- That same month, the virus entered California from returning Vietnam War troops but did not become widespread in the United States until December 1968. (wikipedia.org)
- In the 1968 pandemic vaccine became available one month after the outbreaks peaked in the US. (wikipedia.org)
- Future mutations might render them capable of causing a worldwide flu pandemic. (nih.gov)
- We have introduced mutations into the virus using this system. (nii.ac.jp)
- He added, however, that mutations could enable the virus to infect cells in the upper airway, which could help set the stage for a flu pandemic. (umn.edu)
- Certainly, multiple mutations need to be accumulated for the H5N1 virus to become a pandemic strain. (umn.edu)
- The finding also puts scientists in a better position to look for the kinds of mutations that could lead a pandemic strain of H5N1, the news release says. (umn.edu)
- The genome of the airborne strain differed from the original one by just five mutations, which have all been spotted individually in wild viruses. (scientificamerican.com)
- More practically, the research could allow public-health workers to monitor wild viruses for similar mutations that make H5N1 more dangerous to humans. (scientificamerican.com)
Emergence of a pandemic2
- Is there a critical mass that would likely trigger the emergence of a pandemic avian influenza genotype? (novapublishers.com)
- As the present situation continues to evolve towards a pandemic, countries, the international community, and WHO have several phase-wise opportunities to intervene, moving from a pre-pandemic situation, through emergence of a pandemic virus, to declaration of a pandemic and its subsequent spread. (who.int)
- Individuals infected with influenza normally experience mild illness and recover within two weeks. (bartleby.com)
- Clinical presentation was that of an influenza-like illness with evidence of pneumonia in seven patients. (nih.gov)
- Avian Influenza A H5N1 virus causes human influenza-like illness with a high rate of complications in adults admitted to hospital. (nih.gov)
- Type C influenza viruses cause only mild illness in humans. (bioedonline.org)
- Strain A/cal/Duschanbe/55/71 could be detected for seven days and caused an influenza-like illness in calves. (wikipedia.org)
- While these viruses can cause serious illness, they are generally not passed easily between humans. (lockergnome.com)
- A debate about the market-leading influenza antiviral medication, oseltamivir, which initially focused on treatment for generally mild illness, has been expanded to question the wisdom of stockpiling for use in future influenza pandemics. (cdc.gov)
- however, population immunity to the virus is considered very low, and the virus has significant ability to cause human disease. (nih.gov)
- The presentation of viruses proven to be different from those previously identified in which established immunity is no longer of effect is the outcome of antigenic drift. (bartleby.com)
- Influenza pandemics are global outbreaks that involve viruses to which humans have little or no immunity. (webwire.com)
- There is no human immunity and no vaccine is available. (nih.gov)
- Once in a while, there is a flu pandemic in which a type of flu virus to which humans have no immunity spreads throughout the population. (reference.com)
Pathogenic avian influ2
- Of greatest concern is a release of a lab-created, mammalian-airborne-transmissible, highly pathogenic avian influenza virus, such as the airborne-transmissible H5N1 viruses created in the laboratories of Ron Fouchier in the Netherlands and Yoshihiro Kawaoka In Madison Wisconsin. (thebulletin.org)
- Highly pathogenic avian influenza virus is on every top ten list available for potential agricultural bioweapon agents, generally following foot and mouth disease virus and Newcastle disease virus at or near the top of the list. (emeter.com)
- The first complete genome sequence of the pandemic strain was deposited in public databases on April 27, 2009, by scientists from the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention in Atlanta. (wikipedia.org)
- The news release says the finding suggests the world may have more time to prepare for an eventual pandemic of avian flu, though most scientists agree that a pandemic will occur sooner or later. (umn.edu)
- Scientists may be able to protect humans from avian influenza viruses - before they have even evolved to spread among people. (scientificamerican.com)
- Moreover, he says that the artificial virus did not lead to a better vaccine, which some scientists have claimed is the point of doing research with human-transmissible viruses. (scientificamerican.com)
- Few influenza viruses are as widespread and adaptable as avian influenza viruses, and scientists are not entirely sure why. (news-medical.net)
- Two teams of scientists, led by Ron Fouchier of Erasmus Medical Center in Rotterdam, the Netherlands, and Yoshihiro Kawaoka of the University of Wisconsin-Madison, have created mutant strains of H5N1 avian influenza. (scientificamerican.com)
- The findings suggest scientists and public health agencies may have more time to prepare for an eventual pandemic of avian influenza, the team believes. (abc.net.au)
- Scientists have shown that the founding virus was an avian-like virus. (infectioncontroltoday.com)
- The cases generated many questions for public health authorities, influenza scientists, clinicians, and the public. (annals.org)
- Scientists fear the swine flu virus might mutate , or change, into a pandemic as deadly as the 1918/1919 pandemic. (wikipedia.org)
- An avian influenza H5N1 virus that binds to a human-type receptor. (medscape.com)
- The virus is better equipped to infect cells deep in the lungs, because some of those cells have a different kind of receptor molecule from those in the upper airways, according to the study by a team led by Yoshihiro Kawaoka of the University of Wisconsin-Madison and the University of Tokyo. (umn.edu)
- They found that human-derived viruses, preferring the "2,6" receptor, efficiently infected cells from both the bronchial lining and alveoli, whereas avian viruses, preferring the "2,3" receptor, infected alveolar cells but not bronchial cells, according to the report. (umn.edu)
- The virus spike is like a key and the cell's docking point, called a receptor, is like a lock. (abc.net.au)
- The receptor preferred by human flu is more prevalent in cells in the mucous lining of the nose and sinus as well as the throat, trachea and bronchi. (abc.net.au)
- however, these viruses do not spread efficiently from person to person, perhaps, in part, due to differences in the receptor-binding specificities of human and avian influenza viruses. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
- Systems-level approaches have provided important insights into the molecular details of host-virus interaction 15 . (nature.com)
- Mass livestock production is driving molecular changes in diseases that could lead to human pandemics, according to an expert from the University of Exeter. (news-medical.net)
- To better understand the molecular characteristics of these two isolated H7N1 viruses, we sequenced and phylogenetically analyzed their entire genomes. (frontiersin.org)
- molecular pathogenesis of avian influenza and the prospect of therapy using small interfering RNA and U.S. and international responses to the global spread of avian flu. (novapublishers.com)
- Scholtissek C. 'Molecular epidemiology of influenza. (wikidoc.org)
- Testing for H5N1 is done by growing the virus out or a molecular test will be performed. (alpharubicon.com)
- We are forced to deal with surrogate data because, thank goodness, there are little data on the release of potentially pandemic agents. (thebulletin.org)
- Put another way, surrogate data allows us to determine with confidence the probability of release of a potentially pandemic pathogen into the community. (thebulletin.org)