INFLAMMATION of the PANCREAS. Pancreatitis is classified as acute unless there are computed tomographic or endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatographic findings of CHRONIC PANCREATITIS (International Symposium on Acute Pancreatitis, Atlanta, 1992). The two most common forms of acute pancreatitis are ALCOHOLIC PANCREATITIS and gallstone pancreatitis.
INFLAMMATION of the PANCREAS that is characterized by recurring or persistent ABDOMINAL PAIN with or without STEATORRHEA or DIABETES MELLITUS. It is characterized by the irregular destruction of the pancreatic parenchyma which may be focal, segmental, or diffuse.
A severe form of acute INFLAMMATION of the PANCREAS characterized by one or more areas of NECROSIS in the pancreas with varying degree of involvement of the surrounding tissues or organ systems. Massive pancreatic necrosis may lead to DIABETES MELLITUS, and malabsorption.
Acute or chronic INFLAMMATION of the PANCREAS due to excessive ALCOHOL DRINKING. Alcoholic pancreatitis usually presents as an acute episode but it is a chronic progressive disease in alcoholics.
A specific decapeptide obtained from the skin of Hila caerulea, an Australian amphibian. Caerulein is similar in action and composition to CHOLECYSTOKININ. It stimulates gastric, biliary, and pancreatic secretion; and certain smooth muscle. It is used in paralytic ileus and as diagnostic aid in pancreatic malfunction.
A group of amylolytic enzymes that cleave starch, glycogen, and related alpha-1,4-glucans. (Stedman, 25th ed) EC 3.2.1.-.
A nodular organ in the ABDOMEN that contains a mixture of ENDOCRINE GLANDS and EXOCRINE GLANDS. The small endocrine portion consists of the ISLETS OF LANGERHANS secreting a number of hormones into the blood stream. The large exocrine portion (EXOCRINE PANCREAS) is a compound acinar gland that secretes several digestive enzymes into the pancreatic ductal system that empties into the DUODENUM.
Disease having a short and relatively severe course.
The inactive proenzyme of trypsin secreted by the pancreas, activated in the duodenum via cleavage by enteropeptidase. (Stedman, 25th ed)
Fiberoptic endoscopy designed for duodenal observation and cannulation of VATER'S AMPULLA, in order to visualize the pancreatic and biliary duct system by retrograde injection of contrast media. Endoscopic (Vater) papillotomy (SPHINCTEROTOMY, ENDOSCOPIC) may be performed during this procedure.
Ducts that collect PANCREATIC JUICE from the PANCREAS and supply it to the DUODENUM.
Cyst-like space not lined by EPITHELIUM and contained within the PANCREAS. Pancreatic pseudocysts account for most of the cystic collections in the pancreas and are often associated with chronic PANCREATITIS.
Pathological processes of the PANCREAS.
The major component (about 80%) of the PANCREAS composed of acinar functional units of tubular and spherical cells. The acinar cells synthesize and secrete several digestive enzymes such as TRYPSINOGEN; LIPASE; AMYLASE; and RIBONUCLEASE. Secretion from the exocrine pancreas drains into the pancreatic ductal system and empties into the DUODENUM.
An enzyme of the hydrolase class that catalyzes the reaction of triacylglycerol and water to yield diacylglycerol and a fatty acid anion. It is produced by glands on the tongue and by the pancreas and initiates the digestion of dietary fats. (From Dorland, 27th ed) EC 3.1.1.3.
Tests based on the biochemistry and physiology of the exocrine pancreas and involving analysis of blood, duodenal contents, feces, or urine for products of pancreatic secretion.
Cells lining the saclike dilatations known as acini of various glands or the lungs.
A condition with abnormally elevated level of AMYLASES in the serum. Hyperamylasemia due to PANCREATITIS or other causes may be differentiated by identifying the amylase isoenzymes.
Solid crystalline precipitates in the BILIARY TRACT, usually formed in the GALLBLADDER, resulting in the condition of CHOLELITHIASIS. Gallstones, derived from the BILE, consist mainly of calcium, cholesterol, or bilirubin.
Non-invasive diagnostic technique for visualizing the PANCREATIC DUCTS and BILE DUCTS without the use of injected CONTRAST MEDIA or x-ray. MRI scans provide excellent sensitivity for duct dilatation, biliary stricture, and intraductal abnormalities.
Incision of Oddi's sphincter or Vater's ampulla performed by inserting a sphincterotome through an endoscope (DUODENOSCOPE) often following retrograde cholangiography (CHOLANGIOPANCREATOGRAPHY, ENDOSCOPIC RETROGRADE). Endoscopic treatment by sphincterotomy is the preferred method of treatment for patients with retained or recurrent bile duct stones post-cholecystectomy, and for poor-surgical-risk patients that have the gallbladder still present.
The fluid containing digestive enzymes secreted by the pancreas in response to food in the duodenum.
Tumors or cancer of the PANCREAS. Depending on the types of ISLET CELLS present in the tumors, various hormones can be secreted: GLUCAGON from PANCREATIC ALPHA CELLS; INSULIN from PANCREATIC BETA CELLS; and SOMATOSTATIN from the SOMATOSTATIN-SECRETING CELLS. Most are malignant except the insulin-producing tumors (INSULINOMA).
The product of conjugation of cholic acid with taurine. Its sodium salt is the chief ingredient of the bile of carnivorous animals. It acts as a detergent to solubilize fats for absorption and is itself absorbed. It is used as a cholagogue and cholerectic.
Diseases which have one or more of the following characteristics: they are permanent, leave residual disability, are caused by nonreversible pathological alteration, require special training of the patient for rehabilitation, or may be expected to require a long period of supervision, observation, or care. (Dictionary of Health Services Management, 2d ed)
Sensation of discomfort, distress, or agony in the abdominal region.
Presence or formation of GALLSTONES in the BILIARY TRACT, usually in the gallbladder (CHOLECYSTOLITHIASIS) or the common bile duct (CHOLEDOCHOLITHIASIS).
A serine proteinase inhibitor used therapeutically in the treatment of pancreatitis, disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC), and as a regional anticoagulant for hemodialysis. The drug inhibits the hydrolytic effects of thrombin, plasmin, and kallikrein, but not of chymotrypsin and aprotinin.
Surgical removal of the pancreas. (Dorland, 28th ed)
An abnormal concretion occurring mostly in the urinary and biliary tracts, usually composed of mineral salts. Also called stones.
Surgical anastomosis of the pancreatic duct, or the divided end of the transected pancreas, with the jejunum. (Dorland, 28th ed)
Diseases in any part of the BILIARY TRACT including the BILE DUCTS and the GALLBLADDER.
The removal of fluids or discharges from the body, such as from a wound, sore, or cavity.
Star-shaped, myofibroblast-like cells located in the periacinar, perivascular, and periductal regions of the EXOCRINE PANCREAS. They play a key role in the pathobiology of FIBROSIS; PANCREATITIS; and PANCREATIC CANCER.
The pathological process occurring in cells that are dying from irreparable injuries. It is caused by the progressive, uncontrolled action of degradative ENZYMES, leading to MITOCHONDRIAL SWELLING, nuclear flocculation, and cell lysis. It is distinct it from APOPTOSIS, which is a normal, regulated cellular process.
Disorders that are characterized by the production of antibodies that react with host tissues or immune effector cells that are autoreactive to endogenous peptides.
A progressive condition usually characterized by combined failure of several organs such as the lungs, liver, kidney, along with some clotting mechanisms, usually postinjury or postoperative.
Surgical removal of the GALLBLADDER.
Ultrasonography of internal organs using an ultrasound transducer sometimes mounted on a fiberoptic endoscope. In endosonography the transducer converts electronic signals into acoustic pulses or continuous waves and acts also as a receiver to detect reflected pulses from within the organ. An audiovisual-electronic interface converts the detected or processed echo signals, which pass through the electronics of the instrument, into a form that the technologist can evaluate. The procedure should not be confused with ENDOSCOPY which employs a special instrument called an endoscope. The "endo-" of endosonography refers to the examination of tissue within hollow organs, with reference to the usual ultrasonography procedure which is performed externally or transcutaneously.
Levels within a diagnostic group which are established by various measurement criteria applied to the seriousness of a patient's disorder.
Tomography using x-ray transmission and a computer algorithm to reconstruct the image.
Gastrointestinal agents that stimulate the flow of bile into the duodenum (cholagogues) or stimulate the production of bile by the liver (choleretic).
A serine endopeptidase that is formed from TRYPSINOGEN in the pancreas. It is converted into its active form by ENTEROPEPTIDASE in the small intestine. It catalyzes hydrolysis of the carboxyl group of either arginine or lysine. EC 3.4.21.4.
The largest bile duct. It is formed by the junction of the CYSTIC DUCT and the COMMON HEPATIC DUCT.
Organic or functional motility disorder involving the SPHINCTER OF ODDI and associated with biliary COLIC. Pathological changes are most often seen in the COMMON BILE DUCT sphincter, and less commonly the PANCREATIC DUCT sphincter.
A malabsorption condition resulting from greater than 10% reduction in the secretion of pancreatic digestive enzymes (LIPASE; PROTEASES; and AMYLASE) by the EXOCRINE PANCREAS into the DUODENUM. This condition is often associated with CYSTIC FIBROSIS and with chronic PANCREATITIS.
A subclass of alpha-amylase ISOENZYMES that are secreted into PANCREATIC JUICE.
Abnormal fluid accumulation in TISSUES or body cavities. Most cases of edema are present under the SKIN in SUBCUTANEOUS TISSUE.
Hindrance of the passage of luminal contents in the DUODENUM. Duodenal obstruction can be partial or complete, and caused by intrinsic or extrinsic factors. Simple obstruction is associated with diminished or stopped flow of luminal contents. Strangulating obstruction is associated with impaired blood flow to the duodenum in addition to obstructed flow of luminal contents.
Analyses for a specific enzyme activity, or of the level of a specific enzyme that is used to assess health and disease risk, for early detection of disease or disease prediction, diagnosis, and change in disease status.
A dilation of the duodenal papilla that is the opening of the juncture of the COMMON BILE DUCT and the MAIN PANCREATIC DUCT, also known as the hepatopancreatic ampulla.
A peptide hormone of about 27 amino acids from the duodenal mucosa that activates pancreatic secretion and lowers the blood sugar level. (USAN and the USP Dictionary of Drug Names, 1994, p597)
An acronym for Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation, a scoring system using routinely collected data and providing an accurate, objective description for a broad range of intensive care unit admissions, measuring severity of illness in critically ill patients.
Organic compounds which contain tin in the molecule. Used widely in industry and agriculture.
Naturally occurring or experimentally induced animal diseases with pathological processes sufficiently similar to those of human diseases. They are used as study models for human diseases.
A pancreatic trypsin inhibitor common to all mammals. It is secreted with the zymogens into the pancreatic juice. It is a protein composed of 56 amino acid residues and is different in amino acid composition and physiological activity from the Kunitz bovine pancreatic trypsin inhibitor (APROTININ).
A true cyst of the PANCREAS, distinguished from the much more common PANCREATIC PSEUDOCYST by possessing a lining of mucous EPITHELIUM. Pancreatic cysts are categorized as congenital, retention, neoplastic, parasitic, enterogenous, or dermoid. Congenital cysts occur more frequently as solitary cysts but may be multiple. Retention cysts are gross enlargements of PANCREATIC DUCTS secondary to ductal obstruction. (From Bockus Gastroenterology, 4th ed, p4145)
A strain of albino rat developed at the Wistar Institute that has spread widely at other institutions. This has markedly diluted the original strain.
Pathological conditions in the DUODENUM region of the small intestine (INTESTINE, SMALL).
A peptide, of about 33 amino acids, secreted by the upper INTESTINAL MUCOSA and also found in the central nervous system. It causes gallbladder contraction, release of pancreatic exocrine (or digestive) enzymes, and affects other gastrointestinal functions. Cholecystokinin may be the mediator of satiety.
An imaging test of the BILIARY TRACT in which a contrast dye (RADIOPAQUE MEDIA) is injected into the BILE DUCT and x-ray pictures are taken.
The proteinaceous component of the pancreatic stone in patients with PANCREATITIS.
Endoscopic examination, therapy or surgery of the digestive tract.
A hemeprotein from leukocytes. Deficiency of this enzyme leads to a hereditary disorder coupled with disseminated moniliasis. It catalyzes the conversion of a donor and peroxide to an oxidized donor and water. EC 1.11.1.7.
Abnormal passage communicating with the PANCREAS.
Diseases of the COMMON BILE DUCT including the AMPULLA OF VATER and the SPHINCTER OF ODDI.
Evaluation undertaken to assess the results or consequences of management and procedures used in combating disease in order to determine the efficacy, effectiveness, safety, and practicability of these interventions in individual cases or series.
A condition that is characterized by chronic fatty DIARRHEA, a result of abnormal DIGESTION and/or INTESTINAL ABSORPTION of FATS.
The sphincter of the hepatopancreatic ampulla within the duodenal papilla. The COMMON BILE DUCT and main pancreatic duct pass through this sphincter.
Nutritional support given via the alimentary canal or any route connected to the gastrointestinal system (i.e., the enteral route). This includes oral feeding, sip feeding, and tube feeding using nasogastric, gastrostomy, and jejunostomy tubes.
An enzyme that hydrolyzes 1,6-alpha-glucosidic branch linkages in glycogen, amylopectin, and their beta-limit dextrins. It is distinguished from pullulanase (EC 3.2.1.41) by its inability to attack pullulan and by the feeble action of alpha-limit dextrins. It is distinguished from amylopectin 6-glucanohydrolase (EC 3.2.1.69) by its action on glycogen. With EC 3.2.1.69, it produces the activity called "debranching enzyme". EC 3.2.1.68.
The shortest and widest portion of the SMALL INTESTINE adjacent to the PYLORUS of the STOMACH. It is named for having the length equal to about the width of 12 fingers.
A condition in which the death of adipose tissue results in neutral fats being split into fatty acids and glycerol.
Carcinoma that arises from the PANCREATIC DUCTS. It accounts for the majority of cancers derived from the PANCREAS.
2-Amino-4-(ethylthio)butyric acid. An antimetabolite and methionine antagonist that interferes with amino acid incorporation into proteins and with cellular ATP utilization. It also produces liver neoplasms.

Rational sequence of tests for pancreatic function. (1/3000)

Of 144 patients with suspected pancreatic disease in whom a 75Se-selenomethionine scan was performed, endoscopic retrograde pancreatography (ERP) was successful in 108 (75%). The final diagnosis is known in 100 patients and has been compared with scan and ERP findings. A normal scan reliably indicated a normal pancreas, but the scan was falsely abnormal in 30%. ERP distinguished between carcinoma and chronic pancreatitis in 84% of cases but was falsely normal in five patients with pancreatic disease. In extrahepatic biliary disease both tests tended to give falsely abnormal results. A sequence of tests to provide a rapid and reliable assessment of pancreatic function should be a radio-isotope scan, followed by ERP if the results of the scan are abnormal, and a Lundh test if the scan is abnormal but the findings on ERP are normal.  (+info)

Activation of alveolar macrophages in lung injury associated with experimental acute pancreatitis is mediated by the liver. (2/3000)

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate (1) whether alveolar macrophages are activated as a consequence of acute pancreatitis (AP), (2) the implication of inflammatory factors released by these macrophages in the process of neutrophil migration into the lungs observed in lung injury induced by AP, and (3) the role of the liver in the activation of alveolar macrophages. SUMMARY BACKGROUND DATA: Acute lung injury is the extrapancreatic complication most frequently associated with death and complications in severe AP. Neutrophil infiltration into the lungs seems to be related to the release of systemic and local mediators. The liver and alveolar macrophages are sources of mediators that have been suggested to participate in the lung damage associated with AP. METHODS: Pancreatitis was induced in rats by intraductal administration of 5% sodium taurocholate. The inflammatory process in the lung and the activation of alveolar macrophages were investigated in animals with and without portocaval shunting 3 hours after AP induction. Alveolar macrophages were obtained by bronchoalveolar lavage. The generation of nitric oxide, leukotriene B4, tumor necrosis factor-alpha, and MIP-2 by alveolar macrophages and the chemotactic activity of supernatants of cultured macrophages were evaluated. RESULTS: Pancreatitis was associated with increased infiltration of neutrophils into the lungs 3 hours after induction. This effect was prevented by the portocaval shunt. Alveolar macrophages obtained after induction of pancreatitis generated increased levels of nitric oxide, tumor necrosis factor-alpha, and MIP-2, but not leukotriene B4. In addition, supernatants of these macrophages exhibited a chemotactic activity for neutrophils when instilled into the lungs of unmanipulated animals. All these effects were abolished when portocaval shunting was carried out before induction of pancreatitis. CONCLUSION: Lung damage induced by experimental AP is associated with alveolar macrophage activation. The liver mediates the alveolar macrophage activation in this experimental model.  (+info)

Underestimation of acute pancreatitis: patients with only a small increase in amylase/lipase levels can also have or develop severe acute pancreatitis. (3/3000)

BACKGROUND: In most treatment studies on acute pancreatitis, pancreatologists base their diagnosis on amylase/lipase levels more than three times above the upper limit of normal (>3n) and thus exclude patients with smaller enzyme level increases. The recommendations derived from the results of treatment studies do not take into account such patients. Non-pancreatologists frequently believe that only patients with high enzyme levels have a serious prognosis. AIMS: To question the assumption that high enzyme levels indicate severe, and conversely low enzyme levels indicate mild, acute pancreatitis. PATIENTS/METHODS: This retrospective study includes 284 consecutive patients with a first attack of acute pancreatitis. The cause was biliary in 114 (40%) patients, alcoholism in 83 (29%), other in 21 (7%), and unknown in 66 (23%). Patients were divided into two groups according to their serum enzyme levels (amylase: 3n, n = 196; lipase: 3n, n = 233). Renal impairment, indication for dialysis and artificial ventilation, development of pseudocysts, necessity for surgery, and mortality were taken as parameters of severity. RESULTS: The incidence of severity was the same for both the 3n groups. CONCLUSIONS: The severity of acute pancreatitis is independent of the elevation in serum amylase/lipase level (3n) on admission. Patients with only a slight increase can also have or develop severe acute pancreatitis. Patients with +info)

Phospholipase A2 mediates nitric oxide production by alveolar macrophages and acute lung injury in pancreatitis. (4/3000)

OBJECTIVE: Reportedly, nitric oxide (NO) derived from alveolar macrophages (AMs) and increased serum phospholipase A2 (PLA2) activity are associated with the pathogenesis of lung injury in acute pancreatitis. The authors examined the possibility that PLA2 causes, in part, the induction of NO production by AMs in pancreatitis. METHODS: Pancreatitis was induced in rats by selective pancreatic duct ligation (SPL). AMs were stimulated with PLA2 or SPL rat serum, with or without administration of the PLA2 inhibitor quinacrine. Then NO production from the AMs was measured by the Griess method, inducible NO synthase mRNA expression of AMs was analyzed by the reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction, and cytotoxic effects of AMs on human umbilical vein endothelial cells was examined by a 51Cr release assay. In vivo, the effect of quinacrine on lung injury was determined by measuring the arterial blood oxygen pressure (PaO2), lung weight, and lung permeability using Evans blue dye concentration of SPL rat. RESULTS: In vitro, the serum with high PLA2 activity induced NO production by rat AMs. PLA2 (50 ng/ml) induced significant amounts of NO production, inducible NO synthase mRNA expression, and cytotoxicity toward the human umbilical vein endothelial cells in normal rat AMs, and these activities were significantly inhibited by quinacrine. In vivo, rats with pancreatitis that were given quinacrine showed decreased concentrations of NO2- and NO3- in the bronchoalveolar lavage fluid, and the PaO2, lung edema, and lung permeability were improved significantly. CONCLUSION: PLA2 induces AMs to release NO, which contributes to lung injury in acute pancreatitis. This lung injury was prevented by the administration of the PLA2 inhibitor quinacrine.  (+info)

K-ras mutations in DNA extracted from the plasma of patients with pancreatic carcinoma: diagnostic utility and prognostic significance. (5/3000)

PURPOSE: Previous studies have demonstrated the presence of K-ras mutations in the plasma of patients with pancreatic carcinoma. However, the diagnostic utility and the prognostic significance of this finding have never been addressed. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Forty-four consecutive patients with histologically confirmed primary pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma were included. A control group of 37 patients with chronic pancreatitis, 10 patients with other tumors of the pancreatic area, nine patients with acute pancreatitis, and four healthy volunteers was also included. Plasma DNA was isolated and K-ras codon-12 mutations were analyzed by means of restriction fragment length polymorphism-polymerase chain reaction and single-strand conformation polymorphism techniques. Patients were followed up to establish their clinical outcome. RESULTS: The mutant-type K-ras gene was found in plasma DNA samples of 12 (27%) of 44 patients with pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma; this finding was related to the tumor stage (P = .05), mainly in the presence of distant metastases (P = .02). In addition, K-ras mutations were detected in the plasma DNA of two (5%) of 37 patients with chronic pancreatitis. In the subset of patients with pancreatic masses, the sensitivity and specificity of plasma K-ras analysis for pancreatic adenocarcinoma were 27% and 100%, respectively. Finally, pancreatic carcinoma patients with the mutant-type K-ras gene in plasma DNA exhibited a shorter survival time than patients with the wild-type gene (P<.005), and plasma K-ras mutations were identified as the only independent prognostic factor (odds ratio, 1.51; 95% confidence interval, 1.02 to 2.23). CONCLUSION: Plasma K-ras analysis is a highly specific, low-sensitivity approach that has diagnostic and prognostic clinical implications in patients with pancreatic carcinoma.  (+info)

Transforming growth factor-beta-induced upregulation of transforming growth factor-beta receptor expression in pancreatic regeneration. (6/3000)

The transforming growth factor-beta (TGFbeta) signaling pathway is one important player in the regulation of extracellular matrix turnover and cell proliferation in epithelial regeneration. We used cerulein-induced pancreatitis in rats as a model to investigate the regulation of TGFbeta receptor type I and type II expression on protein and messenger RNA level during regeneration. In the regenerating pancreas, mRNA levels of TGFbeta receptor I and II were significantly increased with a maximum after 2 days. On protein level, expression of TGFbeta receptor II was significantly increased after three to 3-5 days. This elevated expression could be inhibited by neutralizing the endogenous biological activity of TGFbeta1 with a specific antibody. In cultured pancreatic epithelial cells, TGFbeta1 reduced cell proliferation as measured by [3H]thymidine incorporation. Furthermore the transcript levels of TGFbeta1 as well as mRNA and protein concentrations of type I and type II receptor increased during TGFbeta stimulation in vitro. These results indicate that epithelial pancreatic cells contribute to the enhanced TGFbeta1 synthesis during pancreatic regeneration by an autocrine mechanism. TGFbeta1, furthermore, upregulates the expression of its own receptors during the regenerative process, thereby contributing to the increase of the TGFbeta-induced cellular responses.  (+info)

The FHIT gene is expressed in pancreatic ductular cells and is altered in pancreatic cancers. (7/3000)

We examined 2 normal pancreata, 21 primary pancreatic ductal cancers, and 19 pancreatic cancer cell lines for Fhit expression and FHIT gene status. The normal pancreas expressed Fhit protein in the cytoplasm of ductular cells, whereas interlobular and larger ducts, acini, and insulae of Langerhans were negative. Fhit protein was detected by immunoblot assay in 11 pancreatic cancer cell lines; of the 8 cell lines lacking Fhit protein, 7 lacked FHIT mRNA and 1 showed an abnormally sized transcript. DNA from five of these eight cell lines showed homozygous loss of FHIT exon 5. In 8 of the 21 primary cancers, Fhit expression was detected by immunohistochemistry. Reverse transcription-PCR analysis of 6 of the 13 cases lacking Fhit showed normal-sized FHIT product in 3 cases and a mixture of normal and abnormal products in the other 3. Sequencing showed that abnormal bands were missing variable numbers of exons. Loss of microsatellite DNA markers internal to the FHIT gene was observed in 10 of 13 primary cancers lacking Fhit protein (homozygous in two cases) and in only 1 of the 8 cancers expressing Fhit protein. In nine primary cancers, four expressing and five lacking Fhit protein, it was possible to obtain pure cancer DNA by microdissection. Three of the five microdissected cases lacking Fhit protein exhibited homozygous deletion of FHIT exon 5. In conclusion, the lack of Fhit protein in pancreatic cancers correlated with absence or alteration of FHIT mRNA and was often associated with FHIT gene anomalies.  (+info)

Metastasis-induced acute pancreatitis in a patient with small cell carcinoma of the lung. (8/3000)

Acute pancreatitis in cancer patients can be secondary to the malignant process itself or a complication of antineoplastic agent administration. However, acute pancreatitis caused by metastatic carcinoma of the pancreas is an uncommon condition with a poor prognosis. We report a case of a 63-year-old man with small cell carcinoma of the lung, who developed acute pancreatitis lately. Thirteen months earlier, he developed small cell carcinoma of the lung and received 6 cycles of chemotherapy. Abdominal CT scan showed swelling of the pancreas with multiple masses. The patient was managed conservatively and pancreatitis subsided. This case indicates that metastasis induced acute pancreatitis can be a manifestation of lung cancer, especially in small cell carcinoma.  (+info)

Pancreatitis is a medical condition characterized by inflammation of the pancreas, a gland located in the abdomen that plays a crucial role in digestion and regulating blood sugar levels. The inflammation can be acute (sudden and severe) or chronic (persistent and recurring), and it can lead to various complications if left untreated.

Acute pancreatitis often results from gallstones or excessive alcohol consumption, while chronic pancreatitis may be caused by long-term alcohol abuse, genetic factors, autoimmune conditions, or metabolic disorders like high triglyceride levels. Symptoms of acute pancreatitis include severe abdominal pain, nausea, vomiting, fever, and increased heart rate, while chronic pancreatitis may present with ongoing abdominal pain, weight loss, diarrhea, and malabsorption issues due to impaired digestive enzyme production. Treatment typically involves supportive care, such as intravenous fluids, pain management, and addressing the underlying cause. In severe cases, hospitalization and surgery may be necessary.

Chronic pancreatitis is a long-standing inflammation of the pancreas that leads to irreversible structural changes and impaired function of the pancreas. It is characterized by recurrent or persistent abdominal pain, often radiating to the back, and maldigestion with steatorrhea (fatty stools) due to exocrine insufficiency. The pancreatic damage results from repeated episodes of acute pancreatitis, alcohol abuse, genetic predisposition, or autoimmune processes. Over time, the pancreas may lose its ability to produce enough digestive enzymes and hormones like insulin, which can result in diabetes mellitus. Chronic pancreatitis also increases the risk of developing pancreatic cancer.

Acute necrotizing pancreatitis is a severe and potentially life-threatening form of acute pancreatitis, which is an inflammatory condition of the pancreas. In acute necrotizing pancreatitis, there is widespread death (necrosis) of pancreatic tissue due to autodigestion caused by the activation and release of digestive enzymes within the pancreas. This condition can lead to systemic inflammation, organ failure, and infection of the necrotic areas in the pancreas. It typically has a more complicated clinical course and worse prognosis compared to acute interstitial pancreatitis, which is another form of acute pancreatitis without significant necrosis.

Alcoholic pancreatitis is a specific type of pancreatitis, which is inflammation of the pancreas. This condition is caused by excessive and prolonged consumption of alcohol. The exact mechanism by which alcohol induces pancreatitis is not fully understood, but it is believed that alcohol causes damage to the cells of the pancreas, leading to inflammation. This can result in abdominal pain, nausea, vomiting, fever, and increased heart rate. Chronic alcoholic pancreatitis can also lead to serious complications such as diabetes, malnutrition, and pancreatic cancer. Treatment typically involves supportive care, such as hydration, pain management, and nutritional support, along with abstinence from alcohol. In severe cases, surgery may be necessary to remove damaged tissue or to relieve blockages in the pancreas.

Ceruletide is a synthetic analog of the natural hormone cholecystokinin (CCK). It is a decapeptide with the following sequence: cyclo(D-Asp-Tic-Phe-Ser-Leu-Hand-Ala-Lys-Thr-Nle-NH2).

Ceruletide has several pharmacological actions, including stimulation of the release of digestive enzymes from the pancreas, contraction of the gallbladder and sphincter of Oddi, and inhibition of gastric acid secretion. It is used in clinical medicine for diagnostic purposes to test the motor function of the biliary tract and to diagnose gastrointestinal motility disorders.

Ceruletide has also been investigated as a potential treatment for certain conditions such as pancreatitis, gallstones, and intestinal obstruction, but its use is limited due to its side effects, which include nausea, vomiting, abdominal cramps, and diarrhea.

Amylases are enzymes that break down complex carbohydrates, such as starch and glycogen, into simpler sugars like maltose, glucose, and maltotriose. There are several types of amylases found in various organisms, including humans.

In humans, amylases are produced by the pancreas and salivary glands. Pancreatic amylase is released into the small intestine where it helps to digest dietary carbohydrates. Salivary amylase, also known as alpha-amylase, is secreted into the mouth and begins breaking down starches in food during chewing.

Deficiency or absence of amylases can lead to difficulties in digesting carbohydrates and may cause symptoms such as bloating, diarrhea, and abdominal pain. Elevated levels of amylase in the blood may indicate conditions such as pancreatitis, pancreatic cancer, or other disorders affecting the pancreas.

The pancreas is a glandular organ located in the abdomen, posterior to the stomach. It has both exocrine and endocrine functions. The exocrine portion of the pancreas consists of acinar cells that produce and secrete digestive enzymes into the duodenum via the pancreatic duct. These enzymes help in the breakdown of proteins, carbohydrates, and fats in food.

The endocrine portion of the pancreas consists of clusters of cells called islets of Langerhans, which include alpha, beta, delta, and F cells. These cells produce and secrete hormones directly into the bloodstream, including insulin, glucagon, somatostatin, and pancreatic polypeptide. Insulin and glucagon are critical regulators of blood sugar levels, with insulin promoting glucose uptake and storage in tissues and glucagon stimulating glycogenolysis and gluconeogenesis to raise blood glucose when it is low.

An acute disease is a medical condition that has a rapid onset, develops quickly, and tends to be short in duration. Acute diseases can range from minor illnesses such as a common cold or flu, to more severe conditions such as pneumonia, meningitis, or a heart attack. These types of diseases often have clear symptoms that are easy to identify, and they may require immediate medical attention or treatment.

Acute diseases are typically caused by an external agent or factor, such as a bacterial or viral infection, a toxin, or an injury. They can also be the result of a sudden worsening of an existing chronic condition. In general, acute diseases are distinct from chronic diseases, which are long-term medical conditions that develop slowly over time and may require ongoing management and treatment.

Examples of acute diseases include:

* Acute bronchitis: a sudden inflammation of the airways in the lungs, often caused by a viral infection.
* Appendicitis: an inflammation of the appendix that can cause severe pain and requires surgical removal.
* Gastroenteritis: an inflammation of the stomach and intestines, often caused by a viral or bacterial infection.
* Migraine headaches: intense headaches that can last for hours or days, and are often accompanied by nausea, vomiting, and sensitivity to light and sound.
* Myocardial infarction (heart attack): a sudden blockage of blood flow to the heart muscle, often caused by a buildup of plaque in the coronary arteries.
* Pneumonia: an infection of the lungs that can cause coughing, chest pain, and difficulty breathing.
* Sinusitis: an inflammation of the sinuses, often caused by a viral or bacterial infection.

It's important to note that while some acute diseases may resolve on their own with rest and supportive care, others may require medical intervention or treatment to prevent complications and promote recovery. If you are experiencing symptoms of an acute disease, it is always best to seek medical attention to ensure proper diagnosis and treatment.

Trypsinogen is a precursor protein that is converted into the enzyme trypsin in the small intestine. It is produced by the pancreas and released into the duodenum, where it is activated by enterokinase, an enzyme produced by the intestinal mucosa. Trypsinogen plays a crucial role in digestion by helping to break down proteins into smaller peptides and individual amino acids.

In medical terms, an elevated level of trypsinogen in the blood may indicate pancreatic disease or injury, such as pancreatitis or pancreatic cancer. Therefore, measuring trypsinogen levels in the blood is sometimes used as a diagnostic tool to help identify these conditions.

Endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP) is a medical procedure that combines upper gastrointestinal (GI) endoscopy and fluoroscopy to diagnose and treat certain problems of the bile ducts and pancreas.

During ERCP, a flexible endoscope (a long, thin, lighted tube with a camera on the end) is passed through the patient's mouth and throat, then through the stomach and into the first part of the small intestine (duodenum). A narrow plastic tube (catheter) is then inserted through the endoscope and into the bile ducts and/or pancreatic duct. Contrast dye is injected through the catheter, and X-rays are taken to visualize the ducts.

ERCP can be used to diagnose a variety of conditions affecting the bile ducts and pancreas, including gallstones, tumors, strictures (narrowing of the ducts), and chronic pancreatitis. It can also be used to treat certain conditions, such as removing gallstones from the bile duct or placing stents to keep the ducts open in cases of stricture.

ERCP is an invasive procedure that carries a risk of complications, including pancreatitis, infection, bleeding, and perforation (a tear in the lining of the GI tract). It should only be performed by experienced medical professionals in a hospital setting.

The pancreatic ducts are a set of tubular structures within the pancreas that play a crucial role in the digestive system. The main pancreatic duct, also known as the duct of Wirsung, is responsible for transporting pancreatic enzymes and bicarbonate-rich fluid from the pancreas to the duodenum, which is the first part of the small intestine.

The exocrine portion of the pancreas contains numerous smaller ducts called interlobular ducts and intralobular ducts that merge and ultimately join the main pancreatic duct. This system ensures that the digestive enzymes and fluids produced by the pancreas are effectively delivered to the small intestine, where they aid in the breakdown and absorption of nutrients from food.

In addition to the main pancreatic duct, there is an accessory pancreatic duct, also known as Santorini's duct, which can sometimes join the common bile duct before emptying into the duodenum through a shared opening called the ampulla of Vater. However, in most individuals, the accessory pancreatic duct usually drains into the main pancreatic duct before entering the duodenum.

A pancreatic pseudocyst is a fluid-filled sac that forms in the abdomen, usually as a result of pancreatitis or trauma to the pancreas. It is composed of cells and tissues from the pancreas, along with enzymes, debris, and fluids. Unlike true cysts, pseudocysts do not have an epithelial lining. They can vary in size and may cause symptoms such as abdominal pain, nausea, vomiting, or fever. In some cases, they may resolve on their own, but larger or symptomatic pseudocysts may require medical intervention, such as drainage or surgery.

Pancreatic diseases refer to a group of medical conditions that affect the structure and function of the pancreas, a vital organ located in the abdomen. The pancreas has two main functions: an exocrine function, which involves the production of digestive enzymes that help break down food in the small intestine, and an endocrine function, which involves the production of hormones such as insulin and glucagon that regulate blood sugar levels.

Pancreatic diseases can be broadly classified into two categories: inflammatory and non-inflammatory. Inflammatory pancreatic diseases include conditions such as acute pancreatitis, which is characterized by sudden inflammation of the pancreas, and chronic pancreatitis, which is a long-term inflammation that can lead to scarring and loss of function.

Non-inflammatory pancreatic diseases include conditions such as pancreatic cancer, which is a malignant tumor that can arise from the cells of the pancreas, and benign tumors such as cysts or adenomas. Other non-inflammatory conditions include pancreatic insufficiency, which can occur when the pancreas does not produce enough digestive enzymes, and diabetes mellitus, which can result from impaired insulin production or action.

Overall, pancreatic diseases can have serious consequences on a person's health and quality of life, and early diagnosis and treatment are essential for optimal outcomes.

The exocrine portion of the pancreas refers to the part that releases digestive enzymes into the duodenum, which is the first section of the small intestine. These enzymes help in the breakdown of proteins, fats, and carbohydrates in food, enabling their absorption and utilization by the body.

The exocrine pancreas is made up of acinar cells that cluster together to form acini (singular: acinus), which are small sac-like structures. When stimulated by hormones such as secretin and cholecystokinin, these acinar cells release digestive enzymes like amylase, lipase, and trypsin into a network of ducts that ultimately merge into the main pancreatic duct. This duct then joins the common bile duct, which carries bile from the liver and gallbladder, before emptying into the duodenum.

It is important to note that the pancreas has both exocrine and endocrine functions. The endocrine portion of the pancreas consists of the islets of Langerhans, which release hormones like insulin and glucagon directly into the bloodstream, regulating blood sugar levels.

Lipase is an enzyme that is produced by the pancreas and found in the digestive system of most organisms. Its primary function is to catalyze the hydrolysis of fats (triglycerides) into smaller molecules, such as fatty acids and glycerol, which can then be absorbed by the intestines and utilized for energy or stored for later use.

In medical terms, lipase levels in the blood are often measured to diagnose or monitor conditions that affect the pancreas, such as pancreatitis (inflammation of the pancreas), pancreatic cancer, or cystic fibrosis. Elevated lipase levels may indicate damage to the pancreas and its ability to produce digestive enzymes.

Pancreatic function tests are a group of medical tests that are used to assess the functionality and health of the pancreas. The pancreas is a vital organ located in the abdomen, which has two main functions: an exocrine function, where it releases digestive enzymes into the small intestine to help break down food; and an endocrine function, where it produces hormones such as insulin and glucagon that regulate blood sugar levels.

Pancreatic function tests typically involve measuring the levels of digestive enzymes in the blood or stool, or assessing the body's ability to digest and absorb certain nutrients. Some common pancreatic function tests include:

1. Serum amylase and lipase tests: These tests measure the levels of digestive enzymes called amylase and lipase in the blood. Elevated levels of these enzymes may indicate pancreatitis or other conditions affecting the pancreas.
2. Fecal elastase test: This test measures the level of elastase, an enzyme produced by the pancreas, in a stool sample. Low levels of elastase may indicate exocrine pancreatic insufficiency (EPI), a condition where the pancreas is not producing enough digestive enzymes.
3. Secretin stimulation test: This test involves administering a medication called secretin, which stimulates the pancreas to release digestive enzymes. The levels of these enzymes are then measured in the blood or duodenum (the first part of the small intestine).
4. Fat absorption tests: These tests involve measuring the amount of fat that is absorbed from a meal. High levels of fat in the stool may indicate EPI.
5. Glucose tolerance test: This test involves measuring blood sugar levels after consuming a sugary drink. Low levels of insulin or high levels of glucose may indicate diabetes or other endocrine disorders affecting the pancreas.

Overall, pancreatic function tests are important tools for diagnosing and monitoring conditions that affect the pancreas, such as pancreatitis, EPI, and diabetes.

Acinar cells are the type of exocrine gland cells that produce and release enzymes or other secretory products into a lumen or duct. These cells are most commonly found in the acini (plural of acinus) of the pancreas, where they produce digestive enzymes that are released into the small intestine to help break down food.

The acinar cells in the pancreas are arranged in clusters called acini, which are surrounded by a network of ducts that transport the secreted enzymes to the duodenum. Each acinus contains a central lumen, into which the digestive enzymes are released by the acinar cells.

Acinar cells have a distinctive morphology, with a large, centrally located nucleus and abundant cytoplasm that contains numerous secretory granules. These granules contain the enzymes that are synthesized and stored within the acinar cells until they are released in response to hormonal or neural signals.

In addition to their role in digestion, acinar cells can also be found in other exocrine glands, such as the salivary glands, where they produce and release enzymes that help to break down food in the mouth.

Hyperamylasemia is a medical condition characterized by an elevated level of amylase in the blood. Amylase is an enzyme that is primarily produced by the pancreas and salivary glands, and it plays a crucial role in digesting carbohydrates.

Normally, the levels of amylase in the blood are relatively low, but when there is damage to the pancreas or salivary glands, such as in cases of pancreatitis, salivary gland inflammation, or blockage, the levels of amylase can rise significantly. This condition is called hyperamylasemia.

Mild elevations in amylase levels may not cause any symptoms and may be discovered only during routine blood tests. However, more significant elevations can indicate a serious underlying medical condition that requires prompt treatment. Symptoms of hyperamylasemia may include abdominal pain, nausea, vomiting, fever, and rapid heartbeat.

It is important to note that hyperamylasemia can also be caused by non-pancreatic conditions such as macroamylasemia, a benign condition where large amylase-containing protein complexes are formed and circulate in the bloodstream, leading to elevated amylase levels. Therefore, it is essential to perform further diagnostic tests to determine the underlying cause of hyperamylasemia.

Gallstones are small, hard deposits that form in the gallbladder, a small organ located under the liver. They can range in size from as small as a grain of sand to as large as a golf ball. Gallstones can be made of cholesterol, bile pigments, or calcium salts, or a combination of these substances.

There are two main types of gallstones: cholesterol stones and pigment stones. Cholesterol stones are the most common type and are usually yellow-green in color. They form when there is too much cholesterol in the bile, which causes it to become saturated and form crystals that eventually grow into stones. Pigment stones are smaller and darker in color, ranging from brown to black. They form when there is an excess of bilirubin, a waste product produced by the breakdown of red blood cells, in the bile.

Gallstones can cause symptoms such as abdominal pain, nausea, vomiting, and bloating, especially after eating fatty foods. In some cases, gallstones can lead to serious complications, such as inflammation of the gallbladder (cholecystitis), infection, or blockage of the bile ducts, which can cause jaundice, a yellowing of the skin and eyes.

The exact cause of gallstones is not fully understood, but risk factors include being female, older age, obesity, a family history of gallstones, rapid weight loss, diabetes, and certain medical conditions such as cirrhosis or sickle cell anemia. Treatment for gallstones may involve medication to dissolve the stones, shock wave therapy to break them up, or surgery to remove the gallbladder.

Magnetic resonance cholangiopancreatography (MRCP) is a non-invasive medical imaging technique that uses magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) to visualize the bile ducts and pancreatic duct. This diagnostic test does not use radiation like other imaging techniques such as computed tomography (CT) scans or endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP).

During an MRCP, the patient lies on a table that slides into the MRI machine. Contrast agents may be used to enhance the visibility of the ducts. The MRI machine uses a strong magnetic field and radio waves to produce detailed images of the internal structures, allowing radiologists to assess any abnormalities or blockages in the bile and pancreatic ducts.

MRCP is often used to diagnose conditions such as gallstones, tumors, inflammation, or strictures in the bile or pancreatic ducts. It can also be used to monitor the effectiveness of treatments for these conditions. However, it does not allow for therapeutic interventions like ERCP, which can remove stones or place stents.

Endoscopic sphincterotomy is a medical procedure that involves the use of an endoscope (a flexible tube with a light and camera) to cut the papilla of Vater, which contains the sphincter of Oddi muscle. This procedure is typically performed to treat gallstones or to manage other conditions related to the bile ducts or pancreatic ducts.

The sphincterotomy helps to widen the opening of the papilla, allowing stones or other obstructions to pass through more easily. It may also be used to relieve pressure and pain caused by spasms of the sphincter of Oddi muscle. The procedure is usually done under sedation or anesthesia and carries a risk of complications such as bleeding, infection, perforation, and pancreatitis.

Pancreatic juice is an alkaline fluid secreted by the exocrine component of the pancreas, primarily containing digestive enzymes such as amylase, lipase, and trypsin. These enzymes aid in the breakdown of carbohydrates, fats, and proteins, respectively, in the small intestine during the digestion process. The bicarbonate ions present in pancreatic juice help neutralize the acidic chyme that enters the duodenum from the stomach, creating an optimal environment for enzymatic activity.

Pancreatic neoplasms refer to abnormal growths in the pancreas that can be benign or malignant. The pancreas is a gland located behind the stomach that produces hormones and digestive enzymes. Pancreatic neoplasms can interfere with the normal functioning of the pancreas, leading to various health complications.

Benign pancreatic neoplasms are non-cancerous growths that do not spread to other parts of the body. They are usually removed through surgery to prevent any potential complications, such as blocking the bile duct or causing pain.

Malignant pancreatic neoplasms, also known as pancreatic cancer, are cancerous growths that can invade and destroy surrounding tissues and organs. They can also spread (metastasize) to other parts of the body, such as the liver, lungs, or bones. Pancreatic cancer is often aggressive and difficult to treat, with a poor prognosis.

There are several types of pancreatic neoplasms, including adenocarcinomas, neuroendocrine tumors, solid pseudopapillary neoplasms, and cystic neoplasms. The specific type of neoplasm is determined through various diagnostic tests, such as imaging studies, biopsies, and blood tests. Treatment options depend on the type, stage, and location of the neoplasm, as well as the patient's overall health and preferences.

Taurocholic acid is a bile salt, which is a type of organic compound that plays a crucial role in the digestion and absorption of fats and fat-soluble vitamins in the small intestine. It is formed in the liver by conjugation of cholic acid with taurine, an amino sulfonic acid.

Taurocholic acid has a detergent-like effect on the lipids in our food, helping to break them down into smaller molecules that can be absorbed through the intestinal wall and transported to other parts of the body for energy production or storage. It also helps to maintain the flow of bile from the liver to the gallbladder and small intestine, where it is stored until needed for digestion.

Abnormal levels of taurocholic acid in the body have been linked to various health conditions, including gallstones, liver disease, and gastrointestinal disorders. Therefore, it is important to maintain a healthy balance of bile salts, including taurocholic acid, for optimal digestive function.

A chronic disease is a long-term medical condition that often progresses slowly over a period of years and requires ongoing management and care. These diseases are typically not fully curable, but symptoms can be managed to improve quality of life. Common chronic diseases include heart disease, stroke, cancer, diabetes, arthritis, and COPD (chronic obstructive pulmonary disease). They are often associated with advanced age, although they can also affect children and younger adults. Chronic diseases can have significant impacts on individuals' physical, emotional, and social well-being, as well as on healthcare systems and society at large.

Abdominal pain is defined as discomfort or painful sensation in the abdomen. The abdomen is the region of the body between the chest and the pelvis, and contains many important organs such as the stomach, small intestine, large intestine, liver, gallbladder, pancreas, and spleen. Abdominal pain can vary in intensity from mild to severe, and can be acute or chronic depending on the underlying cause.

Abdominal pain can have many different causes, ranging from benign conditions such as gastritis, indigestion, or constipation, to more serious conditions such as appendicitis, inflammatory bowel disease, or abdominal aortic aneurysm. The location, quality, and duration of the pain can provide important clues about its cause. For example, sharp, localized pain in the lower right quadrant of the abdomen may indicate appendicitis, while crampy, diffuse pain in the lower abdomen may suggest irritable bowel syndrome.

It is important to seek medical attention if you experience severe or persistent abdominal pain, especially if it is accompanied by other symptoms such as fever, vomiting, or bloody stools. A thorough physical examination, including a careful history and a focused abdominal exam, can help diagnose the underlying cause of the pain and guide appropriate treatment.

Cholelithiasis is a medical term that refers to the presence of gallstones in the gallbladder. The gallbladder is a small pear-shaped organ located beneath the liver that stores bile, a digestive fluid produced by the liver. Gallstones are hardened deposits that can form in the gallbladder when substances in the bile, such as cholesterol or bilirubin, crystallize.

Gallstones can vary in size and may be as small as a grain of sand or as large as a golf ball. Some people with gallstones may not experience any symptoms, while others may have severe abdominal pain, nausea, vomiting, fever, and jaundice (yellowing of the skin and eyes) if the gallstones block the bile ducts.

Cholelithiasis is a common condition that affects millions of people worldwide, particularly women over the age of 40 and those with certain medical conditions such as obesity, diabetes, and rapid weight loss. If left untreated, gallstones can lead to serious complications such as inflammation of the gallbladder (cholecystitis), infection, or pancreatitis (inflammation of the pancreas). Treatment options for cholelithiasis include medication, shock wave lithotripsy (breaking up the gallstones with sound waves), and surgery to remove the gallbladder (cholecystectomy).

Gabexate is a medicinal drug that belongs to the class of agents known as serine protease inhibitors. It is used in the treatment and prevention of inflammation and damage to tissues caused by various surgical procedures, pancreatitis, and other conditions associated with the activation of proteolytic enzymes.

Gabexate works by inhibiting the activity of certain enzymes such as trypsin, chymotrypsin, and thrombin, which play a key role in the inflammatory response and blood clotting cascade. By doing so, it helps to reduce the release of inflammatory mediators, prevent further tissue damage, and promote healing.

Gabexate is available in various forms, including injectable solutions and enteric-coated tablets, and its use is typically reserved for clinical settings under the supervision of a healthcare professional. As with any medication, it should be used only under the direction of a qualified medical practitioner, and its potential benefits and risks should be carefully weighed against those of other available treatment options.

A pancreatectomy is a surgical procedure in which all or part of the pancreas is removed. There are several types of pancreatectomies, including:

* **Total pancreatectomy:** Removal of the entire pancreas, as well as the spleen and nearby lymph nodes. This type of pancreatectomy is usually done for patients with cancer that has spread throughout the pancreas or for those who have had multiple surgeries to remove pancreatic tumors.
* **Distal pancreatectomy:** Removal of the body and tail of the pancreas, as well as nearby lymph nodes. This type of pancreatectomy is often done for patients with tumors in the body or tail of the pancreas.
* **Partial (or segmental) pancreatectomy:** Removal of a portion of the head or body of the pancreas, as well as nearby lymph nodes. This type of pancreatectomy is often done for patients with tumors in the head or body of the pancreas that can be removed without removing the entire organ.
* **Pylorus-preserving pancreaticoduodenectomy (PPPD):** A type of surgery used to treat tumors in the head of the pancreas, as well as other conditions such as chronic pancreatitis. In this procedure, the head of the pancreas, duodenum, gallbladder, and bile duct are removed, but the stomach and lower portion of the esophagus (pylorus) are left in place.

After a pancreatectomy, patients may experience problems with digestion and blood sugar regulation, as the pancreas plays an important role in these functions. Patients may need to take enzyme supplements to help with digestion and may require insulin therapy to manage their blood sugar levels.

"Calculi" is a medical term that refers to abnormal concretions or hard masses formed within the body, usually in hollow organs or cavities. These masses are typically composed of minerals such as calcium oxalate, calcium phosphate, or magnesium ammonium phosphate, and can vary in size from tiny granules to large stones. The plural form of the Latin word "calculus" (meaning "pebble"), calculi are commonly known as "stones." They can occur in various locations within the body, including the kidneys, gallbladder, urinary bladder, and prostate gland. The presence of calculi can cause a range of symptoms, such as pain, obstruction, infection, or inflammation, depending on their size, location, and composition.

Pancreaticojejunostomy is a surgical procedure that involves connecting the pancreas to a portion of the small intestine called the jejunum. This connection is typically created after the head of the pancreas has been removed, as in the case of a pancreaticoduodenectomy (or "Whipple") procedure. The purpose of this anastomosis is to allow digestive enzymes from the pancreas to flow into the small intestine, where they can aid in the digestion of food.

The connection between the pancreas and jejunum can be created using several different techniques, including a hand-sewn anastomosis or a stapled anastomosis. The choice of technique may depend on various factors, such as the patient's individual anatomy, the surgeon's preference, and the reason for the surgery.

Pancreaticojejunostomy is a complex surgical procedure that requires significant skill and expertise to perform. It carries risks such as leakage of pancreatic enzymes into the abdominal cavity, which can lead to serious complications such as infection, bleeding, or even organ failure. As such, it is typically performed by experienced surgeons in specialized medical centers.

Biliary tract diseases refer to a group of medical conditions that affect the biliary system, which includes the gallbladder, bile ducts, and liver. Bile is a digestive juice produced by the liver, stored in the gallbladder, and released into the small intestine through the bile ducts to help digest fats.

Biliary tract diseases can cause various symptoms such as abdominal pain, jaundice, fever, nausea, vomiting, and changes in stool color. Some of the common biliary tract diseases include:

1. Gallstones: Small, hard deposits that form in the gallbladder or bile ducts made up of cholesterol or bilirubin.
2. Cholecystitis: Inflammation of the gallbladder, often caused by gallstones.
3. Cholangitis: Infection or inflammation of the bile ducts.
4. Biliary dyskinesia: A motility disorder that affects the contraction and relaxation of the muscles in the biliary system.
5. Primary sclerosing cholangitis: A chronic autoimmune disease that causes scarring and narrowing of the bile ducts.
6. Biliary tract cancer: Rare cancers that affect the gallbladder, bile ducts, or liver.

Treatment for biliary tract diseases varies depending on the specific condition and severity but may include medications, surgery, or a combination of both.

Drainage, in medical terms, refers to the removal of excess fluid or accumulated collections of fluids from various body parts or spaces. This is typically accomplished through the use of medical devices such as catheters, tubes, or drains. The purpose of drainage can be to prevent the buildup of fluids that may cause discomfort, infection, or other complications, or to treat existing collections of fluid such as abscesses, hematomas, or pleural effusions. Drainage may also be used as a diagnostic tool to analyze the type and composition of the fluid being removed.

Pancreatic stellate cells (PSCs) are adult, tissue-specific mesenchymal cells that are found in the exocrine portion of the pancreas. They are star-shaped and are located in the periacinar area, where they normally remain quiescent. However, in response to injury or inflammation, such as in chronic pancreatitis or pancreatic cancer, PSCs become activated and transform into a myofibroblast-like phenotype.

Activated PSCs play a key role in the pathogenesis of pancreatic fibrosis, which is characterized by an excessive accumulation of extracellular matrix (ECM) proteins, such as collagen and fibronectin. This process can lead to the destruction of the normal pancreatic architecture and function. Activated PSCs also produce various growth factors and cytokines that promote the growth and survival of pancreatic cancer cells, contributing to the aggressive behavior of this disease.

Overall, PSCs play a critical role in the development and progression of pancreatic diseases, making them an important target for therapeutic intervention.

Necrosis is the premature death of cells or tissues due to damage or injury, such as from infection, trauma, infarction (lack of blood supply), or toxic substances. It's a pathological process that results in the uncontrolled and passive degradation of cellular components, ultimately leading to the release of intracellular contents into the extracellular space. This can cause local inflammation and may lead to further tissue damage if not treated promptly.

There are different types of necrosis, including coagulative, liquefactive, caseous, fat, fibrinoid, and gangrenous necrosis, each with distinct histological features depending on the underlying cause and the affected tissues or organs.

Autoimmune diseases are a group of disorders in which the immune system, which normally protects the body from foreign invaders like bacteria and viruses, mistakenly attacks the body's own cells and tissues. This results in inflammation and damage to various organs and tissues in the body.

In autoimmune diseases, the body produces autoantibodies that target its own proteins or cell receptors, leading to their destruction or malfunction. The exact cause of autoimmune diseases is not fully understood, but it is believed that a combination of genetic and environmental factors contribute to their development.

There are over 80 different types of autoimmune diseases, including rheumatoid arthritis, lupus, multiple sclerosis, type 1 diabetes, Hashimoto's thyroiditis, Graves' disease, psoriasis, and inflammatory bowel disease. Symptoms can vary widely depending on the specific autoimmune disease and the organs or tissues affected. Treatment typically involves managing symptoms and suppressing the immune system to prevent further damage.

Multiple Organ Failure (MOF) is a severe condition characterized by the dysfunction or failure of more than one organ system in the body. It often occurs as a result of serious illness, trauma, or infection, such as sepsis. The organs that commonly fail include the lungs, kidneys, liver, and heart. This condition can lead to significant morbidity and mortality if not promptly diagnosed and treated.

The definition of MOF has evolved over time, but a widely accepted one is the "Sequential Organ Failure Assessment" (SOFA) score, which evaluates six organ systems: respiratory, coagulation, liver, cardiovascular, renal, and neurologic. A SOFA score of 10 or more indicates MOF, and a higher score is associated with worse outcomes.

MOF can be classified as primary or secondary. Primary MOF occurs when the initial insult directly causes organ dysfunction, such as in severe trauma or septic shock. Secondary MOF occurs when the initial injury or illness has been controlled, but organ dysfunction develops later due to ongoing inflammation and other factors.

Early recognition and aggressive management of MOF are crucial for improving outcomes. Treatment typically involves supportive care, such as mechanical ventilation, dialysis, and medication to support cardiovascular function. In some cases, surgery or other interventions may be necessary to address the underlying cause of organ dysfunction.

Cholecystectomy is a medical procedure to remove the gallbladder, a small pear-shaped organ located on the right side of the abdomen, just beneath the liver. The primary function of the gallbladder is to store and concentrate bile, a digestive fluid produced by the liver. During a cholecystectomy, the surgeon removes the gallbladder, usually due to the presence of gallstones or inflammation that can cause pain, infection, or other complications.

There are two primary methods for performing a cholecystectomy:

1. Open Cholecystectomy: In this traditional surgical approach, the surgeon makes an incision in the abdomen to access and remove the gallbladder. This method is typically used when there are complications or unique circumstances that make laparoscopic surgery difficult or risky.
2. Laparoscopic Cholecystectomy: This is a minimally invasive surgical procedure where the surgeon makes several small incisions in the abdomen, through which a thin tube with a camera (laparoscope) and specialized surgical instruments are inserted. The surgeon then guides these tools to remove the gallbladder while viewing the internal structures on a video monitor.

After the gallbladder is removed, bile flows directly from the liver into the small intestine through the common bile duct, and the body continues to function normally without any significant issues.

Endosonography, also known as endoscopic ultrasound (EUS), is a medical procedure that combines endoscopy and ultrasound to obtain detailed images and information about the digestive tract and surrounding organs. An endoscope, which is a flexible tube with a light and camera at its tip, is inserted through the mouth or rectum to reach the area of interest. A high-frequency ultrasound transducer at the tip of the endoscope generates sound waves that bounce off body tissues and create echoes, which are then translated into detailed images by a computer.

Endosonography allows doctors to visualize structures such as the esophageal, stomach, and intestinal walls, lymph nodes, blood vessels, and organs like the pancreas, liver, and gallbladder. It can help diagnose conditions such as tumors, inflammation, and infections, and it can also be used to guide biopsies or fine-needle aspirations of suspicious lesions.

Overall, endosonography is a valuable tool for the diagnosis and management of various gastrointestinal and related disorders.

A Severity of Illness Index is a measurement tool used in healthcare to assess the severity of a patient's condition and the risk of mortality or other adverse outcomes. These indices typically take into account various physiological and clinical variables, such as vital signs, laboratory values, and co-morbidities, to generate a score that reflects the patient's overall illness severity.

Examples of Severity of Illness Indices include the Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation (APACHE) system, the Simplified Acute Physiology Score (SAPS), and the Mortality Probability Model (MPM). These indices are often used in critical care settings to guide clinical decision-making, inform prognosis, and compare outcomes across different patient populations.

It is important to note that while these indices can provide valuable information about a patient's condition, they should not be used as the sole basis for clinical decision-making. Rather, they should be considered in conjunction with other factors, such as the patient's overall clinical presentation, treatment preferences, and goals of care.

X-ray computed tomography (CT or CAT scan) is a medical imaging method that uses computer-processed combinations of many X-ray images taken from different angles to produce cross-sectional (tomographic) images (virtual "slices") of the body. These cross-sectional images can then be used to display detailed internal views of organs, bones, and soft tissues in the body.

The term "computed tomography" is used instead of "CT scan" or "CAT scan" because the machines take a series of X-ray measurements from different angles around the body and then use a computer to process these data to create detailed images of internal structures within the body.

CT scanning is a noninvasive, painless medical test that helps physicians diagnose and treat medical conditions. CT imaging provides detailed information about many types of tissue including lung, bone, soft tissue and blood vessels. CT examinations can be performed on every part of the body for a variety of reasons including diagnosis, surgical planning, and monitoring of therapeutic responses.

In computed tomography (CT), an X-ray source and detector rotate around the patient, measuring the X-ray attenuation at many different angles. A computer uses this data to construct a cross-sectional image by the process of reconstruction. This technique is called "tomography". The term "computed" refers to the use of a computer to reconstruct the images.

CT has become an important tool in medical imaging and diagnosis, allowing radiologists and other physicians to view detailed internal images of the body. It can help identify many different medical conditions including cancer, heart disease, lung nodules, liver tumors, and internal injuries from trauma. CT is also commonly used for guiding biopsies and other minimally invasive procedures.

In summary, X-ray computed tomography (CT or CAT scan) is a medical imaging technique that uses computer-processed combinations of many X-ray images taken from different angles to produce cross-sectional images of the body. It provides detailed internal views of organs, bones, and soft tissues in the body, allowing physicians to diagnose and treat medical conditions.

Cholagogues and choleretics are terms used to describe medications or substances that affect bile secretion and flow in the body. Here is a medical definition for each:

1. Cholagogue: A substance that promotes the discharge of bile from the gallbladder into the duodenum, often by stimulating the contraction of the gallbladder muscle. This helps in the digestion and absorption of fats. Examples include chenodeoxycholic acid, ursodeoxycholic acid, and some herbal remedies like dandelion root and milk thistle.
2. Choleretic: A substance that increases the production of bile by the liver or its flow through the biliary system. This can help with the digestion of fats and the elimination of waste products from the body. Examples include certain medications like ursodeoxycholic acid, as well as natural substances such as lemon juice, artichoke extract, and turmeric.

It is important to note that while cholagogues and choleretics can aid in digestion, they should be used under the guidance of a healthcare professional, as improper use or overuse may lead to complications like diarrhea or gallstone formation.

Trypsin is a proteolytic enzyme, specifically a serine protease, that is secreted by the pancreas as an inactive precursor, trypsinogen. Trypsinogen is converted into its active form, trypsin, in the small intestine by enterokinase, which is produced by the intestinal mucosa.

Trypsin plays a crucial role in digestion by cleaving proteins into smaller peptides at specific arginine and lysine residues. This enzyme helps to break down dietary proteins into amino acids, allowing for their absorption and utilization by the body. Additionally, trypsin can activate other zymogenic pancreatic enzymes, such as chymotrypsinogen and procarboxypeptidases, thereby contributing to overall protein digestion.

The common bile duct is a duct that results from the union of the cystic duct (which drains bile from the gallbladder) and the common hepatic duct (which drains bile from the liver). The common bile duct transports bile, a digestive enzyme, from the liver and gallbladder to the duodenum, which is the first part of the small intestine.

The common bile duct runs through the head of the pancreas before emptying into the second part of the duodenum, either alone or in conjunction with the pancreatic duct, via a small opening called the ampulla of Vater. The common bile duct plays a crucial role in the digestion of fats by helping to break them down into smaller molecules that can be absorbed by the body.

Sphincter of Oddi dysfunction (SOD) is a condition characterized by abnormalities in the functioning of the Sphincter of Oddi, which is a muscular valve that controls the flow of bile and pancreatic juice from the pancreas and gallbladder into the duodenum (the first part of the small intestine).

In SOD, the sphincter may either fail to relax properly or become overactive, leading to a variety of symptoms such as abdominal pain, nausea, vomiting, bloating, and elevated liver enzymes. The condition can be classified into two types: Type I, which is associated with elevated liver enzymes and/or pancreatic enzymes, and Type II, which is characterized by abdominal pain without biochemical abnormalities.

The diagnosis of SOD typically involves a series of tests such as manometry (measuring the pressure inside the sphincter), endoscopic ultrasound, or magnetic resonance cholangiopancreatography (MRCP) to visualize the anatomy and function of the sphincter. Treatment options may include medications to relax the sphincter, endoscopic therapy to cut or stretch the muscle, or surgery in severe cases.

Exocrine pancreatic insufficiency (EPI) is a condition characterized by the reduced ability to digest and absorb nutrients due to a lack of digestive enzymes produced by the exocrine glands in the pancreas. These enzymes, including lipases, amylases, and proteases, are necessary for breaking down fats, carbohydrates, and proteins in food during the digestion process.

When EPI occurs, undigested food passes through the gastrointestinal tract, leading to malabsorption of nutrients, which can result in various symptoms such as abdominal pain, bloating, diarrhea, weight loss, and steatorrhea (fatty stools). EPI is often associated with chronic pancreatitis, cystic fibrosis, pancreatic cancer, or other conditions that damage the exocrine glands in the pancreas.

EPI can be diagnosed through various tests, including fecal elastase testing, fecal fat quantification, and imaging studies to assess the structure and function of the pancreas. Treatment typically involves replacing the missing enzymes with oral supplements taken with meals and snacks to improve digestion and absorption of nutrients. In addition, dietary modifications and management of underlying conditions are essential for optimal outcomes.

Pancreatic alpha-amylases are a type of enzyme that is produced and secreted by the exocrine cells (acinar cells) of the pancreas. These enzymes play an essential role in digesting carbohydrates, particularly starches and glycogen, which are complex forms of carbohydrates found in various foods like grains, potatoes, and legumes.

Alpha-amylases break down these complex carbohydrates into smaller, simpler sugars, such as maltose, maltotriose, and glucose, allowing for their absorption and utilization by the body. The pancreatic alpha-amylases are released into the duodenum, the first part of the small intestine, along with other digestive enzymes during the process of digestion.

In addition to pancreatic alpha-amylases, salivary glands also produce a form of amylase called salivary alpha-amylase, which initiates the breakdown of starches in the mouth through mastication (chewing). However, the majority of carbohydrate digestion occurs in the small intestine with the help of pancreatic alpha-amylases and other enzymes produced by the intestinal lining.

Edema is the medical term for swelling caused by excess fluid accumulation in the body tissues. It can affect any part of the body, but it's most commonly noticed in the hands, feet, ankles, and legs. Edema can be a symptom of various underlying medical conditions, such as heart failure, kidney disease, liver disease, or venous insufficiency.

The swelling occurs when the capillaries leak fluid into the surrounding tissues, causing them to become swollen and puffy. The excess fluid can also collect in the cavities of the body, leading to conditions such as pleural effusion (fluid around the lungs) or ascites (fluid in the abdominal cavity).

The severity of edema can vary from mild to severe, and it may be accompanied by other symptoms such as skin discoloration, stiffness, and pain. Treatment for edema depends on the underlying cause and may include medications, lifestyle changes, or medical procedures.

Duodenal obstruction is a medical condition characterized by the blockage or impediment of the normal flow of contents through the duodenum, which is the first part of the small intestine. This blockage can be partial or complete and can be caused by various factors such as:

1. Congenital abnormalities: Duodenal atresia or stenosis, where there is a congenital absence or narrowing of a portion of the duodenum.
2. Inflammatory conditions: Duodenitis, Crohn's disease, or tumors that cause swelling and inflammation in the duodenum.
3. Mechanical obstructions: Gallstones, tumors, strictures, or adhesions (scar tissue) from previous surgeries can physically block the duodenum.
4. Neuromuscular disorders: Conditions like progressive systemic sclerosis or amyloidosis that affect the neuromuscular function of the intestines can lead to duodenal obstruction.

Symptoms of duodenal obstruction may include nausea, vomiting (often with bilious or fecal matter), abdominal pain, distention, and decreased bowel movements. Diagnosis typically involves imaging studies such as X-rays, CT scans, or upper gastrointestinal series to visualize the blockage. Treatment depends on the underlying cause but may involve surgery, endoscopic procedures, or medications to manage symptoms and address the obstruction.

Clinical enzyme tests are laboratory tests that measure the amount or activity of certain enzymes in biological samples, such as blood or bodily fluids. These tests are used to help diagnose and monitor various medical conditions, including organ damage, infection, inflammation, and genetic disorders.

Enzymes are proteins that catalyze chemical reactions in the body. Some enzymes are found primarily within specific organs or tissues, so elevated levels of these enzymes in the blood can indicate damage to those organs or tissues. For example, high levels of creatine kinase (CK) may suggest muscle damage, while increased levels of aspartate aminotransferase (AST) and alanine aminotransferase (ALT) can indicate liver damage.

There are several types of clinical enzyme tests, including:

1. Serum enzyme tests: These measure the level of enzymes in the blood serum, which is the liquid portion of the blood after clotting. Examples include CK, AST, ALT, alkaline phosphatase (ALP), and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH).
2. Urine enzyme tests: These measure the level of enzymes in the urine. An example is N-acetyl-β-D-glucosaminidase (NAG), which can indicate kidney damage.
3. Enzyme immunoassays (EIAs): These use antibodies to detect and quantify specific enzymes or proteins in a sample. They are often used for the diagnosis of infectious diseases, such as HIV or hepatitis.
4. Genetic enzyme tests: These can identify genetic mutations that cause deficiencies in specific enzymes, leading to inherited metabolic disorders like phenylketonuria (PKU) or Gaucher's disease.

It is important to note that the interpretation of clinical enzyme test results should be done by a healthcare professional, taking into account the patient's medical history, symptoms, and other diagnostic tests.

The ampulla of Vater, also known as hepatopancreatic ampulla, is a dilated portion of the common bile duct where it joins the main pancreatic duct and empties into the second part of the duodenum. It serves as a conduit for both bile from the liver and digestive enzymes from the pancreas to reach the small intestine, facilitating the digestion and absorption of nutrients. The ampulla of Vater is surrounded by a muscular sphincter, the sphincter of Oddi, which controls the flow of these secretions into the duodenum.

Secretin is a hormone that is produced and released by the S cells in the duodenum, which is the first part of the small intestine. It is released in response to the presence of acidic chyme (partially digested food) entering the duodenum from the stomach. Secretin stimulates the pancreas to produce bicarbonate-rich alkaline secretions, which help neutralize the acidity of the chyme and create an optimal environment for enzymatic digestion in the small intestine.

Additionally, secretin also promotes the production of watery fluids from the liver, which aids in the digestion process. Overall, secretin plays a crucial role in maintaining the pH balance and facilitating proper nutrient absorption in the gastrointestinal tract.

"APACHE" stands for "Acute Physiology And Chronic Health Evaluation." It is a system used to assess the severity of illness in critically ill patients and predict their risk of mortality. The APACHE score is calculated based on various physiological parameters, such as heart rate, blood pressure, temperature, respiratory rate, and laboratory values, as well as age and chronic health conditions.

There are different versions of the APACHE system, including APACHE II, III, and IV, each with its own set of variables and scoring system. The most commonly used version is APACHE II, which includes 12 physiological variables measured during the first 24 hours of ICU admission, as well as age and chronic health points.

The APACHE score is widely used in research and clinical settings to compare the severity of illness and outcomes between different patient populations, evaluate the effectiveness of treatments and interventions, and make informed decisions about resource allocation and triage.

Organotin compounds are a group of chemical compounds that contain carbon, hydrogen, and tin. They have the general formula RnSnX4-n, where R represents an organic group (such as a methyl or phenyl group), X represents a halogen or other substituent, and n can range from 1 to 3. These compounds are used in a variety of applications, including as biocides, PVC stabilizers, and catalysts. However, they have also been found to have toxic effects on the immune system, endocrine system, and nervous system, and some organotin compounds have been restricted or banned for use in certain products due to these concerns.

Animal disease models are specialized animals, typically rodents such as mice or rats, that have been genetically engineered or exposed to certain conditions to develop symptoms and physiological changes similar to those seen in human diseases. These models are used in medical research to study the pathophysiology of diseases, identify potential therapeutic targets, test drug efficacy and safety, and understand disease mechanisms.

The genetic modifications can include knockout or knock-in mutations, transgenic expression of specific genes, or RNA interference techniques. The animals may also be exposed to environmental factors such as chemicals, radiation, or infectious agents to induce the disease state.

Examples of animal disease models include:

1. Mouse models of cancer: Genetically engineered mice that develop various types of tumors, allowing researchers to study cancer initiation, progression, and metastasis.
2. Alzheimer's disease models: Transgenic mice expressing mutant human genes associated with Alzheimer's disease, which exhibit amyloid plaque formation and cognitive decline.
3. Diabetes models: Obese and diabetic mouse strains like the NOD (non-obese diabetic) or db/db mice, used to study the development of type 1 and type 2 diabetes, respectively.
4. Cardiovascular disease models: Atherosclerosis-prone mice, such as ApoE-deficient or LDLR-deficient mice, that develop plaque buildup in their arteries when fed a high-fat diet.
5. Inflammatory bowel disease models: Mice with genetic mutations affecting intestinal barrier function and immune response, such as IL-10 knockout or SAMP1/YitFc mice, which develop colitis.

Animal disease models are essential tools in preclinical research, but it is important to recognize their limitations. Differences between species can affect the translatability of results from animal studies to human patients. Therefore, researchers must carefully consider the choice of model and interpret findings cautiously when applying them to human diseases.

Trypsin Inhibitor, Kazal Pancreatic is a type of protein that is produced in the pancreas and functions as an inhibitor to trypsin, which is a proteolytic enzyme involved in digestion. Specifically, this inhibitor belongs to the Kazal-type serine protease inhibitors. It helps regulate the activity of trypsin within the pancreas, preventing premature activation and potential damage to pancreatic tissue. Any imbalance or deficiency in this inhibitor can lead to pancreatic diseases such as pancreatitis.

A pancreatic cyst is a fluid-filled sac that forms in the pancreas, a gland located behind the stomach that produces enzymes to help with digestion and hormones to regulate blood sugar levels. Pancreatic cysts can be classified into several types, including congenital (present at birth), retention (formed due to blockage of pancreatic ducts), and pseudocysts (formed as a result of injury or inflammation).

While some pancreatic cysts may not cause any symptoms, others can lead to abdominal pain, bloating, nausea, vomiting, or jaundice. Some cysts may also have the potential to become cancerous over time. Therefore, it is essential to monitor and evaluate pancreatic cysts through imaging tests such as ultrasound, CT scan, or MRI, and in some cases, endoscopic ultrasound (EUS) with fine-needle aspiration (FNA) may be necessary for further evaluation.

Treatment options for pancreatic cysts depend on the type, size, location, and symptoms of the cyst, as well as the patient's overall health condition. Some cysts may require surgical removal, while others can be managed with regular monitoring and follow-up care. It is essential to consult a healthcare provider for proper evaluation and management of pancreatic cysts.

"Wistar rats" are a strain of albino rats that are widely used in laboratory research. They were developed at the Wistar Institute in Philadelphia, USA, and were first introduced in 1906. Wistar rats are outbred, which means that they are genetically diverse and do not have a fixed set of genetic characteristics like inbred strains.

Wistar rats are commonly used as animal models in biomedical research because of their size, ease of handling, and relatively low cost. They are used in a wide range of research areas, including toxicology, pharmacology, nutrition, cancer, cardiovascular disease, and behavioral studies. Wistar rats are also used in safety testing of drugs, medical devices, and other products.

Wistar rats are typically larger than many other rat strains, with males weighing between 500-700 grams and females weighing between 250-350 grams. They have a lifespan of approximately 2-3 years. Wistar rats are also known for their docile and friendly nature, making them easy to handle and work with in the laboratory setting.

Duodenal diseases refer to a range of medical conditions that affect the duodenum, which is the first part of the small intestine. Here are some examples of duodenal diseases:

1. Duodenitis: This is inflammation of the duodenum, which can cause symptoms such as abdominal pain, nausea, vomiting, and bloating. Duodenitis can be caused by bacterial or viral infections, excessive use of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), or chronic inflammation due to conditions like Crohn's disease.
2. Peptic ulcers: These are sores that develop in the lining of the duodenum, usually as a result of infection with Helicobacter pylori bacteria or long-term use of NSAIDs. Symptoms can include abdominal pain, bloating, and heartburn.
3. Duodenal cancer: This is a rare type of cancer that affects the duodenum. Symptoms can include abdominal pain, weight loss, and blood in the stool.
4. Celiac disease: This is an autoimmune disorder that causes the immune system to attack the lining of the small intestine in response to gluten, a protein found in wheat, barley, and rye. This can lead to inflammation and damage to the duodenum.
5. Duodenal diverticulosis: This is a condition in which small pouches form in the lining of the duodenum. While many people with duodenal diverticulosis do not experience symptoms, some may develop complications such as inflammation or infection.
6. Duodenal atresia: This is a congenital condition in which the duodenum does not form properly, leading to blockage of the intestine. This can cause symptoms such as vomiting and difficulty feeding in newborns.

Cholecystokinin (CCK) is a hormone that is produced in the duodenum (the first part of the small intestine) and in the brain. It is released into the bloodstream in response to food, particularly fatty foods, and plays several roles in the digestive process.

In the digestive system, CCK stimulates the contraction of the gallbladder, which releases bile into the small intestine to help digest fats. It also inhibits the release of acid from the stomach and slows down the movement of food through the intestines.

In the brain, CCK acts as a neurotransmitter and has been shown to have effects on appetite regulation, mood, and memory. It may play a role in the feeling of fullness or satiety after eating, and may also be involved in anxiety and panic disorders.

CCK is sometimes referred to as "gallbladder-stimulating hormone" or "pancreozymin," although these terms are less commonly used than "cholecystokinin."

Cholangiography is a medical procedure that involves taking X-ray images of the bile ducts (the tubes that carry bile from the liver to the small intestine). This is typically done by injecting a contrast dye into the bile ducts through an endoscope or a catheter that has been inserted into the body.

There are several types of cholangiography, including:

* Endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP): This procedure involves inserting an endoscope through the mouth and down the throat into the small intestine. A dye is then injected into the bile ducts through a small tube that is passed through the endoscope.
* Percutaneous transhepatic cholangiography (PTC): This procedure involves inserting a needle through the skin and into the liver to inject the contrast dye directly into the bile ducts.
* Operative cholangiography: This procedure is performed during surgery to examine the bile ducts for any abnormalities or blockages.

Cholangiography can help diagnose a variety of conditions that affect the bile ducts, such as gallstones, tumors, or inflammation. It can also be used to guide treatment decisions, such as whether surgery is necessary to remove a blockage.

Lithostathine is a protein that is primarily produced in the pancreas. It is a component of pancreatic stones or calculi, also known as pancreatic lithiasis. These stones can cause blockages in the pancreatic ducts, leading to inflammation (pancreatitis) and damage to the pancreas. Lithostathine is believed to play a role in the formation of these stones, although the exact mechanisms are not fully understood. It's worth noting that the medical literature might use the term "lithostathine" or "pancreatic lithostathine" to refer to this protein.

Endoscopy of the digestive system, also known as gastrointestinal (GI) endoscopy, is a medical procedure that allows healthcare professionals to visually examine the inside lining of the digestive tract using a flexible tube with a light and camera attached to it, called an endoscope. This procedure can help diagnose and treat various conditions affecting the digestive system, including gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD), ulcers, inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), and cancer.

There are several types of endoscopy procedures that focus on different parts of the digestive tract:

1. Esophagogastroduodenoscopy (EGD): This procedure examines the esophagus, stomach, and duodenum (the first part of the small intestine). It is often used to investigate symptoms such as difficulty swallowing, abdominal pain, or bleeding in the upper GI tract.
2. Colonoscopy: This procedure explores the large intestine (colon) and rectum. It is commonly performed to screen for colon cancer, as well as to diagnose and treat conditions like inflammatory bowel disease, diverticulosis, or polyps.
3. Sigmoidoscopy: Similar to a colonoscopy, this procedure examines the lower part of the colon (sigmoid colon) and rectum. It is often used as a screening tool for colon cancer and to investigate symptoms like rectal bleeding or changes in bowel habits.
4. Upper GI endoscopy: This procedure focuses on the esophagus, stomach, and duodenum, using a thin, flexible tube with a light and camera attached to it. It is used to diagnose and treat conditions such as GERD, ulcers, and difficulty swallowing.
5. Capsule endoscopy: This procedure involves swallowing a small capsule containing a camera that captures images of the digestive tract as it passes through. It can help diagnose conditions in the small intestine that may be difficult to reach with traditional endoscopes.

Endoscopy is typically performed under sedation or anesthesia to ensure patient comfort during the procedure. The images captured by the endoscope are displayed on a monitor, allowing the healthcare provider to assess the condition of the digestive tract and make informed treatment decisions.

Peroxidase is a type of enzyme that catalyzes the chemical reaction in which hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) is broken down into water (H2O) and oxygen (O2). This enzymatic reaction also involves the oxidation of various organic and inorganic compounds, which can serve as electron donors.

Peroxidases are widely distributed in nature and can be found in various organisms, including bacteria, fungi, plants, and animals. They play important roles in various biological processes, such as defense against oxidative stress, breakdown of toxic substances, and participation in metabolic pathways.

The peroxidase-catalyzed reaction can be represented by the following chemical equation:

H2O2 + 2e- + 2H+ → 2H2O

In this reaction, hydrogen peroxide is reduced to water, and the electron donor is oxidized. The peroxidase enzyme facilitates the transfer of electrons between the substrate (hydrogen peroxide) and the electron donor, making the reaction more efficient and specific.

Peroxidases have various applications in medicine, industry, and research. For example, they can be used for diagnostic purposes, as biosensors, and in the treatment of wastewater and medical wastes. Additionally, peroxidases are involved in several pathological conditions, such as inflammation, cancer, and neurodegenerative diseases, making them potential targets for therapeutic interventions.

A pancreatic fistula is an abnormal connection or passage between the pancreas and another organ, often the digestive system. It usually occurs as a complication following trauma, surgery, or inflammation of the pancreas (such as pancreatitis). The pancreas secretes digestive enzymes, and when these enzymes escape the pancreas through a damaged or disrupted duct, they can cause irritation and inflammation in nearby tissues, leading to the formation of a fistula.

Pancreatic fistulas are typically characterized by the drainage of pancreatic fluid, which contains high levels of digestive enzymes, into other parts of the body. This can lead to various symptoms, including abdominal pain, swelling, fever, and malnutrition. Treatment may involve surgical repair of the fistula, as well as supportive care such as antibiotics, nutritional support, and drainage of any fluid collections.

Common bile duct diseases refer to conditions that affect the common bile duct, a tube that carries bile from the liver and gallbladder into the small intestine. Some common examples of common bile duct diseases include:

1. Choledocholithiasis: This is the presence of stones (calculi) in the common bile duct, which can cause blockage, inflammation, and infection.
2. Cholangitis: This is an infection or inflammation of the common bile duct, often caused by obstruction due to stones, tumors, or strictures.
3. Common bile duct cancer (cholangiocarcinoma): This is a rare but aggressive cancer that arises from the cells lining the common bile duct.
4. Biliary strictures: These are narrowing or scarring of the common bile duct, which can be caused by injury, inflammation, or surgery.
5. Benign tumors: Non-cancerous growths in the common bile duct can also cause blockage and other symptoms.

Symptoms of common bile duct diseases may include abdominal pain, jaundice (yellowing of the skin and eyes), fever, chills, nausea, vomiting, and dark urine or light-colored stools. Treatment depends on the specific condition and severity but may include medications, endoscopic procedures, surgery, or a combination of these approaches.

Treatment outcome is a term used to describe the result or effect of medical treatment on a patient's health status. It can be measured in various ways, such as through symptoms improvement, disease remission, reduced disability, improved quality of life, or survival rates. The treatment outcome helps healthcare providers evaluate the effectiveness of a particular treatment plan and make informed decisions about future care. It is also used in clinical research to compare the efficacy of different treatments and improve patient care.

Steatorrhea is a medical condition characterized by the excessive amount of fat in stools, which can make them appear greasy, frothy, and foul-smelling. This occurs due to poor absorption of dietary fats in the intestines, a process called malabsorption. The most common causes of steatorrhea include conditions that affect the pancreas, such as cystic fibrosis or chronic pancreatitis, celiac disease, and other gastrointestinal disorders. Symptoms associated with steatorrhea may include abdominal pain, bloating, diarrhea, weight loss, and vitamin deficiencies due to malabsorption of fat-soluble vitamins (A, D, E, K). The diagnosis typically involves testing stool samples for fat content and further investigations to determine the underlying cause. Treatment is focused on addressing the underlying condition and providing dietary modifications to manage symptoms.

The Sphincter of Oddi is a muscular valve that controls the flow of bile and pancreatic juice from the pancreatic and bile ducts into the duodenum, which is the first part of the small intestine. It is named after Ruggero Oddi, an Italian physiologist who discovered it in 1887. The Sphincter of Oddi has two parts: the sphincter papillae, which surrounds the common opening of the pancreatic and bile ducts into the duodenum, and the sphincter choledochus, which is located more proximally in the bile duct. The contraction and relaxation of these muscles help regulate the release of digestive enzymes from the pancreas and the flow of bile from the liver to aid in digestion.

Enteral nutrition refers to the delivery of nutrients to a person through a tube that is placed into the gastrointestinal tract, specifically into the stomach or small intestine. This type of nutrition is used when a person is unable to consume food or liquids by mouth due to various medical conditions such as swallowing difficulties, malabsorption, or gastrointestinal disorders.

Enteral nutrition can be provided through different types of feeding tubes, including nasogastric tubes, which are inserted through the nose and down into the stomach, and gastrostomy or jejunostomy tubes, which are placed directly into the stomach or small intestine through a surgical incision.

The nutrients provided through enteral nutrition may include commercially prepared formulas that contain a balance of carbohydrates, proteins, fats, vitamins, and minerals, or blenderized whole foods that are pureed and delivered through the feeding tube. The choice of formula or type of feed depends on the individual's nutritional needs, gastrointestinal function, and medical condition.

Enteral nutrition is a safe and effective way to provide nutrition support to people who are unable to meet their nutritional needs through oral intake alone. It can help prevent malnutrition, promote wound healing, improve immune function, and enhance overall health and quality of life.

Isoamylase is not a medical term per se, but rather a biochemical term used to describe an enzyme. Medically, it may be relevant in the context of certain medical conditions or treatments that involve carbohydrate metabolism. Here's a general definition:

Isoamylase (EC 3.2.1.68) is a type of amylase, a group of enzymes that break down complex carbohydrates, specifically starch and glycogen, into simpler sugars. Isoamylase is more precisely defined as an enzyme that hydrolyzes (breaks down) alpha-1,6 glucosidic bonds in isomaltose, panose, and dextrins, yielding mainly isomaltose and limit dextrin. It is found in various organisms, including bacteria, fungi, and plants. In humans, isoamylase is involved in the digestion of starch in the small intestine, where it helps convert complex carbohydrates into glucose for energy absorption.

The duodenum is the first part of the small intestine, immediately following the stomach. It is a C-shaped structure that is about 10-12 inches long and is responsible for continuing the digestion process that begins in the stomach. The duodenum receives partially digested food from the stomach through the pyloric valve and mixes it with digestive enzymes and bile produced by the pancreas and liver, respectively. These enzymes help break down proteins, fats, and carbohydrates into smaller molecules, allowing for efficient absorption in the remaining sections of the small intestine.

Fat necrosis is a medical condition that refers to the death (necrosis) of fat cells, typically due to injury or trauma. This can occur when there is an interruption of blood flow to the area, leading to the death of fat cells and the release of their contents. The affected area may become firm, nodular, or lumpy, and can sometimes be mistaken for a tumor.

Fat necrosis can also occur as a result of pancreatic enzymes leaking into surrounding tissues due to conditions such as pancreatitis. These enzymes can break down fat cells, leading to the formation of calcium soaps that can be seen on imaging studies.

While fat necrosis is not typically a serious condition, it can cause discomfort or pain in the affected area. In some cases, surgical intervention may be necessary to remove the affected tissue.

Pancreatic ductal carcinoma (PDC) is a specific type of cancer that forms in the ducts that carry digestive enzymes out of the pancreas. It's the most common form of exocrine pancreatic cancer, making up about 90% of all cases.

The symptoms of PDC are often vague and can include abdominal pain, jaundice (yellowing of the skin and eyes), unexplained weight loss, and changes in bowel movements. These symptoms can be similar to those caused by other less serious conditions, which can make diagnosis difficult.

Pancreatic ductal carcinoma is often aggressive and difficult to treat. The prognosis for PDC is generally poor, with a five-year survival rate of only about 9%. Treatment options may include surgery, chemotherapy, radiation therapy, or a combination of these approaches. However, because PDC is often not detected until it has advanced, treatment is frequently focused on palliative care to relieve symptoms and improve quality of life.

Ethionine is a toxic, synthetic analog of the amino acid methionine. It is an antimetabolite that inhibits the enzyme methionine adenosyltransferase, which plays a crucial role in methionine metabolism. Ethionine is often used in research to study the effects of methionine deficiency and to create animal models of various human diseases. It is not a natural component of human nutrition and has no known medical uses. Prolonged exposure or high levels of ethionine can lead to liver damage, growth impairment, and other harmful health effects.

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Canine pancreatitis Chronic pancreatitis Sommermeyer L (December 1935). "Acute Pancreatitis". American Journal of Nursing. 35 ( ... Acute pancreatitis may be a single event; it may be recurrent; or it may progress to chronic pancreatitis. Mild cases are ... "Pancreatitis". Mayo Clinic. Retrieved 14 October 2020. "Symptoms & Causes of Pancreatitis". The National Institute of Diabetes ... It is applicable to both gallstone and alcoholic pancreatitis. Alternatively, pancreatitis can be diagnosed by meeting any of ...
However, some people with chronic pancreatitis report little to no pain; from google (chronic pancreatitis smelly poop) result ... "Acute Pancreatitis. Pancreatitis Symptoms and Information , Patient". Patient. Retrieved 2015-11-29. Kapural, Leonardo (2014-12 ... "Chronic pancreatitis". When scarring of the pancreas occurs, the organ is no longer able to make the right amount of these ... When chronic pancreatitis is caused by genetic factors, elevations in ESR, IgG4, rheumatoid factor, ANA and anti-smooth muscle ...
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March 1997). "Hereditary pancreatitis and the risk of pancreatic cancer. International Hereditary Pancreatitis Study Group". J ... Whitcomb DC (September 1999). "Hereditary pancreatitis: new insights into acute and chronic pancreatitis". Gut. 45 (3): 317-22 ... "hereditary pancreatitis" is used when a genetic biomarker is identified, and "familial pancreatitis" otherwise. HP is ... Hereditary pancreatitis (HP) is an inflammation of the pancreas due to genetic causes. It was first described in 1952 by ...
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Alcohol misuse is a leading cause of both acute pancreatitis and chronic pancreatitis. Alcoholic pancreatitis can result in ... Chronic pancreatitis often results in intestinal malabsorption, and can result in diabetes. Alcohol affects the nutritional ... Tattersall SJ, Apte MV, Wilson JS (July 2008). "A fire inside: current concepts in chronic pancreatitis". Intern Med J. 38 (7 ... Bachmann K, Mann O, Izbicki JR, Strate T (November 2008). "Chronic pancreatitis--a surgeons' view". Med. Sci. Monit. 14 (11): ...
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Koo BC, Chinogureyi A, Shaw AS (February 2010). "Imaging acute pancreatitis". The British Journal of Radiology. 83 (986): 104- ... and in pancreatitis where fluid collections in the lesser sac dissect the mesocolon from the retroperitoneum and thereby extend ...
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"Acute pancreatitis: therapy". Johns Hopkins. Retrieved 22 October 2014. Lutfi R, Jyot B, Rossi M, Jefferson E, Salti G ( ... They can be caused by leakage of the pancreatic duct, or as a result of inflammatory pancreatitis. Symptoms of this include ...
A cause of death was not immediately known, but the DJ previously suffered from pancreatitis. "Tim "Avicii" Bergling är död - ... In January 2012, Bergling was hospitalised for 11 days in New York City with acute pancreatitis caused by excessive alcohol use ... Between 2012 and 2014, Bergling was prescribed opioids for the pain caused by his pancreatitis, including OxyContin and Vicodin ... Vultaggio, Maria (20 April 2018). "What is pancreatitis? Why Avicii stopped performing in 2016". Newsweek. Archived from the ...
Scheurer, U (1 October 2000). "Acute Pancreatitis - ERCP / Endoscopic Papillotomy (EPT) Yes Or No?". Swiss Surgery. 6 (5): 246- ... The pancreatic duct requires visualisation in cases of pancreatitis. Ultrasound is frequently the first investigation performed ... is post-ERCP pancreatitis (PEP). In previous studies, the incidence of PEP has been estimated at 3.5 to 5%. According to Cotton ... "Risk factors for post-ERCP pancreatitis: a systematic review of clinical trials with a large sample size in the past 10 years ...
Itoh T, Sawabu N, Motoo Y, Funakoshi A, Teraoka H (April 1995). "The human pancreatitis-associated protein (PAP)-encoding gene ... Ho MR, Lou YC, Lin WC, Lyu PC, Huang WN, Chen C (November 2006). "Human pancreatitis-associated protein forms fibrillar ... Orelle B, Keim V, Masciotra L, Dagorn JC, Iovanna JL (December 1992). "Human pancreatitis-associated protein. Messenger RNA ... June 1995). "Plasma clearance, tissue uptake and expression of pituitary peptide 23/pancreatitis-associated protein in the rat ...
... acute pancreatitis and pancreatonecrosis; severe surgical sepsis; various forms of hepatitis, including infectious; pancreatic ... "Considering advantages of dynamical omentopancreatostomy in the treatment of necrotic pancreatitis". Surgery (Moscow), №2, pp. ...
... or drug-induced pancreatitis.: 493 Factitial panniculitis is a panniculitis that may be induced by the injection of organic ... pancreatitis or pancreatic cancer; sarcoidosis with cutaneous involvement (seen in up to 20 percent); Alpha 1-antitrypsin ...
"Acute Pancreatitis - Gastrointestinal Disorders". Merck Manuals Professional Edition. Merck.[permanent dead link] "First ...
"PRSS1-Related Hereditary Pancreatitis". PMID 22379635. {{cite journal}}: Cite journal requires ,journal= (help) Ahmed M, ... "Validity of the urinary trypsinogen-2 test in the diagnosis of acute pancreatitis". Pancreas. 41 (6): 869-75. doi:10.1097/MPA. ...
The chronic pancreatitis is usually alcoholic in origin in adults, and traumatic in origin in children. They may also be caused ... Internal pancreatic fistulas are most commonly caused by disruption of the pancreatic duct due to chronic pancreatitis. ... ISBN 0-7216-2082-5 Dugernier T, Laterre PF, Reynaert MS (2000). "Ascites fluid in severe acute pancreatitis: from ... "Thoracic complications of pancreatitis". Pancreas. 4 (2): 228-36. doi:10.1097/00006676-198904000-00012. PMID 2755944. Kaman L, ...
... is a surgical technique used in the treatment of chronic pancreatitis in which the diseased portions of the ... Frey's operation is indicated on patients with chronic pancreatitis who have "head dominant" disease. Compared with a Puestow ... Chaudhary A, Negi SS, Masood S, Thombare M (2004). "Complications after Frey's procedure for chronic pancreatitis". Am. J. Surg ... Frey, CF; Smith GJ (1987). "Description and rationale of a new operation for chronic pancreatitis". Pancreas. 2 (6): 701-7. doi ...
Cohn JA, Noone PG, Jowell PS (September 2002). "Idiopathic pancreatitis related to CFTR: complex inheritance and identification ... Kandula L, Whitcomb DC, Lowe ME (June 2006). "Genetic issues in pediatric pancreatitis". Current Gastroenterology Reports. 8 (3 ... "The impact of cystic fibrosis and PSTI/SPINK1 gene mutations on susceptibility to chronic pancreatitis". Clinics in Laboratory ...
Pancreatitis at Curlie GeneReviews/NCBI/NIH/UW entry on PRSS1-Related Hereditary Pancreatitis "Pancreatitis". MedlinePlus. U.S ... There are two main types: acute pancreatitis, and chronic pancreatitis. Signs and symptoms of pancreatitis include pain in the ... Chronic pancreatitis may develop as a result of acute pancreatitis. It is most commonly due to many years of heavy alcohol use ... In acute pancreatitis, a fever may occur; symptoms typically resolve in a few days. In chronic pancreatitis weight loss, fatty ...
Pancreatitis is broadly defined as an inflammation of the pancreas. Chronic pancreatitis is commonly defined as a continuing ... In acute pancreatitis, the patient presents with acute and severe abdominal pain, nausea, and vomiting. ...
... pancreatitis). Explore symptoms, inheritance, genetics of this condition. ... Hereditary pancreatitis is a genetic condition characterized by recurrent episodes of inflammation of the pancreas ( ... Hereditary pancreatitis progresses to recurrent acute pancreatitis with multiple episodes of acute pancreatitis that recur over ... Recurrent acute pancreatitis leads to chronic pancreatitis, which occurs when the pancreas is persistently inflamed. Chronic ...
Chronic pancreatitis is commonly defined as a continuing, chronic, inflammatory process of the pancreas, characterized by ... By definition, chronic pancreatitis is a completely different process from acute pancreatitis. [5] In acute pancreatitis, the ... Hereditary pancreatitis. Several inherited disorders also are considered metabolic in origin. [8] Hereditary pancreatitis is an ... Idiopathic chronic pancreatitis. This form of chronic pancreatitis accounts for approximately 30% of cases. It has been ...
The most common cause of acute pancreatitis in western populations is: a) Alcohol; b) Gallstones; c) Drugs; d) ... Could pancreatitis occur from a fall?. Not likely. There are a number of causes of acute pancreatitis. The most common, however ... Pancreatitis due to gallstones tends to occur most often in women older than 50 years. A leading cause of acute pancreatitis is ... What would cause pancreatitis to reoccur?. 1. Improper TreatmentIf the pancreatitis was originally treated improperly or not ...
We report a 38-year-old man with acute pancreatitis and elevated CK/CK-MB level without myocardial involvement. Acute ... pancreatitis may be considered as a false-positive cause of CK … ... Elevation of creatine kinase in acute pancreatitis: A case report Clin Case Rep. 2022 Feb 2;10(2):e05309. doi: 10.1002/ ... Acute pancreatitis may be considered as a false-positive cause of CK/CK-MB test in patients presenting with chest pain. ...
Chronic pancreatitis. Picture yourself in a hospital room where your son has been admitted with pancreatitis. This is his third ... Hereditary pancreatitis and the risk of pancreatic cancer. International Hereditary Pancreatitis Study Group. J Natl Cancer ... Unfortunately, there are no specific therapies for pancreatitis and the mainstays of chronic pancreatitis pain treatment are ... Recurrent attacks cause chronic pancreatitis. Longstanding, progressive chronic pancreatitis leads to pancreatic atrophy with ...
Septic complications owing to infection of necrotic areas are the main cause of mortality during severe acute pancreatitis. The ... Severe Acute Pancreatitis - How Conservative Can We Be? Visc Med (November,2018) ... Septic complications owing to infection of necrotic areas are the main cause of mortality during severe acute pancreatitis. The ... The treatment of necrotizing pancreatitis should include measures that may prevent infection of the necrosis, such as reduction ...
... used to treat Type 2 diabetes may have unintended effects on the pancreas that could lead to a form of low-grade pancreatitis ... The UCLA study suggests that there may indeed be a link between drugs that enhance the actions of GLP-1 and pancreatitis - by ... Amylin Corp., which markets Byetta, has suggested that since there is no known mechanism linking the cases of pancreatitis with ... caused abnormalities in the pancreas that are recognized as risk factors for pancreatitis and, with time, pancreatic cancer in ...
... and nutrition that can lower your risk of getting pancreatitis or may help to treat pancreatitis. ... Eating, Diet, & Nutrition for Pancreatitis. Can what I eat help or prevent pancreatitis?. During pancreatitis treatment, your ... You can decrease your risk of pancreatitis by sticking with a low-fat, healthy eating plan.. If you have pancreatitis, drink ... Health care professionals strongly advise people with pancreatitis not to drink any alcohol, even if your pancreatitis is mild. ...
Keywords: Acute pancreatitis, Inflammation, Polyethylene glycols, Cytokines, AR42J cells, Cell death Core Tip: Acute ... Acute pancreatitis (AP) is a sudden inflammatory process of the pancreas that may also involve surrounding tissues and/or ... Polyethylene glycol 35 ameliorates pancreatic inflammatory response in cerulein-induced acute pancreatitis in rats ... on the pancreatic damage associated to cerulein-induced acute pancreatitis in vivo and in vitro. ...
Place here only what you can document. Im not a big herbal fan due to our relative ignorance of this subject in breastfeeding mothers.
Pancreatitis in the cat is still poorly understood, and diagnosed much less commonly, than pancreatitis in the dog. This may ... Part of the difficulty with feline pancreatitis is that chronic non-suppurative pancreatitis (CP) is the histological type that ... The increase in serum lipase and amylase in cats tends to be much less in pancreatitis than in the dog and these values are ... Feline pancreatitis is difficult to assess via diagnostic imaging. Abdominal radiographs tend to be non-helpful, particularly ...
Is there any med to use to get her over this acute phase of pancreatitis and should we be syringe feeding her several ccs of ... There really isnt a medication that is specific for treatment of pancreatitis. The treatment is to:. *Stop the vomiting. (This ... There was no FB and the diagnosis is now Unresponsive Pancreatitis. I took her home the evening of her surgery because they ... By far the best treatment for pancreatitis is intravenous fluids (which of course have to be given in the hospital) along with ...
Acute pancreatitis is a common cause of hospitalization and has an incidence of about 300 per 1,000,000 inhabitants. A majority ... Acute pancreatitis is a common cause of hospitalization and has an incidence of about 300 per 1,000,000 inhabitants. A majority ... Acute pancreatitis-can evidence-based guidelines be transferred to an optimized comprehensive treatment program?. *Mark ... A majority of patients with acute pancreatitis have mild disease, with an absence of local and systemic complications [1]. The ...
CHRONIC PANCREATITIS ASSOCIATED WITH HETEROZYGOUS CYSTIC FIBROSIS TRANSMEMBRANE CONDUCTANCE REGULATOR COMPARED WITH AN ALCOHOL- ... RELATED CHRONIC PANCREATITIS-19 YEARS COHORT STUDY. Abubaker Y.M Ahmed 1 John McLaughlin 2 Catherine Fullwood Rachel Harwood ...
Explore Pancreatitis causes, discover effective treatments, and embrace natural remedies for relief and healing. ... acute pancreatitis and chronic pancreatitis: acute pancreatitis and chronic pancreatitis.. Acute pancreatitis is a temporary ... The Causes of Pancreatitis. Pancreatitis is largely caused by two main factors: gallstones and heavy drinking. In fact, these ... What is Pancreatitis?. Pancreatitis is a serious condition that occurs when the pancreas becomes inflamed. This inflammation in ...
A very rare complication after necrosectomy for necrotizing pancreatitis ... Gastric perforation is a very rare complication of necrotizing pancreatitis. We present an interesting case of gastric ... Gastric perforation without generalized peritonitis; A very rare complication after necrosectomy for necrotizing pancreatitis. ... Gastric perforation without generalized peritonitis; A very rare complication after necrosectomy for necrotizing pancreatitis. ...
Learn and reinforce your understanding of Chronic pancreatitis. ... Acute pancreatitis is inflammation caused by destruction of the ... Chronic pancreatitis Videos, Flashcards, High Yield Notes, & Practice Questions. ... Chronic pancreatitis is persistent, chronic inflammation of the pancreas often due to repeated bouts of acute pancreatitis. ... While a history of acute pancreatitis might lead to chronic pancreatitis these diseases have distinct histopathologies. ...
... & boost your knowledge! Study for your classes, USMLE, MCAT ... You suspect pancreatitis and send blood samples to the lab for biochemical testing. Which of the following additional imaging ... The lecture Pancreatitis in Children: Signs, Symptoms, Diagnosis & Management by Brian Alverson, MD is from the course ... Author of lecture Pancreatitis in Children: Signs, Symptoms, Diagnosis & Management. Brian Alverson, MD. ...
Overview of Pancreatitis - Etiology, pathophysiology, symptoms, signs, diagnosis & prognosis from the MSD Manuals - Medical ... Acute pancreatitis Acute Pancreatitis Acute pancreatitis is acute inflammation of the pancreas (and, sometimes, adjacent ... Chronic pancreatitis Chronic Pancreatitis Chronic pancreatitis is persistent inflammation of the pancreas that results in ... The severity of acute pancreatitis is... read more is inflammation that resolves both clinically and histologically. ...
Pancreatitis is the inflammation and swelling of the pancreas. It may be acute or chronic. Acute is usually a sudden onset of ... Chronic pancreatitis is however a low-grade inflammatory respo ... What is Pancreatitis?. Pancreatitis is the inflammation and ... of pancreatitis cases also had hyperlipidemia, yet other studies that have experimentally induced pancreatitis havent altered ... That said, there are studies which highlight that increasing doses of steroids may increase the risk of acute pancreatitis. ...
Would you know the symptoms of pancreatitis in your cat? In this video I will guide you through the common symptoms of ... Pancreatitis in cats is a very common cause of vomiting, nausea and lethargy. ... pancreatitis to look out for in your cat, as well as discussing how pancreatitis in cats is treated. ...
History of pancreatitis. Less commonly, Tradjenta may cause acute pancreatitis (sudden swelling of the pancreas). In rare cases ... Acute pancreatitis. Acute pancreatitis (sudden inflammation of the pancreas) is a possible side effect of Tradjenta. ... Tradjenta can cause pancreatitis as a side effect. So your risk of pancreatitis with Tradjenta may be higher in these cases. ... pancreatitis. If you have or have had any of the conditions above, be sure to let your doctor know before you start taking ...
... Symptoms of pancreatitis in cats. What are the symptoms of pancreatitis. Pancreatitis can range ... Pancreatitis In Cats Is Inflammation Of The Pancreas And Acute Means Quickly So Acute Pancreatitis Is The Sudden Onset Of ... Signs of feline pancreatitis. Cats can suffer from two forms of pancreatitis. The condition affects all cats regardless of ... Pancreatitis can be painful and often causes vomiting diarrhea and loss of appetite. The symptoms of pancreatitis are often ...
De Pancreatitis Werkgroep Nederland bestaat uit de voorzitter, de principal investigators van de lopende trials, post-docs, de ... line 1884 of /var/www/pancreatitis.nl/public_html/includes/database/database.inc). ...
Esophagitis and Pancreatitis can be cured, but IBD cannot be cured while can be managed with proper treatment. ... Our standard approaches to prevent diseases help to prevent Esophagitis, IBD and Pancreatitis, but there are other complicated ... Esophagitis, IBD and Pancreatitis are all digestive diseases. Those diseases have complicated causes and are basically ... Here we quote the best solutions for Esophagitis, IBD and Pancreatitis from Cleveland Clinic. The Cleveland Clinic is a ...
Acute Pancreatitis is a sudden and severe inflammation of the Pancreas. Enzymes that normally help in digestion become ... Acute Pancreatitis Acute Pancreatitis is a sudden and sometimes severe inflammation of the Pancreas. ... Acute Pancreatitis is often seen more in Men than Women. In serious cases, necrosis or tissue breakdown of the pancreas can ... Acute Pancreatitis is an initial diagnosis of a sudden onset of symptoms. However, when several episodes have occurred and the ...
Pancreatitis is inflammation of the pancreas.. An acute episode of pancreatitis is when digestive enzymes leak out from the ... Pancreatitis. The pancreas is an organ near the stomach with two main jobs:. *Releases digestive enzymes which help to break ... Pancreatitis is hard to diagnose, as some tests will not be completely accurate. Therefore, sometimes your veterinarian will ... Chronic cases of pancreatitis may come and go for years, and require permanent diet change and chronic medication ...

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