Insulin: A 51-amino acid pancreatic hormone that plays a major role in the regulation of glucose metabolism, directly by suppressing endogenous glucose production (GLYCOGENOLYSIS; GLUCONEOGENESIS) and indirectly by suppressing GLUCAGON secretion and LIPOLYSIS. Native insulin is a globular protein comprised of a zinc-coordinated hexamer. Each insulin monomer containing two chains, A (21 residues) and B (30 residues), linked by two disulfide bonds. Insulin is used as a drug to control insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (DIABETES MELLITUS, TYPE 1).Islets of Langerhans: Irregular microscopic structures consisting of cords of endocrine cells that are scattered throughout the PANCREAS among the exocrine acini. Each islet is surrounded by connective tissue fibers and penetrated by a network of capillaries. There are four major cell types. The most abundant beta cells (50-80%) secrete INSULIN. Alpha cells (5-20%) secrete GLUCAGON. PP cells (10-35%) secrete PANCREATIC POLYPEPTIDE. Delta cells (~5%) secrete SOMATOSTATIN.Pancreas: A nodular organ in the ABDOMEN that contains a mixture of ENDOCRINE GLANDS and EXOCRINE GLANDS. The small endocrine portion consists of the ISLETS OF LANGERHANS secreting a number of hormones into the blood stream. The large exocrine portion (EXOCRINE PANCREAS) is a compound acinar gland that secretes several digestive enzymes into the pancreatic ductal system that empties into the DUODENUM.Receptor, Insulin: A cell surface receptor for INSULIN. It comprises a tetramer of two alpha and two beta subunits which are derived from cleavage of a single precursor protein. The receptor contains an intrinsic TYROSINE KINASE domain that is located within the beta subunit. Activation of the receptor by INSULIN results in numerous metabolic changes including increased uptake of GLUCOSE into the liver, muscle, and ADIPOSE TISSUE.Glucagon: A 29-amino acid pancreatic peptide derived from proglucagon which is also the precursor of intestinal GLUCAGON-LIKE PEPTIDES. Glucagon is secreted by PANCREATIC ALPHA CELLS and plays an important role in regulation of BLOOD GLUCOSE concentration, ketone metabolism, and several other biochemical and physiological processes. (From Gilman et al., Goodman and Gilman's The Pharmacological Basis of Therapeutics, 9th ed, p1511)Blood Glucose: Glucose in blood.Glucose: A primary source of energy for living organisms. It is naturally occurring and is found in fruits and other parts of plants in its free state. It is used therapeutically in fluid and nutrient replacement.Insulin Resistance: Diminished effectiveness of INSULIN in lowering blood sugar levels: requiring the use of 200 units or more of insulin per day to prevent HYPERGLYCEMIA or KETOSIS.Insulin-Secreting Cells: A type of pancreatic cell representing about 50-80% of the islet cells. Beta cells secrete INSULIN.Glucose Tolerance Test: A test to determine the ability of an individual to maintain HOMEOSTASIS of BLOOD GLUCOSE. It includes measuring blood glucose levels in a fasting state, and at prescribed intervals before and after oral glucose intake (75 or 100 g) or intravenous infusion (0.5 g/kg).Proinsulin: A pancreatic polypeptide of about 110 amino acids, depending on the species, that is the precursor of insulin. Proinsulin, produced by the PANCREATIC BETA CELLS, is comprised sequentially of the N-terminal B-chain, the proteolytically removable connecting C-peptide, and the C-terminal A-chain. It also contains three disulfide bonds, two between A-chain and B-chain. After cleavage at two locations, insulin and C-peptide are the secreted products. Intact proinsulin with low bioactivity also is secreted in small amounts.Glucose Transporter Type 2: A glucose transport facilitator that is expressed primarily in PANCREATIC BETA CELLS; LIVER; and KIDNEYS. It may function as a GLUCOSE sensor to regulate INSULIN release and glucose HOMEOSTASIS.Glucagon-Like Peptide 1: A peptide of 36 or 37 amino acids that is derived from PROGLUCAGON and mainly produced by the INTESTINAL L CELLS. GLP-1(1-37 or 1-36) is further N-terminally truncated resulting in GLP-1(7-37) or GLP-1-(7-36) which can be amidated. These GLP-1 peptides are known to enhance glucose-dependent INSULIN release, suppress GLUCAGON release and gastric emptying, lower BLOOD GLUCOSE, and reduce food intake.Hyperglycemia: Abnormally high BLOOD GLUCOSE level.Diabetes Mellitus, Experimental: Diabetes mellitus induced experimentally by administration of various diabetogenic agents or by PANCREATECTOMY.Hypoglycemic Agents: Substances which lower blood glucose levels.C-Peptide: The middle segment of proinsulin that is between the N-terminal B-chain and the C-terminal A-chain. It is a pancreatic peptide of about 31 residues, depending on the species. Upon proteolytic cleavage of proinsulin, equimolar INSULIN and C-peptide are released. C-peptide immunoassay has been used to assess pancreatic beta cell function in diabetic patients with circulating insulin antibodies or exogenous insulin. Half-life of C-peptide is 30 min, almost 8 times that of insulin.Maf Transcription Factors, Large: A family of high molecular weight Maf transcription factors that contain distinct activation domains.Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2: A subclass of DIABETES MELLITUS that is not INSULIN-responsive or dependent (NIDDM). It is characterized initially by INSULIN RESISTANCE and HYPERINSULINEMIA; and eventually by GLUCOSE INTOLERANCE; HYPERGLYCEMIA; and overt diabetes. Type II diabetes mellitus is no longer considered a disease exclusively found in adults. Patients seldom develop KETOSIS but often exhibit OBESITY.Streptozocin: An antibiotic that is produced by Stretomyces achromogenes. It is used as an antineoplastic agent and to induce diabetes in experimental animals.Gastric Inhibitory Polypeptide: A gastrointestinal peptide hormone of about 43-amino acids. It is found to be a potent stimulator of INSULIN secretion and a relatively poor inhibitor of GASTRIC ACID secretion.Receptors, Gastrointestinal Hormone: Cell surface proteins that bind gastrointestinal hormones with high affinity and trigger intracellular changes influencing the behavior of cells. Most gastrointestinal hormones also act as neurotransmitters so these receptors are also present in the central and peripheral nervous systems.Receptors, Glucagon: Cell surface receptors that bind glucagon with high affinity and trigger intracellular changes which influence the behavior of cells. Activation of glucagon receptors causes a variety of effects; the best understood is the initiation of a complex enzymatic cascade in the liver which ultimately increases the availability of glucose to body organs.Glucose Intolerance: A pathological state in which BLOOD GLUCOSE level is less than approximately 140 mg/100 ml of PLASMA at fasting, and above approximately 200 mg/100 ml plasma at 30-, 60-, or 90-minute during a GLUCOSE TOLERANCE TEST. This condition is seen frequently in DIABETES MELLITUS, but also occurs with other diseases and MALNUTRITION.Somatostatin: A 14-amino acid peptide named for its ability to inhibit pituitary GROWTH HORMONE release, also called somatotropin release-inhibiting factor. It is expressed in the central and peripheral nervous systems, the gut, and other organs. SRIF can also inhibit the release of THYROID-STIMULATING HORMONE; PROLACTIN; INSULIN; and GLUCAGON besides acting as a neurotransmitter and neuromodulator. In a number of species including humans, there is an additional form of somatostatin, SRIF-28 with a 14-amino acid extension at the N-terminal.Homeostasis: The processes whereby the internal environment of an organism tends to remain balanced and stable.Insulin Receptor Substrate Proteins: A structurally-related group of signaling proteins that are phosphorylated by the INSULIN RECEPTOR PROTEIN-TYROSINE KINASE. The proteins share in common an N-terminal PHOSPHOLIPID-binding domain, a phosphotyrosine-binding domain that interacts with the phosphorylated INSULIN RECEPTOR, and a C-terminal TYROSINE-rich domain. Upon tyrosine phosphorylation insulin receptor substrate proteins interact with specific SH2 DOMAIN-containing proteins that are involved in insulin receptor signaling.Body Weight: The mass or quantity of heaviness of an individual. It is expressed by units of pounds or kilograms.Diabetes Mellitus: A heterogeneous group of disorders characterized by HYPERGLYCEMIA and GLUCOSE INTOLERANCE.Insulin, Long-Acting: Insulin formulations that contain substances that retard absorption thus extending the time period of action.Obesity: A status with BODY WEIGHT that is grossly above the acceptable or desirable weight, usually due to accumulation of excess FATS in the body. The standards may vary with age, sex, genetic or cultural background. In the BODY MASS INDEX, a BMI greater than 30.0 kg/m2 is considered obese, and a BMI greater than 40.0 kg/m2 is considered morbidly obese (MORBID OBESITY).Diabetes Mellitus, Type 1: A subtype of DIABETES MELLITUS that is characterized by INSULIN deficiency. It is manifested by the sudden onset of severe HYPERGLYCEMIA, rapid progression to DIABETIC KETOACIDOSIS, and DEATH unless treated with insulin. The disease may occur at any age, but is most common in childhood or adolescence.Insulin Antibodies: Antibodies specific to INSULIN.Insulin Antagonists: Compounds which inhibit or antagonize the biosynthesis or action of insulin.Mice, Transgenic: Laboratory mice that have been produced from a genetically manipulated EGG or EMBRYO, MAMMALIAN.Insulin Lispro: Insulin that has been modified so that the B-chain contains a LYSINE at position 28 instead of a PROLINE and a PROLINE at position 29 instead of a LYSINE. It is used to manage BLOOD GLUCOSE levels in patients with TYPE 2 DIABETES.Mice, Knockout: Strains of mice in which certain GENES of their GENOMES have been disrupted, or "knocked-out". To produce knockouts, using RECOMBINANT DNA technology, the normal DNA sequence of the gene being studied is altered to prevent synthesis of a normal gene product. Cloned cells in which this DNA alteration is successful are then injected into mouse EMBRYOS to produce chimeric mice. The chimeric mice are then bred to yield a strain in which all the cells of the mouse contain the disrupted gene. Knockout mice are used as EXPERIMENTAL ANIMAL MODELS for diseases (DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL) and to clarify the functions of the genes.Insulin Infusion Systems: Portable or implantable devices for infusion of insulin. Includes open-loop systems which may be patient-operated or controlled by a pre-set program and are designed for constant delivery of small quantities of insulin, increased during food ingestion, and closed-loop systems which deliver quantities of insulin automatically based on an electronic glucose sensor.Glucose Clamp Technique: Maintenance of a constant blood glucose level by perfusion or infusion with glucose or insulin. It is used for the study of metabolic rates (e.g., in glucose, lipid, amino acid metabolism) at constant glucose concentration.RNA, Messenger: RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.Insulin Aspart: Insulin that has been modified to contain an ASPARTIC ACID instead of a PROLINE at position 38 of the B-chain.Insulin, Isophane: An intermediate-acting INSULIN preparation with onset time of 2 hours and duration of 24 hours. It is produced by crystallizing ZINC-insulin-PROTAMINES at neutral pH 7. Thus it is called neutral protamine Hagedorn for inventor Hans Christian Hagedorn.Insulin, Regular, Pork: Regular insulin preparations that contain the SUS SCROFA insulin peptide sequence.Hyperinsulinism: A syndrome with excessively high INSULIN levels in the BLOOD. It may cause HYPOGLYCEMIA. Etiology of hyperinsulinism varies, including hypersecretion of a beta cell tumor (INSULINOMA); autoantibodies against insulin (INSULIN ANTIBODIES); defective insulin receptor (INSULIN RESISTANCE); or overuse of exogenous insulin or HYPOGLYCEMIC AGENTS.Adipose Tissue: Specialized connective tissue composed of fat cells (ADIPOCYTES). It is the site of stored FATS, usually in the form of TRIGLYCERIDES. In mammals, there are two types of adipose tissue, the WHITE FAT and the BROWN FAT. Their relative distributions vary in different species with most adipose tissue being white.Insulins: Peptide hormones that cause an increase in the absorption of GLUCOSE by cells within organs such as LIVER, MUSCLE and ADIPOSE TISSUE. During normal metabolism insulins are produced by the PANCREATIC BETA CELLS in response to increased GLUCOSE. Natural and chemically-modified forms of insulin are also used in the treatment of GLUCOSE METABOLISM DISORDERS such as DIABETES MELLITUS.Insulin, Regular, Human: Regular insulin preparations that contain the HUMAN insulin peptide sequence.Fasting: Abstaining from all food.Liver: A large lobed glandular organ in the abdomen of vertebrates that is responsible for detoxification, metabolism, synthesis and storage of various substances.Muscle, Skeletal: A subtype of striated muscle, attached by TENDONS to the SKELETON. Skeletal muscles are innervated and their movement can be consciously controlled. They are also called voluntary muscles.Signal Transduction: The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.Fatty Acids, Nonesterified: FATTY ACIDS found in the plasma that are complexed with SERUM ALBUMIN for transport. These fatty acids are not in glycerol ester form.Glucose Transporter Type 4: A glucose transport protein found in mature MUSCLE CELLS and ADIPOCYTES. It promotes transport of glucose from the BLOOD into target TISSUES. The inactive form of the protein is localized in CYTOPLASMIC VESICLES. In response to INSULIN, it is translocated to the PLASMA MEMBRANE where it facilitates glucose uptake.Adipocytes: Cells in the body that store FATS, usually in the form of TRIGLYCERIDES. WHITE ADIPOCYTES are the predominant type and found mostly in the abdominal cavity and subcutaneous tissue. BROWN ADIPOCYTES are thermogenic cells that can be found in newborns of some species and hibernating mammals.Insulin, Short-Acting: Insulin derivatives and preparations that are designed to induce a rapid HYPOGLYCEMIC EFFECT.Hypoglycemia: A syndrome of abnormally low BLOOD GLUCOSE level. Clinical hypoglycemia has diverse etiologies. Severe hypoglycemia eventually lead to glucose deprivation of the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM resulting in HUNGER; SWEATING; PARESTHESIA; impaired mental function; SEIZURES; COMA; and even DEATH.Phosphorylation: The introduction of a phosphoryl group into a compound through the formation of an ester bond between the compound and a phosphorus moiety.Insulin-Like Growth Factor I: A well-characterized basic peptide believed to be secreted by the liver and to circulate in the blood. It has growth-regulating, insulin-like, and mitogenic activities. This growth factor has a major, but not absolute, dependence on GROWTH HORMONE. It is believed to be mainly active in adults in contrast to INSULIN-LIKE GROWTH FACTOR II, which is a major fetal growth factor.Leptin: A 16-kDa peptide hormone secreted from WHITE ADIPOCYTES. Leptin serves as a feedback signal from fat cells to the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM in regulation of food intake, energy balance, and fat storage.Deoxyglucose: 2-Deoxy-D-arabino-hexose. An antimetabolite of glucose with antiviral activity.TriglyceridesPhosphoproteinsMonosaccharide Transport Proteins: A large group of membrane transport proteins that shuttle MONOSACCHARIDES across CELL MEMBRANES.Phosphatidylinositol 3-Kinases: Phosphotransferases that catalyzes the conversion of 1-phosphatidylinositol to 1-phosphatidylinositol 3-phosphate. Many members of this enzyme class are involved in RECEPTOR MEDIATED SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION and regulation of vesicular transport with the cell. Phosphatidylinositol 3-Kinases have been classified both according to their substrate specificity and their mode of action within the cell.Insulinoma: A benign tumor of the PANCREATIC BETA CELLS. Insulinoma secretes excess INSULIN resulting in HYPOGLYCEMIA.Cells, Cultured: Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.Biphasic Insulins: An insulin preparation that is designed to provide immediate and long term glycemic control in a single dosage. Biphasic insulin typically contains a mixture of REGULAR INSULIN or SHORT-ACTING INSULIN combined with a LONG-ACTING INSULIN.Kinetics: The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-akt: A protein-serine-threonine kinase that is activated by PHOSPHORYLATION in response to GROWTH FACTORS or INSULIN. It plays a major role in cell metabolism, growth, and survival as a core component of SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION. Three isoforms have been described in mammalian cells.Hemoglobin A, Glycosylated: Minor hemoglobin components of human erythrocytes designated A1a, A1b, and A1c. Hemoglobin A1c is most important since its sugar moiety is glucose covalently bound to the terminal amino acid of the beta chain. Since normal glycohemoglobin concentrations exclude marked blood glucose fluctuations over the preceding three to four weeks, the concentration of glycosylated hemoglobin A is a more reliable index of the blood sugar average over a long period of time.GlycogenAdiponectin: A 30-kDa COMPLEMENT C1Q-related protein, the most abundant gene product secreted by FAT CELLS of the white ADIPOSE TISSUE. Adiponectin modulates several physiological processes, such as metabolism of GLUCOSE and FATTY ACIDS, and immune responses. Decreased plasma adiponectin levels are associated with INSULIN RESISTANCE; TYPE 2 DIABETES MELLITUS; OBESITY; and ATHEROSCLEROSIS.Postprandial Period: The time frame after a meal or FOOD INTAKE.Rats, Wistar: A strain of albino rat developed at the Wistar Institute that has spread widely at other institutions. This has markedly diluted the original strain.Lipids: A generic term for fats and lipoids, the alcohol-ether-soluble constituents of protoplasm, which are insoluble in water. They comprise the fats, fatty oils, essential oils, waxes, phospholipids, glycolipids, sulfolipids, aminolipids, chromolipids (lipochromes), and fatty acids. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Cell Line: Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.Body Mass Index: An indicator of body density as determined by the relationship of BODY WEIGHT to BODY HEIGHT. BMI=weight (kg)/height squared (m2). BMI correlates with body fat (ADIPOSE TISSUE). Their relationship varies with age and gender. For adults, BMI falls into these categories: below 18.5 (underweight); 18.5-24.9 (normal); 25.0-29.9 (overweight); 30.0 and above (obese). (National Center for Health Statistics, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention)Metformin: A biguanide hypoglycemic agent used in the treatment of non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus not responding to dietary modification. Metformin improves glycemic control by improving insulin sensitivity and decreasing intestinal absorption of glucose. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p289)Dietary Fats: Fats present in food, especially in animal products such as meat, meat products, butter, ghee. They are present in lower amounts in nuts, seeds, and avocados.Dose-Response Relationship, Drug: The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.Mice, Obese: Mutant mice exhibiting a marked obesity coupled with overeating, hyperglycemia, hyperinsulinemia, marked insulin resistance, and infertility when in a homozygous state. They may be inbred or hybrid.Lipid Metabolism: Physiological processes in biosynthesis (anabolism) and degradation (catabolism) of LIPIDS.Rats, Inbred Strains: Genetically identical individuals developed from brother and sister matings which have been carried out for twenty or more generations or by parent x offspring matings carried out with certain restrictions. This also includes animals with a long history of closed colony breeding.Thiazolidinediones: THIAZOLES with two keto oxygens. Members are insulin-sensitizing agents which overcome INSULIN RESISTANCE by activation of the peroxisome proliferator activated receptor gamma (PPAR-gamma).3T3-L1 Cells: A continuous cell line that is a substrain of SWISS 3T3 CELLS developed though clonal isolation. The mouse fibroblast cells undergo an adipose-like conversion as they move to a confluent and contact-inhibited state.Lipolysis: The metabolic process of breaking down LIPIDS to release FREE FATTY ACIDS, the major oxidative fuel for the body. Lipolysis may involve dietary lipids in the DIGESTIVE TRACT, circulating lipids in the BLOOD, and stored lipids in the ADIPOSE TISSUE or the LIVER. A number of enzymes are involved in such lipid hydrolysis, such as LIPASE and LIPOPROTEIN LIPASE from various tissues.Muscle Proteins: The protein constituents of muscle, the major ones being ACTINS and MYOSINS. More than a dozen accessory proteins exist including TROPONIN; TROPOMYOSIN; and DYSTROPHIN.Rats, Sprague-Dawley: A strain of albino rat used widely for experimental purposes because of its calmness and ease of handling. It was developed by the Sprague-Dawley Animal Company.Receptor, IGF Type 1: A protein-tyrosine kinase receptor that is closely related in structure to the INSULIN RECEPTOR. Although commonly referred to as the IGF-I receptor, it binds both IGF-I and IGF-II with high affinity. It is comprised of a tetramer of two alpha and two beta subunits which are derived from cleavage of a single precursor protein. The beta subunit contains an intrinsic tyrosine kinase domain.Rats, Zucker: Two populations of Zucker rats have been cited in research--the "fatty" or obese and the lean. The "fatty" rat (Rattus norvegicus) appeared as a spontaneous mutant. The obese condition appears to be due to a single recessive gene.Mice, Inbred C57BLMetabolic Syndrome X: A cluster of metabolic risk factors for CARDIOVASCULAR DISEASES and TYPE 2 DIABETES MELLITUS. The major components of metabolic syndrome X include excess ABDOMINAL FAT; atherogenic DYSLIPIDEMIA; HYPERTENSION; HYPERGLYCEMIA; INSULIN RESISTANCE; a proinflammatory state; and a prothrombotic (THROMBOSIS) state. (from AHA/NHLBI/ADA Conference Proceedings, Circulation 2004; 109:551-556)Tolbutamide: A sulphonylurea hypoglycemic agent with actions and uses similar to those of CHLORPROPAMIDE. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p290)Infusions, Subcutaneous: The administration of liquid medication or nutrients under the skin, usually over minutes or hours.Eating: The consumption of edible substances.Dietary Carbohydrates: Carbohydrates present in food comprising digestible sugars and starches and indigestible cellulose and other dietary fibers. The former are the major source of energy. The sugars are in beet and cane sugar, fruits, honey, sweet corn, corn syrup, milk and milk products, etc.; the starches are in cereal grains, legumes (FABACEAE), tubers, etc. (From Claudio & Lagua, Nutrition and Diet Therapy Dictionary, 3d ed, p32, p277)Gene Expression Regulation: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control (induction or repression) of gene action at the level of transcription or translation.Body Composition: The relative amounts of various components in the body, such as percentage of body fat.Biological Transport: The movement of materials (including biochemical substances and drugs) through a biological system at the cellular level. The transport can be across cell membranes and epithelial layers. It also can occur within intracellular compartments and extracellular compartments.Diet, High-Fat: Consumption of excessive DIETARY FATS.Reference Values: The range or frequency distribution of a measurement in a population (of organisms, organs or things) that has not been selected for the presence of disease or abnormality.Energy Metabolism: The chemical reactions involved in the production and utilization of various forms of energy in cells.Glycogen Synthase: An enzyme that catalyzes the transfer of D-glucose from UDPglucose into 1,4-alpha-D-glucosyl chains. EC 2.4.1.11.Adiposity: The amount of fat or lipid deposit at a site or an organ in the body, an indicator of body fat status.Gluconeogenesis: Biosynthesis of GLUCOSE from nonhexose or non-carbohydrate precursors, such as LACTATE; PYRUVATE; ALANINE; and GLYCEROL.3-O-Methylglucose: A non-metabolizable glucose analogue that is not phosphorylated by hexokinase. 3-O-Methylglucose is used as a marker to assess glucose transport by evaluating its uptake within various cells and organ systems. (J Neurochem 1993;60(4):1498-504)Glucokinase: A group of enzymes that catalyzes the conversion of ATP and D-glucose to ADP and D-glucose 6-phosphate. They are found in invertebrates and microorganisms, and are highly specific for glucose. (Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992) EC 2.7.1.2.Enzyme Activation: Conversion of an inactive form of an enzyme to one possessing metabolic activity. It includes 1, activation by ions (activators); 2, activation by cofactors (coenzymes); and 3, conversion of an enzyme precursor (proenzyme or zymogen) to an active enzyme.Growth Hormone: A polypeptide that is secreted by the adenohypophysis (PITUITARY GLAND, ANTERIOR). Growth hormone, also known as somatotropin, stimulates mitosis, cell differentiation and cell growth. Species-specific growth hormones have been synthesized.Fatty Liver: Lipid infiltration of the hepatic parenchymal cells resulting in a yellow-colored liver. The abnormal lipid accumulation is usually in the form of TRIGLYCERIDES, either as a single large droplet or multiple small droplets. Fatty liver is caused by an imbalance in the metabolism of FATTY ACIDS.Tyrosine: A non-essential amino acid. In animals it is synthesized from PHENYLALANINE. It is also the precursor of EPINEPHRINE; THYROID HORMONES; and melanin.Injections, Subcutaneous: Forceful administration under the skin of liquid medication, nutrient, or other fluid through a hollow needle piercing the skin.Polycystic Ovary Syndrome: A complex disorder characterized by infertility, HIRSUTISM; OBESITY; and various menstrual disturbances such as OLIGOMENORRHEA; AMENORRHEA; ANOVULATION. Polycystic ovary syndrome is usually associated with bilateral enlarged ovaries studded with atretic follicles, not with cysts. The term, polycystic ovary, is misleading.3T3 Cells: Cell lines whose original growing procedure consisted being transferred (T) every 3 days and plated at 300,000 cells per plate (J Cell Biol 17:299-313, 1963). Lines have been developed using several different strains of mice. Tissues are usually fibroblasts derived from mouse embryos but other types and sources have been developed as well. The 3T3 lines are valuable in vitro host systems for oncogenic virus transformation studies, since 3T3 cells possess a high sensitivity to CONTACT INHIBITION.Fatty Acids: Organic, monobasic acids derived from hydrocarbons by the equivalent of oxidation of a methyl group to an alcohol, aldehyde, and then acid. Fatty acids are saturated and unsaturated (FATTY ACIDS, UNSATURATED). (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Protein-Serine-Threonine Kinases: A group of enzymes that catalyzes the phosphorylation of serine or threonine residues in proteins, with ATP or other nucleotides as phosphate donors.Hormones: Chemical substances having a specific regulatory effect on the activity of a certain organ or organs. The term was originally applied to substances secreted by various ENDOCRINE GLANDS and transported in the bloodstream to the target organs. It is sometimes extended to include those substances that are not produced by the endocrine glands but that have similar effects.Insulysin: An enzyme the catalyzes the degradation of insulin, glucagon and other polypeptides. It is inhibited by bacitracin, chelating agents EDTA and 1,10-phenanthroline, and by thiol-blocking reagents such as N-ethylmaleimide, but not phosphoramidon. (Eur J Biochem 1994;223:1-5) EC 3.4.24.56.Sulfonylurea CompoundsFructose: A monosaccharide in sweet fruits and honey that is soluble in water, alcohol, or ether. It is used as a preservative and an intravenous infusion in parenteral feeding.Cell Membrane: The lipid- and protein-containing, selectively permeable membrane that surrounds the cytoplasm in prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells.Models, Biological: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Diabetic Ketoacidosis: A life-threatening complication of diabetes mellitus, primarily of TYPE 1 DIABETES MELLITUS with severe INSULIN deficiency and extreme HYPERGLYCEMIA. It is characterized by KETOSIS; DEHYDRATION; and depressed consciousness leading to COMA.Prediabetic State: The time period before the development of symptomatic diabetes. For example, certain risk factors can be observed in subjects who subsequently develop INSULIN RESISTANCE as in type 2 diabetes (DIABETES MELLITUS, TYPE 2).Proteins: Linear POLYPEPTIDES that are synthesized on RIBOSOMES and may be further modified, crosslinked, cleaved, or assembled into complex proteins with several subunits. The specific sequence of AMINO ACIDS determines the shape the polypeptide will take, during PROTEIN FOLDING, and the function of the protein.Muscles: Contractile tissue that produces movement in animals.Cricetinae: A subfamily in the family MURIDAE, comprising the hamsters. Four of the more common genera are Cricetus, CRICETULUS; MESOCRICETUS; and PHODOPUS.Diet: Regular course of eating and drinking adopted by a person or animal.Protein Tyrosine Phosphatase, Non-Receptor Type 1: A subtype of non-receptor protein tyrosine phosphatases that includes two distinctive targeting motifs; an N-terminal motif specific for the INSULIN RECEPTOR, and a C-terminal motif specific for the SH3 domain containing proteins. This subtype includes a hydrophobic domain which localizes it to the ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM.Cross-Over Studies: Studies comparing two or more treatments or interventions in which the subjects or patients, upon completion of the course of one treatment, are switched to another. In the case of two treatments, A and B, half the subjects are randomly allocated to receive these in the order A, B and half to receive them in the order B, A. A criticism of this design is that effects of the first treatment may carry over into the period when the second is given. (Last, A Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)Infusions, Intravenous: The long-term (minutes to hours) administration of a fluid into the vein through venipuncture, either by letting the fluid flow by gravity or by pumping it.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Androstadienes: Derivatives of the steroid androstane having two double bonds at any site in any of the rings.Protein-Tyrosine Kinases: Protein kinases that catalyze the PHOSPHORYLATION of TYROSINE residues in proteins with ATP or other nucleotides as phosphate donors.Ribosomal Protein S6 Kinases: A family of protein serine/threonine kinases which act as intracellular signalling intermediates. Ribosomal protein S6 kinases are activated through phosphorylation in response to a variety of HORMONES and INTERCELLULAR SIGNALING PEPTIDES AND PROTEINS. Phosphorylation of RIBOSOMAL PROTEIN S6 by enzymes in this class results in increased expression of 5' top MRNAs. Although specific for RIBOSOMAL PROTEIN S6 members of this class of kinases can act on a number of substrates within the cell. The immunosuppressant SIROLIMUS inhibits the activation of ribosomal protein S6 kinases.Diazoxide: A benzothiadiazine derivative that is a peripheral vasodilator used for hypertensive emergencies. It lacks diuretic effect, apparently because it lacks a sulfonamide group.Blotting, Western: Identification of proteins or peptides that have been electrophoretically separated by blot transferring from the electrophoresis gel to strips of nitrocellulose paper, followed by labeling with antibody probes.Epinephrine: The active sympathomimetic hormone from the ADRENAL MEDULLA. It stimulates both the alpha- and beta- adrenergic systems, causes systemic VASOCONSTRICTION and gastrointestinal relaxation, stimulates the HEART, and dilates BRONCHI and cerebral vessels. It is used in ASTHMA and CARDIAC FAILURE and to delay absorption of local ANESTHETICS.Glycerol: A trihydroxy sugar alcohol that is an intermediate in carbohydrate and lipid metabolism. It is used as a solvent, emollient, pharmaceutical agent, and sweetening agent.Resistin: A 12-kDa cysteine-rich polypeptide hormone secreted by FAT CELLS in the ADIPOSE TISSUE. It is the founding member of the resistin-like molecule (RELM) hormone family. Resistin suppresses the ability of INSULIN to stimulate cellular GLUCOSE uptake.Intra-Abdominal Fat: Fatty tissue inside the ABDOMINAL CAVITY, including visceral fat and retroperitoneal fat. It is the most metabolically active fat in the body and easily accessible for LIPOLYSIS. Increased visceral fat is associated with metabolic complications of OBESITY.Gene Expression: The phenotypic manifestation of a gene or genes by the processes of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION and GENETIC TRANSLATION.MethylglucosidesRisk Factors: An aspect of personal behavior or lifestyle, environmental exposure, or inborn or inherited characteristic, which, on the basis of epidemiologic evidence, is known to be associated with a health-related condition considered important to prevent.Leucine: An essential branched-chain amino acid important for hemoglobin formation.Pregnancy: The status during which female mammals carry their developing young (EMBRYOS or FETUSES) in utero before birth, beginning from FERTILIZATION to BIRTH.Adipokines: Polypeptides produced by the ADIPOCYTES. They include LEPTIN; ADIPONECTIN; RESISTIN; and many cytokines of the immune system, such as TUMOR NECROSIS FACTOR-ALPHA; INTERLEUKIN-6; and COMPLEMENT FACTOR D (also known as ADIPSIN). They have potent autocrine, paracrine, and endocrine functions.Transfection: The uptake of naked or purified DNA by CELLS, usually meaning the process as it occurs in eukaryotic cells. It is analogous to bacterial transformation (TRANSFORMATION, BACTERIAL) and both are routinely employed in GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUES.Amino Acids: Organic compounds that generally contain an amino (-NH2) and a carboxyl (-COOH) group. Twenty alpha-amino acids are the subunits which are polymerized to form proteins.Stimulation, Chemical: The increase in a measurable parameter of a PHYSIOLOGICAL PROCESS, including cellular, microbial, and plant; immunological, cardiovascular, respiratory, reproductive, urinary, digestive, neural, musculoskeletal, ocular, and skin physiological processes; or METABOLIC PROCESS, including enzymatic and other pharmacological processes, by a drug or other chemical.Venoms: Poisonous animal secretions forming fluid mixtures of many different enzymes, toxins, and other substances. These substances are produced in specialized glands and secreted through specialized delivery systems (nematocysts, spines, fangs, etc.) for disabling prey or predator.Palmitates: Salts and esters of the 16-carbon saturated monocarboxylic acid--palmitic acid.Blood Pressure: PRESSURE of the BLOOD on the ARTERIES and other BLOOD VESSELS.Calcium: A basic element found in nearly all organized tissues. It is a member of the alkaline earth family of metals with the atomic symbol Ca, atomic number 20, and atomic weight 40. Calcium is the most abundant mineral in the body and combines with phosphorus to form calcium phosphate in the bones and teeth. It is essential for the normal functioning of nerves and muscles and plays a role in blood coagulation (as factor IV) and in many enzymatic processes.Enzyme Inhibitors: Compounds or agents that combine with an enzyme in such a manner as to prevent the normal substrate-enzyme combination and the catalytic reaction.Exocytosis: Cellular release of material within membrane-limited vesicles by fusion of the vesicles with the CELL MEMBRANE.Receptors, Somatomedin: Cell surface receptors that bind somatomedins and trigger intracellular changes which influence the behavior of cells. Studies have disclosed two types of receptors for this family of peptide hormones. The type I receptor is homologous to the insulin receptor and has tyrosine kinase activity. The type II receptor is identical to the mannose-6-phosphate receptor which is important in trafficking of lysosomal enzymes.Disease Models, Animal: Naturally occurring or experimentally induced animal diseases with pathological processes sufficiently similar to those of human diseases. They are used as study models for human diseases.Biological Markers: Measurable and quantifiable biological parameters (e.g., specific enzyme concentration, specific hormone concentration, specific gene phenotype distribution in a population, presence of biological substances) which serve as indices for health- and physiology-related assessments, such as disease risk, psychiatric disorders, environmental exposure and its effects, disease diagnosis, metabolic processes, substance abuse, pregnancy, cell line development, epidemiologic studies, etc.CHO Cells: CELL LINE derived from the ovary of the Chinese hamster, Cricetulus griseus (CRICETULUS). The species is a favorite for cytogenetic studies because of its small chromosome number. The cell line has provided model systems for the study of genetic alterations in cultured mammalian cells.Amino Acid Sequence: The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.Area Under Curve: A statistical means of summarizing information from a series of measurements on one individual. It is frequently used in clinical pharmacology where the AUC from serum levels can be interpreted as the total uptake of whatever has been administered. As a plot of the concentration of a drug against time, after a single dose of medicine, producing a standard shape curve, it is a means of comparing the bioavailability of the same drug made by different companies. (From Winslade, Dictionary of Clinical Research, 1992)Hydrocortisone: The main glucocorticoid secreted by the ADRENAL CORTEX. Its synthetic counterpart is used, either as an injection or topically, in the treatment of inflammation, allergy, collagen diseases, asthma, adrenocortical deficiency, shock, and some neoplastic conditions.Intracellular Signaling Peptides and Proteins: Proteins and peptides that are involved in SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION within the cell. Included here are peptides and proteins that regulate the activity of TRANSCRIPTION FACTORS and cellular processes in response to signals from CELL SURFACE RECEPTORS. Intracellular signaling peptide and proteins may be part of an enzymatic signaling cascade or act through binding to and modifying the action of other signaling factors.Islets of Langerhans Transplantation: The transference of pancreatic islets within an individual, between individuals of the same species, or between individuals of different species.Blood Glucose Self-Monitoring: Self evaluation of whole blood glucose levels outside the clinical laboratory. A digital or battery-operated reflectance meter may be used. It has wide application in controlling unstable insulin-dependent diabetes.Energy Intake: Total number of calories taken in daily whether ingested or by parenteral routes.Ghrelin: A 28-amino acid, acylated, orexigenic peptide that is a ligand for GROWTH HORMONE SECRETAGOGUE RECEPTORS. Ghrelin is widely expressed but primarily in the stomach in the adults. Ghrelin acts centrally to stimulate growth hormone secretion and food intake, and peripherally to regulate energy homeostasis. Its large precursor protein, known as appetite-regulating hormone or motilin-related peptide, contains ghrelin and obestatin.Weight Gain: Increase in BODY WEIGHT over existing weight.Glucose Transporter Type 1: A ubiquitously expressed glucose transporter that is important for constitutive, basal GLUCOSE transport. It is predominately expressed in ENDOTHELIAL CELLS and ERYTHROCYTES at the BLOOD-BRAIN BARRIER and is responsible for GLUCOSE entry into the BRAIN.Adenoma, Islet Cell: A benign tumor of the pancreatic ISLET CELLS. Usually it involves the INSULIN-producing PANCREATIC BETA CELLS, as in INSULINOMA, resulting in HYPERINSULINISM.Phosphotyrosine: An amino acid that occurs in endogenous proteins. Tyrosine phosphorylation and dephosphorylation plays a role in cellular signal transduction and possibly in cell growth control and carcinogenesis.Oxidation-Reduction: A chemical reaction in which an electron is transferred from one molecule to another. The electron-donating molecule is the reducing agent or reductant; the electron-accepting molecule is the oxidizing agent or oxidant. Reducing and oxidizing agents function as conjugate reductant-oxidant pairs or redox pairs (Lehninger, Principles of Biochemistry, 1982, p471).PPAR gamma: A nuclear transcription factor. Heterodimerization with RETINOID X RECEPTOR ALPHA is important in regulation of GLUCOSE metabolism and CELL GROWTH PROCESSES. It is a target of THIAZOLIDINEDIONES for control of DIABETES MELLITUS.Palmitic Acid: A common saturated fatty acid found in fats and waxes including olive oil, palm oil, and body lipids.Dexamethasone: An anti-inflammatory 9-fluoro-glucocorticoid.Proto-Oncogene Proteins: Products of proto-oncogenes. Normally they do not have oncogenic or transforming properties, but are involved in the regulation or differentiation of cell growth. They often have protein kinase activity.Insulin Coma: Severe HYPOGLYCEMIA induced by a large dose of exogenous INSULIN resulting in a COMA or profound state of unconsciousness from which the individual cannot be aroused.Pancreas, Artificial: Devices for simulating the activity of the pancreas. They can be either electromechanical, consisting of a glucose sensor, computer, and insulin pump or bioartificial, consisting of isolated islets of Langerhans in an artificial membrane.Diabetes, Gestational: Diabetes mellitus induced by PREGNANCY but resolved at the end of pregnancy. It does not include previously diagnosed diabetics who become pregnant (PREGNANCY IN DIABETICS). Gestational diabetes usually develops in late pregnancy when insulin antagonistic hormones peaks leading to INSULIN RESISTANCE; GLUCOSE INTOLERANCE; and HYPERGLYCEMIA.Transcription Factors: Endogenous substances, usually proteins, which are effective in the initiation, stimulation, or termination of the genetic transcription process.Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction: A variation of the PCR technique in which cDNA is made from RNA via reverse transcription. The resultant cDNA is then amplified using standard PCR protocols.Insulin-Like Growth Factor II: A well-characterized neutral peptide believed to be secreted by the LIVER and to circulate in the BLOOD. It has growth-regulating, insulin-like and mitogenic activities. The growth factor has a major, but not absolute, dependence on SOMATOTROPIN. It is believed to be a major fetal growth factor in contrast to INSULIN-LIKE GROWTH FACTOR I, which is a major growth factor in adults.Cyclic AMP: An adenine nucleotide containing one phosphate group which is esterified to both the 3'- and 5'-positions of the sugar moiety. It is a second messenger and a key intracellular regulator, functioning as a mediator of activity for a number of hormones, including epinephrine, glucagon, and ACTH.Radioimmunoassay: Classic quantitative assay for detection of antigen-antibody reactions using a radioactively labeled substance (radioligand) either directly or indirectly to measure the binding of the unlabeled substance to a specific antibody or other receptor system. Non-immunogenic substances (e.g., haptens) can be measured if coupled to larger carrier proteins (e.g., bovine gamma-globulin or human serum albumin) capable of inducing antibody formation.Analysis of Variance: A statistical technique that isolates and assesses the contributions of categorical independent variables to variation in the mean of a continuous dependent variable.Swine: Any of various animals that constitute the family Suidae and comprise stout-bodied, short-legged omnivorous mammals with thick skin, usually covered with coarse bristles, a rather long mobile snout, and small tail. Included are the genera Babyrousa, Phacochoerus (wart hogs), and Sus, the latter containing the domestic pig (see SUS SCROFA).Lactates: Salts or esters of LACTIC ACID containing the general formula CH3CHOHCOOR.Glucose-6-Phosphatase: An enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of D-glucose 6-phosphate and water to D-glucose and orthophosphate. EC 3.1.3.9.Arginine: An essential amino acid that is physiologically active in the L-form.Aging: The gradual irreversible changes in structure and function of an organism that occur as a result of the passage of time.Weight Loss: Decrease in existing BODY WEIGHT.3-Hydroxybutyric Acid: BUTYRIC ACID substituted in the beta or 3 position. It is one of the ketone bodies produced in the liver.Perfusion: Treatment process involving the injection of fluid into an organ or tissue.Secretory Rate: The amount of a substance secreted by cells or by a specific organ or organism over a given period of time; usually applies to those substances which are formed by glandular tissues and are released by them into biological fluids, e.g., secretory rate of corticosteroids by the adrenal cortex, secretory rate of gastric acid by the gastric mucosa.Lactic Acid: A normal intermediate in the fermentation (oxidation, metabolism) of sugar. The concentrated form is used internally to prevent gastrointestinal fermentation. (From Stedman, 26th ed)Inflammation: A pathological process characterized by injury or destruction of tissues caused by a variety of cytologic and chemical reactions. It is usually manifested by typical signs of pain, heat, redness, swelling, and loss of function.Adipose Tissue, White: Fatty tissue composed of WHITE ADIPOCYTES and generally found directly under the skin (SUBCUTANEOUS FAT) and around the internal organs (ABDOMINAL FAT). It has less vascularization and less coloration than the BROWN FAT. White fat provides heat insulation, mechanical cushion, and source of energy.Adenosine Triphosphate: An adenine nucleotide containing three phosphate groups esterified to the sugar moiety. In addition to its crucial roles in metabolism adenosine triphosphate is a neurotransmitter.Glycolysis: A metabolic process that converts GLUCOSE into two molecules of PYRUVIC ACID through a series of enzymatic reactions. Energy generated by this process is conserved in two molecules of ATP. Glycolysis is the universal catabolic pathway for glucose, free glucose, or glucose derived from complex CARBOHYDRATES, such as GLYCOGEN and STARCH.
... s (β cells) are a type of cell found in pancreatic islets that synthesize and secrete insulin and amylin. Beta cells ... Insulin synthesis[edit]. Beta cells are the only site of insulin synthesis in mammals.[4] As glucose stimulates insulin ... Sulfonylureas are insulin secretagogues that act by closing the ATP-sensitive potassium channels, thereby causing insulin ... Amylin can be described as a synergistic partner to insulin, where insulin regulates long term food intake and amylin regulates ...
Pancreatic InsulinEdit. The placenta also produces human placental lactogen (hPL), which stimulates maternal lipolysis and ... Pancreatic Insulin. Glucose tolerance test. Peak glucose increases, and glucose concentration remains elevated for longer ... This contributes to insulin resistance of pregnancy and possibly striae.[2] Despite the increase in cortisol, the pregnant mom ... Insulin tolerance test. Response increases during first half of pregnancy and then normalizes until several weeks postpartum ...
Suppresses the release of pancreatic hormones. *Inhibits the release of insulin. *Inhibits the release of glucagon ... Ellison TA, Edil BH (2012). "The current management of pancreatic neuroendocrine tumors". Adv Surg (46): 283-296. PMID 22873046 ... Thus somatostatinomas are associated with mild diabetes mellitus (due to inhibition of insulin release), steatorrhoea and ... This explains how abnormally elevated somatostatin can cause diabetes mellitus, by inhibiting insulin secretion, steatorrhoea ...
Rorsman, P.; Renstrom, E. (2003). "Insulin granule dynamics in pancreatic beta cells". Diabetologia. 46 (8): 1029. doi:10.1007/ ... "A pancreatic islet-specific microRNA regulates insulin secretion". Nature. 432 (7014): 226-30. doi:10.1038/nature03076. PMID ... Patch-clamp studies on pancreatic glucagon- and insulin-secreting cells (PhD thesis). Uppsala University. The value of the ... of Nobel laureate Bert Sakmann in 1986 for patch clamp studies of pancreatic cells and their secretion of glucagon and insulin ...
The degree of insulin deficiency is variable. Diabetes can develop from infancy through middle adult life, and some family ... The non-pancreatic manifestations are even more variable. Kidney and genitourinary malformation and diseases may occur, but ... where it contributes to differentiation of pancreatic endocrine Ngn3+ cell progenitors from non-endocrine embryonic duct cells ...
Pancreatic beta cells are responsible for making insulin; decreased beta cell activity is associated with DM2 in adulthood. In ... Thus, when insulin levels rise, more glut-4 transporters are brought to the cell membrane to increase the uptake of glucose ... The IGF2 stands for insulin-like growth factor II; this gene is a key contributor in human growth and development. IGF2 gene is ... Metabolic syndrome is a set of symptoms including obesity and insulin resistance that appear to be related. This syndrome is ...
2009). "Human fetal pancreatic insulin-producing cells proliferate in vitro". J Endocrinol. 201 (1): 27-36. doi:10.1677/joe-08- ... these findings were confirmed in human fetal pancreatic insulin-producing cells, and the mesenchymal cells derived from ... 2007). "No evidence for mouse pancreatic beta-cell epithelial-mesenchymal transition in vitro". Diabetes. 56 (3): 699-702. doi: ... Generation of endocrine progenitor cells from pancreatic islets[edit]. Similar to generation of Cancer Stem Cells, EMT was ...
"A pancreatic islet-specific microRNA regulates insulin secretion". Nature. 432 (7014): 226-30. Bibcode:2004Natur.432..226P. doi ...
One such process is insulin secretion by pancreatic Beta-cells. In pancreatic Beta-cells, precise levels of ATP/ADP regulate ... this channel cannot function properly and this can result in the patient being deficient in insulin. Since the age of onset is ... the opening and closing of the KATP channel, which controls the secretion of insulin. When mutations in the mitochondria ...
... the pancreatic organ produces insulin; therefore the purpose of the miniature, 3D printed organ is to secrete insulin into the ...
Li YV (March 2014). "Zinc and insulin in pancreatic beta-cells". Endocrine. 45 (2): 178-89. doi:10.1007/s12020-013-0032-x. PMID ... Zinc must be constantly supplied to Pancreatic β-cells to function normally and maintain glycaemic control. The insulin ... Huang L. "Zinc and its transporters, pancreatic β-cells, and insulin metabolism". Vitamins and Hormones. 95: 365-90. doi: ... The cells lose many zinc ions during the secretion of insulin, and need to receive more zinc, and interestingly expression of ...
Mechanism of insulin release in normal pancreatic beta cells. Insulin production is more or less constant within the beta cells ... or if cells respond poorly to the effects of insulin (insulin insensitivity or insulin resistance), or if the insulin itself is ... Type 1 diabetes can only be treated with insulin, typically with a combination of regular and NPH insulin, or synthetic insulin ... Type 1 diabetes mellitus is characterized by loss of the insulin-producing beta cells of the pancreatic islets, leading to ...
Insulinomas are (pancreatic tumors) that cause an overproduction of insulin, causing hypoglycemia. Various neurological ...
Pancreatic islets regulating insulin and glucagon levels also express glutamate receptors. Treating diabetes via glutamate ... "A high affinity glutamate/aspartate transport system in pancreatic islets of Langerhans modulates glucose-stimulated insulin ... AMPA iGluRs modulate the secretion of insulin and glucagon in the pancreas, opening the possibility of treatment of diabetes ... Research is being done to address the possibility of using hyperglycemia and insulin to regulate these receptors and restore ...
"A pancreatic islet-specific microRNA regulates insulin secretion". Nature. 432 (7014): 226-30. Bibcode:2004Natur.432..226P. doi ... Another class of miRNAs that regulate insulin resistance, obesity, and diabetes, is the let-7 family. Let-7 accumulates in ... When let-7 was ectopically overexpressed to mimic accelerated aging, mice became insulin-resistant, and thus more prone to high ... In contrast when let-7 was inhibited by injections of let-7-specific antagomirs, mice become more insulin-sensitive and ...
... is often recommended for diabetics because it does not trigger the production of insulin by pancreatic β cells, ... A. M. Grant; M. R. Christie; S. J. Ashcroft (August 1980). "Insulin Release from Human Pancreatic Islets in Vitro". ... Uptake of fructose by the liver is not regulated by insulin. However, insulin is capable of increasing the abundance and ... D. L. Curry (1989). "Effects of Mannose and Fructose on the Synthesis and Secretion of Insulin". Pancreas. 4 (1): 2-9. doi: ...
Islets of Langerhans - Pancreatic cells which produce insulin. Langerhans discovered these cells during his studies for his ... credited with the discovery of the cells that secrete insulin, named after him as the islets of Langerhans. ...
"Insulin secretory granules control autophagy in pancreatic cells". Science. 347 (6224): 878-882. doi:10.1126/science.aaa2628. ... A specific type of granule found in the pancreas is an insulin granule. Insulin is a hormone that helps to regulate the amount ... Immature insulin granules function as a sorting chamber during the maturation process listed below. Insulin and other insoluble ... Insulin granules mature in three steps: (1) the lumen of the granule undergoes acidification, due to the acidic properties of a ...
and one anabolic hormone (insulin), which decreases blood glucose.. These hormones are secreted from pancreatic islets which ... The fluctuation of blood sugar (red) and the sugar-lowering hormone insulin (blue) in humans during the course of a day with ... The lower blood-glucose level (a product of the insulin secretion) triggers glucagon to be secreted, and repeats the cycle.[18] ... There are four types of pancreatic islets, alpha (A) cells, beta (B) cells, Delta (D) cells and F cells. Glucagon is secreted ...
"Intracellular serotonin modulates insulin secretion from pancreatic beta-cells by protein serotonylation". PLoS Biol. 7 (10): ... A similar process underlies the pancreatic release of insulin. The effects of serotonin upon vascular smooth muscle tone (this ... In the fruit fly insulin both regulates blood sugar as well as acting as a growth factor. Thus, in the fruit fly, serotonergic ... In humans, though insulin regulates blood sugar and IGF regulates growth, serotonin controls the release of both hormones, ...
The mechanism of pancreatic secretion. J Physiol 1902;28:325-352. Bliss M (1989). "J. J. R. Macleod and the discovery of ... Examples include thyroid hormone, growth hormone, and insulin. The endocrine system involves a number of feedback mechanisms, ... and insulin from the pancreas. Steroid hormones are converted from their parent compound, cholesterol. Mammalian steroid ... insulin". Q J Exp Physiol. 74 (2): 87-96. PMID 2657840. Loewi, O. Uebertragbarkeit der Herznervenwirkung. Pfluger's Arch. ges ...
Pancreatic islet-specific miR-375 inhibits insulin secretion in mouse pancreatic β-cells by inhibiting the expression of the ... The defects in pancreatic beta cell function and insulin resistance in peripheral tissues were thought to be the result of ... 2004). "A pancreatic islet-specific microRNA regulates insulin secretion". Nature. 432 (7014): 226-230. doi:10.1038/nature03076 ... When IRX3 was knocked out, there was a drop in the number of β-cells that produce insulin and the α-cells that produce glucagon ...
pancreatic beta cells. KATP channels (composed of Kir6.2 and SUR1 subunits) control insulin release. ... Certain mutations of this gene diminish the channel's ability to regulate insulin secretion, leading to hypoglycemia. ...
... insulin), which decreases blood glucose. These hormones are secreted from pancreatic islets which are bundles of endocrine ... There are four types of pancreatic islets, alpha (A) cells, beta (B) cells, Delta (D) cells and F cells. Glucagon is secreted ... Red blood cells, for instance, do not require insulin to intake glucose from the blood. Higher than normal amounts of white or ... In blood-glucose levels, insulin lowers the concentration of glucose in the blood. The lower blood-glucose level (a product of ...
ABA stimulates glucose-dependent insulin release from human and rodent pancreatic β-cells. At a low dose (micrograms/Kg body ... This insulin-sparing effect suggests that LANCL2 can be used as a therapeutic target for the treatment of inflammatory and ... both glycemia and insulinemia in rats and in humans undergoing an OGTT indicating that ABA reduces the amount of insulin ...
... not all people with insulin resistance develop diabetes since an impairment of insulin secretion by pancreatic beta cells is ... Type 2 diabetes is due to insufficient insulin production from beta cells in the setting of insulin resistance.[13] Insulin ... When nightly insulin is insufficient, twice daily insulin may achieve better control.[23] The long acting insulins glargine and ... Injections of insulin may either be added to oral medication or used alone.[25] Most people do not initially need insulin.[13] ...
One possible mechanism describes a decreased secretion of insulin from pancreatic cells in a response to the lowering of blood ... He was not taking insulin.. Vital signs at triage were within normal limits except for a heart rate of 122 beats/min. The ... The patient was promptly started on intravenous fluids and an insulin drip, pending his transfer to the intensive care unit for ... Because the mechanism of action is not insulin dependent and because the risk of hypoglycemia is low, SGLT2 inhibitors are seen ...
S.O. Emdin et al., Role of zinc in insulin biosynthesis. Some possible zinc-insulin interactions in the pancreatic B-cell. ... Over-expression of ZnT7 increases insulin synthesis and secretion in pancreatic beta-cells by promoting insulin gene ... D.J. Michael et al., Pancreatic beta-cells secrete insulin in fast- and slow-release forms. Diabetes 55(3), 600-607 (2006) ... R. Ferrer et al., Effects of Zn2+ on glucose-induced electrical activity and insulin release from mouse pancreatic islets. Am. ...
Glucose and Insulin Metabolism after Pancreatic Transplantation Br Med J 1972; 3 :678 ... Glucose and Insulin Metabolism after Pancreatic Transplantation. Br Med J 1972; 3 doi: https://doi.org/10.1136/bmj.3.5828.678 ( ... These results are explicable by the diversion of the two pancreatic hormones from the liver, and possibly by the effect of ... Orthotopic graft recipients have normal glucose tolerance curves with raised plasma insulin levels. The glucose tolerance ...
Insulin feedback action on pancreatic beta-cell function.. Leibiger IB1, Leibiger B, Berggren PO. ... recent data provide evidence for a positive role of insulin in transcription, translation, ion flux, insulin secretion and beta ... namely the autocrine feedback action of secreted insulin on beta-cell function. While, historically, insulin was suggested to ... Pancreatic beta-cell function is essential for the regulation of glucose homeostasis and its impairment leads to diabetes ...
... that there is an insulin-pancreatic acinar axis that plays a major role in pancreatic function. ... Isolated rat and mouse acini have insulin receptors, and in these cells, after binding to its receptors, insulin regulates a ... Studies both in humans with diabetes mellitus and in animals given beta cell toxins indicate that insulin is necessary for ... Importance of Substrate Changes in the Decrease of Hepatic Glucose Cycling During Insulin Infusion and Declining Glycemia in ...
Cannabinoids inhibit insulin receptor signaling in pancreatic β-cells.. Kim W1, Doyle ME, Liu Z, Lao Q, Shin YK, Carlson OD, ... C and D: Blood glucose (C) and plasma insulin (D) levels at the end of the 4-week period. E: Representative images for insulin ... The presence of CB1R in pancreatic β-cells. A: Immunostaining for CB1R in pancreatic sections from CB1R+/+ and CB1R−/− mice. ... The number of cells that are positive for both PCNA and insulin were quantified as a percentage of the total number of insulin- ...
Small-molecule inducers of insulin expression in pancreatic α-cells. Dina Fomina-Yadlin, Stefan Kubicek, Deepika Walpita, Vlado ... Small-molecule inducers of insulin expression in pancreatic α-cells. Dina Fomina-Yadlin, Stefan Kubicek, Deepika Walpita, Vlado ... Small-molecule inducers of insulin expression in pancreatic α-cells Message Subject (Your Name) has sent you a message from ... Small-molecule inducers of insulin expression in pancreatic α-cells. Dina Fomina-Yadlin, Stefan Kubicek, Deepika Walpita, Vlado ...
Neuronatin regulates pancreatic β cell insulin content and secretion. Steven J. Millership,1,2 Gabriela Da Silva Xavier,3 ... Pancreatic deletion of insulin receptor substrate 2 reduces β and α cell mass and impairs glucose homeostasis in mice. ... Thus, Nnat is required for normal pancreatic β cell insulin secretion. In contrast, we find little evidence for any feeding or ... Establishment of a pancreatic β cell line that retains glucose-inducible insulin secretion: special reference to expression of ...
... Deletion of SOCS7 leads to enhanced insulin action and enlarged islets of ... Insulin Resistance Channel subscribe to Insulin Resistance newsletter Latest Research : Endocrinology : Diabetes : Insulin ... By JAMA, Higher insulin concentrations and insulin resistance are associated with an increased risk of pancreatic cancer in men ... There were significant interactions between quartile-categorized glucose, insulin, and insulin resistance and pancreatic cancer ...
Insulin Resistance. Insulin Resistance Linked to Pancreatic Cancer. By JAMA, Dec 14, 2005 - 5:02:38 PM. ... Higher insulin concentrations and insulin resistance are associated with an increased risk of pancreatic cancer in men, ... There were significant interactions between quartile-categorized glucose, insulin, and insulin resistance and pancreatic cancer ... insulin, and insulin resistance tended to show positive dose-response associations with pancreatic cancer. Biochemically ...
1998) Insulin mediates glucose-stimulated phosphorylation of PHAS-I by pancreatic β cells. An insulin-receptor mechanism for ... Pancreatic β cells play a unique role in glucose homeostasis by secreting insulin when the concentrations of glucose and other ... 2008) Pancreatic endoderm derived from human embryonic stem cells generates glucose-responsive insulin-secreting cells in vivo ... A small molecule differentiation inducer increases insulin production by pancreatic β cells. Elhadji M. Dioum, Jihan K. Osborne ...
... a breakthrough that may lead to a personalised cell therapy for diabetics and spell end for daily insulin injections. ... Scientists have successfully converted human skin cells into functional pancreatic cells, ... Insulin-producing pancreatic cells created from human skin. Scientists have successfully converted human skin cells into ... "This study represents the first successful creation of human insulin-producing pancreatic beta cells using a direct cellular ...
First, we found several OR isoforms, including OLFR15 and OLFR821, to be expressed in pancreatic islets and a β-cell line, MIN6 ... Immunostaining revealed OLFR15 and OLFR821 to be uniformly expressed in pancreatic β-cells. In addition, mRNAs of Olfr15 and ... GSIS potentiation by octanoic acid was confirmed in isolated pancreatic islets and MIN6 cells and was blocked by OLFR15 ... These findings suggest that the OR system in pancreatic β-cells has a chemo-sensor function allowing recognition of ...
Stimulation of insulin secretion reveals heterogeneity of pancreatic B cells in vivo.. Y Stefan, P Meda, M Neufeld, and L Orci ... A decreased insulin immunostaining was detected in islets from the splenic rat pancreas after 1.5 h of glucose stimulation. By ... We examined the immunofluorescence and ultrastructural changes of insulin-producing B cells in the center and at the periphery ... Similar changes were seen following in vivo stimulation of insulin secretion by glibenclamide. At the ultrastructural level, ...
"The reprogrammed cells in our study produced 50 to 250 times more insulin than pancreatic cells reprogrammed by other teams ... including insulin expression (green, top left) and C-peptide (red, top right). C-peptide is a by-product of insulin expression ... In the study, BMP-7 transformed cells from the pancreas that dont normally produce insulin. Researchers used non-endocrine ... No More Insulin Shots, Thanks to a New Type of Islet-Cell Transplant ...
Insulin Levels and Pancreatic Cancer. Higher insulin concentrations and insulin resistance are associated with an increased ... There were significant interactions between quartile-categorized glucose, insulin, and insulin resistance and pancreatic cancer ... insulin, and insulin resistance tended to show positive dose-response associations with pancreatic cancer. Biochemically ... Experimental studies show that insulin has growth promoting effects on pancreatic cancer cells and patients with type 2 ...
Im wondering if any body measured the level of pancreatic level by HPLC. If you did please inform me with the exact procedure ... Home/ Forums/ Biomaterials: Assay Development & Protocols/ Pancreatic Insulin. Pancreatic Insulin. 1 post / 0 new ...
Pancreatic insulin-producing tumors are usually benign (not cancer). ... An abnormal mass that grows in the beta cells of the pancreas that make insulin. ... Pancreatic insulin-producing tumors are usually benign (not cancer). They secrete insulin and are the most common cause of low ... pancreatic insulin-producing tumor listen (PAN-kree-A-tik IN-suh-lin-proh-DOO-sing TOO-mer) An abnormal mass that grows in the ...
Glucose turnover and insulin sensitivity in rats with pancreatic islet transplants.. J Guan, M T Behme, P Zucker, P Atkison, I ... Glucose turnover and insulin sensitivity in rats with pancreatic islet transplants.. J Guan, M T Behme, P Zucker, P Atkison, I ... Glucose turnover and insulin sensitivity in rats with pancreatic islet transplants. Message Subject (Your Name) has forwarded a ... When INS-SS insulin levels were matched to the level in REN rats by increasing the insulin infusion rate to 20 pmol x kg(-1) x ...
Implant Containing Living Pancreatic Cells Controls Blood Sugar Without Insulin Injections. January 8th, 2018 Editors Genetics ... Patients with Type I diabetes have a poorly functioning pancreas that doesnt produce enough, or any, insulin to metabolize ... have developed an implantable device that harbors live stem cell-derived pancreatic cell clusters, known as islets, that are ... able to generate insulin much like a healthy pancreas.. The research was published in the Proceedings of the National Academy ...
Insulin, Insulin-Secreting Cells, Islets of Langerhans, Mice, Molecular Structure, Protein Kinase Inhibitors, Quinolones, ... High-content screening for small-molecule inducers of insulin expression identified the compound BRD7389, which caused alpha- ... BRD7389 also increases the endocrine cell content and function of donor human pancreatic islets in culture. ...
... Han-Hung Huang,1 Kevin ... The total insulin content and insulin secretion were significantly lower in sedentary diabetics compared to controls. Exercise ... We hypothesized that exercise has a direct effect on the insulin-producing islets. Eight-week-old mice were divided into four ... Thus, some improvements in exercise-induced glycemic control in T1D mice may be due to enhancement of insulin content and ...
Thus, it may be accepted that dopamine exerts an auto-paracrine regulation of insulin secretion from pancreatic beta cells. The ... Insulin secretion was analyzed by RIA. The cellular proliferation rate of pancreatic islets and beta cells was studied with ... The percentage of insulin-positive cells in the islets decreased significantly (p,0.01) after 1 h of treatment up to 12 h. The ... Apoptosis in pancreatic islets and beta cells was increased by treatment with 1 and 10 μM dopamine along 12 h. In conclusion, ...
... data suggest that individual genetic variations in the IGF axis pathway may predict worse survival in patients with pancreatic ... Insulin-like growth factor axis gene polymorphisms and clinical outcomes in pancreatic cancer Gastroenterology. 2010 Aug;139(2 ... Background & aims: Insulin-like growth factor (IGF)-axis mediated signaling pathways play an important role in pancreatic ... We examined whether IGF-axis gene variants are associated with clinical outcomes in pancreatic cancer. ...
Insulin Release from the Isolated Perfused Rat Pancreas; Insulin Release from the Isolated Perifused Rat Pancreatic Islets. *. ... Malaisse-Lagae F, Malaisse WJ (1984) Insulin release by pancreatic islets. In: Larner J, Pohl SL (eds) Methods in diabetes ... Zhou YP, Grill VE (1994) Long-term exposure of rat pancreatic islets to fatty acids inhibits glucose-induced insulin secretion ... Müller G. (2015) Assays for the Expression and Release of Insulin and Glucose-Regulating Peptide Hormones from Pancreatic β- ...
  • Knockdown of ME3, but not ME1 or ME2 alone or together, inhibited insulin release stimulated by glucose, pyruvate or 2-aminobicyclo [2,2,eptane-2-carboxylic acid-plus-glutamine. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • When tested for their effects on calmodulin-stimulated bovine heart phosphodiesterase activity, of the compounds that inhibited insulin release, only monodansylcadaverine did not act as an effective antagonist of calmodulin at concentrations (up to 50 microM) that gave rise to significant inhibition of glucose-stimulated insulin release. (portlandpress.com)
  • We undertook the current study to investigate if intraislet endogenous cannabinoids (ECs) regulate β-cell proliferation and if they influence insulin action. (nih.gov)
  • Nutrients regulate insulin production at several steps in the biosynthetic pathway in addition to its secretion, including cleavage of the preprohormone, translation, and transcription ( 7 - 11 ). (pnas.org)
  • PDX-1 and beta2/neuroD known as transcription factors that regulate the expression of insulin gene were upregulated by treatment of the KME protein fractions isolated by ion-exchange chromatography after ammonium sulfate precipitation. (hindawi.com)
  • Enhanced understanding of the signaling mechanisms that regulate pancreatic cancer cell growth may provide important insights for more effective therapeutic strategies. (aacrjournals.org)
  • The cis-acting sequences within the 5' flanking region and trans-activators including paired box gene 6 (PAX6), pancreatic and duodenal homeobox- 1(PDX-1), MafA, and -2/Neurogenic differentiation 1 (NeuroD1) regulate insulin transcription, while the stability of preproinsulin mRNA and its untranslated regions control protein translation. (eurekaselect.com)
  • Speculating on the implications of their findings, Evans suggests that when a fetus is developing, because it gets a steady supply of glucose from the mother, it does not need to produce insulin to regulate its blood sugar, so the switch is inactive. (stemcellsgroup.com)
  • Isx increased the expression and secretion of insulin in islets that made little insulin after prolonged ex vivo culture and increased expression of neurogenic differentiation 1 and other regulators of islet differentiation and insulin gene transcription. (pnas.org)
  • Octanoic acid, which is a medium-chain fatty acid contained in food and reportedly interacts with OLFR15, potentiated glucose-stimulated insulin secretion (GSIS), thereby improving glucose tolerance in vivo . (nature.com)
  • Similar changes were seen following in vivo stimulation of insulin secretion by glibenclamide. (jci.org)
  • Assessment of ex vivo glucose-stimulated insulin secretion showed HESc potentiated pancreatic function in islets isolated from both lean and obese rats treated with HESc. (frontiersin.org)
  • To further validate this phenotype in vivo, we generated pancreatic beta-cell-specific Sirt6 knockout mice (bKO) using mouse genetic approach. (iupui.edu)
  • Further scrutinization of FRF for its in-vivo antidiabetic property demonstrated improved glycemic indices and decreased pancreatic β-cell apoptosis. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Thus, these data suggest that Miro1 may be responsible for mitophagy deficiency and β-cell dysfunction in T2D and that strategies target Miro1 in vivo may provide a therapeutic target to enhance β-cell mitochondrial quality and insulin secretion to ameliorate complications associated with T2D. (oncotarget.com)
  • In vivo, undifferentiated MDSC injected into streptozotocin (STZ)-treated mice engrafted within 48 h specifically to damaged pancreatic islets and were shown to differentiate and express insulin 10-12 days after injection. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Insulin-like growth factor (IGF)-axis mediated signaling pathways play an important role in pancreatic cancer development and progression. (nih.gov)
  • Similarly, the α-cell line we used spontaneously reexpressed small but detectable levels of insulin, despite being a subclone selected for low insulin protein ( 10 ). (pnas.org)
  • The expression levels of insulin receptor, IGF-I receptor, and IRS2 as a downstream molecule of both receptor signaling pathways were not altered at any concentration tested. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • Calorie restriction (CR) prevents obesity, suppresses carcinogenesis in many models, and reduces serum levels of insulin-like growth factor (IGF)-1. (aacrjournals.org)
  • These data show that CR prevents development of dysplasia and growth of pancreatic cancer through alterations in IGF-1, suggesting that modulation of this pathway with dietary and/or pharmacologic interventions is a promising pancreatic cancer prevention strategy. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Fasting insulin and/or glucose were positively associated with body mass index (BMI), height, and dietary total and saturated fat and inversely associated with serum high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL) and dietary available carbohydrates, sucrose, and alcohol. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • Hence, the relationship between co-stored Zn 2+ and insulin undoubtedly is critical to normal β-cell function. (springer.com)
  • Some possible zinc-insulin interactions in the pancreatic B-cell. (springer.com)
  • Insulin feedback action on pancreatic beta-cell function. (nih.gov)
  • Besides glucose, the major nutrient factor, inputs from neural and humoral components and intraislet cell-cell communication act together to guarantee an appropriate pancreatic beta-cell function. (nih.gov)
  • Data obtained over the last 5 years in several laboratories have revitalized a controversial concept, namely the autocrine feedback action of secreted insulin on beta-cell function. (nih.gov)
  • Possible readouts for induction of a β-cell state include insulin production and insulin secretion. (pnas.org)
  • To that end, we developed a high-content, cell-based assay to detect insulin protein expression in the mouse α-cell line αTC1. (pnas.org)
  • This finding opens up the opportunity for the analysis of patient-specific pancreatic beta cell properties and the optimisation of cell therapy approaches," said Hebrok. (financialexpress.com)
  • Currently most people either use needle injections or insulin pumps, while pancreatic beta cell transplants have not been advanced enough for adoption. (medgadget.com)
  • This study provides a potential solution for the tough problem of rejection, which has long plagued studies on pancreatic cell transplants for diabetes," said senior author Zhen Gu, PhD, assistant professor in the joint UNC/NC State department of biomedical engineering, in a statement. (medgadget.com)
  • In this cross-sectional analysis, researchers assessed how liver fat influences hepatic insulin extraction and indices of pancreatic beta cell function. (diabetesincontrol.com)
  • A positive association between insulin secretion and intrahepatic lipids was noted however no significant associations between intrahepatic lipids and the insulin-derived indices of beta-cell function (insulinogenic index and disposition index) were found. (diabetesincontrol.com)
  • However, when insulin and c-peptide secretion following oral glucose administration was quantified in the context of dynamic glucose excursions increased intrahepatic lipids were ultimately found to be associated with a reduction in beta-cell function according to c-peptide based model parameters. (diabetesincontrol.com)
  • Using short hairpin RNAs that targeted one or more malic enzyme mRNAs in the same cell, we generated more than 25 stable INS-1 832/13-derived insulin cell lines expressing extremely low levels of ME1, ME2, and ME3 alone or low levels of two of these enzymes in the same cell line. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • A pancreatic islet comprises three main cell types. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • OBJECTIVE -It was reported that the long-acting insulin analogue glargine induces cell proliferation in a human osteosarcoma cell line and therefore might induce or accelerate tumor growth. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • Together, these data indicate that Atp6ap2 is critical for regulating the stored insulin pool and that a balanced regulation of granule turnover is key to maintaining β cell function and diabetes prevention. (mdc-berlin.de)
  • The effects of insulin-like growth factor binding protein-5 (IGFBP-5) on pancreatic cancer (PaC) cell lines transfected with vector (/Vec) or expressing a low (/BP5L) or high (/BP5H) level of IGFBP-5 showed that IGFBP-5 can inhibit (PANC-1) or enhance (MIA PaCa-2 and BxPC-3) cell growth. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Migration and invasion assays were done with the human pancreatic cancer cell line L3.6pl treated with PBS, IGF-I, HGF, or IGF-I plus HGF. (aacrjournals.org)
  • The pancreatic β-cell has reduced antioxidant defences making it more susceptible to oxidative stress. (ovid.com)
  • From this study, the cystinotic-like pancreatic β-cell model demonstrated that the altered oxidative status of the cell, resulted in depressed mitochondrial function and pathways of ATP production, causing reduced nutrient-stimulated insulin secretion. (ovid.com)
  • The β-cell dysfunction is a characteristic of the glucose intolerance found in pancreatic cancer patients. (ovid.com)
  • In this study, isolated rat pancreatic islets were cocultured with two human pancreatic adenocarcinoma cell lines (Panc-1 and HPAF) and a human colonic adenocarcinoma cell line (HT-29). (ovid.com)
  • Output of insulin and IAPP was decreased in islets cocultured with each malignant cell line. (ovid.com)
  • OBJECTIVE: Fructose-1,6-bisphosphatase (FBPase) is a gluconeogenic enzyme that is upregulated in islets or pancreatic beta-cell lines exposed to high fat. (garvan.org.au)
  • However, whether specific beta-cell upregulation of FBPase can impair insulin secretory function is not known. (garvan.org.au)
  • The objective of this study therefore is to determine whether a specific increase in islet beta-cell FBPase can result in reduced glucose-mediated insulin secretion. (garvan.org.au)
  • Splenocyte remoteness, cell tradition and pancreatic lysates Spleens had been collected, minced and frequently pushed through a clean and sterile 70 buy CP-466722 meters nylon fine mesh cell strainer. (woofahs.com)
  • Cell enjoyment, growth stream and assay cytometry Mouse splenocytes were stimulated via dish limited 0.5 g/ml anti-CD3 (clone 500A2) as we possess defined [6,or with 25 g/ml pancreatic lysates. (woofahs.com)
  • Epigenomic plasticity enables human pancreatic α to β cell reprogramming. (nature.com)
  • In the present study we combined electron microscopy, insulin secretion measurements and recordings of cell capacitance in an attempt to define this pool ultrastructurally. (ox.ac.uk)
  • Noticeably, several ParaHox transcription factors are able to transactivate or inhibit the insulin promoter, depending on the cell type and glucose concentration, thus suggesting their possible participation in the regulation of similar target genes, such as insulin, either by silencing or activating them, in the absence of PDX1. (ijbs.com)
  • Rosanas-Urgell A, Garcia-Fernàndez J, Marfany G. ParaHox genes in pancreatic cell cultures: effects on the insulin promoter regulation. (ijbs.com)
  • This hypothesis also postulates that the effect of thiazolidinediones to redistribute fat stores in the body, including from the pancreatic islets, and to reduce circulating levels of FFA, may improve P-cell function . (alpfmedical.info)
  • Pancreatic β-cell lines Hit-TI5 (Syrian hamster) and Rin-m (rat insulinoma) were used in these studies. (biomedcentral.com)
  • In both cell lines, 1 mM glucose had no effect on insulin levels and served as a control. (biomedcentral.com)