Peptide hormones secreted into the blood by cells in the ISLETS OF LANGERHANS of the pancreas. The alpha cells secrete glucagon; the beta cells secrete insulin; the delta cells secrete somatostatin; and the PP cells secrete pancreatic polypeptide.
Cell surface proteins that bind pancreatic hormones with high affinity and trigger intracellular changes which influence the behavior of cells. These include receptors for glucagon (secreted by alpha cells), insulin (secreted by beta cells), somatostatin (secreted by delta cells), and pancreatic peptide (secreted by PP cells). Some of these hormones and receptors also support neurotransmission.
A 29-amino acid pancreatic peptide derived from proglucagon which is also the precursor of intestinal GLUCAGON-LIKE PEPTIDES. Glucagon is secreted by PANCREATIC ALPHA CELLS and plays an important role in regulation of BLOOD GLUCOSE concentration, ketone metabolism, and several other biochemical and physiological processes. (From Gilman et al., Goodman and Gilman's The Pharmacological Basis of Therapeutics, 9th ed, p1511)
A 36-amino acid pancreatic hormone that is secreted mainly by endocrine cells found at the periphery of the ISLETS OF LANGERHANS and adjacent to cells containing SOMATOSTATIN and GLUCAGON. Pancreatic polypeptide (PP), when administered peripherally, can suppress gastric secretion, gastric emptying, pancreatic enzyme secretion, and appetite. A lack of pancreatic polypeptide (PP) has been associated with OBESITY in rats and mice.
A 14-amino acid peptide named for its ability to inhibit pituitary GROWTH HORMONE release, also called somatotropin release-inhibiting factor. It is expressed in the central and peripheral nervous systems, the gut, and other organs. SRIF can also inhibit the release of THYROID-STIMULATING HORMONE; PROLACTIN; INSULIN; and GLUCAGON besides acting as a neurotransmitter and neuromodulator. In a number of species including humans, there is an additional form of somatostatin, SRIF-28 with a 14-amino acid extension at the N-terminal.
A 51-amino acid pancreatic hormone that plays a major role in the regulation of glucose metabolism, directly by suppressing endogenous glucose production (GLYCOGENOLYSIS; GLUCONEOGENESIS) and indirectly by suppressing GLUCAGON secretion and LIPOLYSIS. Native insulin is a globular protein comprised of a zinc-coordinated hexamer. Each insulin monomer containing two chains, A (21 residues) and B (30 residues), linked by two disulfide bonds. Insulin is used as a drug to control insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (DIABETES MELLITUS, TYPE 1).
A pancreatic beta-cell hormone that is co-secreted with INSULIN. It displays an anorectic effect on nutrient metabolism by inhibiting gastric acid secretion, gastric emptying and postprandial GLUCAGON secretion. Islet amyloid polypeptide can fold into AMYLOID FIBRILS that have been found as a major constituent of pancreatic AMYLOID DEPOSITS.
A nodular organ in the ABDOMEN that contains a mixture of ENDOCRINE GLANDS and EXOCRINE GLANDS. The small endocrine portion consists of the ISLETS OF LANGERHANS secreting a number of hormones into the blood stream. The large exocrine portion (EXOCRINE PANCREAS) is a compound acinar gland that secretes several digestive enzymes into the pancreatic ductal system that empties into the DUODENUM.
Glucose in blood.
Irregular microscopic structures consisting of cords of endocrine cells that are scattered throughout the PANCREAS among the exocrine acini. Each islet is surrounded by connective tissue fibers and penetrated by a network of capillaries. There are four major cell types. The most abundant beta cells (50-80%) secrete INSULIN. Alpha cells (5-20%) secrete GLUCAGON. PP cells (10-35%) secrete PANCREATIC POLYPEPTIDE. Delta cells (~5%) secrete SOMATOSTATIN.
The domestic dog, Canis familiaris, comprising about 400 breeds, of the carnivore family CANIDAE. They are worldwide in distribution and live in association with people. (Walker's Mammals of the World, 5th ed, p1065)
Chemical substances having a specific regulatory effect on the activity of a certain organ or organs. The term was originally applied to substances secreted by various ENDOCRINE GLANDS and transported in the bloodstream to the target organs. It is sometimes extended to include those substances that are not produced by the endocrine glands but that have similar effects.
A primary source of energy for living organisms. It is naturally occurring and is found in fruits and other parts of plants in its free state. It is used therapeutically in fluid and nutrient replacement.
A large lobed glandular organ in the abdomen of vertebrates that is responsible for detoxification, metabolism, synthesis and storage of various substances.
Natural hormones secreted by the THYROID GLAND, such as THYROXINE, and their synthetic analogs.
A major gonadotropin secreted by the adenohypophysis (PITUITARY GLAND, ANTERIOR). Follicle-stimulating hormone stimulates GAMETOGENESIS and the supporting cells such as the ovarian GRANULOSA CELLS, the testicular SERTOLI CELLS, and LEYDIG CELLS. FSH consists of two noncovalently linked subunits, alpha and beta. Within a species, the alpha subunit is common in the three pituitary glycoprotein hormones (TSH, LH, and FSH), but the beta subunit is unique and confers its biological specificity.
A major gonadotropin secreted by the adenohypophysis (PITUITARY GLAND, ANTERIOR). Luteinizing hormone regulates steroid production by the interstitial cells of the TESTIS and the OVARY. The preovulatory LUTEINIZING HORMONE surge in females induces OVULATION, and subsequent LUTEINIZATION of the follicle. LUTEINIZING HORMONE consists of two noncovalently linked subunits, alpha and beta. Within a species, the alpha subunit is common in the three pituitary glycoprotein hormones (TSH, LH and FSH), but the beta subunit is unique and confers its biological specificity.
A polypeptide hormone (84 amino acid residues) secreted by the PARATHYROID GLANDS which performs the essential role of maintaining intracellular CALCIUM levels in the body. Parathyroid hormone increases intracellular calcium by promoting the release of CALCIUM from BONE, increases the intestinal absorption of calcium, increases the renal tubular reabsorption of calcium, and increases the renal excretion of phosphates.
A decapeptide that stimulates the synthesis and secretion of both pituitary gonadotropins, LUTEINIZING HORMONE and FOLLICLE STIMULATING HORMONE. GnRH is produced by neurons in the septum PREOPTIC AREA of the HYPOTHALAMUS and released into the pituitary portal blood, leading to stimulation of GONADOTROPHS in the ANTERIOR PITUITARY GLAND.
Steroid hormones produced by the GONADS. They stimulate reproductive organs, germ cell maturation, and the secondary sex characteristics in the males and the females. The major sex steroid hormones include ESTRADIOL; PROGESTERONE; and TESTOSTERONE.
Specific high affinity binding proteins for THYROID HORMONES in target cells. They are usually found in the nucleus and regulate DNA transcription. These receptors are activated by hormones that leads to transcription, cell differentiation, and growth suppression. Thyroid hormone receptors are encoded by two genes (GENES, ERBA): erbA-alpha and erbA-beta for alpha and beta thyroid hormone receptors, respectively.
A 191-amino acid polypeptide hormone secreted by the human adenohypophysis (PITUITARY GLAND, ANTERIOR), also known as GH or somatotropin. Synthetic growth hormone, termed somatropin, has replaced the natural form in therapeutic usage such as treatment of dwarfism in children with growth hormone deficiency.
An anterior pituitary hormone that stimulates the ADRENAL CORTEX and its production of CORTICOSTEROIDS. ACTH is a 39-amino acid polypeptide of which the N-terminal 24-amino acid segment is identical in all species and contains the adrenocorticotrophic activity. Upon further tissue-specific processing, ACTH can yield ALPHA-MSH and corticotrophin-like intermediate lobe peptide (CLIP).
Hormones secreted by the PITUITARY GLAND including those from the anterior lobe (adenohypophysis), the posterior lobe (neurohypophysis), and the ill-defined intermediate lobe. Structurally, they include small peptides, proteins, and glycoproteins. They are under the regulation of neural signals (NEUROTRANSMITTERS) or neuroendocrine signals (HYPOTHALAMIC HORMONES) from the hypothalamus as well as feedback from their targets such as ADRENAL CORTEX HORMONES; ANDROGENS; ESTROGENS.

Effect of fast duration on disposition of an intraduodenal glucose load in the conscious dog. (1/134)

The effects of prior fast duration (18 h, n = 8; 42 h, n = 8) on the glycemic and tissue-specific responses to an intraduodenal glucose load were studied in chronically catheterized conscious dogs. [3-3H]glucose was infused throughout the study. After basal measurements, glucose spiked with [U-14C]glucose was infused for 150 min intraduodenally. Arterial insulin and glucagon were similar in the two groups. Arterial glucose (mg/dl) rose approximately 70% more during glucose infusion after 42 h than after an 18-h fast. The net hepatic glucose balance (mg. kg-1. min-1) was similar in the two groups (basal: 1.8 +/- 0.2 and 2.0 +/- 0.3; glucose infusion: -2.2 +/- 0.5 and -2.2 +/- 0.7). The intrahepatic fate of glucose was 79% glycogen, 13% oxidized, and 8% lactate release after a 42-h fast; it was 23% glycogen, 21% oxidized, and 56% lactate release after an 18-h fast. Net hindlimb glucose uptake was similar between groups. The appearance of intraduodenal glucose during glucose infusion (mg/kg) was 900 +/- 50 and 1,120 +/- 40 after 18- and 42-h fasts (P < 0.01). CONCLUSION: glucose administration after prolonged fasting induces higher circulating glucose than a shorter fast (increased appearance of intraduodenal glucose); liver and hindlimb glucose uptakes and the hormonal response, however, are unchanged; finally, an intrahepatic redistribution of carbons favors glycogen deposition.  (+info)

Interaction of islet hormones with cholecystokinin octapeptide-evoked secretory responses in the isolated pancreas of normal and diabetic rats. (2/134)

This study investigates the effects of the islet hormones, insulin (Ins), glucagon (Glu) and somatostatin (Som) with cholecystokinin octapeptide (CCK-8) on amylase secretion and intracellular free calcium concentration [Ca2+]i and their pattern of distribution in the isolated pancreas of normal and diabetic rats. Ins and Glu evoked small increases in amylase output from pancreatic segments compared with a much enhanced effect of CCK-8. In contrast, Som induced a biphasic response comprising an initial decrease followed by a secondary increase and this biphasic response may be dependent upon the concentration. Combining the islet hormones with CCK-8 resulted in marked potentiation in amylase output compared with either CCK-8 alone or the individual hormone. Genistein and tyrphostin A25, the tyrosine kinase inhibitors, evoked a small decrease in amylase output from pancreatic segments. They had no effect on the CCK-8-evoked secretory response but markedly inhibited the potentiation of the islet hormones with CCK-8. In pancreatic acini and acinar cells Ins, Glu and Som individually evoked small increases in amylase output compared with a much larger response with CCK-8. When the islet hormones were combined with CCK-8 there was no potentiation of amylase output. Similarly, when rats were rendered diabetic by prior treatment with streptozotocin Ins, Glu and Som failed to potentiate the secretory response of CCK-8. In fura-2-loaded pancreatic acinar cells Ins or Glu evoked small increases in [Ca2+]i compared with a much larger elevation with CCK-8. Ins, Glu and Som each enhanced the CCK-8-evoked [Ca2+]i. Genistein elicited a decrease in [Ca2+]i both in the absence and presence of the islet hormones. It also decreased the elevation in [Ca2+]i resulting from the combined presence of CCK-8 with either Ins or Glu but it had no effect on CCK-8 in combination with Som. In pancreatic acinar cells from diabetic rat Ins, Glu and Som had no detectable effect on CCK-8-evoked elevation in [Ca2+]i compared with the response obtained with CCK-8 alone. CCK-8-immunopositive cells were distributed around the walls of blood vessels, numerous Ins-positive cells in the central and peripheral parts of the islets of Langerhans, Glu-immunoreactive cells in the periphery of islets and Som-positive cells in the outer part of the islets. During diabetes, the number of CCK-immunopositive cells remained unchanged whereas the number of Ins-positive cells decreased coupled with an increase in the number of Glu-positive cells. The results indicate that both tyrosine kinase and cellular Ca2+ seem to be the intracellular mediators involved with the enhanced secretory responses obtained with a combination of the islet hormones with CCK-8. Moreover, the presence of viable pancreatic islets of Langerhans seems to be associated with the potentiation of the islet hormones with CCK-8.  (+info)

Chronic hyperglycemia triggers loss of pancreatic beta cell differentiation in an animal model of diabetes. (3/134)

Differentiated pancreatic beta cells are unique in their ability to secrete insulin in response to a rise in plasma glucose. We have proposed that the unique constellation of genes they express may be lost in diabetes due to the deleterious effect of chronic hyperglycemia. To test this hypothesis, Sprague-Dawley rats were submitted to a 85-95% pancreatectomy or sham pancreatectomy. One week later, the animals developed mild to severe chronic hyperglycemia that was stable for the next 3 weeks, without significant alteration of plasma nonesterified fatty acid levels. Expression of many genes important for glucose-induced insulin release decreased progressively with increasing hyperglycemia, in parallel with a reduction of several islet transcription factors involved in beta cell development and differentiation. In contrast, genes barely expressed in sham islets (lactate dehydrogenase A and hexokinase I) were markedly increased, in parallel with an increase in the transcription factor c-Myc, a potent stimulator of cell growth. These abnormalities were accompanied by beta cell hypertrophy. Changes in gene expression were fully developed 2 weeks after pancreatectomy. Correction of blood glucose by phlorizin for the next 2 weeks normalized islet gene expression and beta cell volume without affecting plasma nonesterified fatty acid levels, strongly suggesting that hyperglycemia triggers these abnormalities. In conclusion, chronic hyperglycemia leads to beta cell hypertrophy and loss of beta cell differentiation that is correlated with changes in c-Myc and other key transcription factors. A similar change in beta cell differentiation could contribute to the profound derangement of insulin secretion in human diabetes.  (+info)

Prior exercise increases net hepatic glucose uptake during a glucose load. (4/134)

The aim of these studies was to determine whether prior exercise enhances net hepatic glucose uptake (NHGU) during a glucose load. Sampling catheters (carotid artery, portal, hepatic, and iliac veins), infusion catheters (portal vein and vena cava), and Doppler flow probes (portal vein, hepatic and iliac arteries) were implanted. Exercise (150 min; n = 6) or rest (n = 6) was followed by a 30-min control period and a 100-min experimental period (3.5 mg. kg-1. min-1 of glucose in portal vein and as needed in vena cava to clamp arterial blood glucose at approximately 130 mg/dl). Somatostatin was infused, and insulin and glucagon were replaced intraportally at fourfold basal and basal rates, respectively. During experimental period the arterial-portal venous (a-pv) glucose gradient (mg/dl) was -18 +/- 1 in sedentary and -19 +/- 1 in exercised dogs. Arterial insulin and glucagon were similar in the two groups. Net hepatic glucose balance (mg. kg-1. min-1) shifted from 1.9 +/- 0.2 in control period to -1.8 +/- 0.2 (negative rates represent net uptake) during experimental period in sedentary dogs (Delta3.7 +/- 0.5); with prior exercise it shifted from 4.1 +/- 0.3 (P < 0.01 vs. sedentary) in control period to -3.2 +/- 0.4 (P < 0.05 vs. sedentary) during experimental period (Delta7.3 +/- 0.7, P < 0.01 vs. sedentary). Net hindlimb glucose uptake (mg/min) was 4 +/- 1 in sedentary animals in control period and 13 +/- 2 during experimental period; in exercised animals it was 7 +/- 1 in control period (P < 0. 01 vs. sedentary) and 32 +/- 4 (P < 0.01 vs. sedentary) during experimental period. As the total glucose infusion rate (mg. kg-1. min-1) was 7 +/- 1 in sedentary and 11 +/- 1 in exercised dogs, approximately 30% of the added glucose infusion due to prior exercise could be accounted for by the greater NHGU. In conclusion, when determinants of hepatic glucose uptake (insulin, glucagon, a-pv glucose gradient, glycemia) are controlled, prior exercise increases NHGU during a glucose load due to an effect that is intrinsic to the liver. Increased glucose disposal in the postexercise state is therefore due to an improved ability of both liver and muscle to take up glucose.  (+info)

Pharmacological analysis of CCK2 receptor antagonists using isolated rat stomach ECL cells. (5/134)

1. Gastrin stimulates rat stomach ECL cells to secrete histamine and pacreastatin, a chromogranin A (CGA)-derived peptide. The present report describes the effect of nine cholecystokinin2 (CCK2) receptor antagonists and one CCK1 receptor antagonist on the gastrin-evoked secretion of pancreastatin from isolated ECL cells. 2. The CCK2 receptor antagonists comprised three benzodiazepine derivatives L-740,093, YM022 and YF476, one ureidoacetamide compound RP73870, one benzimidazole compound JB 93182, one ureidoindoline compound AG041R and three tryptophan dipeptoids PD 134308 (CI988), PD135158 and PD 136450. The CCK1 receptor antagonist was devazepide. 3. A preparation of well-functioning ECL cells (approximately 80% purity) was prepared from rat oxyntic mucosa using counter-flow elutriation. The cells were cultured for 48 h in the presence of 0.1 nM gastrin; they were then washed and incubated with antagonist alone or with various concentrations of antagonist plus 10 nM gastrin (a maximally effective concentration) for 30 min. Gastrin dose-response curves were constructed in the absence or presence of increasing concentrations of antagonist. The amount of pancreastatin secreted was determined by radioimmunoassay. 4. The gastrin-evoked secretion of pancreastatin was inhibited in a dose-dependent manner. YM022, AG041R and YF476 had IC50 values of 0.5, 2.2 and 2.7 nM respectively. L-740,093, JB93182 and RP73870 had IC50 values of 7.8, 9.3 and 9.8 nM, while PD135158, PD136450 and PD134308 had IC50 values of 76, 135 and 145 nM. The CCK1 receptor antagonist devazepide was a poor CCK2 receptor antagonist with an IC50 of about 800 nM. 5. YM022, YF476 and AG041R were chosen for further analysis. YM022 and YF476 shifted the gastrin dose-response curve to the right in a manner suggesting competitive antagonism, while the effects of AG041R could not be explained by simple competitive antagonism. pK(B) values were 11.3 for YM022, 10.8 for YF476 and the apparent pK(B) for AG041R was 10.4.  (+info)

Characterization of pancreastatin receptors and signaling in adipocyte membranes. (6/134)

Pancreastatin (PST), a chromogranin A derived peptide with an array of effects in different tissues, has a role as a counterregulatory hormone of insulin action in hepatocytes and adipocytes, regulating glucose, lipid and protein metabolism. We have previously characterized PST receptors and signaling in rat hepatocytes, in which PST functions as a calcium-mobilizing hormone. In the present work we have studied PST receptors as well as the signal transduction pathways generated upon PST binding in adipocyte membranes. First, we have characterized PST receptors using radiolabeled PST as a ligand. Analysis of binding data indicated the existence of one class of binding sites, with a B(max) of 5 fmol/mg of protein and a K(d) of 1 nM. In addition, we have studied the G protein system that couples the PST receptor by gamma-(35)S-GTP binding studies. We have found that two G protein systems are involved, pertussis toxin-sensitive and -insensitive respectively. Specific anti-G protein alpha subtype sera were used to block the effect of pancreastatin receptor activation. Galpha(q/11) and to a lesser extent Galpha(i1,2) are activated by PST in rat adipocyte membranes. On the other hand, adenylate cyclase activity was not affected by PST. Finally, we have studied the specific phospholipase C isoform that is activated in response to PST. We have found that PST receptor is coupled to PLC-beta(3) via Galpha(q/11) activation in adipocyte membranes.  (+info)

Physiology of the ECL cells. (7/134)

The enterochromaffin-like (ECL) cells of the oxyntic mucosa (fundus) of the stomach produce, store and secrete histamine, chromogranin A-derived peptides such as pancreastatin, and an unanticipated but as yet unidentified peptide hormone. The cells are stimulated by gastrin and pituitary adenylate cyclase activating peptide and suppressed by somatostatin and galanin. Choline esters and histamine seem to be without effect on ECL cell secretion. The existence of a gastrin-ECL cell axis not only explains how gastrin stimulates acid secretion but also may help to explore the functional significance of the ECL cells with respect to the nature and bioactivity of its peptide hormone. From the results of studies of gastrectomized/fundectomized and gastrin-treated rats, it has been speculated that the anticipated ECL-cell peptide hormone acts on bone metabolism.  (+info)

ECL cell morphology. (8/134)

Using immunohistochemistry at the conventional light, confocal and electron microscopic levels, we have demonstrated that rat stomach ECL cells store histamine and pancreastatin in granules and secretory vesicles, while histidine decarboxylase occurs in the cytosol. Furthermore the ECL cells display immunoreactivity for vesicular monoamine transporter type 2 (VMAT-2), synaptophysin, synaptotagmin III, vesicle-associated membrane protein-2, cysteine string protein, synaptosomal-associated protein of 25 kDa, syntaxin and Munc-18. Using electron microscopy in combination with stereological methods, we have evidence to suggest the existence of both an exocytotic and a crinophagic pathway in the ECL cells. The process of exocytosis in the ECL cells seems to involve a class of proteins that promote or participate in the fusion between the granule/vesicle membrane and the plasma membrane. The granules take up histamine by VMAT-2 from the cytosol during transport from the Golgi zone to the more peripheral parts of the cells. As a result, they turn into secretory vesicles. As a consequence of stimulation (e.g., by gastrin), the secretory vesicles fuse with the cell membrane to release their contents by exocytosis. The crinophagic pathway was studied in hypergastrinemic rats. In the ECL cells of such animals, the secretory vesicles were found to fuse not only with the cell membrane but also with each other to form vacuoles. Subsequent lysosomal degradation of the vacuoles and their contents resulted in the development of lipofuscin bodies.  (+info)

Pancreatic hormones are chemical messengers produced and released by the pancreas, a gland located in the abdomen. The two main types of pancreatic hormones are insulin and glucagon, which are released by specialized cells called islets of Langerhans.

Insulin is produced by beta cells and helps regulate blood sugar levels by allowing cells in the body to take in sugar (glucose) from the bloodstream. It also helps the body store excess glucose in the liver for later use.

Glucagon is produced by alpha cells and has the opposite effect of insulin. When blood sugar levels are low, glucagon stimulates the release of stored glucose from the liver to raise blood sugar levels.

Together, insulin and glucagon help maintain balanced blood sugar levels and are essential for the proper functioning of the body's metabolism. Other hormones produced by the pancreas include somatostatin, which regulates the release of insulin and glucagon, and gastrin, which stimulates the production of digestive enzymes in the stomach.

Pancreatic hormone receptors refer to specific protein structures found on the surface of certain cells in the body that selectively bind with specific pancreatic hormones, such as insulin, glucagon, and somatostatin. These receptors are crucial for regulating various physiological processes, including glucose metabolism, carbohydrate homeostasis, and energy balance.

Insulin receptors, for example, are found on the surface of many cell types throughout the body, including liver, muscle, and fat cells. When insulin binds to its receptor, it triggers a cascade of intracellular signaling events that promote glucose uptake and utilization, as well as inhibit glucose production in the liver.

Glucagon receptors, on the other hand, are primarily found on liver cells. When glucagon binds to its receptor, it stimulates the breakdown of glycogen stores and the synthesis of new glucose molecules, leading to increased blood glucose levels.

Somatostatin receptors are located on a variety of cell types throughout the body, including pancreatic cells. When somatostatin binds to its receptor, it inhibits the release of several hormones, including insulin and glucagon, helping to regulate blood glucose levels.

Abnormalities in pancreatic hormone receptors have been implicated in various endocrine disorders, such as diabetes mellitus and acromegaly.

Glucagon is a hormone produced by the alpha cells of the pancreas. Its main function is to regulate glucose levels in the blood by stimulating the liver to convert stored glycogen into glucose, which can then be released into the bloodstream. This process helps to raise blood sugar levels when they are too low, such as during hypoglycemia.

Glucagon is a 29-amino acid polypeptide that is derived from the preproglucagon protein. It works by binding to glucagon receptors on liver cells, which triggers a series of intracellular signaling events that lead to the activation of enzymes involved in glycogen breakdown.

In addition to its role in glucose regulation, glucagon has also been shown to have other physiological effects, such as promoting lipolysis (the breakdown of fat) and inhibiting gastric acid secretion. Glucagon is often used clinically in the treatment of hypoglycemia, as well as in diagnostic tests to assess pancreatic function.

Pancreatic polypeptide (PP) is a hormone that is produced and released by the pancreas, specifically by the F cells located in the islets of Langerhans. It is a small protein consisting of 36 amino acids, and it plays a role in regulating digestive functions, particularly by inhibiting pancreatic enzyme secretion and gastric acid secretion.

PP is released into the bloodstream in response to food intake, especially when nutrients such as proteins and fats are present in the stomach. It acts on the brain to produce a feeling of fullness or satiety, which helps to regulate appetite and eating behavior. Additionally, PP has been shown to have effects on glucose metabolism, insulin secretion, and energy balance.

In recent years, there has been growing interest in the potential therapeutic uses of PP for a variety of conditions, including obesity, diabetes, and gastrointestinal disorders. However, more research is needed to fully understand its mechanisms of action and clinical applications.

Somatostatin is a hormone that inhibits the release of several hormones and also has a role in slowing down digestion. It is produced by the body in various parts of the body, including the hypothalamus (a part of the brain), the pancreas, and the gastrointestinal tract.

Somatostatin exists in two forms: somatostatin-14 and somatostatin-28, which differ in their length. Somatostatin-14 is the predominant form found in the brain, while somatostatin-28 is the major form found in the gastrointestinal tract.

Somatostatin has a wide range of effects on various physiological processes, including:

* Inhibiting the release of several hormones such as growth hormone, insulin, glucagon, and gastrin
* Slowing down digestion by inhibiting the release of digestive enzymes from the pancreas and reducing blood flow to the gastrointestinal tract
* Regulating neurotransmission in the brain

Somatostatin is used clinically as a diagnostic tool for detecting certain types of tumors that overproduce growth hormone or other hormones, and it is also used as a treatment for some conditions such as acromegaly (a condition characterized by excessive growth hormone production) and gastrointestinal disorders.

Insulin is a hormone produced by the beta cells of the pancreatic islets, primarily in response to elevated levels of glucose in the circulating blood. It plays a crucial role in regulating blood glucose levels and facilitating the uptake and utilization of glucose by peripheral tissues, such as muscle and adipose tissue, for energy production and storage. Insulin also inhibits glucose production in the liver and promotes the storage of excess glucose as glycogen or triglycerides.

Deficiency in insulin secretion or action leads to impaired glucose regulation and can result in conditions such as diabetes mellitus, characterized by chronic hyperglycemia and associated complications. Exogenous insulin is used as a replacement therapy in individuals with diabetes to help manage their blood glucose levels and prevent long-term complications.

Islet Amyloid Polypeptide (IAPP), also known as amylin, is a 37-amino acid peptide co-secreted with insulin from pancreatic beta-cells in response to meals. It plays crucial roles in regulating glucose homeostasis by suppressing glucagon secretion, slowing gastric emptying, and promoting satiety. In type 2 diabetes, IAPP can form amyloid fibrils, which deposit in pancreatic islets, contributing to beta-cell dysfunction and death. This contributes to the progressive nature of type 2 diabetes.

The pancreas is a glandular organ located in the abdomen, posterior to the stomach. It has both exocrine and endocrine functions. The exocrine portion of the pancreas consists of acinar cells that produce and secrete digestive enzymes into the duodenum via the pancreatic duct. These enzymes help in the breakdown of proteins, carbohydrates, and fats in food.

The endocrine portion of the pancreas consists of clusters of cells called islets of Langerhans, which include alpha, beta, delta, and F cells. These cells produce and secrete hormones directly into the bloodstream, including insulin, glucagon, somatostatin, and pancreatic polypeptide. Insulin and glucagon are critical regulators of blood sugar levels, with insulin promoting glucose uptake and storage in tissues and glucagon stimulating glycogenolysis and gluconeogenesis to raise blood glucose when it is low.

Blood glucose, also known as blood sugar, is the concentration of glucose in the blood. Glucose is a simple sugar that serves as the main source of energy for the body's cells. It is carried to each cell through the bloodstream and is absorbed into the cells with the help of insulin, a hormone produced by the pancreas.

The normal range for blood glucose levels in humans is typically between 70 and 130 milligrams per deciliter (mg/dL) when fasting, and less than 180 mg/dL after meals. Levels that are consistently higher than this may indicate diabetes or other metabolic disorders.

Blood glucose levels can be measured through a variety of methods, including fingerstick blood tests, continuous glucose monitoring systems, and laboratory tests. Regular monitoring of blood glucose levels is important for people with diabetes to help manage their condition and prevent complications.

The Islets of Langerhans are clusters of specialized cells within the pancreas, an organ located behind the stomach. These islets are named after Paul Langerhans, who first identified them in 1869. They constitute around 1-2% of the total mass of the pancreas and are distributed throughout its substance.

The Islets of Langerhans contain several types of cells, including:

1. Alpha (α) cells: These produce and release glucagon, a hormone that helps to regulate blood sugar levels by promoting the conversion of glycogen to glucose in the liver when blood sugar levels are low.
2. Beta (β) cells: These produce and release insulin, a hormone that promotes the uptake and utilization of glucose by cells throughout the body, thereby lowering blood sugar levels.
3. Delta (δ) cells: These produce and release somatostatin, a hormone that inhibits the release of both insulin and glucagon and helps regulate their secretion in response to changing blood sugar levels.
4. PP cells (gamma or γ cells): These produce and release pancreatic polypeptide, which plays a role in regulating digestive enzyme secretion and gastrointestinal motility.

Dysfunction of the Islets of Langerhans can lead to various endocrine disorders, such as diabetes mellitus, where insulin-producing beta cells are damaged or destroyed, leading to impaired blood sugar regulation.

I believe there might be a misunderstanding in your question. "Dogs" is not a medical term or condition. It is the common name for a domesticated carnivore of the family Canidae, specifically the genus Canis, which includes wolves, foxes, and other extant and extinct species of mammals. Dogs are often kept as pets and companions, and they have been bred in a wide variety of forms and sizes for different purposes, such as hunting, herding, guarding, assisting police and military forces, and providing companionship and emotional support.

If you meant to ask about a specific medical condition or term related to dogs, please provide more context so I can give you an accurate answer.

Hormones are defined as chemical messengers that are produced by endocrine glands or specialized cells and are transported through the bloodstream to tissues and organs, where they elicit specific responses. They play crucial roles in regulating various physiological processes such as growth, development, metabolism, reproduction, and mood. Examples of hormones include insulin, estrogen, testosterone, adrenaline, and thyroxine.

Glucose is a simple monosaccharide (or single sugar) that serves as the primary source of energy for living organisms. It's a fundamental molecule in biology, often referred to as "dextrose" or "grape sugar." Glucose has the molecular formula C6H12O6 and is vital to the functioning of cells, especially those in the brain and nervous system.

In the body, glucose is derived from the digestion of carbohydrates in food, and it's transported around the body via the bloodstream to cells where it can be used for energy. Cells convert glucose into a usable form through a process called cellular respiration, which involves a series of metabolic reactions that generate adenosine triphosphate (ATP)—the main currency of energy in cells.

Glucose is also stored in the liver and muscles as glycogen, a polysaccharide (multiple sugar) that can be broken down back into glucose when needed for energy between meals or during physical activity. Maintaining appropriate blood glucose levels is crucial for overall health, and imbalances can lead to conditions such as diabetes mellitus.

The liver is a large, solid organ located in the upper right portion of the abdomen, beneath the diaphragm and above the stomach. It plays a vital role in several bodily functions, including:

1. Metabolism: The liver helps to metabolize carbohydrates, fats, and proteins from the food we eat into energy and nutrients that our bodies can use.
2. Detoxification: The liver detoxifies harmful substances in the body by breaking them down into less toxic forms or excreting them through bile.
3. Synthesis: The liver synthesizes important proteins, such as albumin and clotting factors, that are necessary for proper bodily function.
4. Storage: The liver stores glucose, vitamins, and minerals that can be released when the body needs them.
5. Bile production: The liver produces bile, a digestive juice that helps to break down fats in the small intestine.
6. Immune function: The liver plays a role in the immune system by filtering out bacteria and other harmful substances from the blood.

Overall, the liver is an essential organ that plays a critical role in maintaining overall health and well-being.

Thyroid hormones are hormones produced and released by the thyroid gland, a small endocrine gland located in the neck that helps regulate metabolism, growth, and development in the human body. The two main thyroid hormones are triiodothyronine (T3) and thyroxine (T4), which contain iodine atoms. These hormones play a crucial role in various bodily functions, including heart rate, body temperature, digestion, and brain development. They help regulate the rate at which your body uses energy, affects how sensitive your body is to other hormones, and plays a vital role in the development and differentiation of all cells of the human body. Thyroid hormone levels are regulated by the hypothalamus and pituitary gland through a feedback mechanism that helps maintain proper balance.

Follicle-Stimulating Hormone (FSH) is a glycoprotein hormone secreted and released by the anterior pituitary gland. In females, it promotes the growth and development of ovarian follicles in the ovary, which ultimately leads to the maturation and release of an egg (ovulation). In males, FSH stimulates the testes to produce sperm. It works in conjunction with luteinizing hormone (LH) to regulate reproductive processes. The secretion of FSH is controlled by the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis and its release is influenced by the levels of gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH), estrogen, inhibin, and androgens.

Luteinizing Hormone (LH) is a glycoprotein hormone, which is primarily produced and released by the anterior pituitary gland. In women, a surge of LH triggers ovulation, the release of an egg from the ovaries during the menstrual cycle. During pregnancy, LH stimulates the corpus luteum to produce progesterone. In men, LH stimulates the testes to produce testosterone. It plays a crucial role in sexual development, reproduction, and maintaining the reproductive system.

Parathyroid hormone (PTH) is a polypeptide hormone that plays a crucial role in the regulation of calcium and phosphate levels in the body. It is produced and secreted by the parathyroid glands, which are four small endocrine glands located on the back surface of the thyroid gland.

The primary function of PTH is to maintain normal calcium levels in the blood by increasing calcium absorption from the gut, mobilizing calcium from bones, and decreasing calcium excretion by the kidneys. PTH also increases phosphate excretion by the kidneys, which helps to lower serum phosphate levels.

In addition to its role in calcium and phosphate homeostasis, PTH has been shown to have anabolic effects on bone tissue, stimulating bone formation and preventing bone loss. However, chronic elevations in PTH levels can lead to excessive bone resorption and osteoporosis.

Overall, Parathyroid Hormone is a critical hormone that helps maintain mineral homeostasis and supports healthy bone metabolism.

Gonadotropin-Releasing Hormone (GnRH), also known as Luteinizing Hormone-Releasing Hormone (LHRH), is a hormonal peptide consisting of 10 amino acids. It is produced and released by the hypothalamus, an area in the brain that links the nervous system to the endocrine system via the pituitary gland.

GnRH plays a crucial role in regulating reproduction and sexual development through its control of two gonadotropins: follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) and luteinizing hormone (LH). These gonadotropins, in turn, stimulate the gonads (ovaries or testes) to produce sex steroids and eggs or sperm.

GnRH acts on the anterior pituitary gland by binding to its specific receptors, leading to the release of FSH and LH. The hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis is under negative feedback control, meaning that when sex steroid levels are high, they inhibit the release of GnRH, which subsequently decreases FSH and LH secretion.

GnRH agonists and antagonists have clinical applications in various medical conditions, such as infertility treatments, precocious puberty, endometriosis, uterine fibroids, prostate cancer, and hormone-responsive breast cancer.

Gonadal steroid hormones, also known as gonadal sex steroids, are hormones that are produced and released by the gonads (i.e., ovaries in women and testes in men). These hormones play a critical role in the development and maintenance of secondary sexual characteristics, reproductive function, and overall health.

The three main classes of gonadal steroid hormones are:

1. Androgens: These are male sex hormones that are primarily produced by the testes but also produced in smaller amounts by the ovaries and adrenal glands. The most well-known androgen is testosterone, which plays a key role in the development of male secondary sexual characteristics such as facial hair, deepening of the voice, and increased muscle mass.
2. Estrogens: These are female sex hormones that are primarily produced by the ovaries but also produced in smaller amounts by the adrenal glands. The most well-known estrogen is estradiol, which plays a key role in the development of female secondary sexual characteristics such as breast development and the menstrual cycle.
3. Progestogens: These are hormones that are produced by the ovaries during the second half of the menstrual cycle and play a key role in preparing the uterus for pregnancy. The most well-known progestogen is progesterone, which also plays a role in maintaining pregnancy and regulating the menstrual cycle.

Gonadal steroid hormones can have significant effects on various physiological processes, including bone density, cognitive function, mood, and sexual behavior. Disorders of gonadal steroid hormone production or action can lead to a range of health problems, including infertility, osteoporosis, and sexual dysfunction.

Thyroid hormone receptors (THRs) are nuclear receptor proteins that bind to thyroid hormones, triiodothyronine (T3) and thyroxine (T4), and regulate gene transcription in target cells. These receptors play a crucial role in the development, growth, and metabolism of an organism by mediating the actions of thyroid hormones. THRs are encoded by genes THRA and THRB, which give rise to two major isoforms: TRα1 and TRβ1. Additionally, alternative splicing results in other isoforms with distinct tissue distributions and functions. THRs function as heterodimers with retinoid X receptors (RXRs) and bind to thyroid hormone response elements (TREs) in the regulatory regions of target genes. The binding of T3 or T4 to THRs triggers a conformational change, which leads to recruitment of coactivators or corepressors, ultimately resulting in activation or repression of gene transcription.

Human Growth Hormone (HGH), also known as somatotropin, is a peptide hormone produced in the pituitary gland. It plays a crucial role in human development and growth by stimulating the production of another hormone called insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1). IGF-1 promotes the growth and reproduction of cells throughout the body, particularly in bones and other tissues. HGH also helps regulate body composition, body fluids, muscle and bone growth, sugar and fat metabolism, and possibly heart function. It is essential for human development and continues to have important effects throughout life. The secretion of HGH decreases with age, which is thought to contribute to the aging process.

Adrenocorticotropic Hormone (ACTH) is a hormone produced and released by the anterior pituitary gland, a small endocrine gland located at the base of the brain. ACTH plays a crucial role in the regulation of the body's stress response and has significant effects on various physiological processes.

The primary function of ACTH is to stimulate the adrenal glands, which are triangular-shaped glands situated on top of the kidneys. The adrenal glands consist of two parts: the outer cortex and the inner medulla. ACTH specifically targets the adrenal cortex, where it binds to specific receptors and initiates a series of biochemical reactions leading to the production and release of steroid hormones, primarily cortisol (a glucocorticoid) and aldosterone (a mineralocorticoid).

Cortisol is involved in various metabolic processes, such as regulating blood sugar levels, modulating the immune response, and helping the body respond to stress. Aldosterone plays a vital role in maintaining electrolyte and fluid balance by promoting sodium reabsorption and potassium excretion in the kidneys.

ACTH release is controlled by the hypothalamus, another part of the brain, which produces corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH). CRH stimulates the anterior pituitary gland to secrete ACTH, which in turn triggers cortisol production in the adrenal glands. This complex feedback system helps maintain homeostasis and ensures that appropriate amounts of cortisol are released in response to various physiological and psychological stressors.

Disorders related to ACTH can lead to hormonal imbalances, resulting in conditions such as Cushing's syndrome (excessive cortisol production) or Addison's disease (insufficient cortisol production). Proper diagnosis and management of these disorders typically involve assessing the function of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis and addressing any underlying issues affecting ACTH secretion.

Pituitary hormones are chemical messengers produced and released by the pituitary gland, a small endocrine gland located at the base of the brain. The pituitary gland is often referred to as the "master gland" because it controls several other endocrine glands and regulates various bodily functions.

There are two main types of pituitary hormones: anterior pituitary hormones and posterior pituitary hormones, which are produced in different parts of the pituitary gland and have distinct functions.

Anterior pituitary hormones include:

1. Growth hormone (GH): regulates growth and metabolism.
2. Thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH): stimulates the thyroid gland to produce thyroid hormones.
3. Adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH): stimulates the adrenal glands to produce cortisol and other steroid hormones.
4. Follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) and luteinizing hormone (LH): regulate reproductive function in both males and females.
5. Prolactin: stimulates milk production in lactating women.
6. Melanocyte-stimulating hormone (MSH): regulates skin pigmentation and appetite.

Posterior pituitary hormones include:

1. Oxytocin: stimulates uterine contractions during childbirth and milk ejection during lactation.
2. Vasopressin (antidiuretic hormone, ADH): regulates water balance in the body by controlling urine production in the kidneys.

Overall, pituitary hormones play crucial roles in regulating growth, development, metabolism, reproductive function, and various other bodily functions. Abnormalities in pituitary hormone levels can lead to a range of medical conditions, such as dwarfism, acromegaly, Cushing's disease, infertility, and diabetes insipidus.

"Candidate GI Hormone: Pancreatic Polypeptide". Essentials of Human Physiology. Archived from the original on 2016-03-24. ... Pancreatic polypeptide (PP) is a polypeptide secreted by PP cells in the endocrine pancreas. It regulates pancreatic secretion ... The secretion of pancreatic polypeptide may be increased by pancreatic tumours (insulin, glucagon), by Verner-Morrison syndrome ... Pancreatic polypeptide inhibits pancreatic secretion of fluid, bicarbonate, and digestive enzymes. It also stimulates gastric ...
Genes on human chromosome 2, Pancreatic hormones, Precursor proteins). ... Pollock HG, Hamilton JW, Rouse JB, Ebner KE, Rawitch AB (July 1988). "Isolation of peptide hormones from the pancreas of the ... itself is a protein with three repeats of slightly different secretin family hormones to be cleaved to form mature hormones. ... Glicentin-related pancreatic polypeptide (GRPP, 21-50) Oxyntomodulin (OXY or OXM, 53-89) Glucagon (53-81) Glucagon-like peptide ...
As such, while the fetal pancreatic alpha and beta islet cells have fully developed and are capable of hormone synthesis during ... Girard, J. (November 1989). "Control of fetal and neonatal glucose metabolism by pancreatic hormones". Baillière's Clinical ... During the early stages of fetal development, the number of pancreatic alpha cells outnumbers the number of pancreatic beta ... The Sertoli cells are the point of origin for anti-Müllerian hormone. Once synthesized, the anti-Müllerian hormone initiates ...
Increased levels of somatostatin inhibit pancreatic hormones and gastrointestinal hormones. Thus, somatostatinomas are ... Inhibit the release of growth hormone, thus opposing the effects of growth hormone-releasing hormone (GHRH) Inhibit the release ... and reduces smooth muscle contractions and blood flow within the intestine Suppresses the release of pancreatic hormones ... Ellison TA, Edil BH (2012). "The current management of pancreatic neuroendocrine tumors". Adv Surg. 46 (46): 283-296. doi: ...
Verberne, Anthony J. M.; Mussa, Bashair M. (2022-06-01). "Neural control of pancreatic peptide hormone secretion". Peptides. ... in pancreatic β‐cell regeneration through transdifferentiation of pancreatic α‐ to β‐cells". Cell Biology International. ... Alpha cells secrete the peptide hormone glucagon in order to increase glucose levels in the blood stream. Islets of Langerhans ... Alpha cells are endocrine cells, meaning they secrete a hormone, in this case glucagon. Alpha cells store this glucagon in ...
Pancreatic Hormones: Advances in Research and Application: 2011 Edition: ScholarlyBrief. ScholarlyEditions; 9 January 2012. ...
Yi P, Park JS, Melton DA (May 2013). "Betatrophin: a hormone that controls pancreatic β cell proliferation". Cell. 153 (4): 747 ... Hormones of the liver, Hormones of adipose tissue, Peptide hormones). ... In 2013 it was suggested by Melton and Yi from Harvard that ANGPTL8 promotes mouse pancreatic islet cell proliferation. These ... "ANGPTL8/betatrophin does not control pancreatic beta cell expansion". Cell. 159 (3): 691-6. doi:10.1016/j.cell.2014.09.027. PMC ...
Sandhu BK, Brueton MJ (November 1989). "Concurrent pancreatic and growth hormone insufficiency in Johanson-Blizzard syndrome". ... clusters of pancreatic exocrine gland tissue, where secretion of pancreatic juice and related enzymes occurs), pancreatic ... Pancreatic insufficiency and malabsorption can be managed with pancreatic enzyme replacement therapy, such as pancrelipase ... In the pancreatic acinar cells, UBR1 is more highly expressed than anywhere else in the body. Impairment of the ubiquitin- ...
"Modulation of pancreatic islets-stress axis by hypothalamic releasing hormones and 11beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase". ... luteinizing hormone, and estradiol in healthy women". Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of ... "Association of a corticotropin-releasing hormone receptor 1 haplotype and antidepressant treatment response in Mexican- ...
November 2006). "Production of pancreatic hormone-expressing endocrine cells from human embryonic stem cells". Nature ...
"Production of pancreatic hormone-expressing endocrine cells from human embryonic stem cells". Nature Biotechnology. 24 (11): ... This process includes removing the donor mother's ovaries and dosing her with progesterone, changing the hormone environment, ... and researchers at Harvard University were able to produce large quantities of pancreatic beta cells from ESCs. An article ...
2022). "SMNDC1 links chromatin remodeling and splicing to regulate pancreatic hormone expression". Cell Reports. 40 (9): 111288 ...
"Secretory protein 7B2 is associated with pancreatic hormones within normal islets and some experimentally induced tumors". ...
... pancreatic, and adrenal cortical hormones on glucose utilization; and his investigations concerning the energetics of ... hormones, toxins, triterpenes, and others. Many of these syntheses are considered to be milestones in their fields. He has been ... the protein nature of insulin and the characterization and synthesis of hormones of the pituitary gland, and for the training ...
Nguyen, TM; Wright JR, Jr; Nielsen, PF; Conlon, JM (1995). "Characterization of the pancreatic hormones from the Brockmann body ... They also secrete other hormones such as glucagon and somatostatin. Hence, Brochmann body is the centre of control of blood ... In addition it inhibits release of growth hormone from the pituitary. It is named after a German physician Heinrich Brochmann ... The amino acid sequence and primary structure of the hormones are slightly different from their counterparts in higher ...
In the pancreas, after binding to somatostatin, it inhibits the secretion of peptide hormones from pancreatic islets. During ... These hormones include dopamine, norepinephrine, thyrotropin-releasing hormone, and corticotropin-releasing hormone. Many of ... The somatostatin hormone itself can negatively affect the uptake of hormones in the body and may play a role in some hormonal ... and also acts as an inhibitor to the milk producing hormone in female mammals, prolactin, and growth hormones. Researchers ...
... "second pancreatic hormone." The first successful open heart surgery was performed at the Detroit Medical Center by Wayne State ...
"MIN6 is not a pure beta cell line but a mixed cell line with other pancreatic endocrine hormones". Endocrine Journal. 56 (1): ... These two hormones are secreted from intestinal L-cells and intestinal K-cells, respectively, when stimulated by dietary ... The SNP gene carriers did not evidence abnormal insulin or pancreatic beta cell functions. This study suggested but did not ... and pancreatic islets isolated from humans. These fatty acid activators did not have this action in the absence of concurrent ...
... types depending on whether the release hormones or not. For example, some of these pancreatic endocrine tumors release hormones ... Pancreatic endocrine tumors are named after the type of hormone they release. For example, an insulin-secreting tumor is ... A pancreatic tumor is an abnormal growth in the pancreas. In adults, almost 90% are pancreatic cancer and a few are benign. ... The most common type of pancreatic tumor is pancreatic adenocarcinoma, which accounts near 90% of all pancreas cancers. ...
Tatemoto K (April 1982). "Isolation and characterization of peptide YY (PYY), a candidate gut hormone that inhibits pancreatic ... Peptide YY is related to the pancreatic peptide family by having 18 of its 36 amino acids located in the same positions as ... PYY may also suppress pancreatic secretion. It is secreted by the neuroendocrine cells in the ileum and colon in response to a ... Peptide YY3-36 (PYY) is a linear polypeptide consisting of 34 amino acids with structural homology to NPY and pancreatic ...
... is a very rare tumor of the pancreatic alpha cells that results in the overproduction of the hormone, glucagon. ... Glucagonoma results from the overproduction of glucagon, a peptide hormone located in the pancreatic alpha cells. Classic ... The presence of glucagonoma syndrome, the symptoms that accompany the pancreatic tumor, as well as elevated levels of glucagon ... Weight loss, the most commonly associated effect with glucagonoma, results from the glucagon hormone, which prevents the uptake ...
The pancreatic islets or islets of Langerhans are the regions of the pancreas that contain its endocrine (hormone-producing) ... The pancreatic islets constitute 1-2% of the pancreas volume and receive 10-15% of its blood flow. The pancreatic islets are ... 928 Hormones produced in the pancreatic islets are secreted directly into the blood flow by (at least) five types of cells. In ... 928 Each islet is separated from the surrounding pancreatic tissue by a thin fibrous connective tissue capsule which is ...
Measurement of hormones including pancreatic polypeptide, gastrin, proinsulin, insulin, glucagon, and vasoactive intestinal ... Pancreatic neuroendocrine tumours (PanNETs, PETs, or PNETs), often referred to as "islet cell tumours", or "pancreatic ... are different from the mutated genes previously found in pancreatic adenocarcinoma. one in six well-differentiated pancreatic ... Pancreatic neuroendocrine tumor staging (AJCC) Stage T1 Stage T2 Stage T3 Stage T4 Involvement of nearby lymph nodes - Stage N1 ...
GLP-1 is a hormone that helps pancreatic beta cells to secrete insulin in response to high blood sugar. Because it works like ... the normal hormone, insulin is only secreted when blood sugar is high. Like GLP-1, it also slows gastric emptying. Lixisenatide ...
"Production of pancreatic hormone-expressing endocrine cells from human embryonic stem cells". Nat. Biotechnol. 24 (11): 1392- ... The initial pancreatic bud is composed of Pdx1+ pancreatic progenitor cells that co-express Hlxb9, Hnf6, Ptf1a and NKX6-1. ... Pdx1 is accepted as the earliest marker for pancreatic differentiation, with the fates of pancreatic cells controlled by ... Ma J, Chen M, Wang J, Xia HH, Zhu S, Liang Y, Gu Q, Qiao L, Dai Y, Zou B, Li Z, Zhang Y, Lan H, Wong BC (2008). "Pancreatic ...
Further, they found that the hormone was produced from pancreatic islets by cells differing from the insulin-producing beta ... made an initial discovery that a commercial preparation of insulin was contaminated with another pancreatic hormone, the ... The hormone glucagon was discovered by C.P. Kimball and John R. Murlin in 1923 as a hyperglycaemic (blood-sugar elevating) ... The pair's work showed that glucagon was the major hormone influencing the breakdown of glycogen in the liver-the process known ...
Pancreatic islets contain alpha cells, beta cells, and delta cells, each of which releases a different hormone. These cells ... forming the main pancreatic duct. Usually, the duct of the dorsal bud regresses, leaving the main pancreatic duct. Pancreatic ... the main pancreatic duct and a smaller accessory pancreatic duct run through the body of the pancreas. The main pancreatic duct ... The dorsal pancreatic bud forms the neck, body, and tail of the developed pancreas, and the ventral pancreatic bud forms the ...
Unlike the other pancreatic islet cells, ε-cells also do not produce other pancreatic hormones (insulin, glucagon, homeostatic ... Researchers investigating pancreatic islets in mice compared normal mice pancreatic tissue during development to that of ... These islet cells are also being studied in pancreatic cancer, where it is hoped that they can act as markers to previously ... In both humans and mice, results have varied on whether or not ghrelin is co-localized with other hormones in stages of ...
Thorens B (September 1992). "Expression cloning of the pancreatic beta cell receptor for the gluco-incretin hormone glucagon- ... Peptide hormones and neuropeptides form dense-cored aggregates that pack into dense-core vesicles (DCVs), which are used to ... This compound is a synthetic analogue of the peptide hormone somatostatin and it is used to treat acromegaly (a condition where ... Further insight into how self-assembly and peptide hormones are related has been provided by studies on self-assembling amyloid ...
Thorens B (September 1992). "Expression cloning of the pancreatic beta cell receptor for the gluco-incretin hormone glucagon- ... The GLP-1R is a G protein-coupled receptor that is dependent on glucose and GLP-1 is a peptide hormone that acts directly on ... The diabetic, pancreatic, and neuroprotection implications of GLP1R are also thought to be potential therapies for treating the ... Glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) is a hormone consisting of 30 amino acids. It is released by intestinal L cells when nutrients ...
Dysfunction and destruction of pancreatic islet beta cells is a hallmark of diabetes. Better understanding of cellular signals ... Regulation of pancreatic islet beta-cell mass by growth factor and hormone signaling Prog Mol Biol Transl Sci. 2014;121:321-49. ... Notably, somatolactogenic hormones including growth hormone (GH), prolactin (PRL), and insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) and ... Dysfunction and destruction of pancreatic islet beta cells is a hallmark of diabetes. Better understanding of cellular signals ...
Pancreatic Hormone" by people in this website by year, and whether "Receptors, Pancreatic Hormone" was a major or minor topic ... "Receptors, Pancreatic Hormone" is a descriptor in the National Library of Medicines controlled vocabulary thesaurus, MeSH ( ... Cell surface proteins that bind pancreatic hormones with high affinity and trigger intracellular changes which influence the ... Below are the most recent publications written about "Receptors, Pancreatic Hormone" by people in Profiles. ...
Effect of Pancreatic Hormones on pro-Atrial Natriuretic Peptide in Humans. Research output: Contribution to journal › Journal ... Effect of Pancreatic Hormones on pro-Atrial Natriuretic Peptide in Humans Final published version, 452 KB, PDF document ...
Hormones. Class Summary. Hormones can be used for the reduction of pancreatic exocrine secretion. ... The use of exogenous pancreatic enzymes to reduce pain is linked to the hypothesis that pancreatic stimulation by food causes ... Pancreatogram in a patient with a pancreatic pseudocyst. Note how the pancreatic ducts are extrinsically distorted by a mass ... Pancreatic Enzyme Supplements. Class Summary. These are used as dietary supplementation to aid digestion in patients with ...
Researchers discover new link to pancreatic hormone in type 1 diabetes. Researchers have found evidence of inherent changes to ... Researchers discover new link to pancreatic hormone in type 1 diabetes. Researchers have found evidence of inherent changes to ...
"Candidate GI Hormone: Pancreatic Polypeptide". Essentials of Human Physiology. Archived from the original on 2016-03-24. ... Pancreatic polypeptide (PP) is a polypeptide secreted by PP cells in the endocrine pancreas. It regulates pancreatic secretion ... The secretion of pancreatic polypeptide may be increased by pancreatic tumours (insulin, glucagon), by Verner-Morrison syndrome ... Pancreatic polypeptide inhibits pancreatic secretion of fluid, bicarbonate, and digestive enzymes. It also stimulates gastric ...
keywords = "Hormones, Pancreatic Secretion, Protein, Ruminants, Starch, α-Amylase",. author = "Swanson, {K. C.} and Benson, {J ... Pancreatic exocrine secretion and plasma concentration of some gastrointestinal hormones in response to abomasal infusion of ... Pancreatic exocrine secretion and plasma concentration of some gastrointestinal hormones in response to abomasal infusion of ... Pancreatic exocrine secretion and plasma concentration of some gastrointestinal hormones in response to abomasal infusion of ...
Insulin secreted from pancreatic -cells and glucagon secreted from pancreatic -cells are the two main hormones employed in the ... Insulin secreted from pancreatic -cells and glucagon secreted from pancreatic -cells are the two main hormones employed in the ... Pancreatic islets had been isolated and purified by intra-ductal perfusion of collagenase V (0.5 mg/ml) (Sigma) following ...
Distribution of pancreatic hormones, neuropeptides and cytoskeletal proteins in the pancreas of the one-humped camel. Journal ... Distribution of pancreatic hormones, neuropeptides and cytoskeletal proteins in the pancreas of the one-humped camel. / ... title = "Distribution of pancreatic hormones, neuropeptides and cytoskeletal proteins in the pancreas of the one-humped camel", ... Distribution of pancreatic hormones, neuropeptides and cytoskeletal proteins in the pancreas of the one-humped camel. ...
Blocking digestive hormone may prevent diet-induced pancreatic cancer: Cholecystokinin pathways influence cancer progression ... Blocking digestive hormone may prevent diet-induced pancreatic cancer: Cholecystokinin pathways influence cancer progression ... a digestive hormone. In addition, blocking CCK may help prevent the spread of pancreatic tumors to other areas of the body ( ... Health Newsbreast cancercancerCholesterolDiet and Weight LossNutritionobesityPancreatic CancerTriglycerides Post navigation. ...
Pancreatic hormones and insulin sensitivity.. Plasma glucose levels were raised to a hyperglycemic plateau of 11.1 mmol/l in ... Shimizu M, Kawazu S, Tomono S, Ohno T, Utsugi T, Kato N, Ishi C, Ito Y, Murata K: Age-related alteration of pancreatic beta- ... Goodge KA, Hutton JC: Translational regulation of proinsulin biosynthesis and proinsulin conversion in the pancreatic beta-cell ...
... other secreted hormones may include secreted gastrin and pancreatic polypeptide. In children and adolescents, VIP is produced ... 4] In 1970, Said and Nutt extracted the responsible hormone from animal gut [5] ; in 1973, Bloom causally linked this hormone ... Pancreatic non-beta-cell hyperplasia is rare but has been reported in children. Clinical experience is based mainly on case ... Pancreatic Neuroendocrine (Islet Cell) Tumor Imaging * Systemic Treatment of Metastatic Gastroenteropancreatic Neuroendocrine ...
IPR001955 Pancreatic hormone-like. IPR020392 Pancreatic hormone-like, conserved site. Molecular. Reagents ...
... excluding sex hormones and insulins. The Anatomical Therapeutic Chemical (ATC) classification system from Drugs-about.com ... H04 - Pancreatic hormones*H05 - Calcium homeostasis ATC Classification , Home Page , Sitemap , Terms & Conditions , Privacy ... H - Systemic hormonal preparations, excluding sex hormones and insulins *H01 - Pituitary and hypothalamic hormones and ...
Researchers discover new link to pancreatic hormone in type 1 diabetes. Researchers have found evidence of inherent changes to ... One promising approach to treating type 1 diabetes is implanting pancreatic islet cells that can produce insulin when needed, ...
Activity of pancreatic endopeptidases towards luteinizing hormone-releasing hormones. International Journal of Pharmaceutics, ... Walker, G., Ledger, R., & Tucker, I. G. (1999). Garbomer inhibits tryptic proteolysis of luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone ... Quantitative capillary electrophoresis assay for the proteolytic stability of luteinizing hormone-releasing hormones. Journal ...
Non-hormone-secreting pancreatic cancers can cause anxiety symptoms. Primary lung tumors and lung metastases can often cause ... When anxiety is situational (i.e., produced by pain, another underlying medical condition, a hormone-secreting tumor, or a side ... Hormone-secreting tumors. Pheochromocytoma, thyroid adenoma or carcinoma, parathyroid adenoma, corticotropin-producing tumors, ... pancreatic, and brain cancers seem more likely to report distress, but in general, the type of cancer is only modestly ...
Pancreatic hormone : INSULIN. 77. Dines at home : EATSIN. 78. Number of coins in the Fontana di Trevi : TRE ...
... including pancreatic β cells. Abnormally exaggerated CaV3 channels drive the dedifferentiation of mature β cells. This led us ... Noguchi, G.M.; Huising, M.O. Integrating the inputs that shape pancreatic islet hormone release. Nat. Metab. 2019, 1, 1189-1201 ... Yang, S.N.; Shi, Y.; Zhao, K.; Yang, G.; Yu, J.; Berggren, P.O. Pancreatic β cell CaV channels in health and disease. In ... Yang, S.N.; Shi, Y.; Yang, G.; Li, Y.; Yu, J.; Berggren, P.O. Ionic mechanisms in pancreatic β cell signaling. Cell. Mol. Life ...
A pancreatic neuroendocrine tumor is a type of cancer that forms tumors in the pancreas. ... Types of pancreatic neuroendocrine tumor. Pancreatic NETs are classified into several types:. *Gastrinoma. Gastrin is a hormone ... Pancreatic NET, islet cell carcinoma, islet cell tumor). The hormone-producing cells of the pancreas cluster together in small ... Other pancreatic NETs cause symptoms because of the overproduction of hormones. Here is the breakdown of symptoms that you may ...
Early Changes in Islet Hormone Secretion in the Hamster Pancreatic Cancer Model. Teratog Carcinog Mutagen (2001) 21:59-67. doi ... Italian Pancreatic Cancer Study GDiabetes and the Risk of Pancreatic Cancer. N Engl J Med (1994) 331:81-4. doi: 10.1056/ ... Early Diagnosis and Treatment of Pancreatic Dysplasia in Patients With a Family History of Pancreatic Cancer. Ann Intern Med ( ... For instance, individuals who have a family history of pancreatic cancer often have a higher risk of developing pancreatic ...
... growth hormone (GH) secretion, and pancreatic secretion of insulin and glucagon. ... Opioids inhibit the secretion of adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH), cortisol, and luteinizing hormone (LH) in humans [see ... Other opioid induced-effects may include a reduction in gastric, biliary and pancreatic secretions, spasm of the sphincter of ... Opioids can reduce the efficacy of diuretics by inducing the release of antidiuretic hormone. ...
High-stress hormones may stop pancreatic insulin-producing cells from working properly, reducing insulin production. Chronic ... When stressed, our body produces hormones. These hormones temporarily raise blood pressure by making our heart beat faster and ...
The pancreatic islets or islets of Langerhans are the regions of the pancreas that contain its endocrine (hormone-producing) ... Hormones produced in the pancreatic islets are secreted directly into the blood flow by (at least) five types of cells. In rat ... Pancreatic islets are groups of cells found within the pancreas that release hormones ... Pancreatic islets, the lighter tissue among the darker, acinar pancreatic tissue, hemalum-eosin stain. ...
Chromium works with this pancreatic hormone in the utilization of glucose. insulin. Susan. ...
"Multiplex Surface Plasmon Resonance Imaging-Based Biosensor for Human Pancreatic Islets Hormones Quantification" Anal Chem. 90( ... "Gold nanoparticle amplification strategies for multiplex SPRi-based immunosensing of human pancreatic islet hormones", Analyst ... challenges and opportunities for pancreatic islet research", Lab on a Chip, 16:409 - 431. ... "Elaboration of a Finite Element Model of Pancreatic Islet Dielectric Response to Gap Junction Expression and Insulin Release" ...
... growth hormone (GH) secretion, and pancreatic secretion of insulin and glucagon. ... Opioids inhibit the secretion of adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH), cortisol, and luteinizing hormone (LH) in humans [see ... Other opioid-induced effects may include a reduction in biliary and pancreatic secretions, spasm of sphincter of Oddi, and ... Opioids can reduce the efficacy of diuretics by inducing the release of antidiuretic hormone. ...
They also stimulate prolactin, growth hormone (GH) secretion, and pancreatic secretion of insulin and glucagon. Chronic use of ... Opioids inhibit the secretion of adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH), cortisol, and luteinizing hormone (LH) in humans [see ... Opioids can reduce the efficacy of diuretics by inducing the release of antidiuretic hormone.. ... lifestyle and psychological stressors that may influence gonadal hormone levels have not been adequately controlled for in ...
Learn more about the symptoms, tests to diagnose, and treatment of pancreatic cancer in this expert-reviewed summary. ... Childhood pancreatic cancer treatment includes surgery, radiation therapy, chemotherapy, and targeted therapy. ... Pancreatic tumors that do secrete hormones may cause signs and symptoms. The signs and symptoms depend on the type of hormone ... These tumors are also called pancreatic neuroendocrine tumors (pancreatic NETs).. *Pancreatic carcinoma. Pancreatic carcinoma ...
Their study in mice could pave the way for novel therapies for intractable pancreatic diseases, such as diabetes and cancer. ... of total pancreatic tissue. Pancreatic islet cells are responsible for producing hormones that control glucose in the blood ( ... "With further development, our research may lead to the creation of therapies for diabetes or certain types of pancreatic cancer ... "With very serious pancreatic diseases, the benefits of intraperitoneal injection outweigh the risks." ...
  • These include receptors for glucagon (secreted by alpha cells), insulin (secreted by beta cells), somatostatin (secreted by delta cells), and pancreatic peptide (secreted by PP cells). (childrensmercy.org)
  • The secretion of pancreatic polypeptide may be increased by pancreatic tumours (insulin, glucagon), by Verner-Morrison syndrome, and by gastrinoma Polypeptide-p Pancreas List of human cell types derived from the germ layers Boel E, Schwartz TW, Norris KE, Fiil NP (April 1984). (wikipedia.org)
  • A tumor that forms in the cells that make glucagon, a hormone responsible for increasing the amount of glucose in the blood. (medicinenet.com)
  • However, this difference between conditions in hormone concentrations was not sustained over the course of the fast, as values for both glucagon, amylin and insulin were similar between conditions by 24 hours. (wku.edu)
  • One of these, glucagon, is a pancreatic hormone that counteracts the glucose-lowering action of insulin by stimulating glycogenolysis and gluconeogenesis. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • Such disturbances seem to prevent the proper functioning of the cells in the pancreatic islet that secrete insulin and glucagon, the hormones that regulate blood sugar levels. (sciencedaily.com)
  • Two years ago, the team led by Charna Dibner, Principle Investigator in the Departments of Medicine and of Cell Physiology and Metabolism, and Diabetes Centre at UNIGE Faculty of Medicine, and at HUG, has already shown that in rodents the perturbation of pancreatic cellular clocks led to disrupted insulin and glucagon secretion, thus promoting the onset of diabetes. (sciencedaily.com)
  • We had also previously observed that if the clocks of human pancreatic cells were artificially disrupted in the cellular culture in vitro, secretion of the key islet hormones -- insulin and glucagon -- was compromised," says Volodymyr Petrenko, a researcher in Dr. Dibner's lab and the first author of these publications. (sciencedaily.com)
  • Glucagonoma A glucagonoma is a tumor of the pancreas that produces the hormone glucagon, which raises the level of sugar (glucose) in the blood and causes a distinctive rash. (msdmanuals.com)
  • These gut peptides modulate glucose metabolism by stimulating insulin release after eating and by inhibiting the release of glucagon by pancreatic cells. (medscape.com)
  • Notably, somatolactogenic hormones including growth hormone (GH), prolactin (PRL), and insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) and their receptors (GHR, PRLR, and IGF-1R) are critically involved in beta-cell growth, survival, differentiation, and insulin secretion. (nih.gov)
  • Hormones can be used for the reduction of pancreatic exocrine secretion. (medscape.com)
  • It regulates pancreatic secretion activities, and also impacts liver glycogen storage and gastrointestinal secretion. (wikipedia.org)
  • citation needed] Pancreatic polypeptide regulates pancreatic secretion activities by both endocrine and exocrine tissues. (wikipedia.org)
  • Pancreatic polypeptide inhibits pancreatic secretion of fluid, bicarbonate, and digestive enzymes. (wikipedia.org)
  • It is the antagonist of cholecystokinin and opposes pancreatic secretion stimulated by cholecystokinin. (wikipedia.org)
  • The administration of atropine, the vagotomy, blocks pancreatic polypeptide secretion after meals. (wikipedia.org)
  • Eight Angus steers (290 ± 8 kg), surgically prepared with pancreatic pouch-duodenal reentrant cannulas and abomasal infusion catheters were used in a replicated 4 x 4 Latin square experiment to investigate the effects of abomasal infusion of starch hydrolyzate (SH) and/or casein on pancreatic exocrine secretion and plasma concentration of hormones. (uky.edu)
  • Pancreatic juice (67 mL/h) and protein (1.8 g/h) secretion rates were not affected by nutrient infusion. (uky.edu)
  • Secretion of pancreatic enzymes was increased by SH (trypsin) and casein (α-amylase, trypsin, and chymotrypsin) but not when SH + casein were infused together. (uky.edu)
  • These data indicate that positive effects of postruminal casein on enzyme secretion were inhibited by SH, emphasizing the complexity of the regulatory mechanisms involved in dietary adaptation of pancreatic exocrine secretion. (uky.edu)
  • Changes in hormone concentration may not relate directly to changes in enzyme secretion. (uky.edu)
  • Also inhibits the secretion of pancreatic polypeptide . (wikipedia.org)
  • a hormone secreted esp by the duodenal mucosa that regulates the emptying of the gallbladder and secretion of enzymes by the pancreas and that has been found in the brain. (absp.org.uk)
  • a hormone that is produced by the duodenal mucosa and has an inhibitory action on gastric motility and secretion. (absp.org.uk)
  • The disruption of the circadian clocks was concomitant with the perturbation of hormone secretion. (sciencedaily.com)
  • As a result, hormone secretion is no longer coordinated. (sciencedaily.com)
  • It has a similar structure to neuropeptide Y. Pancreatic polypeptide is synthesised and secreted by PP cells (also known as gamma cells or F cells) of the pancreatic islets of the pancreas. (wikipedia.org)
  • Pancreatic islets had been isolated and purified by intra-ductal perfusion of collagenase V (0.5 mg/ml) (Sigma) following process described (33). (biotech2012.org)
  • The hormone-producing cells of the pancreas cluster together in small groups, called islets, throughout the pancreas. (hopkinsmedicine.org)
  • The pancreatic islets or islets of Langerhans are the regions of the pancreas that contain its endocrine (hormone-producing) cells, discovered in 1869 by German pathological anatomist Paul Langerhans . (wikipedia.org)
  • [1] The pancreatic islets constitute 1-2% of the pancreas volume and receive 10-15% of its blood flow. (wikipedia.org)
  • [2] [3] The pancreatic islets are arranged in density routes throughout the human pancreas, and are important in the metabolism of glucose . (wikipedia.org)
  • Hormones produced in the pancreatic islets are secreted directly into the blood flow by (at least) five types of cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • It has been recognized that the cytoarchitecture of pancreatic islets differs between species. (wikipedia.org)
  • Electrical activity of pancreatic islets has been studied using patch clamp techniques. (wikipedia.org)
  • The beta cells of the pancreatic islets secrete insulin , and so play a significant role in diabetes . (wikipedia.org)
  • Because the beta cells in the pancreatic islets are selectively destroyed by an autoimmune process in type 1 diabetes , clinicians and researchers are actively pursuing islet transplantation as a means of restoring physiological beta cell function, which would offer an alternative to a complete pancreas transplant or artificial pancreas . (wikipedia.org)
  • Modulation of pancreatic islets-stress axis by hypothalamic releasing hormones and 11beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase. (harvard.edu)
  • Hence our next step, that we report here, was to unravel whether the circadian rhythms were perturbed in human pancreatic islets in type 2 diabetes, and, if so, how would this perturbation affect the islet function. (sciencedaily.com)
  • Pancreas The pancreas is an organ that contains two types of glandular tissue: Pancreatic acini Islets of Langerhans (See also Overview of the Digestive System. (msdmanuals.com)
  • Pancreatic polypeptide (PP) is a polypeptide secreted by PP cells in the endocrine pancreas. (wikipedia.org)
  • Adeghate, EA & Pallot, DJ 1997, ' Distribution of pancreatic hormones, neuropeptides and cytoskeletal proteins in the pancreas of the one-humped camel ', Journal of Anatomy , vol. 191, no. 1, pp. 145. (uaeu.ac.ae)
  • A pancreatic neuroendocrine tumor (NET) is a type of cancer that forms tumors in the pancreas. (hopkinsmedicine.org)
  • The endocrine pancreas makes certain hormones that are released into the blood. (hopkinsmedicine.org)
  • :928 Each islet is separated from the surrounding pancreatic tissue by a thin fibrous connective tissue capsule which is continuous with the fibrous connective tissue that is interwoven throughout the rest of the pancreas. (wikipedia.org)
  • Pancreatic cancer is a disease in which malignant (cancer) cells form in the tissues of the pancreas. (cancer.gov)
  • Tests that examine the pancreas are used to help diagnose pancreatic cancer. (cancer.gov)
  • An islet cell tumor, also known as a pancreatic neuroendocrine tumor , forms in hormone-producing cells (islet cells) of the pancreas. (medicinenet.com)
  • a protein hormone produced in the pancreas of animals. (absp.org.uk)
  • Insulinoma An insulinoma is a rare type of tumor of the pancreas that secretes insulin, a hormone that lowers the levels of sugar (glucose) in the blood. (msdmanuals.com)
  • Gastrinoma A gastrinoma is a tumor usually in the pancreas or duodenum (the first segment of the small intestine) that produces excessive levels of the hormone gastrin, which stimulates the stomach to. (msdmanuals.com)
  • Specific symptoms of pancreatic NETs are different, depending on what type you have. (hopkinsmedicine.org)
  • Signs and symptoms of pancreatic cancer include feeling tired and weight loss. (cancer.gov)
  • What are the signs or symptoms of pancreatic neuroendocrine tumors? (medicinenet.com)
  • What is a pancreatic neuroendocrine tumor? (medicinenet.com)
  • How is a pancreatic neuroendocrine tumor diagnosed? (medicinenet.com)
  • Two individuals (0.9%) in the FPC cohort had a pancreatic tumor, including one advanced PDAC and one early grade 2 neuroendocrine tumor. (medscape.com)
  • This precursor is cleaved to produce pancreatic polypeptide, pancreatic icosapeptide, and a 5- to 7- amino-acid oligopeptide. (wikipedia.org)
  • Pancreatic polypeptide consists of 36 amino acids. (wikipedia.org)
  • Plasma pancreatic polypeptide has been shown to be reduced in conditions associated with increased food intake and elevated in anorexia nervosa. (wikipedia.org)
  • Blood was sampled for ghrelin, growth hormone (GH), and pancreatic polypeptide (PP) levels. (bmj.com)
  • 6 An alternative, more gut specific, assessment of autonomic tone is by measurement of plasma pancreatic polypeptide (PP) in response to sham feeding. (bmj.com)
  • Pancreatic islet cell tumors may secrete 2 or more polypeptide hormones. (medscape.com)
  • When a tumor forms in one of these clusters, it's called a pancreatic NET, or islet cell carcinoma. (hopkinsmedicine.org)
  • This is the most common type of pancreatic tumor in children. (cancer.gov)
  • A tumor that forms in the cells that produce gastrin, a hormone responsible for making the stomach release acid to help digestion . (medicinenet.com)
  • A tumor that forms in the cells that produce insulin, a hormone responsible for controlling the amount of glucose in the blood. (medicinenet.com)
  • The signs or symptoms are either caused by the growth of the tumor and/or by the hormones produced by the tumor. (medicinenet.com)
  • One promising approach to treating type 1 diabetes is implanting pancreatic islet cells that can produce insulin when needed, which can free patients from giving themselves frequent insulin injections. (medicalxpress.com)
  • In children, some pancreatic tumors do not secrete hormones and there are no signs and symptoms of disease. (cancer.gov)
  • Pancreatic tumors that do secrete hormones may cause signs and symptoms. (cancer.gov)
  • Endocrine Function The main function of endocrine glands is to secrete hormones directly into the bloodstream. (msdmanuals.com)
  • These tumors may or may not secrete hormones themselves and may or may not be cancerous (malignant). (msdmanuals.com)
  • Nonfunctioning tumors do not secrete hormones and are not cancerous. (msdmanuals.com)
  • These glands secrete hormones that travel through the circulatory system to regulate the various body systems. (cdc.gov)
  • Cell surface receptors that bind the hypothalamic hormones regulating pituitary cell differentiation, proliferation, and hormone synthesis and release, including the pituitary-releasing and release-inhibiting hormones. (harvard.edu)
  • The pituitary hormone-regulating hormones are also released by cells other than hypothalamic neurons, and their receptors also occur on non-pituitary cells, especially brain neurons, where their role is less well understood. (harvard.edu)
  • a protein hormone of the pituitary gland. (absp.org.uk)
  • a hormone secreted by the pituitary gland which stimulates the production of melanin by melanocytes. (absp.org.uk)
  • Previous research has shown that obesity and high-fat diets both together and independently increase the risk of pancreatic cancer. (takethehealth.com)
  • People with some other inherited syndromes, such as von Hippel Lindau (VHL) syndrome and neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1), also have an increased risk of pancreatic NETs. (hopkinsmedicine.org)
  • Receptors, Pancreatic Hormone" is a descriptor in the National Library of Medicine's controlled vocabulary thesaurus, MeSH (Medical Subject Headings) . (childrensmercy.org)
  • Some of these hormones and receptors also support neurotransmission. (childrensmercy.org)
  • This graph shows the total number of publications written about "Receptors, Pancreatic Hormone" by people in this website by year, and whether "Receptors, Pancreatic Hormone" was a major or minor topic of these publications. (childrensmercy.org)
  • Below are the most recent publications written about "Receptors, Pancreatic Hormone" by people in Profiles. (childrensmercy.org)
  • Pancreatic growth and regeneration occurs through interaction of CCK with CCK receptors, proteins that bind to CCK to produce a physiological reaction. (takethehealth.com)
  • Receptors for dopamine, which is a prolactin release-inhibiting hormone as well as a common neurotransmitter, are not included here. (harvard.edu)
  • Expression of growth hormone-releasing hormone receptors in apocrine adnexal tumours and apocrine glands of the skin. (harvard.edu)
  • Growth hormone-releasing hormone antagonists abolish the transactivation of human epidermal growth factor receptors in advanced prostate cancer models. (harvard.edu)
  • Camilleri, who is an associate editor of Gut , coauthored an invited article about the effects of GLP-1 and other gut hormone receptors on the GI tract that was published online in the American Journal of Gastroenterology . (medscape.com)
  • This makes it hard to diagnose pancreatic cancer early. (cancer.gov)
  • Insulin, a hormone that regulates blood sugar, is made in pancreatic beta cells. (umassmed.edu)
  • a hormone produced by the insect brain that regulates processes associated with ecdysis. (absp.org.uk)
  • The endocrine system consists of specialized groups of cells called glands that make, store, and release regulating chemicals called hormones directly into the bloodstream to regulate how the body functions. (cdc.gov)
  • a hormone secreted by the thyroid gland, controlling the rate of bone destruction. (absp.org.uk)
  • Within these themes, NME focuses on a core set of cancer sites, primarily colorectal cancer, pancreatic cancer, and liver cancer, as well as hormone-related cancers such as breast cancer, thyroid cancer, and endometrial cancer. (who.int)
  • A high-fat diet may promote the growth of pancreatic cancer independent of obesity because of the interaction between dietary fat and cholecystokinin (CCK), a digestive hormone. (takethehealth.com)
  • Amylin acts principally in the circumventricular organs of the central nervous system and functionally interacts with other metabolically active hormones such as cholecystokinin, leptin, and estradiol. (aspetjournals.org)
  • Dysfunction and destruction of pancreatic islet beta cells is a hallmark of diabetes. (nih.gov)
  • Cell surface proteins that bind pancreatic hormones with high affinity and trigger intracellular changes which influence the behavior of cells. (childrensmercy.org)
  • Ca V 3 channels are ontogenetically downregulated with the maturation of certain electrically excitable cells, including pancreatic β cells. (mdpi.com)
  • High-stress hormones may stop pancreatic insulin-producing cells from working properly, reducing insulin production. (thedailystar.net)
  • A pancreatic islet, showing beta cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • Rare types of tumors of the cells that produce hormones responsible for controlling the balance of sugar , salt, and water in the body. (medicinenet.com)
  • In pancreatic cancer patients who have had diabetes for less than five years, it is unclear if the diabetes contributed to the cancer or if the precancerous cells caused the diabetes. (pancan.org)
  • a protein hormone produced by fat cells in the body. (absp.org.uk)
  • By comparing the pancreatic cells of type 2 diabetic human donors with those of healthy people, researchers at the University of Geneva (UNIGE) and at the University Hospitals of Geneva (HUG), Switzerland, were able to demonstrate, for the first time, that the pancreatic islet cells derived from the Type 2 Diabetic human donors bear compromised circadian oscillators. (sciencedaily.com)
  • Using combined bioluminescence-fluorescence time-lapse microscopy, a technology that allows tracking the molecular clock activity in living cells very precisely over time, the scientists compared the behaviour of pancreatic cell of type-2 diabetic donors and those of healthy subjects throughout the day. (sciencedaily.com)
  • Pancreatic islet cells are part of the diffuse neuroendocrine system of the gut and pancreatic endocrine system. (medscape.com)
  • Pancreatic endocrine tumors are tumors that arise from the types of pancreatic cells that produce hormones. (msdmanuals.com)
  • It is released from the pancreatic beta-cells during cleavage of insulin from proinsulin. (medscape.com)
  • The insulin precursor, preproinsulin, is produced in the rough endoplasmic reticulum of pancreatic beta-cells and is later cleaved to proinsulin and transported to the Golgi apparatus, where is packed into secretory granules. (medscape.com)
  • Pancreatic beta cells release the hormone insulin when blood glucose increases after a meal. (lu.se)
  • Somatostatin is a hypothalamic hormone, a pancreatic hormone, and a central and peripheral neurotransmitter. (bvsalud.org)
  • Pancreatic NETs can be either benign (non-cancerous) or malignant (cancerous), although both types can cause serious health problems. (hopkinsmedicine.org)
  • Pancreatic NETs are fairly rare. (hopkinsmedicine.org)
  • Other pancreatic NETs cause symptoms because of the overproduction of hormones. (hopkinsmedicine.org)
  • These tumors are also called pancreatic neuroendocrine tumors (pancreatic NETs). (cancer.gov)
  • Researchers from Georgetown University conducted separate mouse studies involving the interactions between dietary fat, CCK and pancreatic cancer cell growth. (takethehealth.com)
  • These results suggest that CCK is needed to stimulate the growth of pancreatic cancer. (takethehealth.com)
  • CCK [receptor] blockade may play a role in the treatment and prevention of pancreatic cancer. (takethehealth.com)
  • There are four types of pancreatic cancer in children. (cancer.gov)
  • Their study in mice, recently published in Science Advances , could pave the way for novel therapies for intractable pancreatic diseases, such as diabetes and cancer. (nih.gov)
  • Inhibitory effects of antagonists of growth hormone-releasing hormone on growth and invasiveness of PC3 human prostate cancer. (harvard.edu)
  • In the fight against pancreatic cancer, clinical trials often provide the best treatment options. (pancan.org)
  • How does diabetes relate to pancreatic cancer? (pancan.org)
  • Diabetes may be either a risk factor or a symptom of pancreatic cancer. (pancan.org)
  • Pancreatic cancer is more likely to occur in people who have long-standing (over 5 years) diabetes than in people who do not have diabetes. (pancan.org)
  • Also, research studies suggest that new-onset diabetes in people over 50 may be an early symptom of pancreatic cancer. (pancan.org)
  • A sudden change in blood sugar levels in diabetics who previously had well-controlled diabetes may also be a sign of pancreatic cancer. (pancan.org)
  • Patients and Methods Screening outcomes were collected from three European centers that conduct prospective screening in high-risk groups including families with clustering of PDAC (familial pancreatic cancer [FPC]) or families with a gene defect that predisposes to PDAC. (medscape.com)
  • Drugs containing estrogen (a hormone that helps develop and maintain female sex characteristics), which were used to treat prostate cancer in the past, increase men's breast cancer risk. (cdc.gov)
  • In men, mutations in the BRCA1 and BRCA2 genes can increase the risk of breast cancer, high-grade prostate cancer, and pancreatic cancer. (cdc.gov)
  • Diabetes is a disease in which the body does not make or properly use a pancreatic hormone called insulin. (pancan.org)
  • Pancreatic hormones and diabetes mellitus. (medscape.com)
  • When stressed, our body produces hormones. (thedailystar.net)
  • Amylin is a pancreatic β -cell hormone that produces effects in several different organ systems. (aspetjournals.org)
  • Pancreatic neuroendocrine tumors may be functional or nonfunctional. (medscape.com)
  • Pancreatic neuroendocrine tumors can be benign (noncancerous) or malignant (cancerous). (medicinenet.com)
  • Parathyroid hormone induces adipocyte lipolysis via PKA-mediated phosphorylation of hormone-sensitive lipase. (lu.se)
  • Here, we review the literature in rodents and in humans on amylin research since its discovery as a hormone about 25 years ago. (aspetjournals.org)
  • The two types of pancreatic carcinoma are acinar cell carcinoma and ductal adenocarcinoma . (cancer.gov)
  • Purpose Pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) has a poor prognosis. (medscape.com)
  • In this paper, the potential role of gut hormones as potential treatments or predictors of response in depression is examined, with specific reference to the peptide hormone motilin. (mdpi.com)
  • Other types of islet cell tumors make hormones that control the balance of water, sugar, and salt in your body. (hopkinsmedicine.org)
  • These don't make hormones and don't cause symptoms for a long time. (hopkinsmedicine.org)
  • a neurotransmitter hormone related to adrenalin, produced by the adrenal glands. (absp.org.uk)
  • a hormone secreted by the pineal gland during the hours of darkness. (absp.org.uk)
  • Pancreatic juice and jugular blood samples were collected over 30-min intervals for 6 h on d 11. (uky.edu)
  • These hormones temporarily raise blood pressure by making our heart beat faster and narrowing our blood vessels. (thedailystar.net)
  • a hormone secreted into blood, lymph, or sap. (absp.org.uk)
  • a blood hormone causing dilation of blood vessels. (absp.org.uk)
  • a pancreatic hormone which raises blood-sugar level and reduces appetite. (absp.org.uk)
  • This therapy includes pain control with analgesic agents and a trial of noncoated pancreatic enzymes. (medscape.com)
  • The use of exogenous pancreatic enzymes to reduce pain is linked to the hypothesis that pancreatic stimulation by food causes pain. (medscape.com)
  • During the past several decades, the number of studies analyzing the molecular mechanisms, including growth factor/hormone signaling pathways that impact islet beta-cell mass and function, has increased exponentially. (nih.gov)
  • Given the potential for advances in molecular profiling to help overcome methodological challenges in nutrition research and delineate the underlying biological pathways, emphasis is placed on conducting molecular epidemiological research that integrates metabolomics, hormone measurements, the microbiome, and genomics, within population-based cohorts and intervention studies. (who.int)
  • GLP-1 and glucose-dependent insulinotropic peptide (GIP) are incretin hormones . (medscape.com)
  • The signs and symptoms depend on the type of hormone being made. (cancer.gov)
  • These tumors may also make adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) and antidiuretic hormone (ADH). (cancer.gov)
  • any of a group of steroid hormones which affect glucose metabolism, having an anti-inflammatory effect. (absp.org.uk)
  • Weight and pH of pancreatic samples were measured, and a 10% subsample was composited and frozen until analysis of total protein and pancreatic enzyme activities. (uky.edu)
  • glucose and fats also induce PP's level increase, but on parenteral introduction of those substances, the level of hormones doesn't change. (wikipedia.org)
  • Hormones are chemical substances that affect the activity of another part of the body (target site). (msdmanuals.com)
  • Growth hormone deficiency with advanced bone age: phenotypic interaction between GHRH receptor and CYP21A2 mutations diagnosed by sanger and whole exome sequencing. (harvard.edu)
  • Differential immunostaining of various types of breast carcinomas for growth hormone-releasing hormone receptor - Apocrine epithelium and carcinomas emerging as uniformly positive. (harvard.edu)
  • A few of these hormones include steroids, growth hormones, and thyroxine. (cdc.gov)
  • After trying a variety of different nanoparticle compositions, the researchers found a combination of lipids that improved pancreatic targeting in mice. (nih.gov)