Tumors or cancer of the ENDOCRINE GLANDS.
A benign tumor of the pancreatic ISLET CELLS. Usually it involves the INSULIN-producing PANCREATIC BETA CELLS, as in INSULINOMA, resulting in HYPERINSULINISM.
A primary malignant neoplasm of the pancreatic ISLET CELLS. Usually it involves the non-INSULIN-producing cell types, the PANCREATIC ALPHA CELLS and the pancreatic delta cells (SOMATOSTATIN-SECRETING CELLS) in GLUCAGONOMA and SOMATOSTATINOMA, respectively.
Tumors or cancer of the PANCREAS. Depending on the types of ISLET CELLS present in the tumors, various hormones can be secreted: GLUCAGON from PANCREATIC ALPHA CELLS; INSULIN from PANCREATIC BETA CELLS; and SOMATOSTATIN from the SOMATOSTATIN-SECRETING CELLS. Most are malignant except the insulin-producing tumors (INSULINOMA).
A GASTRIN-secreting neuroendocrine tumor of the non-beta ISLET CELLS, the GASTRIN-SECRETING CELLS. This type of tumor is primarily located in the PANCREAS or the DUODENUM. Majority of gastrinomas are malignant. They metastasize to the LIVER; LYMPH NODES; and BONE but rarely elsewhere. The presence of gastrinoma is one of three requirements to be met for identification of ZOLLINGER-ELLISON SYNDROME, which sometimes occurs in families with MULTIPLE ENDOCRINE NEOPLASIA TYPE 1; (MEN 1).
An almost always malignant GLUCAGON-secreting tumor derived from the PANCREATIC ALPHA CELLS. It is characterized by a distinctive migratory ERYTHEMA; WEIGHT LOSS; STOMATITIS; GLOSSITIS; DIABETES MELLITUS; hypoaminoacidemia; and normochromic normocytic ANEMIA.
A benign tumor of the PANCREATIC BETA CELLS. Insulinoma secretes excess INSULIN resulting in HYPOGLYCEMIA.
Irregular microscopic structures consisting of cords of endocrine cells that are scattered throughout the PANCREAS among the exocrine acini. Each islet is surrounded by connective tissue fibers and penetrated by a network of capillaries. There are four major cell types. The most abundant beta cells (50-80%) secrete INSULIN. Alpha cells (5-20%) secrete GLUCAGON. PP cells (10-35%) secrete PANCREATIC POLYPEPTIDE. Delta cells (~5%) secrete SOMATOSTATIN.
A form of multiple endocrine neoplasia that is characterized by the combined occurrence of tumors in the PARATHYROID GLANDS, the PITUITARY GLAND, and the PANCREATIC ISLETS. The resulting clinical signs include HYPERPARATHYROIDISM; HYPERCALCEMIA; HYPERPROLACTINEMIA; CUSHING DISEASE; GASTRINOMA; and ZOLLINGER-ELLISON SYNDROME. This disease is due to loss-of-function of the MEN1 gene, a tumor suppressor gene (GENES, TUMOR SUPPRESSOR) on CHROMOSOME 11 (Locus: 11q13).
Tumors whose cells possess secretory granules and originate from the neuroectoderm, i.e., the cells of the ectoblast or epiblast that program the neuroendocrine system. Common properties across most neuroendocrine tumors include ectopic hormone production (often via APUD CELLS), the presence of tumor-associated antigens, and isozyme composition.
A transplantable, poorly differentiated malignant tumor which appeared originally as a spontaneous breast carcinoma in a mouse. It grows in both solid and ascitic forms.
A usually small, slow-growing neoplasm composed of islands of rounded, oxyphilic, or spindle-shaped cells of medium size, with moderately small vesicular nuclei, and covered by intact mucosa with a yellow cut surface. The tumor can occur anywhere in the gastrointestinal tract (and in the lungs and other sites); approximately 90% arise in the appendix. It is now established that these tumors are of neuroendocrine origin and derive from a primitive stem cell. (From Stedman, 25th ed & Holland et al., Cancer Medicine, 3d ed, p1182)
A 36-amino acid pancreatic hormone that is secreted mainly by endocrine cells found at the periphery of the ISLETS OF LANGERHANS and adjacent to cells containing SOMATOSTATIN and GLUCAGON. Pancreatic polypeptide (PP), when administered peripherally, can suppress gastric secretion, gastric emptying, pancreatic enzyme secretion, and appetite. A lack of pancreatic polypeptide (PP) has been associated with OBESITY in rats and mice.
A 14-amino acid peptide named for its ability to inhibit pituitary GROWTH HORMONE release, also called somatotropin release-inhibiting factor. It is expressed in the central and peripheral nervous systems, the gut, and other organs. SRIF can also inhibit the release of THYROID-STIMULATING HORMONE; PROLACTIN; INSULIN; and GLUCAGON besides acting as a neurotransmitter and neuromodulator. In a number of species including humans, there is an additional form of somatostatin, SRIF-28 with a 14-amino acid extension at the N-terminal.
A nodular organ in the ABDOMEN that contains a mixture of ENDOCRINE GLANDS and EXOCRINE GLANDS. The small endocrine portion consists of the ISLETS OF LANGERHANS secreting a number of hormones into the blood stream. The large exocrine portion (EXOCRINE PANCREAS) is a compound acinar gland that secretes several digestive enzymes into the pancreatic ductal system that empties into the DUODENUM.
A SOMATOSTATIN-secreting tumor derived from the pancreatic delta cells (SOMATOSTATIN-SECRETING CELLS). It is also found in the INTESTINE. Somatostatinomas are associated with DIABETES MELLITUS; CHOLELITHIASIS; STEATORRHEA; and HYPOCHLORHYDRIA. The majority of somatostatinomas have the potential for METASTASIS.
A preparation of hog pancreatic enzymes standardized for lipase content.
A 29-amino acid pancreatic peptide derived from proglucagon which is also the precursor of intestinal GLUCAGON-LIKE PEPTIDES. Glucagon is secreted by PANCREATIC ALPHA CELLS and plays an important role in regulation of BLOOD GLUCOSE concentration, ketone metabolism, and several other biochemical and physiological processes. (From Gilman et al., Goodman and Gilman's The Pharmacological Basis of Therapeutics, 9th ed, p1511)
A malignant tumor arising from secreting cells of a racemose gland, particularly the salivary glands. Racemose (Latin racemosus, full of clusters) refers, as does acinar (Latin acinus, grape), to small saclike dilatations in various glands. Acinar cell carcinomas are usually well differentiated and account for about 13% of the cancers arising in the parotid gland. Lymph node metastasis occurs in about 16% of cases. Local recurrences and distant metastases many years after treatment are common. This tumor appears in all age groups and is most common in women. (Stedman, 25th ed; Holland et al., Cancer Medicine, 3d ed, p1240; from DeVita Jr et al., Cancer: Principles & Practice of Oncology, 3d ed, p575)
A syndrome that is characterized by the triad of severe PEPTIC ULCER, hypersecretion of GASTRIC ACID, and GASTRIN-producing tumors of the PANCREAS or other tissue (GASTRINOMA). This syndrome may be sporadic or be associated with MULTIPLE ENDOCRINE NEOPLASIA TYPE 1.
Peptide hormones secreted into the blood by cells in the ISLETS OF LANGERHANS of the pancreas. The alpha cells secrete glucagon; the beta cells secrete insulin; the delta cells secrete somatostatin; and the PP cells secrete pancreatic polypeptide.
A malignant neoplasm made up of epithelial cells tending to infiltrate the surrounding tissues and give rise to metastases. It is a histological type of neoplasm but is often wrongly used as a synonym for "cancer." (From Dorland, 27th ed)
Secretory cells of the ductless glands. They secrete HORMONES directly into the blood circulation (internal secretion) to be carried to the target cells. The secreted chemicals can be PEPTIDES; STEROIDS; NEUROPEPTIDES; or BIOGENIC AMINES.
The transference of pancreatic islets within an individual, between individuals of the same species, or between individuals of different species.
Surgical removal of the pancreas. (Dorland, 28th ed)
A pancreatic beta-cell hormone that is co-secreted with INSULIN. It displays an anorectic effect on nutrient metabolism by inhibiting gastric acid secretion, gastric emptying and postprandial GLUCAGON secretion. Islet amyloid polypeptide can fold into AMYLOID FIBRILS that have been found as a major constituent of pancreatic AMYLOID DEPOSITS.
Cell surface proteins that bind somatostatin and trigger intracellular changes which influence the behavior of cells. Somatostatin is a hypothalamic hormone, a pancreatic hormone, and a central and peripheral neurotransmitter. Activated somatostatin receptors on pituitary cells inhibit the release of growth hormone; those on endocrine and gastrointestinal cells regulate the absorption and utilization of nutrients; and those on neurons mediate somatostatin's role as a neurotransmitter.
Histochemical localization of immunoreactive substances using labeled antibodies as reagents.
The system of glands that release their secretions (hormones) directly into the circulatory system. In addition to the ENDOCRINE GLANDS, included are the CHROMAFFIN SYSTEM and the NEUROSECRETORY SYSTEMS.
Tumors or cancer of the LIVER.
Molecular products metabolized and secreted by neoplastic tissue and characterized biochemically in cells or body fluids. They are indicators of tumor stage and grade as well as useful for monitoring responses to treatment and predicting recurrence. Many chemical groups are represented including hormones, antigens, amino and nucleic acids, enzymes, polyamines, and specific cell membrane proteins and lipids.
Ductless glands that secrete HORMONES directly into the BLOOD CIRCULATION. These hormones influence the METABOLISM and other functions of cells in the body.
Ultrasonography of internal organs using an ultrasound transducer sometimes mounted on a fiberoptic endoscope. In endosonography the transducer converts electronic signals into acoustic pulses or continuous waves and acts also as a receiver to detect reflected pulses from within the organ. An audiovisual-electronic interface converts the detected or processed echo signals, which pass through the electronics of the instrument, into a form that the technologist can evaluate. The procedure should not be confused with ENDOSCOPY which employs a special instrument called an endoscope. The "endo-" of endosonography refers to the examination of tissue within hollow organs, with reference to the usual ultrasonography procedure which is performed externally or transcutaneously.
A potent, long-acting synthetic SOMATOSTATIN octapeptide analog that inhibits secretion of GROWTH HORMONE and is used to treat hormone-secreting tumors; DIABETES MELLITUS; HYPOTENSION, ORTHOSTATIC; HYPERINSULINISM; hypergastrinemia; and small bowel fistula.
A CELL CYCLE and tumor growth marker which can be readily detected using IMMUNOCYTOCHEMISTRY methods. Ki-67 is a nuclear antigen present only in the nuclei of cycling cells.
Immunologic techniques based on the use of: (1) enzyme-antibody conjugates; (2) enzyme-antigen conjugates; (3) antienzyme antibody followed by its homologous enzyme; or (4) enzyme-antienzyme complexes. These are used histologically for visualizing or labeling tissue specimens.
A specific pair of GROUP C CHROMOSOMES of the human chromosome classification.
Pathological processes of the ENDOCRINE GLANDS, and diseases resulting from abnormal level of available HORMONES.
A group of autosomal dominant diseases characterized by the combined occurrence of tumors involving two or more ENDOCRINE GLANDS that secrete PEPTIDE HORMONES or AMINES. These neoplasias are often benign but can be malignant. They are classified by the endocrine glands involved and the degree of aggressiveness. The two major forms are MEN1 and MEN2 with gene mutations on CHROMOSOME 11 and CHROMOSOME 10, respectively.
A 51-amino acid pancreatic hormone that plays a major role in the regulation of glucose metabolism, directly by suppressing endogenous glucose production (GLYCOGENOLYSIS; GLUCONEOGENESIS) and indirectly by suppressing GLUCAGON secretion and LIPOLYSIS. Native insulin is a globular protein comprised of a zinc-coordinated hexamer. Each insulin monomer containing two chains, A (21 residues) and B (30 residues), linked by two disulfide bonds. Insulin is used as a drug to control insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (DIABETES MELLITUS, TYPE 1).
A carcinoma derived from stratified SQUAMOUS EPITHELIAL CELLS. It may also occur in sites where glandular or columnar epithelium is normally present. (From Stedman, 25th ed)
A type of chromogranin which was first isolated from CHROMAFFIN CELLS of the ADRENAL MEDULLA but is also found in other tissues and in many species including human, bovine, rat, mouse, and others. It is an acidic protein with 431 to 445 amino acid residues. It contains fragments that inhibit vasoconstriction or release of hormones and neurotransmitter, while other fragments exert antimicrobial actions.
The loss of one allele at a specific locus, caused by a deletion mutation; or loss of a chromosome from a chromosome pair, resulting in abnormal HEMIZYGOSITY. It is detected when heterozygous markers for a locus appear monomorphic because one of the ALLELES was deleted.
A type of pancreatic cell representing about 50-80% of the islet cells. Beta cells secrete INSULIN.
A type of pancreatic cell representing about 5-20% of the islet cells. Alpha cells secrete GLUCAGON.
A primary malignant neoplasm of epithelial liver cells. It ranges from a well-differentiated tumor with EPITHELIAL CELLS indistinguishable from normal HEPATOCYTES to a poorly differentiated neoplasm. The cells may be uniform or markedly pleomorphic, or form GIANT CELLS. Several classification schemes have been suggested.
Genes that inhibit expression of the tumorigenic phenotype. They are normally involved in holding cellular growth in check. When tumor suppressor genes are inactivated or lost, a barrier to normal proliferation is removed and unregulated growth is possible.
A group of acidic proteins that are major components of SECRETORY GRANULES in the endocrine and neuroendocrine cells. They play important roles in the aggregation, packaging, sorting, and processing of secretory protein prior to secretion. They are cleaved to release biologically active peptides. There are various types of granins, usually classified by their sources.
A prediction of the probable outcome of a disease based on a individual's condition and the usual course of the disease as seen in similar situations.
Transfer of a neoplasm from its primary site to lymph nodes or to distant parts of the body by way of the lymphatic system.
Tumors or cancer of the GASTROINTESTINAL TRACT, from the MOUTH to the ANAL CANAL.
Ducts that collect PANCREATIC JUICE from the PANCREAS and supply it to the DUODENUM.
The major component (about 80%) of the PANCREAS composed of acinar functional units of tubular and spherical cells. The acinar cells synthesize and secrete several digestive enzymes such as TRYPSINOGEN; LIPASE; AMYLASE; and RIBONUCLEASE. Secretion from the exocrine pancreas drains into the pancreatic ductal system and empties into the DUODENUM.
A cell line derived from cultured tumor cells.
A tumor that secretes VASOACTIVE INTESTINAL PEPTIDE, a neuropeptide that causes VASODILATION; relaxation of smooth muscles; watery DIARRHEA; HYPOKALEMIA; and HYPOCHLORHYDRIA. Vipomas, derived from the pancreatic ISLET CELLS, generally are malignant and can secrete other hormones. In most cases, Vipomas are located in the PANCREAS but can be found in extrapancreatic sites.
Products of proto-oncogenes. Normally they do not have oncogenic or transforming properties, but are involved in the regulation or differentiation of cell growth. They often have protein kinase activity.
Tomography using x-ray transmission and a computer algorithm to reconstruct the image.
Tumors or cancer of the DIGESTIVE SYSTEM.
Studies used to test etiologic hypotheses in which inferences about an exposure to putative causal factors are derived from data relating to characteristics of persons under study or to events or experiences in their past. The essential feature is that some of the persons under study have the disease or outcome of interest and their characteristics are compared with those of unaffected persons.
An autosomal dominant disorder caused by mutations in a tumor suppressor gene. This syndrome is characterized by abnormal growth of small blood vessels leading to a host of neoplasms. They include HEMANGIOBLASTOMA in the RETINA; CEREBELLUM; and SPINAL CORD; PHEOCHROMOCYTOMA; pancreatic tumors; and renal cell carcinoma (see CARCINOMA, RENAL CELL). Common clinical signs include HYPERTENSION and neurological dysfunctions.
Progressive restriction of the developmental potential and increasing specialization of function that leads to the formation of specialized cells, tissues, and organs.
Exogenous agents, synthetic and naturally occurring, which are capable of disrupting the functions of the ENDOCRINE SYSTEM including the maintenance of HOMEOSTASIS and the regulation of developmental processes. Endocrine disruptors are compounds that can mimic HORMONES, or enhance or block the binding of hormones to their receptors, or otherwise lead to activating or inhibiting the endocrine signaling pathways and hormone metabolism.
A family of DNA-binding transcription factors that contain a basic HELIX-LOOP-HELIX MOTIF.
A family of gastrointestinal peptide hormones that excite the secretion of GASTRIC JUICE. They may also occur in the central nervous system where they are presumed to be neurotransmitters.
A lesion with cytological characteristics associated with invasive carcinoma but the tumor cells are confined to the epithelium of origin, without invasion of the basement membrane.
Studies in which individuals or populations are followed to assess the outcome of exposures, procedures, or effects of a characteristic, e.g., occurrence of disease.
RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.
All of the processes involved in increasing CELL NUMBER including CELL DIVISION.
A variation of the PCR technique in which cDNA is made from RNA via reverse transcription. The resultant cDNA is then amplified using standard PCR protocols.
Carcinoma that arises from the PANCREATIC DUCTS. It accounts for the majority of cancers derived from the PANCREAS.
Pathological processes of the PANCREAS.
The transfer of a neoplasm from one organ or part of the body to another remote from the primary site.
A primary source of energy for living organisms. It is naturally occurring and is found in fruits and other parts of plants in its free state. It is used therapeutically in fluid and nutrient replacement.
Proteins encoded by homeobox genes (GENES, HOMEOBOX) that exhibit structural similarity to certain prokaryotic and eukaryotic DNA-binding proteins. Homeodomain proteins are involved in the control of gene expression during morphogenesis and development (GENE EXPRESSION REGULATION, DEVELOPMENTAL).
A group of carcinomas which share a characteristic morphology, often being composed of clusters and trabecular sheets of round "blue cells", granular chromatin, and an attenuated rim of poorly demarcated cytoplasm. Neuroendocrine tumors include carcinoids, small ("oat") cell carcinomas, medullary carcinoma of the thyroid, Merkel cell tumor, cutaneous neuroendocrine carcinoma, pancreatic islet cell tumors, and pheochromocytoma. Neurosecretory granules are found within the tumor cells. (Segen, Dictionary of Modern Medicine, 1992)
A malignant neoplasm characterized by the formation of numerous, irregular, finger-like projections of fibrous stroma that is covered with a surface layer of neoplastic epithelial cells. (Stedman, 25th ed)
Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in neoplastic tissue.
A cystic tumor of the ovary, containing thin, clear, yellow serous fluid and varying amounts of solid tissue, with a malignant potential several times greater than that of mucinous cystadenoma (CYSTADENOMA, MUCINOUS). It can be unilocular, parvilocular, or multilocular. It is often bilateral and papillary. The cysts may vary greatly in size. (Dorland, 27th ed; from Hughes, Obstetric-Gynecologic Terminology, 1972)
Tumors or cancer of the THYROID GLAND.
The total amount (cell number, weight, size or volume) of tumor cells or tissue in the body.
Tumors or cancer of the ADRENAL GLANDS.
Proteins whose abnormal expression (gain or loss) are associated with the development, growth, or progression of NEOPLASMS. Some neoplasm proteins are tumor antigens (ANTIGENS, NEOPLASM), i.e. they induce an immune reaction to their tumor. Many neoplasm proteins have been characterized and are used as tumor markers (BIOMARKERS, TUMOR) when they are detectable in cells and body fluids as monitors for the presence or growth of tumors. Abnormal expression of ONCOGENE PROTEINS is involved in neoplastic transformation, whereas the loss of expression of TUMOR SUPPRESSOR PROTEINS is involved with the loss of growth control and progression of the neoplasm.
Serum glycoprotein produced by activated MACROPHAGES and other mammalian MONONUCLEAR LEUKOCYTES. It has necrotizing activity against tumor cell lines and increases ability to reject tumor transplants. Also known as TNF-alpha, it is only 30% homologous to TNF-beta (LYMPHOTOXIN), but they share TNF RECEPTORS.
A subtype of DIABETES MELLITUS that is characterized by INSULIN deficiency. It is manifested by the sudden onset of severe HYPERGLYCEMIA, rapid progression to DIABETIC KETOACIDOSIS, and DEATH unless treated with insulin. The disease may occur at any age, but is most common in childhood or adolescence.
Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.
Tumors or cancer of the DUODENUM.
A symptom complex associated with CARCINOID TUMOR and characterized by attacks of severe flushing of the skin, diarrheal watery stools, bronchoconstriction, sudden drops in blood pressure, edema, and ascites. The carcinoid tumors are usually located in the gastrointestinal tract and metastasize to the liver. Symptoms are caused by tumor secretion of serotonin, prostaglandins, and other biologically active substances. Cardiac manifestations constitute CARCINOID HEART DISEASE. (Dorland, 27th ed; Stedman, 25th ed)
A malignant epithelial tumor with a glandular organization.
Evaluation undertaken to assess the results or consequences of management and procedures used in combating disease in order to determine the efficacy, effectiveness, safety, and practicability of these interventions in individual cases or series.
Two or more abnormal growths of tissue occurring simultaneously and presumed to be of separate origin. The neoplasms may be histologically the same or different, and may be found in the same or different sites.
An invasive (infiltrating) CARCINOMA of the mammary ductal system (MAMMARY GLANDS) in the human BREAST.
Proteins that are normally involved in holding cellular growth in check. Deficiencies or abnormalities in these proteins may lead to unregulated cell growth and tumor development.
Glucose in blood.
Laboratory mice that have been produced from a genetically manipulated EGG or EMBRYO, MAMMALIAN.
Neoplasms which arise from or metastasize to the PITUITARY GLAND. The majority of pituitary neoplasms are adenomas, which are divided into non-secreting and secreting forms. Hormone producing forms are further classified by the type of hormone they secrete. Pituitary adenomas may also be characterized by their staining properties (see ADENOMA, BASOPHIL; ADENOMA, ACIDOPHIL; and ADENOMA, CHROMOPHOBE). Pituitary tumors may compress adjacent structures, including the HYPOTHALAMUS, several CRANIAL NERVES, and the OPTIC CHIASM. Chiasmal compression may result in bitemporal HEMIANOPSIA.
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
Tumors or cancer in the ILEUM region of the small intestine (INTESTINE, SMALL).
A onecut transcription factor that regulates expression of GENES involved in EMBRYONIC DEVELOPMENT of the PANCREAS and LIVER.
Diabetes mellitus induced experimentally by administration of various diabetogenic agents or by PANCREATECTOMY.
Syndromes resulting from inappropriate production of HORMONES or hormone-like materials by NEOPLASMS in non-endocrine tissues or not by the usual ENDOCRINE GLANDS. Such hormone outputs are called ectopic hormone (HORMONES, ECTOPIC) secretion.
Tumors or cancer of the human BREAST.
Experimentally induced new abnormal growth of TISSUES in animals to provide models for studying human neoplasms.
A usually benign, well-encapsulated, lobular, vascular tumor of chromaffin tissue of the ADRENAL MEDULLA or sympathetic paraganglia. The cardinal symptom, reflecting the increased secretion of EPINEPHRINE and NOREPINEPHRINE, is HYPERTENSION, which may be persistent or intermittent. During severe attacks, there may be HEADACHE; SWEATING, palpitation, apprehension, TREMOR; PALLOR or FLUSHING of the face, NAUSEA and VOMITING, pain in the CHEST and ABDOMEN, and paresthesias of the extremities. The incidence of malignancy is as low as 5% but the pathologic distinction between benign and malignant pheochromocytomas is not clear. (Dorland, 27th ed; DeVita Jr et al., Cancer: Principles & Practice of Oncology, 3d ed, p1298)
The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.
Tumors or cancer of the PARATHYROID GLANDS.
Autosomal dominant syndrome characterized by cardiac and cutaneous MYXOMAS; LENTIGINOSIS (spotty pigmentation of the skin), and endocrinopathy and its associated endocrine tumors. The cardiac myxomas may lead to SUDDEN CARDIAC DEATH and other complications in Carney complex patients. The gene coding for the PRKAR1A protein is one of the causative genetic loci (type 1). A second locus is at chromosome 2p16 (type 2).
Nuclear phosphoprotein encoded by the p53 gene (GENES, P53) whose normal function is to control CELL PROLIFERATION and APOPTOSIS. A mutant or absent p53 protein has been found in LEUKEMIA; OSTEOSARCOMA; LUNG CANCER; and COLORECTAL CANCER.
DNA present in neoplastic tissue.
Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.
Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.
A malignant skin neoplasm that seldom metastasizes but has potentialities for local invasion and destruction. Clinically it is divided into types: nodular, cicatricial, morphaic, and erythematoid (pagetoid). They develop on hair-bearing skin, most commonly on sun-exposed areas. Approximately 85% are found on the head and neck area and the remaining 15% on the trunk and limbs. (From DeVita Jr et al., Cancer: Principles & Practice of Oncology, 3d ed, p1471)
Methods which attempt to express in replicable terms the extent of the neoplasm in the patient.
Diffusible gene products that act on homologous or heterologous molecules of viral or cellular DNA to regulate the expression of proteins.
Transplantation between animals of different species.
The amount of a substance secreted by cells or by a specific organ or organism over a given period of time; usually applies to those substances which are formed by glandular tissues and are released by them into biological fluids, e.g., secretory rate of corticosteroids by the adrenal cortex, secretory rate of gastric acid by the gastric mucosa.
Relatively undifferentiated cells that retain the ability to divide and proliferate throughout postnatal life to provide progenitor cells that can differentiate into specialized cells.
A thyroid neoplasm of mixed papillary and follicular arrangement. Its biological behavior and prognosis is the same as that of a papillary adenocarcinoma of the thyroid. (From DeVita Jr et al., Cancer: Principles & Practice of Oncology, 3d ed, p1271)
A carcinoma composed mainly of epithelial elements with little or no stroma. Medullary carcinomas of the breast constitute 5%-7% of all mammary carcinomas; medullary carcinomas of the thyroid comprise 3%-10% of all thyroid malignancies. (From Dorland, 27th ed; DeVita Jr et al., Cancer: Principles & Practice of Oncology, 3d ed, p1141; Segen, Dictionary of Modern Medicine, 1992)
The worsening of a disease over time. This concept is most often used for chronic and incurable diseases where the stage of the disease is an important determinant of therapy and prognosis.
The middle segment of proinsulin that is between the N-terminal B-chain and the C-terminal A-chain. It is a pancreatic peptide of about 31 residues, depending on the species. Upon proteolytic cleavage of proinsulin, equimolar INSULIN and C-peptide are released. C-peptide immunoassay has been used to assess pancreatic beta cell function in diabetic patients with circulating insulin antibodies or exogenous insulin. Half-life of C-peptide is 30 min, almost 8 times that of insulin.
A malignant neoplasm derived from TRANSITIONAL EPITHELIAL CELLS, occurring chiefly in the URINARY BLADDER; URETERS; or RENAL PELVIS.
Endogenous substances, usually proteins, which are effective in the initiation, stimulation, or termination of the genetic transcription process.
The phenotypic manifestation of a gene or genes by the processes of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION and GENETIC TRANSLATION.
Unstable isotopes of indium that decay or disintegrate emitting radiation. In atoms with atomic weights 106-112, 113m, 114, and 116-124 are radioactive indium isotopes.
The determination of the pattern of genes expressed at the level of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION, under specific circumstances or in a specific cell.
A malignant kidney tumor, caused by the uncontrolled multiplication of renal stem (blastemal), stromal (STROMAL CELLS), and epithelial (EPITHELIAL CELLS) elements. However, not all three are present in every case. Several genes or chromosomal areas have been associated with Wilms tumor which is usually found in childhood as a firm lump in a child's side or ABDOMEN.
Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action during the developmental stages of an organism.
Tumors or cancer of the COLON.
Identification of proteins or peptides that have been electrophoretically separated by blot transferring from the electrophoresis gel to strips of nitrocellulose paper, followed by labeling with antibody probes.
The fission of a CELL. It includes CYTOKINESIS, when the CYTOPLASM of a cell is divided, and CELL NUCLEUS DIVISION.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
Tumors or cancer of the OVARY. These neoplasms can be benign or malignant. They are classified according to the tissue of origin, such as the surface EPITHELIUM, the stromal endocrine cells, and the totipotent GERM CELLS.
A benign epithelial tumor with a glandular organization.
Test for tissue antigen using either a direct method, by conjugation of antibody with fluorescent dye (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, DIRECT) or an indirect method, by formation of antigen-antibody complex which is then labeled with fluorescein-conjugated anti-immunoglobulin antibody (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, INDIRECT). The tissue is then examined by fluorescence microscopy.
Experimentally induced mammary neoplasms in animals to provide a model for studying human BREAST NEOPLASMS.
Ability of neoplasms to infiltrate and actively destroy surrounding tissue.
The proportion of survivors in a group, e.g., of patients, studied and followed over a period, or the proportion of persons in a specified group alive at the beginning of a time interval who survive to the end of the interval. It is often studied using life table methods.
An anaplastic, highly malignant, and usually bronchogenic carcinoma composed of small ovoid cells with scanty neoplasm. It is characterized by a dominant, deeply basophilic nucleus, and absent or indistinct nucleoli. (From Stedman, 25th ed; Holland et al., Cancer Medicine, 3d ed, p1286-7)
A noninvasive (noninfiltrating) carcinoma of the breast characterized by a proliferation of malignant epithelial cells confined to the mammary ducts or lobules, without light-microscopy evidence of invasion through the basement membrane into the surrounding stroma.
Mutant mice homozygous for the recessive gene "nude" which fail to develop a thymus. They are useful in tumor studies and studies on immune responses.
The major nerves supplying sympathetic innervation to the abdomen. The greater, lesser, and lowest (or smallest) splanchnic nerves are formed by preganglionic fibers from the spinal cord which pass through the paravertebral ganglia and then to the celiac ganglia and plexuses. The lumbar splanchnic nerves carry fibers which pass through the lumbar paravertebral ganglia to the mesenteric and hypogastric ganglia.
The excision of the head of the pancreas and the encircling loop of the duodenum to which it is connected.
Tumors or cancer of the SKIN.
Carcinoma characterized by bands or cylinders of hyalinized or mucinous stroma separating or surrounded by nests or cords of small epithelial cells. When the cylinders occur within masses of epithelial cells, they give the tissue a perforated, sievelike, or cribriform appearance. Such tumors occur in the mammary glands, the mucous glands of the upper and lower respiratory tract, and the salivary glands. They are malignant but slow-growing, and tend to spread locally via the nerves. (Dorland, 27th ed)
A syndrome of abnormally low BLOOD GLUCOSE level. Clinical hypoglycemia has diverse etiologies. Severe hypoglycemia eventually lead to glucose deprivation of the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM resulting in HUNGER; SWEATING; PARESTHESIA; impaired mental function; SEIZURES; COMA; and even DEATH.
Malignant neoplasm arising from the epithelium of the BRONCHI. It represents a large group of epithelial lung malignancies which can be divided into two clinical groups: SMALL CELL LUNG CANCER and NON-SMALL-CELL LUNG CARCINOMA.
One of the mechanisms by which CELL DEATH occurs (compare with NECROSIS and AUTOPHAGOCYTOSIS). Apoptosis is the mechanism responsible for the physiological deletion of cells and appears to be intrinsically programmed. It is characterized by distinctive morphologic changes in the nucleus and cytoplasm, chromatin cleavage at regularly spaced sites, and the endonucleolytic cleavage of genomic DNA; (DNA FRAGMENTATION); at internucleosomal sites. This mode of cell death serves as a balance to mitosis in regulating the size of animal tissues and in mediating pathologic processes associated with tumor growth.
Proteins, glycoprotein, or lipoprotein moieties on surfaces of tumor cells that are usually identified by monoclonal antibodies. Many of these are of either embryonic or viral origin.
Any detectable and heritable alteration in the lineage of germ cells. Mutations in these cells (i.e., "generative" cells ancestral to the gametes) are transmitted to progeny while those in somatic cells are not.
A pathologic process consisting of the proliferation of blood vessels in abnormal tissues or in abnormal positions.
Strains of mice in which certain GENES of their GENOMES have been disrupted, or "knocked-out". To produce knockouts, using RECOMBINANT DNA technology, the normal DNA sequence of the gene being studied is altered to prevent synthesis of a normal gene product. Cloned cells in which this DNA alteration is successful are then injected into mouse EMBRYOS to produce chimeric mice. The chimeric mice are then bred to yield a strain in which all the cells of the mouse contain the disrupted gene. Knockout mice are used as EXPERIMENTAL ANIMAL MODELS for diseases (DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL) and to clarify the functions of the genes.
A type VI intermediate filament protein expressed mostly in nerve cells where it is associated with the survival, renewal and mitogen-stimulated proliferation of neural progenitor cells.
In vitro method for producing large amounts of specific DNA or RNA fragments of defined length and sequence from small amounts of short oligonucleotide flanking sequences (primers). The essential steps include thermal denaturation of the double-stranded target molecules, annealing of the primers to their complementary sequences, and extension of the annealed primers by enzymatic synthesis with DNA polymerase. The reaction is efficient, specific, and extremely sensitive. Uses for the reaction include disease diagnosis, detection of difficult-to-isolate pathogens, mutation analysis, genetic testing, DNA sequencing, and analyzing evolutionary relationships.
A infiltrating (invasive) breast cancer, relatively uncommon, accounting for only 5%-10% of breast tumors in most series. It is often an area of ill-defined thickening in the breast, in contrast to the dominant lump characteristic of ductal carcinoma. It is typically composed of small cells in a linear arrangement with a tendency to grow around ducts and lobules. There is likelihood of axillary nodal involvement with metastasis to meningeal and serosal surfaces. (DeVita Jr et al., Cancer: Principles & Practice of Oncology, 3d ed, p1205)
Tumors or cancer of the LUNG.
The local recurrence of a neoplasm following treatment. It arises from microscopic cells of the original neoplasm that have escaped therapeutic intervention and later become clinically visible at the original site.
The span of viability of a cell characterized by the capacity to perform certain functions such as metabolism, growth, reproduction, some form of responsiveness, and adaptability.
The developmental history of specific differentiated cell types as traced back to the original STEM CELLS in the embryo.
Endocrine cells found throughout the GASTROINTESTINAL TRACT and in islets of the PANCREAS. D cells secrete SOMATOSTATIN that acts in both an endocrine and paracrine manner. Somatostatin acts on a variety of tissues including the PITUITARY GLAND; gastrointestinal tract; pancreas; and KIDNEY by inhibiting the release of hormones, such as GROWTH HORMONE; GASTRIN; INSULIN; and RENIN.
Tumors or cancer of the NASOPHARYNX.
Antibodies produced by a single clone of cells.
Soft tissue tumors or cancer arising from the mucosal surfaces of the LIP; oral cavity; PHARYNX; LARYNX; and cervical esophagus. Other sites included are the NOSE and PARANASAL SINUSES; SALIVARY GLANDS; THYROID GLAND and PARATHYROID GLANDS; and MELANOMA and non-melanoma skin cancers of the head and neck. (from Holland et al., Cancer Medicine, 4th ed, p1651)
The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.
Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control (induction or repression) of gene action at the level of transcription or translation.
Administration of antineoplastic agents together with an embolizing vehicle. This allows slow release of the agent as well as obstruction of the blood supply to the neoplasm.
Neoplasms of the intracranial components of the central nervous system, including the cerebral hemispheres, basal ganglia, hypothalamus, thalamus, brain stem, and cerebellum. Brain neoplasms are subdivided into primary (originating from brain tissue) and secondary (i.e., metastatic) forms. Primary neoplasms are subdivided into benign and malignant forms. In general, brain tumors may also be classified by age of onset, histologic type, or presenting location in the brain.
A strain of non-obese diabetic mice developed in Japan that has been widely studied as a model for T-cell-dependent autoimmune insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus in which insulitis is a major histopathologic feature, and in which genetic susceptibility is strongly MHC-linked.
Hormones released from neoplasms or from other cells that are not the usual sources of hormones.
An antibiotic that is produced by Stretomyces achromogenes. It is used as an antineoplastic agent and to induce diabetes in experimental animals.
Cells grown in vitro from neoplastic tissue. If they can be established as a TUMOR CELL LINE, they can be propagated in cell culture indefinitely.
Biochemical identification of mutational changes in a nucleotide sequence.
The milieu surrounding neoplasms consisting of cells, vessels, soluble factors, and molecules, that can influence and be influenced by, the neoplasm's growth.
Cell changes manifested by escape from control mechanisms, increased growth potential, alterations in the cell surface, karyotypic abnormalities, morphological and biochemical deviations from the norm, and other attributes conferring the ability to invade, metastasize, and kill.
Tumors or cancer of the URINARY BLADDER.
In vivo methods of screening investigative anticancer drugs, biologic response modifiers or radiotherapies. Human tumor tissue or cells are transplanted into mice or rats followed by tumor treatment regimens. A variety of outcomes are monitored to assess antitumor effectiveness.
Tumors or cancer of the STOMACH.
The uptake of naked or purified DNA by CELLS, usually meaning the process as it occurs in eukaryotic cells. It is analogous to bacterial transformation (TRANSFORMATION, BACTERIAL) and both are routinely employed in GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUES.
New abnormal growth of tissue. Malignant neoplasms show a greater degree of anaplasia and have the properties of invasion and metastasis, compared to benign neoplasms.
Observation of a population for a sufficient number of persons over a sufficient number of years to generate incidence or mortality rates subsequent to the selection of the study group.
Mice homozygous for the mutant autosomal recessive gene "scid" which is located on the centromeric end of chromosome 16. These mice lack mature, functional lymphocytes and are thus highly susceptible to lethal opportunistic infections if not chronically treated with antibiotics. The lack of B- and T-cell immunity resembles severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID) syndrome in human infants. SCID mice are useful as animal models since they are receptive to implantation of a human immune system producing SCID-human (SCID-hu) hematochimeric mice.
Binary classification measures to assess test results. Sensitivity or recall rate is the proportion of true positives. Specificity is the probability of correctly determining the absence of a condition. (From Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)
The inner of the three germ layers of an embryo.
A class of statistical procedures for estimating the survival function (function of time, starting with a population 100% well at a given time and providing the percentage of the population still well at later times). The survival analysis is then used for making inferences about the effects of treatments, prognostic factors, exposures, and other covariates on the function.
Antibodies that react with self-antigens (AUTOANTIGENS) of the organism that produced them.
Substances that inhibit or prevent the proliferation of NEOPLASMS.
An INK4 cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor containing five ANKYRIN-LIKE REPEATS. Aberrant expression of this protein has been associated with deregulated EPITHELIAL CELL growth, organ enlargement, and a variety of NEOPLASMS.
A pyridoxal-phosphate protein that catalyzes the alpha-decarboxylation of L-glutamic acid to form gamma-aminobutyric acid and carbon dioxide. The enzyme is found in bacteria and in invertebrate and vertebrate nervous systems. It is the rate-limiting enzyme in determining GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID levels in normal nervous tissues. The brain enzyme also acts on L-cysteate, L-cysteine sulfinate, and L-aspartate. EC 4.1.1.15.
Experimental transplantation of neoplasms in laboratory animals for research purposes.
Antibodies specific to INSULIN.
Tumors or cancer of the ESOPHAGUS.
A tumor of both low- and high-grade malignancy. The low-grade grow slowly, appear in any age group, and are readily cured by excision. The high-grade behave aggressively, widely infiltrate the salivary gland and produce lymph node and distant metastases. Mucoepidermoid carcinomas account for about 21% of the malignant tumors of the parotid gland and 10% of the sublingual gland. They are the most common malignant tumor of the parotid. (From DeVita Jr et al., Cancer: Principles & Practice of Oncology, 3d ed, p575; Holland et al., Cancer Medicine, 3d ed, p1240)
A highly basic, 28 amino acid neuropeptide released from intestinal mucosa. It has a wide range of biological actions affecting the cardiovascular, gastrointestinal, and respiratory systems and is neuroprotective. It binds special receptors (RECEPTORS, VASOACTIVE INTESTINAL PEPTIDE).
The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.
Tumors or cancer of the MOUTH.
An imaging technique using compounds labelled with short-lived positron-emitting radionuclides (such as carbon-11, nitrogen-13, oxygen-15 and fluorine-18) to measure cell metabolism. It has been useful in study of soft tissues such as CANCER; CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM; and brain. SINGLE-PHOTON EMISSION-COMPUTED TOMOGRAPHY is closely related to positron emission tomography, but uses isotopes with longer half-lives and resolution is lower.
A form of multiple endocrine neoplasia characterized by the presence of medullary carcinoma (CARCINOMA, MEDULLARY) of the THYROID GLAND, and usually with the co-occurrence of PHEOCHROMOCYTOMA, producing CALCITONIN and ADRENALINE, respectively. Less frequently, it can occur with hyperplasia or adenoma of the PARATHYROID GLANDS. This disease is due to gain-of-function mutations of the MEN2 gene on CHROMOSOME 10 (Locus: 10q11.2), also known as the RET proto-oncogene that encodes a RECEPTOR PROTEIN-TYROSINE KINASE. It is an autosomal dominant inherited disease.
A genetic rearrangement through loss of segments of DNA or RNA, bringing sequences which are normally separated into close proximity. This deletion may be detected using cytogenetic techniques and can also be inferred from the phenotype, indicating a deletion at one specific locus.
A mixed adenocarcinoma and squamous cell or epidermoid carcinoma.
A cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor that coordinates the activation of CYCLIN and CYCLIN-DEPENDENT KINASES during the CELL CYCLE. It interacts with active CYCLIN D complexed to CYCLIN-DEPENDENT KINASE 4 in proliferating cells, while in arrested cells it binds and inhibits CYCLIN E complexed to CYCLIN-DEPENDENT KINASE 2.
"Islet Cell Tumors of the Pancreas / Endocrine Neoplasms of the Pancreas". The Sol Goldman Pancreas Cancer Research Center. ... Other exocrine cancers include adenosquamous carcinomas, signet ring cell carcinomas, hepatoid carcinomas, colloid carcinomas, ... Pancreatic Neuroendocrine Tumors (Islet Cell Tumors) Treatment (PDQ®) Incidence and Mortality "Archived copy". Archived from ... served by the endocrine cells in the islets of Langerhans and the exocrine acinar cells. Pancreatic cancer may arise from any ...
"Pancreatic Neoplasms [C04.588.322.475]" 16 October 2014. *^ 36.0 36.1 Islet Cell Tumors of the Pancreas / Endocrine Neoplasms ... hepatoid carcinoma)、膠狀癌、未分化腺癌和具有蝕骨細胞(英語:osteoclast)樣巨大細胞(英語:giant cell)的未分化腺癌。固狀偽乳頭狀腫瘤(英語:Solid pseudopapillary tumor)是一種罕見但低度惡 ... Pancreatic Neuroendocrine Tumors (Islet Cell Tumors) Treatment (PDQ®) Incidence and Mortality [2] ... Pancreatic Neuroendocrine
... is one of the most common types of tumors arising from the islets of Langerhans cells (pancreatic endocrine tumors ... Streptozotocin is used in islet cell carcinomas which produce excessive insulin. Combination chemotherapy is used, either ... The first report of a surgical cure of hypoglycemia by removing an islet cell tumour was in 1929. An insulinoma removed from a ... "islet cell adenoma". Beta cells secrete insulin in response to increases in blood glucose. The resulting increase in insulin ...
... "islet cell tumors", or "pancreatic endocrine tumors" are neuroendocrine neoplasms that arise from cells of the endocrine ( ... "islet cell carcinoma". Relative incidence is given as percentage of all functional pancreatic neuroendocrine tumors. Some ... "islet cell tumors" or "pancreatic endocrine tumors". See: Klimstra DS, Modlin IR, Coppola D, Lloyd RV, Suster S (August 2010 ... Pancreatic Neuroendocrine Tumors (Islet Cell Tumors) Treatment (PDQ®) Incidence and Mortality [3] Öberg K, Knigge U, Kwekkeboom ...
Pancreatic neuroendocrine tumors (PanNETs) are often referred to as "islet cell tumors", or "pancreatic endocrine tumors" The ... small-cell lung cancer (SCLC) large cell neuroendocrine carcinoma of the lung (LCNEC) Extrapulmonary small cell carcinomas ( ... "islet cell tumors" or "pancreatic endocrine tumors". originate within the pancreas. PanNETs are quite distinct from the usual ... NETs include certain tumors of the gastrointestinal tract and of the pancreatic islet cells, certain thymus and lung tumors, ...
... "islet cell tumors",[1][2] or "pancreatic endocrine tumors"[3][4] are neuroendocrine neoplasms that arise from cells of the ... Aggressive PanNET tumors have traditionally been termed "islet cell carcinoma". PanNETs are quite distinct from the usual form ... "islet cell tumors" or "pancreatic endocrine tumors". See: Klimstra DS, Modlin IR, Coppola D, et al. (August 2010). "The ... a b Pancreatic Neuroendocrine Tumors (Islet Cell Tumors) Treatment (PDQ) Health Professional Version. National Cancer Institute ...
"Secretory protein 7B2 is associated with pancreatic hormones within normal islets and some experimentally induced tumors". ... Cell. 125 (4): 801-14. doi:10.1016/j.cell.2006.03.032. PMID 16713569. Dasgupta I, Sanglas L, Enghild JJ, Lindberg I (September ... December 1988). "Cloning, characterization, and sequence of a porcine cDNA encoding a secreted neuronal and endocrine protein ... and rat thyroid gland and in human medullary carcinoma". Endocrinology. 123 (2): 866-73. doi:10.1210/endo-123-2-866. PMID ...
... islet cell MeSH C19.344.421.249.500 - insulinoma MeSH C19.344.421.500 - carcinoma, islet cell MeSH C19.344.421.500.124 - ... multiple endocrine neoplasia type 2b MeSH C19.344.410.398 - granulosa cell tumor MeSH C19.344.410.464 - luteoma MeSH C19.344. ... carcinoma, pancreatic ductal MeSH C19.344.609.145 - acth-secreting pituitary adenoma MeSH C19.344.609.145.500 - nelson syndrome ... brenner tumor MeSH C19.391.630.705.331 - carcinoma, endometrioid MeSH C19.391.630.705.398 - granulosa cell tumor MeSH C19.391. ...
Octreotide is used for suppression of the hormonal syndromes which accompany several pancreatic islet cell tumors, including ... In addition to the use of medication to produce tumor-suppressing endocrine alterations, destruction of endocrine organs ... including renal cell carcinoma and melanoma. List of hormonal cytostatic antineoplastic agents Antiestrogen withdrawal response ... The exact mechanism of action of these hormones is unclear, and may involve both direct effect on the tumor cells (suppression ...
... in human pancreatic islet cells: a quantitative double-label immunohistochemical analysis". Diabetes. 48 (1): 77-85. doi: ... "Expression of somatostatin receptor types 1-5 in 81 cases of gastrointestinal and pancreatic endocrine tumors. A correlative ... subtype 1-selective activation reduces cell growth and calcitonin secretion in a human medullary thyroid carcinoma cell line". ... "Somatostatin receptor subtype gene expression in human endocrine gastroentero-pancreatic tumours". European Journal of Clinical ...
"Up-regulated pancreatic tissue microRNA-375 associates with human type 2 diabetes through beta-cell deficit and islet amyloid ... has been used in miR fluorescence in situ hybridization to distinguish Merkel cell polyomavirus-positive Merkel cell carcinoma ... Liu AM, Poon RT, Luk JM (2010). "MicroRNA-375 targets Hippo-signaling effector YAP in liver cancer and inhibits tumor ... "The promoter of the pri-miR-375 gene directs expression selectively to the endocrine pancreas". PLOS ONE. 4 (4): e5033. Bibcode ...
... pancreatic islet cells, and anterior lobe of the pituitary gland. MEN1 may also cause non-endocrine tumors such as facial ... and carcinomas. Most adenomas are benign, approximately 35% are invasive and just 0.1% to 0.2 are carcinomas. Pituitary ... Unlike tumors of the posterior Pituitary, Pituitary adenomas are classified as endocrine tumors (not brain tumors). Pituitary ... MEN causes various combinations of benign or malignant tumors in various glands in the endocrine system or may cause the glands ...
Phyllodes tumor. *Inflammatory Breast Cancer. Endocrine system[edit]. *Adrenocortical carcinoma. *Islet cell carcinoma ( ... Gastrointestinal carcinoid tumor. *Gastrointestinal stromal tumor (GIST). *Hepatocellular cancer. *Pancreatic cancer, islet ... such as giant cell carcinoma, spindle cell carcinoma, and small-cell carcinoma.[citation needed] ... cancers are additionally classified by the type of cell that the tumor cells originated from. These types include: *Carcinoma: ...
The most common disease of GH excess is a pituitary tumor composed of somatotroph cells of the anterior pituitary. These ... Contributes to the maintenance and function of pancreatic islets. *Stimulates the immune system ... Additional IGF-1 is generated within target tissues, making it what appears to be both an endocrine and an autocrine/paracrine ... a 53-year-old female with carcinoma of the breast and widespread skeletal metastases; a 68-year-old female with advanced ...
Generation of endocrine progenitor cells from pancreatic islets[edit]. Similar to generation of Cancer Stem Cells, EMT was ... Initiation of metastasis requires invasion, which is enabled by EMT.[36][37] Carcinoma cells in a primary tumor lose cell-cell ... and the mesenchymal cells derived from pancreatic islets can undergo the reverse of EMT - MET - to generate islet-like cell ... demonstrated to generate endocrine progenitor cells from human pancreatic islets.[79] Initially, the human islet-derived ...
... including cells of the adrenal medulla and pancreatic islets. As a specific marker for these tissues, it can be used to ... small-cell carcinoma, medulloblastoma and medullary thyroid carcinoma, among others. Diagnostically, it is often used in ... It acts as a marker for neuroendocrine tumors, and its ubiquity at the synapse has led to the use of synaptophysin ... Bouwens L, Lu WG, De Krijger R (1997). "Proliferation and differentiation in the human fetal endocrine pancreas". Diabetologia ...
P27 transcription has also been linked to another tumor suppressor gene, MEN1, in pancreatic islet cells where it promotes ... In hepatocellular carcinoma cells p27 co-localizes with actin fibers to act on GTPase Rac and induce cell migration. In breast ... multiple endocrine neoplasia, type 4). Testing for CDKN1B mutations has been recommended in patients with suspected MEN, in ... Studies of various cell lines including glioblastoma cell lines, three prostate cancer cell lines, and a breast tumor cell line ...
... multiple endocrine neoplasia type 2b MeSH C04.588.322.421 - pancreatic neoplasms MeSH C04.588.322.421.249 - adenoma, islet cell ... carcinoma, ehrlich tumor MeSH C04.557.470.200.220 - carcinoma, giant cell MeSH C04.557.470.200.240 - carcinoma in situ MeSH ... sertoli-leydig cell tumor MeSH C04.557.475.750.847.249 - leydig cell tumor MeSH C04.557.475.750.847.500 - sertoli cell tumor ... islet cell MeSH C04.588.274.761.249.500 - insulinoma MeSH C04.588.274.761.500 - carcinoma, islet cell MeSH C04.588.274.761. ...
... pancreatic islet cells and lymphoid cells. PAX8 and other transcription factors play a role in binding to DNA and regulating ... of oncocytic carcinomas (aka Hurthle-Cell Neoplasms). Expression of PAX8 is increased in neoplastic renal tissues, Wilms tumors ... "Divergent roles for thyroid hormone receptor beta isoforms in the endocrine axis and auditory system". The Journal of Clinical ... ovarian cancer cells, bladder, prostate, and endometrial carcinomas. Tumors expressing the PAX8/PPARy are usually present in at ...
As such, it is located in secretory vesicles of neurons and endocrine cells such as islet beta cell secretory granules in the ... A induces and promotes the generation of secretory granules such as those containing insulin in pancreatic islet beta cells. ... July 1990). "Isolation and characterization of a tumor-derived human protein related to chromogranin A and its in vitro ... "Elevated serum chromogranin A is detectable in patients with carcinomas at advanced disease stages". Annals of Clinical and ...
May 2001). "Microencapsulated cell-mediated treatment of inoperable pancreatic carcinoma". Lancet. 357 (9268): 1591-2. doi: ... Lim F, Sun AM (November 1980). "Microencapsulated islets as bioartificial endocrine pancreas". Science. 210 (4472): 908-10. ... In 1933 Vincenzo Bisceglie made the first attempt to encapsulate cells in polymer membranes. He demonstrated that tumor cells ... autologous cells), from another donor (allogeneic cells) or from other species (xenogeneic cells). The use of autologous cells ...
1999). "Subtype-selective expression of the five somatostatin receptors (hSSTR1-5) in human pancreatic islet cells: a ... 2002). "Expression of somatostatin receptor types 1-5 in 81 cases of gastrointestinal and pancreatic endocrine tumors. A ... "Somatostatin receptor subtype expression in human thyroid and thyroid carcinoma cell lines". J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab. 82 (6 ... 1997). "Somatostatin receptor subtype gene expression in human endocrine gastroentero-pancreatic tumours". Eur. J. Clin. Invest ...
The most common disease of GH excess is a pituitary tumor composed of somatotroph cells of the anterior pituitary. These ... liver uptake of glucose Promotes gluconeogenesis in the liver Contributes to the maintenance and function of pancreatic islets ... Additional IGF-1 is generated within target tissues, making it what appears to be both an endocrine and an autocrine/paracrine ... a 53-year-old female with carcinoma of the breast and widespread skeletal metastases; a 68-year-old female with advanced ...
... islet cell - islet cell cancer - islet of Langerhans cell - isoflavone - isointense - isolated hepatic perfusion - isolated ... Pancoast's tumor - pancreatectomy - pancreatic cancer - pancreatic duct - pancreatic enzyme - pancreatic juice - pancreatitis ... basal cell - basal cell carcinoma - basal cell nevus syndrome - basophil - batimastat - BAY 12-9566 - BAY 43-9006 - BAY 56-3722 ... endocrine cancer - endocrine pancreas cell - endocrine therapy - endometrial - endometrial biopsy - endometrial disorder - ...
... predisposed endocrine cell as loss of the remaining wild-type allele and gives cells the survival advantage needed for tumor ... reported a case series of 8 patients with a syndrome of pituitary, parathyroid, and pancreatic islet adenomas. In 1954 Wermer ... Sipple JH (1961). "The association of pheochromocytoma with carcinoma of the thyroid gland". Am. J. Med. 31: 163-6. doi:10.1016 ... Multiple Endocrine Neoplasia type 1 (MEN1) is a rare hereditary endocrine cancer syndrome characterized primarily by tumors of ...
"Expression of somatostatin receptor types 1-5 in 81 cases of gastrointestinal and pancreatic endocrine tumors. A correlative ... "Somatostatin receptor subtype expression in human thyroid and thyroid carcinoma cell lines". The Journal of Clinical ... superfamily of receptors having seven transmembrane segments and is expressed in highest levels in brain and pancreatic islets ... Sharma K, Patel YC, Srikant CB (December 1996). "Subtype-selective induction of wild-type p53 and apoptosis, but not cell cycle ...
"Production of pancreatic hormone-expressing endocrine cells from human embryonic stem cells". Nature Biotechnology. 24 (11): ... bone marrow cells, islet cells and endothelial cells. However, the derivation of such cell types from ESCs is not without ... isolated a single type of cell from a teratocarcinoma, a tumor now known from a germ cell. These cells were isolated from the ... teratocarcinoma replicated and grew in cell culture as a stem cell and are now known as embryonal carcinoma (EC) cells.[ ...
... pancreatic islet cells and lymphoid cells.[8] PAX8 and other transcription factors play a role in binding to DNA and regulating ... of oncocytic carcinomas (aka Hurthle-Cell Neoplasms).[15] Tumors expressing the PAX8/PPARy are usually present in at a young ... "Divergent roles for thyroid hormone receptor beta isoforms in the endocrine axis and auditory system". The Journal of Clinical ... cell-cycle processes). PAX8 is shown to be involved in tumor cell proliferation and differentiation, signal transduction, ...
TTF-1 and C/EBP beta in thyroid carcinoma cells". Br. J. Cancer. 99 (5): 781-8. doi:10.1038/sj.bjc.6604544. PMC 2528161 . PMID ... endocrine pancreas development. • positive regulation of transcription from RNA polymerase II promoter. • positive regulation ... Pandey AK, Bhardwaj V, Datta M (2009). "Tumour necrosis factor-alpha attenuates insulin action on phosphoenolpyruvate ... "Loss of FOXA1/2 is essential for the epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition in pancreatic cancer". Cancer Res. 70 (5): 2115-25. ...
... induces tumor suppressive properties in human hepatocellular carcinoma-derived cells, Huh7 and Hep3B cell lines, ... Dichmann DS, Yassin H, Serup P (November 2006). "Analysis of pancreatic endocrine development in GDF11-deficient mice". ... "GDF11 modulates NGN3+ islet progenitor cell number and promotes beta-cell differentiation in pancreas development". Development ... "Cell. 153 (4): 828-39. doi:10.1016/j.cell.2013.04.015. PMC 3677132. PMID 23663781.. ...
The most common disease of GH excess is a pituitary tumor composed of somatotroph cells of the anterior pituitary. These ... Contributes to the maintenance and function of pancreatic islets. *Stimulates the immune system ... Additional IGF-1 is generated within target tissues, making it what appears to be both an endocrine and an autocrine/paracrine ... a 53-year-old female with carcinoma of the breast and widespread skeletal metastases; a 68-year-old female with advanced ...
"Protein prenylation in glucose-induced insulin secretion from the pancreatic islet beta cell: a perspective". Journal of ... hepatocellular carcinoma,[98] and possibly prostate cancer.[99][100] They appear to have no effect on the risk of lung cancer,[ ... because of its adverse effects of tumors, muscle deterioration, and sometimes death in laboratory dogs. P. Roy Vagelos, chief ... Endocrine. system (H). *Hypothalamic-pituitary hormones. *Corticosteroids *Glucocorticoids. *Mineralocorticoids. *Sex hormones ...
... germ cell tumors, hydatidiform mole, teratoma with elements of choriocarcinoma, and islet cell tumor. For this reason, a ... 2) Known or possible androgen-dependent tumors for example male breast carcinoma or prostatic carcinoma. ... Human female endocrine system. Hidden categories: *Wikipedia articles needing page number citations from December 2011 ... Combined with alpha-fetoprotein, β-HCG is an excellent tumor marker for the monitoring of germ cell tumors.[citation needed] ...
... secretion and caused apoptosis in cultured human pancreatic insulin-secreting Beta cell lines and prepared Pancreatic islets. ... primary embryonic kidney cell line), MCF7 cells (mammary adenocarcinoma cell line), and EJ cells (bladder carcinoma cell line ... pancreatic cancer and stimulates tumour cell proliferation". British Journal of Cancer. 99 (7): 1064-73. doi:10.1038/sj.bjc. ... travel in the circulation to alter the behavior of distant cells, and thereby act as Endocrine signalling agents, these ...
September 2002). "Neuropilin-2 is a novel marker expressed in pancreatic islet cells and endocrine pancreatic tumours". The ... Soker S, Takashima S, Miao HQ, Neufeld G, Klagsbrun M (March 1998). "Neuropilin-1 is expressed by endothelial and tumor cells ... 2 co-expression is significantly correlated with increased vascularity and poor prognosis in nonsmall cell lung carcinoma". ... NRP2 is expressed by a wide variety of cell types. The transmembrane protein has been reported to bind to SEMA3C, SEMA3F, VEGF- ...
Hepatocellular carcinoma cell proliferation may arise from miR-21 interaction with MAP2K3, a tumor repressor gene. Optimal ... "A pancreatic islet-specific microRNA regulates insulin secretion". Nature. 432 (7014): 226-30. Bibcode:2004Natur.432..226P. doi ... Cuellar TL, McManus MT (December 2005). "MicroRNAs and endocrine biology". The Journal of Endocrinology. 187 (3): 327-32. doi: ... and cell cycle in mice lacking miRNA-1-2". Cell. 129 (2): 303-17. doi:10.1016/j.cell.2007.03.030. PMID 17397913. Thum T, ...
... required for pancreatic bud outgrowth and beta-cell maturation), NGN3 (required for endocrine precursor cell formation) and ... "Regeneration of Human Tumor Antigen-Specific T Cells from iPSCs Derived from Mature CD8+ T Cells". Cell Stem Cell. 12 (1): 31- ... Preferential Lineage-Specific Differentiation in Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells Derived from Human Pancreatic Islet Beta Cells ... teratoma-initiating embryonic-like carcinoma cells during differentiation. The survival of these teratoma-initiating cells is ...
Endocrine Gland Neoplasms. Adenoma, Islet Cell. Adenocarcinoma. Carcinoma. Adenoma. Digestive System Diseases. Pancreatic ... Poorly differentiated or small cell neuroendocrine carcinomas. *Insulin secreting pancreatic neuroendocrine tumors (insulinomas ... Neuroendocrine Tumor Carcinoid Tumor Pancreatic Neuroendocrine Tumor Drug: AMG 479 Phase 2 ... Neuroendocrine Tumors. Carcinoid Tumor. Neoplasms. Neuroectodermal Tumors. Neoplasms, Germ Cell and Embryonal. Neoplasms by ...
Islet Cell. Adenoma. Pancreatic Neoplasms. Endocrine Gland Neoplasms. Pancreatic Diseases. Endocrine System Diseases. Carcinoma ... Neuroendocrine Tumor Pancreatic Polypeptide Tumor Recurrent Gastrointestinal Carcinoid Tumor Recurrent Islet Cell Carcinoma ... Carcinoma, Islet Cell. Gastrinoma. Glucagonoma. Somatostatinoma. Vipoma. Neuroectodermal Tumors. Neoplasms, Germ Cell and ... Pancreatic Islet Cell Tumors Somatostatinoma Zollinger-Ellison Syndrome WDHA Syndrome Carcinoid Syndrome VIPoma ...
Intraductal Spread by Metastatic Islet Cell Tumor (Well-differentiated Pancreatic Endocrine Neoplasm) Involving the Breast of a ... Endometrioid Carcinoma Simultaneously Involving the Uterus and the Fallopian Tube: A Clinicopathologic Study of 13 Cases. ... Spontaneous Regression of Testicular Germ Cell Tumors: An Analysis of 42 Cases. Balzer, Bonnie L.; Ulbright, Thomas M. ... Programmed Death-1 (PD-1) is a Marker of Germinal Center-associated T Cells and Angioimmunoblastic T-Cell Lymphoma. Dorfman, ...
Pancreatic cancer accounts for 3 percent of all cancers in the United States. It can be difficult to manage because symptoms ... giant cell carcinomas. Endocrine pancreatic cancer. Tumors that affect the endocrine functions of the pancreas are called ... Most of these tumors are benign, but non-functioning tumors are more likely to be malignant, islet-cell carcinomas. ... acinar cell carcinoma, which starts in the pancreatic enzyme cells. *ampullary cancer, which starts where the bile duct and ...
Approximately 75% of all pancreatic carcinomas occur within the head or neck of the pancreas, 15-20% occur in the body of the ... Pancreatic cancer is the fourth leading cause of cancer deaths, being responsible for 7% of all cancer-related deaths in both ... Islet cell tumors in patients with inherited syndromes such as multiple endocrine neoplasia are less likely to occur singly ... Patients can also develop tumors of the islet cells of the pancreas. These can be functionally inactive islet cell carcinomas ...
Multiple endocrine neoplasia syndromes. MEN 1 = hyperparathyroidism, pancreatic islet cell tumors, pituitary adenomas. May also ... von Hippel Lindau syndrome = hemangioblastoma of the CNS/retina, pheochromocytoma, renal cell carcinoma, pancreatic ... Pheochromocytoma: A tumor of the catecholamine-producing cells of the adrenal medulla although the tumor may arise in many ... Other endocrine diseases: Most case reports of anesthesia in parturients with endocrine disease appear to involve the use of ...
"Islet Cell Tumors of the Pancreas / Endocrine Neoplasms of the Pancreas". The Sol Goldman Pancreas Cancer Research Center. ... Other exocrine cancers include adenosquamous carcinomas, signet ring cell carcinomas, hepatoid carcinomas, colloid carcinomas, ... Pancreatic Neuroendocrine Tumors (Islet Cell Tumors) Treatment (PDQ®) Incidence and Mortality "Archived copy". Archived from ... served by the endocrine cells in the islets of Langerhans and the exocrine acinar cells. Pancreatic cancer may arise from any ...
islet cell tumor. *pancreatic endocrine carcinoma. *10661805. duodenitis. *hemorrhagic duodenitis. *10964325. pernicious anemia ... span" data-trigger="SectionLoaded"> Pancreas (Endocrine System) * G-cells Islets of Langerhans ... span" data-trigger="SectionLoaded"> It affects the following cells: * Liver *Biliary Epithelial Cells (Intrahepatic Biliary ... Integrated Proteomics: protein expression in normal tissues and cell lines from ProteomicsDB, PaxDb, and MOPED for GAST Gene. ...
... islet cells) of the pancreas. The pancreas is a gland about 6 inches long that is shaped like a thin pear lying on its side. ... Pancreatic neuroendocrine tumors form in hormone-making cells ( ... are called pancreatic endocrine cancer or islet cell carcinoma. ... Tumors that form in islet cells are called islet cell tumors, pancreatic endocrine tumors, or pancreatic neuroendocrine tumors ... Islet Cell Tumors). Pancreatic neuroendocrine tumors form in hormone-making cells (islet cells) of the pancreas. ...
Pancreatic endocrine (islet cell) tumors. Patients frequently experience abdominal pain and rarely have jaundice; diarrhea and ... These tumors are less aggressive than the common variety pancreatic cancers.. Carcinoma of the ampulla of Vater. Usually ... Resectable pancreatic tumors would be described as a tumor that has not metastasized to nearby organs (liver, peritoneum), that ... pancreaticoduodenectomy for tumors of the pancreatic head, neck, or uncinate body and distal pancreatectomy for tumors of the ...
pancreatic carcinoma. *pancreatic endocrine tumors / islet cell tumors. *cystic pancreatic neoplasms. *intraductal papillary ... germ cell tumor of the testis *testicular seminoma. * non seminomatous germ cell tumors *mixed germ cell tumor ...
any associated multiple endocrine neoplasia [MEN] syndromes (E31.2-). Type 2 Excludes*malignant pancreatic islet cell tumors ( ... Merkel cell carcinoma (C4A.-). Use Additional*code to identify any associated endocrine syndrome, such as: ... New description: Malignant carcinoid tumor of the foregut, unspecified. *2016 description: Malignant carcinoid tumor of the ... Malignant carcinoid tumor, pancreas. ICD-10-CM C7A.094 is grouped within Diagnostic Related Group(s) (MS-DRG v35.0): *374 ...
Neuroendocrine Tumors. Pancreatic Neoplasms. Adenoma, Islet Cell. Carcinoma. Neoplasms, Glandular and Epithelial. Neoplasms by ... Endocrine Gland Neoplasms. Digestive System Diseases. Pancreatic Diseases. Endocrine System Diseases. Adenoma. Everolimus. ... Genetic and Rare Diseases Information Center resources: Neuroendocrine Tumor Pancreatic Cancer Pancreatic Neuroendocrine Tumor ... Poorly differentiated neuroendocrine carcinoma or small cell carcinoma.. *Prior treatment with everolimus, other mTOR ...
any associated multiple endocrine neoplasia [MEN] syndromes (E31.2-). Type 2 Excludes*malignant pancreatic islet cell tumors ( ... Merkel cell carcinoma (C4A.-). Use Additional*code to identify any associated endocrine syndrome, such as: ... Malignant carcinoid tumor of the kidney. 2016 2017 2018 2019 Billable/Specific Code *C7A.093 is a billable/specific ICD-10-CM ... Primary malignant neuroendocrine tumor of kidney. ICD-10-CM C7A.093 is grouped within Diagnostic Related Group(s) (MS-DRG v36.0 ...
Four types of pancreatic cancer may be present in children. Learn treatment signs and symptoms for this rare cancer. ... Pancreatic cancer describes the formation of malignant cancer cells in the pancreas, which makes juices to help digest food and ... Islet cell tumors may occur in children with multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1 (MEN1) syndrome. The most common types of ... Pancreatic carcinoma. Pancreatic carcinoma is very rare in children. The two types of pancreatic carcinoma are acinar cell ...
Judson, K.; Argani, P. Intraductal spread by metastatic islet cell tumor (well-differentiated pancreatic endocrine neoplasm) ... A Distinctive Tumor Entity Previously Included among Renal Cell Carcinomas of Young People. Am J Pathol 2001; 159: 179-192. ... Sausville, J.E.; Hernandez, D.J.; Argani, P.; Gearhart, J.P. Pediatric renal cell carcinoma. J Pediatr Urol. 2009 Aug;5(4):308- ... Xp11 translocation renal cell carcinoma in adults: expanded clinical, pathologic, and genetic spectrum. Am J Surg Pathol. 2007 ...
The purpose of this study was to assess the efficacy and safety of everolimus in the treatment of advanced pancreatic ... Neuroendocrine Tumor. *Pancreatic Neoplasms. *Pancreatic. *Tumor. *Islet Cell. *Carcinoma. *Neuroendocrine. *Endocrine. * ... biopsy-proven pancreatic Neuroendocrine tumor. (NET). - Confirmed low-grade or intermediate-grade neuroendocrine carcinoma. - ... An Open Label, Stratified, Single-arm Phase II Study of Everolimus in Patients With Advanced Pancreatic Neuroendocrine Tumor ( ...
... known as pancreatic neuroendocrine carcinoma or islet cell tumor. Predicated on its effects on exocrine or endocrine functions ... Causes of pancreatic cancer New cells form, when the body does not need them, or old cells do not die. Radiation therapy, ... Palliative surgery or stet placement to bypass blocked, pancreatic-cancer originates from pancreatic cells. Nevertheless , ... Pancreatic Cancer Symptoms In Women The most popular kind of pancreatic cancer starts in the exocrine glands that are called as ...
... known as pancreatic neuroendocrine carcinoma or islet cell tumor. Predicated on its effects on exocrine or endocrine functions ... Pancreatic Cancer Symptoms In Women The most popular kind of pancreatic cancer starts in the exocrine glands that are called as ... Pancreatic Cancer In Women All sorts of cancer has its different risk factors, causes, symptoms, diagnostic tests, treatments, ... Mostly cancers are named for the organ or sort of cell where they start, for example: cancer begins in pancreas is known as ...
Venkatesh S., Ordonez N. G., Ajani J., Schultz P. N., Hickey R. C., Johnston D. A., Samaan N. A. Islet cell carcinoma of the ... pancreatic endocrine tumor; F-PET, functional pancreatic endocrine tumor; NF-PET, nonfunctional pancreatic endocrine tumor; ... As pancreatic acinar carcinomas may express neuroendocrine markers, and mixed exocrine and endocrine pancreatic cancers exist ( ... Solcia, E., Klφppel, G., and Sobin, L. Histological typing of endocrine tumors. In: WHO Classification of Endocrine Tumors. ...
It occurs in the lining of the pancreatic ducts.. Islet cell carcinoma involves endocrine cells. Most islet cell carcinomas are ... but insulin-producing islet cell tumors are often benign (non-cancerous). Islet cell tumors can be:. *Functional and produce ... Endocrine cells that produce hormones. Adenocarcinoma starts in exocrine cells and accounts for 95 percent of pancreatic ... Ampullary cancer is a rare type of exocrine tumor that begins where the bile duct from the liver and the pancreatic duct join ...
... renal tubule carcinoma, pancreatic islet-cell adenoma, and skin tumors. Studies have also indicated that glyphosate disrupts ... tumorigenic and hepatorenal effects that can be explained by endocrine disruption and oxidative stress, causing metabolic ...
... general Endocrine gland tumors Diagnosis Pancreatic cancer Tumors Identification and classification ... Nesidioblastosis coexisting with islet cell tumor and intraductal papillary mucinous hyperplasia. (Case Reports). by Archives ... tumors of the pancreas are rare. Scattered endocrine cells have been reported to be present in exocrine pancreatic carcinomas, ... Sections of pancreas tissue showed an islet cell tumor and surrounding adjacent IPMH. The islet cell tumor grew in a nodular ...
... is characterized by tumors of the parathyroid glands, pancreatic islet cells, and pituitary gland. MEN I patients also commonly ... Multiple endocrine neoplasia, type IIA, also referred to as Sipples syndrome, is characterized by medullary carcinoma of the ... Bandemia is a type of elevated white blood cell count in which the white blood cell count may be normal, but there is an excess ... MEN is also referred to as multiple endocrine adenomatosis and familial endocrine adenomatosis. Three distinct syndromes, MEN I ...
Islet Cell Tumors) Treatment (PDQ®) (Patients) from the National Cancer Institute at Siteman Cancer Center. ... they are called pancreatic endocrine cancer or islet cell carcinoma.. Pancreatic NETs are much less common than pancreatic ... Tumors that form in islet cells are called islet cell tumors, pancreatic endocrine tumors, or pancreatic neuroendocrine tumors ... Islet Cell Tumors) Treatment. General Information About Pancreatic Neuroendocrine Tumors (Islet Cell Tumors). Pancreatic ...
Thompson NW, Eckhauser FE: Malignant islet-cell tumors of the pancreas. World J Surg 1984;8:940-951.PubMedCrossRefGoogle ... Pancreatic endocrine neoplasms: epidemiology and prognosis of pancreatic endocrine tumors. Endocr-relat cancer 2008;15:409-427. ... Legaspi A, Brennan MF: Management of islet cell carcinoma. Surgery 1988;104:1018-1023.PubMedGoogle Scholar ... Pancreatic Cancer Beta Cell Pancreatic Tumor Pancreatic Cancer Patient Paraneoplastic Syndrome These keywords were added by ...
"Pancreatic Neoplasms [C04.588.322.475]" 16 October 2014. *^ 36.0 36.1 Islet Cell Tumors of the Pancreas / Endocrine Neoplasms ... hepatoid carcinoma)、膠狀癌、未分化腺癌和具有蝕骨細胞(英語:osteoclast)樣巨大細胞(英語:giant cell)的未分化腺癌。固狀偽乳頭狀腫瘤(英語:Solid pseudopapillary tumor)是一種罕見但低度惡 ... Pancreatic Neuroendocrine Tumors (Islet Cell Tumors) Treatment (PDQ®) Incidence and Mortality [2] ... Pancreatic Neuroendocrine
The clinicopathologic features and pathogenesis of these tumors have attracted a number of investigations, but the results ... Solid-cystic-papillary tumors (SCPTs) of the pancreas are rare. ... Cell Carcinoma Chinese Patient Cystic Tumor Islet Cell Tumor ... The main differential diagnosis was pancreatic endocrine tumor. The tumors were negative for pan-endocrine markers, hormones, ... They accounted for 2.5% of the primary pancreatic tumors. The tumors were seen in young women (mean age 27 years). They were ...
Phase II trial of dacarbazine (DTIC) in advanced pancreatic islet cell carcinoma: study of the Eastern Cooperative Oncology ... Primary tumour resection in metastatic nonfunctioning pancreatic endocrine carcinomas. Dig Liver Dis. 2009;41:49-55. ... Gastrointestinal neuroendocrine tumors: pancreatic endocrine tumors. Gastroenterology. 2008;135:1469-92.. 7. Vagefi PA, Razo O ... Nonfunctioning islet cell carcinoma of the pancreas: survival results in a contemporary series of 163 patients. Surgery. 2001; ...
  • NETs are commonly subclassified into two broad subgroups according to their site of origin: pancreatic NETs are thought to arise from the endocrine cells of the pancreas, whereas NETs of other sites such as the lungs or gastrointestinal tract are often referred to as carcinoid tumors. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • Pancreatic cancer happens when uncontrolled cell growth begins in a part of the pancreas. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • Tumors develop, and these interfere with the way the pancreas works. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • Cancer can affect either the endocrine or the exocrine glands in the pancreas. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • Tumors that affect the endocrine functions of the pancreas are called neuroendocrine or islet-cell tumors. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • Scientists do not know exactly why uncontrolled cell growth happens in the pancreas, but they have identified some possible risk factors. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • Pancreatic neuroendocrine tumors form in hormone-making cells (islet cells) of the pancreas. (nkch.org)
  • Endocrine pancreas cells make several kinds of hormones (chemicals that control the actions of certain cells or organs in the body), such as insulin to control blood sugar. (nkch.org)
  • They cluster together in many small groups (islets) throughout the pancreas. (nkch.org)
  • Endocrine pancreas cells are also called islet cells or islets of Langerhans. (nkch.org)
  • Exocrine pancreas cells make enzymes that are released into the small intestine to help the body digest food. (nkch.org)
  • Most of the pancreas is made of ducts with small sacs at the end of the ducts, which are lined with exocrine cells. (nkch.org)
  • This summary discusses islet cell tumors of the endocrine pancreas. (nkch.org)
  • Pancreatic cancer arises when cells in the pancreas , a glandular organ behind the stomach , begin to multiply out of control and form a mass . (wikipedia.org)
  • [6] One to two percent of cases of pancreatic cancer are neuroendocrine tumors , which arise from the hormone-producing cells of the pancreas. (wikipedia.org)
  • The pancreas has many functions, served by the endocrine cells in the islets of Langerhans and the exocrine acinar cells . (wikipedia.org)
  • Pseudocysts of the pancreas develop because of pancreatic inflammation and necrosis. (oncologynurseadvisor.com)
  • Malignant neoplasms of ectopic tissue are to be coded to the site mentioned, e.g., ectopic pancreatic malignant neoplasms are coded to pancreas, unspecified ( C25.9 ). (icd10data.com)
  • Pancreatic cancer is a disease in which malignant ( cancer ) cells form in the tissues of the pancreas. (emedicinehealth.com)
  • Many different kinds of tumors can form in the pancreas. (emedicinehealth.com)
  • Mostly cancers are named for the organ or sort of cell where they start, for example: cancer begins in pancreas is known as pancreas cancer. (migente.com)
  • Pancreatic Cancer Symptoms In Women The most popular kind of pancreatic cancer starts in the exocrine glands that are called as adenocarcinoma of the pancreas. (migente.com)
  • The endocrine glands from the pancreas might cause completely different kind of cancer, known as pancreatic neuroendocrine carcinoma or islet cell tumor. (migente.com)
  • Predicated on its effects on exocrine or endocrine functions from the pancreas, this cancer is categorized from the medical experts in numerous categories. (migente.com)
  • The allelotype of NF-PET is markedly different from that of either ductal or acinar tumors of the pancreas as well as from that of functional-PETs. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Mixed exocrine (ductal and acinar tumors) and endocrine (islet cell tumor) tumors of the pancreas are rare. (thefreelibrary.com)
  • Intraductal papillary mucinous tumor (IPMT) of the pancreas is a rare and unique form of pancreatic neoplasm characterized by proliferation of the epithelium lining the pancreatic ducts. (thefreelibrary.com)
  • Herein we report an extremely rare case of a combination intraductal papillary mucinous hyperplasia (IPMH) and endocrine neoplasm (islet cell tumor) of the pancreas. (thefreelibrary.com)
  • Coexistence of endocrine and exocrine tumors of the pancreas with nesidioblastosis is of particular interest because of the direct implication as to the origin and histogenesis of pancreatic endocrine cells and the relationship between endocrine and exocrine cells. (thefreelibrary.com)
  • Solid-cystic-papillary tumors (SCPTs) of the pancreas are rare. (springer.com)
  • They were large (mean size of resected tumor was 8.4 cm), benign, had solid and cystic areas, and were evenly distributed in the pancreas. (springer.com)
  • Loss of both p18 and p27 function resulted in the spontaneous development by 3 months of age of at least eight different types of hyperplastic tissues and/or tumors in the pituitary, adrenals, thyroid, parathyroid, testes, pancreas, duodenum, and stomach. (asm.org)
  • We present a rare case of well-differentiated neuroendocrine carcinoma of the pancreas extending to the transverse colon, small bowel, stomach, and lymph nodes with metastasis to the caudate lobe of the liver. (biomedcentral.com)
  • dePeyster FA: Planning the appropriate operations for islet cell tumors of the pancreas. (springer.com)
  • In Part 2 of this article, available on www.appliedradiology.com, the discussion continues regarding imaging manifestations of various abnormalities affecting the pancreas as they relate to specific types of pancreatitis, pancreatic neoplasms, and tumors. (appliedradiology.com)
  • Since the pancreas is unencapsulated, there is uninhibited spread of tumor and inflammation to surrounding structures. (appliedradiology.com)
  • The splenic vein courses along the posterior aspect of the pancreatic body and tail, while the celiac artery is related cranially to the neck of the pancreas. (appliedradiology.com)
  • The body and tail of the pancreas are supplied by branches of the splenic artery, including the dorsal pancreatic artery. (appliedradiology.com)
  • The pancreas has two distinct functions, endocrine and exocrine. (appliedradiology.com)
  • Embryologically, the pancreas arises from a dorsal and ventral pancreatic bud. (appliedradiology.com)
  • However, in the pancreas divisum, there is complete separation of the dorsal and ventral pancreatic ducts. (appliedradiology.com)
  • 5 An association between the pancreas divisum and pancreatitis is described and is believed to be due to the relative obstruction of the dorsal pancreatic duct, which carries digestive enzymes from the majority of the gland and empties through smaller minor papilla. (appliedradiology.com)
  • 7 Annular pancreas can result during rotation of the ventral pancreatic bud as it fuses with the dorsal bud, resulting in a ring of pancreatic tissue encircling the duodenum, causing gastric outlet obstruction in infants and pancreatitis in adults (Figure 2). (appliedradiology.com)
  • For example, the hormone insulin , secreted by the pancreas , acts primarily to allow glucose to enter the body's cells for use as fuel. (thefullwiki.org)
  • Less than one percent of carcinoid tumors originate in the pancreas. (thefullwiki.org)
  • Clinicopathological features of patients with concomitant intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasm of the pancreas and pancreatic endocrine neoplasm. (nih.gov)
  • Endocrine tumor and intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasm of the pancreas: a fortuitous association? (nih.gov)
  • MEN1, formerly known as Wermer's syndrome, has a genetic predisposition to develop multiglandular parathyroid disease, benign and malignant neuroendocrine tumors of the pancreas and duodenum, and adenomas of the anterior pituitary. (clinicaladvisor.com)
  • Pancreatic cancer is a disease in which healthy cells in the pancreas stop working correctly and grow out of control. (cancer.net)
  • As it grows, a pancreatic tumor can affect the function of the pancreas, grow into nearby blood vessels and organs, and eventually spread to other parts of the body through a process called metastasis. (cancer.net)
  • The endocrine component of the pancreas is made up of cells lumped together in different locations within this part of the pancreas, called islets of Langerhans. (cancer.net)
  • This portion of the pancreas also makes other hormones, such as glucagon, somatostatin, pancreatic polypeptide (PP), and vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP). (cancer.net)
  • These tumors usually start in the ducts of the pancreas, called ductal adenocarcinoma. (cancer.net)
  • An IPMN is a tumor that grows within the ducts of the pancreas and makes a thick fluid called mucin. (cancer.net)
  • To learn more about tumors that start in the endocrine component of the pancreas, read about neuroendocrine tumors of the pancreas . (cancer.net)
  • NETs can also develop in the lungs (called lung NETs) or the islet cells of the pancreas (called pancreatic NETs or pNETs). (cancer.ca)
  • A specialized cell in the pancreas that produces insulin and other hormones that help control the level of sugar (glucose) in the blood. (cancer.ca)
  • Also called endocrine pancreas cell or islet of Langerhans cell. (cancer.ca)
  • An insulinoma is a tumor of the pancreas that is derived from beta cells and secretes insulin. (wikipedia.org)
  • Expression of the "stem cell marker" CD133 in pancreas and pancreatic ductal adenocarcinomas. (nih.gov)
  • Fifty-one cases of pancreatic ductal adenocarcinomas were clinically and histopathologically evaluated, and immunohistochemically investigated for expression of CD133, cytokeratin 19 and chromogranin A. The results were interpreted on the background of CD133 expression in normal pancreas and other normal and malignant human tissues. (nih.gov)
  • In the pancreas, we found CD133 expressed on the apical membrane of ductal cells. (nih.gov)
  • T and N denote protein extracts from a pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma and from normal pancreas, respectively. (nih.gov)
  • Pancreatic neuroendocrine tumors (PanNETs, PETs, or PNETs), often referred to as "islet cell tumors", or "pancreatic endocrine tumors" are neuroendocrine neoplasms that arise from cells of the endocrine (hormonal) and nervous system within the pancreas. (wikipedia.org)
  • PanNETs are quite distinct from the usual form of pancreatic cancer, the majority of which are adenocarcinomas, which arises in the exocrine pancreas. (wikipedia.org)
  • Glucagonoma is an alpha-islet cell tumour of the pancreas. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • One reason for the often poor outcome of pancreatic cancer is the location of the pancreas deep inside the body. (saintjohnscancer.org)
  • Long-term inflammation of the pancreas, often caused by excessive alcohol abuse, has been linked to an increased risk for pancreatic cancer. (saintjohnscancer.org)
  • But around 6 out of 10 pancreatic cancers (60%) start in the head of the pancreas. (macmillan.org.uk)
  • Endocrine tumours of the pancreas are uncommon. (macmillan.org.uk)
  • A pancreatic islet cell tumor is a rare tumor of the pancreas that starts from a type of cell called the islet cell. (stlukes-stl.com)
  • Pancreas Surgery: Pancreas cancer (pancreatic carcinoma), neuroendocrine tumors of the pancreas (islet cell tumors, insulinoma, gastrinoma), and cystic neoplasms of the pancreas. (uhealthsystem.com)
  • Investigating the cellular signaling pathways leading to the development of endocrine tumors, such as thyroid tumors, primary hyperparathyroidism (parathyroid adenomas), adrenal nodules, and neuroendocrine tumors of the pancreas. (uhealthsystem.com)
  • He is considered a high-volume endocrine surgeon in Miami (i.e., thyroid surgeon, parathyroid surgeon, adrenal surgeon, and pancreas surgeon) with experience treating advanced and recurrent disease. (uhealthsystem.com)
  • The most, timely affirmation of pancreatic tumor has been credited to the eighteenth century, Italian specialist Giovanni Battista Morgagni, and the historical father of modern-day anatomic pathology, who asserted to have followed a few instances of growth in the pancreas. (omicsonline.org)
  • tumor of the head of the pancreas had turned into an entrenched [ 1 ]. (omicsonline.org)
  • Neuroendocrine tumors (NETs) are neoplasms arising from a group of neurosecretory cells found in different organs of the body including the lungs, pancreas, and the gastrointestinal tract. (infectiousdiseaseadvisor.com)
  • In the pancreas, the commonly recognized tumors under this category include the insulinomas, gastrinomas, pancreatic glucagonomas, and somatostatinomas. (infectiousdiseaseadvisor.com)
  • Examples of such are those associated with Bronchogenic malignancies producing excessive secretion of the ACTH prohormone leading to Cushing's syndrome, and the hypersecretion of Vasoactive intestinal peptides (VIP) by the pancreas (normally secreted by the intestinal mucosal cells). (infectiousdiseaseadvisor.com)
  • This is a neuroendocrine tumor of the pancreas that can secrete insulin and result in hypoglycemia. (infectiousdiseaseadvisor.com)
  • Also a neuroendocrine tumor of the pancreas that secretes excessive amounts of glucagon. (infectiousdiseaseadvisor.com)
  • Cancer arising from cells in the islets of Langerhans (hormone-producing cells in the pancreas). (lifeworkpotential.com)
  • Exocrine pancreatic cancer is a disease in which cancerous cells originate within the tissues of the pancreas that produce digestive juices. (blogspot.com)
  • The following information focuses mainly on pancreatic carcinoma, the most common cancer of the pancreas. (blogspot.com)
  • The intraoperative exploration found a 1.5 cm tumor on the surface of the tail of the pancreas, a 12 cm retroperitoneal lipoma and two liver metastases, sized 3.5 cm and 1.5 cm, respectively. (healthdocbox.com)
  • Following their deaths, their cancer was often called " pancreatic cancer " because it was cancer and it occurred in the pancreas. (netrf.org)
  • The endocrine pancreas consists of endocrine cells that are arranged in "islets" and release hormones into the bloodstream. (netrf.org)
  • Neuroendocrine tumors arise from endocrine cells in the pancreas, which cluster together like an island and are called islet cells. (netrf.org)
  • Pancreatic cancer is cancer that starts in your pancreas. (sclhealth.org)
  • In this cancer, normal cells in the pancreas undergo a series of changes. (sclhealth.org)
  • The pancreas is made up of 2 main types of cells. (sclhealth.org)
  • The exocrine pancreas is made up of cells that make digestive juices. (sclhealth.org)
  • Most pancreatic cancers start in this part of the pancreas. (sclhealth.org)
  • The main pancreatic duct is at the head of the pancreas. (sclhealth.org)
  • The endocrine pancreas makes hormones that are released into the blood. (sclhealth.org)
  • They start in endocrine cells in the pancreas. (sclhealth.org)
  • Pancreatic cancer often grows within the pancreas for a long time before it causes any symptoms. (sclhealth.org)
  • Pancreatic cancer is the development of malignant cells in the pancreas. (portsmouthhospital.com)
  • The pancreas is made up of two different types of cells, endocrine and exocrine. (portsmouthhospital.com)
  • The exocrine cells of the pancreas make digestive juices that help break down food in the small intestine. (portsmouthhospital.com)
  • Pancreatic cancer tumors can cause blockages in the pancreas. (portsmouthhospital.com)
  • If the tumor grows beyond the pancreas, the cancer can pass into nearby structures, such as the intestines, liver, or stomach. (portsmouthhospital.com)
  • Pancreatic neuroendocrine tumors (PanNET)-Arise from the endocrine or islet cells of the pancreas. (portsmouthhospital.com)
  • They are named for hormone that is produced by the tumor cells, such as gastrinoma (stomach) or insulinoma (pancreas). (portsmouthhospital.com)
  • Journal of the Pancreas publishes multidisciplinary research that covers theory and practice in all the related fields of pancreatic diseases and therapy. (imedpub.com)
  • The most common type of pancreatic cancer arises from the exocrine glands and is called adenocarcinoma of the pancreas. (cancertreatment-wecareindia.com)
  • The endocrine glands of the pancreas can give rise to a completely different type of cancer, referred to as pancreatic neuroendocrine carcinoma or islet cell tumor. (cancertreatment-wecareindia.com)
  • Pancreatic cancer originates in the tissues of your pancreas, an organ located behind your stomach that secretes vital substances to aid digestion and to regulate the metabolism of carbohydrates (or sugars) in your body. (thirdage.com)
  • One type of cell in the pancreas, referred to as exocrine cells, secretes enzymes (specialized proteins that allow chemical processes to occur) into the small intestine for digestion. (thirdage.com)
  • The other types of cell in the pancreas are endocrine cells, which secrete hormones (insulin and glucagon) into the bloodstream to aid in the regulation of sugar levels. (thirdage.com)
  • The exocrine and endocrine cells of the pancreas form very different tumors/cancers. (thirdage.com)
  • Endocrine tumors of the pancreas, also known as neuroendocrine tumors (NET) or islet cell tumors, start from endocrine cells. (thirdage.com)
  • Streptozotocin (Streptozocin, STZ) is a naturally occurring chemical that is particularly toxic to the insulin-producing beta cells of the pancreas in mammals. (lumenmax.eu)
  • Streptozotocin has anticancer properties and is used for several tumors such as leukemia, medullary thyroid carcinoma, and islet cell cancer of the pancreas. (lumenmax.eu)
  • Neuroendocrine tumors (NETs) comprise a heterogeneous spectrum of neoplasms. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • For multiple neoplasms of the same site that are not contiguous, such as tumors in different quadrants of the same breast, codes for each site should be assigned. (icd10data.com)
  • PETs 3 are uncommon neoplasms arising from pancreatic islet cells and may occur either sporadically or as part of two familial cancer syndromes, MEN1 or von Hippel-Lindau syndrome. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Neuroendocrine tumors (NETs) are widely distributed neoplasms described as epithelial tumors with predominantly neuroendocrine differentiation that share a common phenotype. (cancernetwork.com)
  • PNETs make up only 7% of GEP NETs and 2% of pancreatic neoplasms. (cancernetwork.com)
  • Neuroendocrine cells are widely distributed throughout the body, and neoplasms from these dispersed cells can arise at many sites. (enets.org)
  • Pancreatic neuroendocrine tumors (PNETs) are uncommon neoplasms, comprising 1-2% of all pancreatic tumors. (enets.org)
  • It has been suggested that the occurrence of intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasms in association with pancreatic endocrine tumours is more frequent than expected [Goh BK, Ooi LL, Kumarasinghe MP, Tan YM, Cheow PC, Chow PK, et al. (nih.gov)
  • Up to now, 10 patients with concomitant intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasms and pancreatic endocrine tumours have been reported [Goh BK, Ooi LL, Kumarasinghe MP, Tan YM, Cheow PC, Chow PK, et al. (nih.gov)
  • We report two additional patients with intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasms and pancreatic endocrine tumours, in whom both tumours were diagnosed before surgery. (nih.gov)
  • Thyroid neoplasms include those that originate from follicular cells and those that arise from parafollicular cells (C cells). (scirp.org)
  • intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasms (IPMN) - these develop in the pancreatic duct and produce mucus. (macmillan.org.uk)
  • pseudopapillary neoplasms - this is a rare, slow-growing tumour that mostly affects women. (macmillan.org.uk)
  • Neuroendocrine tumors (NETs) comprise a complex and highly heterogeneous group of neoplasms that can arise all over the body, originating from neuroendocrine cells. (springermedizin.de)
  • The WHO 2010 classification of neuroendocrine neoplasm defined low to intermediate grade tumors (grade 1-2) and well to moderately differentiated neuroendocrine neoplasms as neuroendocrine tumors (NET), while Neuroendocrine carcinomas (NEC) are used to describe high-grade (grade 3), moderately to poorly differentiated neuroendocrine neoplasms. (infectiousdiseaseadvisor.com)
  • Important to consider is that there are non-functioning neuroendocrine neoplasms that occur more frequently than these hormonal hypersecreting tumors. (infectiousdiseaseadvisor.com)
  • Pancreatic endocrine neoplasms (PENs) are relatively uncommon lesions, accounting for 1-2% of all pancreatic neoplasms. (papsociety.org)
  • According to the American Cancer Society, around 3 percent of all cancers in the United States are pancreatic cancers. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • Different types of pancreatic cancers can affect the exocrine functions. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • Pancreatic cancers affect men than often than women. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • Serum amylase and/or lipase levels are elevated in less than half of patients with resectable pancreatic cancers and are elevated in only one quarter of patients with unresectable tumors. (medscape.com)
  • Patients with advanced pancreatic cancers and weight loss may also have general laboratory evidence of malnutrition (eg, low serum albumin or cholesterol level). (medscape.com)
  • In 2015, pancreatic cancers of all types resulted in 411,600 deaths globally. (wikipedia.org)
  • Adenocarcinoma starts in exocrine cells and accounts for 95 percent of pancreatic cancers. (providence.org)
  • Possible cancers linked to glyphosate exposure include non-Hodgkin lymphoma, renal tubule carcinoma, pancreatic islet-cell adenoma, and skin tumors. (greatplainslaboratory.com)
  • More than a dozen tumor suppressor genes have been identified thus far by virtue of their genetic mutations in human cancers. (asm.org)
  • Conceptually, genes that negatively regulate the growth-suppressing activity of either p53 or pRb may be proto-oncogenes, as exemplified by the observation that MDM2 ( 26 ) and cyclin D1 ( 20 ), negative regulators of p53 and pRb, respectively, are frequently activated in human cancers and promote tumor growth when targeted for transgenic expression in mouse mammary tissues ( 22 , 35 ). (asm.org)
  • Their similar biochemical activity in blocking CDK enzymes and maintaining the growth-suppressive activity of Rb predict a tumor suppression function for CDK inhibitor genes, yet only the p16 INK4a gene has been directly linked to tumor growth by genetic alterations found in human cancers ( 17 , 25 ) and by the early development of spontaneous tumors in mice lacking p16 ( 31 ). (asm.org)
  • Neuroendocrine carcinoma accounts for less than 5% of cancers of unknown primary site. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Neuroendocrine tumors , or more properly gastro-entero-pancreatic or gastroenteropancreatic neuroendocrine tumors ( GEP-NETs ), are cancers of the interface between the endocrine (hormonal) system and the nervous system. (thefullwiki.org)
  • Patients having cancers such as lymphoma, hepatocellular carcinoma and melanoma can have dermal melanosis. (epainassist.com)
  • GI carcinoid tumors, especially tumors of the small intestine, are often associated with other cancers. (uwhealth.org)
  • They are much less common than exocrine tumors, making up about 7% of pancreatic cancers. (cancer.net)
  • These thyroid tumors comprise the vast majority (more than 90% of cases) of all thyroid cancers [7]. (scirp.org)
  • Using this scheme, the stage by stage outcomes for PanNETs are dissimilar to pancreatic exocrine cancers. (wikipedia.org)
  • Mutations in the genes BRCA1 and BRCA2, which increase the risk of breast, prostate, and certain gynecologic cancers, have been found in some families with a history of pancreatic cancer. (saintjohnscancer.org)
  • More than 9 out of 10 pancreatic cancers (95%) develop in the exocrine cells that make pancreatic juices. (macmillan.org.uk)
  • Cancers that develop in the endocrine cells can behave differently to those that develop in the exocrine cells. (macmillan.org.uk)
  • Endocrine cancers are also known as islet cell or neuroendocrine cancers. (blogspot.com)
  • Pancreatic cancer accounts for approximately 3% of all cancers in the US and 7% of cancer deaths. (oncoquestinc.com)
  • There are two types of pancreatic cancers: exocrine cancer and endocrine cancers. (oncoquestinc.com)
  • Exocrine cancers are the most common types of pancreatic cancer. (oncoquestinc.com)
  • Less than 5% of pancreatic cancers are endocrine-based cancers. (oncoquestinc.com)
  • Pancreatic cancers fall into two categories: exocrine tumors, the most common, and endocrine tumors, also called islet cell tumors. (sgsmn.com)
  • While not technically cancer, it is treated the same way as other pancreatic cancers. (sgsmn.com)
  • : 52 Using this scheme, the stage by stage outcomes for PanNETs are dissimilar to pancreatic exocrine cancers. (wikipedia.org)
  • In most cancers, the abnormal cells grow to form a lump or mass called a tumor. (sclhealth.org)
  • A small number of all pancreatic cancers start in endocrine cells. (sclhealth.org)
  • These exocrine cancers start in cells of the pancreatic ducts, or cells that secrete digestive juices (enzymes). (sclhealth.org)
  • More than 95 out of 100 pancreatic cancers are adenocarcinomas. (sclhealth.org)
  • This type makes up nearly all pancreatic cancers. (portsmouthhospital.com)
  • Adrenocortical carcinomas, or adrenal cancers, are the least common cause of Cushing's syndrome. (endocrine.com.sg)
  • Pancreatic adenocarcinoma is among the most aggressive of all cancers. (cancertreatment-wecareindia.com)
  • Free Overnight Delivery on orders over $ 500 It is used in medicine for treating certain cancers of the Islets of Langerhans and used in medical research to produce an animal model for hyperglycemia in a large dose as well as Type 1 diabetes with multiple low doses. (lumenmax.eu)
  • [6] The most common, pancreatic adenocarcinoma , accounts for about 85% of cases, and the term "pancreatic cancer" is sometimes used to refer only to that type. (wikipedia.org)
  • [6] These are generally less aggressive than pancreatic adenocarcinoma. (wikipedia.org)
  • Pancreatic cancer rarely occurs before the age of 40, and more than half of cases of pancreatic adenocarcinoma occur in those over 70. (wikipedia.org)
  • [1] Surgery is the only treatment that can cure pancreatic adenocarcinoma, [11] and may also be done to improve quality of life without the potential for cure. (wikipedia.org)
  • [6] Pancreatic adenocarcinoma typically has a very poor prognosis: after diagnosis, 25% of people survive one year and 5% live for five years. (wikipedia.org)
  • How can I be sure that the patient has pancreatic adenocarcinoma? (oncologynurseadvisor.com)
  • The two types of pancreatic carcinoma are acinar cell carcinoma and ductal adenocarcinoma . (emedicinehealth.com)
  • When primary pancreatic cancer is diagnosed, 95% of cases are classified as aggressive adenocarcinoma and the remaining 5% of cases are caused by indolent behaving neuroendocrine carcinoma. (biomedcentral.com)
  • And adenocarcinoma is the most common type of exocrine tumor. (cancer.net)
  • Much less commonly, if the tumor begins in the acini, it is called acinar adenocarcinoma. (cancer.net)
  • The NCCN recommends use of the same AJCC-UICC staging system as pancreatic adenocarcinoma. (wikipedia.org)
  • The most common type of exocrine pancreatic cancer is ductal adenocarcinoma. (macmillan.org.uk)
  • Aggregate of 36 patients were enlisted with suspected or proven as solid pancreatic tumors were collected from the first affiliated Hospital of Anhui Medical University Teaching Hospital during the period of January 2012 to August 2015, contained 20 cases of pancreatic adenocarcinoma, 7 cases of pancreatic neuroendocrine tumors (PNETs), 5 cases of pancreatic metastases, 4 cases of solid pseudopapillary tumors (SPTP). (omicsonline.org)
  • Pancreatic adenocarcinoma was irregular in shape, lesion was hypo intense in 10 cases, slightly hypo intense in 9 cases and isointense in one case on T1WI. (omicsonline.org)
  • The most common type of pancreatic cancer is also known as pancreatic duct adenocarcinoma or simply pancreatic carcinoma. (blogspot.com)
  • There are several types of exocrine pancreatic cancer: pancreatic adenocarcinoma, which is by far the most common, and less common types including adenosquamous carcinomas, squamous cell carcinomas, and signet ring cell carcinomas. (oncoquestinc.com)
  • Pancreatic adenocarcinoma is often referred to as "pancreatic cancer. (netrf.org)
  • The presence of prominent cytoplasmic vacuoles significantly expends the differential diagnosis, including ductal adenocarcinoma, acinar cell carcinoma, solid pseudopapillary tumor, metastatic adrenocortical carcinoma and renal cell carcinoma. (papsociety.org)
  • This article only discusses issues related to the more common type of pancreatic adenocarcinoma. (cancertreatment-wecareindia.com)
  • The endocrine glands are small clusters of cells known as the islets of Langerhans. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • 4 Only 5% to 20% of the pancreatic parenchyma is responsible for the endocrine function, composed of cells clustered into Islets of Langerhans, which produce hormones, such as insulin, glucagon,and somatostatin. (appliedradiology.com)
  • The endocrine system is made up of the hypothalamus, pituitary gland, pineal gland, thyroid, parathyroid gland, adrenal gland, pancreatic islet cells (also known as islets of Langerhans) and the ovaries or testicles. (cancer.ca)
  • Glucagonoma is a rare, slowly growing, frequently malignant pancreatic neuroendocrine tumor (NET) arising from alpha-cells of the islets of the Langerhans. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • The pancreatic endocrine cells are arranged in small clumps called islets of Langerhans. (sclhealth.org)
  • Insulinoma is a rare pancreatic tumor that secretes insulin, the hormone that lowers glucose levels in the blood. (providence.org)
  • Secretory tumors are classified by the hormone most strongly secreted - for example, insulinoma, which produces excessive insulin, and gastrinoma, which produces excessive gastrin (see more detail in the summary below). (thefullwiki.org)
  • The diagnosis of an insulinoma is usually made biochemically with low blood glucose, elevated insulin, proinsulin, and C-peptide levels, and confirmed by localizing the tumor with medical imaging or angiography. (wikipedia.org)
  • citation needed] During surgery to remove an insulinoma, an intraoperative ultrasound can sometimes localize the tumor, which helps guide the surgeon in the operation and has a higher sensitivity than noninvasive imaging tests. (wikipedia.org)
  • Tumor-specific suicide gene therapy directed by the rat insulin promoter has been used to eliminate insulinoma tumors in a mouse model. (springer.com)
  • This phase II trial is studying how well sorafenib tosylate works in treating patients with progressive metastatic neuroendocrine tumors. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • This was a stratified two-stage, single-arm, phase 2 study of treatment with everolimus in patients with advanced (unresectable or metastatic) pancreatic neuroendocrine tumor (NET) after failure of cytotoxic chemotherapy. (knowcancer.com)
  • Argani, P. Intraductal spread by metastatic islet cell tumor (well-differentiated pancreatic endocrine neoplasm) involving the breast of a child, mimicking a primary mammary carcinoma. (hopkinsmedicine.org)
  • El-Kamar FG, Grossbard ML, Kozuch PS: Metastatic pancreatic cancer: emerging strategies in chemotherapy and palliative care. (springer.com)
  • Durden FM, Variyam E, Chren MM: Fat necrosis with features of erythema nodosum in a patient with metastatic pancreatic carcinoma. (springer.com)
  • A long-acting analogue of somatostatin, octreotide, which has a half-life of 3 hours, can be employed preoperatively prior to the surgical resection or debulking of large metastatic tumors. (medscape.com)
  • Carcinomas of the appendix are usually mucinous adenocarcinomas with a tendency to produce peritoneal pseudomyxoma and without metastatic spread until late in the disease course. (enets.org)
  • Among available various therapeutic options, curative resection should be considered for localized tumors and in some selected cases of metastatic disease. (kjpbt.org)
  • Metastatic well-differentiated pancreatic neuroendocrine tumors: Systemic therapy options to control tumor growth and symptoms of hormone hypersecretion. (cancer.org)
  • On April 3, 2015, she visited the Fudan University Affiliated Tumor Hospital, in which liver biopsy showed NETs (G2), which were highly suspicous for metastatic diseases. (healthdocbox.com)
  • The prognosis for patients with these tumors is generally favorable, however can be quite variable and is related to the location of the primary tumor, extent of metastatic disease at initial presentation, and the time of diagnosis. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • This neoplasm is listed as the most common endocrine tumor and represents approximately 3% of all malignant tumors in humans, with 75% of cases occurring in women, and two-thirds of cases occurring in people under 55 years. (scirp.org)
  • Glucagonoma is one form of islet cell neoplasm and involves pancreatic alpha cells. (meta.org)
  • Islet cell tumors may occur in children with multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1 (MEN1) syndrome. (emedicinehealth.com)
  • Multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1 (MEN1) syndrome is a risk factor for pancreatic NETs. (wustl.edu)
  • The multiple endocrine neoplasia (MEN) syndromes comprise 3 genetically distinct familial diseases involving adenomatous hyperplasia and malignant tumors in several endocrine glands. (merckmanuals.com)
  • MEN = multiple endocrine neoplasia. (merckmanuals.com)
  • multiple endocrine neoplasia (MEN) a group of rare hereditary disorders of autonomous hyperfunction of more than one endocrine gland. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Six of these hyperplastic tissues and tumors were in endocrine organs, and several types of tumors routinely developed within the same animal, a phenotype reminiscent of that seen in combined human multiple endocrine neoplasia syndromes. (asm.org)
  • Some appear to function in a specific cell type, such as BRCA1 and BRCA2 in breast and ovarian cancer, Smad4 (Dpc4), APC, and Smad2 in colon cancer, and Menin in type 1 multiple endocrine neoplasia (MEN1). (asm.org)
  • Most NETs of the small and large intestines occur sporadically, while others may occur within the background of an inherited neoplasia syndrome such as multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1 (MEN1) or neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1) (e.g., gastrin-producing G-cell tumors and somatostatin-producing D-cell tumors of the duodenum, respectively). (uwhealth.org)
  • PanNETs in Multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1 are often multiple, and thus require different treatment and surveillance strategies. (wikipedia.org)
  • He has a particular interest in genetic syndromes such as multiple endocrine neoplasia (MEN types I, IIA, and IIB) and Von Hippel Lindau disease. (uhealthsystem.com)
  • Some of these tumors may occur in combination, and are commonly found in recognized inherited conditions such as the Multiple Endocrine Neoplasia (MEN) syndromes. (infectiousdiseaseadvisor.com)
  • Abstract: A 46-year-old Chinese woman was admitted to our hospital because of presence of spaceoccupying lesions in the liver for 2 months in April, She had a family history of multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1 (MEN1) and physical examination is unremarkable. (healthdocbox.com)
  • The risk of developing pancreatic cancer is lower among non-smokers, and people who maintain a healthy weight and limit their consumption of red or processed meat . (wikipedia.org)
  • The risk for developing pancreatic cancer is higher if a person's mother, father, or a sibling had the disease. (saintjohnscancer.org)
  • Several factors determine a person's lifetime risk of developing pancreatic cancer. (oncoquestinc.com)
  • One of these is smoking/tobacco use, with the risk of developing pancreatic cancer increasing by 20-30% for smokers versus non-smokers. (oncoquestinc.com)
  • Some studies have also linked poor diet, physical inactivity, and coffee and alcohol consumption to increased risk of developing pancreatic cancer. (oncoquestinc.com)
  • Not all studies have found that these links exist, and more data is needed to say definitively that these factors increase risk of developing pancreatic cancer. (oncoquestinc.com)
  • The incidence of pancreatic neuroendocrine tumors (PNETs) has significantly increased in recent years, although this may reflect better detection and improved diagnosis, in addition to a true increase in incidence. (cancernetwork.com)
  • Response to somatostatin analogs is diminished in patients with PNETs compared with patients who have small bowel NETs, moderate-grade tumors, extensive liver involvement, or markedly elevated CgA levels. (cancernetwork.com)
  • In this review, we will focus on well-differentiated nonfunctional pancreatic neuroendocrine tumors (PNETs), while mentioning the various functional tumors. (cancernetwork.com)
  • Incidentally discovered pancreatic masses now account for up to half of nonmetastatic PNETs. (cancernetwork.com)
  • These are also called pancreatic neuroendocrine tumors (PNETs) or islet cell tumors. (cancer.net)
  • They are also called pancreatic neuroendocrine tumours (PNETs) or islet cell tumours. (macmillan.org.uk)
  • Pancreatic neuroendocrine tumors (pNETs) are diverse diseases with different prognosis. (kjpbt.org)
  • Less frequently, they grow from the cells that make the pancreatic enzymes, in which case they are called acinar cell carcinoma. (oncoquestinc.com)
  • This starts in gland cells and may be called acinar cell carcinoma. (sgsmn.com)
  • Acinar cell carcinoma-Arise from the exocrine cells that make pancreatic enzymes for digestion. (portsmouthhospital.com)
  • It contains glands that create pancreatic juices, hormones, and insulin . (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • Functioning islet cell tumors continue to make hormones. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • Because nearly all tissues respond to endocrine hormones, endocrine diseases are associated with multisystem disease. (renalandurologynews.com)
  • Functional tumors make extra amounts of hormones, such as gastrin, insulin, and glucagon, that cause signs and symptoms. (nkch.org)
  • Nonfunctional tumors do not make extra amounts of hormones. (nkch.org)
  • Pancreatic NETs make different kinds of hormones such as gastrin, insulin, and glucagon. (nkch.org)
  • There are other rare types of functional pancreatic NETs that make hormones, including hormones that control the balance of sugar, salt, and water in the body. (nkch.org)
  • These tumors may make hormones, such as insulin and gastrin, that cause signs and symptoms. (emedicinehealth.com)
  • In children, some pancreatic tumors do not secrete hormones and there are no signs and symptoms of disease. (emedicinehealth.com)
  • Pancreatic tumors that do secrete hormones may cause signs and symptoms. (emedicinehealth.com)
  • We investigated the clinicopathologic data, immunohistochemical expression of the pan-endocrine markers, hormones, steroid receptors, and p53 overexpression in pancreatic SCPTs from eight Chinese patients (seven women, one man) collected over a 24-year period. (springer.com)
  • Pancreatic islet cell tumors arise from this system and are capable of secreting virtually any of the known polypeptide hormones. (springer.com)
  • The endocrine system is a communication system in which hormones act as biochemical messengers to regulate physiological events in living organisms. (thefullwiki.org)
  • More specifically, the endocrine system is primarily a network of glands that produce and secrete hormones, usually into the bloodstream. (thefullwiki.org)
  • Those PETs that do not secrete hormones are called nonsecretory or nonfunctioning or nonfunctional tumors. (thefullwiki.org)
  • The cause of development of Paraneoplastic Syndrome is humoral factors, such as cytokines or hormones that are excreted by an immune response against the tumor or by the tumor cells themselves. (epainassist.com)
  • Occurring nonrandomly throughout the GI tract are more than 14 cell types, which produce different hormones. (uwhealth.org)
  • These cells make specific hormones, most importantly insulin. (cancer.net)
  • A functioning tumor makes hormones. (cancer.net)
  • A nonfunctioning tumor does not make hormones. (cancer.net)
  • Neuroendocrine cells are like nerve cells ( neurons ), but they also make hormones like cells of the endocrine system (endocrine cells). (cancer.ca)
  • The group of glands and cells in the body that make and release hormones (which control many functions such as growth, reproduction, sleep, hunger and metabolism) into the blood. (cancer.ca)
  • A tumour that starts in an adrenal gland (the glands on top of each kidney that release hormones to help control heart rate and blood pressure). (cancer.ca)
  • Measurement of hormones including pancreatic polypeptide, gastrin, proinsulin, insulin, glucagon, and vasoactive intestinal peptide can determine if a tumor is causing hypersecretion. (wikipedia.org)
  • Originates in the endocrine cells which make hormones such as insulin and glucagon. (saintjohnscancer.org)
  • They begin in the endocrine cells which make insulin and other hormones. (macmillan.org.uk)
  • Ectopic neuroendocrine tumors are those that are located in areas which do not normally produce the involved hormones. (infectiousdiseaseadvisor.com)
  • it makes pancreatic juices, which contain enzymes that aid in digestion, and it produces several hormones, including insulin. (lifeworkpotential.com)
  • These tumors can produce hormones that produce a variety of symptoms such as changes in blood sugar or diarrhea. (blogspot.com)
  • While these tumors don't make enough hormones to cause symptoms, they are more likely to be cancer than functioning tumors. (sgsmn.com)
  • It starts in the endocrine cells, which produce hormones to regulate blood sugar. (netrf.org)
  • Neuroendocrine tumors (NETs) are an uncommon cancer of the neuroendocrine cells, which receive messages from the nervous system and then release hormones into the bloodstream. (netrf.org)
  • Since they arise in hormone-producing cells, a neuroendocrine tumor can overproduce hormones and release them into the bloodstream, causing a range of symptoms. (netrf.org)
  • The endocrine, or islet cells, produce a number of different chemicals called hormones. (portsmouthhospital.com)
  • The tumors make hormones and can be found in the digestive tract. (portsmouthhospital.com)
  • Non-functioning-Tumors do not cause symptoms because they do not make enough excess hormones. (portsmouthhospital.com)
  • Cancer cells secrete excess levels of several adrenal cortical hormones, including cortisol and adrenal androgens. (endocrine.com.sg)
  • The endocrine glands secrete hormones, including insulin, into the bloodstream. (cancertreatment-wecareindia.com)
  • These glands secrete many hormones , including epinephrine (adrenaline), norepinephrine, and the corticosteroid, and play an important part in the body's endocrine system . (cushings-help.com)
  • A benign tumor , or adenoma , that usually results in the excess production of adrenal gland hormones. (cushings-help.com)
  • Within these granules are a wide variety of biogenic amines and hormones characteristic of NE tumors ( Table 1 ). (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • Gastrinoma is a tumor that secretes above-average levels of gastrin, a hormone that stimulates the stomach to secrete acids and enzymes. (providence.org)
  • The medical subject Headings indexing system refers to "islet cell carcinoma", which is subdivided into gastrinoma, glucagonoma , somatostatinoma and VIPoma. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Tumors that form in islet cells are called islet cell tumors, pancreatic endocrine tumors, or pancreatic neuroendocrine tumors (pancreatic NETs). (nkch.org)
  • Pancreatic neuroendocrine tumors (NETs) may be benign (not cancer) or malignant (cancer). (nkch.org)
  • When pancreatic NETs are malignant, they are called pancreatic endocrine cancer or islet cell carcinoma. (nkch.org)
  • Pancreatic NETs are much less common than pancreatic exocrine tumors and have a better prognosis. (nkch.org)
  • Pancreatic NETs may or may not cause signs or symptoms. (nkch.org)
  • Most pancreatic NETs are functional tumors. (nkch.org)
  • There are different kinds of functional pancreatic NETs. (nkch.org)
  • Having certain syndromes can increase the risk of pancreatic NETs. (nkch.org)
  • Different types of pancreatic NETs have different signs and symptoms. (wustl.edu)
  • Historically, classification of NETs has focused more on the differences between the tumors at different sites, with names often designating the tissue of origin, such as "pancreatic islet cell" and "carcinoid" tumors. (cancernetwork.com)
  • 2) Well-defined neuroendocrine tumors (NETs) with variable, but most lyindolent biologic behavior and characteristic well-differentiated histologic features. (enets.org)
  • The majority arise in the gastrointestinal tract and collectively they are referred as gastroenteropancreatic neuroendocrine tumors (GEP/NETs). (enets.org)
  • The WHO classifies the GEP/NETs as well-differentiated NETs (carcinoid tumors) if they are noninvasive and have benign behavior or uncertain malignant potential. (enets.org)
  • In contrast, GEP/NETs with characteristics of low-grade malignancy with invasion of the muscularis propria or beyond, or metastases, are characterized as well-differentiated neuroendocrine carcinomas (malignant carcinoids). (enets.org)
  • Pancreatic islet cell tumors, whether functioning or not, are classified as well-differentiated NETs or well-differentiated neuroendocrine carcinomas, due to the (depending on) histologic characteristics. (enets.org)
  • The WHO classification for gastroenteropancreatic NETs based on stage (ie size and presence of metastases) and grade (mitotic rate, perineural and lymphovascular invasion, Ki-67 proliferative index) categorizes them as well-differentiated NETs, e.g., carcinoid tumors, or as well-differentiated neuroendocrine carcinomas. (enets.org)
  • Despite the fact the appendix is one of the rarest anatomical locations of neuroendocrine tumors (NETs) in the digestive system, the appendicular neuroendocrine tumor (A-NET) remains one of the most common tumors of the appendix. (enets.org)
  • Despite great behavioral differences between the two, they are grouped together as GEP-NETs because of similarities in cell structure. (thefullwiki.org)
  • the term should not be used to describe pancreatic NETs or islet cell tumors. (uwhealth.org)
  • Data regarding carcinoids and other NETs, such as poorly differentiated neuroendocrine carcinomas, may be combined in some epidemiologic and clinical studies, rendering separate consideration difficult. (uwhealth.org)
  • Although the cellular origin of NETs of the GI tract is uncertain, consistent expression of cytokeratins in NETs and the expression of the caudal-related homeodomain protein 2 (CdX2 protein), an intestinal transcription factor in endocrine tumors of the small intestine, suggests an origin from an epithelial precursor cell. (uwhealth.org)
  • Neuroendocrine tumours (NETs) start in cells of the neuroendocrine system. (cancer.ca)
  • NETs are named and grouped according to where the tumour started in the body. (cancer.ca)
  • PanNETs are a type of neuroendocrine tumor, representing about one third of gastroenteropancreatic neuroendocrine tumors (GEP-NETs). (wikipedia.org)
  • Heterogeneity is an intrinsic, pivotal feature of NETs that derives from diverse causes and ultimately shapes tumor fate. (springermedizin.de)
  • In this review, we highlight the significance of this heterogeneity as an intrinsic hallmark of NETs, its repercussion on clinical approaches and tumor management, and some of the possible factors associated to such heterogeneity, including epigenetic and genetic elements, post-transcriptional regulation, or splicing alterations. (springermedizin.de)
  • As a group, they are often called pancreatic neuroendocrine tumors (NETs) or islet cell tumors. (oncoquestinc.com)
  • The length of treatment for advanced pancreatic NETs is based on how well it is working and what side effects you have. (cancer.org)
  • the possibility of neuroendocrine tumors (NETs) was considered. (healthdocbox.com)
  • The Neuroendocrine Tumor Research Foundation (NETRF) is the leading private funder of research into causes and treatments of neuroendocrine tumors (NETs) to improve and extend the lives of those living with NETs. (netrf.org)
  • There are many types of pancreatic NETs. (sclhealth.org)
  • Carcinoids are rare neuroendocrine tumors (NETs) thought to arise from the enterochromaffin cells (Kulchitsky) cells found throughout the crypts of Lieberkühn of the gut [ 8 ]. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • Most pancreatic tumors are malignant, or cancerous. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • These cancerous cells have the ability to invade other parts of the body. (wikipedia.org)
  • Additional testing to exclude pancreatic cancer must be undertaken when the index of suspicion is high because chronic pancreatitis often co-exists with pancreatic cancer or dysplastic (pre-cancerous) lesions. (oncologynurseadvisor.com)
  • Most islet cell carcinomas are malignant, but insulin-producing islet cell tumors are often benign (non-cancerous). (providence.org)
  • He gave the term "carcinoid" to these tumors, because they were so slow-growing that he considered them to be "cancer-like" rather than truly cancerous. (thefullwiki.org)
  • These cancerous cells can build up and form a mass called a tumor. (cancer.net)
  • A cancerous tumor is malignant, meaning it can grow and spread to other parts of the body. (cancer.net)
  • Treatments for cancerous cystic tumours, acinar cell carcinomas and ampullary cancer are similar to those described in our treatment section . (macmillan.org.uk)
  • Tumors can be cancerous (malignant) or noncancerous (benign). (stlukes-stl.com)
  • Also called islet cell tumors, these tumors can be benign or cancerous. (sgsmn.com)
  • They are benign, or non-cancerous, tumors of the pituitary gland which secrete increased amounts of ACTH. (endocrine.com.sg)
  • Some benign or malignant (cancerous) tumors that arise outside the pituitary can produce ACTH. (endocrine.com.sg)
  • Most of these cases involve non-cancerous tumors of adrenal tissue, called adrenal adenomas, which release excess cortisol into the blood. (endocrine.com.sg)
  • There are many types of pancreatic NET, and these tumors can be benign or cancerous. (thirdage.com)
  • A tumor that forms in cells that make insulin. (nkch.org)
  • Nesidioblastosis is a hyperfunctional disorder of pancreatic insulin-producing cells characterized by hypertrophic [beta] cells within enlarged or normal-appearing islets, small scattered endocrine cell clusters, and ductuloinsular complexes. (thefreelibrary.com)
  • Patients having hemangiopericytomas or pancreatic islet cell tumors can generate insulin production or production of growth factors similar to insulin, which can result in hypoglycemia . (epainassist.com)
  • Insulinomas are one of the functional pancreatic neuroendocrine tumor (PNET) group ("functional" because it increases production of insulin). (wikipedia.org)
  • Beta cells secrete insulin in response to increases in blood glucose. (wikipedia.org)
  • In contrast, the secretion of insulin by insulinomas is not properly regulated by glucose, and the tumors continue to secrete insulin causing glucose levels to fall further than normal. (wikipedia.org)
  • A 72-hour fast, usually supervised in a hospital setting, can be done to see if insulin levels fail to suppress, which is a strong indicator of the presence of an insulin-secreting tumor. (wikipedia.org)
  • Sometimes, angiography with percutaneous transhepatic pancreatic vein catheterization to sample the blood for insulin levels is required. (wikipedia.org)
  • Medications such as diazoxide and somatostatin can be used to block the release of insulin for patients who are not surgical candidates or who otherwise have inoperable tumors. (wikipedia.org)
  • Streptozotocin is used in islet cell carcinomas which produce excessive insulin. (wikipedia.org)
  • For example, insulin gene delivery to non- β -cell tissues has been shown to reverse hyperglycemia in diabetic mice, and islet transplantation, based on in vitro differentiation of β cells and concomitant gene targeting to prevent host autoimmune responses, has become more feasible. (springer.com)
  • Somatostatinoma: Excessive somatostatin production by this neuroendocrine tumor causes mild diabetes (due to inhibition of insulin), steatorrhea (decreased secretion of pancreatic enzyme), and gallstones (inhibits cholecystokinin that decreases gallbladder contractility). (psychiatryadvisor.com)
  • wished to appraise the evidence of a role of hi gh insulin levels in causing pancreatic cancer. (scirp.org)
  • Ampullary cancer is a rare type of exocrine tumor that begins where the bile duct from the liver and the pancreatic duct join with the small intestine. (providence.org)
  • Micrograph of a small intestine neuroendocrine tumor (bottom third of image), showing the typical intramural location, with an intact epithelium above it. (thefullwiki.org)
  • Midgut tumors, which account for up to 50% of cases, arise in the small intestine, appendix, or proximal colon. (uwhealth.org)
  • Pancreatic cancer often shows no symptoms until the later stages. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • In 2018, they expect around 55,440 people to receive a diagnosis of pancreatic cancer. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • What is pancreatic cancer? (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • There are two different types of pancreatic cancer, depending on whether it affects the exocrine or endocrine functions. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • The name comes from the type of hormone-producing cell where the cancer starts. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • There is evidence that pancreatic cancer can run in families. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • A person with certain genetic syndromes is more likely to develop pancreatic cancer. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • This year, the American Cancer Society expect that 29,200 men and 26,240 women will receive a diagnosis of pancreatic cancer. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • The laboratory findings in patients with pancreatic cancer are usually nonspecific. (medscape.com)
  • However, about 5% of patients with pancreatic cancer present initially with acute pancreatitis, in which case amylase and lipase would be uniformly elevated. (medscape.com)
  • Thus, pancreatic cancer should be in the differential diagnosis of an elderly patient presenting for the first time with acute pancreatitis without any known precipitating factors. (medscape.com)
  • Unfortunately, CA 19-9 is least sensitive for small, early stage pancreatic carcinomas and thus has not proven to be effective for the early detection of pancreatic cancer or as a screening tool. (medscape.com)
  • See the PDQ summary on Pancreatic Cancer Treatment for information on exocrine pancreatic cancer. (nkch.org)
  • Most nonfunctional tumors are malignant (cancer). (nkch.org)
  • [10] There are a number of types of pancreatic cancer. (wikipedia.org)
  • [6] Several other types of cancer, which collectively represent the majority of the non-adenocarcinomas, can also arise from these cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • Signs and symptoms of the most common form of pancreatic cancer may include yellow skin , abdominal or back pain , unexplained weight loss , light-colored stools , dark urine and loss of appetite . (wikipedia.org)
  • [1] There are usually no symptoms in the disease's early stages, and symptoms that are specific enough to suggest pancreatic cancer typically do not develop until the disease has reached an advanced stage. (wikipedia.org)
  • [1] [2] By the time of diagnosis, pancreatic cancer has often spread to other parts of the body. (wikipedia.org)
  • [2] Risk factors for pancreatic cancer include tobacco smoking , obesity , diabetes , and certain rare genetic conditions. (wikipedia.org)
  • [2] Pancreatic cancer is usually diagnosed by a combination of medical imaging techniques such as ultrasound or computed tomography , blood tests, and examination of tissue samples ( biopsy ). (wikipedia.org)
  • [6] Pancreatic cancer can be treated with surgery, radiotherapy , chemotherapy , palliative care , or a combination of these. (wikipedia.org)
  • [9] Pancreatic cancer is the fifth most common cause of death from cancer in the United Kingdom, [16] and the third most common in the United States. (wikipedia.org)
  • Pancreatic cancer may arise from any of these and disrupt any of their functions. (wikipedia.org)
  • The many types of pancreatic cancer can be divided into two general groups. (wikipedia.org)
  • Common signs and symptoms of pancreatic cancer include fatigue, abdominal pain often radiating to the back, jaundice, nausea with or without vomiting, anorexia, early satiety, and weight loss. (oncologynurseadvisor.com)
  • Additionally, up to 80% of individuals with pancreatic cancer will be shown to have glucose intolerance or overt diabetes mellitus at diagnosis. (oncologynurseadvisor.com)
  • Pathognomonic signs of pancreatic cancer include Courvoisier's gallbladder (a palpable gallbladder in the presence of obstructive jaundice) and rectal shelf on physical exam, due to the presence of pelvic masses. (oncologynurseadvisor.com)
  • Migratory thrombophlebitis is observed in about 10% of individuals with pancreatic cancer. (oncologynurseadvisor.com)
  • Signs and symptoms of pancreatic cancer are heterogeneous and are common to a number of benign or more serious conditions. (oncologynurseadvisor.com)
  • Chronic pancreatitis is a recognized risk factor for pancreatic cancer. (oncologynurseadvisor.com)
  • EUS, ERCP, or MRCP may be used to diagnose chronic pancreatitis and differentiate from pancreatic cancer, but differentiation may be difficult. (oncologynurseadvisor.com)
  • Same demographics as pancreatic cancer - typically affecting men more than women, and people ages 60-80 yrs. (oncologynurseadvisor.com)
  • Some tumors are benign (not cancer ). (emedicinehealth.com)
  • What Are the Types of Pancreatic Cancer that Affect Children? (emedicinehealth.com)
  • What Are the Signs and Symptoms of Pancreatic Cancer in Children? (emedicinehealth.com)
  • This makes it hard to diagnose pancreatic cancer early. (emedicinehealth.com)
  • Other conditions that are not pancreatic cancer may cause these same signs and symptoms. (emedicinehealth.com)
  • What Tests Diagnose and Stage Pancreatic Cancer in Children? (emedicinehealth.com)
  • A number of basic the signs of pancreatic cancer which include: pain within the abdomen as well as the straight back, weight reduction, nausea / vomiting, loss in appetite, itchy skin, and unexpected occurrence of diabetes, alterations in stool and urine colour and jaundice. (migente.com)
  • This type of pancreatic cancer is found mostly in young children. (providence.org)
  • Since it causes jaundice, yellowing of the skin and eyes, it may be found earlier than other types of pancreatic cancer and therefore has a better outcome. (providence.org)
  • Four cases of mucinsecreting pancreatic cancer were first reported in 1982. (thefreelibrary.com)
  • Systemic manifestations include frequent symptoms in pancreatic cancer patients, such as fever and cachexia. (springer.com)
  • Thus, an early recognition of paraneoplastic syndromes is very important in the management of patients with pancreatic cancer. (springer.com)
  • Clinical presentation in the diagnosis of pancreatic cancer. (springer.com)
  • Uomo G, Gallucci F, Rabitti PG: Anorexia-cachexia syndrome in pancreatic cancer: recent development in research and management. (springer.com)
  • Ellison NM, Chevlen E, Still CD, Dubugunta S: Supportive care for patients with pancreatic cancer. (springer.com)
  • Acanthosis nigricans as the initial paraneoplastic manifestation of pancreatic cancer. (springer.com)
  • Shakin EJ, Holland J: Depression and pancreatic cancer. (springer.com)
  • The term pancreatic cancer almost always refers to adenopancreatic cancer , also known as exocrine pancreatic cancer . (thefullwiki.org)
  • Paraneoplastic syndrome is a set of signs and symptoms, which develop at distant sites from a tumor/cancer. (epainassist.com)
  • Paraneoplastic Syndrome does not occur due to presence of cancer cells locally. (epainassist.com)
  • The tumor cells produce antigens, which are tissue-restricted and this triggers an anti-tumor immune response in the body, which can partially or in rare cases can completely suppress the growth of the tumor and the cancer symptoms. (epainassist.com)
  • Patients having small cell cancer of the lung will commonly have ectopic production of ACTH-like or ACTH molecules, which results in Cushing syndrome. (epainassist.com)
  • This is the first page of Cancer.Net's Guide to Pancreatic Cancer. (cancer.net)
  • There are several types of pancreatic cancer, depending on whether the cancer began in the exocrine or endocrine component. (cancer.net)
  • These are the most common type of pancreatic cancer. (cancer.net)
  • Read a 1-page fact sheet that offers an introduction to pancreatic cancer. (cancer.net)
  • It helps explain the number of people who are diagnosed with pancreatic cancer and general survival rates. (cancer.net)
  • But sometimes changes to neuroendocrine cells can cause cancer and spread to other parts of the body. (cancer.ca)
  • This type of cancer is called neuroendocrine carcinoma. (cancer.ca)
  • These include medullary thyroid cancer, pheochromocytoma and Merkel cell carcinoma. (cancer.ca)
  • We know that medical development in this field has been delayed compared to the progress observed in the treatment of other solid tumors, however, data from emerging clinical studies suggest that thyroid cancer can be treated with targeted agents, particularly kinase inhibitors, with promising results that overshadow those previously seen with cytotoxic agents [12]. (scirp.org)
  • Such "cancer stem cells" have been isolated by flow cytometry, followed by xenograft studies of their tumor-initiating properties. (nih.gov)
  • The aim of this work was to examine the distribution of CD133 in pancreatic exocrine cancer. (nih.gov)
  • Moreover, since CD133 was expressed in shed ductal cells of pancreatic tumors and was found on the surface of tumor cells in vessels, this molecule may have a potential as clinical marker in patients suffering from pancreatic cancer. (nih.gov)
  • Pancreatic cancer studies utilize several DNA-based strategies for tumor treatment including introduction of tumor suppressor genes, suppression of oncogenes, suicide gene/prodrug therapy, and restricted replication-competent virus therapy. (springer.com)
  • Pancreatic cancer is the fourth most common cause of cancer death in the United States. (saintjohnscancer.org)
  • Pancreatic tumors can't be seen or felt by doctors during routine physical exams, and patients usually have no symptoms until the cancer has spread to other organs. (saintjohnscancer.org)
  • As a center for treatment of advanced cancer, we offer innovative treatments, including immunotherapy, against pancreatic cancer. (saintjohnscancer.org)
  • We take a complete medical history and do a physical exam prior to beginning any diagnostic procedures for pancreatic cancer. (saintjohnscancer.org)
  • If pancreatic cancer is suspected, we might perform any of the following tests in order to make a definitive diagnosis. (saintjohnscancer.org)
  • More men than women are diagnosed with pancreatic cancer. (saintjohnscancer.org)
  • Heavy cigarette smokers are two or three times more likely than nonsmokers to develop pancreatic cancer. (saintjohnscancer.org)
  • Pancreatic cancer is more common in overweight, inactive people. (saintjohnscancer.org)
  • Pancreatic cancer occurs more often in diabetic patients. (saintjohnscancer.org)
  • African-Americans are more likely than whites to be diagnosed with pancreatic cancer and present with more advanced disease. (saintjohnscancer.org)
  • Exposure to certain occupational carcinogens like pesticides and chemicals used in the metal industry may increase the risk of pancreatic cancer. (saintjohnscancer.org)
  • Most pancreatic cancer is not hereditary. (saintjohnscancer.org)
  • An estimated 5 to 10 percent of people with pancreatic cancer have one or more family members who have had the disease. (saintjohnscancer.org)
  • According to the National Cancer Institute, people with a strong family history of pancreatic cancer are nine times more likely to develop pancreatic cancer than others. (saintjohnscancer.org)
  • In patients with pancreatic cancer, early diagnosis and treatment would have a great impact on survival time. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Therefore, we examined centrosomes in human pancreatic tissue sections obtained from patients with ductal carcinoma and other pathological states to evaluate whether centrosome abnormalities are specific for cancer cells in situ , and thus the presence of such abnormalities could be a sensitive diagnostic marker. (aacrjournals.org)
  • The human pancreatic cancer cell line MIA PaCa-2 was donated by the Japanese Cancer Resource Bank (Tokyo, Japan). (aacrjournals.org)
  • There are several different types of pancreatic cancer. (macmillan.org.uk)
  • This cancer starts from cells in the lining of the pancreatic ducts. (macmillan.org.uk)
  • Pancreatic cancer may not cause symptoms for a long time. (macmillan.org.uk)
  • Affected by pancreatic cancer? (macmillan.org.uk)
  • Order or download our free booklet about pancreatic cancer. (macmillan.org.uk)
  • Find out about the tests used to diagnose pancreatic cancer. (macmillan.org.uk)
  • Notably, the small-molecule EGFR tyrosine kinase inhibitors gefitinib (Iressa, AstraZeneca) and erlotinib (Tarceva, OSI Pharmaceuticals) have been shown to cause partial responses in 10% to 20% of all non-small cell lung cancer patients, with clinical responses to gefitinib and erlotinib found to be highly dependent on the presence of activating mutations ( 4 , 5 ). (aacrjournals.org)
  • This PDQ cancer information summary for health professionals provides comprehensive, peer-reviewed, evidence-based information about the treatment of gastrointestinal carcinoid tumors. (oncolink.org)
  • Medullary carcinoma of the thyroid is cancer of the thyroid gland that starts in cells that release a hormone called calcitonin. (stlukes-stl.com)
  • Small cell lung cancer (SCLC) is a fast-growing type of lung cancer. (stlukes-stl.com)
  • It spreads much more quickly than non-small cell lung cancer. (stlukes-stl.com)
  • He completed his residency in General Surgery at the University of Miami/Jackson Memorial Medical Center, after which he finished a two-year fellowship at the University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center in Surgical Oncology with a focus on Endocrine Surgery. (uhealthsystem.com)
  • the most common form of pancreatic cancer. (lifeworkpotential.com)
  • A type of thyroid cancer affecting the follicular cells which make thyroid hormone. (lifeworkpotential.com)
  • A cancer of the adrenal glands in which the cells are large and look abnormal under a microscope. (lifeworkpotential.com)
  • Pancreatic cancer is now the 4th leading cause of cancer death in the United States. (blogspot.com)
  • Pancreatic cancer is difficult to detect, hard to diagnose, early to metastasize (spread) and resistant to treatment. (blogspot.com)
  • Other types of pancreatic cancer can occur as well including those arising from endocrine cells or exocrine cells. (blogspot.com)
  • Pancreatic cancer is sometimes called a "silent disease" because early pancreatic cancer often does not cause symptoms . (blogspot.com)
  • These symptoms are not sure signs of pancreatic cancer. (blogspot.com)
  • If a patient has symptoms that suggest pancreatic cancer, the doctor asks about the patient's medical history. (blogspot.com)
  • Pancreatic Cancer is the #3 cause of cancer-related deaths in the United States. (oncoquestinc.com)
  • In 2017 it is estimated that there will be more than 43,000 deaths related to pancreatic cancer. (oncoquestinc.com)
  • Risk also increases as age increases, as the vast majority of patients with pancreatic cancer being over age 45, and two-thirds of patients being over 65. (oncoquestinc.com)
  • Several other diseases also increase a risk for pancreatic cancer, including Type 2 diabetes, chronic pancreatitis, cirrhosis of the liver, and stomach ulcers. (oncoquestinc.com)
  • Pancreatic cancer is difficult to detect because it often doesn't show symptoms before it has spread to other parts of the body. (oncoquestinc.com)
  • This cancer forms where the bile duct and pancreatic duct come together. (sgsmn.com)
  • Prior to your surgery for pancreatic cancer, you may have radiation or chemotherapy to reduce the size of your tumor. (sgsmn.com)
  • Our surgeons perform open surgery, as well as minimally invasive surgeries, for pancreatic cancer. (sgsmn.com)
  • Chemotherapy (chemo) uses anti-cancer drugs injected into a vein or taken by mouth to kill cancer cells. (cancer.org)
  • Chemo drugs attack cells that are dividing quickly, which is why they work against cancer cells. (cancer.org)
  • 2018. Accessed at https://www.cancer.gov/types/pancreatic/patient/pnet-treatment-pdq on October 5, 2018. (cancer.org)
  • No matter where it occurs, refer to this cancer as a neuroendocrine tumor to increase awareness for a misunderstood cancer. (netrf.org)
  • Cancer is when cells in the body change and grow out of control. (sclhealth.org)
  • Cancer is made up of abnormal cells that grow even though your body doesn't need them. (sclhealth.org)
  • If cancer cells are in the body long enough, they can grow into (invade) nearby areas. (sclhealth.org)
  • Pancreatic cancer may also spread to distant parts of the body. (sclhealth.org)
  • When pancreatic cancer spreads to another part of the body, it's not considered a new cancer. (sclhealth.org)
  • Cancer is a disease in which cells grow in an abnormal way. (portsmouthhospital.com)
  • A benign tumor is not cancer and will not spread to other parts of the body. (portsmouthhospital.com)
  • A malignant tumor is cancer and will invade and damage the tissue around it. (portsmouthhospital.com)
  • The cancer cells can also enter the lymph and blood streams, spreading to other parts of the body. (portsmouthhospital.com)
  • The cancer can also spread to lymph nodes or blood vessels, which can carry cancer cells to other areas of the body. (portsmouthhospital.com)
  • The most common sites for pancreatic cancer to spread to are the lining of the abdominal cavity, liver, and lungs. (portsmouthhospital.com)
  • There are several different types of pancreatic cancer based on the specific type of cells and where the cancer starts. (portsmouthhospital.com)
  • It is possible that cancer cannot be diagnosed until the tumor spreads from the original site. (portsmouthhospital.com)
  • In general, it is found earlier than other types of pancreatic cancer. (portsmouthhospital.com)
  • The most common forms of ACTH-producing tumors are oat cell, or small cell lung cancer, which accounts for about 25 percent of all lung cancer cases, and carcinoid tumors. (endocrine.com.sg)
  • Pancreatic cancer is associated with a very severe prog nosis and identification of risk factors is essential. (scirp.org)
  • and pancreatic cancer was included. (scirp.org)
  • tant elements in the pathogenesis of pancreatic cancer. (scirp.org)
  • Intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasia (IPMN) is a type of pancreatic cancer that is beginning to be recognized more frequently. (cancertreatment-wecareindia.com)
  • This pancreatic cancer has a better prognosis than other types of pancreatic cancer. (cancertreatment-wecareindia.com)
  • By the time that pancreatic cancer is diagnosed, most people already have disease that has spread to distant sites in the body. (cancertreatment-wecareindia.com)
  • Pancreatic cancer is also relatively resistant to medical treatment, and the only potentially curative treatment is surgery. (cancertreatment-wecareindia.com)
  • In 2004, approximately 31,800 people in the United States were diagnosed with pancreatic cancer, and approximately 31,200 people died of this disease. (cancertreatment-wecareindia.com)
  • These numbers reflect the challenge in treating pancreatic cancer and the relative lack of curative options. (cancertreatment-wecareindia.com)
  • The most common type-and most dangerous form-of pancreatic cancer originates from exocrine cells. (thirdage.com)
  • North America region is estimated to hold highest position in global streptozocin market during the forecast period due to rising prevalence of pancreatic cancer among population of U.S. Diabetes, 1967, 16(1), 51-56. (lumenmax.eu)
  • Since ACTH -secreting tumors (for example, small cell lung cancer) may be very small or widespread at the time of diagnosis, cortisol -inhibiting drugs, like mitotane, are an important part of treatment. (cushings-help.com)
  • Although Theodor Langhans (1839-1915) was the first to describe the histology of a carcinoid tumor in 1867 [ 1 ], it is generally Otto Lubarsch (1860-1933) who is credited with the first report of 2 patients with ileal carcinoid tumors discovered at autopsy, in 1888 [ 2 - 3 ]. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • The diagnosis of carcinoid tumor is initially based on histology with confirmation by positive immunohistochemical staining, defined as positive staining for one or more neuroendocrine markers (such as chromogranin A or synaptophysin), or electron microscopy in which the cells in most tumors are found to contain membrane-bound secretory granules with dense-core granules in the cytoplasm [ 9 ]. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • MEN 2A involves primarily medullary thyroid carcinoma, pheochromocytoma, hyperplasia or sometimes adenomas of the parathyroid glands (with resultant hyperparathyroidism), and occasionally cutaneous lichen amyloidosis. (merckmanuals.com)
  • MEN 2B involves primarily medullary thyroid carcinoma, pheochromocytoma, multiple mucosal and intestinal neuromas, and marfanoid habitus. (merckmanuals.com)
  • MEN2A and MEN2B, also known as Sipple's syndrome, are characterized by the presence of medullary thyroid carcinoma (MTC) presenting clinically as a thyroid mass or nodule, and pheochromocytomas. (clinicaladvisor.com)
  • MEN 1 involves primarily hyperplasia or sometimes adenomas of the parathyroid glands (with resultant hyperparathyroidism ) and tumors of the pancreatic islet cells and/or pituitary gland. (merckmanuals.com)
  • In Type I (MEN I), called also Wermer's syndrome , there are tumors of the pituitary, parathyroid gland, and pancreatic islet cells in association with a high incidence of peptic ulcer. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Type II (MEN II), called also Sipple's syndrome , is characterized by medullary carcinoma of the thyroid, pheochromocytoma, often bilateral and multiple, and parathyroid hyperplasia. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • A benign tumour of the parathyroid glands, which are located in the neck and help to regulate calcium metabolism. (lifeworkpotential.com)
  • Ballard HS, Frame B, Hartsock RJ: Familial multiple endocrine adenoma peptic ulcer complex. (springer.com)
  • Secretion of prostaglandins from a tumor or vasoactive intestinal peptide can result in watery diarrhea with electrolyte imbalances and dehydration in the patient. (epainassist.com)
  • More recent classification systems, such as the World Health Organization (WHO) 2010 classification, have emphasized the greater importance of grade and differentiation with regard to prognosis, as compared with tumor location. (cancernetwork.com)
  • Of these subtypes, anaplastic carcinoma is rare and is characterized by its extremely poor prognosis. (scirp.org)
  • Similarly, poorly differentiated carcinoma is characterized by its aggressive behavior and its unfavorable prognosis. (scirp.org)
  • HER1) is expressed in several human tumors, and increased levels of EGFR, its ligands, or both have been correlated with poor prognosis in several solid tumor types in adults ( 1 ). (aacrjournals.org)
  • The importance of this heterogeneity resides in that it translates into a high variability among tumors and, hence, patients, which hinders a more precise diagnosis and prognosis and more efficacious treatment of these diseases. (springermedizin.de)
  • In these various types of functional tumors, the frequency of malignancy and the survival prognosis have been estimated dissimilarly, but a pertinent accessible summary is available. (wikipedia.org)
  • An indium-111 pentetreotide scan is more sensitive than ultrasound, CT, or MRI for detection of somatostatin receptor positive tumors, but not a good diagnostic tool for insulinomas. (wikipedia.org)
  • Somatostatin analogs are used to control hormonal symptoms and also effective to inhibit the tumor progression in specific settings. (kjpbt.org)
  • The cellular components of the islet include β-cells with the remainder of the islet comprised of other endocrine cells (including glucagon-secreting α- cells, somatostatin secreting δ-cells, pancreatic polypeptide-secreting γ-cells, and ghrelin-producing ε-cells), as well as ECs and support cells such as pericytes [ 3 - 12 ]. (omicsonline.org)
  • Our results suggest that functional collaborations between distinct CDK inhibitor genes are tissue specific and confer yet another level of regulation in cell growth control and tumor suppression. (asm.org)
  • Of the functional tumors, insulinomas are the most common. (enets.org)
  • Relative incidence is given as percentage of all functional pancreatic neuroendocrine tumors. (wikipedia.org)
  • The different layers that conform NET heterogeneity include a wide range of distinct characteristics, from the mere location of the tumor to its clinical and functional features, and from its cellular properties, to the core signaling and (epi)genetic components defining the molecular signature of the tumor. (springermedizin.de)
  • Endocrine tumors are either functional or non-functional. (infectiousdiseaseadvisor.com)
  • Functional tumors present with clinical symptoms relating to hormonal hypersecretion while non-functional tumors are usually clinically asymptomatic until they cause significant mass effect. (infectiousdiseaseadvisor.com)
  • Depending on the hormone involved, clinical presentation of functional endocrine tumors are highly variable. (infectiousdiseaseadvisor.com)
  • To the best of our knowledge, this is the first case report of topographically separated endocrine and exocrine tumors coexisting with nesidioblastosis. (thefreelibrary.com)
  • Exocrine tumors. (cancer.net)
  • When increased stomach acid, stomach ulcers, and diarrhea are caused by a tumor that makes gastrin, it is called Zollinger-Ellison syndrome. (nkch.org)
  • Carcinoid syndrome sometimes develops in patients with carcinoid tumors. (merckmanuals.com)
  • Medical treatment of glucagonoma syndrome includes therapy for NME, treatment of diabetes, treatment of hyperglucagonemia, and treatment of islet cell tumor. (medscape.com)
  • Bonfils S, Bader JP: The diagnosis of Zollinger-Ellison syndrome with special reference to the multiple endocrine adenomas, in Progress in Gastroenterology , Vol. 2 ( GB Jersey Glass, editor). (springer.com)
  • Paraneoplastic Syndrome can develop secondary to substances that are secreted by the tumor or can occur as a result of antibodies produced against the tumors, which produce a cross-reaction with other tissues. (epainassist.com)
  • Paraneoplastic syndrome also affects the endocrine system. (epainassist.com)
  • Patient suffering from endocrine paraneoplastic syndrome can also have electrolyte and water imbalances such as hyponatremia . (epainassist.com)
  • In Endocrine Paraneoplastic Syndrome, the patients can have refractory hyperglycemia from glucagon-producing pancreatic tumors. (epainassist.com)
  • Up to 60%[medical citation needed] of PanNETs are nonsecretory or nonfunctional, in which there is no secretion, or the quantity or type of products, such as pancreatic polypeptide (PPoma), chromogranin A, and neurotensin, do not cause a clinical syndrome although blood levels may be elevated. (wikipedia.org)
  • Ectopic Cushing syndrome is a form of Cushing syndrome in which a tumor outside the pituitary gland produces a hormone called adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH). (stlukes-stl.com)
  • Ectopic Cushing syndrome is caused by tumors that release ACTH. (stlukes-stl.com)
  • Although most of these tumors occur sporadically, it is important to recognize that some may be associated with familial syndromes such as in MEN syndrome. (infectiousdiseaseadvisor.com)
  • These are characterized by hypersecretion of vasoactive intestinal peptides (VIP) and cause the Verner-Morrison syndrome or the pancreatic cholera syndrome of severe watery diarrhea, hypokalemia and achlorhydria. (infectiousdiseaseadvisor.com)
  • Sometimes, an abnormality of the adrenal glands, most often an adrenal tumor, causes Cushing's syndrome. (endocrine.com.sg)
  • Glucagonoma is a tumor that secretes glucagon, a hormone that raises levels of glucose in the blood, often leading to a characteristic rash. (providence.org)
  • n. glucagonoma, tumor que secreta glucagón. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Glucagonoma are rare slow-growing tumours of the pancreatic alpha cells that cause hypersecretion of glucagon with an incidence estimated to be one in 20 million people per annum. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • The features of 41 proven or suspected cases of pancreatic glucagonoma and one possible case of renal glucagonoma have been reviewed. (meta.org)
  • Insulinomas are usually slow-growing tumors that rarely spread. (nkch.org)
  • The most common types of islet cell tumors are insulinomas and gastrinomas. (emedicinehealth.com)
  • An endoscopic ultrasound has a sensitivity of 40-93% (depending on the location of the tumor) for detecting insulinomas. (wikipedia.org)
  • We present the first case of Wilms' tumor, pancreatic islet cell carcinoma, and pheochromocytoma affecting the same individual. (elsevier.com)
  • Pheochromocytoma or ACTH-secreting tumors lead to abnormal secretion of norepinephrine and epinephrine, which can result in hypertension in the patient. (epainassist.com)
  • A high resolution allelotype for nonfunctional pancreatic endocrine tumors (NF-PETs) has been generated by microsatellite analysis of DNA from 16 frozen cases, each probed with 394 markers. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Nonfunctional pancreaticoduodenal tumors become symptomatic only as a result of their location or growth and mass effect on surrounding structures. (clinicaladvisor.com)
  • 소화기계 신경내분비종양(gastroenteropancreatic neuroendocrine tumor)은 위장관계 및 췌장의 다양한 신경내분비세포에서 기인하는 종양으로 최근 진단 기술의 발전과 보편화로 발견 빈도가 증가하고 있다. (kjpbt.org)
  • Management of Well-differentiated Gastroenteropancreatic Neuroendocrine Tumors (GEPNETs): A Review. (cancer.org)
  • Most other endocrine disorders are either very rare or are associated with impaired fertility and therefore occur only rarely in parturients. (renalandurologynews.com)
  • Persistent or recurrent hypoglycemia after surgery tends to occur in patients with multiple tumors. (wikipedia.org)
  • These results suggest that centrosome abnormalities can occur early in the multistep process of pancreatic ductal carcinogenesis and that detection of these abnormalities may be of value for assessing the underlying malignant potential in pancreatic lesions. (aacrjournals.org)
  • These slow-growing tumors often occur in young women and can spread to other parts of the body. (sgsmn.com)
  • Recognition of the endocrine-related properties of carcinoid tumors did not occur until much later. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • This hormone also acts as a mitogenic factor for gastrointestinal epithelial cells. (genecards.org)
  • Survival Curves for Patients Who Presented With Stage IV Gastrointestinal Neuroendocrine Tumors, by Treatment Type. (cancernetwork.com)
  • 7 ] (Refer to the Cellular and Pathologic Classification of Gastrointestinal Carcinoid Tumors section of this summary for more information. (uwhealth.org)
  • Expert-reviewed information summary about the treatment of gastrointestinal carcinoid tumors. (oncolink.org)
  • Carcinoid tumors are rare, slow-growing neuroendocrine tumors arising from the enterochromaffin cells disseminated throughout the gastrointestinal and bronchopulmonary systems. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • Though relatively rare, carcinoid tumors represent the most common gastrointestinal neuroendocrine tumors [ 11 - 14 ]. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • Nesidioblastosis coexisting with islet cell tumor and intraductal papillary mucinous hyperplasia. (thefreelibrary.com)
  • Recent studies have suggested that the loss of cell polarity and/or chromosome missegregation (aneuploidy) in human malignant tumors could result from defects in centrosome function. (aacrjournals.org)
  • The most commonly used treatment for islet cell tumor is combination chemotherapy with streptozocin and 5-fluorouracil, which is reported to cause tumor shrinkage in as many as 10% of patients. (medscape.com)
  • Some PanNETs are more responsive to chemotherapy than are gastroenteric carcinoid tumors. (wikipedia.org)
  • In this study, we examined the feasibility of using subsieve-size agarose capsules for a localized chemotherapy by providing an alternative site of the activation of a prodrug, ifosfamide, which normally occurs in the liver, into or near tumors. (aacrjournals.org)
  • World Health Organization Classification of Tumours Pathology & Genetics of Tumours of Endocrine Organs. (papsociety.org)
  • The incidence of this type of tumors varies, depending on the series assessed. (enets.org)
  • Appendix endocrine tumors have an incidence of 2-3 patient/millon/year. (enets.org)
  • The age-adjusted incidence of carcinoid tumors worldwide is approximately 2 per 100,000 persons. (uwhealth.org)
  • The relatively low mortality rate compared to the incidence is due, in part, to the indolent nature of the vast majority of thyroid tumors. (scirp.org)
  • Trends in the incidence, prevalence, and survival outcomes in patients with neuroendocrine tumors in the United States. (springermedizin.de)
  • Appendiceal tumors with histological features of both carcinoids and adenocarcinomas are very rare. (enets.org)
  • carcinoids , and pancreatic endocrine tumors (PETs). (thefullwiki.org)
  • In 1929, he reported that some such tumors were not so indolent - these he distinguished as what we now call PETs from what most authorities call carcinoids. (thefullwiki.org)
  • Neuroendocrine Tumors: Carcinoid tumors of the GI tract (small bowel carcinoids, gastric carcinoids, carcinoids of the colon) and carotid body tumors. (uhealthsystem.com)
  • The second most frequent manifestations of MEN1 are pancreaticoduodenal tumors. (clinicaladvisor.com)
  • They include acinar cell carcinomas, adenosquamous carcinomas, and squamous cell carcinomas. (sclhealth.org)
  • The best-understood syndromes result from the tumor production of biologically active substances, or to a lesser extent, from autoimmune phenomena. (springer.com)
  • The observed antitumor activity of AMG 479, together with the current limited treatment options available for patients with neuroendocrine tumors, warrant further investigation of AMG 479 in this patient population. (clinicaltrials.gov)