Liver Regeneration: Repair or renewal of hepatic tissue.Regeneration: The physiological renewal, repair, or replacement of tissue.Pancreas: A nodular organ in the ABDOMEN that contains a mixture of ENDOCRINE GLANDS and EXOCRINE GLANDS. The small endocrine portion consists of the ISLETS OF LANGERHANS secreting a number of hormones into the blood stream. The large exocrine portion (EXOCRINE PANCREAS) is a compound acinar gland that secretes several digestive enzymes into the pancreatic ductal system that empties into the DUODENUM.Hepatectomy: Excision of all or part of the liver. (Dorland, 28th ed)Liver: A large lobed glandular organ in the abdomen of vertebrates that is responsible for detoxification, metabolism, synthesis and storage of various substances.Hepatocytes: The main structural component of the LIVER. They are specialized EPITHELIAL CELLS that are organized into interconnected plates called lobules.Nerve Regeneration: Renewal or physiological repair of damaged nerve tissue.Liver Diseases: Pathological processes of the LIVER.Liver Transplantation: The transference of a part of or an entire liver from one human or animal to another.Pancreas Transplantation: The transference of a pancreas from one human or animal to another.Liver Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the LIVER.Bone Regeneration: Renewal or repair of lost bone tissue. It excludes BONY CALLUS formed after BONE FRACTURES but not yet replaced by hard bone.Liver Cirrhosis: Liver disease in which the normal microcirculation, the gross vascular anatomy, and the hepatic architecture have been variably destroyed and altered with fibrous septa surrounding regenerated or regenerating parenchymal nodules.Fatty Liver: Lipid infiltration of the hepatic parenchymal cells resulting in a yellow-colored liver. The abnormal lipid accumulation is usually in the form of TRIGLYCERIDES, either as a single large droplet or multiple small droplets. Fatty liver is caused by an imbalance in the metabolism of FATTY ACIDS.Cell Proliferation: All of the processes involved in increasing CELL NUMBER including CELL DIVISION.Hepatocyte Growth Factor: Multifunctional growth factor which regulates both cell growth and cell motility. It exerts a strong mitogenic effect on hepatocytes and primary epithelial cells. Its receptor is PROTO-ONCOGENE PROTEINS C-MET.Drug-Induced Liver Injury: A spectrum of clinical liver diseases ranging from mild biochemical abnormalities to ACUTE LIVER FAILURE, caused by drugs, drug metabolites, and chemicals from the environment.Carbon Tetrachloride: A solvent for oils, fats, lacquers, varnishes, rubber waxes, and resins, and a starting material in the manufacturing of organic compounds. Poisoning by inhalation, ingestion or skin absorption is possible and may be fatal. (Merck Index, 11th ed)Liver Function Tests: Blood tests that are used to evaluate how well a patient's liver is working and also to help diagnose liver conditions.Pancreas, Exocrine: The major component (about 80%) of the PANCREAS composed of acinar functional units of tubular and spherical cells. The acinar cells synthesize and secrete several digestive enzymes such as TRYPSINOGEN; LIPASE; AMYLASE; and RIBONUCLEASE. Secretion from the exocrine pancreas drains into the pancreatic ductal system and empties into the DUODENUM.Proliferating Cell Nuclear Antigen: Nuclear antigen with a role in DNA synthesis, DNA repair, and cell cycle progression. PCNA is required for the coordinated synthesis of both leading and lagging strands at the replication fork during DNA replication. PCNA expression correlates with the proliferation activity of several malignant and non-malignant cell types.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Rats, Wistar: A strain of albino rat developed at the Wistar Institute that has spread widely at other institutions. This has markedly diluted the original strain.Microsomes, Liver: Closed vesicles of fragmented endoplasmic reticulum created when liver cells or tissue are disrupted by homogenization. They may be smooth or rough.Liver Failure, Acute: A form of rapid-onset LIVER FAILURE, also known as fulminant hepatic failure, caused by severe liver injury or massive loss of HEPATOCYTES. It is characterized by sudden development of liver dysfunction and JAUNDICE. Acute liver failure may progress to exhibit cerebral dysfunction even HEPATIC COMA depending on the etiology that includes hepatic ISCHEMIA, drug toxicity, malignant infiltration, and viral hepatitis such as post-transfusion HEPATITIS B and HEPATITIS C.RNA, Messenger: RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.Organ Size: The measurement of an organ in volume, mass, or heaviness.Rats, Inbred F344Mice, Inbred C57BLSTAT3 Transcription Factor: A signal transducer and activator of transcription that mediates cellular responses to INTERLEUKIN-6 family members. STAT3 is constitutively activated in a variety of TUMORS and is a major downstream transducer for the CYTOKINE RECEPTOR GP130.Rats, Sprague-Dawley: A strain of albino rat used widely for experimental purposes because of its calmness and ease of handling. It was developed by the Sprague-Dawley Animal Company.Gene Expression Regulation: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control (induction or repression) of gene action at the level of transcription or translation.Hyptis: A plant genus of the family LAMIACEAE that contains 5-methoxydehydropodophyllotoxin (a PODOPHYLLOTOXIN) and other LIGNANS.Carbon Tetrachloride PoisoningStem Cells: Relatively undifferentiated cells that retain the ability to divide and proliferate throughout postnatal life to provide progenitor cells that can differentiate into specialized cells.Mice, Knockout: Strains of mice in which certain GENES of their GENOMES have been disrupted, or "knocked-out". To produce knockouts, using RECOMBINANT DNA technology, the normal DNA sequence of the gene being studied is altered to prevent synthesis of a normal gene product. Cloned cells in which this DNA alteration is successful are then injected into mouse EMBRYOS to produce chimeric mice. The chimeric mice are then bred to yield a strain in which all the cells of the mouse contain the disrupted gene. Knockout mice are used as EXPERIMENTAL ANIMAL MODELS for diseases (DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL) and to clarify the functions of the genes.Guided Tissue Regeneration: Procedures for enhancing and directing tissue repair and renewal processes, such as BONE REGENERATION; NERVE REGENERATION; etc. They involve surgically implanting growth conducive tracks or conduits (TISSUE SCAFFOLDING) at the damaged site to stimulate and control the location of cell repopulation. The tracks or conduits are made from synthetic and/or natural materials and may include support cells and induction factors for CELL GROWTH PROCESSES; or CELL MIGRATION.Mitochondria, Liver: Mitochondria in hepatocytes. As in all mitochondria, there are an outer membrane and an inner membrane, together creating two separate mitochondrial compartments: the internal matrix space and a much narrower intermembrane space. In the liver mitochondrion, an estimated 67% of the total mitochondrial proteins is located in the matrix. (From Alberts et al., Molecular Biology of the Cell, 2d ed, p343-4)2-Acetylaminofluorene: A hepatic carcinogen whose mechanism of activation involves N-hydroxylation to the aryl hydroxamic acid followed by enzymatic sulfonation to sulfoxyfluorenylacetamide. It is used to study the carcinogenicity and mutagenicity of aromatic amines.Pancreatic Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the PANCREAS. Depending on the types of ISLET CELLS present in the tumors, various hormones can be secreted: GLUCAGON from PANCREATIC ALPHA CELLS; INSULIN from PANCREATIC BETA CELLS; and SOMATOSTATIN from the SOMATOSTATIN-SECRETING CELLS. Most are malignant except the insulin-producing tumors (INSULINOMA).Liver Neoplasms, Experimental: Experimentally induced tumors of the LIVER.Models, Animal: Non-human animals, selected because of specific characteristics, for use in experimental research, teaching, or testing.Signal Transduction: The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.Immunohistochemistry: Histochemical localization of immunoreactive substances using labeled antibodies as reagents.Cell Division: The fission of a CELL. It includes CYTOKINESIS, when the CYTOPLASM of a cell is divided, and CELL NUCLEUS DIVISION.Alanine Transaminase: An enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of L-alanine and 2-oxoglutarate to pyruvate and L-glutamate. (From Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992) EC 2.6.1.2.Liver Circulation: The circulation of BLOOD through the LIVER.DNA: A deoxyribonucleotide polymer that is the primary genetic material of all cells. Eukaryotic and prokaryotic organisms normally contain DNA in a double-stranded state, yet several important biological processes transiently involve single-stranded regions. DNA, which consists of a polysugar-phosphate backbone possessing projections of purines (adenine and guanine) and pyrimidines (thymine and cytosine), forms a double helix that is held together by hydrogen bonds between these purines and pyrimidines (adenine to thymine and guanine to cytosine).Rats, Inbred Strains: Genetically identical individuals developed from brother and sister matings which have been carried out for twenty or more generations or by parent x offspring matings carried out with certain restrictions. This also includes animals with a long history of closed colony breeding.Cell Differentiation: Progressive restriction of the developmental potential and increasing specialization of function that leads to the formation of specialized cells, tissues, and organs.Cells, Cultured: Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.Disease Models, Animal: Naturally occurring or experimentally induced animal diseases with pathological processes sufficiently similar to those of human diseases. They are used as study models for human diseases.Interleukin-6: A cytokine that stimulates the growth and differentiation of B-LYMPHOCYTES and is also a growth factor for HYBRIDOMAS and plasmacytomas. It is produced by many different cells including T-LYMPHOCYTES; MONOCYTES; and FIBROBLASTS.Cytochrome ReductasesPancreatic Ducts: Ducts that collect PANCREATIC JUICE from the PANCREAS and supply it to the DUODENUM.Mice, Transgenic: Laboratory mice that have been produced from a genetically manipulated EGG or EMBRYO, MAMMALIAN.Kupffer Cells: Specialized phagocytic cells of the MONONUCLEAR PHAGOCYTE SYSTEM found on the luminal surface of the hepatic sinusoids. They filter bacteria and small foreign proteins out of the blood, and dispose of worn out red blood cells.Pancreatic Diseases: Pathological processes of the PANCREAS.Thioacetamide: A crystalline compound used as a laboratory reagent in place of HYDROGEN SULFIDE. It is a potent hepatocarcinogen.Mitotic Index: An expression of the number of mitoses found in a stated number of cells.Liver Cirrhosis, Experimental: Experimentally induced chronic injuries to the parenchymal cells in the liver to achieve a model for LIVER CIRRHOSIS.alpha-Fetoproteins: The first alpha-globulins to appear in mammalian sera during FETAL DEVELOPMENT and the dominant serum proteins in early embryonic life.Portal Vein: A short thick vein formed by union of the superior mesenteric vein and the splenic vein.Planarians: Nonparasitic free-living flatworms of the class Turbellaria. The most common genera are Dugesia, formerly Planaria, which lives in water, and Bipalium, which lives on land. Geoplana occurs in South America and California.Pancreas, Artificial: Devices for simulating the activity of the pancreas. They can be either electromechanical, consisting of a glucose sensor, computer, and insulin pump or bioartificial, consisting of isolated islets of Langerhans in an artificial membrane.Gene Expression: The phenotypic manifestation of a gene or genes by the processes of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION and GENETIC TRANSLATION.Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction: A variation of the PCR technique in which cDNA is made from RNA via reverse transcription. The resultant cDNA is then amplified using standard PCR protocols.Drug-Induced Liver Injury, Chronic: Liver disease lasting six months or more, caused by an adverse drug effect. The adverse effect may result from a direct toxic effect of a drug or metabolite, or an idiosyncratic response to a drug or metabolite.Pancreatitis: INFLAMMATION of the PANCREAS. Pancreatitis is classified as acute unless there are computed tomographic or endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatographic findings of CHRONIC PANCREATITIS (International Symposium on Acute Pancreatitis, Atlanta, 1992). The two most common forms of acute pancreatitis are ALCOHOLIC PANCREATITIS and gallstone pancreatitis.Mythology: A body of stories, the origins of which may be unknown or forgotten, that serve to explain practices, beliefs, institutions or natural phenomena. Mythology includes legends and folk tales. It may refer to classical mythology or to a body of modern thought and modern life. (From Webster's 1st ed)Pancreatectomy: Surgical removal of the pancreas. (Dorland, 28th ed)Islets of Langerhans: Irregular microscopic structures consisting of cords of endocrine cells that are scattered throughout the PANCREAS among the exocrine acini. Each islet is surrounded by connective tissue fibers and penetrated by a network of capillaries. There are four major cell types. The most abundant beta cells (50-80%) secrete INSULIN. Alpha cells (5-20%) secrete GLUCAGON. PP cells (10-35%) secrete PANCREATIC POLYPEPTIDE. Delta cells (~5%) secrete SOMATOSTATIN.Hepatic Stellate Cells: Perisinusoidal cells of the liver, located in the space of Disse between HEPATOCYTES and sinusoidal endothelial cells.GalactosamineBilirubin: A bile pigment that is a degradation product of HEME.Carcinoma, Hepatocellular: A primary malignant neoplasm of epithelial liver cells. It ranges from a well-differentiated tumor with EPITHELIAL CELLS indistinguishable from normal HEPATOCYTES to a poorly differentiated neoplasm. The cells may be uniform or markedly pleomorphic, or form GIANT CELLS. Several classification schemes have been suggested.Pyrrolizidine Alkaloids: A group of ALKALOIDS, characterized by a nitrogen-containing necine, occurring mainly in plants of the BORAGINACEAE; COMPOSITAE; and LEGUMINOSAE plant families. They can be activated in the liver by hydrolysis of the ester and desaturation of the necine base to reactive electrophilic pyrrolic CYTOTOXINS.Cell Cycle: The complex series of phenomena, occurring between the end of one CELL DIVISION and the end of the next, by which cellular material is duplicated and then divided between two daughter cells. The cell cycle includes INTERPHASE, which includes G0 PHASE; G1 PHASE; S PHASE; and G2 PHASE, and CELL DIVISION PHASE.Axons: Nerve fibers that are capable of rapidly conducting impulses away from the neuron cell body.Bromodeoxyuridine: A nucleoside that substitutes for thymidine in DNA and thus acts as an antimetabolite. It causes breaks in chromosomes and has been proposed as an antiviral and antineoplastic agent. It has been given orphan drug status for use in the treatment of primary brain tumors.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Liver Extracts: Extracts of liver tissue containing uncharacterized specific factors with specific activities; a soluble thermostable fraction of mammalian liver is used in the treatment of pernicious anemia.Salamandridae: A family of Urodela consisting of 15 living genera and about 42 species and occurring in North America, Europe, Asia, and North Africa.Blotting, Western: Identification of proteins or peptides that have been electrophoretically separated by blot transferring from the electrophoresis gel to strips of nitrocellulose paper, followed by labeling with antibody probes.Apoptosis: One of the mechanisms by which CELL DEATH occurs (compare with NECROSIS and AUTOPHAGOCYTOSIS). Apoptosis is the mechanism responsible for the physiological deletion of cells and appears to be intrinsically programmed. It is characterized by distinctive morphologic changes in the nucleus and cytoplasm, chromatin cleavage at regularly spaced sites, and the endonucleolytic cleavage of genomic DNA; (DNA FRAGMENTATION); at internucleosomal sites. This mode of cell death serves as a balance to mitosis in regulating the size of animal tissues and in mediating pathologic processes associated with tumor growth.Bile Ducts: The channels that collect and transport the bile secretion from the BILE CANALICULI, the smallest branch of the BILIARY TRACT in the LIVER, through the bile ductules, the bile ducts out the liver, and to the GALLBLADDER for storage.Hepatic Insufficiency: Conditions in which the LIVER functions fall below the normal ranges. Severe hepatic insufficiency may cause LIVER FAILURE or DEATH. Treatment may include LIVER TRANSPLANTATION.Amylases: A group of amylolytic enzymes that cleave starch, glycogen, and related alpha-1,4-glucans. (Stedman, 25th ed) EC 3.2.1.-.Ambystoma mexicanum: A salamander found in Mexican mountain lakes and accounting for about 30 percent of the urodeles used in research. The axolotl remains in larval form throughout its life, a phenomenon known as neoteny.Aspartate Aminotransferases: Enzymes of the transferase class that catalyze the conversion of L-aspartate and 2-ketoglutarate to oxaloacetate and L-glutamate. EC 2.6.1.1.Base Sequence: The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.Blotting, Northern: Detection of RNA that has been electrophoretically separated and immobilized by blotting on nitrocellulose or other type of paper or nylon membrane followed by hybridization with labeled NUCLEIC ACID PROBES.Zebrafish: An exotic species of the family CYPRINIDAE, originally from Asia, that has been introduced in North America. They are used in embryological studies and to study the effects of certain chemicals on development.Extremities: The farthest or outermost projections of the body, such as the HAND and FOOT.Portal System: A system of vessels in which blood, after passing through one capillary bed, is conveyed through a second set of capillaries before it returns to the systemic circulation. It pertains especially to the hepatic portal system.Nerve Crush: Treatment of muscles and nerves under pressure as a result of crush injuries.Growth Substances: Signal molecules that are involved in the control of cell growth and differentiation.Diethylnitrosamine: A nitrosamine derivative with alkylating, carcinogenic, and mutagenic properties.Living Donors: Non-cadaveric providers of organs for transplant to related or non-related recipients.Kinetics: The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-met: Cell surface protein-tyrosine kinase receptors for HEPATOCYTE GROWTH FACTOR. They consist of an extracellular alpha chain which is disulfide-linked to the transmembrane beta chain. The cytoplasmic portion contains the catalytic domain and sites critical for the regulation of kinase activity. Mutations of the gene for PROTO-ONCOGENE PROTEINS C-MET are associated with papillary renal carcinoma and other neoplasia.Liver Abscess: Solitary or multiple collections of PUS within the liver as a result of infection by bacteria, protozoa, or other agents.Proteins: Linear POLYPEPTIDES that are synthesized on RIBOSOMES and may be further modified, crosslinked, cleaved, or assembled into complex proteins with several subunits. The specific sequence of AMINO ACIDS determines the shape the polypeptide will take, during PROTEIN FOLDING, and the function of the protein.Albumins: Water-soluble proteins found in egg whites, blood, lymph, and other tissues and fluids. They coagulate upon heating.Liver Diseases, Alcoholic: Liver diseases associated with ALCOHOLISM. It usually refers to the coexistence of two or more subentities, i.e., ALCOHOLIC FATTY LIVER; ALCOHOLIC HEPATITIS; and ALCOHOLIC CIRRHOSIS.Up-Regulation: A positive regulatory effect on physiological processes at the molecular, cellular, or systemic level. At the molecular level, the major regulatory sites include membrane receptors, genes (GENE EXPRESSION REGULATION), mRNAs (RNA, MESSENGER), and proteins.Cell Transplantation: Transference of cells within an individual, between individuals of the same species, or between individuals of different species.Transcription Factors: Endogenous substances, usually proteins, which are effective in the initiation, stimulation, or termination of the genetic transcription process.In Situ Hybridization: A technique that localizes specific nucleic acid sequences within intact chromosomes, eukaryotic cells, or bacterial cells through the use of specific nucleic acid-labeled probes.Necrosis: The pathological process occurring in cells that are dying from irreparable injuries. It is caused by the progressive, uncontrolled action of degradative ENZYMES, leading to MITOCHONDRIAL SWELLING, nuclear flocculation, and cell lysis. It is distinct it from APOPTOSIS, which is a normal, regulated cellular process.Notophthalmus viridescens: A species of newt in the Salamandridae family in which the larvae transform into terrestrial eft stage and later into an aquatic adult. They occur from Canada to southern United States. Viridescens refers to the greenish color often found in this species.Dimethylnitrosamine: A nitrosamine derivative with alkylating, carcinogenic, and mutagenic properties. It causes serious liver damage and is a hepatocarcinogen in rodents.Periodic Acid-Schiff Reaction: A histochemical technique for staining carbohydrates. It is based on PERIODIC ACID oxidation of a substance containing adjacent hydroxyl groups. The resulting aldehydes react with Schiff reagent to form a colored product.Cyclin A2: A widely-expressed cyclin A subtype that functions during the G1/S and G2/M transitions of the CELL CYCLE.Gene Expression Profiling: The determination of the pattern of genes expressed at the level of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION, under specific circumstances or in a specific cell.DNA-Binding Proteins: Proteins which bind to DNA. The family includes proteins which bind to both double- and single-stranded DNA and also includes specific DNA binding proteins in serum which can be used as markers for malignant diseases.Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha: Serum glycoprotein produced by activated MACROPHAGES and other mammalian MONONUCLEAR LEUKOCYTES. It has necrotizing activity against tumor cell lines and increases ability to reject tumor transplants. Also known as TNF-alpha, it is only 30% homologous to TNF-beta (LYMPHOTOXIN), but they share TNF RECEPTORS.Glucagon: A 29-amino acid pancreatic peptide derived from proglucagon which is also the precursor of intestinal GLUCAGON-LIKE PEPTIDES. Glucagon is secreted by PANCREATIC ALPHA CELLS and plays an important role in regulation of BLOOD GLUCOSE concentration, ketone metabolism, and several other biochemical and physiological processes. (From Gilman et al., Goodman and Gilman's The Pharmacological Basis of Therapeutics, 9th ed, p1511)Animal Fins: Membranous appendage of fish and other aquatic organisms used for locomotion or balance.Choristoma: A mass of histologically normal tissue present in an abnormal location.Trans-Activators: Diffusible gene products that act on homologous or heterologous molecules of viral or cellular DNA to regulate the expression of proteins.Organ Specificity: Characteristic restricted to a particular organ of the body, such as a cell type, metabolic response or expression of a particular protein or antigen.Insulin: A 51-amino acid pancreatic hormone that plays a major role in the regulation of glucose metabolism, directly by suppressing endogenous glucose production (GLYCOGENOLYSIS; GLUCONEOGENESIS) and indirectly by suppressing GLUCAGON secretion and LIPOLYSIS. Native insulin is a globular protein comprised of a zinc-coordinated hexamer. Each insulin monomer containing two chains, A (21 residues) and B (30 residues), linked by two disulfide bonds. Insulin is used as a drug to control insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (DIABETES MELLITUS, TYPE 1).Gene Expression Regulation, Developmental: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action during the developmental stages of an organism.Tissue Engineering: Generating tissue in vitro for clinical applications, such as replacing wounded tissues or impaired organs. The use of TISSUE SCAFFOLDING enables the generation of complex multi-layered tissues and tissue structures.Wound Healing: Restoration of integrity to traumatized tissue.Animals, Genetically Modified: ANIMALS whose GENOME has been altered by GENETIC ENGINEERING, or their offspring.Rats, Inbred LewTranscription, Genetic: The biosynthesis of RNA carried out on a template of DNA. The biosynthesis of DNA from an RNA template is called REVERSE TRANSCRIPTION.Tissue Scaffolds: Cell growth support structures composed of BIOCOMPATIBLE MATERIALS. They are specially designed solid support matrices for cell attachment in TISSUE ENGINEERING and GUIDED TISSUE REGENERATION uses.Biogenic Polyamines: Biogenic amines having more than one amine group. These are long-chain aliphatic compounds that contain multiple amino and/or imino groups. Because of the linear arrangement of positive charge on these molecules, polyamines bind electrostatically to ribosomes, DNA, and RNA.
"Endocrine Pancreas Development and Regeneration: Noncanonical Ideas From Neural Stem Cell Biology". Diabetes. 65: 314-30. doi: ... December 2014). "Direct lineage conversion of adult mouse liver cells and B lymphocytes to neural stem cells". Stem Cell ... Mice that are engineered to lack the Hes3 gene exhibit increased sensitivity to treatments that damage endocrine pancreas cells ... in the function of the endocrine pancreas: Fetal and adult mouse and rat neural stem cells. Adult monkey (rhesus macaque) ...
... with the exception of the liver, nerve and pancreas, as these tissue types need stem cell populations. The first organ ever ... "Liver Regeneration Unplugged". Bio-Medicine. 2007-04-17. Retrieved 2007-04-17. Michael, Sandra Rose (2007). "Bio-Scalar ... Michalopoulos, GK; MC DeFrances (April 4, 1997). "Liver regeneration". Science. 276 (5309): 60-66. doi:10.1126/science.276.5309 ... This type of regeneration is common in physiological situations. Examples of physiological regeneration are the continual ...
... has been identified to affect the immune system and control bone regeneration and remodeling. RANKL is an apoptosis ... RANKL is expressed in several tissues and organs including: skeletal muscle, thymus, liver, colon, small intestine, adrenal ... gland, osteoblast, mammary gland epithelial cells, prostate and pancreas. Variation in concentration levels of RANKL throughout ...
The upregulation of MMP7 is associated with many malignant tumors including esophagus, stomach, colon, liver, pancreas, and ... For menstruation, it promotes the endometrium regeneration after menstrual breakdown. Huang et al. reported that the ... pancreas, glandular epithelium of intestine and reproductive organ, liver, and breast. In addition, MMP7 is highly expressed in ... Quondamatteo F, Knittel T, Mehde M, Ramadori G, Herken R (1999). "Matrix metalloproteinases in early human liver development". ...
In the absence of Hhex, (in Hhex double negative mice) the liver develops but not the pancreas, showing that Hhex allows for ... "Activation of pancreatic-duct-derived progenitor cells during pancreas regeneration in adult rats". Journal of Cell Science. ... Burke, Z. D.; Thowfeequ, S.; Peran, M.; Tosh, D. (2007). "Stem cells in the adult pancreas and liver". Biochemical Journal. 404 ... Zaret, K. S. (2008). "Genetic programming of liver and pancreas progenitors: lessons for stem-cell differentiation". Nature ...
... reduces appetite and stimulates regeneration of islet β-cells.) GLP-1 and GIP have extremely short plasma half-lives due to ... Type 2 diabetes is a chronic metabolic disease that results from inability of the β-cells in the pancreas to secrete sufficient ... Researchers suspected that inhibitors with short half-lives would be preferred in order to minimize possible side effects. ... Tissues which strongly express DPP-4 include the exocrine pancreas, sweat glands, salivary and mammary glands, thymus, lymph ...
Researchers are confident that the tooth regeneration technology can be used to grow live teeth in people. ... People with Type 1 diabetes lose the function of insulin-producing beta cells within the pancreas.[48] In recent experiments, ... Kraus KH, Kirker-Head C (April 2006). "Mesenchymal stem cells and bone regeneration". Vet Surg. 35 (3): 232-42. doi:10.1111/j. ... Within four weeks, regeneration of previously damaged stem cells and completely formed nerve bundles were observed.[70] ...
... pancreas, liver, and small intestine from a single donor. 2005: In the best-documented effort to date, Felix Engel, Ph.D., and ... The next year, Benowitz discovers that inosine is important in controlling axon regeneration in nerve cells. 2000: Children's ... Larry Benowitz and colleagues discover a naturally occurring growth factor called oncomodulin that stimulates regeneration in ... raising the possibility of treating blindness due to optic-nerve damage and the hope of achieving similar regeneration in the ...
Studies have shown that bone marrow-derived stem cells (specifically CD133+) play a role in liver regeneration. A study done by ... Additionally, if the resection requires more extensive surgery such as a resections of the pancreas or small bowel, a greater ... Indications for PVE depend on the ratio of future liver remnant (FLR) to total estimated liver volume (TELV) and liver ... The liver is unique in that it is an organ with regenerative potential. When blood flow to one section of the liver is occluded ...
Researchers are confident that the tooth regeneration technology can be used to grow live teeth in human patients. In theory, ... Diabetes patients lose the function of insulin-producing beta cells within the pancreas. In recent experiments, scientists have ... Natural cartilage regeneration is very limited and no current drug therapies are curative, but rather look to reduce the ... A possible method for tissue regeneration in adults is to place adult stem cell "seeds" inside a tissue bed "soil" in a wound ...
UM/Jackson has an active transplant program for bone marrow, heart, lungs, kidneys, liver, pancreas and intestines. Significant ... researchers at the Miami Project to Cure Paralysis found the first direct evidence of successful regeneration of adult human ...
The artificial liver is designed to serve as a supportive device, either allowing the liver to regenerate upon failure, or to ... An artificial pancreas is used to substitute endocrine functionality of a healthy pancreas for diabetic and other patients who ... Cell Regeneration. 2: 1. doi:10.1186/2045-9769-2-1. CS1 maint: Multiple names: authors list (link) Artificial Organs, official ... HepaLife is developing a bioartificial liver device intended for the treatment of liver failure using stem cells. ...
... upregulation was subsequently found in the majority of solid human cancers including liver, breast, lung, prostate, ... cervix of uterus, colon, pancreas, and brain. There are three FOXM1 isoforms, A, B and C. Isoform FOXM1A has been shown to be a ... of FOXM1 in adult human epithelial stem cells induces a precancer phenotype in a 3D-organotypic tissue regeneration system - a ...
"Mesenchymal stem cells over-expressing hepatocyte growth factor improve small-for-size liver grafts regeneration". Molecular ... HGF has been implicated in a variety of cancers, including of the lungs, pancreas, thyroid, colon, and breast. Plasma from ... Exogenous HGF administered by intravenous injection is cleared rapidly from circulation by the liver, with a half-life of ... and tissue regeneration. It is secreted as a single inactive polypeptide and is cleaved by serine proteases into a 69-kDa alpha ...
Elliott RB, Escobar L, Tan PL, Muzina M, Zwain S, Buchanan C (March 2007). "Live encapsulated porcine islets from a type 1 ... Grose S (April 2007). "Critics slam Russian trial to test pig pancreas for diabetics". Nat. Med. 13 (4): 390-1. doi:10.1038/ ... Numerous studies have been dedicated towards the development of effective methods to enable cardiac tissue regeneration in ... It was shown that APA microcapsules could potentially be used in the oral delivery of live bacterial cells. However, further ...
"Relationships between the autonomic nervous system and the pancreas including regulation of regeneration and apoptosis: recent ... Gastrointestinal and Liver Physiology. 292 (2): G457-61. doi:10.1152/ajpgi.00411.2006. PMID 17095755. Krause, WJ; Yamada, J; ... Enteroendocrine cells are located in the stomach, in the intestine and in the pancreas. The very discovery of hormones occurred ... Enteroendocrine cells are specialized cells of the gastrointestinal tract and pancreas with endocrine function. They produce ...
This has also explained the need for a thiol reagent like beta mercaptoethanol in the regeneration of the protein since such ... Blinks JR, Wier WG, Hess P, Prendergast FG (1982). "Measurement of Ca2+ concentrations in living cells". Prog Biophys Mol Biol ... "Identification of the functional expression of adenosine A3 receptor in pancreas using transgenic mice expressing jellyfish ... It was later discovered that the apoprotein can stably bind coelenterazine and oxygen is required for the regeneration to the ...
Anatomy of the liver, pancreas and biliary tree. Liver. *Bare area. *Cantlie line ... a possible future source for beta cell regeneration.[19] In fact, it has been found that islet morphology and endocrine ... which would offer an alternative to a complete pancreas transplant or artificial pancreas.[14][15] Islet transplantation ... The pancreatic islets or islets of Langerhans are the regions of the pancreas that contain its endocrine (hormone-producing) ...
In animals, regulation of blood glucose levels by the pancreas in conjunction with the liver is a vital part of homeostasis. ... Anoxic regeneration of NAD+Edit. One method of doing this is to simply have the pyruvate do the oxidation; in this process, ... This causes liver glycogen to be converted back to G6P, and then converted to glucose by the liver-specific enzyme glucose 6- ... Both glucagon and epinephrine cause high levels of cAMP in the liver. The result of lower levels of liver fructose-2,6- ...
LDH-2 (3H1M)-in the reticuloendothelial system LDH-3 (2H2M)-in the lungs LDH-4 (1H3M)-in the kidneys, placenta, and pancreas ... Lactate dehydrogenase (LDH or LD) is an enzyme found in nearly all living cells (animals, plants, and prokaryotes). LDH ... Thus, the conversion of pyruvate to lactate is increased due to the associated regeneration of NAD+. Therefore, anion-gap ... The major isoenzymes of skeletal muscle and liver, M4, has four muscle (M) subunits, while H4 is the main isoenzymes for heart ...
Internal radiotherapy of liver cancer with rat Hepatocarcinoma-Intestine-Pancreas gene as a liver tumor-specific promoter. Hum ... HIP/PAP accelerates liver regeneration and protects against acetaminophen injury in mice. Hepatology, 2005 Sep, 42(3):618-26. ... His team also used laser microdissection on liver sections to detect HCV RNA, analyze HCV quasispecies and carry out liver ... Human hepatocarcinoma-intestine-pancreas/pancreatitis-associated protein cures fas-induced acute liver failure in mice by ...
These T cells are long-lived and can proliferate by homeostatic proliferation throughout the lifetime of the patient. However, ... such as proteins that would normally only be expressed in the eye or pancreas. This expression in the thymus, allows for the ... "Activation of thymic regeneration in mice and humans following androgen blockade". J Immunol. 175 (4): 2741-53. doi:10.4049/ ...
This is then dumped into the blood by the liver where it travels mainly to the muscle cells (95% of the body's creatine is in ... as well as its use of phosphocreatine for quick regeneration of ATP during intense activity, provides a spatial and temporal ... muscles), and to a lesser extent the brain, heart, and pancreas. Once inside the cells it is transformed into phosphocreatine ... which is then transported in the blood to the liver. A methyl group is added to GAA from the amino acid methionine by the ...
pancreas development. • mesoderm development. • metanephros development. • camera-type eye morphogenesis. • anterior/posterior ... In humans, older males who had been chronically active over their lives show higher concentrations of GDF11 than inactive older ... causing youthful regeneration of cardiomyocytes, a reduction in the brain natriuretic peptide (BNP) and in the atrial ... concluding that GDF11 increases with age and has deleterious effects on skeletal muscle regeneration,[17] being a pro-aging ...
Low to very low levels of expression are noted in rabbit brain, and human thymus, liver, spleen, kidney, colon, ovary, and bone ... Intermediate levels of expression are found in human heart, skeletal muscle, trachea, stomach, small intestine, pancreas, ... This immunomodulatory activity may contribute to significant anti-inflammatory effects and tissue regeneration. The first ...
"Neural Regeneration Research. 9 (16): 1509-13. doi:10.4103/1673-5374.139475. PMC 4192966. PMID 25317166.. ... "Alzforum: Live Discussions. Alzheimer Research Forum. Archived from the original on 11 October 2008. Retrieved 21 August 2008. ...
Generation and Regeneration of Cells of the Liver and Pancreas. By Kenneth S. Zaret, Markus Grompe ... Live fluorescence imaging of over 1500 cells within a Drosophila embryo during gastrulation reveals that a fibroblast growth ... COVER A mouse embryo at 9 days of gestation, stained for α-fetoprotein in the liver bud and yolk sac (upper left and right ... Communication among immune and fat cells in adipose tissue and liver hepatocytes underlies the pathogenesis of obesity-related ...
Kidney Regeneration. Liver Regeneration. Pancreas Regeneration. Intestine Regeneration. Heart Attack Repair. Heart Valve ... people live longer. chronic care costs higher. Hospitals. in current form. = old model. long term. people live longer. health ... Heart Regeneration. Bladder Regeneration. Genital Replacement. Infertility. Arthritis. Joint Injury Repair. Cancer Innate ... Q: Secret to live a long time?. A: Pick good parents!. Longevity. Limit at 120, for a while. Overpopulation? No. Proposal: ...
Neural Development and Regeneration. • Neural Disease and Degeneration. • Organoids. • Pancreas, Liver, Kidney, Gut. • ...
Liver transplantation. *Kidney/pancreas transplantation. *Hepatobiliary/pancreatic surgery *Metastatic colorectal cancer. * ... Site CoordinatorTogether Project - Liver: Transplant Organ Genomics to Help Prevent Rejection in Liver Transplant Recipients ... "Mayo," "Mayo Clinic," "MayoClinic.org," "Mayo Clinic Healthy Living," and the triple-shield Mayo Clinic logo are trademarks of ...
Biliary Tract and Pancreas - 5th Edition. Print Book & E-Book. ISBN 9781437714548, 9781455746064 ... 4 Liver Blood Flow: Physiology, Measurement, and Clinical Relevance. 5 Liver Regeneration: Mechanisms and Clinical Relevance 6 ... PART 8 Liver and Pancreas Transplantation SECTION I GENERAL 96 Liver and Pancreas Transplantation Immunobiology ... 98A Orthotopic Liver Transplantation 98B Living Donor Liver Transplantation: Open and Laparoscopic 98C Liver Transplantation in ...
Experimental conversion of liver to pancreas. Curr. Biol. 13, 105-115. 4) Cfr Stojkovic M. Lako M, Strachan T, Murdoch1 A. ... Bone marrow-derived stem cells initiate pancreatic regeneration. Nat. Biotechnol. 21, 763-770 Horb ME, Shen CN, Tosh D, Slack J ... Adult cardiac stem cells are multipotent and support myocardial regeneration. Cell 114, 763-776. Stamm C, Westphal B, Kleine HD ... Autologous bone-marrow stem-cell transplantation for myocardial regeneration. Lancet 361, 45-46. ...
Stem cells versus plasticity in liver and pancreas regeneration. Nat. Cell Biol. 18, 238-245 (2016).. ... Regeneration and repair of the exocrine pancreas. Annu. Rev. Physiol. 77, 229-249 (2015).. ... Centroacinar cells are progenitors that contribute to endocrine pancreas regeneration. Diabetes 64, 3499-3509 (2015).. ... Culture and establishment of self-renewing human and mouse adult liver and pancreas 3D organoids and their genetic manipulation ...
Heart Muscle Regeneration.. Liver Regeneration.. Pancreas Regeneration.. Lung renewal.. Summary of Technical Status of Adult ...
Heart Muscle and Vascular Regeneration. *VII. Lung Regeneration. *VIII. Engineered Intestinal, Liver, and Pancreas Regeneration ... In 2006, he was named by Fast Company magazine as one of 50 people who "will change how we work and live over the next 10 years ... Atala is a recipient of the US Congress funded Christopher Columbus Foundation Award, bestowed on a living American who is ... In situ Tissue Engineering Bone Regeneration in Jaw Reconstruction*I. The Biology of In situ Tissue Engineering ...
Kopp, J.L., Grompe, M. & Sander, M. Stem cells versus plasticity in liver and pancreas regeneration. Nat. Cell Biol. 18, 238- ... Platform Effects on Regeneration by Pulmonary Basal Cells as Evaluated by Single-Cell RNA Sequencing *Allison M. Greaney ... Repair and regeneration of the respiratory system: complexity, plasticity, and mechanisms of lung stem cell function. Cell Stem ... Multi-lineage Lung Regeneration by Stem Cell Transplantation across Major Genetic Barriers *Carmit Hillel-Karniel ...
These findings could lead to interesting new therapies for pancreas and liver disease. ... The non-human primate endocrine pancreas: development, regeneration potential and metaplasia.. Wolfe-Coote S1, Louw J, Woodroof ... This questions the hypothesis that the heterogeneous endocrine cell distribution seen in the adult pancreas is due to the ... Co-localization of glucagon and PP was observed extensively in the developing pancreas and the predominant expression of one ...
Xvi The Liver Gallbladder And Biliary Tre * Xvii The Pancreas * Xviii The Male Genital System ... In this type of tissue, repair is typically dominated by? Scar formation or regeneration? ...
Xvi The Liver Gallbladder And Biliary Tre * Xvii The Pancreas * Cell As A Unit Of Health And Disease ... In this type of tissue, repair is typically dominated by? Scar formation or regeneration? ...
Regeneration of hepatic injuries occurs without scarring only if the _____-_____ _______ is intact. ... Activity is highest in liver and muscle, but the myocardium, pancreas and hemolysed RBCs may also release it.. ... Science Quiz / Alimentary systems path part 1 (liver and pancreas). Random Science Quiz ... a)decreased functional liver mass b)cholestasis c)shunting d)diffuse illeal disease e)a, b and c f)all of the above. ...
Liver and pancreas share key roles in glucose homeostasis. Liver regeneration is associated with systemic modifications and ... Early Effects of Liver Regeneration on Endocrine Pancreas: In Vivo Change in ... ... on early possible consequences of liver regeneration on endocrine pancreas ... ... Studies on liver regeneration following partial hepatectomy (PH) have identified several microRNAs (miRNAs) that show a ...
Transcription factors and signal transduction; Embryonic development and adult regeneration of the endocrine pancreas; ... mechanisms of organogenesis and physiology of the liver, pancreas and gastrointestinal tract.. ... Combinatorial control of transcription and cell fate specification, C. elegans development, cellular resolution live imaging ... Nuclear receptors, transcription factors, lipid metabolism, genetic variation, fatty liver disease, metabolic syndrome, obesity ...
2016). Stem cells versus plasticity in liver and pancreas regeneration. Nat. Cell Biol. 18, 238-245. doi:10.1038/ncb3309. ... Studies on larval pancreas regeneration revealed different mechanisms and dynamics of regeneration depending on the time point ... Here, we used the zebrafish as an alternative model for studying exocrine pancreas regeneration. Importantly, the pancreata in ... with the aim of gaining knowledge on β-cell regeneration. More recently, exocrine pancreas regeneration has been receiving more ...
The hepatic SCs are now considered to be targets of therapy of hepatic fibrosis or liver cirrhosis. HSCs are activated by ... Vitamin A-storing cells exist in extrahepatic organs such as the pancreas, lungs, kidneys and intestines. Vitamin A-storing ... adhering to the parenchymal cells and lose stored vitamin A during hepatic regeneration. ... In pathological conditions, such as hepatic fibrosis or liver cirrhosis, HSCs lose vitamin A and synthesize a large amount of ...
... it accelerates b-cells regeneration in the pancreas and increases the level of C-Peptide. Diabecon is similar to insulin. It ... It improves liver and kidney functioning. It supports a high level of glycogen in liver and muscles; due to its anti-oxidant ...
Copper deficiency for seven to nine weeks causes an irreversible depletion of over 80% of the acinar cells in the pancreas. Wh ... Multiple foci of hepatocytes differentiate in the pancreas of adult rats subjected to a copper depletion-repletion regimen. ... Next Document: Liver regeneration after partial hepatectomy in rats with defective bilirubin conjugation or biliary.... ... Liver / cytology, enzymology. Pancreas / cytology*, metabolism. Phenotype. RNA, Messenger / analysis. Rats. Stem Cells / ...
2008). Generation and regeneration of cells of the liver and pancreas. Science 322, 1490-1494. ... Blood vessels have been shown to be essential for early development of the liver and pancreas, and are fundamental to normal ... In the case of the embryonic liver and pancreas, seminal studies have shown that blood vessels provide perfusion-independent ... B) Smaller pancreas in newborn mice (postnatal day 1) overexpressing VEGF. Dotted lines mark the pancreas. Among control ...
Zaret et al. (2008) Generation and Regeneration of Cells of the Liver and Pancreas. Science. 322(5907): 1490-1494. ... CYP1A2, 2C9 and 3A4 are important drug metabolizing enzymes detected in adult liver tissue but not in fetal liver tissue. Taken ... Human hepatocytes are highly attractive candidates for cell-based therapy for chronic liver disease, and are essential to many ... The Cellartis iPS to Hepatocyte Differentiation System has powerful utility for a breadth of applications from basic liver ...
... liver, the throat, the ventricle, the kidney, the heart and the pancreas. Also, muscle tissue tendons, fat tissue, vessels, ... The term "living tissue" is used herein to refer to any living tissue including, but not limited to, an organ, tube, vessel, ... Using a bioresorbable filling material will result in tissue regeneration. For bone regeneration the filling material ... The membrane can be a guided bone regeneration membrane and can be bio-dissipative. The folds of the membrane can be in the ...
... liver,,or,pancreas?,biological,biology news articles,biology news today,latest biology news,current biology news,biology ... Cells that see more prostaglandin become liver and the cells that see...The researchers next collaborated with the laboratory ... Other experiments showed that prostaglandin E2 could also enhance liver growth and regeneration of liver cells. ... Harvard scientists find cell fate switch that decides liver, or pancreas?. ...Harvard stem cell scientists have a new theory ...
Conditional deletion of beta-catenin reveals its role in liver growth and regeneration. Gastroenterology 131,1561 -1572. ... L, liver; P, pancreas; Lu, lungs. (C) In situ hybridization to Gsk3β-injected guts with liver markers for1, ambp, the early ... we observed ectopic liver and exocrine pancreas development, but not endocrine pancreatic fates. In the case of the liver, it ... Some of the ectopic buds expressed early liver and pancreas markers (hhex, pdx1 and ptf1a) as well as hepatic (for1, ambp and ...
  • Transgenic analysis of signaling pathways required for Xenopus tadpole spinal cord and muscle regeneration. (bath.ac.uk)
  • The discovery of gene mutations in liver cancer, as well as the association between the different mutational pathways and the aetiology of the disease (whether mutations associated with alcohol syndrome are different in patients with viral hepatitis, for example) has been quite revealing in my opinion. (stemcell.com)
  • Writing in the February 25 online issue of Nature , an international team of scientists, headed by researchers at the University of California, San Diego School of Medicine, report finding new links between inflammation and regeneration: signaling pathways that are activated by a receptor protein called gp130. (ucsd.edu)
  • Nonetheless, the same pathways involved in healing and regeneration can go awry and become chronically stimulated in colorectal cancer. (ucsd.edu)
  • It provokes a series of downstream signaling pathways upon binding with IL-22R complex which protects liver damage through STAT3 activation. (hindawi.com)
  • s results suggest that liver regeneration does not involve recapitulation of pathways involved in liver biogenesis during development. (sciencemag.org)
  • Their new mouse model should aid in the development of improved immunoregulatory strategies and in the elucidation of the molecular pathways that govern β cell regeneration. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • Furthermore, it is likely that additional pathways are involved in the regulation of adult midgut homeostasis and regeneration. (rupress.org)
  • Over the course of 4 weeks, progenitor cell differentiation, through YAP and notch pathways, together with hepatocyte expansion led to almost complete regeneration of the ablated liver leading to the formation of hepatocyte like cells at the ablated zone. (peerj.com)
  • While the work was mainly conducted on a mouse model of intestinal injury, similar to the one that underlies human inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), we provide evidence that the same mechanism may control liver regeneration, which suggests a general role in tissue repair," said Karin. (ucsd.edu)
  • Tissue repair denotes to the healing of damaged tissue and contains two important components - Regeneration and restore. (omicsonline.org)
  • These observations raise the possibility that cord blood may serve as a source of cells to facilitate tissue repair and regeneration in the future. (waterstones.com)
  • The company develops, manufactures and commercializes innovative bioresorbable medical devices that facilitate tissue repair and regeneration. (pharmiweb.com)
  • Past studies in tissue culture have suggested that one type of pancreas cell could be coaxed to transform into insulin-producing islet cells. (pennmedicine.org)
  • Scientists have puzzled for decades over the fact that the onset of pregnancy causes a woman to double the number of insulin-producing islet cells in her pancreas, according to UCSF Professor Michael German, MD, who is senior author of the paper. (ucsf.edu)
  • has described that hepatoblasts are heterogenous and can be clonally expanded as hepatoblast organoids and that epigenetic remodelling, in the form of DNA (hydroxy)methylation changes, is crucial to induce cellular plasticity during regeneration. (aiche.org)