Islets of Langerhans
Carcinoma, Pancreatic Ductal
Diabetes Mellitus, Type 1
Carcinoma, Acinar Cell
Adenoma, Islet Cell
Islets of Langerhans Transplantation
Cholangiopancreatography, Magnetic Resonance
Cholangiopancreatography, Endoscopic Retrograde
Pancreatitis, Acute Necrotizing
Carcinoma, Islet Cell
Tomography, X-Ray Computed
Neoplasms, Cystic, Mucinous, and Serous
Ampulla of Vater
Diabetes Mellitus, Experimental
Gene Expression Regulation, Developmental
Molecular Sequence Data
Pancreatic Stellate Cells
Basic Helix-Loop-Helix Transcription Factors
Amino Acid Sequence
Endoscopic Ultrasound-Guided Fine Needle Aspiration
Rats, Inbred Strains
Determination of human body burden baseline date of platinum through autopsy tissue analysis. (1/8132)Results of analysis for platinum in 97 autopsy sets are presented. Analysis was performed by a specially developed emission spectrochemical method. Almost half of the individuals studied were found to have detectable platinum in one or more tissue samples. Platinum was found to be deposited in 13 of 21 tissue types investigated. Surprisingly high values were observed in subcutaneous fat, previously not considered to be a target site for platinum deposition. These data will serve as a human tissue platinum burden baseline in EPA's Catalyst Research Program. (+info)
Tissue-specific knockout of the insulin receptor in pancreatic beta cells creates an insulin secretory defect similar to that in type 2 diabetes. (2/8132)Dysfunction of the pancreatic beta cell is an important defect in the pathogenesis of type 2 diabetes, although its exact relationship to the insulin resistance is unclear. To determine whether insulin signaling has a functional role in the beta cell we have used the Cre-loxP system to specifically inactivate the insulin receptor gene in the beta cells. The resultant mice exhibit a selective loss of insulin secretion in response to glucose and a progressive impairment of glucose tolerance. These data indicate an important functional role for the insulin receptor in glucose sensing by the pancreatic beta cell and suggest that defects in insulin signaling at the level of the beta cell may contribute to the observed alterations in insulin secretion in type 2 diabetes. (+info)
Freeze-fracture replication of organized tissue without cryoprotection. (3/8132)Fresh pieces of rat liver and pancreas were rapidly frozen without prior chemical fixation or cryoprotection, and replicated folloing freeze-fracture. Replicas revealed small peripheral areas free of ice crystals or damage and, within such areas, general ultrastructural morphology was essentially similar to that seen in conventionally processed material. On fracture faces of plasma and nuclear membranes a population of less prominent particles in addition to conventional membrane-associated particles was seen, and smooth areas devoid of particles of any type were seen on some nuclear membranes. These smooth areas did not appear to be similar to smooth areas allegedly arising as artifacts of conventional processing. Tight junctions and gap junctions appeared as they do in cryoprotected specimens. The results provide a base-line for assessing the possible effects of processing steps or agents on the ultrastructure of organized tissues as revealed in freeze-fracture replicas. (+info)
Further studies on the mechanism of adrenaline-induced lipolysis in lipid micelles. (4/8132)Lipase [EC 18.104.22.168] depleted lipid micelles, in which lipolysis was not elicited by adrenaline, were prepared from lipid micelles. When these lipase-depleted lipid micelles incubated with adipose tissue extract containing lipase activity, adrenaline-induced lipolysis was restored to almost the same level as that of native lipid micelles. Adrenaline-induced lipolysis was not restored when the lipase-depleted lipid micelles were homogenized or sonicated. Various tissue extracts from kidney, lung, liver, and pancreas, and post-heparin plasma, which contained lipase activity, restored adrenaline-induced lipolysis in lipase-depleted lipid micelles. (+info)
Efficient binding of regulated secretory protein aggregates to membrane phospholipids at acidic pH. (5/8132)Some regulated secretory proteins are thought to be targeted to secretory granules through an acidic-dependent aggregation in the trans-Golgi network. In this report we use pancreatic zymogens, a paradigm of regulated proteins, to test this hypothesis, because they qualitatively aggregate upon acidification in vitro. Pig zymogens were found to start to aggregate significantly at pH approximately 6.0, a pH slightly lower than that at which rat zymogens aggregate, but still compatible with the pH of the cell-sorting compartments. When pig zymogen granule membranes were mixed with the zymogens in the aggregation assay, membranes that normally floated on 1 M sucrose were observed to be pelleted by the aggregating zymogens. Rat membranes were pelleted by pig zymogens and vice versa. Igs, typical constitutively secreted proteins, which needed chemical cross-linking to serve as an aggregated protein control, pelleted membranes almost independently of pH. Corresponding cross-linked zymogen-binding ability and pH dependence was unaffected by the chemical modification. Membranes treated with sodium carbonate, pH 11, or with protease K, were still pelleted by zymogens, suggesting that the aggregated zymogens bound to membrane lipids. This hypothesis was confirmed by the efficient pelleting of unilamellar vesicles composed of granule membrane lipids. Vesicles composed of single classes of phospholipids were also pelleted, but with various efficacies. We conclude that pancreatic zymogen aggregates, formed under the acidic conditions of the secretory pathway sorting compartments, have the capacity to bind firmly to membranes through their phospholipid constituents. (+info)
His ... Asp catalytic dyad of ribonuclease A: histidine pKa values in the wild-type, D121N, and D121A enzymes. (6/8132)Bovine pancreatic ribonuclease A (RNase A) has a conserved His ... Asp catalytic dyad in its active site. Structural analyses had indicated that Asp121 forms a hydrogen bond with His119, which serves as an acid during catalysis of RNA cleavage. The enzyme contains three other histidine residues including His12, which is also in the active site. Here, 1H-NMR spectra of wild-type RNase A and the D121N and D121A variants were analyzed thoroughly as a function of pH. The effect of replacing Asp121 on the microscopic pKa values of the histidine residues is modest: none change by more than 0.2 units. There is no evidence for the formation of a low-barrier hydrogen bond between His119 and either an aspartate or an asparagine residue at position 121. In the presence of the reaction product, uridine 3'-phosphate (3'-UMP), protonation of one active-site histidine residue favors protonation of the other. This finding is consistent with the phosphoryl group of 3'-UMP interacting more strongly with the two active-site histidine residues when both are protonated. Comparison of the titration curves of the unliganded enzyme with that obtained in the presence of different concentrations of 3'-UMP shows that a second molecule of 3'-UMP can bind to the enzyme. Together, the data indicate that the aspartate residue in the His ... Asp catalytic dyad of RNase A has a measurable but modest effect on the ionization of the adjacent histidine residue. (+info)
Characterization of functional residues in the interfacial recognition domain of lecithin cholesterol acyltransferase (LCAT). (7/8132)Lecithin cholesterol acyltransferase (LCAT) is an interfacial enzyme active on both high-density (HDL) and low-density lipoproteins (LDL). Threading alignments of LCAT with lipases suggest that residues 50-74 form an interfacial recognition site and this hypothesis was tested by site-directed mutagenesis. The (delta56-68) deletion mutant had no activity on any substrate. Substitution of W61 with F, Y, L or G suggested that an aromatic residue is required for full enzymatic activity. The activity of the W61F and W61Y mutants was retained on HDL but decreased on LDL, possibly owing to impaired accessibility to the LDL lipid substrate. The decreased activity of the single R52A and K53A mutants on HDL and LDL and the severer effect of the double mutation suggested that these conserved residues contribute to the folding of the LCAT lid. The membrane-destabilizing properties of the LCAT 56-68 helical segment were demonstrated using the corresponding synthetic peptide. An M65N-N66M substitution decreased both the fusogenic properties of the peptide and the activity of the mutant enzyme on all substrates. These results suggest that the putative interfacial recognition domain of LCAT plays an important role in regulating the interaction of the enzyme with its organized lipoprotein substrates. (+info)
Cloning and characterization of a secreted frizzled-related protein that is expressed by the retinal pigment epithelium. (8/8132)The Wnt/frizzled cell signaling pathway has been implicated in the determination of polarity in a number of systems, including the Drosophila retina. The vertebrate retina develops from an undifferentiated neuroepithelium into an organized and laminated structure that demonstrates a high degree of polarity at both the tissue and cellular levels. In the process of searching for molecules that are preferentially expressed by the vertebrate retinal pigment epithelium (RPE), we identified secreted frizzled-related protein 5 (SFRP5), a member of the SFRP family that appears to act by modulating Wnt signal transduction. SFRP5 is highly expressed by RPE cells, and is also expressed in the pancreas. Within the retina, the related molecule SFRP2 is expressed specifically by cells of the inner nuclear layer. Thus, photoreceptors are likely to be bathed by two opposing gradients of SFRP molecules. Consistent with SFRP5 's postulated role in modulating Wnt signaling in the retina, it inhibits the ability of Xwnt-8 mRNA to induce axis duplication in Xenopus embryos. The human SFRP5 gene consists of three coding exons and it maps to chromosome 10q24.1; human SFRP2 maps to 4q31.3. Based on the biology and complementary expression patterns of SFRP2 and SFRP5, we suggest that they may be involved in determining the polarity of photoreceptor, and perhaps other, cells in the retina. (+info)
Pancreatic neoplasms refer to abnormal growths or tumors that develop in the pancreas, a gland located in the abdomen behind the stomach. These neoplasms can be either benign (non-cancerous) or malignant (cancerous). Pancreatic neoplasms can occur in various parts of the pancreas, including the exocrine gland (which produces digestive enzymes), the endocrine gland (which produces hormones), and the ducts (which carry digestive juices from the pancreas to the small intestine). Symptoms of pancreatic neoplasms can vary depending on the location and size of the tumor, but may include abdominal pain, weight loss, jaundice (yellowing of the skin and eyes), nausea, vomiting, and unexplained fatigue. Diagnosis of pancreatic neoplasms typically involves imaging tests such as CT scans, MRI scans, or ultrasound, as well as blood tests and biopsies. Treatment options may include surgery, chemotherapy, radiation therapy, or a combination of these approaches, depending on the type and stage of the neoplasm.
Pancreatic diseases refer to a group of medical conditions that affect the pancreas, a gland located in the abdomen behind the stomach. The pancreas plays a vital role in the digestive and endocrine systems, producing enzymes that help break down food and hormones that regulate blood sugar levels. Pancreatic diseases can be classified into two main categories: exocrine pancreatic diseases and endocrine pancreatic diseases. Exocrine pancreatic diseases affect the pancreas' ability to produce digestive enzymes, leading to malabsorption of nutrients and digestive problems. Examples of exocrine pancreatic diseases include chronic pancreatitis, cystic fibrosis, and pancreatic cancer. Endocrine pancreatic diseases affect the pancreas' ability to produce hormones, leading to imbalances in blood sugar levels. Examples of endocrine pancreatic diseases include type 1 diabetes, type 2 diabetes, and pancreatic neuroendocrine tumors. Pancreatic diseases can be challenging to diagnose and treat, as they often present with non-specific symptoms and can affect multiple organ systems. Treatment options depend on the specific disease and may include medications, surgery, or other interventions.
Pancreatitis is a medical condition characterized by inflammation of the pancreas, a gland located in the abdomen behind the stomach. The pancreas plays a crucial role in the digestive system by producing enzymes that help break down food and hormones that regulate blood sugar levels. There are two main types of pancreatitis: acute and chronic. Acute pancreatitis is a sudden and severe inflammation of the pancreas that usually lasts for a few days to a few weeks. It can be caused by a variety of factors, including excessive alcohol consumption, gallstones, infections, and certain medications. Symptoms of acute pancreatitis may include severe abdominal pain, nausea, vomiting, fever, and elevated levels of certain enzymes in the blood. Chronic pancreatitis is a long-term inflammation of the pancreas that can develop over time due to repeated episodes of acute pancreatitis, long-term alcohol abuse, or other factors. It can cause permanent damage to the pancreas, leading to problems with digestion and blood sugar control. Symptoms of chronic pancreatitis may include abdominal pain, weight loss, malnutrition, and diabetes. Treatment for pancreatitis depends on the severity and underlying cause of the condition. In some cases, hospitalization may be necessary to manage pain, prevent complications, and provide supportive care. In other cases, lifestyle changes such as quitting smoking and reducing alcohol consumption may be recommended to prevent future episodes. Medications and surgery may also be used to treat specific causes of pancreatitis, such as gallstones or infections.
Amylases are a group of enzymes that break down complex carbohydrates, such as starch and glycogen, into simpler sugars like glucose. There are two main types of amylases: salivary amylase and pancreatic amylase. Salivary amylase is produced by the salivary glands and is present in saliva. It begins the process of breaking down carbohydrates in the mouth, before they are further digested in the small intestine. Pancreatic amylase is produced by the pancreas and is released into the small intestine. It continues the process of breaking down carbohydrates into simpler sugars, which can then be absorbed by the body. Amylases are important for proper digestion and absorption of carbohydrates. Abnormal levels of amylases can indicate certain medical conditions, such as pancreatitis, salivary gland disorders, or certain types of cancer.
Choristoma is a medical term used to describe the abnormal growth of tissue that is not normally present in a particular location. It is a type of teratoma, which is a tumor that arises from the embryonic tissue. Choristomas can occur in various parts of the body, including the skin, liver, spleen, and brain. They are usually benign, meaning they are not cancerous, but they can sometimes cause problems if they grow too large or if they are located in a sensitive area. Treatment for choristomas typically involves surgical removal, although in some cases, they may not require any treatment if they are small and not causing any symptoms.
Carcinoma, Pancreatic Ductal is a type of cancer that originates in the cells lining the pancreatic ducts, which are the tubes that carry digestive enzymes and bicarbonate from the pancreas to the small intestine. This type of cancer is also known as pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) or pancreatic cancer. It is the most common type of pancreatic cancer and is usually diagnosed at an advanced stage, making it difficult to treat. The symptoms of pancreatic ductal carcinoma may include abdominal pain, weight loss, jaundice, and nausea. Treatment options for this type of cancer may include surgery, chemotherapy, radiation therapy, and targeted therapy.
A pancreatic cyst is a fluid-filled sac that forms in the pancreas, a gland located in the abdomen behind the stomach. Pancreatic cysts can be classified as either simple or complex, depending on their size, shape, and contents. Simple pancreatic cysts are usually small and benign, and do not require treatment unless they cause symptoms or become infected. Complex pancreatic cysts, on the other hand, are larger and may be associated with more serious conditions such as cancer. These cysts may require further evaluation and treatment, such as surgery or drainage. Pancreatic cysts can be detected through imaging tests such as ultrasound, CT scan, or MRI. Diagnosis and treatment of pancreatic cysts are typically managed by a team of healthcare professionals, including gastroenterologists, surgeons, and radiologists.
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Glucagon is a hormone produced by the alpha cells of the pancreas. It plays a crucial role in regulating blood glucose levels in the body. When blood glucose levels are low, such as during fasting or prolonged exercise, the pancreas releases glucagon into the bloodstream. Glucagon signals the liver to break down stored glycogen into glucose and release it into the bloodstream, thereby increasing blood glucose levels. In addition to its role in regulating blood glucose levels, glucagon also has other functions in the body. It can stimulate the breakdown of fats in adipose tissue and increase the release of fatty acids into the bloodstream. It can also stimulate the breakdown of proteins in muscle tissue and increase the release of amino acids into the bloodstream. Glucagon is used in medical treatment for a variety of conditions, including type 1 diabetes, hypoglycemia, and certain types of liver disease. It is typically administered as an injection or infusion.
Insulin is a hormone produced by the pancreas that regulates the amount of glucose (sugar) in the bloodstream. It helps the body's cells absorb glucose from the bloodstream and use it for energy or store it for later use. Insulin is essential for maintaining normal blood sugar levels and preventing conditions such as diabetes. In the medical field, insulin is used to treat diabetes and other conditions related to high blood sugar levels. It is typically administered through injections or an insulin pump.
Secretin is a hormone produced by the cells of the small intestine. It is released in response to the presence of food in the small intestine and plays a role in regulating the digestive process. Secretin stimulates the pancreas to release bicarbonate, which helps to neutralize stomach acid and protect the lining of the small intestine. It also stimulates the gallbladder to release bile, which helps to break down fats in the small intestine. In addition to its role in digestion, secretin has been studied for its potential therapeutic uses in a variety of medical conditions, including irritable bowel syndrome, chronic pancreatitis, and certain types of cancer.
Cholecystokinin (CCK) is a hormone that is produced by cells in the small intestine and the pancreas. It plays a role in regulating the digestive process by stimulating the release of digestive enzymes and bile from the pancreas and gallbladder, respectively. CCK also helps to slow down the movement of food through the small intestine, allowing more time for digestion and absorption of nutrients. In addition to its role in digestion, CCK has been found to have other functions in the body, including the regulation of appetite and the control of blood sugar levels.
Pancreatic Polypeptide (PP) is a hormone produced by the pancreas, specifically by the PP cells located in the pancreatic islets. It is a 36-amino acid peptide that is released into the bloodstream in response to food intake, particularly proteins and fats. The primary function of PP is to regulate appetite and food intake. It is believed to act on the hypothalamus, a region of the brain that controls hunger and satiety, to suppress appetite and reduce food intake. PP also has a role in the regulation of gastrointestinal motility and secretion, and it has been shown to slow down gastric emptying and reduce the secretion of digestive enzymes. In addition to its physiological effects, PP has been studied for its potential therapeutic applications. It has been shown to have anti-inflammatory and anti-cancer properties, and it may be useful in the treatment of various conditions, including inflammatory bowel disease, cancer, and obesity. However, more research is needed to fully understand the potential therapeutic uses of PP.
Chronic pancreatitis is a long-term inflammatory condition of the pancreas that causes damage to the gland over time. It is characterized by persistent inflammation and scarring of the pancreas, which can lead to the destruction of pancreatic tissue and the development of complications such as diabetes, malnutrition, and pain. Chronic pancreatitis can be caused by a variety of factors, including chronic alcohol abuse, smoking, genetic mutations, and certain infections or autoimmune diseases. The symptoms of chronic pancreatitis can vary widely and may include abdominal pain, weight loss, nausea and vomiting, and changes in bowel movements. Diagnosis of chronic pancreatitis typically involves a combination of medical history, physical examination, blood tests, imaging studies such as ultrasound or CT scans, and sometimes endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP) or biopsy. Treatment of chronic pancreatitis depends on the underlying cause and the severity of the disease. It may include lifestyle changes such as quitting smoking and limiting alcohol consumption, medications to manage pain and other symptoms, and in severe cases, surgery to remove damaged tissue or create a bypass to allow digestive enzymes to flow around the damaged pancreas.
Cystadenoma, mucinous is a type of benign (non-cancerous) tumor that forms in the lining of certain organs, particularly the ovaries, pancreas, and bile ducts. It is characterized by the production of a thick, gel-like substance called mucus, which can accumulate within the cyst and cause it to grow in size. Cystadenomas are usually slow-growing and do not cause symptoms unless they become large or cause pressure on surrounding organs. They are typically diagnosed through imaging tests such as ultrasound, CT scan, or MRI, and may be removed through surgery if they cause problems or are found to be at risk of becoming cancerous. In some cases, cystadenomas may be associated with other conditions such as endometriosis or polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS). It is important to note that while cystadenomas are usually benign, they can still be removed to prevent complications or to confirm the diagnosis.
Adenocarcinoma, mucinous is a type of cancer that starts in the glandular cells of the body's tissues and produces a large amount of mucus. It is a subtype of adenocarcinoma, which is a type of cancer that begins in the glandular cells that produce mucus, sweat, or other fluids. Mucinous adenocarcinomas are often found in the digestive system, such as the colon, stomach, and pancreas, but they can also occur in other parts of the body, such as the lungs, ovaries, and breast. They are typically slow-growing and may not cause symptoms until they are advanced. Treatment for mucinous adenocarcinoma may include surgery, chemotherapy, and radiation therapy, depending on the location and stage of the cancer.
Cystadenoma, Serous is a type of benign (non-cancerous) tumor that develops in the ovaries or fallopian tubes. It is a type of cystadenoma, which is a cyst that forms from the epithelial cells lining the glandular tissue of the ovary or fallopian tube. Serous cystadenomas are typically filled with a clear or cloudy fluid and can vary in size from a few millimeters to several centimeters in diameter. They are usually discovered incidentally during a pelvic exam or imaging study, and are often asymptomatic. However, in some cases, they may cause abdominal pain, bloating, or discomfort. Treatment for serous cystadenomas typically involves surgical removal, although smaller tumors may be monitored with regular imaging studies.
Acinar cells are a type of epithelial cells found in various organs and glands throughout the body, including the pancreas, salivary glands, and liver. These cells are characterized by their flask-shaped or sac-like appearance and are arranged in clusters or acini. In the pancreas, acinar cells produce digestive enzymes such as amylase, lipase, and trypsin, which are secreted into the small intestine to aid in the digestion of carbohydrates, fats, and proteins. In the salivary glands, acinar cells produce saliva, which contains enzymes that help break down food in the mouth. In the liver, acinar cells produce bile, which is essential for the digestion and absorption of fats. Acinar cells are also involved in the production of hormones, such as insulin in the pancreas, and the regulation of fluid balance in the body. Dysfunction or damage to acinar cells can lead to various medical conditions, including pancreatitis, diabetes, and liver disease.
Diabetes Mellitus, Type 1 is a chronic metabolic disorder characterized by high blood sugar levels due to the body's inability to produce insulin, a hormone that regulates blood sugar levels. This type of diabetes is also known as insulin-dependent diabetes or juvenile diabetes, as it typically develops in childhood or adolescence. In Type 1 diabetes, the immune system mistakenly attacks and destroys the insulin-producing cells in the pancreas, leaving the body unable to produce insulin. Without insulin, glucose (sugar) cannot enter the body's cells for energy, leading to high blood sugar levels. Symptoms of Type 1 diabetes may include frequent urination, excessive thirst, hunger, fatigue, blurred vision, and slow healing of wounds. Treatment typically involves insulin injections or an insulin pump, along with a healthy diet and regular exercise.
Carcinoma, acinar cell is a type of cancer that originates in the acinar cells of the pancreas. These cells are responsible for producing digestive enzymes and hormones such as insulin and glucagon. Acinar cell carcinoma is a relatively rare type of pancreatic cancer, accounting for less than 1% of all pancreatic cancers. It is more common in women than men and typically occurs in people over the age of 60. The symptoms of acinar cell carcinoma may include abdominal pain, weight loss, jaundice, and nausea. Diagnosis is typically made through imaging studies such as CT scans or MRIs, and a biopsy may be performed to confirm the diagnosis. Treatment options for acinar cell carcinoma may include surgery, chemotherapy, radiation therapy, or a combination of these approaches. The prognosis for acinar cell carcinoma depends on the stage of the cancer at the time of diagnosis, with earlier stages generally having a better prognosis than later stages.
Adenoma, Islet Cell is a type of benign (non-cancerous) tumor that develops in the islet cells of the pancreas. These cells are responsible for producing hormones such as insulin, glucagon, and somatostatin, which regulate blood sugar levels and other important bodily functions. Islet cell adenomas can cause an overproduction of hormones, leading to a condition called hyperinsulinism or hyperglucagonemia. Symptoms of these conditions may include low blood sugar levels, weight loss, fatigue, and abdominal pain. Treatment for islet cell adenomas typically involves surgery to remove the tumor. In some cases, medications may be used to manage symptoms or control hormone production. It is important to note that islet cell adenomas are relatively rare and may not always cause symptoms. Therefore, they may be discovered incidentally during imaging tests for other conditions.
Somatostatin is a hormone that is produced by the pancreas and the hypothalamus in the brain. It is also known as growth hormone-inhibiting hormone (GHIH) or somatotropin release-inhibiting hormone (SRIF). Somatostatin plays a role in regulating the release of other hormones, including growth hormone, thyroid-stimulating hormone, and insulin. It also has a role in controlling the digestive system, as it can inhibit the release of digestive enzymes and slow down the movement of food through the digestive tract. In the medical field, somatostatin is used to treat a variety of conditions, including acromegaly (a condition in which the body produces too much growth hormone), carcinoid syndrome (a condition in which the body produces too much serotonin), and certain types of diarrhea. It is also being studied for its potential use in treating other conditions, such as Alzheimer's disease and cancer.
Trypsinogen is a precursor protein of trypsin, which is a digestive enzyme that plays a crucial role in the breakdown of proteins in the small intestine. Trypsinogen is produced in the pancreas and is secreted into the small intestine as an inactive form. Once it reaches the small intestine, it is activated by the enzyme chymotrypsin, which cleaves the inactive trypsinogen into active trypsin. Trypsin then cleaves proteins into smaller peptides and amino acids, which can be absorbed by the body and used for various functions. In the medical field, trypsinogen levels can be measured in blood or stool samples to diagnose and monitor conditions such as chronic pancreatitis, pancreatic cancer, and cystic fibrosis.
Pancreatic hormones are hormones produced by the pancreas that play important roles in regulating various bodily functions. The pancreas is a glandular organ located in the abdomen, behind the stomach, and it produces both digestive enzymes and hormones. The main pancreatic hormones are: 1. Insulin: This hormone regulates blood sugar levels by promoting the uptake of glucose by cells and the storage of glucose in the liver and muscles. 2. Glucagon: This hormone raises blood sugar levels by stimulating the liver to release stored glucose into the bloodstream. 3. Somatostatin: This hormone inhibits the release of insulin and glucagon, as well as the production of digestive enzymes. 4. Pancreatic polypeptide: This hormone regulates appetite and digestion. 5. VIP (Vasoactive Intestinal Peptide): This hormone regulates the contraction and relaxation of smooth muscles in the digestive tract. Pancreatic hormones play a crucial role in maintaining normal blood sugar levels, regulating digestion, and controlling appetite. Imbalances in these hormones can lead to various medical conditions, such as diabetes, pancreatitis, and pancreatic cancer.
Chymotrypsinogen is a precursor protein that is produced in the pancreas and converted into the active enzyme chymotrypsin in the small intestine. Chymotrypsin is a protease enzyme that breaks down proteins into smaller peptides and amino acids. It plays an important role in the digestion of dietary proteins and is essential for proper nutrient absorption. In the medical field, chymotrypsinogen levels may be measured as part of diagnostic tests for pancreatic disorders, such as chronic pancreatitis or pancreatic cancer. Abnormal levels of chymotrypsinogen may indicate inflammation or damage to the pancreas.
Cholangiopancreatography, Magnetic Resonance (MRCP) is a medical imaging technique that uses magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) to visualize the bile ducts and pancreas. It is a non-invasive procedure that does not require the use of contrast dye or radiation. During an MRCP, a patient lies on a table that is moved into a large, powerful magnet. The magnet creates a strong magnetic field that aligns the hydrogen atoms in the body. Radiofrequency pulses are then sent through the body, which cause the hydrogen atoms to resonate and produce signals that are detected by the MRI machine. These signals are then used to create detailed images of the bile ducts and pancreas. MRCP is often used to diagnose and evaluate conditions that affect the bile ducts and pancreas, such as gallstones, bile duct strictures, and pancreatic cancer. It can also be used to monitor the effectiveness of treatments for these conditions. MRCP is a safe and effective imaging technique that is well-tolerated by most patients.
Homeodomain proteins are a class of transcription factors that play a crucial role in the development and differentiation of cells and tissues in animals. They are characterized by a highly conserved DNA-binding domain called the homeodomain, which allows them to recognize and bind to specific DNA sequences. Homeodomain proteins are involved in a wide range of biological processes, including embryonic development, tissue differentiation, and organogenesis. They regulate the expression of genes that are essential for these processes by binding to specific DNA sequences and either activating or repressing the transcription of target genes. There are many different types of homeodomain proteins, each with its own unique function and target genes. Some examples of homeodomain proteins include the Hox genes, which are involved in the development of the body plan in animals, and the Pax genes, which are involved in the development of the nervous system. Mutations in homeodomain proteins can lead to a variety of developmental disorders, including congenital malformations and intellectual disabilities. Understanding the function and regulation of homeodomain proteins is therefore important for the development of new treatments for these conditions.
Cholangiopancreatography, Endoscopic Retrograde (ERCP) is a medical procedure used to diagnose and treat problems with the bile ducts and pancreas. It involves inserting a thin, flexible tube (endoscope) through the mouth and into the small intestine, where a dye is injected to highlight the bile ducts and pancreas on an X-ray. This allows doctors to see any blockages or abnormalities in the ducts and to take samples of tissue for further testing. ERCP is often used to diagnose and treat conditions such as gallstones, pancreatitis, and bile duct cancer. It is a minimally invasive procedure that is generally considered safe, although there are some risks associated with it.
Acute necrotizing pancreatitis is a severe form of pancreatitis, which is an inflammation of the pancreas. It is characterized by the necrosis (death) of pancreatic tissue, which can lead to complications such as infection, abscess formation, and organ failure. The exact cause of acute necrotizing pancreatitis is not always clear, but it is often associated with factors such as alcohol abuse, gallstones, and certain medications. Symptoms may include severe abdominal pain, nausea and vomiting, fever, and elevated levels of certain enzymes in the blood. Treatment typically involves hospitalization, intravenous fluids, pain management, and in severe cases, surgery.
Azaserine is a chemical compound that is used as a nitrogen mustard agent in chemotherapy. It is a prodrug that is converted to its active form, mustard gas, in the body. Mustard gas is a toxic chemical that can cause severe skin and lung damage, as well as other health problems. Azaserine is typically used to treat certain types of cancer, such as Hodgkin's lymphoma and non-Hodgkin's lymphoma. It is usually given in combination with other chemotherapy drugs to increase its effectiveness.
Cystadenocarcinoma, mucinous is a type of cancer that arises from the epithelial cells lining the cysts of the ovary. It is a type of ovarian cancer that is characterized by the production of large amounts of a thick, gelatinous substance called mucus. This type of cancer is typically slow-growing and may not cause symptoms in the early stages. However, as the cancer grows, it can cause abdominal pain, bloating, and other symptoms. Treatment for cystadenocarcinoma, mucinous typically involves surgery to remove the affected ovary and any other affected tissue. In some cases, chemotherapy may also be used to help kill any remaining cancer cells.
Carcinoma, Islet Cell is a rare type of cancer that originates in the islet cells of the pancreas. These cells are responsible for producing hormones that regulate blood sugar levels. Islet cell carcinomas can be further classified into two types: functional and non-functional. Functional islet cell carcinomas produce hormones, such as insulin, gastrin, or VIP, which can cause symptoms such as weight loss, diarrhea, or high blood sugar levels. Non-functional islet cell carcinomas do not produce hormones and may not cause any symptoms until the cancer has spread to other parts of the body. The exact cause of islet cell carcinomas is not known, but some risk factors include a family history of the disease, certain genetic conditions, and exposure to certain chemicals or radiation. Treatment options for islet cell carcinomas may include surgery, chemotherapy, radiation therapy, or a combination of these approaches. The prognosis for islet cell carcinomas depends on the stage of the cancer at diagnosis and the patient's overall health.
Carcinoma, papillary refers to a type of cancer that originates in the cells lining a gland or duct, such as the thyroid gland or the breast. Papillary carcinomas are characterized by the presence of small, finger-like projections called papillae, which are a common feature of these types of tumors. These tumors are typically slow-growing and may not cause symptoms until they are quite large. Treatment for papillary carcinoma usually involves surgery to remove the affected gland or duct, followed by radiation therapy or chemotherapy to kill any remaining cancer cells. In some cases, hormone therapy may also be used to treat papillary carcinoma.
A pancreatic pseudocyst is a fluid-filled sac that forms in the pancreas as a result of injury or inflammation. It is not a true cyst, as it does not have a lining of epithelial cells. Instead, it is filled with digestive enzymes and other substances that have leaked from the pancreas. Pseudocysts can develop after acute pancreatitis, a condition in which the pancreas becomes inflamed and can cause severe abdominal pain. They can also occur after trauma to the pancreas, such as a blow to the abdomen, or after surgery on the pancreas or nearby organs. Pseudocysts can be small and asymptomatic, or they can be large and cause symptoms such as abdominal pain, nausea, vomiting, and weight loss. Treatment options for pancreatic pseudocysts include observation, drainage, and surgery, depending on the size and location of the cyst and the severity of symptoms.
Cystadenoma, papillary is a type of benign (non-cancerous) tumor that develops in the lining of certain organs, particularly the ovaries, pancreas, and bile ducts. It is characterized by the formation of cysts (fluid-filled sacs) within the tumor, which can vary in size and number. The cystadenoma, papillary is a slow-growing tumor and usually does not cause any symptoms until it becomes large enough to compress surrounding tissues or organs. Treatment for cystadenoma, papillary typically involves surgical removal of the tumor, although in some cases, it may be monitored with regular imaging studies to ensure that it does not grow or cause any problems.
Adenocarcinoma is a type of cancer that starts in the glandular cells of an organ or tissue. It is one of the most common types of cancer and can occur in many different parts of the body, including the lungs, breast, colon, rectum, pancreas, stomach, and thyroid gland. Adenocarcinomas typically grow slowly and may not cause symptoms in the early stages. However, as the cancer grows, it can invade nearby tissues and spread to other parts of the body through the bloodstream or lymphatic system. This can lead to more serious symptoms and a higher risk of complications. Treatment for adenocarcinoma depends on the location and stage of the cancer, as well as the overall health of the patient. Options may include surgery, radiation therapy, chemotherapy, targeted therapy, or a combination of these approaches. The goal of treatment is to remove or destroy the cancer cells and prevent them from spreading further.
Lipase is an enzyme that breaks down fats (lipids) into smaller molecules called fatty acids and glycerol. It is produced by various cells in the body, including pancreatic cells, and is important for the digestion and absorption of dietary fats. In the medical field, lipase is often measured in blood or stool samples to diagnose and monitor conditions related to fat metabolism, such as pancreatitis, biliary tract disease, and malabsorption syndromes. High levels of lipase in the blood or stool can indicate an acute pancreatitis, while low levels can suggest a deficiency in pancreatic function. Lipase is also used in medical research and drug development, as it plays a key role in the metabolism of lipids and the regulation of energy homeostasis. Additionally, lipase inhibitors are used in the treatment of obesity and type 2 diabetes, as they can help reduce the absorption of dietary fats and lower blood lipid levels.
Cystadenoma is a type of benign (non-cancerous) tumor that develops in the glandular tissue of the ovary. It is a cystic tumor, meaning that it is filled with fluid or semi-solid material. Cystadenomas are usually slow-growing and do not cause any symptoms unless they become large or cause pressure on surrounding organs. They are typically diagnosed through imaging tests such as ultrasound or MRI, and are often removed surgically if they cause symptoms or if there is a concern about their potential to become cancerous.
Duodenal neoplasms refer to abnormal growths or tumors that develop in the duodenum, which is the first part of the small intestine. These neoplasms can be either benign (non-cancerous) or malignant (cancerous). Duodenal neoplasms can present with a variety of symptoms, including abdominal pain, nausea, vomiting, weight loss, and jaundice. The diagnosis of duodenal neoplasms typically involves a combination of imaging studies, such as endoscopy and CT scans, and biopsy to confirm the presence of cancer cells. Treatment for duodenal neoplasms depends on the type and stage of the cancer, as well as the patient's overall health. Options may include surgery, chemotherapy, radiation therapy, or a combination of these approaches. Early detection and treatment are important for improving outcomes and reducing the risk of complications.
Blood glucose, also known as blood sugar, is the level of glucose (a type of sugar) in the blood. Glucose is the primary source of energy for the body's cells, and it is produced by the liver and released into the bloodstream in response to the body's needs. In the medical field, blood glucose levels are often measured as part of a routine check-up or to monitor the health of people with diabetes or other conditions that affect blood sugar levels. Normal blood glucose levels for adults are typically between 70 and 100 milligrams per deciliter (mg/dL) before a meal and between 80 and 120 mg/dL two hours after a meal. Elevated blood glucose levels, also known as hyperglycemia, can be caused by a variety of factors, including diabetes, stress, certain medications, and high-carbohydrate meals. Low blood glucose levels, also known as hypoglycemia, can be caused by diabetes treatment that is too aggressive, skipping meals, or certain medications. Monitoring blood glucose levels is important for people with diabetes, as it helps them manage their condition and prevent complications such as nerve damage, kidney damage, and cardiovascular disease.
Neoplasms, cystic, mucinous, and serous are types of tumors that can occur in various organs of the body. Cystic neoplasms are tumors that are filled with fluid or semi-solid material. They can be benign or malignant and can occur in various organs, including the liver, kidneys, ovaries, and pancreas. Mucinous neoplasms are tumors that produce a thick, gelatinous substance called mucus. They can be benign or malignant and are most commonly found in the ovaries, appendix, and colon. Serous neoplasms are tumors that produce a clear, watery fluid called serous fluid. They can be benign or malignant and are most commonly found in the ovaries, peritoneum, and pleura. It's important to note that not all cystic, mucinous, and serous neoplasms are cancerous, and some may be benign and not require treatment. However, it's important to have any suspicious cystic, mucinous, or serous neoplasm evaluated by a medical professional to determine the best course of action.
The Ampulla of Vater, also known as the hepatopancreatic ampulla or the hepatopancreatic duct, is a small, funnel-shaped structure located at the confluence of the bile duct and the main pancreatic duct. It is situated in the head of the pancreas, just inferior to the duodenum, and is surrounded by the ampulla of Vater's gland, which is a group of specialized cells that produce mucus to lubricate the passage of bile and pancreatic juice through the ampulla. The ampulla of Vater plays a critical role in the digestive process by allowing bile and pancreatic juice to mix and enter the duodenum, where they help to break down and digest food. Disorders of the ampulla of Vater can lead to a variety of digestive problems, including jaundice, abdominal pain, and malabsorption. Some common conditions that affect the ampulla of Vater include ampullary cancer, pancreatitis, and bile duct stones.
An insulinoma is a rare type of tumor that develops in the pancreas, specifically in the islet cells that produce insulin. Insulinomas are usually benign, but they can cause excessive production of insulin, leading to low blood sugar levels (hypoglycemia). The symptoms of insulinoma can include weakness, fatigue, dizziness, confusion, sweating, shaking, rapid heartbeat, and blurred vision. If left untreated, severe hypoglycemia can lead to seizures, coma, and even death. Diagnosis of insulinoma typically involves a combination of blood tests to measure blood sugar levels and imaging studies such as CT scans or MRI scans to locate the tumor. Treatment options for insulinoma may include surgery to remove the tumor, medication to control blood sugar levels, or a combination of both.
Diabetes Mellitus, Experimental refers to a type of diabetes that is studied in laboratory animals, such as mice or rats, to better understand the disease and develop potential treatments. This type of diabetes is typically induced by injecting the animals with chemicals or viruses that mimic the effects of diabetes in humans. The experimental diabetes in animals is used to study the pathophysiology of diabetes, test new drugs or therapies, and investigate the underlying mechanisms of the disease. The results of these studies can then be used to inform the development of new treatments for diabetes in humans.
Pancreatitis, alcoholic, is a type of inflammation of the pancreas that is caused by excessive consumption of alcohol. The pancreas is a gland located in the abdomen that produces digestive enzymes and hormones that regulate blood sugar levels. When alcohol is consumed in large amounts, it can damage the cells of the pancreas, leading to inflammation and the release of digestive enzymes that can cause further damage to the gland. Symptoms of alcoholic pancreatitis may include abdominal pain, nausea, vomiting, and fever. In severe cases, alcoholic pancreatitis can lead to complications such as infection, organ failure, and even death. Treatment typically involves stopping alcohol consumption, managing pain and inflammation, and addressing any underlying medical conditions.
Duodenal obstruction is a medical condition in which there is a blockage or narrowing of the duodenum, which is the first part of the small intestine. This can occur due to a variety of factors, including tumors, inflammation, adhesions, or hernias. Symptoms of duodenal obstruction may include abdominal pain, nausea, vomiting, loss of appetite, weight loss, and difficulty swallowing. In severe cases, the obstruction can lead to a buildup of fluid in the abdomen, which can be life-threatening. Diagnosis of duodenal obstruction typically involves imaging studies such as an X-ray or CT scan, as well as a physical examination and medical history. Treatment options may include medications to relieve symptoms, endoscopic procedures to remove the obstruction, or surgery to repair or remove the cause of the blockage.
Receptors, Cholecystokinin (CCK) are a type of protein receptor found in the cells of various organs in the body, including the pancreas, small intestine, and brain. These receptors are activated by the hormone cholecystokinin, which is produced by the cells of the small intestine in response to the presence of food in the stomach. When cholecystokinin binds to its receptors, it triggers a series of chemical reactions that lead to the release of digestive enzymes from the pancreas and the contraction of the muscles of the small intestine. This helps to move food through the digestive system and prepare it for absorption. In addition to its role in digestion, cholecystokinin has been found to play a role in regulating appetite, mood, and other physiological processes. It is also involved in the development of certain types of cancer, including pancreatic cancer. Overall, receptors, cholecystokinin are an important part of the body's digestive system and play a role in regulating a variety of physiological processes.
In the medical field, RNA, Messenger (mRNA) refers to a type of RNA molecule that carries genetic information from DNA in the nucleus of a cell to the ribosomes, where proteins are synthesized. During the process of transcription, the DNA sequence of a gene is copied into a complementary RNA sequence called messenger RNA (mRNA). This mRNA molecule then leaves the nucleus and travels to the cytoplasm of the cell, where it binds to ribosomes and serves as a template for the synthesis of a specific protein. The sequence of nucleotides in the mRNA molecule determines the sequence of amino acids in the protein that is synthesized. Therefore, changes in the sequence of nucleotides in the mRNA molecule can result in changes in the amino acid sequence of the protein, which can affect the function of the protein and potentially lead to disease. mRNA molecules are often used in medical research and therapy as a way to introduce new genetic information into cells. For example, mRNA vaccines work by introducing a small piece of mRNA that encodes for a specific protein, which triggers an immune response in the body.
Sincalide is a medication used in the medical field to help diagnose and treat certain conditions related to the pancreas and bile ducts. It is a synthetic version of a hormone called cholecystokinin (CCK), which is naturally produced by the body and helps to stimulate the release of bile from the liver and gallbladder. Sincalide is typically used in two main ways: 1. To diagnose conditions such as chronic pancreatitis, pancreatic cancer, and bile duct obstruction. In these cases, sincalide is injected into a vein and the patient's response to the medication is monitored. If the patient experiences symptoms such as abdominal pain or nausea, it may indicate that there is a problem with the pancreas or bile ducts. 2. To stimulate the release of bile in patients who have had their gallbladder removed (a condition known as cholecystectomy). In this case, sincalide is used to help prevent the development of a condition called postcholecystectomy syndrome, which can cause symptoms such as abdominal pain and nausea. Sincalide is generally considered safe and well-tolerated, although it can cause side effects such as abdominal pain, nausea, and diarrhea. It is important to note that sincalide should only be used under the supervision of a healthcare professional.
Glucose is a simple sugar that is a primary source of energy for the body's cells. It is also known as blood sugar or dextrose and is produced by the liver and released into the bloodstream by the pancreas. In the medical field, glucose is often measured as part of routine blood tests to monitor blood sugar levels in people with diabetes or those at risk of developing diabetes. High levels of glucose in the blood, also known as hyperglycemia, can lead to a range of health problems, including heart disease, nerve damage, and kidney damage. On the other hand, low levels of glucose in the blood, also known as hypoglycemia, can cause symptoms such as weakness, dizziness, and confusion. In severe cases, it can lead to seizures or loss of consciousness. In addition to its role in energy metabolism, glucose is also used as a diagnostic tool in medical testing, such as in the measurement of blood glucose levels in newborns to detect neonatal hypoglycemia.
Gabexate mesilate is a medication that is used to prevent bleeding in the digestive tract. It works by increasing the production of certain proteins in the blood that help to form blood clots and stop bleeding. Gabexate mesilate is typically used to treat bleeding in the stomach or intestines that is caused by certain medications, such as aspirin or nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), or by conditions such as ulcers or gastritis. It is usually given as a solution that is injected into a vein.
Cystadenocarcinoma is a type of cancer that arises from the epithelial cells lining fluid-filled sacs, or cysts, in the body. It is a type of adenocarcinoma, which is a cancer that begins in glandular tissue. Cystadenocarcinomas can occur in various locations throughout the body, including the ovaries, pancreas, and bile ducts. They are typically slow-growing and may not cause symptoms until they have advanced to a more advanced stage. Treatment for cystadenocarcinoma may include surgery, chemotherapy, and radiation therapy, depending on the location and stage of the cancer.
Cell differentiation is the process by which cells acquire specialized functions and characteristics during development. It is a fundamental process that occurs in all multicellular organisms, allowing cells to differentiate into various types of cells with specific functions, such as muscle cells, nerve cells, and blood cells. During cell differentiation, cells undergo changes in their shape, size, and function, as well as changes in the proteins and other molecules they produce. These changes are controlled by a complex network of genes and signaling pathways that regulate the expression of specific genes in different cell types. Cell differentiation is a critical process for the proper development and function of tissues and organs in the body. It is also involved in tissue repair and regeneration, as well as in the progression of diseases such as cancer, where cells lose their normal differentiation and become cancerous.
In the medical field, "trans-activators" refer to proteins or molecules that activate the transcription of a gene, which is the process by which the information in a gene is used to produce a functional product, such as a protein. Trans-activators can bind to specific DNA sequences near a gene and recruit other proteins, such as RNA polymerase, to initiate transcription. They can also modify the chromatin structure around a gene to make it more accessible to transcription machinery. Trans-activators play important roles in regulating gene expression and are involved in many biological processes, including development, differentiation, and disease.
In the medical field, an acute disease is a condition that develops suddenly and progresses rapidly over a short period of time. Acute diseases are typically characterized by severe symptoms and a high degree of morbidity and mortality. Examples of acute diseases include pneumonia, meningitis, sepsis, and heart attacks. These diseases require prompt medical attention and treatment to prevent complications and improve outcomes. In contrast, chronic diseases are long-term conditions that develop gradually over time and may persist for years or even decades.
Duodenal diseases refer to medical conditions that affect the duodenum, which is the first part of the small intestine. The duodenum is responsible for receiving and mixing food from the stomach with digestive enzymes and bile from the liver and gallbladder. Some common duodenal diseases include: 1. Duodenal ulcers: These are sores that develop in the lining of the duodenum or the stomach. They are often caused by the bacteria Helicobacter pylori and can lead to bleeding, pain, and other complications. 2. Duodenal diverticulosis: This is a condition in which small pouches or sacs form in the wall of the duodenum. It is usually asymptomatic but can cause complications such as bleeding, infection, and blockage. 3. Duodenal cancer: This is a rare type of cancer that develops in the cells lining the duodenum. It can cause symptoms such as abdominal pain, weight loss, and changes in bowel habits. 4. Duodenal strictures: These are narrowing or blockages in the duodenum that can be caused by inflammation, scarring, or other factors. They can lead to symptoms such as abdominal pain, vomiting, and difficulty swallowing. 5. Duodenal polyps: These are small growths that develop on the lining of the duodenum. Most are harmless, but some can be precancerous or lead to bleeding. Treatment for duodenal diseases depends on the specific condition and its severity. It may include medications, lifestyle changes, endoscopic procedures, or surgery.
Stomach diseases refer to a wide range of medical conditions that affect the stomach, a muscular organ located in the upper abdomen that plays a crucial role in the digestive process. Some common stomach diseases include: 1. Gastritis: Inflammation of the lining of the stomach, which can be caused by bacterial or viral infections, excessive alcohol consumption, or long-term use of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs). 2. Peptic ulcers: Sores that develop in the lining of the stomach or duodenum, which can be caused by the overproduction of stomach acid or the presence of the bacterium Helicobacter pylori. 3. Gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD): A condition in which stomach acid flows back up into the esophagus, causing heartburn, difficulty swallowing, and other symptoms. 4. Ulcerative colitis: A chronic inflammatory bowel disease that affects the colon and rectum, but can also involve the stomach. 5. Gastric cancer: A type of cancer that develops in the lining of the stomach, which can be caused by chronic inflammation, infection with certain viruses or bacteria, or a family history of the disease. 6. Gastroparesis: A condition in which the stomach muscles do not work properly, causing food to remain in the stomach for longer than normal and leading to symptoms such as nausea, vomiting, and abdominal pain. 7. Zollinger-Ellison syndrome: A rare condition in which the stomach produces too much acid, leading to symptoms such as frequent heartburn, ulcers, and diarrhea. These are just a few examples of the many stomach diseases that can affect people. Treatment for stomach diseases depends on the specific condition and may include medications, lifestyle changes, or surgery.
Basic Helix-Loop-Helix (bHLH) transcription factors are a family of proteins that play important roles in regulating gene expression in a variety of biological processes, including development, differentiation, and cell cycle control. These proteins are characterized by a specific DNA-binding domain, known as the bHLH domain, which allows them to bind to specific DNA sequences and regulate the transcription of target genes. bHLH transcription factors are involved in a wide range of cellular processes, including the development of the nervous system, the formation of muscle tissue, and the regulation of cell growth and differentiation. They are also involved in the regulation of various diseases, including cancer, and are being studied as potential therapeutic targets. In the medical field, bHLH transcription factors are important for understanding the molecular mechanisms underlying various diseases and for developing new treatments. They are also being studied as potential biomarkers for disease diagnosis and prognosis.
Proglucagon is a hormone precursor that is synthesized and secreted by the alpha cells of the pancreas. It is a 76-amino acid polypeptide that is cleaved by proteases to form several different hormones, including glucagon, amylin, and glicentin. Glucagon is a hormone that plays a key role in regulating blood sugar levels by stimulating the liver to release glucose into the bloodstream. Amylin is a hormone that helps to regulate food intake and glucose metabolism. Glicentin is a hormone that has both pancreatic and gastrointestinal functions. Proglucagon is also produced by the intestinal L cells and is cleaved to form GLP-1 (glucagon-like peptide-1), which is a hormone that regulates glucose metabolism and appetite. In the medical field, proglucagon is used as a diagnostic tool to measure the levels of glucagon in the blood, which can be useful in the diagnosis and management of conditions such as diabetes mellitus, hypoglycemia, and pancreatic disorders. It is also being studied as a potential therapeutic agent for the treatment of type 2 diabetes and other metabolic disorders.
Lithostathine is a protein that is produced by the liver and is involved in the regulation of calcium levels in the body. It is also known as calbindin D28k or calbindin 28k. Lithostathine plays a role in the transport of calcium ions across cell membranes and is involved in the regulation of bone mineralization and the maintenance of normal blood calcium levels. It is also thought to play a role in the development and function of the nervous system.
Endocrine gland neoplasms refer to tumors or abnormal growths that develop in the endocrine glands, which are responsible for producing hormones that regulate various bodily functions. These neoplasms can be either benign (non-cancerous) or malignant (cancerous) and can affect any of the endocrine glands, including the thyroid gland, parathyroid gland, adrenal gland, pituitary gland, pancreas, and gonads (ovaries and testes). Endocrine gland neoplasms can cause a variety of symptoms, depending on the location and size of the tumor, as well as the hormones it produces. Some common symptoms include hormonal imbalances, such as weight gain or loss, changes in appetite, fatigue, and mood swings. In some cases, endocrine gland neoplasms can also cause more serious complications, such as hypercalcemia (high levels of calcium in the blood) or hyperthyroidism (overactive thyroid gland). Diagnosis of endocrine gland neoplasms typically involves a combination of medical history, physical examination, blood tests, imaging studies (such as ultrasound, CT scan, or MRI), and biopsy (removal of a small sample of tissue for examination under a microscope). Treatment options for endocrine gland neoplasms depend on the type, size, and location of the tumor, as well as the patient's overall health and preferences. Treatment may include surgery, radiation therapy, chemotherapy, hormone therapy, or a combination of these approaches.
In the medical field, an amino acid sequence refers to the linear order of amino acids in a protein molecule. Proteins are made up of chains of amino acids, and the specific sequence of these amino acids determines the protein's structure and function. The amino acid sequence is determined by the genetic code, which is a set of rules that specifies how the sequence of nucleotides in DNA is translated into the sequence of amino acids in a protein. Each amino acid is represented by a three-letter code, and the sequence of these codes is the amino acid sequence of the protein. The amino acid sequence is important because it determines the protein's three-dimensional structure, which in turn determines its function. Small changes in the amino acid sequence can have significant effects on the protein's structure and function, and this can lead to diseases or disorders. For example, mutations in the amino acid sequence of a protein involved in blood clotting can lead to bleeding disorders.
Adenocarcinoma, papillary is a type of cancer that begins in the cells that line certain organs or glands in the body. It is a type of adenocarcinoma, which is a type of cancer that begins in glandular cells. Papillary adenocarcinoma is characterized by the growth of small, finger-like projections called papillae, which can be seen under a microscope. This type of cancer is most commonly found in the thyroid gland, but it can also occur in other organs such as the lungs, breast, and pancreas. Treatment for papillary adenocarcinoma typically involves surgery to remove the affected tissue, followed by radiation therapy or chemotherapy to kill any remaining cancer cells.
Diabetes Mellitus is a chronic metabolic disorder characterized by high blood sugar levels (hyperglycemia) due to either a lack of insulin production by the pancreas or the body's inability to effectively use insulin. There are two main types of diabetes mellitus: type 1 and type 2. Type 1 diabetes is an autoimmune disorder in which the body's immune system attacks and destroys the insulin-producing cells in the pancreas. This results in little or no insulin production, and the body is unable to regulate blood sugar levels properly. Type 1 diabetes typically develops in childhood or adolescence, but can occur at any age. Type 2 diabetes is the most common form of diabetes and is characterized by insulin resistance, which means that the body's cells do not respond effectively to insulin. This leads to high blood sugar levels, and the pancreas may eventually become unable to produce enough insulin to keep up with the body's needs. Type 2 diabetes is often associated with obesity, physical inactivity, and a family history of the disease. Other forms of diabetes include gestational diabetes, which occurs during pregnancy, and secondary diabetes, which is caused by other medical conditions such as kidney disease or certain medications.
A glucagonoma is a rare type of tumor that arises from the alpha cells of the pancreas. These cells normally produce the hormone glucagon, which helps to regulate blood sugar levels by stimulating the liver to release stored glucose into the bloodstream. In a glucagonoma, the tumor cells produce excessive amounts of glucagon, leading to a condition called hyperglucagonemia. This can cause blood sugar levels to drop, leading to symptoms such as weakness, fatigue, dizziness, and confusion. In severe cases, it can lead to hypoglycemic coma. Other symptoms of a glucagonoma may include weight loss, abdominal pain, and diarrhea. The diagnosis of a glucagonoma is typically made through a combination of blood tests, imaging studies, and biopsy of the tumor. Treatment for a glucagonoma typically involves surgical removal of the tumor, followed by chemotherapy or radiation therapy to kill any remaining cancer cells. In some cases, medications may be used to manage symptoms or control blood sugar levels.
Carboxypeptidases A (CPA) are a group of enzymes that are found in the human body and are responsible for cleaving off amino acids from the C-terminus (the end) of peptides and proteins. There are several different types of CPA, including CPA1, CPA2, and CPA3, which are found in different tissues and have slightly different substrate specificities. CPA play important roles in a number of physiological processes, including the regulation of blood pressure, the breakdown of certain hormones, and the metabolism of certain drugs. They are also involved in the degradation of extracellular matrix proteins, which are important for maintaining the structure and function of tissues. In the medical field, CPA are sometimes used as diagnostic tools to help identify certain diseases or conditions. For example, increased levels of CPA in the blood or urine can be an indicator of certain types of kidney disease or liver disease. They are also being studied as potential therapeutic targets for the treatment of a variety of conditions, including cancer, cardiovascular disease, and neurodegenerative disorders.
In the medical field, a base sequence refers to the specific order of nucleotides (adenine, thymine, cytosine, and guanine) that make up the genetic material (DNA or RNA) of an organism. The base sequence determines the genetic information encoded within the DNA molecule and ultimately determines the traits and characteristics of an individual. The base sequence can be analyzed using various techniques, such as DNA sequencing, to identify genetic variations or mutations that may be associated with certain diseases or conditions.
Streptozocin is a medication that is used to treat certain types of cancer, including pancreatic cancer, bladder cancer, and ovarian cancer. It is a type of chemotherapy drug that works by interfering with the growth and division of cancer cells. Streptozocin is usually given intravenously (through a vein) or by injection into a muscle. It can cause side effects such as nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, and low blood sugar levels. It is important to carefully follow the instructions of a healthcare provider when taking this medication.
A pancreatic fistula is a abnormal connection between the pancreas and another body cavity or surface, such as the stomach, small intestine, colon, or abdominal wall. This can occur due to injury, surgery, or infection, and can lead to the leakage of digestive enzymes and fluids from the pancreas into the surrounding tissue. Symptoms of a pancreatic fistula may include abdominal pain, nausea, vomiting, fever, and diarrhea. Treatment typically involves addressing the underlying cause of the fistula and managing any complications that may arise. In severe cases, surgery may be necessary to repair or remove the fistula.
Neuroendocrine tumors (NETs) are a type of cancer that arises from cells that produce hormones or neurotransmitters. These tumors can occur in various parts of the body, including the lungs, pancreas, gastrointestinal tract, and other organs. NETs are classified based on their size, location, and the level of hormones they produce. They can be further divided into two main categories: well-differentiated NETs, which are slow-growing and have a better prognosis, and poorly differentiated NETs, which are more aggressive and have a worse prognosis. The symptoms of NETs can vary depending on the location and size of the tumor, as well as the hormones it produces. Common symptoms include abdominal pain, diarrhea, weight loss, flushing, and high blood pressure. Treatment for NETs may include surgery, radiation therapy, chemotherapy, and targeted therapy. The choice of treatment depends on the stage and location of the tumor, as well as the patient's overall health and preferences.
Digestive System Neoplasms refer to abnormal growths or tumors that develop in the organs of the digestive system, including the esophagus, stomach, small intestine, large intestine, rectum, liver, pancreas, and gallbladder. These neoplasms can be either benign (non-cancerous) or malignant (cancerous), and they can cause a range of symptoms, depending on their location and size. Some common types of digestive system neoplasms include esophageal cancer, stomach cancer, colon cancer, rectal cancer, liver cancer, pancreatic cancer, and gallbladder cancer. These neoplasms can be diagnosed through various medical tests, such as endoscopy, biopsy, imaging studies, and blood tests. Treatment for digestive system neoplasms depends on the type, stage, and location of the tumor, as well as the overall health of the patient. Treatment options may include surgery, chemotherapy, radiation therapy, targeted therapy, immunotherapy, or a combination of these approaches. The goal of treatment is to remove or destroy the tumor, prevent it from spreading, and improve the patient's quality of life.
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I Want to Eat Your Pancreas (film)
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- An experimental procedure called islet cell transplantation transplants only the parts of the pancreas that make insulin. (medlineplus.gov)
- Pancreas transplantation is a type of surgery in which you receive a healthy donor pancreas. (hopkinsmedicine.org)
- Candidates for pancreas transplantation generally have type 1 diabetes, usually along with kidney damage, nerve damage, eye problems, or another complication of the disease. (hopkinsmedicine.org)
- Pancreas transplantation is principally performed to ameliorate type 1 diabetes mellitus and produce complete independence from injected insulin. (medscape.com)
- In addition, pancreas transplantation in patients with type 2 diabetes has increased steadily in recent years. (medscape.com)
- Simultaneous pancreas-kidney transplantation with enteric drainage. (medscape.com)
- Pancreas transplantations are also performed after successful kidney transplantation (ie, pancreas-after-kidney [PAK] transplantation). (medscape.com)
- Pancreas and islet cell transplantation can be considered complementary transplant options and undergoing one or the other is not mutually exclusive. (medscape.com)
- In an analysis of 40 pancreas transplantations (50% PTA, 27.5% SPK, 22.5% PAK) after islet cell transplantation graft failure, overall survival rates (97% at 1 year and 83% at 5 years) were not adversely affected. (medscape.com)
- Experiments in pancreas transplantation began long before the discovery of insulin. (medscape.com)
- With improved immunosuppressive regimens and newer surgical techniques, the 1980s ushered in a new era in pancreas transplantation. (medscape.com)
- therefore, pancreas transplantation is typically performed simultaneously with kidney transplantation . (medscape.com)
- In patients undergoing pancreas transplantation, various technical concerns must be considered, including whether or not the venous drainage should be into the systemic circulation or into the portal vein. (medscape.com)
- The complications of graft pancreatitis and bladder leakage that plagued early experiences with pancreas transplantation have largely been resolved as a result of both better technical expertise and fewer rejection- and immunosuppression-related complications. (medscape.com)
- After loss of organ function due to chronic rejection, she underwent combined kidney-pancreas transplantation 5 years later, in 1990. (cdc.gov)
- Because injectable insulin is a safe and reasonably effective treatment for diabetes, freedom from insulin is not considered a sufficient reason for pancreas transplantation. (msdmanuals.com)
- Pancreatic Islet Cell Transplantation Pancreatic islet cell transplantation is the surgical removal of the pancreas from a recently deceased person, the separation of islet cells from the pancreas, and then their injection into. (msdmanuals.com)
- [ 2 ] The first successful pancreas transplantation was performed in 1966, simultaneously with kidney graft. (medscape.com)
- About 75% of pancreas transplantations are performed simultaneously with a kidney transplantation from the same deceased donor. (medscape.com)
- [ 4 ] About 15% of pancreas transplantations are performed after a previously successful kidney transplantation from a living or deceased donor. (medscape.com)
- This is referred to as a pancreas-after-kidney transplantation. (medscape.com)
- The remaining 10% of cases are performed as pancreas transplantation alone in patients who have normal renal function, but with very labile and problematic diabetes, such as patients with life-threatening hypoglycemic unawareness. (medscape.com)
- An alternative therapy that may also ameliorate diabetes is islet cell transplantation, but this procedure is experimental and has not yet demonstrated equivalence to whole-graft pancreas transplantation. (medscape.com)
- Thus, normalizing glucose through successful pancreas transplantation might be expected to stabilize or reverse microvascular complications. (medscape.com)
- The resulting benefits of pancreas and kidney transplantation are discussed below. (medscape.com)
- Most pancreas transplantation candidates have had diabetes for 20-25 years on average prior to consideration for transplantation, so many have had laser surgery for retinopathy. (medscape.com)
- The severity of these ophthalmologic changes may obviate a clear salutary effect of pancreas transplantation alone (PTA) or simultaneous pancreas-kidney (SPK) transplantation on retinopathy. (medscape.com)
- Neuropathy improves after both kidney and pancreas transplantation, suggesting that renal failure and diabetes contribute to the sensory neuropathy commonly observed at the time of transplantation. (medscape.com)
Receive a pancreas transplant4
- The long-term outlook for people who receive a pancreas transplant is quite good. (hopkinsmedicine.org)
- Pancreas after kidney (PAK) transplant: Patients with diabetes who have had a prior kidney transplant performed for end-stage renal disease may be a suitable candidate to receive a pancreas transplant at a later date. (uhhospitals.org)
- More than 80% of people who have diabetes and who receive a pancreas transplant have normal blood sugar levels afterward and no longer need insulin , but they trade this benefit for the need to take immunosuppressants, with the risk of infections and other side effects. (msdmanuals.com)
- Overall, more than 90% of people who receive a pancreas transplant receive a kidney transplant at the same time. (msdmanuals.com)
Type 1 diabet18
- A pancreas transplant is a choice for some people with type 1 diabetes. (hopkinsmedicine.org)
- Type 1 diabetes is an autoimmune disease in which the pancreas stops producing the hormone insulin. (hopkinsmedicine.org)
- Researchers say newly developed bionic pancreas machines can help people with type 1 diabetes manage their blood sugar levels. (healthline.com)
- People with type 1 diabetes using a bionic pancreas had greater blood sugar stability than those who used their usual insulin delivery method. (healthline.com)
- The relatively long-term, 13-week trial provides convincing evidence that the bionic pancreas is effective and safe for managing type 1 diabetes," said Dr. Qin Yang , the medical director at the UCI Health Diabetes Center in California. (healthline.com)
- The bionic pancreas is an exciting new technology that provides glucose control for those with type 1 diabetes," said Leslie Hussey , Ph.D., RN, CNE, an academic residency coordinator in the Nursing Ph.D. Program at the College of Nursing at Walden University in Minnesota. (healthline.com)
- The bionic pancreas is designed to make managing type 1 diabetes easier," she continued. (healthline.com)
- The finding is the latest in what has become a race to develop a fully functioning artificial pancreas that can give patients with type 1 diabetes an automated way to control their blood sugar. (medgadget.com)
- The primary pancreas transplant criteria for evaluation and admission into Tampa General Hospital's Pancreas Transplant program is the diagnosis of Type 1 diabetes and stage 5 chronic kidney disease (CKD), or end-stage renal disease (ESRD). (tgh.org)
- Called the artificial pancreas project, it represents the first artificial device that would automatically deliver insulin to an individual suffering from type 1 diabetes as it is needed. (battlediabetes.com)
- New York, NY, June 20, 2013 -JDRF announced today partnerships with both Xeris Pharmaceuticals, Inc., and LATITUDE Pharmaceuticals, Inc. (LPI), to support the development of soluble glucagon formulations-an important step toward the advancement of future generation, fully automated and multi-hormonal artificial pancreas systems for people with type 1 diabetes (T1D). (jdrf.org)
- Studies have demonstrated the game-changing value of first generation artificial pancreas systems in improving blood-glucose control and alleviating some of the burdens of managing type 1 diabetes," said Sanjoy Dutta, Ph.D., JDRF's senior director of treat therapies. (jdrf.org)
- Said Dr. Dutta: "We are excited to explore whether the novel glucagon formulations by Xeris and LATITUDE could prove effective for use in an infusion pump, thereby bringing us closer to the future of closed loop artificial pancreas systems by 'resetting' the missing hormonal balance in people with type 1 diabetes. (jdrf.org)
- Thanks to investments in research, new and improved methods for managing type 1 diabetes are on the horizon, including the artificial pancreas. (medlineplus.gov)
- The artificial pancreas is an integrated system that monitors blood glucose (sugar) levels automatically and provides insulin or a combination of insulin and a second hormone to people with type 1 diabetes. (medlineplus.gov)
- A successful artificial pancreas would be a life-changing advance for many people with type 1 diabetes. (medlineplus.gov)
- For many people with type 1 diabetes, the realization of a successful, fully automated artificial pancreas is a dearly held dream. (medlineplus.gov)
- It signifies a life freer from nightly wake-up calls to check blood glucose or deliver insulin, a life freer from dangerous swings of blood glucose,' said NIDDK director Griffin P. Rodgers, M.D., M.A.C.P. 'Nearly 100 years since the discovery of insulin, a successful artificial pancreas would mark another huge step toward better health for people with type 1 diabetes. (medlineplus.gov)
Body of the p5
- The body of the pancreas is tapered on the left side and extends slightly upward. (barnesjewish.org)
- Abdominal computed tomography with contrast showed a heterogeneous mass with necrosis in the head and body of the pancreas and peripancreatic lymph nodes ( Figure 1 ). (who.int)
- The patient underwent exploratory surgery for diagnosis, and a mass with necrosis was seen in the head and body of the pancreas with multiple nodes seen in peripancreatic and perihepatic regions. (who.int)
- The pancreatic neck is the arbitrary junction between the head and body of the pancreas. (medscape.com)
- Computed tomography scan of the body of the pancreas (*) with the splenic vein (arrow) behind it. (medscape.com)
- People who have transplants must take drugs to keep their body from rejecting the new pancreas for the rest of their lives. (medlineplus.gov)
- Select people with type 2 diabetes have received pancreas transplants as well. (hopkinsmedicine.org)
- People who receive simultaneous kidney-pancreas transplants also tend to have less chance of rejection. (hopkinsmedicine.org)
- The number of pancreas transplants in the United States decreased from 2004 (when approximately 1500 were performed) to 2015. (medscape.com)
- Subsequently, pancreas transplants have risen, mainly because of increased simultaneous pancreas-kidney (SPK) transplants, while pancreas transplant alone (PTA) continued on a downward trend. (medscape.com)
- PAK represented less than 10% of pancreas transplants in 2019. (medscape.com)
- At the Nazih Zuhdi Transplant Institute in Oklahoma City, we offer world-class outcomes for kidney transplants from both living and deceased donors, from one of the largest and most experienced transplant teams in the U.S. For more information, see our pancreas and kidney transplant referral criteria list . (integrisok.com)
- 1043 pancreas transplants were performed in 2012. (medscape.com)
- However, the percentage of pancreas transplants performed as part of a multi-organ transplant has increased since 2004. (medscape.com)
Head of the pancre2
Healthy pancreas from a donor2
Annular pancreas include1
- Complications related to annular pancreas include blockage of the duodenum and poor liver function. (brighamandwomens.org)
- An annular pancreas is a ring of pancreatic tissue that encircles the duodenum (the first part of the small intestine). (medlineplus.gov)
- The normal position of the pancreas is next to, but not surrounding the duodenum. (medlineplus.gov)
- One part of the pancreas is cradled in the curve of the duodenum, the first part of the small intestine. (integrativepractitioner.com)
- In the brainstem , the control center of the pancreas gland is orderly positioned within the ring form of the brain relays that control the organs of the alimentary canal , precisely, on the right brainstem hemisphere between the liver and the duodenum relays. (learninggnm.com)
- The biological conflict linked to the pancreas gland is linked to an "indigestible morsel conflict" (see also stomach, duodenum , small intestine , and colon ). (learninggnm.com)
- Its main function is to carry the pancreatic juices produced in the pancreas gland into the duodenum , the first section of the small intestine. (learninggnm.com)
- The term annular pancreas means that a ring of extra pancreatic tissue covers the first part of your small intestine (duodenum). (brighamandwomens.org)
- The pancreas develops as 2 buds (outpouchings) of endoderm from the primitive duodenum at the junction of the foregut and the midgut. (medscape.com)
- The duodenum and pancreas. (medscape.com)
Tail of the p6
- At surgery, a unilocular cystic mass was found anteriorly and caudally to the tail of the pancreas in the lesser sac. (medscape.com)
- A small ventral bud (pouch) forms the lower (inferior) part of the head and the uncinate process of pancreas, whereas a large dorsal bud (pouch) forms the upper (superior) part of the head as well as the body and tail of the pancreas. (medscape.com)
- The body and tail of the pancreas run obliquely upward to the left in front of the aorta and left kidney. (medscape.com)
- The narrow tip of the tail of the pancreas reaches the splenic hilum in the splenorenal (lienorenal) ligament. (medscape.com)
- The body and tail of the pancreas lie in the lesser sac (omental bursa) behind the stomach. (medscape.com)
- Computed tomography scan of the tail of the pancreas (*) reaching the hilum of the spleen (arrow). (medscape.com)
Parts of the pancreas1
- Because the pancreas lies obliquely, all parts of the pancreas are not at the same transverse level and are not seen in 1 section (cut) of the CT scan-the pancreatic head is lower (at the level of L2) than its body (L1) and tail (T12). (medscape.com)
Damage to the pancreas2
- Google searches indicate that comparatively, the pancreas is not searched as much as the heart, liver, kidneys, lungs or colon. (integrativepractitioner.com)
- A prolonged decomposing process ( hanging healing ) due to continual conflict relapses leaves caverns in the pancreas (see also lung caverns , liver caverns , breast gland caverns ). (learninggnm.com)
- The Effects of Metformin Treatment on Diabetic Albino Rats' Pancreas, Liver, and Kidney Histology. (bvsalud.org)
- Symptoms occur when the ring of pancreas squeezes and narrows the small intestine so that food cannot pass easily or at all. (medlineplus.gov)
- Being an exocrine gland, the pancreas produces digestive enzymes that are released into the small intestine via ducts, valves, and chambers. (integrativepractitioner.com)
- The pancreas gland produces hormones ( hormonal quality ), including insulin and glucagon , and secretes pancreatic juices ( secretory quality ) that are released into the small intestine to assist the digestion of food. (learninggnm.com)
- The enzymes secreted by the exocrine gland in the pancreas help break down carbohydrates, fats, and proteins. (barnesjewish.org)
- What are possible complications of annular pancreas? (brighamandwomens.org)
- Acute pancreatitis is inflammation of the pancreas that causes sudden symptoms that resolve in a few days. (childrens.com)
- What are the signs and symptoms of Pediatric Pancreas Disease? (childrens.com)
- There are varying symptoms of pancreas problems in dogs that can be indicative of multiple ailments. (vetinfo.com)
- Pancreatic abscesses, collections of pus near the pancreas, may occur secondary to pancreatitis resulting in continuation of pancreatitis symptoms after treatment. (vetinfo.com)
- Contact your health care provider if you or your child has any symptoms of annular pancreas. (medlineplus.gov)
- Healing symptoms are indigestion , abdominal pain because of the swelling in the pancreas, and night sweats . (learninggnm.com)
- Your pancreas can still function, but the extra tissue can cause a number of symptoms. (brighamandwomens.org)
- What are the symptoms of annular pancreas? (brighamandwomens.org)
- Most people with annular pancreas don't have any symptoms. (brighamandwomens.org)
- If annular pancreas causes symptoms, such as blockage of intestines, abdominal pain, or food intolerance, it can be treated with surgery. (brighamandwomens.org)
- Some of the changes in the GM soy protein-fed rats reflected the symptoms of pancreatitis - inflammation of the pancreas, a disease that, in humans, affects digestion and can cause nausea, vomiting and severe pain. (gmwatch.org)
- The pancreas is a gland behind your stomach and in front of your spine. (medlineplus.gov)
- The pancreas is an organ and a gland. (pancreasfoundation.org)
- The pancreas or pancreatic gland is extremely important to your overall health. (integrativepractitioner.com)
- Being an endocrine gland, the pancreas manufactures special blood messengers or hormones that go into the blood system. (integrativepractitioner.com)
- The main hormones secreted by the endocrine gland in the pancreas are insulin and glucagon. (barnesjewish.org)
- The pancreas gland consists of intestinal cylinder epithelium , originates from the endoderm and is therefore controlled from the brainstem. (learninggnm.com)
- Starting with the DHS , during the conflict-active phase cells in the pancreas gland proliferate proportionally to the intensity of the conflict. (learninggnm.com)
- During the first part of the healing phase (in PCL-A ) a brain edema develops in the area of the brain that controls the pancreas gland ( view the GNM diagram ). (learninggnm.com)
- In case of the pancreas gland, the cells that could not be removed keep producing digestive juices resulting in a permanent overproduction of pancreatic fluid (see also thyroid gland , parathyroid glands , adrenal gland , prostate gland ). (learninggnm.com)
- [ 1 ] The pancreas is usually procured from a deceased organ donor, although select cases of living-donor pancreas transplantations have been performed. (medscape.com)
- Kidney and pancreas offers will be offered first to candidates listed at transplant hospitals within 250 nautical miles of the donor hospital. (unos.org)
- Patients in this situation are evaluated for a kidney and pancreas transplant performed at the same time from a single donor. (uhhospitals.org)
- The pancreas most commonly is procured from a deceased organ donor. (medscape.com)
- However, select cases of living-donor pancreas transplantations have been performed. (medscape.com)
- Your child's pancreas produces hormones and enzymes that help control blood sugar and digest food. (childrens.com)
- While first-generation artificial pancreas systems will deliver insulin, one of the aspects of future generations will be their ability to deliver multiple hormones, such as glucagon. (jdrf.org)
- This technology represents the closest to the fully automated artificial pancreas for type 1 diabetic patients. (healthline.com)
- Researchers at MGH and Boston University have reported that an "artificial pancreas" has worked in 11 patients enrolled in a study sponsored by the Juvenile Diabetes Research Foundation. (medgadget.com)
- This is the first artificial pancreas device that has used both insulin and glucagon," said Dr. Steven Russell of Massachusetts General Hospital in Boston, who helped lead the study. (medgadget.com)
- It concerns the development of an artificial pancreas which could help to regulate the insulin levels of millions who suffer from the devastating effects of diabetes. (battlediabetes.com)
- Still, future generation artificial pancreas systems are expected to do even more. (jdrf.org)
- Both near-term and long-term projects to advance the artificial pancreas are important research priorities for JDRF. (jdrf.org)
- Our partnership with JDRF will give us an opportunity to provide a missing piece needed to make the bi-hormonal artificial pancreas a reality. (jdrf.org)
- The first of several major research efforts to test and refine artificial pancreas systems is now underway. (medlineplus.gov)
- These studies aim to collect the data necessary to bring artificial pancreas technology to the people who need it,' said Guillermo Arreaza-Rubín, M.D., director of NIDDK's Diabetes Technology Program . (medlineplus.gov)
- Previously, researchers and participants worked together to test artificial pancreas devices in short-term trials, with varying levels of patient supervision. (medlineplus.gov)
- In 2016, the U.S. Food and Drug Administration approved a hybrid model of an artificial pancreas, an automated system that requires users to adjust insulin intake at mealtimes. (medlineplus.gov)
- These studies aim to collect the data necessary to bring artificial pancreas technology to the people who need it. (medlineplus.gov)
- This year, recruitment will begin for youths between the ages of six and 18 for a full-year trial of an artificial pancreas . (medlineplus.gov)
- Led by Roman Hovorka, Ph.D., of the University of Cambridge, England, the study seeks to enroll 130 youths for a full year of use of an artificial pancreas system that uses a smartphone as one component. (medlineplus.gov)
- Because of chronic rejection, the patient lost the kidney graft 5 years later, in 1995, and went back on dialysis with a well-functioning pancreas graft. (cdc.gov)
- Recurrent diabetic nephropathy is observed as early as 2 years after KTA in a diabetic recipient or upon failure of the pancreas graft after SPK but has never been reported with a functioning SPK. (medscape.com)
- Laboratory blood tests can show elevated amylase or lipase levels and an abdominal ultrasound may show an enlarged pancreas in cases of pancreatitis. (vetinfo.com)
- The National Pancreas Foundation provides hope for those suffering from pancreatitis, pancreatic cancer, and FCS through funding cutting edge research , advocating for new and better therapies, and providing support and education for patients, caregivers, and health care professionals. (pancreasfoundation.org)
- Other pancreas conditions include pancreatitis and pancreatic cancer. (pancreasfoundation.org)
- The NPF Healthy Family Recipes for Pancreas Disease includes recipes for pancreatitis patients (chronic and pediatrics) as well as pancreatic cancer. (pancreasfoundation.org)
- The National Pancreas Foundation and Rebecca's Wish created Camp Hope, so children and young people suffering from pancreatitis, or post-TPIAT, can experience all the joys of camp without limitations. (pancreasfoundation.org)
- Annular pancreas can lead to other problems, such as peptic ulcer disease, acute or chronic pancreatitis, and jaundice. (brighamandwomens.org)
- An increase in PAP messenger RNA (mRNA) and consequent increase in PAP protein indicated acute pancreatitis, a form of the disease in which the pancreas becomes inflamed over a short period of time. (gmwatch.org)
- To become fully automated, closed loop systems, new technologies and drugs-including stable, pumpable glucagon-will be required in order to more closely and accurately mimic the functions of a healthy pancreas. (jdrf.org)
- In a healthy pancreas, it complements the function of insulin to provide the natural fine-tuning of blood-glucose control, and previous studies supported by JDRF and others have shown that the addition of glucagon to insulin treatment in T1D reduces the frequency of hypoglycemia. (jdrf.org)
- Daily stress is harmful to the pancreas, and constant stress negatively changes its hormonal and neural system. (integrativepractitioner.com)
- In 1891, pieces of dog pancreas were autotransplanted beneath the skin and were shown to prevent diabetes after removal of the intra-abdominal pancreas. (medscape.com)
- requires abdominal surgery and the use of immunosuppressants afterward, so transplanting a pancreas at the same time adds few risks. (msdmanuals.com)
- Simultaneous pancreas and kidney (SPK) transplant: This combined transplant treats both diabetes and renal failure in one operation. (uhhospitals.org)
- The pancreas transplant does offer protection to the kidney transplant from the effects of diabetes and possible future failure of the kidney transplant due to diabetes. (uhhospitals.org)
- Pancreas transplant alone (PTA): Patients with type I diabetes who have good kidney function but have severe difficulty controlling blood glucose levels and who experience severe hypoglycemic episodes are eligible for this type of transplant. (uhhospitals.org)
Insulin Delivery System1
- A bionic pancreas is an automated insulin delivery system. (healthline.com)
- Additional policy updates implemented at the same time involve allocation of kidneys and pancreata from Alaska and prioritization of medically urgent kidney patients. (unos.org)
- The policies also change how released kidneys, pancreata, kidney-pancreas and islets are distributed in the new system when the original intended candidate is not able to be transplanted. (unos.org)
- In terms of organs, the pancreas is not as popular as the heart or the kidneys. (integrativepractitioner.com)
- If you get a pancreas transplant, you must take special medicines as long as you have the transplanted organ in your body. (hopkinsmedicine.org)
- The pancreas transplant program at University Hospitals Transplant Institute is on the leading-edge of organ transplant in every way. (uhhospitals.org)
- The pancreas is an elongated, tapered organ located across the back of the belly, behind the stomach. (barnesjewish.org)
- The pancreas is a tube-shaped organ located in the back of the abdomen behind the stomach . (learninggnm.com)
- The pancreas is an organ that plays an important part in your digestive process. (brighamandwomens.org)
- Extrapulmonary TB is a diagnostic problem, especially when an unusual organ such as the pancreas is involved . (who.int)
- The most common multi-organ transplant was kidney-pancreas transplant. (medscape.com)
- The pancreas, named for the Greek words pan (all) and kreas (flesh), is a 12-15-cm long J-shaped (like a hockey stick), soft, lobulated, retroperitoneal organ. (medscape.com)
- Those using the bionic pancreas spent an average of 2.5 more hours per day within the targeted blood glucose range than the control group. (healthline.com)
- UNOS has implemented a new system for matching kidney and pancreas transplant candidates with organs from deceased donors. (unos.org)
- Statistical simulation modeling performed by the Scientific Registry of Transplant Recipients projects that the new kidney and pancreas policies will improve transplant access for key groups of transplant candidates, including children, women, ethnic minorities and candidates who are particularly hard to match for biological reasons. (unos.org)
- Most candidates considered for pancreas transplant evaluation meet the following criteria: take insulin, have appropriate financial and social support to handle the pancreas transplant procedure and subsequent care, are typically under the age of 55, and are in good health. (tgh.org)
- Cite this: Benign Enterogenous Cyst of the Pancreas - Medscape - Mar 01, 2000. (medscape.com)
- In some cases, an abnormal connection between the windpipe and the esophagus can also be associated with an annular pancreas. (brighamandwomens.org)
- The pancreas contains glands that release substances to help with digestion and control blood sugar. (pancreasfoundation.org)
- If the pancreas produces low quality and low amounts of digestive enzymes, the body will not absorb food well. (integrativepractitioner.com)
- Successful pancreas transplant surgery has resulted in high patient satisfaction as well as approval from the many referring physicians who are pleased with the well-designed transplant program. (uhhospitals.org)
- The surgery involves bypassing the blockage that the annular pancreas causes. (brighamandwomens.org)
- The pancreas provides digestive enzymes manufactured by the acinar cells and insulin for sugar metabolism produced by the iselet cells. (vetinfo.com)
- The digestive enzymes of the pancreas break down everything that we eat--proteins, fats and carbohydrates-- into small particles that are absorbed into our gut's wall. (integrativepractitioner.com)
- The absence of living enzymes in food forces the pancreas to work harder and produce more of its own digestive enzymes to digest food properly. (integrativepractitioner.com)
- Calderón de la Barca's team found that GM soy protein isolate harmed the pancreas, as evidenced by the damaged structure and function of pancreatic cells called acinar cells - specialised structures that synthesise, store, and secrete digestive enzymes. (gmwatch.org)
- a 15-year-old boy underwent subcutaneous implantation of a pancreas. (medscape.com)
- An ultrasound may identify the presence of annular pancreas even before a baby is born. (brighamandwomens.org)
- The pancreas can be found across the back of the abdomen, behind the stomach. (integrativepractitioner.com)